WorldWideScience

Sample records for reported communicable diseases

  1. Speech and Communication Changes Reported by People with Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalling, Ellika; Johansson, Kerstin; Hartelius, Lena

    2017-01-01

    Changes in communicative functions are common in Parkinson's disease (PD), but there are only limited data provided by individuals with PD on how these changes are perceived, what their consequences are, and what type of intervention is provided. To present self-reported information about speech and communication, the impact on communicative participation, and the amount and type of speech-language pathology services received by people with PD. Respondents with PD recruited via the Swedish Parkinson's Disease Society filled out a questionnaire accessed via a Web link or provided in a paper version. Of 188 respondents, 92.5% reported at least one symptom related to communication; the most common symptoms were weak voice, word-finding difficulties, imprecise articulation, and getting off topic in conversation. The speech and communication problems resulted in restricted communicative participation for between a quarter and a third of the respondents, and their speech caused embarrassment sometimes or more often to more than half. Forty-five percent of the respondents had received speech-language pathology services. Most respondents reported both speech and language symptoms, and many experienced restricted communicative participation. Access to speech-language pathology services is still inadequate. Services should also address cognitive/linguistic aspects to meet the needs of people with PD. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Families Affected by Huntington's Disease Report Difficulties in Communication, Emotional Involvement, and Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jona, Celine M H; Labuschagne, Izelle; Mercieca, Emily-Clare; Fisher, Fiona; Gluyas, Cathy; Stout, Julie C; Andrews, Sophie C

    2017-01-01

    Family functioning in Huntington's disease (HD) is known from previous studies to be adversely affected. However, which aspects of family functioning are disrupted is unknown, limiting the empirical basis around which to create supportive interventions. The aim of the current study was to assess family functioning in HD families. We assessed family functioning in 61 participants (38 HD gene-expanded participants and 23 family members) using the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD; Epstein, Baldwin and Bishop, 1983), which provides scores for seven domains of functioning: Problem Solving; Communication; Affective Involvement; Affective Responsiveness; Behavior Control; Roles; and General Family Functioning. The most commonly reported disrupted domain for HD participants was Affective Involvement, which was reported by 39.5% of HD participants, followed closely by General Family Functioning (36.8%). For family members, the most commonly reported dysfunctional domains were Affective Involvement and Communication (both 52.2%). Furthermore, symptomatic HD participants reported more disruption to Problem Solving than pre-symptomatic HD participants. In terms of agreement between pre-symptomatic and symptomatic HD participants and their family members, all domains showed moderate to very good agreement. However, on average, family members rated Communication as more disrupted than their HD affected family member. These findings highlight the need to target areas of emotional engagement, communication skills and problem solving in family interventions in HD.

  3. Families Affected by Huntington’s Disease Report Difficulties in Communication, Emotional Involvement, and Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jona, Celine M.H.; Labuschagne, Izelle; Mercieca, Emily-Clare; Fisher, Fiona; Gluyas, Cathy; Stout, Julie C.; Andrews, Sophie C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Family functioning in Huntington’s disease (HD) is known from previous studies to be adversely affected. However, which aspects of family functioning are disrupted is unknown, limiting the empirical basis around which to create supportive interventions. Objective: The aim of the current study was to assess family functioning in HD families. Methods: We assessed family functioning in 61 participants (38 HD gene-expanded participants and 23 family members) using the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD; Epstein, Baldwin and Bishop, 1983), which provides scores for seven domains of functioning: Problem Solving; Communication; Affective Involvement; Affective Responsiveness; Behavior Control; Roles; and General Family Functioning. Results: The most commonly reported disrupted domain for HD participants was Affective Involvement, which was reported by 39.5% of HD participants, followed closely by General Family Functioning (36.8%). For family members, the most commonly reported dysfunctional domains were Affective Involvement and Communication (both 52.2%). Furthermore, symptomatic HD participants reported more disruption to Problem Solving than pre-symptomatic HD participants. In terms of agreement between pre-symptomatic and symptomatic HD participants and their family members, all domains showed moderate to very good agreement. However, on average, family members rated Communication as more disrupted than their HD affected family member. Conclusion: These findings highlight the need to target areas of emotional engagement, communication skills and problem solving in family interventions in HD. PMID:28968240

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for self-reported non-communicable diseases among older Ugandans: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Ojiambo Wandera

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is limited evidence about the prevalence and risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs among older Ugandans. Therefore, this article is aimed at investigating the prevalence of self-reported NCDs and their associated risk factors using a nationally representative sample. Design: We conducted a secondary analysis of the 2010 Uganda National Household Survey (UNHS using a weighted sample of 2,382 older people. Frequency distributions for descriptive statistics and Pearson chi-square tests to identify the association between self-reported NCDs and selected explanatory variables were done. Finally, multivariable complementary log–log regressions to estimate the risk factors for self-reported NCDs among older people in Uganda were done. Results: About 2 in 10 (23% older persons reported at least one NCD [including hypertension (16%, diabetes (3%, and heart disease (9%]. Among all older people, reporting NCDs was higher among those aged 60–69 and 70–79; Muslims; and Pentecostals and Seventh Day Adventists (SDAs. In addition, the likelihood of reporting NCDs was higher among older persons who depended on remittances and earned wages; owned a bicycle; were sick in the last 30 days; were disabled; and were women. Conversely, the odds of reporting NCDs were lower for those who were relatives of household heads and were poor. Conclusions: In Uganda, self-reported NCDs were associated with advanced age, being a woman, having a disability, ill health in the past 30 days, being rich, depended on remittances and earning wages, being Muslim, Pentecostal and SDAs, and household headship. The Ministry of Health should prevent and manage NCDs by creating awareness in the public and improving the supply of essential drugs for these health conditions. Finally, there is a need for specialised surveillance studies of older people to monitor the trends and patterns of NCDs over time.

  5. Human communicable diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The rising incidence of malaria and tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa is causing great hardship, not only to the individuals affected but also to the economies of the countries where they are rife. Both diseases are becoming more resistant to the drugs that are currently available for treatment and drug resistant strains are posing a global threat. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is responding by sponsoring a programme to build technical competency in molecular and radioisotope-based techniques. (IAEA)

  6. Communicable diseases associated with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dil, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    The diseases associated with contaminated water remain among the most serious public health problems for much of the world's population living in developing countries. Most of the disease agents that contaminated water and food are biological and come from animal or human faeces. They include bacteria, viruses, protozoa and helminths and multiply in the alimentary tract and are excreted with the faeces. Without proper sanitation they find their way into other water bodies from where they can infect other people. Most of the diseases associated with water are communicable. According to Bradley the diseases associated with water can be classified in four categories: waterborne water-washed, water-based and water related and a fifth category emerging in developed countries could be called water-dispersed. The experiences of these diseases in various in various parts of Pakistan and the role played by National Institute of Health (NIH) in investigation will be discussed: some of them being hepatitis E epidemic in Islamabad (1993,94,95), experience at Nawabshah and some others will be discussed in detail along with their preventive and control measures. (author)

  7. Acoustic communication in insect disease vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe de Mello Vigoder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic signalling has been extensively studied in insect species, which has led to a better understanding of sexual communication, sexual selection and modes of speciation. The significance of acoustic signals for a blood-sucking insect was first reported in the XIX century by Christopher Johnston, studying the hearing organs of mosquitoes, but has received relatively little attention in other disease vectors until recently. Acoustic signals are often associated with mating behaviour and sexual selection and changes in signalling can lead to rapid evolutionary divergence and may ultimately contribute to the process of speciation. Songs can also have implications for the success of novel methods of disease control such as determining the mating competitiveness of modified insects used for mass-release control programs. Species-specific sound “signatures” may help identify incipient species within species complexes that may be of epidemiological significance, e.g. of higher vectorial capacity, thereby enabling the application of more focussed control measures to optimise the reduction of pathogen transmission. Although the study of acoustic communication in insect vectors has been relatively limited, this review of research demonstrates their value as models for understanding both the functional and evolutionary significance of acoustic communication in insects.

  8. Tracing Africa’s progress towards implementing the Non-Communicable Diseases Global action plan 2013–2020: a synthesis of WHO country profile reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrude Nsorma Nyaaba

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Half of the estimated annual 28 million non-communicable diseases (NCDs deaths in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs are attributed to weak health systems. Current health policy responses to NCDs are fragmented and vertical particularly in the African region. The World Health Organization (WHO led NCDs Global action plan 2013–2020 has been recommended for reducing the NCD burden but it is unclear whether Africa is on track in its implementation. This paper synthesizes Africa’s progress towards WHO policy recommendations for reducing the NCD burden. Methods Data from the WHO 2011, 2014 and 2015 NCD reports were used for this analysis. We synthesized results by targets descriptions in the three reports and included indicators for which we could trace progress in at least two of the three reports. Results More than half of the African countries did not achieve the set targets for 2015 and slow progress had been made towards the 2016 targets as of December 2013. Some gains were made in implementing national public awareness programmes on diet and/or physical activity, however limited progress was made on guidelines for management of NCD and drug therapy and counselling. While all regions in Africa show waning trends in fully achieving the NCD indicators in general, the Southern African region appears to have made the least progress while the Northern African region appears to be the most progressive. Conclusion Our findings suggest that Africa is off track in achieving the NCDs indicators by the set deadlines. To make sustained public health gains, more effort and commitment is urgently needed from governments, partners and societies to implement these recommendations in a broader strategy. While donors need to suit NCD advocacy with funding, African institutions such as The African Union (AU and other sub-regional bodies such as West African Health Organization (WAHO and various country offices could potentially play

  9. Interspecies Communication and Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Mahajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 500 bacterial strains may be found in dental plaque. In the beginning, the emphasis was laid on the isolation of bacteria in pure culture to define their properties. However, now, it has been well established that in nature the bacteria exist as a member of polymicrobial community or consortium of interacting species. Interactions among human oral bacteria are integral to the development and maturation of the plaque. These interactions occur at several levels including physical contact, metabolic exchange, small-signal molecule-mediated communication, and exchange of genetic material. This high level of interspecies interaction benefits the microorganism by providing a broader habitat range, effective metabolism, increasing the resistance to host defence, and enhancing their virulence. This generally has a detrimental effect on the host and is attributed to many chronic infections which poses a therapeutic challenge.

  10. Report to Congress on NRC emergency communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-09-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island highlighted the need for improved communications among the NRC and other organizations which respond to such emergencies. This report summarizes the communication problems identified by several major review groups after the accident, the status of corrective actions, and NRC plans to improve communications still further. (author)

  11. Pragmatic communication is impaired in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Deborah; Ouyang, Bichun; Lonnquist, Eryn; Newcombe, Jill

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether severity of disease, cognitive function, age, gender, or amount of social interaction were associated with pragmatic dysfunction in Parkinson disease. No studies have previously been done to investigate variables that may be associated with pragmatic dysfunction in Parkinson disease. A case-control study was conducted with 17 Parkinson disease patients and 17 convenience controls. Each Parkinson disease patient and a control were interviewed, and their pragmatic skills were evaluated using a scale of pragmatic communication skills. Correlation analysis was used to determine what factors were associated with pragmatic dysfunction in the Parkinson disease patients. Cases scored lower on the pragmatic scale with a mean of 29.7 compared with 38.9 in the controls (p communication skills had moderate to strong correlations with the MMSE (r = .81, p = .002), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score (r = -.71, p = .002), and duration of disease (r = -.53, p = .03). These results show that Parkinson disease patients have impaired pragmatic function compared with controls on both verbal and nonverbal sections, and this impairment correlates with mental state, duration, and severity of disease.

  12. Digital communication support and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Anna; Ferm, Ulrika; Samuelsson, Christina

    2017-08-01

    Communication is one of the areas where people with dementia and their caregivers experience most challenges. The purpose of this study is to contribute to the understanding of possibilities and pitfalls of using personalized communication applications installed on tablet computers to support communication for people with dementia and their conversational partners. The study is based on video recordings of a woman, 52 years old, with Alzheimer's disease interacting with her husband in their home. The couple was recorded interacting with and without a tablet computer including a personalized communication application. The results from the present study reveal both significant possibilities and potential difficulties in introducing a digital communication device to people with dementia and their conversational partners. For the woman in the present study, the amount of interactive actions and the number of communicative actions seem to increase with the use of the communication application. The results also indicate that problems associated with dementia are foregrounded in interaction where the tablet computer is used.

  13. When Are High-Tech Communicators Effective in Parkinson's Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriero, Giorgio; Caligari, Marco; Ronconi, Gianpaolo; Franchignoni, Franco

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a 63-year-old woman with Parkinson's disease showing loss of intelligibility of speech and severely impaired handwriting, despite undergoing physical and speech therapies. As the patient had sufficient residual motor abilities and adequate cognitive function and motivation, a computer-based communication aid with a software…

  14. Report from risk communication practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Reiko

    2011-01-01

    National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) set up a phone consulting service early after Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident and inquiries to the service attained over 14,000 at August end, 2011. This paper describes the process, present state and future view of the risk communication based on experiences through the service. The communication is classified in 3 stages of consensus/care in peacetime, crisis, and consensus/care post disaster. The first one contains the consensus of atomic power policy and provision of its information; the second, of evacuation/indoor evacuation and indication of restricted water and food intake; and the third, communication for changes and standard of radiation related matters. Initial inquiries to the NIRS service were many concerning examinations of radiation screening, decontamination and internal exposure, from inside and outside of Fukushima Prefecture, suggesting the concern had been spread to remote area from the Prefecture. Then, the time needed per inquiry/consultation prolonged, implying the wish for solving the concern. The risk communication and consideration for realizing radiation risk at peacetime might have rather unrealistic, which was thought to be the major cause of problems at crisis. In addition, interpretation of various values relating to radiation had been apparently different from expert to expert, and findings by radiation effects and rules of radiation protection had been confusedly understood, which probably influenced on people's correct understanding. However, it is conceivably a fruit of taken risk communication that the past understanding ''radiation, unseeable, is terrible'' has changed to the current understanding ''protection can be done through risk assessment of radiation, measurable''. Hereafter, important are the practical use of various numerical values officially informed and realization of dose through exposure routes, and dispatch of their integrated information to lessen the

  15. Non-communicable diseases and adherence to Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caretto, Antonio; Lagattolla, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) also known as chronic diseases last for a long time and progress generally slow. Major non-communicable diseases are cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes. Unhealthy lifestyles and food behaviours play an important role for determining such diseases. The change in unhealthy behaviours or the maintenance of healthy lifestyles has enormous value in the reduction of diseases and longer life expectancy not only on an individual level but for the community as a whole. Recent meta-analyses reported Mediterranean diet to be an optimal diet when adopted as a whole, in order to preserve and maintain a good health status. A greater adherence score to the Mediterranean diet (2-point increase) was related to induce an 8% reduction in overall mortality, a 10% reduced risk of CVD and a 4% reduction in neoplastic diseases. However, there is no direct method in quantifying and evaluating adherence, therefore a large number of indirect indices in several studies have been proposed, with a last unifying score. Recently more and more e-health techniques such as web communication or desktop publishing (DVDs and so on) are being used, obtaining good results in the Mediterranean diet adherence. For successfully changing the unhealthy lifestyles and food behaviours of the population, interventions at all levels are needed with the cooperation of Institutions, mass media, agricultural and food industry and healthcare professionals guided by expert scientific societies.

  16. The pattern and distribution of communicable diseases among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Global and regional estimates show that non-communicable diseases are rising in importance relative to other causes of ill health as populations age and the fight continues against communicable diseases. However, communicable diseases remain a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the developing ...

  17. [Non-verbal communication in Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiaratura, Loris Tamara

    2008-09-01

    This review underlines the importance of non-verbal communication in Alzheimer's disease. A social psychological perspective of communication is privileged. Non-verbal behaviors such as looks, head nods, hand gestures, body posture or facial expression provide a lot of information about interpersonal attitudes, behavioral intentions, and emotional experiences. Therefore they play an important role in the regulation of interaction between individuals. Non-verbal communication is effective in Alzheimer's disease even in the late stages. Patients still produce non-verbal signals and are responsive to others. Nevertheless, few studies have been devoted to the social factors influencing the non-verbal exchange. Misidentification and misinterpretation of behaviors may have negative consequences for the patients. Thus, improving the comprehension of and the response to non-verbal behavior would increase first the quality of the interaction, then the physical and psychological well-being of patients and that of caregivers. The role of non-verbal behavior in social interactions should be approached from an integrative and functional point of view.

  18. Exercise physiologists emerge as allied healthcare professionals in the era of non-communicable disease pandemics: a report from Australia, 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Birinder S; Robergs, Robert A; Askew, Christopher D

    2014-07-01

    Exercise can be prescribed to prevent, manage, and treat many leading non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and underlying risk factors. However, surprisingly, Australia is one of only a few countries where allied healthcare professionals with specialized university education and training in exercise prescription and delivery provide services within a government-run healthcare system (Medicare). This article presents data on Medicare-funded services provided by accredited exercise physiologists (AEPs) from the inclusion of the profession in the allied healthcare model (January, 2006) to the end of 2012. We conceptualize these data in relation to current NCD trends, and outline recommendations that can potentially help curtail the current chronic disease burden through the further integration of exercise professionals into the healthcare system in Australia, and internationally. From 2006 to 2012, the number of AEPs in Australia has increased 563 %. This rise in AEPs has been paralleled by increased delivery of services for eligible patients with a chronic medical condition (+614 %), type 2 diabetes mellitus (+211 to 230 %), and of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descent (+343 %). These trends, which were developed through the "early years" of the profession, are encouraging and suggest that AEPs have taken up a vital position within the healthcare system. However, the total number of services provided by AEPs currently remains very low in relation to the prevalence of overweight-obesity and type 2 diabetes in Australia. Furthermore, services for Aboriginal Australians are very low considering the extreme burden of chronic diseases in these vulnerable populations. We provide some recommendations that may help the exercise physiology profession play a greater role in tackling the NCD burden and shift the healthcare model in a direction that is more proactive and focused on disease prevention and health, including the early identification and treatment of major

  19. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS, NOTES AND REPORTS Record of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    50. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS, NOTES AND. REPORTS. Record of Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus from Mukundara Hills Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan,. India. Sailaja Nayak1*, Sunny Shah2 and Jimmy Borah2 .... Prey status and abundance in Mukundara Hills Tiger. Reserve. Technical Report, WWF-India. Rao, J.P. ...

  20. Report on the risk communication activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashita, Hirofumi; Yonezawa, Rika; Shobu, Nobuhiro; Ayame, Junko; Gunji, Ikuko; Asanuma, Misuzu

    2008-10-01

    This report summarizes the risk communication activities of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories conducted by mainly Risk Communication Study Office. To gain trust and understanding of the local community for nuclear energy, a 'Risk Communication Study Team' was set up at former Tokai Works, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) in January, 2001. When former JNC and former Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) were merged in October, 2005, the Team was changed to 'Risk Communication Study Office' in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories. This report shows the risk communication activities implemented from January, 2001 to March 2007. The activities are classified into three categories: research and study on risk communication, message design and development of information transmission tools, and implementation of risk communication. As for the research and study, we investigated the risk communication about nuclear energy in Western countries. As for the message design, we made messages under our basic policy of showing information clearly that residents want to know. We have prepared about 300 messages in slide format (Microsoft Power Point) and compiled them in a report. More easy-to understand messages were created from the viewpoint of the residents by working in collaboration with local residents, not making messages by ourselves. As for the development of information transmission tools, we have been developing a portal website, 'Risk Information Navigator', which provides information about risks that exist in daily life such as traffic accidents and natural disasters, as well as risk information on nuclear technology. We produced videos and environmental panels as information transmission tools, and made poster panels, clear holder, Karuta' (Japanese card game), and so on in the collaboration work with residents. As a practice of risk communication, we have been carrying out Cycle Friendly Talk', which is direct dialogue within

  1. Communicative aspects and coping strategies in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Flávia Pereira da; Diaféria, Giovana; Behlau, Mara

    2016-01-01

    To investigate, in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), the coping strategies; the most reported vocal symptoms; and the relation between coping, voice symptoms, and communicative aspects. Seventy-three subjects were included in the sample, 33 of which were participants in the experimental group (EG) with diagnosis of PD and 40 were control subjects, that is, healthy and without vocal complaints. They underwent the following procedures: application of Voice Symptoms Scale (VoiSS), Brazilian Version; Voice Disability Coping Questionnaire (VDCQ), Brazilian Version; and the questionnaire Living with Dysarthria (LwD). The EG presented deviations in all protocols: VDCQ, with the most frequently coping strategy being "self-control," VoiSS, with "Impairment" as the most prevalent domain, and LwD, presenting changes in all sections. Vocal signs and symptoms and communicative aspects were shown to have a regular correlation with coping. The correlation between vocal symptoms and communicative aspects was as follows: the greater the impairment in communication, the greater the VoiSS emotional scores and the more they complaint of voice-related signs and symptoms. Patients with PD use all kinds of coping strategies, but prefer using self-control. They present several vocal signs and symptoms, and "Impairment" was the most prevalent domain. There are difficulties in all aspects of communication. The higher the occurrence of vocal signs and symptoms, the more the patient reports the difficulties of living with dysarthria, particularly when deviations affect the emotional domain.

  2. Pattern of non-communicable diseases among medical admissions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical admissions due to non-communicable diseases were carefully selected and analyzed. There were 1853 cases of various non-communicable diseases out of a total medical admission of 3294 constituting 56.2% of total medical admissions. Diseases of the cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems were the most ...

  3. FINANCIAL COMMUNICATION AND INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL REPORTING PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BELENESI (BUMBA MARIOARA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a highly competitive economy, driven by globalization, the abundance of digital information and communication facilities, the investor directs its capital to those companies that promise added value of the invested capital. Even so, companies seek to obtain favorable terms of financing by rendering sensitive the investors. To achieve their goal, they must provide information about their financial and non financial performance with sufficient regularity to meet the information needs of actual or potential capital bidders in decision making. Financial communication through standardized annual statements of financial reporting in the context of corporate governance is no longer sufficient. The organization has more resources than those included in its balance sheet, capable of attracting huge benefits, but which do not meet the criteria for recognition in the financial statements. It requires, therefore, a voluntary disclosure of information on intangible resources, which are key factors in creating future value for both the organization itself and the industry it is part of. The reports of intellectual capital can effectively complement the shortcomings of the traditional model of accounting and financial reporting. In our paper we wanted to analyze financial communication in the context of corporate governance, presented through financial statements, reaching the intellectual capital reporting practices, as a means to improve communication of the organization with the outside. In this sense we presented two examples of good practice of two service companies (consultancy and design that publish annually intellectual capital reports. To alleviate the negative consequences of non-recognition of intangible assets in the financial statements, we are for the voluntary disclosure of information on intangible assets in the intellectual capital reports, annual reports, those regarding corporate responsibility, or at least in the explanatory notes of

  4. Association between periodontal disease and non-communicable diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hong; Oh, Jin-Young; Youk, Tae-Mi; Jeong, Seong-Nyum; Kim, Young-Taek; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The National Health Insurance Service–Health Examinee Cohort during 2002 to 2013 was used to investigate the associations between periodontal disease (PD) and the following non-communicable diseases (NCDs): hypertension, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, cerebral infarction, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and obesity. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusting for potential confounders during the follow-up period—including age, sex, household income, insurance status, residence area, health status, and comorbidities—were used to estimated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in order to assess the associations between PD and NCDs. We enrolled 200,026 patients with PD and 154,824 subjects with a healthy oral status. Statistically, significant associations were found between PD and the investigated NCDs except for cerebral and myocardial infarction after adjusting for sociodemographic and comorbidity factors (P periodontitis pathogenesis as a triggering and mediating mechanism. PMID:28658175

  5. Communicating and reporting on the business model

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Christian; Lund, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The problem – as well as the prospect – with business models is that they are concerned with being different; as business in general thrives on some sort of unique selling point. So the bundle of indicators on value creation, business models, strategy, intellectual capital, and so on, which will be relevant to analyze or communicate about will differ from firm to firm. Therefore, this chapter focuses on the business model as the integrating concept for reporting and analysis of strategic type...

  6. Application opportunities in wireless communications. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.E.; Blevins, R.P.; Olmstead, C.

    1998-07-01

    This report presents the results of examinations of wireless technologies and applications that may offer potential to utilities. Five different wireless technology areas are reviewed. Three areas--Communication Networks, Monitored Security Services, and Home Automation--potentially represent new business ventures for utilities. Two areas--Automatic Vehicle Location and Automated Field-Force Management--represent wireless applications with potential for reduced operating costs and improved customer relations

  7. Communicative aspects and coping strategies in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Pereira da Costa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD, which are the coping strategies used and the relation between type of coping, voice symptoms and communicative aspects. Method: 73 subjects, 33 in the experimental group, with diagnosis of PD, and 40 subjects in the control group, healthy and without vocal complaints. They underwent the following procedures: application of the Voice Symptons Scale – VoiSS – Brazilian Version, Voice Disability Coping Questionnaire – VDCQ – Brazilian Version, and the questionnaire Living with Dysarthria – LwD. Results: The experimental group showed deviations in all protocols: VDCQ (p<0.001, VoiSS (p<0.001, LwD (p<0.001. The most frequently used coping strategy was self-control (p<0.001. The correlation between vocal symptoms and communicative aspects showed that the greater the impairment in communication, the greater the VoiSS emotional scores and the greater will be the amount of voice symptoms and signs. However, the vocal signs and symptoms and communicative aspects showed no correlation with coping. Conclusion: Patients with PD have a high amount of vocal signs and symptoms and the higher the occurrence, the more the patient reports being difficult to live with dysarthria, particularly when there are deviations in the emotional domain.

  8. The burden of non communicable diseases in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutayeb Abdesslam

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By the dawn of the third millennium, non communicable diseases are sweeping the entire globe, with an increasing trend in developing countries where, the transition imposes more constraints to deal with the double burden of infective and non-infective diseases in a poor environment characterised by ill-health systems. By 2020, it is predicted that these diseases will be causing seven out of every 10 deaths in developing countries. Many of the non communicable diseases can be prevented by tackling associated risk factors. Methods Data from national registries and international organisms are collected, compared and analyzed. The focus is made on the growing burden of non communicable diseases in developing countries. Results Among non communicable diseases, special attention is devoted to cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and chronic pulmonary diseases. Their burden is affecting countries worldwide but with a growing trend in developing countries. Preventive strategies must take into account the growing trend of risk factors correlated to these diseases. Conclusion Non communicable diseases are more and more prevalent in developing countries where they double the burden of infective diseases. If the present trend is maintained, the health systems in low-and middle-income countries will be unable to support the burden of disease. Prominent causes for heart disease, diabetes, cancer and pulmonary diseases can be prevented but urgent (preventive actions are needed and efficient strategies should deal seriously with risk factors like smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity and western diet.

  9. Wilson Disease: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Tuğ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wilson Disease (WD is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease of human copper metabolism, which causes hepatic and neuropsychiatric diseases. Estimated prevalence is 1: 30.000. In WD, ATP7B gene located on chromosome 13 (13q14.3-q21.1, coding the protein for hepatic copper transport and, having an important role in copper metabolism has been affected. Clinical findings in WD are complex and, neurological symptoms such as tremor, disartria and psychiatric disorders, acute liver deficiency, chronic hepatit or cirrhosis may develop. For the last year, 27 years old female patient observed in other medical centre owing to benign positional vertigo applied to our department. Her sister and brother have been diagnosed as WD. No peripheral syptoms of hepatic disease or hepatosplenomegaly existed in our patient. Neurological examination was normal to except for positional tremor. Because our patient had rare clinical features for WD and bad prognosis, presented by us to emphasize necessity of the researched of the most frequent mutations seen in Turkiye.

  10. The Communicability of Non-Communicable Diseases: An Overview of Sociological Contributions to Ideas of Contagion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindhede, Anette Lykke

    2018-01-01

    -communicable diseases from a distinct sociological view of non- communicable diseases as infectious. I conduct a historical anamnesis of sociological theories that inform contemporary sociological thinking about contagion and/or collective action and the social clustering of (health) behaviour, with a particular focus...

  11. Communicating and reporting on the business model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Lund, Morten

    2014-01-01

    will be relevant to analyze or communicate about will differ from firm to firm. Therefore, this chapter focuses on the business model as the integrating concept for reporting and analysis of strategic types of information on e.g. management strategies, critical success factors, risk factors and value drivers.......The problem – as well as the prospect – with business models is that they are concerned with being different; as business in general thrives on some sort of unique selling point. So the bundle of indicators on value creation, business models, strategy, intellectual capital, and so on, which...

  12. Non-communicable diseases in emergencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demaio, Alessandro; Jamieson, Jennifer; Horn, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    emergencies; • Raised awareness through greater advocacy for the issue and challenges of noncommunicable diseases during and following emergencies; • Incorporation of noncommunicable diseases into existing emergency-related policies, standards, and resources; • Development of technical guidelines...

  13. Mobile Health Approaches to Non-Communicable Diseases in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mobile Health Approaches to Non-Communicable Diseases in Rwanda ... child health, it would be cost-effective to leverage this infrastructure and adapt it for the NCD domain. .... gram currently exists in Rwanda that simultaneously ad-.

  14. Preventing the Epidemic of Non-Communicable Diseases: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Robson , Anthony ,

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Diet, lifestyle and environment do not just affect a person's health, they also determine the health of their children and possibly the health of their grandchildren. Non-communicable disease is a global epidemic because of the combined effect of the modern diet (including drug abuse) and a sedentary lifestyle. A low energy dense, drug-free diet rich in bioavailable nutrients-plus-exercise is most effective for preventing non-communicable disease throughout life. Nanoc...

  15. Fiber Optic Communications Technology. A Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Joseph A.

    Fiber optic communications (communications over very pure glass transmission channels of diameter comparable to a human hair) is an emerging technology which promises most improvements in communications capacity at reasonable cost. The fiber transmission system offers many desirable characteristics representing improvements over conventional…

  16. Investigating the Role of International Law in Controlling Communicable Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar Kheirkhah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available International law globally plays a key role in the surveillance and control of communicable diseases. Throughout the nineteenth century, international law played a dominant role in harmonizing the inconsistent national quarantine regulations of European nation states; facilitating the exchange of epidemiological information on infectious diseases; establishing international health organizations; and standardization of surveillance. Today, due to changed forms of infectious diseases and individuals' lifestyles as well as individuals' proximity caused by increased air travels, communicable diseases are in an international and cross-border form. In this regard, binding regulations and inconsistent rules adopted in international multilateral institutions like the World Health Organization, World Trade Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization can be of great use in surveillance and control of communicable diseases. With the globalization of public health, international law can be used as an essential tool in monitoring global health and reducing human vulnerability and mortality.

  17. Non-communicable diseases in South Asia: contemporary perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Karen R; Patel, Shivani A; Ali, Mohammed K

    2014-09-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as metabolic, cardiovascular, cancers, injuries and mental health disorders are increasingly contributing to the disease burden in South Asia, in light of demographic and epidemiologic transitions in the region. Home to one-quarter of the world's population, the region is also an important priority area for meeting global health targets. In this review, we describe the current burden of and trends in four common NCDs (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) in South Asia. The 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study supplemented with the peer-reviewed literature and reports by international agencies and national governments. The burden of NCDs in South Asia is rising at a rate that exceeds global increases in these conditions. Shifts in leading risk factors-particularly dietary habits, tobacco use and high blood pressure-are thought to underlie the mounting burden of death and disability due to NCDs. Improvements in life expectancy, increasing socioeconomic development and urbanization in South Asia are expected to lead to further escalation of NCDs. Although NCD burdens are currently largest among affluent groups in South Asia, many adverse risk factors are concentrated among the poor, portending a future increase in disease burden among lower income individuals. There continues to be a notable lack of national surveillance data to document the distribution and trends in NCDs in the region. Similarly, economic studies and policy initiatives addressing NCD burdens are still in their infancy. Opportunities for innovative structural and behavioral interventions that promote maintenance of healthy lifestyles-such as moderate caloric intake, adequate physical activity and avoidance of tobacco-in the context of socioeconomic development are abundant. Testing of health care infrastructure and systems that best provide low-cost and effective detection and treatment of NCDs is a priority for

  18. Incentives for reporting disease outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanan Laxminarayan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Countries face conflicting incentives to report infectious disease outbreaks. Reports of outbreaks can prompt other countries to impose trade and travel restrictions, which has the potential to discourage reporting. However, reports can also bring medical assistance to contain the outbreak, including access to vaccines. METHODS: We compiled data on reports of meningococcal meningitis to the World Health Organization (WHO from 54 African countries between 1966 and 2002, a period is marked by two events: first, a large outbreak reported from many countries in 1987 associated with the Hajj that resulted in more stringent requirements for meningitis vaccination among pilgrims; and second, another large outbreak in Sub-Saharan Africa in 1996 that led to a new international mechanism to supply vaccines to countries reporting a meningitis outbreak. We used fixed-effects regression modeling to statistically estimate the effect of external forcing events on the number of countries reporting cases of meningitis to WHO. FINDINGS: We find that the Hajj vaccination requirements started in 1988 were associated with reduced reporting, especially among countries with relatively fewer cases reported between 1966 and 1979. After the vaccine provision mechanism was in place in 1996, reporting among countries that had previously not reported meningitis outbreaks increased. INTERPRETATION: These results indicate that countries may respond to changing incentives to report outbreaks when they can do so. In the long term, these incentives are likely to be more important than surveillance assistance in prompt reporting of outbreaks.

  19. NNDSS - Table I. infrequently reported notifiable diseases

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table I. infrequently reported notifiable diseases - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† infrequently reported notifiable diseases...

  20. Special Communication The spectrum of heart disease in adults in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    burden” of disease, with high levels of both communicable and noncommunicable pathologies.4,5 The ..... Mathers CD, Loncar D. Projections of Global Mortality and Burden of Disease from 2002 to 2030. Samet J, editor. PLoS Med. 2006 Nov.

  1. 22 CFR 1414.8 - Reporting of prohibited communications; penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reporting of prohibited communications... unauthorized ex parte communication, shall place or cause to be placed on the public record of the proceeding... rebut those contained in the prohibited communication. All such responses shall be placed in the public...

  2. 29 CFR 102.132 - Reporting of prohibited communications; penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... communication shall place or cause to be placed on the public record of the proceeding: (1) The communication... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting of prohibited communications; penalties. 102.132 Section 102.132 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS...

  3. National mortality burden due to communicable, non-communicable, and other diseases in Ethiopia, 1990-2015: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misganaw, Awoke; Haregu, Tilahun N; Deribe, Kebede; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Deribew, Amare; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Amare, Azmeraw T; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Gedefaw, Molla; Dessalegn, Muluken; Lakew, Yihunie; Bekele, Tolesa; Mohammed, Mesoud; Yirsaw, Biruck Desalegn; Damtew, Solomon Abrha; Krohn, Kristopher J; Achoki, Tom; Blore, Jed; Assefa, Yibeltal; Naghavi, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Ethiopia lacks a complete vital registration system that would assist in measuring disease burden and risk factors. We used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) estimates to describe the mortality burden from communicable, non-communicable, and other diseases in Ethiopia over the last 25 years. GBD 2015 mainly used cause of death ensemble modeling to measure causes of death by age, sex, and year for 195 countries. We report numbers of deaths and rates of years of life lost (YLL) for communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) disorders, non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and injuries with 95% uncertainty intervals (UI) for Ethiopia from 1990 to 2015. CMNN causes of death have declined by 65% in the last two-and-a-half decades. Injury-related causes of death have also decreased by 70%. Deaths due to NCDs declined by 37% during the same period. Ethiopia showed a faster decline in the burden of four out of the five leading causes of age-standardized premature mortality rates when compared to the overall sub-Saharan African region and the Eastern sub-Saharan African region: lower respiratory infections, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and diarrheal diseases; however, the same could not be said for ischemic heart disease and other NCDs. Non-communicable diseases, together, were the leading causes of age-standardized mortality rates, whereas CMNN diseases were leading causes of premature mortality in 2015. Although lower respiratory infections, tuberculosis, and diarrheal disease were the leading causes of age-standardized death rates, they showed major declines from 1990 to 2015. Neonatal encephalopathy, iron-deficiency anemia, protein-energy malnutrition, and preterm birth complications also showed more than a 50% reduction in burden. HIV/AIDS-related deaths have also decreased by 70% since 2005. Ischemic heart disease, hemorrhagic stroke, and ischemic stroke were among the top causes of premature mortality and age

  4. [COMMUNICATION AND HEALTH OUTCOMES IN PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petriček, G; Cerovečki, V; Adžić, Z Ožvačić

    2015-11-01

    Although survey results indicate clear connection between the physician-patient communication and health outcomes, mechanisms of their action are still insufficiently clear. The aim was to investigate the specificity of communication with patients suffering from gastrointestinal diseases and the impact of good communication on measurable outcomes. We performed PubMed (Medline) search using the following key words: communication, health outcomes, and gastrointestinal diseases. Seven pathways through which communication can lead to better health include increased access to care, greater patient knowledge and shared understanding, higher quality medical decisions, enhanced therapeutic alliances, increased social support, patient agency and empowerment, and better management of emotions. Although these pathways were explored with respect to cancer care, they are certainly applicable to other health conditions as well, including the care of patients suffering from gastrointestinal diseases. Although proposing a number of pathways through which communication can lead to improved health, it should be emphasized that the relative importance of a particular pathway will depend on the outcome of interest, the health condition, where the patient is in the illness trajectory, and the patient’s life circumstances. Besides, research increasingly points to the importance of placebo effect, and it is recommended that health professionals encourage placebo effect by applying precisely targeted communication skills, as the unquestionable and successful part of many treatments. It is important that the clinician knows the possible positive and negative effects of communication on health outcomes, and in daily work consciously maximizes therapeutic effects of communication, reaching its proximal (understanding, satisfaction, clinician-patient agreement, trust, feeling known, rapport, motivation) and intermediate outcomes (access to care, quality medical decision, commitment to

  5. The relationship between students' self-reported aggressive communication and motives to communicate with their instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Chad; Myers, Scott A

    2010-02-01

    Using a convenience sample, 172 college students' (M age = 20.2 yr., SD = 2.5) motives for communicating with their instructors and their own verbal aggressiveness and argumentativeness were studied using the Argumentativeness Scale, the Verbal Aggressiveness Scale, and the Student Motives to Communicate Scale. Significant negative relationships were obtained between students' self-reports of argumentativeness and the sycophantic motive and between students' self-reports of verbal aggressiveness and the functional motive, but generally, students' motives to communicate with their instructors generally were not associated with their self-reported aggressive communication behaviors.

  6. Nuclear and related techniques in the control of communicable diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The IAEA has a programme component entitled ''Nuclear Techniques in Communicable Diseases'', the aims of which are to encourage research in the development of new methods of controlling communicable diseases and to transfer the technology to institutes in endemic regions. Implementation of the programme component includes information exchange through publications, symposiums and seminars. The two most recent seminars were held in Bombay in November 1988 and Belo Horizonte in November 1989, and a selection of the papers presented have been published in this Technical Document. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Belgonucleaire's emergency exercises; Report on communication experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depoele, Sabine van

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is not to have a theoretical explanation about risk communication but rather to give some practical communication hints we learned from the Regional Emergency Exercise Belgonucleaire had a few months ago. Belgonucleaire fabricates Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel since 1973. This fuel is produced at Belgonucleaire's plant at Dessel, which is located in the vicinity of other Belgian plants related to the nuclear sector. Every year Belgonucleaire organises an Internal Emergency Exercise and every 3 years a Regional Emergency Exercise. The purpose of this Emergency Exercise is to make sure that Belgonucleaire is capable of successfully handling in cooperation with the other plants in the nuclear sector, the authorities and security teams a hypothetical crisis scenario. The scenario elaborated this time was that due to a tear in a glove some radioactivity was emitted and because the filter system failed some of this radioactivity came into the air. Some contamination could be measured. The goal of this Emergency Exercise is multiple: to bring under control and to master an emergency situation; to emit an immediate warning to and to protect the employees and the visitors present on the site; to communicate essential information to the security service and co-ordination centre of the government in conformance with the emergency plan for nuclear risks on the Belgian territory. Communication plays a vital role in this emergency organisation plan. It concerns contacts with the authorities (at federal, regional and local level), the nearby-located plants, the support- and emergency services and last but not least with the media. In addition a communication cell was set up at the Dessel Town Hall. An established relationship with all of the organisation's stakeholders based on credibility and trust is the best insurance policy for handling communications during a crisis. This is indeed a process we work on the whole year round. A proactive communication

  8. COMPASS Final Report: Lunar Communications Terminal (LCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Communications Terminal (LCT) COllaborative Modeling and Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) session designed a terminal to provide communications between lunar South Pole assets, communications relay to/from these assets through an orbiting Lunar Relay Satellite (LRS) and navigation support. The design included a complete master equipment list, power requirement list, configuration design, and brief risk assessment and cost analysis. The Terminal consists of a pallet containing the communications and avionics equipment, surrounded by the thermal control system (radiator), an attached, deployable 10-m tower, upon which were mounted locally broadcasting and receiving modems and a deployable 1 m diameter Ka/S band dish which provides relay communications with the lunar relay satellites and, as a backup, Earth when it is in view. All power was assumed to come from the lunar outpost Habitat. Three LCT design options were explored: a stand-alone LCT servicing the manned outpost, an integrated LCT (into the Habitat or Lunar Lander), and a mini-LCT which provides a reduced level of communication for primarily robotic areas dealing as in situ resource utilization (ISRU) and remote science. Where possible all the designs assumed single fault tolerance. Significant mass savings were found when integrating the LCT into the Habitat or Lander but increases in costs occurred depending upon the level of man rating required for such designs.

  9. Physician-patient communication in HIV disease: the importance of patient, physician, and visit characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, I B; Kaplan, S

    2000-12-15

    Although previous work that considered a variety of chronic conditions has shown that higher quality physician-patient communication care is related to better health outcomes, the quality of physician-patient communication itself for patients with HIV disease has not been well studied. To determine the relationship of patient, visit, physician, and physician practice characteristics to two measures of physician-patient communication for patients with HIV disease. Cross-sectional survey of physicians and patients. Cohort study enrolling patients from throughout eastern Massachusetts. 264 patients with HIV disease and their their primary HIV physicians (n = 69). Two measures of physician-patient communication were used, a five-item general communication measure (Cronbach's alpha = 0.93), and a four-item HIV-specific communication measure that included items about alcohol, drug use, and sexual behaviors (Cronbach's alpha = 0.92). The mean age of patients was 39. 5 years, 24% patients were women, 31.1% were nonwhite, and 52% indicated same-sex contact as their principal HIV risk factor. The mean age of physicians was 39.1 years, 33.3% were female, 39.7% were specialists, and 25.0% self-identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual. In multivariable models relating patient and visit characteristics to general communication, longer reported visit length (pbetter communication. The interaction of patient gender and visit length was also significant (p =.02); longer visit length was more strongly associated with better general communication for male than female patients. In similar models relating patient and visit characteristics to HIV-specific communication, longer visit length (p better communication. In multivariable models relating physician and practice characteristics to general communication no variables were significant. However, both female physician gender (p =.002) and gay/lesbian/bisexual sexual preference (p =.003) were significantly associated with better HIV

  10. Communication partner training of enrolled nurses working in nursing homes with people with communication disorders caused by stroke or Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Karin; Forsgren, Emma; Hartelius, Lena; Saldert, Charlotta

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of a communication partner training programme directed to enrolled nurses working with people with communication disorders in nursing homes, using an individualised approach. Five dyads consisting of a person with stroke-induced aphasia (n = 4) or Parkinson's disease (PD) (n = 1) living in different nursing homes and his/her enrolled nurse participated in the study, which had a replicated single-subject design with multiple baselines across individuals. The main element of the intervention was supervised analysis of video-recorded natural interaction in everyday nursing situations and the formulation of individual goals to change particular communicative strategies. Outcome was measured via blinded assessments of filmed natural interaction obtained at baseline, intervention and follow-up and showed an increased use of the target communicative strategies. Subjective measures of goal attainment by the enrolled nurses were consistent with these results. Measures of perceived functional communication on behalf of the persons with communication disorders were mostly positive; four of five participants with communication disorders and two of five enrolled nurses reported improved functional communication after intervention. The use of an individualised communication partner training programme led to significant changes in natural interaction, which contributes importantly to a growing body of knowledge regarding communication partner training. Communication partner training can improve the communicative environment of people with communication disorders. For people with communication disorders who live in institutions, the main conversation partner is likely to be a professional caretaker. An individualised approach for communication partner training that focussed on specific communication patterns was successful in increasing the use of supportive strategies that enrolled nurses used in natural interaction with persons with communication disorders

  11. Non-communicable diseases – harnessing the current opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jane Brandt; Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll; Østergaard, Lise Rosendal

    2012-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) receive growing attention, which brings a unique opportunity to utilise solutions available to address them. These diseases are largely preventable; proven, cost-effective interventions are available; and when NCDs have emerged, means exist to treat them, prevent ...... complications, and to improve quality of life. Yet, there is a lack in progress in responding effectively to NCDs, and the current discussion and research focus predominantly on challenges rather than the opportunities, which this paper outlines....

  12. Periodontal disease and non-communicable diseases. Strength of bidirectional associations

    OpenAIRE

    Kassier, SM

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease (PD), along with cardiovascular and circulatory disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic respiratory disease and obesity, are globally regarded as some of the major non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The association between PD and these systemic illnesses is described as bidirectional. Gaining an understanding of the strength of the proposed associations between these diseases is important, as it will enable health professionals to identify common risk factors that will allow fo...

  13. The role of mass media in disease outbreak reporting in the United ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research ... Emerging infectious diseases and the growth of information communication technology have produced ... An analysis of disease outbreak information and reporting by the Tanzanian mass media was ...

  14. Risk Factors for Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases at Gilgel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, the distributions of the specific risk factors are not systematically identified in those countries hampering the designing of appropriate preventive and control strategies. The objective of this component of the study was to describe the distribution of risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. METHODS: ...

  15. Outbreaks: Sources of Epidemiological Knowledge in Communicable Disease Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.L.J.M. Mertens (Paulus Leonardus Johannes Marie)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPublic health has been defined as the science and art of disease prevention, prolonging life, and promoting health and well-being through organized community effort for the sanitation of the environment, the control of communicable infections, the organization of medical and nursing

  16. [Epidemic parotiditis, a reportable disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boverhoff, J C; Baart, J A

    2013-01-01

    Three consecutive patients with an acute swelling of one of the cheeks, were diagnosed with epidemic parotiditis. The first phase of the diagnostic procedure for an acute cheek swelling is to eliminate the possibility of odontogenic causes. When odontogenic problems have been excluded, non-dentition-related causes may be considered. An acute, progressive swelling in the preauricular area can often be attributed to an inflammation of the parotid gland, but epidemic parotiditis should also be considered. Epidemic parotiditis, or mumps, is caused by the mumps virus. Contamination occurs aerogenically. In the Netherlands, mumps vaccine is an ingredient of the governmental combined mump-measles-rubella inoculation programme. However, in recent years several small-scale parotiditis epidemics have broken out, predominantly among young, inoculated adults. Oropharyngeal mucus and blood samples are needed to diagnose the disease. Each case of the disease should be reported to the community healthcare service.

  17. Functional communication ability in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Albuquerque M. de Carvalho

    Full Text Available Abstract Functional communication is crucial for independent and efficient communicative behavior in response to every day activities. In the course of dementia progression, cognitive losses may impair these abilities. For this reason, functional communication assessment should be part of a formal assessment to quantify and qualify the impact of deficiency on patients' lives. Objective: To compare functional communication abilities in fronto-temporal lobar degeneration (FLTD and Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods: Six AD patients (mean age: 82.50±2.66 years; mean education: 5.67±3.61 years, and eight FTLD patients (mean age: 57.13±9.63 years; mean education: 10.86±6.91 years had their close relatives answer the Functional Assessment of Communication Skills for Adults (Asha-facs . Statistical analyses correlated the performance on each of the Asha-facs domains (social communication, communication of basic needs; reading, writing, number concept and daily planning between both groups. Results: Analyses showed that functional communication was similar for AD and FTLD patients. Only two items had statistical difference, namely 'Comprehension of inference' (AD 6.7±1.33; FTLD 2.43±2.30, p=0.017 and 'capacity to make basic money transactions' (AD 2.17±2.04; FTLD 4.00±0.90, p=0.044. Comparison among the four domains' mean scores revealed no significant difference. Conclusion: The Asha-facs is a useful instrument to characterize functional communication abilities in both FTLD and AD. Nevertheless, the analysis presented for this sample showed that the Asha-facs could not discriminate which aspects of the FTLD and AD differed.

  18. Communication impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtgraves T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Holtgraves, Chelsea CadleDepartment of Psychological Science, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USAAbstract: Parkinson's disease (PD is viewed primarily as a motor disorder. However, recent researches suggest that there is also a variety of communication deficits associated with this disorder. In this paper, we review some of these researches and provide a set of recommendations designed to improve communicative outcomes when interacting with people who have PD. A variety of comprehension deficits have been documented in PD, including syntactic, pragmatic, and semantic deficits, as well as an impaired ability to recognize emotions. People with PD are also impaired in terms of language production, possibly in part because of their comprehension deficits. Major production deficits include reduced informational content, longer and more frequent pauses and associated turn-taking disruption, inappropriate levels of politeness, and deficits in various nonverbal accompaniments. Awareness of these deficits, and simple, common sense communicative adjustments, can greatly improve communication with people with PD.Keywords: Parkinson's disease, communication recommendations, pragmatics, comprehension deficits, production deficits, nonliteral language, politeness

  19. Communications Technology and Motor Neuron Disease: An Australian Survey of People With Motor Neuron Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Lynette; Bhuta, Prarthna; Rusten, Kim; Devine, Janet; Love, Anna; Waterson, Penny

    2016-01-25

    People with Motor Neuron Disease (MND), of which amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form in adults, typically experience difficulties with communication and disabilities associated with movement. Assistive technology is essential to facilitate everyday activities, promote social support and enhance quality of life. This study aimed to explore the types of mainstream and commonly available communication technology used by people with MND including software and hardware, to identify the levels of confidence and skill that people with MND reported in using technology, to determine perceived barriers to the use of technology for communication, and to investigate the willingness of people with MND to adopt alternative modes of communication. An on-line survey was distributed to members of the New South Wales Motor Neuron Disease Association (MND NSW). Descriptive techniques were used to summarize frequencies of responses and cross tabulate data. Free-text responses to survey items and verbal comments from participants who chose to undertake the survey by telephone were analyzed using thematic analysis. Responses from 79 MND NSW members indicated that 15-21% had difficulty with speaking, writing and/or using a keyboard. Commonly used devices were desktop computers, laptops, tablets and mobile phones. Most participants (84%) were connected to the Internet and used it for email (91%), to find out more about MND (59%), to follow the news (50%) or for on-line shopping (46%). A third of respondents used Skype or its equivalent, but few used this to interact with health professionals. People with MND need greater awareness of technology options to access the most appropriate solutions. The timing for people with MND to make decisions about technology is critical. Health professionals need skills and knowledge about the application of technology to be able to work with people with MND to select the best communication technology options as early as possible

  20. Organelle communication: signaling crossroads between homeostasis and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Sagua, Roberto; Torrealba, Natalia; Paredes, Felipe; Morales, Pablo E; Pennanen, Christian; López-Crisosto, Camila; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Criollo, Alfredo; Chiong, Mario; Hill, Joseph A; Simmen, Thomas; Quest, Andrew F; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-05-01

    Cellular organelles do not function as isolated or static units, but rather form dynamic contacts between one another that can be modulated according to cellular needs. The physical interfaces between organelles are important for Ca2+ and lipid homeostasis, and serve as platforms for the control of many essential functions including metabolism, signaling, organelle integrity and execution of the apoptotic program. Emerging evidence also highlights the importance of organelle communication in disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension, cancer, skeletal and cardiac muscle dysfunction. Here, we provide an overview of the current literature on organelle communication and the link to human pathologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Community in Panic: Perceptions, impacts and lessons at risk communication on Pangasinan Mysterious Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Lawrence Carvajal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Communicating information about possible life threatening concerns can be very delicately difficult, and if it is not done well, the communicator can put the affected public at greater risk by creating misunderstanding or possibly inciting unwarranted panic. On February 24, 2014, a late night news program reported that a “mysterious flesh-eating illness is slowly” spreading in Pangasinan, a province in the Philippines with a population of more than three million.The news report connected two case studies from the towns of Villasis and Santa Barbara, Pangasinan to a prophecy by a self-titled prophet who forewarns of a flesh-eating disease in the said province. Just hours after the report came out that night, the hashtag #PrayForPangasinan trended on Twitter, and link of the video have been boundlessly shared on Facebook and other online social media. Anchored on the mental noise and risk perception theories, the study delves into the perceptions of risk of the affected public and determines the risk communication impacts and lessons of the Pangasinan Mysterious Disease. The findings of the study on the perceptions of risk by the affected public, the risk communication impacts and lessons on the news report is significant as the fundamental goal of risk communication is to provide meaningful, relevant and accurate information, in clear and understandable terms targeted to the concerned and affected publicand spur all concerned to a higher degree of consensus and support for a beneficial action.

  2. Communications data delivery system analysis task 2 report : high-level options for secure communications data delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    This Communications Data Delivery System Analysis Task 2 report describes and analyzes options for Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) communications data delivery systems using various communication media (Dedicated Short Ra...

  3. NNDSS - Table I. infrequently reported notifiable diseases

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table I. infrequently reported notifiable diseases - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected infrequently reported notifiable diseases (<1,000...

  4. NNDSS - Table I. infrequently reported notifiable diseases

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table I. infrequently reported notifiable diseases - 2014.In this Table, provisional cases of selected infrequently reported notifiable diseases (<1,000...

  5. NNDSS - Table I. infrequently reported notifiable diseases

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table I. infrequently reported notifiable diseases - 2015. In this Table, provisional cases of selected infrequently reported notifiable diseases (<1,000...

  6. NNDSS - Table I. infrequently reported notifiable diseases

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table I. infrequently reported notifiable diseases - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected infrequently reported notifiable diseases (<1,000...

  7. Gender differences in the relationship between built environment and non-communicable diseases: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valson, Joanna Sara; Kutty, V Raman

    2018-02-05

    Non-communicable diseases are on the rise globally. Risk factors of non-communicable diseases continue to be a growing concern in both developed and developing countries. With significant rise in population and establishment of buildings, rapid changes have taken place in the built environment. Relationship between health and place, particularly with non-communicable diseases has been established in previous literature. This systematic review assesses the current evidence on influence of gender in the relationship between built environment and non-communicable diseases. A systematic literature search using PubMed was done to identify all studies that reported relationship between gender and built environment. All titles and abstracts were scrutinised to include only articles based on risk factors, prevention, treatment and outcome of non-communicable diseases. The Gender Analysis Matrix developed by the World Health Organization was used to describe the findings of gender differences. Sex differences, biological susceptibility, gender norms/ values, roles and activities related to gender and access to/control over resources were themes for the differences in the relationship. A total of 15 out of 214 articles met the inclusion criteria. Majority of the studies were on risk factors of non-communicable diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases. Gender differences in physical access to recreational facilities, neighbourhood perceptions of safety and walkability have been documented. Men and women showed differential preferences to walking, engaging in physical activity and in perceiving safety of the neighbourhood. Girls and boys showed differences in play activities at school and in their own neighbourhood environment. Safety from crime and safety from traffic were also perceived important to engage in physical activity. Gender norms and gender roles and activities have shown basis for the differences in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases. Sparse

  8. Addressing the growing burden of non–communicable disease by leveraging lessons from infectious disease management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Piot 1

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in decreasing morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases and poor maternal– and child–health low– and middle–income countries now face an additional burden with the inexorable rise of non–communicable diseases.

  9. Radionuclides in molecular technology for diagnosis of communicable diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The document contains those aspects of the proceedings from a training course and a seminar organized by IAEA in 1992 which focus on molecular techniques used for the diagnosis of communicable diseases. It is divided in two parts: Part I contains 5 laboratory protocols for molecular techniques and Part II contains 9 of the 43 papers presented at the seminar which illustrates the application of molecular techniques. A separate abstract was prepared for each protocol and paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Communication Skills for Banking Report, April 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfax County Public Schools, Falls Church, VA. Office of Adult and Community Education.

    This addendum to the curriculum and report consists of the appendixes to the report. The National Workplace Literacy Partnership (NWLP) Grant for banking employees was funded to improve the English language abilities of over 300 employees of 4 banking partners. Nine appendixes which make up about 90% of the publication include: class schedules;…

  11. Communication strategies employed by rare disease patient organizations in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Esparcia, Antonio; López-Villafranca, Paloma

    2016-08-01

    The current study focuses on communication strategies employed by rare disease patient organizations. The aims of these organizations are: educate and inform the public about rare diseases, raise awareness of the problems related to rare diseases, and achieve social legitimacy in order give visibility to their demands. We analyzed the portrayal of rare disease and patient organizations by Spain's major media organizations in terms of circulation and viewership - the press (El País, El Mundo, La Vanguardia,ABC and El Periódico), radio (CadenaSer, Onda Cero, Cope and RNE), and television (Telecinco, Antena 3, La 1, La Sexta, Cuatro) -between 2012 and 2014.We then carried out a descriptive analysis of communication activities performed via the World Wide Web and social networks by 143 national organizations. Finally, we conducted a telephone questionnaire of a representative sample of 90 organizations in order to explore the association between media presence and funding and public image. The triangulation of quantitative and qualitative methods allowed us to meet the study's objectives. Increased visibility of the organizations afforded by an increase in the coverage of the topic by the medialed to an increase in membership - but not in donations - and increased awareness of these diseases.

  12. Comparison of the Hungarian and Scottish communicable disease control systems: lessons for a convergent European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefler, D; Bhopal, R

    2010-03-01

    European public health systems are converging, particularly in relation to communicable disease control. This process requires mutual learning through comparison; this was undertaken for Scotland (population 5.1 million) and Hungary (population 10.5 million). Using the official web- and paper-based publications, the practice of communicable disease control was compared between the two countries in three specific fields: seasonal influenza surveillance; human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) surveillance; and the childhood vaccination system. The organization structure for communicable disease control was very similar, comprising of government, national, regional and sub-regional tiers in Hungary, and government, national and local (sub-regional) tiers in Scotland. The influenza surveillance system in both countries was mainly based on the 'fluspotter system'. In the 2005/6, 2006/7 and 2007/8 seasons, there was no exceptional influenza activity in either country. Although the data collection and surveillance system of HIV is similar, there was a massive difference in the number of reported cases. In 2007, the cumulative incidence of reported HIV cases was 14.74/100,000 in Hungary and 105.21/100,000 in Scotland. The routine childhood vaccination schedule is similar in the two countries. However, while the vaccine uptake rates were nearly 100% in Hungary, these rates were lower in Scotland. The numbers of reported pertussis (98 vs 48), mumps (2741 vs 16), rubella (146 vs 0) and measles (168 vs zero) cases were significantly higher in Scotland than in Hungary. There were no differences for polio and chickenpox. The economic difference between the two countries not reflected in the efficiency of communicable disease control and in communicable disease patterns. The historical, political and cultural differences seem more determinative in this comparison. Copyright (c) 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Self- and surrogate-reported communication functioning in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Patrick J; Hula, William D; Austermann Hula, Shannon N; Stone, Clement A; Wambaugh, Julie L; Ross, Katherine B; Schumacher, James G

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the dimensionality and measurement invariance of the aphasia communication outcome measure (ACOM), a self- and surrogate-reported measure of communicative functioning in aphasia. Responses to a large pool of items describing communication activities were collected from 133 community-dwelling persons with aphasia of ≥ 1 month post-onset and their associated surrogate respondents. These responses were evaluated using confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis. Chi-square difference tests of nested factor models were used to evaluate patient-surrogate measurement invariance and the equality of factor score means and variances. Association and agreement between self- and surrogate reports were examined using correlation and scatterplots of pairwise patient-surrogate differences. Three single-factor scales (Talking, Comprehension, and Writing) approximating patient-surrogate measurement invariance were identified. The variance of patient-reported scores on the Talking and Writing scales was higher than surrogate-reported variances on these scales. Correlations between self- and surrogate reports were moderate-to-strong, but there were significant disagreements in a substantial number of individual cases. Despite minimal bias and relatively strong association, surrogate reports of communicative functioning in aphasia are not reliable substitutes for self-reports by persons with aphasia. Furthermore, although measurement invariance is necessary for direct comparison of self- and surrogate reports, the costs of obtaining invariance in terms of scale reliability and content validity may be substantial. Development of non-invariant self- and surrogate report scales may be preferable for some applications.

  14. 78 FR 12621 - Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate; Scope and Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate; Scope and Definitions AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control... effective date of Direct Final Rule. SUMMARY: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) within... Disease [[Page 12622

  15. Pharmacies, communication, and condoms. Research report: Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick De Weiss, S

    1995-01-01

    The Institute Mexicano de Investigacion de Familia y Poblacion, A.C. (IMIFAP) tested the effectiveness of a training course and educational materials that were designed to increase the awareness and knowledge of pharmacy employees concerning acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and its prevention, and to promote condoms. 174 employees participated in workshops that included information on transmission and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and AIDS, and condom usage. Pre- and post-session tests were performed to ascertain the short-term retention of information; the long-term effect was assessed via incognito shopper visits and monitoring of condom sales. Short, intensive training, when reinforced by posters, pamphlets, and video, significantly increased knowledge of AIDS (symptoms, transmission, and prevention) and correct condom usage. Awareness of risk behaviors and groups at risk for AIDS improved. Printed materials alone did not have a substantial impact on knowledge or sales of condoms, and increased knowledge alone did not increase information disseminated. After 6 months there was a significantly higher rise in condom sales (16%) in the course-plus-materials group. This group also took a greater initiative in providing information to clients. In spite of these positive results, knowledge and initiative are still unsatisfactory, especially when the role of pharmacies in general health care and the suspected prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus in Mexico are considered.

  16. The annual report: Communicating through metaphor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2005-01-01

    The annual report is the company's one-yearly statement of affairs or outlook presented to its shareholders and other interested parties. In this paper, interest is not solely in the financial performance and achievements of international companies, but also involves the way business information...

  17. Report of Committee G. Information and communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgstroem, J.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the work and achievements of Committee G, its five Sub-Committees and the Working Group during the triennium 1994-1997. It sets out the structure that the Committee has been operating, and highlights the key results for presentation to the 20th World Gas Conference. Detailed reports prepared by the Sub-Committee and Working Group Chairman make up the largest part of the report. Statistics, documentation, dictionary, occupational health and the working environment in the gas industry, human resources and development and information technology are dealt with in depth. In addition to this report, the Committee has also completed the following publications for the 20th World Gas Conference: Statistical data 1993-1994-1995 (IGU/GI-97); International Classification for the Gas Industry (IGU/GII-97); Directory of Gas Industry Documentation Centres; Compilation of Gas Industry Legislation; 3rd. edition of the Multilingual Dictionary of the Gas Industry (volume 1); I.G.U. Conference Terminology (IGU/GIII-97). (au)

  18. Using Reporting in the Internal Communication Process of the Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Marian Iosif

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Internal communication can be regarded either as a subsistent process of the organization, or as a process helping to decode and more easily understand them. Organizations are based on the internal communication process, because without it, information, ideas could not be sent, the organization’s goals and values could not be built, and its organizational culture would simply not exist. The internal communication process is centered on sending ideas, information in the organization. This is directly proportional with the efficiency of the organization. Internal communication allows for the best decision to be taken, for information to be sent towards the interior of the company, towards the employees, but also has the purpose of strengthening the relations between persons. Internal communication has at its basis the verbal and non-verbal communication, but they have great disadvantages, because: verbal communication has losses of information, depends on the moment of transmission, but also on the receiver.Keywords: report, internal communication, neuro linguistic programming, company

  19. NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASE PROGRAM IN AMPANGAN HEALTH CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MASTURA I

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCDs represent among the most common and debilitating conditions seen in primary care. Patients’ care will often involves multiple providers and follow-up requires persistence by patients and clinicians alike, therefore ideal outcomes are often difficult to achieve. The need for better disease management policies and practice is growing. This is due to the changing demographic profile of the population, the increasing cost of managing people in acute care hospitals and the availability of new technologies and services. All these changes enable a different care paradigm which is more cost effective and provides people with chronic conditions an improved quality of life. Management of the NCDs therefore offers an excellent opportunity to practice chronic disease management - a systems approach designed to ensure excellent care. The NCD team has developed a comprehensive approach to chronic disease care. We would like to describe the NCD Program in Ampangan Health Clinic which represents many typical government health clinics in Malaysia and the processes by which it was developed. Included are specific examples of the tools and how they can be used by individual clinicians incaring for patients. The integration of Chronic Disease Management Services into health care systems is the direction being undertaken to tackle the burden of chronic disease. Disease management supports the shift in healthcare from an emphasis on managing the acute episode to managing the entire disease course, highlighting both prevention and maintenance of wellbeing for patients with chronic diseases. Disease management promotes better integration and coordination of care across all aspects of the health sector.

  20. Using Social Networking Sites for Communicable Disease Control: Innovative Contact Tracing or Breach of Confidentiality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandeville, Kate L; Harris, Matthew; Thomas, H Lucy; Chow, Yimmy; Seng, Claude

    2014-04-01

    Social media applications such as Twitter, YouTube and Facebook have attained huge popularity, with more than three billion people and organizations predicted to have a social networking account by 2015. Social media offers a rapid avenue of communication with the public and has potential benefits for communicable disease control and surveillance. However, its application in everyday public health practice raises a number of important issues around confidentiality and autonomy. We report here a case from local level health protection where the friend of an individual with meningococcal septicaemia used a social networking site to notify potential contacts.

  1. Foundations of Reporting: Or Bartlett's Guide to Evaluation Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Freda M.

    The author believes her ideas on evaluation reporting are old ideas in various fields including communication theory, advertising, social science, and learning theory. The human factor in reporting evaluation must be considered. Those being evaluated often feel threatened by the evaluation. Evaluators need to accept the behaviors of evaluation…

  2. Pompe disease: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Çim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pompe disease is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, and is usually observed in the children of asymptomatic carriers. Pompe disease, known as Glycogen Storage Disorder type II, is caused by pathogenic mutations in the gene encoding lysosomal acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA. There are three types of Pompe disease: classical infantile form, non-classical infantile form and late-onset Pompe disease. Age of onset and severity of the disease determine the type of Pompe disease. We aimed to identify a mutation in GAA gene in parents who were first cousins and their baby girl was passed away due to the Pompe disease. The baby girl had reduced acid alpha-glucosidase activity, but genetic analysis had not been performed. Mutation analysis of parents was performed using high-throughput DNA sequencing method. Heterozygous mutation of c.896 T>C in exon 5 was found in parents, and prenatal diagnosis was performed for their next pregnancy. In conclusion, c.896 T>C substitution in GAA gene may lead to the severe type of Pompe disease. Using a relatively fast and reliable molecular genetic analysis method to confirm the early diagnosis of the Pompe disease is important for the management of the disease.

  3. SPACE COMMUNICATION AND THE MASS MEDIA. A UNESCO REPORT ON THE OCCASION OF THE 1963 SPACE COMMUNICATIONS CONFERENCE. REPORTS AND PAPERS ON MASS COMMUNICATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    THIS REPORT DEFINES AND ANALYZES POTENTIAL ASPECTS OF WORLDWIDE COMMUNICATION BY SATELLITE, LISTS TECHNICAL PROBLEMS, AND SUGGESTS USES OF SPACE COMMUNICATION TO PROMOTE EDUCATION, CULTURAL EXCHANGE, AND INFORMATION FLOW. IT IS AVAILABLE FOR $0.50 FROM NATIONAL DISTRIBUTORS OF UNESCO PUBLICATIONS, OR FROM UNESCO, PLACE DE FONTENDOY, PARIS-7E,…

  4. Prevention of cancer and non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Geoffrey; Gupta, Prakash; Gomes, Fabio; Kerner, Jon; Parra, William; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Kim, Jeongseon; Moore, Malcolm; Sutcliffe, Catherine; Sutcliffe, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for approximately 7.6 million deaths (13% of all deaths) in 2008. Cancer mortality is projected to increase to 11 million deaths in 2030, with the majority occurring in regions of the world with the least capacity to respond. However, cancer is not only a personal, societal and economic burden but also a potential societal opportunity in the context of functional life - the years gained through effective prevention and treatment, and strategies to enhance survivorship. The United Nations General Assembly Special Session in 2011 has served to focus attention on key aspects of cancer prevention and control. Firstly, cancer is largely preventable, by feasible means. Secondly, cancer is one of a number of chronic, non- communicable diseases that share common risk factors whose prevention and control would benefit a majority of the world's population. Thirdly, a proportion of cancers can be attributed to infectious, communicable causal factors (e.g., HPV, HBV, H.pylori, parasites, flukes) and that strategies to control the burden of infectious diseases have relevance to the control of cancer. Fourthly, that the natural history of non-communicable diseases, including cancer, from primary prevention through diagnosis, treatment and care, is underwritten by the impact of social, economic and environmental determinants of health (e.g., poverty, illiteracy, gender inequality, social isolation, stigma, socio-economic status). Session 1 of the 4th International Cancer Control Congress (ICCC-4) focused on the social, economic and environmental, as well as biological and behavioural, modifiers of the risk of cancer through one plenary presentation and four interactive workshop discussions. The workshop sessions concerned 1) the Global Adult Tobacco Survey and social determinants of tobacco use in high burden low- and middle-income countries; 2) the role of diet, including alcohol, and physical activity in modifying the

  5. Reputation, relationships, risk communication, and the role of trust in the prevention and control of communicable disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Georgina; de Andrade, Marisa; MacDonald, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Population-level compliance with health protective behavioral advice to prevent and control communicable disease is essential to optimal effectiveness. Multiple factors affect perceptions of trustworthiness, and trust in advice providers is a significant predeterminant of compliance. While competency in assessment and management of communicable disease risks is critical, communications competency may be equally important. Organizational reputation, quality of stakeholder relationships and risk information provision strategies are trust moderating factors, whose impact is strongly influenced by the content, timing and coordination of communications. This article synthesizes the findings of 2 literature reviews on trust moderating communications and communicable disease prevention and control. We find a substantial evidence base on risk communication, but limited research on other trust building communications. We note that awareness of good practice historically has been limited although interest and the availability of supporting resources is growing. Good practice and policy elements are identified: recognition that crisis and risk communications require different strategies; preemptive dialogue and planning; evidence-based approaches to media relations and messaging; and building credibility for information sources. Priority areas for future research include process and cost-effectiveness evaluation and the development of frameworks that integrate communication and biomedical disease control and prevention functions, conceptually and at scale.

  6. Complexity theory in the management of communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Mike

    2003-06-01

    In nature, apparently complex behavioural patterns are the result of repetitive simple rules. Complexity science studies the application of these rules and looks for applications in society. Complexity management opportunities have developed from this science and are providing a revolutionary approach in the constantly changing workplace. This article discusses how complexity management techniques have already been applied to communicable disease management in Wales and suggests further developments. A similar approach is recommended to others in the field, while complexity management probably has wider applications in the NHS, not least in relation to the developing managed clinical networks.

  7. Information and communication technology in disease surveillance, India: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Sampath K

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract India has made appreciable progress and continues to demonstrate a strong commitment for establishing and operating a disease surveillance programme responsive to the requirements of the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]. Within five years of its launch, India has effectively used modern information and communication technology for collection, storage, transmission and management of data related to disease surveillance and effective response. Terrestrial and/or satellite based linkages are being established within all states, districts, state-run medical colleges, infectious disease hospitals, and public health laboratories. This network enables speedy data transfer, video conferencing, training and e-learning for outbreaks and programme monitoring. A 24x7 call centre is in operation to receive disease alerts. To complement these efforts, a media scanning and verification cell functions to receive reports of early warning signals. During the 2009 H1N1 outbreak, the usefulness of the information and communication technology (ICT network was well appreciated. India is using ICT as part of its Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP to help overcome the challenges in further expansion in hard-to-reach populations, to increase the involvement of the private sector, and to increase the use of other modes of communication like e-mail and voicemail.

  8. Information and communication technology in disease surveillance, India: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Lalit; Krishnan, Sampath K

    2010-12-03

    India has made appreciable progress and continues to demonstrate a strong commitment for establishing and operating a disease surveillance programme responsive to the requirements of the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]). Within five years of its launch, India has effectively used modern information and communication technology for collection, storage, transmission and management of data related to disease surveillance and effective response. Terrestrial and/or satellite based linkages are being established within all states, districts, state-run medical colleges, infectious disease hospitals, and public health laboratories. This network enables speedy data transfer, video conferencing, training and e-learning for outbreaks and programme monitoring. A 24x7 call centre is in operation to receive disease alerts. To complement these efforts, a media scanning and verification cell functions to receive reports of early warning signals. During the 2009 H1N1 outbreak, the usefulness of the information and communication technology (ICT) network was well appreciated. India is using ICT as part of its Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP) to help overcome the challenges in further expansion in hard-to-reach populations, to increase the involvement of the private sector, and to increase the use of other modes of communication like e-mail and voicemail.

  9. Agricultural policy, food policy, and communicable disease policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Wyn

    2012-12-01

    Food and agricultural policy is an essential element of a communicable disease policy. The European Union has developed a more systematic and broadly based interest in questions of food safety and animal health and welfare linked to modernization of the Common Agricultural Policy, reflected in a new treaty obligation on animal welfare. Following the bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis, moves were made to create a European competency, but implementation and enforcement resources reside with the member states. The European Animal Health Strategy is meant to lead to an EU animal health law, but this has already been constrained by fiscal austerity. The development of such a law may lead to a lowest common denominator formula that does little to enhance consumer protection or improve animal welfare. This is an inherent risk with top-down forms of Europeanization; more attention should be paid to lessons to be learned from bottom-up initiatives of the type used to counteract the bovine diarrhea virus. There will always be a tension among what is good policy for reducing the incidence of communicable disease, policy that is popular with EU citizens, and policy that is acceptable to member states.

  10. Steal phenomenon through the anterior communicating artery in Moyamoya disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Soo Mee [Ewha Womans University, Department of Radiology, Mok-dong Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Chae, Eun Jin; Kim, Min Yeong; Kim, Sang Joon; Choi, Choong Gon; Pyun, Hae Wook; Suh, Dae Chul [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Jae Kyun [Seoul Veterans Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Ahn, Jae Sung; Ra, Young-Shin [University of Ulsan, Asan Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Jong-Uk; Hahm, Kyung Don [University of Ulsan, Asan Medical Center, Department of Anesthesiology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2007-01-15

    Branch occlusion of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is regarded as a part of Moyamoya disease. The purpose of this study is to define the ACA steal phenomenon (SP) in Moyamoya disease and to evaluate temporal changes according to the disease progression. From 139 Moyamoya patients we defined ACASP as narrowing of the ipsilateral A1-2 junction while preserving the anterior communicating artery and supplying the contralateral ACA cortical branches with the development of leptomeningeal collaterals by the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery into the hypoperfused ipsilateral ACA territory. Direction of the steal related to the stage in both hemispheres by Suzuki classification was statistically analyzed using the binomial test based on binomial distribution. Follow-ups of ACASP were evaluated in five patients. We identified ACASP in 13 (9%) patients (male:female=7:6, mean age 18 years, range: 2-58 years) of the 139 study patients. The presenting pattern was ischemic in 12 and hemorrhagic in one. The direction of SP occurred from the hemisphere in the lower to the higher stage of Suzuki classification (two-tail P value=0.0002). After revascularization surgery, ACASP disappeared or diminished. ACASP may occur in bilaterally different stages of Moyamoya disease as a transient self-adaptive process. It regresses after revascularization surgery. (orig.)

  11. 10 CFR 4.5 - Communications and reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... otherwise indicated, communications and reports relating to this part may be sent to the NRC by mail...'s offices at 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland; or, where practicable, by electronic submission, for example, via Electronic Information Exchange, or CD-ROM. Electronic submissions must be made...

  12. Does published research on non-communicable disease (NCD in Arab countries reflect NCD disease burden?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abla M Sibai

    Full Text Available To review trends in non-communicable (NCD research output in the Arab region, in terms of quantity and quality, study design, setting and focus. We also examined differences by time and place, and assessed gaps between research output and NCD burden.A scoping review of a total of 3,776 NCD-related reports published between 2000 and 2013 was conducted for seven Arab countries. Countries were selected to represent diverse socio-economic development levels in the region: Regression analyses were used to assess trends in publications over time and by country. Research gaps were assessed by examining the degree of match between proportionate literature coverage of the four main NCDs (CVD, cancer, DM, and COPD and cause-specific proportional mortality rates (PMR.The annual number of NCD publications rose nearly 5-fold during the study period, with higher income countries having the higher publication rates (per million populations and the most rapid increases. The increase in the publication rate was particularly prominent for descriptive observational studies, while interventional studies and systematic reviews remained infrequent (slope coefficients = 13.484 and 0.883, respectively. Gap analysis showed a mismatch between cause-specific PMR burden and NCD research output, with a relative surplus of reports on cancer (pooled estimate +38.3% and a relative deficit of reports on CVDs (pooled estimate -30.3%.The widening disparity between higher and lower-income countries and the discordance between research output and disease burden call for the need for ongoing collaboration among Arab academic institutions, funding agencies and researchers to guide country-specific and regional research agendas, support and conduct.

  13. A Nephrology Fellows' Communication Skills Course: An Educational Quality Improvement Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robert A; Jackson, Vicki A; Norwich, Diana; Schell, Jane O; Schaefer, Kristen; Ship, Amy N; Sullivan, Amy M

    2016-08-01

    Nephrology fellows need expertise navigating challenging conversations with patients throughout the course of advanced kidney disease. However, evidence shows that nephrologists receive inadequate training in this area. This study assessed the effectiveness of an educational quality improvement intervention designed to enhance fellows' communication with patients who have advanced kidney disease. Quality improvement project. Full-day annual workshops (2013-2014) using didactics, discussion, and practice with simulated patients. Content focused on delivering bad news, acknowledging emotion, discussing care goals in dialysis decision making when prognosis is uncertain, and addressing dialysis therapy withdrawal and end of life. Participants were first-year nephrology fellows from 2 Harvard-affiliated training programs (N=26). Study assessed the effectiveness of an intervention designed to enhance fellows' communication skills. Primary outcomes were changes in self-reported patient communication skills, attitudes, and behaviors related to discussing disease progression, prognostic uncertainty, dialysis therapy withdrawal, treatments not indicated, and end of life; responding to emotion; eliciting patient goals and values; and incorporating patient goals into recommendations. Surveys measured prior training, pre- and postcourse perceived changes in skills and values, and reported longer term (3-month) changes in communication behaviors, using both closed- and open-ended items. Response rates were 100% (pre- and postsurveys) and 68% (follow-up). Participants reported improvement in all domains, with an overall mean increase of 1.1 (summed average scores: precourse, 2.8; postcourse, 3.9 [1-5 scale; 5 = "extremely well prepared"]; Pskills taught, such as "Ask-Tell-Ask" and using open-ended questions. Self-reported data may overestimate actual changes; small sample size and the programs' affiliation with a single medical school may limit generalizability. A day

  14. FY16 Analysis report: Financial systems dependency on communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyeler, Walter E.

    2017-03-01

    Within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Office of Cyber and Infrastructure Analysis (OCIA)'s National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) develops capabilities to support the DHS mission and the resilience of the Nation’s critical infrastructure. At Sandia National Laboratories, under DHS/OCIA direction, NISAC is developing models of financial sector dependence on communications. This capability is designed to improve DHS's ability to assess potential impacts of communication disruptions to major financial services and the effectiveness of possible mitigations. This report summarizes findings and recommendations from the application of that capability as part of the FY2016 NISAC program plan.

  15. Helminth infections on Flores Island, Indonesia : associations with communicable and non-communicable diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiria, Aprilianto Eddy

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we reported our investigations of the relationship between soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and a number of outcomes, in particular malaria, insulin resistance (a marker for type-2 diabetes (T2D)) and atherosclerosis (a marker for cardiovascular diseases (CVD)) on Flores island,

  16. The visibility of non-communicable diseases in northern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, Susan Reynolds; Park, Sung-Joon; Odong, George

    2015-01-01

    Background : WHO and Uganda’s Ministry of Health emphasize the need to address the growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Treatment for these conditions is urgent in northern Uganda where war has negatively affected both health and the public health care system. Objectives : We aimed...... to explore the recognized presence of selected chronic conditions in the out-patient population and to relate this ‘visibility’ to the ability of health units to diagnose and treat them. Methods : At six health facilities we reviewed patient registers for one month to determine the frequency of hypertension...... : The four conditions are relatively invisible in the outpatient population. Greater visibility would be facilitated by regular clinic days for hypertension and diabetes, availability and regular use of diagnostic instruments, and a more reliable supply of the relevant medicines....

  17. Targeting mitochondrial phenotypes for non-communicable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengtang Qi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept that “Exercise is Medicine” has been challenged by the rising prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs. This is partly due to the fact that the underlying mechanisms of how exercise influences energy homeostasis and counteracts high-fat diets and physical inactivity is complex and remains relatively poorly understood on a molecular level. In addition to genetic polymorphisms in humans that lead to gross variations in responsiveness to exercise, adaptation in mitochondrial networks is central to physical activity, inactivity, and diet. To harness the benefits of exercise for NCDs, much work still needs to be done to improve health effectively on a societal level such as developing personalized exercise interventions aided by advances in high-throughput genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. We propose that understanding the mitochondrial phenotype according to the molecular information of genotypes, lifestyles, and exercise responsiveness in individuals will optimize exercise effects for prevention of NCDs.

  18. Reported cases of selected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The number of reported cases of measles, poliomyelitis, tetanus, diphtheria, and whooping cough for the period of January 1, 1994 to the date of the last report is presented in tabular form by country with a comparison for the same epidemiological period in 1993. The countries included are Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, Brazil, Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Mexico, Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Antigua and Barbuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent, Saint Lucia, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Canada, and the US. The figures for measles are given as reported and as confirmed. In some countries, the reported number of cases of measles decreased from 1993 figures (Venezuela 5275 vs. 6060, Paraguay 26 vs. 958, Brazil 272 vs. 958, Canada 30 vs. 38), but, in others, the figure increased from 1993 (Mexico 47 vs. 21, the US 155 vs. 86). There were no reported cases of poliomyelitis for either year in any country. The figures for tetanus are divided into nonneonatal and neonatal. In Brazil the number of nonneonatal cases decreased to 360 from 371 in 1993, and the number of neonatal cases decreased to 28 from 65. In Mexico, nonneonatal cases decreased to 28 from 45, but neonatal cases increased to 23 from 20 in 1993. The number of cases of diphtheria cases in Brazil decreased to 28 from 65 in the same period of 1993. The number of cases of whooping cough decreased to 431 from 1651 in Brazil and to 51 from 70 in Mexico. However, the number of cases in Canada increased to 1047 from 784.

  19. Barriers to effective communication between veterans with chronic kidney disease and their healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Swati; Fischer, Michael J; Gordon, Howard S; Wadhwa, Anuradha; Popli, Subhash; Gordon, Elisa J

    2015-12-01

    Many patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have insufficient knowledge about CKD, which is associated with poorer health outcomes. Effective patient-provider communication can improve CKD patients' knowledge, thereby augmenting their participation in self-care practices. However, barriers to addressing CKD patients' information needs have not been previously characterized. Adults with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of communication dynamics. Thirty-two patients participated. The mean age of participants was 63 years; most were male (94%) and non-Hispanic white (53%). CKD severity groups represented included CKD-3 (eGFR 30-59 mL/min/1.73 m(2); 34%), CKD-4 (eGFR 15-29 mL/min/1.73 m(2); 25%), CKD-5 (eGFR barriers to patient-provider communication based on patients' reported care at both VA and non-VA facilities, including patients perceived their role as a 'listener', reported limited CKD knowledge, did not understand physicians' explanations and were dissatisfied with the patient-provider relationship. Several barriers to patient-provider communication prevent patients from meeting their information needs and perpetuate patient passivity. Future research should evaluate whether interventions that empower CKD patients to actively participate in their care increase knowledge and improve health outcomes.

  20. Disease, communication, and the ethics of (in) visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak-Franger, Monika Monika; Holmes, Martha Stoddard

    2014-12-01

    As the recent Ebola outbreak demonstrates, visibility is central to the shaping of political, medical, and socioeconomic decisions. The symposium in this issue of the Journal of Bioethical Inquiry explores the uneasy relationship between the necessity of making diseases visible, the mechanisms of legal and visual censorship, and the overall ethics of viewing and spectatorship, including the effects of media visibility on the perception of particular "marked" bodies. Scholarship across the disciplines of communication, anthropology, gender studies, and visual studies, as well as a photographer's visual essay and memorial reflection, throw light on various strategies of visualization and (de)legitimation and link these to broader socioeconomic concerns. Questions of the ethics of spectatorship, such as how to evoke empathy in the representation of individuals' suffering without perpetuating social and economic inequalities, are explored in individual, (trans-)national, and global contexts, demonstrating how disease (in)visibility intersects with a complex nexus of health, sexuality, and global/national politics. A sensible management of visibility--an "ecology of the visible"--can be productive of more viable ways of individual and collective engagement with those who suffer.

  1. Promoting the maintenance of satisfactory communication: strategies used by caregivers and medical staff with people suffering from Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, Marie; Veilleux, Marie-Christine; Macoir, Joël

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this literature review was to determine communication strategies that foster interactions between individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and caregivers or medical staff. A search of PubMed and PsycINFO databases was conducted using combinations of the following terms: Alzheimer, family, caregiver, communication, language, treatment, intervention, therapy, communication strategies, functional communication and daily living activities. Studies were chosen based on the original language of the text, year of publication, peer-review status and specificity of the results regarding communication strategies in AD. This review covers 14 articles published between 1994 and 2014. The in-depth analysis of these studies shows that various communication strategies used by caregivers and medical staff are effective to promote interactions with people with AD at different stages of the disease. For caregivers, these strategies include producing short and syntactically simple sentences, relying on semantic memory rather than on episodic memory, providing more information and reformulate, removing potential distractions from the environment, specifying the topic of the conversation, using precise terms to identify communication breakdowns. Other strategies also appeared to be effective for medical staff, such as asking close-ended questions, providing response choices, verbalizing the actions performed during medical care and activities, paying attention to the needs expressed through verbal and non-verbal messages, adopting a supportive way of speaking. Furthermore, other communication strategies rather appear to be harmful to functional communication. These harmful strategies involve insisting that the person produce a specific word, asking him/her to repeat or tune out in case of communication breakdown. Finally, contradictory outcomes are reported for some strategies such as speaking slowly, repeating or rephrase questions and information. This article provides

  2. Ethnic and Gender Differentials in Non-Communicable Diseases and Self-Rated Health in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Jane K. L.; Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This paper examines the ethnic and gender differentials in high blood pressure (HBP), diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), arthritis and asthma among older people in Malaysia, and how these diseases along with other factors affect self-rated health. Differentials in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases among older people are examined in the context of socio-cultural perspectives in multi-ethnic Malaysia. Methods Data for this paper are obtained from the 2004 Malaysian Population and Family Survey. The survey covered a nationally representative sample of 3,406 persons aged 50 and over, comprising three main ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians) and all other indigenous groups. Bivariate analyses and hierarchical logistic regression were used in the analyses. Results Arthritis was the most common non-communicable disease (NCD), followed by HBP, diabetes, asthma and CHD. Older females were more likely than males to have arthritis and HBP, but males were more likely to have asthma. Diabetes and CHD were most prevalent among Indians, while arthritis and HBP were most prevalent among the Indigenous groups. Older people were more likely to report poor health if they suffered from NCD, especially CHD. Controlling for socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors, Chinese were least likely to report poor health, whereas Indians and Indigenous people were more likely to do so. Chinese that had HBP were more likely to report poor health compared to other ethnic groups with the same disease. Among those with arthritis, Indians were more likely to report poor health. Conclusion Perceived health status and prevalence of arthritis, HBP, diabetes, asthma and CHD varied widely across ethnic groups. Promotion of healthy lifestyle, early detection and timely intervention of NCDs affecting different ethnic groups and gender with socio-cultural orientations would go a long way in alleviating the debilitating effects of the common NCDs among older people. PMID

  3. Ethnic and gender differentials in non-communicable diseases and self-rated health in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Jane K L; Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the ethnic and gender differentials in high blood pressure (HBP), diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), arthritis and asthma among older people in Malaysia, and how these diseases along with other factors affect self-rated health. Differentials in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases among older people are examined in the context of socio-cultural perspectives in multi-ethnic Malaysia. Data for this paper are obtained from the 2004 Malaysian Population and Family Survey. The survey covered a nationally representative sample of 3,406 persons aged 50 and over, comprising three main ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians) and all other indigenous groups. Bivariate analyses and hierarchical logistic regression were used in the analyses. Arthritis was the most common non-communicable disease (NCD), followed by HBP, diabetes, asthma and CHD. Older females were more likely than males to have arthritis and HBP, but males were more likely to have asthma. Diabetes and CHD were most prevalent among Indians, while arthritis and HBP were most prevalent among the Indigenous groups. Older people were more likely to report poor health if they suffered from NCD, especially CHD. Controlling for socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors, Chinese were least likely to report poor health, whereas Indians and Indigenous people were more likely to do so. Chinese that had HBP were more likely to report poor health compared to other ethnic groups with the same disease. Among those with arthritis, Indians were more likely to report poor health. Perceived health status and prevalence of arthritis, HBP, diabetes, asthma and CHD varied widely across ethnic groups. Promotion of healthy lifestyle, early detection and timely intervention of NCDs affecting different ethnic groups and gender with socio-cultural orientations would go a long way in alleviating the debilitating effects of the common NCDs among older people.

  4. Ethnic and gender differentials in non-communicable diseases and self-rated health in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane K L Teh

    Full Text Available This paper examines the ethnic and gender differentials in high blood pressure (HBP, diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD, arthritis and asthma among older people in Malaysia, and how these diseases along with other factors affect self-rated health. Differentials in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases among older people are examined in the context of socio-cultural perspectives in multi-ethnic Malaysia.Data for this paper are obtained from the 2004 Malaysian Population and Family Survey. The survey covered a nationally representative sample of 3,406 persons aged 50 and over, comprising three main ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians and all other indigenous groups. Bivariate analyses and hierarchical logistic regression were used in the analyses.Arthritis was the most common non-communicable disease (NCD, followed by HBP, diabetes, asthma and CHD. Older females were more likely than males to have arthritis and HBP, but males were more likely to have asthma. Diabetes and CHD were most prevalent among Indians, while arthritis and HBP were most prevalent among the Indigenous groups. Older people were more likely to report poor health if they suffered from NCD, especially CHD. Controlling for socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors, Chinese were least likely to report poor health, whereas Indians and Indigenous people were more likely to do so. Chinese that had HBP were more likely to report poor health compared to other ethnic groups with the same disease. Among those with arthritis, Indians were more likely to report poor health.Perceived health status and prevalence of arthritis, HBP, diabetes, asthma and CHD varied widely across ethnic groups. Promotion of healthy lifestyle, early detection and timely intervention of NCDs affecting different ethnic groups and gender with socio-cultural orientations would go a long way in alleviating the debilitating effects of the common NCDs among older people.

  5. National disease management plans for key chronic non-communicable diseases in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C C

    2002-07-01

    In Singapore, chronic, non-communicable diseases, namely coronary heart disease, stroke and cancer, account for more than 60% of all deaths and a high burden of disability and healthcare expenditure. The burden of these diseases is likely to rise with our rapidly ageing population and changing lifestyles, and will present profound challenges to our healthcare delivery and financing systems over the next 20 to 30 years. The containment and optimal management of these conditions require a strong emphasis on patient education and the development of integrated models of healthcare delivery in place of the present uncoordinated, compartmentalised way of delivering healthcare. To meet these challenges, the Ministry of Health's major thrusts are disease control measures which focus mainly on primary prevention; and disease management, which coordinates the national effort to reduce the incidence of these key diseases and their predisposing factors and to ameliorate their long-term impact by optimising control to reduce mortality, morbidity and complications, and improving functional status through rehabilitation. The key initiatives include restructuring of the public sector healthcare institutions into two clusters, each comprising a network of primary health care polyclinics, regional hospitals and tertiary institutions. The functional integration of these healthcare elements within each cluster under a common senior administrative and professional management, and the development of common clinical IT systems will greatly facilitate the implementation of disease management programmes. Secondly, the Ministry is establishing National Disease Registries in coronary heart disease, cancer, stroke, myopia and kidney failure, which will be valuable sources of clinical and outcomes data. Thirdly, in partnership with expert groups, national committees and professional agencies, the Ministry will produce clinical practice guidelines which will assist doctors and healthcare

  6. A survey of core and support activities of communicable disease surveillance systems at operating-level CDCs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Weiyi; Lv, Jun; Li, Liming

    2010-11-17

    In recent years, problems like insufficient coordination, low efficiency, and heavy working load in national communicable disease surveillance systems in China have been pointed out by many researchers. To strengthen the national communicable disease surveillance systems becomes an immediate concern. Since the World Health Organization has recommended that a structured approach to strengthen national communicable disease surveillance must include an evaluation to existing systems which usually begins with a systematic description, we conducted the first survey for communicable disease surveillance systems in China, in order to understand the situation of core and support surveillance activities at province-level and county-level centers for disease control and prevention (CDCs). A nationwide survey was conducted by mail between May and October 2006 to investigate the implementation of core and support activities of the Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NDRS) and disease-specific surveillance systems in all of the 31 province-level and selected 14 county-level CDCs in Mainland China The comments on the performance of communicable disease surveillance systems were also collected from the directors of CDCs in this survey. The core activities of NDRS such as confirmation, reporting and analysis and some support activities such as supervision and staff training were found sufficient in both province-level and county-level surveyed CDCs, but other support activities including information feedback, equipment and financial support need to be strengthened in most of the investigated CDCs. A total of 47 communicable diseases or syndromes were under surveillance at province level, and 20 diseases or syndromes at county level. The activities among different disease-specific surveillance systems varied widely. Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), measles and tuberculosis (TB) surveillance systems got relatively high recognition both at province level and county level. China has

  7. Communications and control for electric power systems: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, H.

    1998-04-01

    This report is a summary of some of the work done on the Communications and Control project, with particular emphasis on the achievements during the years 1986--1996. During those years, the project moved away from concern with dispersed storage and generation and its impact on power system operation (the team was responsible for studies in this area, and for making a power system simulator that included DSG), and became involved in more concrete work aimed at applying high-tech solutions to problems of power system communications and control. This report covers work done at JPL on the following topics: (1) the measurement of electric and magnetic fields, both ac and dc; (2) the use of optical power to supply low-power electronics; (3) the design of a fault-tolerant communication system designed for distribution automation; and (4) a digital phase locked loop that allows the use of low-power transmitting electronics to recreate a good-quality signal at the receiver. In a report of this kind, only the results and highlights of the work are described.

  8. The influence of media communication on risk perception and behavior related to mad cow disease in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jee-Eun; Sohn, Aeree

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the influence of media communication on risk behavior related to mad cow disease (MCD). Mothers of elementary school students in Seoul were recruited as the survey participants of this study. Media reports affected risk behavior related to MCD. Also, knowledge and attitude toward MCD affects risk behavior. Risk-related information provided by the media should maintain consistency and objectivity. For effective risk communication, there should be an open communication between the government and public, experts, and related industries, who should all collaborate.

  9. Hydatid disease localized in mesorectum: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Oğuz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is a parasitic disease, which is caused by echinococcus and often located in the liver and lung but occasionally found in other organs. Only one previous study reported localization in the mesorectum. In this case report, we present a 27-year-old male, as a second case in the literature, with a hydatid cyst located in the mesorectum. Abdominopelvic computed tomography revealed cystic masses localized in the mesorectum with no pulmonary or hepatic involvement. Preoperative cyst hydatid IgG (1/1000 was positive, and the preliminary diagnosis was hydatid disease. The patient underwent partial cystectomy. Macroscopic and microscopic examination of the specimens confirmed the hydatid cyst. This case report demonstrates that hydatid disease should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of a cystic mass in any anatomic localization, especially in endemic areas. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (1: 75-77

  10. Business Reporting and Communications: Reaching the $20 Trillion Target--a Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, M.

    2007-07-01

    Without immediate reporting and communications reform in the energy sector, business may fail to achieve the US$20 trillion investment required to meet the world's energy demand by 2030. This KPMG paper argues that a new business-reporting and communications framework is urgently required that enables investors to award capital to competing energy projects according to merit. The current reporting and communications framework does not paint a clear picture of strategy, performance, value and prospects. A new strategy would ensure improved stakeholder understanding of business strategies and better decision-making insights into performance drivers, risks and outlook. These should be conveyed through a portfolio of communications, including a flagship business performance report and special purpose reports tailored to meet stakeholders' needs. The paper also analyzes the roles and responsibilities of key players in changing the investment climate. The time for reform is ripe: the accounting profession is calling for reform, and many leading energy-sector businesses are already implementing new approaches to business reporting. By implementing a reporting and communications framework that helps investors differentiate competing energy propositions, the sector will meet one precondition to raising the $20 trillion investment. (auth)

  11. Business Reporting and Communications: Reaching the $20 Trillion Target--a Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, M

    2007-07-01

    Without immediate reporting and communications reform in the energy sector, business may fail to achieve the US$20 trillion investment required to meet the world's energy demand by 2030. This KPMG paper argues that a new business-reporting and communications framework is urgently required that enables investors to award capital to competing energy projects according to merit. The current reporting and communications framework does not paint a clear picture of strategy, performance, value and prospects. A new strategy would ensure improved stakeholder understanding of business strategies and better decision-making insights into performance drivers, risks and outlook. These should be conveyed through a portfolio of communications, including a flagship business performance report and special purpose reports tailored to meet stakeholders' needs. The paper also analyzes the roles and responsibilities of key players in changing the investment climate. The time for reform is ripe: the accounting profession is calling for reform, and many leading energy-sector businesses are already implementing new approaches to business reporting. By implementing a reporting and communications framework that helps investors differentiate competing energy propositions, the sector will meet one precondition to raising the $20 trillion investment. (auth)

  12. Major and chronic diseases, report 2007.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giampaoli, S.; Oyen, H. van; Devillé, W.; Verschuuren, M.

    2008-01-01

    Blind spots in European health information On June 6th 2008 the European Commission has published the Major and Chronic Diseases Report 2007. This report describes the state of the art of health information in Europe on 13 prevalent chronic conditions. Large differences between the Member States of

  13. First report of Lyme disease in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Sher Bahadur; Agrawal, Sumit; Jha, Santoshananda; Bhandari, Lila Nath; Chalise, Bimal Sharma; Mishra, Abadhesh; Shah, Rajesh

    2018-03-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and is widely reported in the USA, Central Europe, South East Asia and Latin America. Until recently, no scientific report regarding Lyme disease in Nepal had been published. A 32-year-old, previously healthy female visited the hospital with a history of joint pains, fatigue, neck stiffness, tingling sensation and headache. She was initially treated for typhoid fever, brucellosis and malaria, but did not show significant improvement. Doxycycline was prescribed empirically for 3 weeks for the treatment of suspected tick-borne illness. A two-tiered immunoglobulin laboratory testing confirmed Borrelia burgdorferi . She developed post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome after completion of antibiotic therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Lyme disease in Nepal and probably the first documented case of post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome in Asia. Lyme disease might have been overlooked in Nepal and, therefore, patients having clinical signs and symptoms similar to Lyme disease should not be disregarded in differential diagnosis.

  14. Scenarios, personas and user stories from design ethnography: Evidence-based design representations of communicable disease investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anne M; Reeder, Blaine; Ramey, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Despite years of effort and millions of dollars spent to create a unified electronic communicable disease reporting systems, the goal remains elusive. A major barrier has been a lack of understanding by system designers of communicable disease (CD) work and the public health workers who perform this work. This study reports on the application of User Center Design representations, traditionally used for improving interface design, to translate the complex CD work identified through ethnographic studies to guide designers and developers of CD systems. The purpose of this work is to: (1) better understand public health practitioners and their information workflow with respect to communicable disease (CD) monitoring and control at a local health department, and (2) to develop evidence-based design representations that model this CD work to inform the design of future disease surveillance systems. Methods We performed extensive onsite semi-structured interviews, targeted work shadowing and a focus group to characterize local health department communicable disease workflow. Informed by principles of design ethnography and user-centered design (UCD) we created persona, scenarios and user stories to accurately represent the user to system designers. Results We sought to convey to designers the key findings from ethnographic studies: 1) that public health CD work is mobile and episodic, in contrast to current CD reporting systems, which are stationary and fixed 2) health department efforts are focused on CD investigation and response rather than reporting and 3) current CD information systems must conform to PH workflow to ensure their usefulness. In an effort to illustrate our findings to designers, we developed three contemporary design-support representations: persona, scenario, and user story. Conclusions Through application of user centered design principles, we were able to create design representations that illustrate complex public health communicable

  15. Preventing non-communicable disease in Oman, a legislative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahlani, Sabah; Mabry, Ruth

    2014-06-01

    The burden of non-communicable disease (NCD) is a major global concern and is projected to increase by 15% over the next 10 years. NCD is the leading cause of mortality in Oman and other countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Some of the most successful interventions to address NCD include legislations like banning smoking in public places. A desk review of available policies and legislations related to the behavioural risk factors of NCD from the GCC and from Oman was conducted with a focus on policies and legislations related to food, physical activity and tobacco. The review identified numerous documents; most were policies and resolutions related to tobacco control. Although only a few documents were laws, a majority were issued by non-health sectors. This policy review is the first effort in the GCC to consolidate information on the regulatory framework for the three key risk behaviours in the region, tobacco use, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. Further work is needed to strengthen the regulatory framework, at both the national and regional levels, to strengthen tobacco control as well as to improve dietary patterns and physical activity levels. Given that a bulk of laws, regulations and policies are beyond the scope of the health sector, significant advocacy efforts are required to generate a multisectoral response. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Non-communicable diseases among prison inmates in North-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is paucity of data on prevalence of non-communicable diseases in prison inmates. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of non-communicable diseases in inmates of Sokoto Central Prison, North-West Nigeria. Methodology: Cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out.

  17. Communicative strategies used by spouses of individuals with communication disorders related to stroke-induced aphasia and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Emilia; Hartelius, Lena; Saldert, Charlotta

    2014-11-01

    A communicative disability interferes with the affected person's ability to take active part in social interaction, but non-disabled communication partners may use different strategies to support communication. However, it is not known whether similar strategies can be used to compensate for different types of communicative disabilities, nor what factors contribute to the development of a particular approach by communication partners. To develop a set of categories to describe the strategies used by communication partners of adults who have problems expressing themselves due to neurogenic communicative disabilities. The reliability of assessment was a particular focus. The material explored consisted of 21 video-recorded everyday conversations involving seven couples where one spouse had a communicative disability. Three of the dyads included a person with dysarthria and anomia related to later stages of Parkinson's disease, while four of them included a person with stroke-induced aphasia involving anomia. First a qualitative interaction analysis was performed to explore the strategies used by the communication partners when their spouses had problems expressing themselves. The strategies were then categorized, the reliability of the categorizations was explored and the relative frequency of the various strategies was examined. The analysis of the conversational interactions resulted in a set of nine different strategies used by the communication partners without a communicative disability. Each of these categories belonged to one of three overall themes: No participation in repair; Request for clarification or modification; and Providing candidate solutions. The reliability of the categorization was satisfactory. There were no statistically significant differences between diagnoses in the frequency of use of strategies, but the spouses of the persons with Parkinson's disease tended to use open-class initiations of repair more often than the spouses of the persons

  18. 5 CFR 2414.8 - Reporting of prohibited communications; penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... prohibited oral ex parte communication is attempted to be made, shall refuse to listen to the communication... substance of the communication, if it was oral; (3) all written responses to the prohibited communication; and (4) memoranda stating the substance of all oral responses to the prohibited communication. The...

  19. Menetrier's disease in childhood: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Luis Ronan Marques Ferreira de; Nogueira Filho, Jairo Ramos; Ferme, Andrea Langone; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe; Szejnfeld, Jacob; Goldman, Suzan Menasce

    2005-01-01

    Hypertrophic gastritis was described by Menetrier in 1888, and can be divided into two anatomical categories: occurrence of polyps and gastric mucosa hypertrophy. Menetrier's disease of the stomach affects mostly adults and occurs less frequently in children (less than 100 cases in the literature). The authors report the imaging findings in a child with Menetrier's disease, and present a brie review of the literature. (author)

  20. 78 FR 12622 - Control of Communicable Diseases: Foreign; Scope and Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... Control of Communicable Diseases: Foreign; Scope and Definitions AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and... of direct final rule. SUMMARY: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) within the... INFORMATION CONTACT: For questions concerning this notice: Ashley A. Marrone, JD, Centers for Disease Control...

  1. Guide to preparing SAND reports and other communication products.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-09-01

    This guide describes the R&A process, Common Look and Feel requirements, and preparation and publishing procedures for communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Samples of forms and examples of published communications products are provided. This guide takes advantage of the wealth of material now available on the Web as a resource. Therefore, it is best viewed as an electronic document. If some of the illustrations are too small to view comfortably, you can enlarge them on the screen as needed. The format of this document is considerably different than that usually expected of a SAND Report. It was selected to permit the large number of illustrations and examples to be placed closer to the text that references them. In the case of forms, covers, and other items that are included as examples, a link to the Web is provided so that you can access the items and download them for use. This guide details the processes for producing a variety of communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Figure I-1 shows the general publication development process. Because extensive supplemental material is available from Sandia on the internal web or from external sources (Table I-1), the guide has been shortened to make it easy to find information that you need.

  2. The effectiveness of an educational programme on occupational disease reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, P. B. A.; de Boer, A. G. E. M.; Kuijer, P. P. F. M.; Braam, I.; Spreeuwers, D.; Lenderink, A. F.; Verbeek, J. H. A. M.; van Dijk, F. J. H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Occupational diseases are under reported. Targeted education of occupational physicians (OPs) may improve their rate of reporting occupational diseases. Aim: To study the effectiveness of an active multifaceted workshop aimed at improving OPs' reporting of occupational diseases. Methods:

  3. Men's health: non-communicable chronic diseases and social vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidinotto, Daniele Natália Pacharone Bertolini; Simonetti, Janete Pessuto; Bocchi, Silvia Cristina Mangini

    2016-08-15

    to evaluate the relationship between absences in scheduled appointments and the number of non-communicable chronic diseases and to investigate the relationship between spatial distribution of these diseases and social vulnerability, using geoprocessing. a quantitative study of sequential mixed approach by analyzing 158 medical records of male users to relate the absences and 1250 medical records for geoprocessing. the higher the number of absences in the scheduled medical appointments, the less were the number of non-communicable chronic diseases and the ones listed in the International Classification of Diseases in single men. There were 21 significant geostatistically cases of glucose intolerance in the urban area. Of these, 62% lived in a region with a social vulnerability rating of Very Low, Medium 19%, 14% Low and 5% High. it was observed that the older the men, the greater is the number of chronic diseases and the less they miss scheduled appointments. Regarding the use of geoprocessing, we obtained a significant number of cases of glucose intolerance in urban areas, the majority classified as Very Low social vulnerability. It was possible to relate the spatial distribution of these diseases with the social vulnerability classification; however, it was not possible to perceive a relationship of them with the higher rates of social vulnerability. avaliar a relação entre as faltas em consultas agendadas e o número de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis e averiguar a relação entre distribuição espacial dessas doenças e vulnerabilidade social, utilizando-se o geoprocessamento. estudo quantitativo, de abordagem mista sequencial, sendo analisados 158 prontuários de usuários do sexo masculino para se relacionar as faltas e 1250 prontuários para o geoprocessamento. quanto maior o número de faltas nas consultas médicas agendadas, menores foram a quantidade de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis e as listadas na Classificação Internacional de

  4. Post-fine-needle aspiration biopsy communication and the integrated and standardized cytopathology report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Martha B; Black-Schaffer, W Stephen

    2017-06-01

    Communication between cytopathologists and patients and their care team is a critical component of accurate and timely patient management. The most important single means of communication for the cytopathologist is through the cytopathology report. Implementation of standardized terminology schemes and structured, templated reporting facilitates the ability of the cytopathologist to provide a comprehensive and integrated report. Cytopathology has been among the pathology subspecialties that have led the way in developing standardized reporting, beginning with the 1954 Papanicolaou classification scheme for cervical-vaginal cytology and continuing through the Bethesda systems for gynecological cytology and several nongynecological cytology systems. The effective reporting of cytopathology necessarily becomes more complex as it addresses increasingly sophisticated management options, requiring the integration of information from a broader range of sources. In addition to the complexity of information inputs, a wider spectrum of consumers of these reports is emerging, from patients themselves to primary care providers to subspecialized disease management experts. Both these factors require that the reporting cytopathologist provide the integration and interpretation necessary to translate diverse forms of information into meaningful and actionable reports that will inform the care team while enabling the patient to meaningfully participate in his or her own care. To achieve such broad and focused communications will require first the development of standardized and integrated reports and ultimately the involvement of cytopathologists in the development of the clinical informatics needed to treat all these items of information as structured data elements with flexible reporting operators to address the full range of patient and patient care needs. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125(6 suppl):486-93. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  5. Screening for Non-Communicable Diseases among transport employees of a University: A Descriptive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chythra R Rao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In most parts of the world today, non-communicable diseases (NCDs are on the rise. Worldwide they are currently responsible for almost half (42% of the premature deaths which occurs before the age of 70. Due to sedentary lifestyle, workers of transportation department may be at a higher risk for development of obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycaemia. Objective: To screen all the transport employees of a university for non-communicable diseases. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among all transport employees to screen for hypertension, Type II diabetes, obesity and visual impairment. Data was collected by personal interviews using a pre designed questionnaire. Anthropometry, blood pressure recording, fasting blood glucose testing, vision assessment followed by electrocardiogram recording was done for all subjects. Results: Out of 90 participants, 10(11.1% had diabetes, 26(28.9% were hypertensive, 36(40.0% were overweight and obese, three individuals had myopia and abnormal colour vision, whereas 17(18.9% had impaired near vision. The screen positives were referred to tertiary care hospital for further management. Over half of the subjects reported alcohol use while 21(23.4% were using tobacco. Only 43(47.8% used seat belts while driving. Conclusion: Proportion of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes was found to be more among the transport employees. This demands an urgent need for appropriate preventive and health promotive interventions to address these chronic diseases.

  6. Best practices in ranking communicable disease threats: a literature review, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Eleanor Charlotte; Taft, Rachel; Geary, Katie; Ciotti, Massimo; Suk, Jonathan E

    2016-04-28

    The threat of serious, cross-border communicable disease outbreaks in Europe poses a significant challenge to public health and emergency preparedness because the relative likelihood of these threats and the pathogens involved are constantly shifting in response to a range of changing disease drivers. To inform strategic planning by enabling effective resource allocation to manage the consequences of communicable disease outbreaks, it is useful to be able to rank and prioritise pathogens. This paper reports on a literature review which identifies and evaluates the range of methods used for risk ranking. Searches were performed across biomedical and grey literature databases, supplemented by reference harvesting and citation tracking. Studies were selected using transparent inclusion criteria and underwent quality appraisal using a bespoke checklist based on the AGREE II criteria. Seventeen studies were included in the review, covering five methodologies. A narrative analysis of the selected studies suggests that no single methodology was superior. However, many of the methods shared common components, around which a 'best-practice' framework was formulated. This approach is intended to help inform decision makers' choice of an appropriate risk-ranking study design.

  7. Tay Sachs disease: an autopsy case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Meenal Vitthal; Landge, Meenal P; Sawaimoon, Satyakam K; Harke, Arun B; Deshmukh, Sanjay D

    2005-10-01

    This report describes a case report of a postmortem performed on a 5-year old patient of Tay-Sachs disease, presenting with failure to thrive, muscular flaccidity, and cherry-red spots on macula on fundoscopy. There was no history of similarly affected sibling or any other family member. The diagnosis was confirmed by enzyme studies. At postmortem, there was no organomegaly. The brain, on microscopy, showed vacuolated swollen neurons.

  8. Technology-enabled management of communication and swallowing disorders in Parkinson's disease: a systematic scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoros, Deborah; Aldridge, Danielle; Hill, Anne J; Russell, Trevor

    2018-06-19

    Communication and swallowing disorders are highly prevalent in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Maintenance of functional communication and swallowing over time is challenging for the person with PD and their families and may lead to social isolation and reduced quality of life if not addressed. Speech and language therapists (SLTs) face the conundrum of providing sustainable and flexible services to meet the changing needs of people with PD. Motor, cognitive and psychological issues associated with PD, medication regimens and dependency on others often impede attendance at a centre-based service. The access difficulties experienced by people with PD require a disruptive service approach to meet their needs. Technology-enabled management using information and telecommunications technologies to provide services at a distance has the potential to improve access, and enhance the quality of SLT services to people with PD. To report the status and scope of the evidence for the use of technology in the management of the communication and swallowing disorders associated with PD. Studies were retrieved from four major databases (PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE and Medline via Web of Science). Data relating to the types of studies, level of evidence, context, nature of the management undertaken, participant perspectives and the types of technologies involved were extracted for the review. A total of 17 studies were included in the review, 15 of which related to the management of communication and swallowing disorders in PD with two studies devoted to participant perspectives. The majority of the studies reported on the treatment of the speech disorder in PD using Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT LOUD ® ). Synchronous and asynchronous technologies were used in the studies with a predominance of the former. There was a paucity of research in the management of cognitive-communication and swallowing disorders. Research evidence supporting technology-enabled management of the

  9. Medical problems of survivors of nuclear war: Infection and the spread of communicable disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, H.L.; VonKaenel, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The nature of the medical problems produced by the aftermath of nuclear war is discussed. The survivors of nuclear war will live without the social structure needed to assure food, water, and shelter. They will experience malnutrition, exposure, and fatigue, which are all favorable to infection and the epidemic spread of communicable disease. The authors analyze the problem of infectious illness in the postattack period, assuming the 6,559 megaton attack scenario used by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. A particular contribution of this analysis is that it is based on government technical reports that describe the available computer modeling of postattack conditions. Such simulations allow a semiquantitative estimate of deaths due to infection. They estimate that postattack infectious disease mortality will be 25%. These studies are not accessible to the general reader and are difficult for health professionals to interpret

  10. Von Willebrand's disease in the German shepherd dog : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Lobetti

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Two litters of Germanshepherd dogs were evaluated for a haemorrhagic tendency that was characterised by excessive bleeding from the umbilicus at birth, haemorrhage and haematoma formation at vaccination, excessive bruising, and lameness due to haemarthrosis. Platelet counts, clotting times and Von Willebrand's factor (VWF assays were assessed in all dogs. Factor VIII determination was performed in 1 puppy and its parents. Based on the clotting times and VWF assay, 6 puppies (4 male and 2 female showed type I Von Willebrand's disease (VWD, 5 (4 male and 1 female possible type II VWD, and 4 were unaffected. One puppy with possible type II VWD had very low factor VIII activity; its sire had a normal factor activity, whereas the dam was in the low-normal range. This article reports type I and possible type II VWD in 2 related litters of German shepherd dogs, the latter being rare in German shepherd dogs.

  11. Communicable disease policy development in response to changing European political frontiers in Finland, Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernitz, Brita Kaltenbrunner

    2008-11-01

    The European Union (EU) enlargement of 2004 brings both opportunities and challenges for public health. It is believed that further integration will bring direct health benefits, mainly through improved socioeconomic conditions, but there are also risks associated with the EU expansion, in particular cross-border health risks, such as the impact of the internal EU market policy of free movement and migration on communicable disease patterns. Against this background, this article examines communicable disease policy development in Finland, Norway and Sweden in response to changing European political frontiers, in particular the EU accession of the Baltic States. The emphasis is on HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. The study is based on a qualitative and quantitative approach, using two complementary methods: documentary analysis and stakeholder analysis. The article identifies a distinct pattern in communicable disease policy development between 1990 and 2005. The turn of the new millennium saw a sharp increase in national attention and the priority assigned to communicable diseases in Finland, Norway and Sweden. The article argues that this development is likely to be related to the rising national, regional and European awareness of the public health challenges associated with communicable diseases in today's borderless Europe. It also shows that the Baltic health situation is a particular concern for Finland. Although there is increasing national and regional activity within the communicable disease area, there is a need for a more effective European approach to tackle the future communicable disease challenges that may follow in an increasingly interdependent and integrated Europe.

  12. The Yoruba farm market as a communication channel in guinea worm disease surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieger, W R; Kendall, C

    1996-01-01

    Disease eradication programmes are by definition time bound and require strategies that facilitate timely intervention. Surveillance, which undergirds eradication, also requires timely strategies. Finding such strategies is especially challenging when the target disease is endemic in remote areas, e.g. guinea worm disease, the focus of this study. A strategy of market based surveillance was pilot tested in Ifeloju Local Government Area (LGA) of Oyo State, Nigeria. The project goal was to design a surveillance system that both fit into the natural communication network of rural people, and also enlisted their active involvement. Ethnographic research methods were employed to learn about market location, structure, catchment area and attendance pattern. Four larger farm markets (serving 164 hamlets with 17,000 population) were chosen. Each hamlet was visited and a volunteer 'reporter' was recruited. Reporters were trained on case recognition and detection, first aid and prevention, with a sensitivity to distinguishing indigenous and clinical perceptions of guinea worm. The market cycle was based on the traditional four-day week. Field workers visited every second market 16 times between October 1990 and February 1991. The reporter was expected to identify correctly the first case of the season and thus label the village as endemic for the season. Reporters gave oral reports, and positive indications were followed up within 48 hr by field workers, who verified the case and administered first aid. All hamlets were visited once a month to verify negative reports. Reporter attendance was monitored. Those who had a formal role in the market, e.g. sales agents, had better attendance than ordinary farmers who came only to sell their own produce. Knowledge of market structure and attender roles offers a guide for adapting this surveillance approach to other cultural systems and health issues.

  13. Training conversation partners of persons with communication disorders related to Parkinson's disease--a protocol and a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsgren, Emma; Antonsson, Malin; Saldert, Charlotta

    2013-07-01

    This paper reports on the adaptation of a training programme for conversation partners of persons with Parkinson's disease, and a protocol for assessment of possible changes in conversational interaction as a result of intervention. We present data from an explorative multiple case study with three individuals with Parkinson's disease and their spouses. Repeated analysis of natural conversational interaction and measures of the participants' perception of communication as well as measures of different cognitive abilities were obtained. The results show that the communication in all three dyads was affected by both speech and language problems and that the conversation training model and the assessment protocol may work well after minor adjustments. Influence of different aspects of cognition on communication is discussed.

  14. Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S

    2012-03-29

    This document describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) meets the requirements and management practices of federal regulation 10 CFR 850, 'Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP).' This revision of the LLNL CBDPP incorporates clarification and editorial changes based on lessons learned from employee discussions, observations and reviews of Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and commercial industry beryllium (Be) safety programs. The information is used to strengthen beryllium safety practices at LLNL, particularly in the areas of: (1) Management of small parts and components; and (2) Communication of program status to employees. Future changes to LLNL beryllium activities and on-going operating experience will be incorporated into the program as described in Section S, 'Performance Feedback.'

  15. Health Seeking Behaviour of Non Communicable Disease in Sulaho Village, Lasusua Sub District, North Kolaka Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cati Martiyana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non communicable diseases is a chronic disease that is not spread from person to person. Public knowledge about type of non communicable disease is quite good, but generally they don’t understand about effect of non communicable disease risk factors, impacts and consider non communicable disease due to genetic factors, disease ofolder or rich people. This research to describe the fi ndings of non communicable diseases and health seeking behavior for these types of disease. Method: This study is a qualitative study used ethnographic methods. The research location at Sulaho village, Lasusua sub district, North Kolaka regency. Informants selected with snowball sampling methods. Participant observation and indepth interviews supported with documentation as data collection methods. Analysis of qualitative data with domain analysis, taxonomic analysis, komponensial analysis and analysis of the cultural theme supported with triangulation of sources and data collection methods. Results: Non communicable disease founded at Sulaho were cases of hypertension, stroke, diseases caused by workplace accidents and iodine defi ciency disorders (IDD. Informan knows name of diseases, but they did not know good knowledge of caused, impact and prevention of it. Traditional healer (sanro is still the main reference before went to the health worker when someone sick, this indicates that people still have the will to take advantage of health care of health seeking behaviour. Conclusion: Traditional healer (sanro generally become the main reference for health seeking behaviour of non communicable diseases before someone went to the health workers.Recommendation: Health workers has to be practice to approach the community through community leaders or kinship based.

  16. 11 CFR 104.20 - Reporting electioneering communications (2 U.S.C. 434(f)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... POLITICAL COMMITTEES AND OTHER PERSONS (2 U.S.C. 434) § 104.20 Reporting electioneering communications (2 U... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting electioneering communications (2 U.S... electioneering communication is publicly distributed provided that the person making the electioneering...

  17. 78 FR 12702 - Control of Communicable Diseases: Foreign; Scope and Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... Control of Communicable Diseases: Foreign; Scope and Definitions AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and...; withdrawal. SUMMARY: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) within the Department of Health and... solicited public comment on updates to the Scope and Definitions for its regulations. DATES: The Notice of...

  18. 78 FR 12702 - Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate; Scope and Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate; Scope and Definitions AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control... rulemaking; withdrawal. SUMMARY: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) within the Department... Rulemaking (NPRM) that solicited public comment on updates to the Scope and Definitions for its regulations...

  19. Security communication systems for nuclear fixed site facilities. Technical report Jan 77-Apr 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howington, L.C.; Taylor, L.L.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents a basic discussion of communication techniques and factors relevant to designing communication systems for nuclear fixed site facility security systems. The reader is provided communication fundamentals, design considerations, and specification techniques. Copious references and an annotated bibliography are provided for individuals who desire to delve deeper than the limits and areas of study of this report. Ease of reading and use of this report are enhanced by relegating detailed communication design treatise to the Appendices. Sample procurement specifications are provided throughout the report for various communication system components and are distinguished from the regular text by using a smaller type

  20. Cochlear Implants and Psychiatric Assessments: a Norrie Disease Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Denis; Dubois, Thomas; Zdanowicz, Nicolas; Gilain, Chantal; Garin, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    It is important to perform psychiatric assessments of adult patients who are candidates for cochlear implants both to screen them for psychiatric disorders and to assess their understanding and compliance with the procedure. Deafness is a factor of difficulty for conducting in-depth psychiatric interviews, but concomitant blindness may make it impossible. After a description of Norrie disease, a rare disease in which blindness and deafness may occur together, we propose a case report of a patient suffering from the disease and who consulted in view of a cochlear implant. Early information on cochlear implants appears to be necessary before total deafness occurs in patients suffering from Norrie disease. An inventory of digital communication tools that can be used by the patient is also highly valuable. Research should be supported for a more systematic use of psychiatric assessments prior to cochlear implants. In the special case of Norrie disease, we recommend early screening for mental retardation and related psychotic disorders and, depending on the patient's level of understanding, preventive information on the benefits and limits of cochlear implants before total deafness occurs.

  1. Guide to preparing SAND Reports and other communication products.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-02-01

    This guide describes the R&A process, Common Look and Feel requirements, and preparation and publishing procedures for communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Samples of forms and examples of published communications products are provided.

  2. Effect of communication style and physician-family relationships on satisfaction with pediatric chronic disease care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedlund, Matthew P; Schumacher, Jayna B; Young, Henry N; Cox, Elizabeth D

    2012-01-01

    Over 8% of children have a chronic disease and many are unable to adhere to treatment. Satisfaction with chronic disease care can impact adherence. We examine how visit satisfaction is associated with physician communication style and ongoing physician-family relationships. We collected surveys and visit videos for 75 children ages 9-16 years visiting for asthma, diabetes, or sickle cell disease management. Raters assessed physician communication style (friendliness, interest, responsiveness, and dominance) from visit videos. Quality of the ongoing relationship was measured with four survey items (parent-physician relationship, child-physician relationship, comfort asking questions, and trust in the physician), while a single item assessed satisfaction. Correlations and chi square were used to assess association of satisfaction with communication style or quality of the ongoing relationship. Satisfaction was positively associated with physician to parent (p relationships (p communication style and the quality of the ongoing relationship contribute to pediatric chronic disease visit satisfaction.

  3. 76 FR 41273 - National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Tribal Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2011-0025] National Emergency Communications Plan... Communications (CS&C), Office of Emergency Communications (OEC), will submit the following information collection request (ICR) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance in accordance with the...

  4. Communicating risk and promoting disease mitigation measures in epidemics and emerging disease settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavo, Renata; May Leung, May; Brown, Mason

    2014-03-01

    This review aims to identify and assess evidence on interventions to communicate risk and promote disease mitigation measures in epidemics and emerging disease outbreak settings. The study focuses on data that are relevant to low and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. We conducted a comprehensive literature search using five major electronic databases (Pubmed Medline, Biomed Central, EMBASE, Science of Citation Index, and Cochrane Library) and other sources to identify relevant studies published from January 2002 to July 2013. The review was guided by the socio-ecological model/perspective of public health and the ideation theory and focused on interventions at the community, healthcare, and multi-sectoral settings, which also reflect key intervention levels of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. Eligible quantitative studies were selected according to specific study criteria and assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) framework. Conversely, qualitative studies, reviews, case studies, and editorials were not included. Studies were selected by two independent reviewers. Twenty-nine relevant studies from 16 countries were included. Most studies focused on a single intervention or intervention level, rather than multi-sectoral interventions. The majority of the evidence relates to programs aimed at behavioral and social results (or relevant intermediate steps) within a specific population group. Two studies included implications for improvements in health service delivery, two studies examined the intervention's impact on health systems-related outcomes, and three had also implications for environmental health outcomes. Cost- and health equity-related implications for select evidence were also discussed. The paucity of well-designed quantitative evaluations of interventions to communicate health risk and promote disease control measures in LMICs does not allow for any definitive conclusions. Yet, the review identified several promising

  5. Roles of Cognitive Status and Intelligibility in Everyday Communication in People with Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnish, Maxwell S; Whibley, Daniel; Horton, Simon M C; Butterfint, Zoe R; Deane, Katherine H O

    2016-03-16

    Communication is fundamental to human interaction and the development and maintenance of human relationships and is frequently affected in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, research and clinical practice have both tended to focus on impairment rather than participation aspects of communicative deficit in PD. In contrast, people with PD have reported that it is these participation aspects of communication that are of greatest concern to them rather than physical speech impairment. To systematically review the existing body of evidence regarding the association between cognitive status and/or intelligibility and everyday communication in PD. Five online databases were systematically searched in May 2015 (Medline Ovid, EMBASE, AMED, PsycINFO and CINAHL) and supplementary searches were also conducted. Two reviewers independently evaluated retrieved records for inclusion and then performed data extraction and quality assessment using standardised forms. Articles were eligible for inclusion if they were English-language original peer-reviewed research articles, book chapters or doctoral theses investigating the associations between at least one of cognitive status and level of intelligibility impairment and an everyday communication outcome in human participants with PD. 4816 unique records were identified through database searches with 16 additional records identified through supplementary searches. 41 articles were suitable for full-text screening and 15 articles (12 studies) met the eligibility criteria. 10 studies assessed the role of cognitive status and 9 found that participants with greater cognitive impairment had greater everyday communication difficulties. 4 studies assessed the role of intelligibility and all found that participants with greater intelligibility impairment had greater everyday communication difficulties, although effects were often weak and not consistent. Both cognitive status and intelligibility may be associated with everyday communicative

  6. Multifaceted Communication Problems in Everyday Conversations Involving People with Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotta Saldert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It is known that Parkinson’s disease is often accompanied by a motor speech disorder, which results in impaired communication. However, people with Parkinson’s disease may also have impaired word retrieval (anomia and other communicative problems, which have a negative impact on their ability to participate in conversations with family as well as healthcare staff. The aim of the present study was to explore effects of impaired speech and language on communication and how this is managed by people with Parkinson’s disease and their spouses. Using a qualitative method based on Conversation Analysis, in-depth analyses were performed on natural conversational interaction in five dyads including elderly men who were at different stages of Parkinson’s disease. The findings showed that the motor speech disorder in combination with word retrieval difficulties and adaptations, such as using communication strategies, may result in atypical utterances that are difficult for communication partners to understand. The coexistence of several communication problems compounds the difficulties faced in conversations and individuals with Parkinson’s disease are often dependent on cooperation with their communication partner to make themselves understood.

  7. Multifaceted Communication Problems in Everyday Conversations Involving People with Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldert, Charlotta; Bauer, Malin

    2017-01-01

    It is known that Parkinson’s disease is often accompanied by a motor speech disorder, which results in impaired communication. However, people with Parkinson’s disease may also have impaired word retrieval (anomia) and other communicative problems, which have a negative impact on their ability to participate in conversations with family as well as healthcare staff. The aim of the present study was to explore effects of impaired speech and language on communication and how this is managed by people with Parkinson’s disease and their spouses. Using a qualitative method based on Conversation Analysis, in-depth analyses were performed on natural conversational interaction in five dyads including elderly men who were at different stages of Parkinson’s disease. The findings showed that the motor speech disorder in combination with word retrieval difficulties and adaptations, such as using communication strategies, may result in atypical utterances that are difficult for communication partners to understand. The coexistence of several communication problems compounds the difficulties faced in conversations and individuals with Parkinson’s disease are often dependent on cooperation with their communication partner to make themselves understood. PMID:28946714

  8. Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, I-Min; Shiroma, Eric J; Lobelo, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Strong evidence shows that physical inactivity increases the risk of many adverse health conditions, including major non-communicable diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and colon cancers, and shortens life expectancy. Because much of the world's population...... is inactive, this link presents a major public health issue. We aimed to quantify the eff ect of physical inactivity on these major non-communicable diseases by estimating how much disease could be averted if inactive people were to become active and to estimate gain in life expectancy at the population level....

  9. Local television news reporting of kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffery, Jonathan B; Jacobson, Lynn M; Goldstein, Kenneth M; Pribble, James M

    2006-12-01

    Local television is the primary news source for the majority of Americans. This study aims to describe how local news reports on kidney disease. Using our searchable database of health-related late local news segments from 2002, we identified stories with the key words kidney, hypertension, blood pressure, or diabetes. This database is a representative sample of the late local news on 122 stations in the 50 largest US media markets, comprising 60% of the population. The content of each identified story was reviewed to determine whether it mentioned: (1) chronic kidney disease (CKD), (2) screening for kidney disease, or (3) kidney disease as a potential complication (for blood pressure- or diabetes-related stories). Only 2 of 1,799 database news stories (0.11%) included "kidney" as a summary key word; neither referred to CKD, screening, or complications of other diseases. Of 19 stories about hypertension or blood pressure (1.06% of all stories) and the 14 stories about diabetes (0.78% of all stories), none mentioned these criteria. Despite efforts to increase public awareness of and screening for CKD, local television news (the most important news source for a majority of Americans) did little to help achieve these goals. Further work will be needed to confirm whether this paucity of coverage varies over time and determine why so little attention is given to CKD. Educating physicians and public relations personnel who advocate for kidney disease about journalists' needs may be an important step to help advance public awareness of CKD.

  10. Task Force Report 4. Report of the Task Force on Marketing and Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, John C.; Evans, Kenneth L.; Carter, Jan; Burke, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND To ensure the success of the proposed New Model of family medicine and to create a better understanding of the nature and role of family medicine, an effective communications plan must be developed and implemented. This Future of Family Medicine task force report proposes strategies for communicating the role of family physicians within medicine, as well as to purchasers, consumers, and other entities. METHODS After reviewing the findings from the research conducted for the Future of Family Medicine project, the task force presents a preliminary brand-positioning strategy for family medicine messages. Based on this strategy, the task force identifies 5 major audiences to which family medicine communications should be directed. A consistent method was used to determine optimum strategies to address each audience: defining the audience, assessing the literature and other pertinent evidence, identifying the communication objectives, determining the key messages, developing brand promises, and proposing strategies and tactics to support the messages and objectives. Preliminary communications plans are then presented for each of the 5 target audiences. MAJOR FINDINGS It is important that the organizations involved in family medicine make a multiyear commitment of resources to implement and support an aggressive communications strategy, which is based on key messages to target audiences. A concerted effort is particularly needed to address the declining interest among medical students in the specialty. Implementing a comprehensive family medicine career development program may be one effective strategy to reverse this trend. To help eliminate the current confusion among the public regarding family medicine and to promote clarity and consistency in terminology, the specialty should replace the name family practice with family medicine and a new graphic symbol for the discipline of family medicine should be developed. CONCLUSION As a discipline, family medicine

  11. [Mondor's disease of penis: A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaudon, E; Legal, C; Gayoux, D; Weber, O

    2016-09-01

    Mondor's disease is a rare superficial thrombophlebitis, historically involving the thoracic venous system of women. However, it can occur in both gender and all over the skin. We report a 40-year-old man with type one diabetes who presented with a thrombosis of the superficial dorsal vein of the penis that he treated as a fungal infection. Treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and low molecular weight heparin contributed to a favorable outcome in 2 weeks. Pathogenesis and treatment of Mondor's disease remain incompletely dominated. Some predisposing factors have been highlighted in the literature. It might be interesting to add diabetes, due to its frequent pelvic problems leading to a potential venous inflammatory trigger. Copyright © 2015 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Non-Communicable Diseases in Emergencies: A Call to Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaio, Alessandro; Jamieson, Jennifer; Horn, Rebecca; de Courten, Maximilian; Tellier, Siri

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have demonstrated the devastating health consequences of complex emergencies and natural disasters and thereby highlighted the importance of comprehensive and collaborative approaches to humanitarian responses and risk reduction. Simultaneously, noncommunicable diseases are now recognised as a real and growing threat to population health and development; a threat that is magnified by and during emergencies. Noncommunicable diseases, however, continue to receive little attention from humanitarian organisations in the acute phase of disaster and emergency response. This paper calls on all sectors to recognise and address the specific health challenges posed by noncommunicable diseases in emergencies and disaster situations. This publication aims to highlight the need for: • Increased research on morbidity and mortality patterns due to noncommunicable diseases during and following emergencies; • Raised awareness through greater advocacy for the issue and challenges of noncommunicable diseases during and following emergencies; • Incorporation of noncommunicable diseases into existing emergency-related policies, standards, and resources; • Development of technical guidelines on the clinical management of noncommunicable diseases in emergencies; • Greater integration and coordination in health service provision during and following emergencies; • Integrating noncommunicable diseases into practical and academic training of emergency workers and emergency-response coordinators. PMID:24056956

  13. Using Reporting in the Internal Communication Process of the Company

    OpenAIRE

    Cornel Marian Iosif

    2013-01-01

    Internal communication can be regarded either as a subsistent process of the organization, or as a process helping to decode and more easily understand them. Organizations are based on the internal communication process, because without it, information, ideas could not be sent, the organization’s goals and values could not be built, and its organizational culture would simply not exist. The internal communication process is centered on sending ideas, information in the organization. Thi...

  14. 75 FR 62515 - Notice of Availability of Report on the Communications Requirements of Smart Grid Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ...Through this notice, the Department of Energy (DOE) announces the availability of its report entitled, ``Communications Requirements of Smart Grid Technologies.'' In this report, DOE sets forth recommendations and observations on current and potential communications requirements of the Smart Grid, as well as the types of networks and communications services that may be used. DOE also provides a comprehensive summary of the comments received in response to a Request for Information and during a public meeting conducted during the preparation of the report. This report responds to recommendations for DOE set forth in the National Broadband Plan authored by the Federal Communications Commission at the direction of Congress.

  15. COMMUNICATION SATELLITES FOR EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND CULTURE. REPORTS AND PAPERS ON MASS COMMUNICATION, NO. 53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHRAMM, WILBUR

    THE TECHNOLOGY OF COMMUNICATION SATELLITES IS SUFFICIENTLY ADVANCED THAT CONCERNED AGENCIES, SUCH AS UNESCO, SHOULD BEGIN TO PLAN FOR THEIR USE IN EXCHANGE OF DATA, NEWS TRANSMISSION, CULTURAL EXCHANGE, AND EDUCATION. GROUNDWORK IN TECHNOLOGY, IN THE DESIGN OF A SATELLITE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM, IN VALUE JUDGMENTS, IN AGREEMENTS OF COOPERATION AND…

  16. 78 FR 11521 - Control of Communicable Disease; Foreign-Requirements for Importers of Nonhuman Primates (NHP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Part 71 Control of Communicable Disease; Foreign--Requirements for Importers of Nonhuman Primates (NHP... Primates (NHP) AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human... live nonhuman primates (NHPs) by extending existing requirements for the importation of Macaca...

  17. Available data sources for monitoring non-communicable diseases and their risk factors in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandai, M.; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens; Day, C.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Health information systems for monitoring chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in South Africa (SA) are relatively less advanced than those for infectious diseases (particularly tuberculosis and HIV) and for maternal and child health. NCDs are now the largest cause of premature mo...

  18. Information, communication, and online tool needs of Hispanic family caregivers of individuals with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, Sarah; Stonbraker, Samantha; Suero-Tejeda, Niurka; Granja, Maribel; Luchsinger, José A; Mittelman, Mary; Bakken, Suzanne; Lucero, Robert J

    2018-03-05

    To identify the information and communication needs of Hispanic family caregivers for individuals with Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias (ADRD) and the manner in which online tools may meet those needs. We conducted 11 participatory design sessions with 10 English- and 14 Spanish-speaking urban-dwelling Hispanic family caregivers and gathered data using a survey, collage assemblage, and audio and video recordings. Four investigators analyzed transcripts of audio recordings with a coding framework informed by several conceptual models. Participants had an average age of 59.7 years, were mostly female (79.2%), and had cared for a family member with ADRD for an average of 6.5 years. All participants accessed the Internet at least once a week with 75% ≥ daily. Most used the Internet to look up health information. All participants reported caregiver attributes including awareness of the disease symptoms or behaviors. The majority reported information needs/tasks (91.7%), communication needs/tasks (87.5%), and need for online tools (79.2%). Hispanic caregivers of individuals with ADRD reported key information and communication needs/tasks. Only Spanish-speaking participants reported Internet and technology use deficits suggesting the requirement for further technology support. Data show a need for online tools to meet the needs of caregivers.

  19. Cardiovascular risk factors and non-communicable diseases in Abia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    engaged in work involving sedentary activity. ... 80% of chronic diseases are now occurring ... The last survey on NCDs in Nigeria was in 1997 (15 years ago) and since then little attempt has ... These were adult men and women aged 18.

  20. [Study on the effectiveness of implementation: the National Demonstration Areas for Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Jin, R R; Li, J J; Li, J L; Su, X W; Deng, G J; Ma, S; Zhao, J; Wang, Y P; Bian, F; Qu, Y M; Shen, Z Z; Jiang, Y; Liu, Y L

    2018-04-10

    Objective: To assess the implementation and impact of programs carried out by the National Demonstration Areas for Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases. Methods: Both sociological and epidemiological methods were used to collect qualitative and quantitative data in November and December, 2016 in order to conduct on process and outcome evaluation of the above mentioned objective. In the meantime, case study was also conducted. Results: All the National Demonstration Areas for Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases were found well implemented across the country, with health education and health promotion, surveillance and safeguard measures in particular. A government-led and inter-sector coordination and communication mechanism had been well established, with more than 16 non-health departments actively involved. 28.7% of the residents living in the National Demonstration Areas for Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases were aware of the key messages related to chronic diseases. Among the residents, 72.1% of them consumed vegetables and 53.6% consumed fruits daily, with another 86.9% walked at least 10 minutes per day. Over 70% of the patients with hypertension or diabetes reported that they were taken care of by the Community Health Centers, and above 50% of them were under standardized management. Residents, living in the National Demonstration Areas under higher ranking of implementation scores, were more likely to be aware of relevant knowledge on chronic disease control and prevention ( OR =6.591, 95% CI : 5.188-8.373), salt reduction ( OR =1.352, 95% CI : 1.151-1.589), oil reduction ( OR =1.477, 95% CI : 1.249-1.746) and recommendation on physical activities ( OR =1.975, 95% CI : 1.623- 2.403). Conclusion: The implementation of programs carried out by the National Demonstration Areas for Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases had served a local

  1. Using online health communication to manage chronic sorrow: mothers of children with rare diseases speak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Adriana D

    2015-01-01

    Families affected by rare disease experience psychosocial reactions similar to families with prevalent chronic diseases. The ability to respond and manage the condition depends on psychosocial factors. This phenomenological study of 16 mothers of children with Alagille syndrome explored their lived experience in using online health communications to manage their chronic sorrow. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews analyzed using techniques described by van Manen. Analysis yielded four essential themes: connectedness, online triggers, empowerment, and seasons of online use contributed to online communication essential to a rare disease community. Findings suggest mothers need emotional support and help accessing appropriate online resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Children's Reported Communication with Their Parents about War

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Colleen J.; Blankemeyer, Maureen; Walker, Kathleen K.; Dellmann-Jenkins, Mary

    2007-01-01

    There is increased interest by parents in communicating with their children about political violence. However, limited attention in the scholarly literature has focused on parent-child communication about war and terrorism. In response, the purpose of this study is to assess, within their respective ecological contexts, American and Northern Irish…

  3. Canine Degenerative Valve Disease: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmenza Janneth Benavides Melo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Degenerative valvular disease or endocardiosis is the most common cardiovascular pathology in dogs. It is characterized by regurgitation of blood into the atria with decreased cardiac output, leading to volume overload with eccentric hypertrophy and congestive heart failure. This report describes the clinical and autopsy findings of a dog, suggestive of valvular endocardiosis. The patient was admitted to the outpatient Veterinary Clinic “Carlos Martínez Hoyos” at the University of Nariño (Pasto, Colombia. His owner said the dog was sick for two months, with signs of respiratory disease, weight loss, and decay. Clinical examination showed very pale mucous membranes, inspiratory dyspnea, rale, split S2, grade 4 mid-systolic murmur of regurgitation, and abdominal dilatation with sign of positive shock wave. Necropsy evidenced plenty of translucent watery material in the abdominal, chest and pericardium cavity, severely enlarged and rounded heart with thickened atrioventricular valves, moderate reduction in liver size and signs of lobulation, severely diminished and pale kidneys with irregular surface showing the presence of multiple cystic areas in corticomedullary region. Samples were taken from these tissues and fixed in 10% buffered formalin to be processed for histopathological analysis at the Laboratory of Pathology at the University of Nariño, using hematoxylin and eosin stain. This way, degenerative valvular disease was diagnosed.

  4. Rising Health Expenditure Due to Non-Communicable Diseases in India: An Outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Debasis; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam

    2016-01-01

    With ongoing demographic transition, epidemiological transition has been emerged as a growing concern in India. The share of non-communicable disease in total disease burden has increased from 31% in 1990 to 45% in 2010. This paper seeks to explore the health scenario of India in the wake of the growing pace of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes and hypertension among Indian population using data from health and morbidity survey of the National Sample Survey Organisation (2004) and notifies about the resource needed to tackle this growing health risk. Given the share of private players (70%) in Indian health system, results indicate a higher private expenditure, mostly out-of-pocket expense, on account of non-communicable diseases. A timely look into the matter may tackle a more dreadful situation in near future.

  5. Rising Health Expenditure due to Non-communicable Diseases in India: An Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasis Barik

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: With ongoing demographic transition, epidemiological transition in India has been emerged as a growing concern in India. The share of non-communicable disease in total disease burden has increased from 31 per cent in 1990 to 45 per cent in 2010. This paper seeks to explore the health scenario of India in the wake of the growing pace of non-communicable diseases like diabetes, hypertension among Indian population using data from health and morbidity survey of the National Sample Survey Organisation (2004 and notifies about the resource needed to tackle this growing health risk. Given the share of private players (70 per cent in Indian health system, results indicate a higher private expenditure, mostly out-of-pocket expense, on account of non-communicable diseases. A timely look into the matter may tackle a more dreadful situation in near future.

  6. Communication skills program in the first semester: An experience report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Liberali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2001, Brazilian Guidelines for undergraduate medical education highlighted the need to include communication skills (CS in the curriculum. At the Federal University of Santa Catarina (South Brazil, CS were taught in the third year in theoretical classes as an overview of physician-patient relationships, and in a nonsystematic way in practical classes. In 2013, theory and practice were aligned, mediated by reflection, by adding three classes: CS overview; responding to strong emotions; and giving bad news. Two Portuguese translation of modules from DocCom, a web-based audiovisual learning resource on CS in Healthcare (AACH, DUCOM, 2005- 2015, were used. In 2015, we started to teach CS to the 53 students registered in the first semester of our medical course. We report on the program in the first semester of the course and students’ perceptions of it. The CS program consisted of seven 1.5-hr face-to-face sessions with all students, co-taught by the authors, a PhD student and a medical school professor. The content included CS overview and importance in healthcare; relationship-centered care, building relationships and gathering information; students’ experiences in the medical course; and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI. To encourage continuous reflection and align theory with practice, before or after theoretical brief presentations, additional resources were used: exercises to raise awareness of verbal and nonverbal communication, drawings on medical students’ life experiences, reflections about the poem “After a While” by Veronica Shoffstall and after listening to Bach’s Brandenburg concerto #1; DocCom modules #6 “Build a relationship” and #8 “Gather information” (viewed online to prepare for class followed by face-toface small group discussions (6-7 students in each about CS learned and theirs practice in role-play; peers’ and patients’ interviews; students’ MBTI identification (at distance and group dynamics

  7. Impact of information and communication technology on interprofessional collaboration for chronic disease management: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Neil; Vania, Diana; Randall, Glen; Mulvale, Gillian

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Information and communication technology is often lauded as the key to enhancing communication among health care providers. However, its impact on interprofessional collaboration is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which it improves communication and, subsequently, enhances interprofessional collaboration in chronic disease management. Methods A systematic review of academic literature using two electronic platforms: HealthSTAR and Web of Science (core collection and MEDLINE). To be eligible for inclusion in the review, articles needed to be peer-reviewed; accessible in English and focused on how technology supports, or might support, collaboration (through enhanced communication) in chronic disease management. Studies were assessed for quality and a narrative synthesis conducted. Results The searches identified 289 articles of which six were included in the final analysis (three used qualitative methods, two were descriptive and one used mixed methods). Various forms of information and communication technology were described including electronic health records, online communities/learning resources and telehealth/telecare. Three themes emerged from the studies that may provide insights into how communication that facilitates collaboration in chronic disease management might be enhanced: professional conflict, collective engagement and continuous learning. Conclusions The success of technology in enhancing collaboration for chronic disease management depends upon supporting the social relationships and organization in which the technology will be placed. Decision-makers should take into account and work toward balancing the impact of technology together with the professional and cultural characteristics of health care teams.

  8. Short Communication: Be careful for neglected diseases | He ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neglected diseases boost (Nature, 457: 772, 2009), which will become greater threat to human health especially in tropical regions. In my opinion, it is the inherent result of climate warming. An allometrical scaling is suggested to support my opinion, this can also explain why swine flu does not affect pigs very much, but ...

  9. Online Communication and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølling, Ina Koldkjær; Carøe, Per; Lindgren, Kurt

    This is an explorative and qualitative study that examines a municipal’s rehabilitation program “Online Viva” (2014–2015). The questions are whether “Online Viva” improves the citizens’ participatory health and prevent exacerbation of COPD. “Online Viva” includes respiratory training and dis......-trict nursing consultancy for elderly people with COPD. The district nurses’ presence in the citizens’ homes is replaced by online communication. The study includes 9 citizens and 5 health professionals. Preliminary results show that online consultations and training prevent anxiety and exacerbation and support...... the citizens’ management of COPD. The citizens find that the “Online Viva” reduces their need for hospitalization, and this is confirmed by the district nurses. Furthermore, the citizens find that their specific needs are fulfilled, which make them feel comfortable in managing their COPD. It is emphasized...

  10. Scenarios, personas and user stories: user-centered evidence-based design representations of communicable disease investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anne M; Reeder, Blaine; Ramey, Judith

    2013-08-01

    Despite years of effort and millions of dollars spent to create unified electronic communicable disease reporting systems, the goal remains elusive. A major barrier has been a lack of understanding by system designers of communicable disease (CD) work and the public health workers who perform this work. This study reports on the application of user-centered design representations, traditionally used for improving interface design, to translate the complex CD work identified through ethnographic studies to guide designers and developers of CD systems. The purpose of this work is to: (1) better understand public health practitioners and their information workflow with respect to CD monitoring and control at a local health agency, and (2) to develop evidence-based design representations that model this CD work to inform the design of future disease surveillance systems. We performed extensive onsite semi-structured interviews, targeted work shadowing and a focus group to characterize local health agency CD workflow. Informed by principles of design ethnography and user-centered design we created persona, scenarios and user stories to accurately represent the user to system designers. We sought to convey to designers the key findings from ethnographic studies: (1) public health CD work is mobile and episodic, in contrast to current CD reporting systems, which are stationary and fixed, (2) health agency efforts are focused on CD investigation and response rather than reporting and (3) current CD information systems must conform to public health workflow to ensure their usefulness. In an effort to illustrate our findings to designers, we developed three contemporary design-support representations: persona, scenario, and user story. Through application of user-centered design principles, we were able to create design representations that illustrate complex public health communicable disease workflow and key user characteristics to inform the design of CD information

  11. The impact of patient and physician computer mediated communication skill training on reported communication and patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roter, Debra L; Wexler, Randy; Naragon, Phyllis; Forrest, Brian; Dees, Jason; Almodovar, Astrid; Wood, Julie

    2012-09-01

    The objective was to evaluate parallel patient and physician computer-mediated communication skill training on participants' report of skill use and patient satisfaction. Separate patient and clinician web-tools comprised of over 500, 10-s video clips demonstrating patient-centered skills in various ways. Four clinician members of the American Academy of Family Physicians National Research Network participated by enrolling 194 patients into a randomized patient trial and 29 physicians into a non-randomized clinician trial of respective interventions. All participants completed baseline and follow-up self-report measures of visit communication and satisfaction. Intervention patients reported using more skills than controls in five of six skill areas, including identification of problems/concerns, information exchange, treatment adherence, shared decision-making and interpersonal rapport (all ppost intervention, physicians reported using more skills in the same 5 areas (all pCommunication skill training delivered in a computer mediated format had a positive and parallel impact on both patient and clinician reported use of patient-centered communication and in patient satisfaction. Computer-mediated interventions are cost and time effective thereby increasing patient and clinician willingness to undertake training. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Alcohol consumption patterns in Thailand and their relationship with non-communicable disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Mami; McKetin, Rebecca; Banwell, Cathy; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Kelly, Matthew; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sleigh, Adrian

    2015-12-24

    Heavy alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) but few studies have investigated drinking and disease risk in middle income, non-western countries. We report on the relationship between alcohol consumption and NCDs in Thailand. A nationwide cross sectional survey was conducted of 87,151 Thai adult open university students aged 15 to 87 years (mean age 30.5 years) who were recruited into the Thai Cohort Study. Participants were categorized as never having drunk alcohol (n = 22,527), as being occasional drinkers who drank infrequently but heavily (4+ glasses/occasion - occasional heavy drinkers, n = 24,152) or drank infrequently and less heavily (migration and other recognized risks for NCDs (sedentary lifestyle and poor diet). After adjustment for these factors the odds ratios (ORs) for several NCDs outcomes - high cholesterol, hypertension, and liver disease - were significantly elevated among both occasional heavy drinkers (1.2 to 1.5) and regular heavy drinkers (1.5 to 2.0) relative to never drinkers. Heavy alcohol consumption of 4 or more glasses per occasion, even if the occasions were infrequent, was associated with elevated risk of NCDs in Thailand. These results highlight the need for strategies in Thailand to reduce the quantity of alcohol consumed to prevent alcohol-related disease. Thailand is fortunate that most of the female population is culturally protected from drinking and this national public good should be endorsed and supported.

  13. Exploring parent-sibling communication in families of children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, J Carolyn; Hankins, Jane S; Hardy, Belinda T; Hall, Heather R; Roberts, Ruth J; Neely-Barnes, Susan L

    2010-01-01

    Communication within families of children with sickle cell disease is important yet has not been adequately investigated. Focus group interviews were conducted with parents of children with sickle cell disease to explore parent-sibling communication about sickle cell disease. Communication was influenced by attributes and behaviors of the parent, the child with sickle cell disease, and the sibling; extended family, neighbors, friends, and church members or social networks; and available, accessible resources related to the child's health, child's school, and parent employment. Outcomes that influenced and were influenced by factors within and outside the parent-sibling dyad and nuclear family included parent satisfaction, parent roles, family intactness, and status attainment. These findings support previous research with African-American families and expand our views of the importance of educating parents, family members, and others about sickle cell disease. The findings suggest a need to explore sibling perception of this communication, parent and sibling perception of the impact of frequent hospitalizations and clinic visits on the sibling and family, and variations within families of children with sickle cell disease.

  14. Communicating cardiovascular disease risk: an interview study of General Practitioners' use of absolute risk within tailored communication strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Carissa; Jansen, Jesse; McKinn, Shannon; Irwig, Les; Doust, Jenny; Glasziou, Paul; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2014-05-29

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention guidelines encourage assessment of absolute CVD risk - the probability of a CVD event within a fixed time period, based on the most predictive risk factors. However, few General Practitioners (GPs) use absolute CVD risk consistently, and communication difficulties have been identified as a barrier to changing practice. This study aimed to explore GPs' descriptions of their CVD risk communication strategies, including the role of absolute risk. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 25 GPs in New South Wales, Australia. Transcribed audio-recordings were thematically coded, using the Framework Analysis method to ensure rigour. GPs used absolute CVD risk within three different communication strategies: 'positive', 'scare tactic', and 'indirect'. A 'positive' strategy, which aimed to reassure and motivate, was used for patients with low risk, determination to change lifestyle, and some concern about CVD risk. Absolute risk was used to show how they could reduce risk. A 'scare tactic' strategy was used for patients with high risk, lack of motivation, and a dismissive attitude. Absolute risk was used to 'scare' them into taking action. An 'indirect' strategy, where CVD risk was not the main focus, was used for patients with low risk but some lifestyle risk factors, high anxiety, high resistance to change, or difficulty understanding probabilities. Non-quantitative absolute risk formats were found to be helpful in these situations. This study demonstrated how GPs use three different communication strategies to address the issue of CVD risk, depending on their perception of patient risk, motivation and anxiety. Absolute risk played a different role within each strategy. Providing GPs with alternative ways of explaining absolute risk, in order to achieve different communication aims, may improve their use of absolute CVD risk assessment in practice.

  15. Risk and protection factors for chronic non communicable diseases by telephone survey--VIGITEL-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Claro, Rafael Moreira; de Moura, Erly Catarina; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Morais Neto, Otaliba Libânio

    2011-09-01

    To describe the risk and protection factors for non communicable diseases with data from Telephone-based Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases (VIGITEL) in 2009. The prevalence of main risk and protective factors was estimated in adults (>18 years old), by telephone surveys in a probabilistic sample of the population covered by landline telephones in Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District, stratified by gender, age and schooling. Data from 54,367 adults were collected. Smokers and former smokers represented 15.5 and 22% of Brazilian adults, respectively. Excess weight affected 46.6% of adults; 33% reported the consumption of meat with visible fat and reported 18.9% alcohol abuse. These factors were more prevalent among men and, in general, young adults and people with low schooling. The prevalence of physical activity in leisure was 18.8% (95%CI 17.4-20.1) among men and 11.3% (95%CI 10.6-12.0) among women. Physical inactivity affected 15.6% of population and increased with age. Consumption of fruits and vegetables and physical activity in leisure time were more prevalent in men and women with 12 years of schooling or more. Hypertension diagnosis was reported by 21.1% (95%CI 19.6-22.5) of men, and 27.2% (95%CI 25.8-28.5) of women. Prevalence of diabetes was 5.8%. The results point to different health behavior according to gender, age and schooling of the population and reinforce the decreasing smoking trend and increasing overweight trend in Brazil.

  16. Online Communication and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølling, Ina Koldkjær; Carøe, Per; Lindgren, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    in “Online Viva”, the objective of which was to support the citi-zens’ participatory health and to prevent exacerbation of COPD. The intention was to include 30 citizens with COPD or another chronic disease. As the demographic development results in more elderly people living longer with chronic dis-eases......In 2013 Slagelse Municipality implemented an online rehabili-tation program, “Online Viva” with respiratory training and district nursing consultancy for elderly people (aged 61-90) with COPD. In September 2014, 20 citizens with moderate (50%) to severe (15%) reduced lung function were included...

  17. Brain-Gut-Microbe Communication in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue eGrenham

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bidirectional signalling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain is regulated at neural, hormonal and immunological levels. This construct is known as the brain-gut axis and is vital for maintaining homeostasis. Bacterial colonisation of the intestine plays a major role in the post-natal development and maturation of the immune and endocrine systems. These processes are key factors underpinning central nervous system (CNS signalling. Recent research advances have seen a tremendous improvement in our understanding of the scale, diversity and importance of the gut microbiome. This has been reflected in the form of a revised nomenclature to the more inclusive brain-gut-enteric microbiota axis and a sustained research effort to establish how communication along this axis contributes to both normal and pathological conditions. In this review, we will briefly discuss the critical components of this axis and the methodological challenges that have been presented in attempts to define what constitutes a normal microbiota and chart its temporal development. Emphasis is placed on the new research narrative that confirms the critical influence of the microbiota on mood and behaviour. Mechanistic insights are provided with examples of both neural and humoral routes through which these effects can be mediated. The evidence supporting a role for the enteric flora in brain-gut axis disorders is explored with the spotlight on the clinical relevance for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, a stress-related functional gastrointestinal disorder. We also critically evaluate the therapeutic opportunities arising from this research and consider in particular whether targeting the microbiome might represent a valid strategy for the management of CNS disorders and ponder the pitfalls inherent in such an approach. Despite the considerable challenges that lie ahead, this is an exciting area of research and one that is destined to remain the centre of focus for some

  18. Reporting diet-related health issues through newspapers: portrayal of cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellyer, Nicole Elizabeth; Haddock-Fraser, Janet

    2011-02-01

    This study identifies (i) the extent to which newsprint media communicate to their readers the lifestyle factors associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes and (ii) newspaper portrayal of social determinants affecting onset of disease. A content analysis of five leading UK national newspapers and their Sunday equivalents was conducted over a 3-month period between January and March 2008. This study shows that cardiovascular disease had much higher press interest than Type 2 diabetes. 'Middle-market' and 'Quality' papers had higher levels of reporting than the 'Popular' press, but the patterns were more complex when the comprehensiveness of reporting was measured within each article. Social determinants affecting disease onset were poorly reported by newspapers, supporting similar research conducted in other countries. This research identifies that there is potential for newspapers to improve their reporting of lifestyle diseases, by including individual and social determinants of disease onset. Lower social classes who read the popular press receive the lowest frequency of reporting and could benefit most from this information. While the research identifies that newspapers are missing the potential to actively communicate and reinforce government health policy, it recognises that the commercial context of the print media may counter such behaviour.

  19. Baltic Nuclear workshop. Final report[Crisis communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlberg, L.G

    2001-05-01

    Proceedings of the NKS/BOK-1.6 workshop on crisis communication 'Baltic Nuclear', held in Stockholm March 19 -20, 2001, with participants from the nuclear power plants and nuclear authorities in the Baltic Sea region. The main content of the workshop was founded on the principle of 'learning by doing'. The participants were therefore practically trained in how to handle a crisis from an information and communication point of view. Added to that there were three different lectures. (au)

  20. Feasibility and yield of screening for non-communicable diseases among treated tuberculosis patients in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, A L; Marais, B J; Mitnick, C D; Garden, F L; Lecca, L; Contreras, C; Yauri, Y; Garcia, F; Marks, G B

    2018-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) poses a major challenge to low- and middle-income countries. Patients' engagement with health services for anti-tuberculosis treatment provides an opportunity for screening for NCDs and for linkage to care. We explored the feasibility and yield of screening for NCDs in patients treated for tuberculosis (TB) in Lima, Peru, as part of a study focused on chronic respiratory sequelae. A representative sample of community controls was recruited from the same geographical area. Screening entailed taking a medical history and performing ambulatory blood pressure measurement and urinalysis. A total of 177 participants with previous TB (33 with multidrug-resistant TB) and 161 community controls were evaluated. There was an almost four-fold increased prevalence of self-reported diabetes mellitus (DM) in the TB group (adjusted prevalence ratio 3.66, 95%CI 1.68-8.01). Among those without self-reported DM, 3.3% had glycosuria, with a number needed to screen (NNS) of 31. The NNS to find one (new) case of hypertension or proteinuria in the TB group was respectively 24 and 5. Patient-centred care that includes pragmatic NCD screening is feasible in TB patients, and the treatment period provides a good opportunity to link patients to ongoing care.

  1. Worldwide satellite communications for the energy utility industry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skelton, R.L.

    1998-07-01

    Recent and future generations of low earth orbiting (LEO) satellites are promising new possibilities for using space communications to achieve operational improvements and business expansion in energy supply and delivery industries. The ability to reach remote locations with relatively inexpensive devices and infrastructure is a unique property of satellites. Applications include remote monitoring and control of distributed resources and emergency and personal communication. Satellite systems are emerging as a significant opportunity for investment minded utilities. Over a dozen groups are planning to launch a total of 1200 LEOs in the period from 1996 to 2006, at a probable cost of over $20 Billion. This large number of systems can provide a worldwide mix of narrow band and wideband services including data, voice, video and Internet access. This paper examines the two primary factors which have limited applications in the energy industry: cost and propagation delay. The former has so far limited the technology to fixed communications with a few important sites such as remote substations. The latter has rendered the technology unsuitable for applications where critical protection mechanisms are involved. These constraints are effectively countered by the emerging LEO systems. Big LEOs will be used for voice service, little LEOs will be the systems of choice for most utility data applications. The author concludes that there are good technical and business reasons to reconsider future satellite communications as an option for meeting certain strategic business objectives in power system management and customer oriented information services

  2. Communicating Ocean Sciences to Informal Audiences (COSIA): Interim Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Mark; Phillips, Michelle; Smith, Anita; Castori, Pam

    2009-01-01

    Communicating Ocean Sciences to Informal Audiences (COSIA) is a National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded project consisting of seven long-term three-way partnerships between the Lawrence Hall of Science (LHS) and an informal science education institution (ISEI) partnered with an institution of higher education (IHE). Together, educators from the…

  3. Communicating Ocean Sciences to Informal Audiences (COSIA): Final Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Michelle; St. John, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Communicating Ocean Sciences to Informal Audiences (COSIA) is a National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded project consisting of six three-way partnerships between the Lawrence Hall of Science (LHS) and an informal science education institution (ISEI) partnered with an institution of higher education (IHE). Together, educators from the ISEI (often…

  4. Effective Teaching of Business Communications: Responding to Reported Business Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Thomas E.

    Research indicates that skills in listening to and motivating people need to be emphasized more in undergraduate business communication courses. Three theories of motivation--Maslow's hierarchy of needs, McClelland's achievement motive, and Hersberg's motivation-hygiene theory--can introduce students to the systems perspective, an approach…

  5. [Verbal and gestural communication in interpersonal interaction with Alzheimer's disease patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiaratura, Loris Tamara; Di Pastena, Angela; Askevis-Leherpeux, Françoise; Clément, Sylvain

    2015-03-01

    Communication can be defined as a verbal and non verbal exchange of thoughts and emotions. While verbal communication deficit in Alzheimer's disease is well documented, very little is known about gestural communication, especially in interpersonal situations. This study examines the production of gestures and its relations with verbal aspects of communication. Three patients suffering from moderately severe Alzheimer's disease were compared to three healthy adults. Each one were given a series of pictures and asked to explain which one she preferred and why. The interpersonal interaction was video recorded. Analyses concerned verbal production (quantity and quality) and gestures. Gestures were either non representational (i.e., gestures of small amplitude punctuating speech or accentuating some parts of utterance) or representational (i.e., referring to the object of the speech). Representational gestures were coded as iconic (depicting of concrete aspects), metaphoric (depicting of abstract meaning) or deictic (pointing toward an object). In comparison with healthy participants, patients revealed a decrease in quantity and quality of speech. Nevertheless, their production of gestures was always present. This pattern is in line with the conception that gestures and speech depend on different communicational systems and look inconsistent with the assumption of a parallel dissolution of gesture and speech. Moreover, analyzing the articulation between verbal and gestural dimensions suggests that representational gestures may compensate for speech deficits. It underlines the importance for the role of gestures in maintaining interpersonal communication.

  6. Non-communicable Chronic Diseases in the Americas: An Economic Perspective on Health Policie

    OpenAIRE

    David Mayer-Foulkes

    2010-01-01

    Non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) are amongst the principal burdens of disease in both developed and underdeveloped countries. The main causes of these illnesses are well known. They are tobacco use, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and the harmful use of alcohol. The prevalence of these risk factors is directly related to the activities of transnational corporations. To begin with, just the budgets dedicated to advertising for risky consumption is larger than the budget of the Worl...

  7. Lhermitte-duclos Disease: A Case Report.

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Varun Chaudhary; Dr Ami Jani

    2016-01-01

    Lhermitte-Duclos disease (LDD) is a benign neoplasm of posterior fossa, involving cerebellum. It is also known as dysplastic cerebellar gangliocytoma. It is not a true neoplasm but a hamartoma. It can be either isolated finding or associated with Cowden disease (multiple hamartoma syndrome). Lhermitte-Duclos disease typically presents in young adults.

  8. Fermented Food and Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreen Gille

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods represent a significant fraction of human diets. Although their impact on health is positively perceived, an objective evaluation is still missing. We have, therefore, reviewed meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCT investigating the relationship between fermented foods and non-transmissible chronic diseases. Overall, after summarizing 25 prospective studies on dairy products, the association of fermented dairy with cancer was found to be neutral, whereas it was weakly beneficial, though inconsistent, for specific aspects of cardio-metabolic health, in particular stroke and cheese intake. The strongest evidence for a beneficial effect was for yoghurt on risk factors of type 2 diabetes. Although mechanisms explaining this association have not been validated, an increased bioavailability of insulinotropic amino acids and peptides as well as the bacterial biosynthesis of vitamins, in particular vitamin K2, might contribute to this beneficial effect. However, the heterogeneity in the design of the studies and the investigated foods impedes a definitive assessment of these associations. The literature on fermented plants is characterized by a wealth of in vitro data, whose positive results are not corroborated in humans due to the absence of RCTs. Finally, none of the RCTs were specifically designed to address the impact of food fermentation on health. This question should be addressed in future human studies.

  9. Fermented Food and Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, Doreen; Schmid, Alexandra; Walther, Barbara; Vergères, Guy

    2018-04-04

    Fermented foods represent a significant fraction of human diets. Although their impact on health is positively perceived, an objective evaluation is still missing. We have, therefore, reviewed meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCT) investigating the relationship between fermented foods and non-transmissible chronic diseases. Overall, after summarizing 25 prospective studies on dairy products, the association of fermented dairy with cancer was found to be neutral, whereas it was weakly beneficial, though inconsistent, for specific aspects of cardio-metabolic health, in particular stroke and cheese intake. The strongest evidence for a beneficial effect was for yoghurt on risk factors of type 2 diabetes. Although mechanisms explaining this association have not been validated, an increased bioavailability of insulinotropic amino acids and peptides as well as the bacterial biosynthesis of vitamins, in particular vitamin K2, might contribute to this beneficial effect. However, the heterogeneity in the design of the studies and the investigated foods impedes a definitive assessment of these associations. The literature on fermented plants is characterized by a wealth of in vitro data, whose positive results are not corroborated in humans due to the absence of RCTs. Finally, none of the RCTs were specifically designed to address the impact of food fermentation on health. This question should be addressed in future human studies.

  10. Kawasaki disease in Ghana: Case reports from Korle Bu Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kawasaki disease, an acute febrile vasculitis, predominantly affects children under the age of 5 years and is thought to be a rare disease in the developing world. . It has previously never been reported in Ghana. We report 3 cases from February, 2007 to February, 2008. This potentially serious disease has no definitive ...

  11. Multi-sectoral Action for Non-communicable Disease Prevention in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This is especially true among the poor, given their lack of access to proper care and medicine. Often, communicable diseases and NCDs co-exist in the same individual; one can increase the risk or impact of the other. Current projections indicate that by 2020, the largest increase in NCD deaths will occur in Africa.

  12. Patient health communication mediating effects between gastrointestinal symptoms and gastrointestinal worry in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the effects of patient health communication regarding their inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to their health care providers and significant others in their daily life as a mediator in the relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and gastrointestinal worry in pediatric patients. ...

  13. editorial the war against non-communicable disease: how ready is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    community practices and beliefs, people and communities should also provide supportive actions necessary to help maintain individual resolves with the end result of initiating a positive communal impact. Additionally, stakeholder involvement in initiating NCD. THE WAR AGAINST NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASE: HOW ...

  14. A systems medicine clinical platform for understanding and managing non- communicable diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cesario, Alfredo; Auffray, Charles; Agusti, Alvar; Apolone, Giovanni; Balling, Rudi; Barbanti, Piero; Bellia, Alfonso; Boccia, Stefania; Bousquet, Jean; Cardaci, Vittorio; Cazzola, Mario; Dall'Armi, Valentina; Daraselia, Nikolai; Ros, Lucio Da; Bufalo, Alessandra Del; Ducci, Giuseppe; Ferri, Luigi; Fini, Massimo; Fossati, Chiara; Gensini, Gianfranco; Granone, Pierluigi Maria; Kinross, James; Lauro, Davide; Cascio, Gerland Lo; Lococo, Filippo; Lococo, Achille; Maier, Dieter; Marcus, Frederick; Margaritora, Stefano; Marra, Camillo; Minati, Gianfranco; Neri, Monica; Pasqua, Franco; Pison, Christophe; Pristipino, Christian; Roca, Joseph; Rosano, Giuseppe; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Russo, Patrizia; Salinaro, Gianluca; Shenhar, Shani; Soreq, Hermona; Sterk, Peter J.; Stocchi, Fabrizio; Torti, Margherita; Volterrani, Maurizio; Wouters, Emiel F. M.; Frustaci, Alessandra; Bonassi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) are among the most pressing global health problems of the twenty-first century. Their rising incidence and prevalence is linked to severe morbidity and mortality, and they are putting economic and managerial pressure on healthcare systems around the world. Moreover,

  15. Collateral Damage and Communicable Disease with Particular Reference to Tactical Nuclear War in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-31

    incidence of communicable disease attrib- utable to the radiation exposure. Measles, chicken pox , etc., did occur but were within the normal range. 4.4...SMALLPOX MEXICO MILLIONS 50 1603 BUBONIC PLAGUE LONDON 34,000 14 1628 TYPHUS LYONS, FRANCE 60,000 1665 BUBONIC PLAGUE LONDON 100,000 27 1711 BUBONIC PLAGUE

  16. 77 FR 75880 - Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate; Scope and Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... definitions related to the control of communicable diseases and add more current medical terminology where... definitions for interstate quarantine regulations to reflect modern terminology and plain language used by..., under section 70.1, to reflect modern terminology and plain language commonly used by private sector...

  17. Infections and non-communicable diseases that just refuse to go away

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Exercise, cytokines, diabetes and other non communicable diseases ... vitamin D intake and type 2 diabetes risk. In a meta analysis of cohort studies, they found that there was no association.20 In a .... ME, Adams EB, Asindi AA. Stray dog ...

  18. Family Health History Communication Networks of Older Adults: Importance of Social Relationships and Disease Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Goodman, Melody; Schafer, Ellen J.

    2013-01-01

    Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication ("have shared" and "intend to share…

  19. Formulaic Language as a Barrier to Effective Communication with People with Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Carers recognize that the linguistic problems associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be detrimental to effective communication, but they are often not sure what they can do to help. This article examines the use of formulaic language in AD, including routines, repetitions, and fillers, through the lens of a model of how cognitive and social…

  20. Prevention and Management of Non-Communicable Disease: The IOC Consensus Statement, Lausanne 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matheson, G.O.; Klugl, M.; Engebretsen, L.; Bendiksen, F.; Blair, S.N.; Borjesson, M.; Budgett, R.; Derman, W.; Erdener, U.; Ioannidis, J.P.A.; Khan, K.M.; Martinez, R.; van Mechelen, W.; Mountjoy, M.; Sallis, R.E.; Schwellnus, M.; Shultz, R.; Soligard, T.; Steffen, K.; Sundberg, C.J.; Weiler, R.; Ljungqvist, A.

    2013-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality from preventable, non-communicable chronic disease (NCD) threatens the health of our populations and our economies. The accumulation of vast amounts of scientific knowledge has done little to change this. New and innovative thinking is essential to foster new creative

  1. A Differential Item Functioning (DIF) Analysis of the Communicative Participation Item Bank (CPIB): Comparing Individuals with Parkinson's Disease from the United States and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylor, Carolyn; McAuliffe, Megan J.; Hughes, Louise E.; Yorkston, Kathryn; Anderson, Tim; Jiseon, Kim; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the cross-cultural applicability of the Communicative Participation Item Bank (CPIB) through a comparison of respondents with Parkinson's disease (PD) from the United States and New Zealand. Method: A total of 428 respondents--218 from the United States and 210 from New Zealand-completed the self-report CPIB and a series of…

  2. Below the poverty line and non-communicable diseases in Kerala: The Epidemiology of Non-communicable Diseases in Rural Areas (ENDIRA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Jaideep; Vijayakumar, N; Joseph, Joseph K; David, P C; Menon, M N; Mukundan, Shyam; Dorphy, P D; Banerjee, Amitava

    2015-01-01

    India carries the greatest burden of global non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Poverty is strongly associated with NCDs but there are few prevalence studies which have measured poverty in India, particularly in rural settings. In Kerala, India, a population of 113,462 individuals was identified. The "Epidemiology of Non-communicable Diseases in Rural Areas" (ENDIRA) study was conducted via ASHAs (Accredited Social Health Activists). Standardised questionnaires were used in household interviews of individuals ≥18years during 2012 to gather sociodemographic, lifestyle and medical data for this population. The Government of Kerala definition of "the poverty line" was used. The association between below poverty line (BPL) status, NCDs and risk factors was analysed in multivariable regression models. 84,456 adults were included in the analyses (25.4% below the poverty line). The prevalence of NCDs was relatively common: myocardial infarction (MI) 1.4%, stroke 0.3%, respiratory diseases 5.0%, and cancer 1.1%. BPL status was not associated with age (p=0.96) or gender (p=0.26). Compared with those above the poverty line (APL), the BPL group was less likely to have diabetes, hypertension or dyslipidaemia (ppoverty line status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing the Communication Quality of CSR Reports. A Case Study on Four Spanish Food Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Baviera-Puig

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability reports are tools for disseminating information to stakeholders and the public, serving the organizations in the dual purpose of communicating CSR and being accountable. The production of these reports has recently become more prevalent in the food industry, despite the fact this practice has received heavy criticism on two fronts: The quality of the tool for communication, and the extent of accountability. In addition to these criticisms, organizations must overcome the additional challenge of publishing sustainability reports that successfully meet the demands of a multi-stakeholder audience. In light of the importance of this practice, this paper presents a method to assess the communication and accountability characteristics of Spanish food companies’ sustainability reports. This method is based on the method Analytic Network Process (ANP and adopts a multi-stakeholder approach. This research, therefore, provides a reference model for improving sustainability reports, with the aim of successfully meeting their communication objectives and the demands of all stakeholders.

  4. Towards Community-Based Communication Intervention for Severely Handicapped Children. Report ASS/BBS-48.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alant, Erna

    This report describes the development of a community-based service for the implementation of augmentative and alternative communication strategies with regard to children with severe disabilities in South Africa. The intervention process was developed by the Centre for Augmentative and Alternative Communication of the University of Pretoria. The…

  5. Annual Enrollment Report Number of Students Studying Journalism and Mass Communication at All-time High.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lee B.; Vlad, Tudor; Huh, Jisu; Prine, Joelle

    2001-01-01

    Finds that journalism and mass communication programs appear to be entering another period of rapid enrollment growth, swept up by overall increases in enrollments at United States universities. Finds that only about four in ten of the journalism and mass communication programs report enrollments by race, suggesting many administrators are not…

  6. Parents' Reports of Sexual Communication with Children in Kindergarten to Grade 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.; Weaver, Angela D.

    2008-01-01

    We examined factors associated with parents' reports of three aspects of parent-child sexual communication, quality, frequency with which parents encouraged questions, and extent of communication, on each of 10 sexual health topics. Participants were 3,413 mothers and 426 fathers with children in kindergarten to grade 8. Parents' demographic…

  7. High prevalence of non-communicable diseases and associated risk factors amongst adults living with HIV in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pheak Chhoun

    Full Text Available With rapid expansion of antiretroviral therapy for HIV, there are rising life expectancies among people living with HIV. As a result, co-morbidity from non-communicable diseases in those living and aging with HIV is increasingly being reported. Published data on this issue have been limited in Cambodia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia and associated risk factors in adults living with HIV in Cambodia.This cross-sectional study was conducted in five provinces of Cambodia from May-June 2015. Information was obtained on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire, and anthropometric and biochemical measurements were performed. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed with fasting blood glucose ≥126 mg/dl, hypertension with systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg and hypercholesterolemia with fasting blood cholesterol ≥190 mg/dl. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to explore risk factors.The study sample included 510 adults living with HIV; 67% were female, with a mean age of 45 (standard deviation = 8 years. Of these, 8.8% had diabetes mellitus, 15.1% had hypertension and 34.7% had hypercholesterolemia. Of the total participants with non-communicable diseases (n = 244, 47.8% had one or more diseases, and 75% were not aware of their diseases prior to the study: new disease was diagnosed in 90% of diabetes mellitus, 44% of hypertension and 90% of hypercholesterolemia. Single disease occurred in 81%, dual disease in 17% and triple disease in 2%. In adjusted analyses, those consuming 1 serving of fruit compare to 2 servings as significantly with diabetes mellitus, those eating 1 serving of fruit compare to 2 servings and using lard for cooking were significantly associated with hypertension, and those being unemployed, having monthly income less than 100

  8. Seasonal ataxia: a case report of a disappearing disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal ataxia: a case report of a disappearing disease. Adebiyi Ayoade ... ological profiles of the disease. ... low serum albumin levels [8] act as a potentiating factor to trigger the ... 65% neutrophils, 25% lymphocytes,eosinophils 5% and.

  9. Final Report Report: Smart Grid Ready PV Inverters with Utility Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seal, Brian [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Huque, Aminul [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Rogers, Lindsey [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Key, Tom [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Riley, Cameron [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Li, Huijuan [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); York, Ben [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Purcell, Chris [BPL Global, Inc., Canonsburg, PA (United States); Pacific, Oliver [Spirae, Inc., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Ropp, Michael [Northern Plains Power Technologies, Brookings, SD (United States); Tran, Teresa [DTE Energy, Detroit, MI (United States); Asgeirsson, Hawk [DTE Energy, Detroit, MI (United States); Woodard, Justin [National Grid, Warwick (United Kingdom); Steffel, Steve [Pepco Holdings, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-30

    In 2011, EPRI began a four-year effort under the Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems - Advanced Concepts (SEGIS-AC) to demonstrate smart grid ready inverters with utility communication. The objective of the project was to successfully implement and demonstrate effective utilization of inverters with grid support functionality to capture the full value of distributed photovoltaic (PV). The project leveraged ongoing investments and expanded PV inverter capabilities, to enable grid operators to better utilize these grid assets. Developing and implementing key elements of PV inverter grid support capabilities will increase the distribution system’s capacity for higher penetration levels of PV, while reducing the cost. The project team included EPRI, Yaskawa-Solectria Solar, Spirae, BPL Global, DTE Energy, National Grid, Pepco, EDD, NPPT and NREL. The project was divided into three phases: development, deployment, and demonstration. Within each phase, the key areas included: head-end communications for Distributed Energy Resources (DER) at the utility operations center; methods for coordinating DER with existing distribution equipment; back-end PV plant master controller; and inverters with smart-grid functionality. Four demonstration sites were chosen in three regions of the United States with different types of utility operating systems and implementations of utility-scale PV inverters. This report summarizes the project and findings from field demonstration at three utility sites.

  10. Polio Eradication Initiative: Contribution to improved communicable diseases surveillance in WHO African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwengee, William; Okeibunor, Joseph; Poy, Alain; Shaba, Keith; Mbulu Kinuani, Leon; Minkoulou, Etienne; Yahaya, Ali; Gaturuku, Peter; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Nsubuga, Peter; Salla, Mbaye; Mihigo, Richard; Mkanda, Pascal

    2016-10-10

    Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988, there has been a tremendous progress in the reduction of cases of poliomyelitis. The world is on the verge of achieving global polio eradication and in May 2013, the 66th World Health Assembly endorsed the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan (PEESP) 2013-2018. The plan provides a timeline for the completion of the GPEI by eliminating all paralytic polio due to both wild and vaccine-related polioviruses. We reviewed how GPEI supported communicable disease surveillance in seven of the eight countries that were documented as part of World Health Organization African Region best practices documentation. Data from WHO African region was also reviewed to analyze the performance of measles cases based surveillance. All 7 countries (100%) which responded had integrated communicable diseases surveillance core functions with AFP surveillance. The difference is on the number of diseases included based on epidemiology of diseases in a particular country. The results showed that the polio eradication infrastructure has supported and improved the implementation of surveillance of other priority communicable diseases under integrated diseases surveillance and response strategy. As we approach polio eradication, polio-eradication initiative staff, financial resources, and infrastructure can be used as one strategy to build IDSR in Africa. As we are now focusing on measles and rubella elimination by the year 2020, other disease-specific programs having similar goals of eradicating and eliminating diseases like malaria, might consider investing in general infectious disease surveillance following the polio example. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Are there any changes in burden and management of communicable diseases in areas affected by Cyclone Nargis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriwan Pichit

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to assess the situation of communicable diseases under national surveillance in the Cyclone Nargis-affected areas in Myanmar (Burma before and after the incident. Methods Monthly data during 2007, 2008 and 2009 from the routine reporting system for disease surveillance of the Myanmar Ministry of Health (MMOH were reviewed and compared with weekly reporting from the Early Warning and Rapid Response (EWAR system. Data from some UN agencies, NGOs and Tri-Partite Core Group (TCG periodic reviews were also extracted for comparisons with indicators from Sphere and the Inter-Agency Standing Committee. Results Compared to 2007 and 2009, large and atypical increases in diarrheal disease and especially dysentery cases occurred in 2008 following Cyclone Nargis. A seasonal increase in ARI reached levels higher than usual in the months of 2008 post-Nargis. The number of malaria cases post-Nargis also increased, but it was less clear if this reflected normal seasonal patterns or was specifically associated with the disaster event. There was no significant change in the occurrence of other communicable diseases in Nargis-affected areas. Except for a small decrease in mortality for diarrheal diseases and ARI in 2008 in Nargis-affected areas, population-based mortality rates for all other communicable diseases showed no significant change in 2008 in these areas, compared to 2007 and 2009. Tuberculosis control programs reached their targets of 70% case detection and 85% treatment success rates in 2007 and 2008. Vaccination coverage rates for DPT 3rd dose and measles remained at high though measles coverage still did not reach the Sphere target of 95% even by 2009. Sanitary latrine coverage in the Nargis-affected area dropped sharply to 50% in the months of 2008 following the incident but then rose to 72% in 2009. Conclusion While the incidence of diarrhea, dysentery and ARI increased post-Nargis in areas affected by the

  12. Risk factors for infections in international travelers: an analysis of travel-related notifiable communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Atar; Libassi, Lisa; Lloyd, Jennifer K; Benoliel, Eileen; Brucker, Rachel; Jones, Megan Q; Kwan-Gett, Tao Sheng; McKeirnan, Shelly; Pecha, Monica; Rietberg, Krista; Serafin, Lauri; Walkinshaw, Lina P; Duchin, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    We sought to describe travel-related illness among our residents and gain insight into targeting pre-travel health advice to prevent travel-related illness. A supplemental travel questionnaire was developed and administered for cases with a legally notifiable communicable disease reported in 2011-2012, who spent at least part of their exposure period outside the United States. Among 451 cases meeting the eligibility criteria, 259 were interviewed. Forty four percent reported receiving pre-travel advice. Two-thirds adhered fully with risk behavior recommendations; 94% followed immunization recommendations partially or fully; and 84% adhered fully with malaria prophylaxis recommendations. The primary reasons for not obtaining pre-travel advice were being unaware of the need (47.5%), or believing they already knew what to do (34.5%). Adults (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.4-5.5), males (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1-3.0), those born outside the United States (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.1-3.7), and those with planning time under two weeks (OR = 4.8, 95% CI = 1.5-15.9) or travel duration less than 7 days (OR = 7.9, 95% CI = 3.0-20.9) were more likely to travel without seeking pre-travel advice. The majority of cases reported not receiving pre-travel advice. Understanding the predictors of failure to receive pre-travel advice may help target public health prevention efforts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intraoral Morgellons disease or delusional parasitosis: a first case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovigi, Allan J

    2010-08-01

    Morgellons disease is a new emerging disease that is still controversial and believed to be, by some practitioners, as nothing more than delusional parasitosis. The Center for Disease Control has recently launched an epidemiological investigation into this disease due to the increased number of reports. A first case is reported of an oral lesion and symptoms consistent with Morgellons disease. The nature of the characteristic fibers associated with the intraoral lesion is investigated. Research has started at a number of institutions to elucidate the nature of this emerging disease.

  14. Non communicable disease and risky behaviour in an urban university community Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ige, O K; Owoaje, E T; Adebiyi, O A

    2013-03-01

    Most developing countries have only limited information on the burden of Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) even though rapid transitions in these NCDs have been predicted. To describe the burden of selected NCDs and associated risk behaviours in an urban university community in Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of 525 representative staff of a University in a large city in Nigeria was conducted. In all, 27.6% were already diagnosed with at least one NCD (hypertension-21.5%, diabetes-11%, cancer 2.9%) while 67.4% reported at least one risk behaviour (unhealthy diet- 96%, sedentary living- 27.4% excessive alcohol use-5.1% and smoking- 1.9%). Multiple risk behaviours were observed in 29.9% with no significant variation by sex or age. Those 40 years and above had significantly higher prevalence of NCD, particularly for hypertension (p<0.05). Only 7%, considered themselves to be at risk of NCDs. Those whose parents had NCDs OR: 5.9 (2.4-14.5) and those who currently had NCDs OR: 3.9(1.8-8.1) perceived themselves at risk of one or more NCDs, but not those with multiple risk behaviours. The high burden of NCDs and risk behaviours in the face of limited self-perceived risk has been demonstrated and calls for urgent intervention.

  15. The future of mathematical communication. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christy, J.

    1994-12-31

    One of the first fruits of cooperation with LBL was the use of the MBone (Multi-Cast Backbone) to broadcast the Conference on the Future of Mathematical Communication, held at MSRI November 30--December 3, 1994. Late last fall, MSRI brought together more than 150 mathematicians, librarians, software developers, representatives of scholarly societies, and both commercial and not-for-profit publishers to discuss the revolution in scholarly communication brought about by digital technology. The conference was funded by the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and the Paul and Gabriella Rosenbaum Foundation. It focused on the impact of the technological revolution on mathematics, but necessarily included issues of a much wider scope. There were talks on electronic publishing, collaboration across the Internet, economic and intellectual property issues, and various new technologies which promise to carry the revolution forward. There were panel discussions of electronic documents in mathematics, the unique nature of electronic journals, technological tools, and the role of scholarly societies. There were focus groups on Developing Countries, K-12 Education, Libraries, and Te{sub X}. The meeting also embodied the promises of the revolution; it was multicast over the MBone channel of the Internet to hundreds of sites around the world and much information on the conference will be available on their World Wide Web server at the URL http://www.msri.org/fmc. The authors have received many comments about the meeting indicating that it has had a profound impact on how the community thinks about how scientists can communicate and make their work public.

  16. Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Strategic Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    The 2007 Defense Science Board (DSB) Task Force on Strategic Communication has written this report within the context of a larger study, the DSB 2007 Summer Study on Challenges to Military Operations in Support of National Interests...

  17. Coronary Heart Disease Alters Intercellular Communication by Modifying Microparticle-Mediated MicroRNA Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Nnenna A.; Eapen, Danny; Manocha, Pankaj; Kassem, Hatem Al; Lassegue, Bernard; Ghasemzadeh, Nima; Quyyumi, Arshed; Searles, Charles D.

    2013-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is characterized by abnormal intercellular communication and circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are likely involved in this process. Here, we show that CHD was associated with changes in the transport of circulating miRNA, particularly decreased miRNA enrichment in microparticles (MPs). Additionally, MPs from CHD patients were less efficient at transferring miRNA to cultured HUVECs, which correlated with their diminished capacity to bind developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1). In summary, CHD was associated with distinct changes in circulating miRNA transport and these changes may contribute to the abnormal intercellular communication that underlies CHD initiation and progression. PMID:24042051

  18. Impact of posterior communicating artery on basilar artery steno-occlusive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J M; Choi, J Y; Lee, J H; Yong, S W; Bang, O Y; Joo, I S; Huh, K

    2009-12-01

    Acute brainstem infarction with basilar artery (BA) occlusive disease is the most fatal type of all ischaemic strokes. This report investigates the prognostic impact of the posterior communicating artery (PcoA) and whether its anatomy is a safeguard or not. Consecutive patients who had acute brainstem infarction with at least 50% stenosis of BA upon CT angiography (CTA) were studied. The configuration of PcoA was divided into two groups upon CTA: "textbook" group (invisible PcoA with good P1 and P2 segment) and "fetal-variant of PcoA" group (only visible PcoA with absent P1 segment). Baseline demographics, radiological findings and stroke mechanisms were analysed. A multiple regression analysis was performed to predict clinical outcome at 30 days (modified Rankin disability Scale (mRSPcoA (26 bilateral, 18 unilateral). By multiple logistic regression analysis, the atherosclerotic mechanism (OR 18.0; 95% CI 3.0 to 107.0) and presence of fetal-variant PcoA (OR 5.1; 95% CI 1.4 to 18.8) were independent predictors for good prognosis and initial NIH stroke scale score (OR 1.24 per one-point increase; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.4) for poor prognosis. Fetal-variant PcoA appears to act as a safeguard against ischaemic insult in acute stroke victims involving the brainstem with BA occlusive disease. This result can be explained by the fact that patients with fetal-variant PcoA have a smaller area of posterior circulation and a possibility of retrograde filling into the upper brainstem through the fetal-variant PcoA.

  19. Addison's disease and pregnancy: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosimo, Caterina; Franco, Ciro

    2009-10-01

    Addisonian crises, a rare but life-threatening event in pregnant women, may accompany stressful conditions such as labor, puerperium, infection, hyperemesis gravidarum or surgery. A 36-year-old woman, primigravida, with Addison's disease, diagnosed when she was 10 year-old and treated with cortisone and fludrocortisone. The therapy was regulated to avoid adrenal crisis during pregnancy. The woman underwent to caesarean section at 38th week and gave birth to a normal baby. The successful management of pregnant women with Addison's disease, regarding her state and that of the foetus, reassures those women that nowadays Addison's disease and pregnancy are not incompatible when proper monitoring and management is provided.

  20. Addison's disease secondary to connective tissue diseases: a report of six cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuo-li; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Wei; Hao, Yan-jie

    2009-04-01

    Addison's disease is an autoimmune process. However, Addison's disease associated with connective tissue diseases (CTD) is only occasionally reported. Here, we report six cases of Addison's disease secondary to a variety of CTD, which include systemic lupus erythematosus, Takayasu arteritis, systemic sclerosis, ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. The association of Addison's disease with Takayasu arteritis and AS is reported for the first time. We also found high prevalence of hypothyroidism as concomitant autoimmune disorder. Our case series highlight the autoimmune features of Addison's disease. Therefore, we suggest considering adrenal dysfunction in patients with CTD.

  1. High rates of obesity and non-communicable diseases predicted across Latin America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Webber

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCDs such as cardiovascular disease and stroke are a major public health concern across Latin America. A key modifiable risk factor for NCDs is overweight and obesity highlighting the need for policy to reduce prevalence rates and ameliorate rising levels of NCDs. A cross-sectional regression analysis was used to project BMI and related disease trends to 2050. We tested the extent to which interventions that decrease body mass index (BMI have an effect upon the number of incidence cases avoided for each disease. Without intervention obesity trends will continue to rise across much of Latin America. Effective interventions are necessary if rates of obesity and related diseases are to be reduced.

  2. Autophagy and oxidative stress in non-communicable diseases: A matter of the inflammatory state?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Oyarzun, Daniel; Bravo-Sagua, Roberto; Diaz-Vega, Alexis; Aleman, Larissa; Chiong, Mario; Garcia, Lorena; Bambs, Claudia; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Cifuentes, Mariana; Morselli, Eugenia; Ferreccio, Catterina; Quest, Andrew F G; Criollo, Alfredo; Lavandero, Sergio

    2018-05-30

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), also known as chronic diseases, are long-lasting conditions that affect millions of people around the world. Different factors contribute to their genesis and progression; however they share common features, which are critical for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. A persistently altered inflammatory response is typically observed in many NCDs together with redox imbalance. Additionally, dysregulated proteostasis, mainly derived as a consequence of compromised autophagy, is a common feature of several chronic diseases. In this review, we discuss the crosstalk among inflammation, autophagy and oxidative stress, and how they participate in the progression of chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, obesity and type II diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Life course health care and preemptive approach to non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imura, Hiroo

    2013-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease, are chronic, non-infectious diseases of long duration. NCDs are increasingly widespread worldwide and are becoming a serious health and economic burden. NCDs arise from complex interactions between the genetic make-up of an individual and environmental factors. Several epidemiological studies have revealed that the perinatal environment influences health later in life, and have proposed the concept of developmental programming or developmental origin of health and disease (DOHaD). These studies suggest the importance of life course health care from fetal life, early childhood, adulthood, and through to old age. Recent progress in genomics, proteomics and diagnostic modalities holds promise for identifying high risk groups, predicting latent diseases, and allowing early intervention. Preemptive medicine is the ultimate goal of medicine, but to achieve it, the full participation of the public and all sectors of society is imperative.

  4. Assessing conflict communication in couples: comparing the validity of self-report, partner-report, and observer ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Keith

    2010-04-01

    This study of married couples investigated the short-term predictive validity of the partner-report and self-report scales of the Conflict Communication Inventory and compared the validity of these scales with the validity of observer ratings. A sample of 83 married couples completed two problem-solving conversations. Self-report, partner-report, and observer ratings from Conversation 1 were used to predict behavior in Conversation 2, as rated by a separate panel of observers. The short-term predictive validity of partner-report ratings was extremely high and indistinguishable from the validity of observer ratings. Self-report ratings also demonstrated good validity, albeit slightly lower than other methods. Both partner-report and self-report scores explained a substantial amount of variance in concurrent observer ratings of communication after controlling for relationship satisfaction. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Improving Communication of Diagnostic Radiology Findings through Structured Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panicek, David M.; Berk, Alexandra R.; Li, Yuelin; Hricak, Hedvig

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the content, clarity, and clinical usefulness of conventional (ie, free-form) and structured radiology reports of body computed tomographic (CT) scans, as evaluated by referring physicians, attending radiologists, and radiology fellows at a tertiary care cancer center. Materials and Methods: The institutional review board approved the study as a quality improvement initiative; no written consent was required. Three radiologists, three radiology fellows, three surgeons, and two medical oncologists evaluated 330 randomly selected conventional and structured radiology reports of body CT scans. For nonradiologists, reports were randomly selected from patients with diagnoses relevant to the physician’s area of specialization. Each physician read 15 reports in each format and rated both the content and clarity of each report from 1 (very dissatisfied or very confusing) to 10 (very satisfied or very clear). By using a previously published radiology report grading scale, physicians graded each report’s effectiveness in advancing the patient’s position on the clinical spectrum. Mixed-effects models were used to test differences between report types. Results: Mean content satisfaction ratings were 7.61 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.12, 8.16) for conventional reports and 8.33 (95% CI: 7.82, 8.86) for structured reports, and the difference was significant (P radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.11101913/-/DC1 PMID:21518775

  6. Thoracoabdominal actinomycosis mimicking metastatic disease: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros, L.H.; Villacampa, V.M.; Torres, G.M.; Ros, P.R.

    1999-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative infection with bacteria of the Actinomycetaceae family, characterized by the formation of abundant granular tissue and multiple abscesses. It is a rare entity, and clinical and radiological findings are similar to those in other inflammatory and in neoplastic processes. Actinomycosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis in high-risk patients with predisposing factors, such as alcoholism, poor oral hygiene, maxillofacial trauma, tuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, steroid ingestion or immunodeficiency, and in patients in whom the disease history does not correlate with widespread metastatic involvement. Early diagnosis is important, to prevent disease progression and unnecessary surgery, since the response to drug treatment is very good. We present a case of diffuse actinomycosis involving multiple organs (liver, kidneys, colon, and lungs) that simulated metastatic disease on radiography and computed tomography (CT). (author)

  7. Thoracoabdominal actinomycosis mimicking metastatic disease: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, L.H.; Villacampa, V.M. [Hospital Miguel Servet, Dept. of Radiology, Zaragoza (Spain); Torres, G.M. [Univ. of Florida, Dept. of Radiology, Gainesville, Florida (United States); Ros, P.R. [Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative infection with bacteria of the Actinomycetaceae family, characterized by the formation of abundant granular tissue and multiple abscesses. It is a rare entity, and clinical and radiological findings are similar to those in other inflammatory and in neoplastic processes. Actinomycosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis in high-risk patients with predisposing factors, such as alcoholism, poor oral hygiene, maxillofacial trauma, tuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, steroid ingestion or immunodeficiency, and in patients in whom the disease history does not correlate with widespread metastatic involvement. Early diagnosis is important, to prevent disease progression and unnecessary surgery, since the response to drug treatment is very good. We present a case of diffuse actinomycosis involving multiple organs (liver, kidneys, colon, and lungs) that simulated metastatic disease on radiography and computed tomography (CT). (author)

  8. A shared framework for the common mental disorders and Non-Communicable Disease: key considerations for disease prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Adrienne; Jacka, Felice N; Quirk, Shae E; Cocker, Fiona; Taylor, C Barr; Oldenburg, Brian; Berk, Michael

    2015-02-05

    Historically, the focus of Non Communicable Disease (NCD) prevention and control has been cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cancer and chronic respiratory diseases. Collectively, these account for more deaths than any other NCDs. Despite recent calls to include the common mental disorders (CMDs) of depression and anxiety under the NCD umbrella, prevention and control of these CMDs remain largely separate and independent. In order to address this gap, we apply a framework recently proposed by the Centers for Disease Control with three overarching objectives: (1) to obtain better scientific information through surveillance, epidemiology, and prevention research; (2) to disseminate this information to appropriate audiences through communication and education; and (3) to translate this information into action through programs, policies, and systems. We conclude that a shared framework of this type is warranted, but also identify opportunities within each objective to advance this agenda and consider the potential benefits of this approach that may exist beyond the health care system.

  9. The relationship of periodontal disease to diseases and disorders at distant sites: communication to health care professionals and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamster, Ira B; DePaola, Dominick P; Oppermann, Rui V; Papapanou, Panos N; Wilder, Rebecca S

    2008-10-01

    The body of research defining relationships among periodontal disease and certain systemic diseases and disorders has been expanding, and questions have been raised regarding what information should be conveyed to health care professionals and patients. Representatives from dentistry, medicine, the academic community and the insurance industry convened a two-day workshop July 23 and 24, 2007. The workshop participants achieved general consensus on a number of issues, including the need for greater cooperation between the health care professions. This cooperation should translate into improved clinical care as physicians refer patients for dental care, and dentists are proactive in regard to the general health of their patients. Communication to health care professionals requires a multifaceted approach that includes publication of research findings in medical and dental journals, cooperation among professional organizations and initiatives at the local level such as presentations at medical grand rounds. Dental schools should play a role in their health science centers. Communication with patients may improve through the use of targeted informational brochures in the offices of medical specialists, appropriate media campaigns and efforts led by local dental organizations. It is too early to provide specific recommendations regarding the treatment of periodontal disease to improve specific health outcomes, but dentists can become advocates for a general health promotion and disease prevention message. The lifestyles approach includes an improved diet, smoking cessation, appropriate hygiene practices and stress reduction. These strategies can improve oral and general health outcomes.

  10. Using Social Network Analysis to Examine the Effect of Care Management Structure on Chronic Disease Management Communication Within Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtrop, Jodi Summers; Ruland, Sandra; Diaz, Stephanie; Morrato, Elaine H; Jones, Eric

    2018-05-01

    Care management and care managers are becoming increasingly prevalent in primary care medical practice as a means of improving population health and reducing unnecessary care. Care managers are often involved in chronic disease management and associated transitional care. In this study, we examined the communication regarding chronic disease care within 24 primary care practices in Michigan and Colorado. We sought to answer the following questions: Do care managers play a key role in chronic disease management in the practice? Does the prominence of the care manager's connectivity within the practice's communication network vary by the type of care management structure implemented? Individual written surveys were given to all practice members in the participating practices. Survey questions assessed demographics as well as practice culture, quality improvement, care management activities, and communication regarding chronic disease care. Using social network analysis and other statistical methods, we analyzed the communication dynamics related to chronic disease care for each practice. The structure of chronic disease communication varies greatly from practice to practice. Care managers who were embedded in the practice or co-located were more likely to be in the core of the communication network than were off-site care managers. These care managers also had higher in-degree centrality, indicating that they acted as a hub for communication with team members in many other roles. Social network analysis provided a useful means of examining chronic disease communication in practice, and highlighted the central role of care managers in this communication when their role structure supported such communication. Structuring care managers as embedded team members within the practice has important implications for their role in chronic disease communication within primary care.

  11. Examining U.S. and Spanish Annual Reports: Crisis Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Silveira, Juan C.; Ruiz-Garrido, Miguel F.

    2014-01-01

    Crisis has affected businesses worldwide. Many international corporations must cope with this turmoil, which affects their economic liability. Firms express their actual financial situation in the annual reports they issue every year. The annual report is a document that combines both promotional and informative features. Our study tries to find…

  12. Cable Communications in the Dayton Miami Valley: Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Leland L.

    The report summarizes a ten-part study of prospects for cable television (CATV) in the 13 communities that make up the metropolitan area of Dayton, Ohio. The report, written in non-technical language, deals with the economics and technology of CATV, the range of new services that might be provided via CATV, and questions of franchising and…

  13. Communicating radon risk effectively: Radon testing in Maryland. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desvousges, W.H.; Smith, V.K.; Rink, H.H.

    1988-10-01

    Two sets of materials and corresponding delivery strategies for communicating radon risk were evaluated, compared with a 'no-special-treatment' strategy in a comparison community. One community received radio public-service announcements and utility bill inserts. The second received these plus posters, local government sponsorship of a radon awareness week, and local slide presentations. The most-intensive efforts (multiple channels, multiple hits) were more effective than the less intensive effort, which had little impact compared with no special treatment. From a marketing perspective, the effort was very successful, increasing the share of homeowners who tested for radon from 5% to 15%. This may not be viewed as sufficiently effective from a public-health perspective, however

  14. Perspectives on healthcare, chronic non-communicable disease, and healthworlds in an urban and rural setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Ibanez-Gonzalez, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Amidst diverging discourses describing chronic non-communicable disease (NCD) and healthcare access, the hermeneutical tradition within sociology, particularly as exemplified in the work of Jurgen Habermas, provides a starting point for exploring and interpreting the experiences of chronic illness and healthcare access. In this study, we aimed to understand how women living with NCDs experience their illness and access healthcare in an urban and rural context. This study was a mixed-methods comparative case study of the healthcare access experiences of women with NCDs in an urban and rural area in South Africa. The core of the study methodology was a comparative qualitative case study, with quantitative methods serving to contextualise the findings. The cross-sectional survey describes a low resource population with a high prevalence of NCDs. Slightly over half the respondents in urban Soweto (50.7%) reported having at least one NCD. Only around a third (33.3%) of these participants reported accessing formal healthcare services in the past 6 months. Similar trends were found in the review of research carried out in rural Agincourt. The qualitative case study in Soweto is characterised by a preoccupation with how medicine from the clinic interacts with the body. The Agincourt qualitative case study highlights the importance of church membership, particularly of African Christian Churches, as the strongest factor motivating against the open use of traditional medicine. A consideration of the findings suggests five broad themes for further research: 1) processes of constructing body narratives; 2) encounters with purposive-rational systems; 3) encounters with traditional medicine; 4) encounters with contemporary informal medicine; and 5) religion and healthcare. These five themes constitute the beginning of a comprehensive schema of the lifeworld/healthworld.

  15. Early Identification and Treatment of Communication and Swallowing Deficits in Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciucci, Michelle R.; Grant, Laura M.; Paul Rajamanickam, Eunice S.; Hilby, Breanna L.; Blue, Katherine V.; Jones, Corinne A.; Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a complex, progressive, neurodegenerative disorder that leads to a wide range of deficits including fine and gross sensorimotor impairment, autonomic dysfunction, mood disorders, and cognitive decline. Traditionally, the focus for diagnosis and treatment has been on sensorimotor impairment related to dopamine depletion. It is now widely recognized, however, that PD-related pathology affects multiple central nervous system neurotransmitters and pathways. Communication and swallowing functions can be impaired even in the early stages, significantly affecting health and quality of life. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on early intervention for communication and swallowing impairment in PD. Overarching themes were that (1) studies and interpretation of data from studies in early PD are limited; (2) best therapy practices have not been established, in part due to the heterogeneous nature of PD; and (3) as communication and swallowing problems are pervasive in PD, further treatment research is essential. PMID:24166192

  16. Diaphragm disease of the small intestine: an interesting case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Sana; Ajab, Shereen; Rao, Rajashekhar; Raghunathan, Girish; DaCosta, Philip

    2015-06-01

    Diaphragm disease of small intestine usually presents with nonspecific clinical features. Radiological investigations often fail to differentiate it from small intestinal tumors and inflammatory bowel disease. It is therefore diagnosed on final histology after surgical resection. We hereby report an interesting case of a suspected small bowel tumor later diagnosed as diaphragm disease on histology. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Rationale for Using Social Media to Collect Patient-Reported Outcomes in Patients with Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kt; Harris, Merissa; Khavari, Nasim; Khosla, Chaitan

    2014-02-01

    Patients with celiac disease (CD) are increasingly interconnected through social media, exchanging patient experiences and health-tracking information between individuals through various web-based platforms. Social media represents potentially unique communication interface between gastroenterologists and active social media users - especially young adults and adolescents with celiac disease-regarding adherence to the strict gluten-free diet, gastrointestinal symptoms, and meaningful discussion about disease management. Yet, various social media platforms may be underutilized for research purposes to collect patient-reported outcomes data. In this commentary, we summarize the scientific rationale and potential for future growth of social media in patient-reported outcomes research, focusing on college freshmen with celiac disease as a case study and provide overview of the methodological approach. Finally, we discuss how social media may impact patient care in the future through increasing mobile technology use.

  18. Health communication, genetic determinism, and perceived control: the roles of beliefs about susceptibility and severity versus disease essentialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Roxanne; Kahl, Mary L; Ndiaye, Khadidiatou; Traeder, Tara

    2012-08-01

    This research examined the lay public's beliefs about genes and health that might be labeled deterministic. The goals of this research were to sort through the divergent and contested meanings of genetic determinism in an effort to suggest directions for public health genomic communication. A survey conducted in community-based settings of 717 participants included 267 who self-reported race as African American and 450 who self-reported race as Caucasian American. The survey results revealed that the structure of genetic determinism included 2 belief sets. One set aligned with perceived threat, encompassing susceptibility and severity beliefs linked to genes and health. The other set represents beliefs about biological essentialism linked to the role of genes for health. These concepts were found to be modestly positively related. Threat beliefs predicted perceived control over genes. Public health efforts to communicate about genes and health should consider effects of these messages for (a) perceived threat relating to susceptibility and severity and (b) perceptions of disease essentialism. Perceived threat may enhance motivation to act in health protective ways, whereas disease essentialist beliefs may contribute to a loss of motivation associated with control over health.

  19. Integration of mental health and chronic non-communicable diseases in Peru: challenges and opportunities for primary care settings

    OpenAIRE

    Diez-Canseco, Francisco; CRONICAS Centro de Excelencia en Enfermedades Crónicas, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú. Psicólogo, magíster en Salud Pública.; Ipince, Alessandra; CRONICAS Centro de Excelencia en Enfermedades Crónicas, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú. antropóloga.; Toyama, Mauricio; CRONICAS Centro de Excelencia en Enfermedades Crónicas, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú. Facultad de Letras y Ciencias Humanas, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima, Perú. estudiante de Psicología.; Benate-Galvez, Ysabel; Gerencia de Prestaciones Primarias de Salud, Gerencia Central de Prestaciones de Salud, Seguro Social del Perú. médico geriatra.; Galán-Rodas, Edén; Gerencia de Prestaciones Primarias de Salud, Gerencia Central de Prestaciones de Salud, Seguro Social del Perú, EsSalud. Lima, Perú. médico cirujano.; Medina-Verástegui, Julio César; Gerencia de Prestaciones Primarias de Salud, Gerencia Central de Prestaciones de Salud, Seguro Social del Perú, EsSalud. Lima, Perú. médico pediatra.; Sánchez-Moreno, David; Centro de Salud “El Progreso”, Microrred de Salud Carabayllo, Red de Salud Túpac Amaru, DISA V Lima Ciudad, Ministerio de Salud, Lima, Perú. psicólogo.; Araya, Ricardo; Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Londres, Reino Unido. médico psiquiatra, doctor en Epidemiología Psiquiátrica.; Miranda, J. Jaime; CRONICAS Centro de Excelencia en Enfermedades Crónicas, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. médico, magíster y doctor en Epidemiología.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between mental health and chronic non-communicable diseases is discussed as well as the possibility to address them in a comprehensive manner in the Peruvian health system. First, the prevalence estimates and the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases and mental disorders worldwide and in Peru are reviewed. Then, the detrimental impact of depression in the early stages as well as the progress of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases is described. Addition...

  20. Improving user-insurance communication on accident reports

    OpenAIRE

    Fardoun, Habib Moussa; Alghazzawi, Daniyal M.; Paules Ciprés, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an easy to use methodology and system for insurance companies targeting at managing traffic accidents reports process. The main objective is to facilitate and accelerate the process of creating and finalizing the necessary accident reports in cases without mortal victims involved. The diverse entities participating in the process from the moment an accident occurs until the related final actions needed are included. Nowadays, this market is limited to the consulting platfo...

  1. Improved maternal nutrition decreases children’s long-term risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen

    Improved maternal nutrition to decrease children’s long-term risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and obesity The nutritional well-being of pregnant women affects not only their health and their fetuses' development but also children's long-term risk of developing NCDs or obesity, according...... to a new report from WHO/Europe. "Good maternal nutrition. The best start in life" was launched under the auspices of the Minister of Health of Latvia during a consultation on maternal nutrition, in Riga on 27–28 June 2016. While the importance of good nutrition in the early development of children has...... – affects not only her child's health as an infant but also the child's risk of obesity and related chronic diseases as an adult. In short, maternal nutrition can truly have an intergenerational impact. Fighting NCDs and obesity through measures to improve maternal nutrition: NCDs are the leading cause...

  2. Addressing non-communicable diseases in Malaysia: an integrative process of systems and community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Feisul; Omar, Zainal; Mihat, Omar; Md Noh, Kamaliah; Hassan, Noraryana; Abu Bakar, Rotina; Abd Manan, Azizah; Ismail, Fatanah; Jabbar, Norli; Muhamad, Yusmah; Rahman, Latifah A; Majid, Fatimah A; Shahrir, Siti; Ahmad, Eliana; Davey, Tamzyn; Allotey, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and NCD risk factors in Malaysia have risen substantially in the last two decades. The Malaysian Ministry of Health responded by implementing, "The National Strategic Plan for Non-Communicable Diseases (NSP-NCD) 2010-2014", and the "NCD Prevention 1Malaysia" (NCDP-1M) programme. This paper outlines the primary health system context in which the NCDP-1M is framed. We also discuss the role of community in facilitating the integration of this programme, and outline some of the key challenges in addressing the sustainability of the plan over the next few years. The paper thus provides an analysis of an integration of a programme that involved a multi-sectoral approach with the view to contributing to a broader discourse on the development of responsive health systems.

  3. Comprehension of insincere communication in neurodegenerative disease: lies, sarcasm, and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shany-Ur, Tal; Poorzand, Pardis; Grossman, Scott N; Growdon, Matthew E; Jang, Jung Y; Ketelle, Robin S; Miller, Bruce L; Rankin, Katherine P

    2012-01-01

    Comprehension of insincere communication is an important aspect of social cognition requiring visual perspective taking, emotion reading, and understanding others' thoughts, opinions, and intentions. Someone who is lying intends to hide their insincerity from the listener, while a sarcastic speaker wants the listener to recognize they are speaking insincerely. We investigated whether face-to-face testing of comprehending insincere communication would effectively discriminate among neurodegenerative disease patients with different patterns of real-life social deficits. We examined ability to comprehend lies and sarcasm from a third-person perspective, using contextual cues, in 102 patients with one of four neurodegenerative diseases (behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia [bvFTD], Alzheimer's disease [AD], progressive supranuclear palsy [PSP], and vascular cognitive impairment) and 77 healthy older adults (normal controls--NCs). Participants answered questions about videos depicting social interactions involving deceptive, sarcastic, or sincere speech using The Awareness of Social Inference Test. All subjects equally understood sincere remarks, but bvFTD patients displayed impaired comprehension of lies and sarcasm compared with NCs. In other groups, impairment was not disease-specific but was proportionate to general cognitive impairment. Analysis of the task components revealed that only bvFTD patients were impaired on perspective taking and emotion reading elements and that both bvFTD and PSP patients had impaired ability to represent others' opinions and intentions (i.e., theory of mind). Test performance correlated with informants' ratings of subjects' empathy, perspective taking and neuropsychiatric symptoms in everyday life. Comprehending insincere communication is complex and requires multiple cognitive and emotional processes vulnerable across neurodegenerative diseases. However, bvFTD patients show uniquely focal and severe impairments at every level

  4. Aspects of oral communication in patients with Parkinson's disease submitted to Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Aline Nunes da; Beber, Bárbara Costa; Olchik, Maira Rozenfeld; Chaves, Márcia Lorena Fagundes; Rieder, Carlos Roberto de Mello; Dornelles, Sílvia

    2016-01-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) has been satisfactorily used to control the cardinal motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), but little is known about its impact on communication. This study aimed to characterize the aspects of cognition, language, speech, voice, and self-perception in two patients with PD, pre- and post- DBS implant surgery. The patients were assessed using a cognitive screening test, a brief language evaluation, a self-declared protocol, and an analysis of the aspects of voice and speech, which was conducted by a specialized Speech-language Therapist who was blinded for the study. At the pre-surgery assessment, Case I showed impairment regarding the aspects of cognition, language and voice, whereas Case II showed impairment only with respect to the voice aspect. The post-surgery evaluation of the cases showed an opposite pattern of the effect of DBS after analysis of the communication data: Case I, who presented greater impairment before the surgery, showed improvement in some aspects; Case II, who presented lower communicative impairment before the surgery, showed worsening in other aspects. This study shows that DBS may influence different communication aspects both positively and negatively. Factors associated with the different effects caused by DBS on the communication of patients with PD need to be further investigated.

  5. Clustering of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases among Adolescents from Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Heloyse Elaine Gimenes; Gon?alves, Eliane Cristina de Andrade; Vieira, J?ssika Aparecida Jesus; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the simultaneous presence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases and the association of these risk factors with demographic and economic factors among adolescents from southern Brazil. Methods The study included 916 students (14?19 years old) enrolled in the 2014 school year at state schools in S?o Jos?, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Risk factors related to lifestyle (i.e., physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, sede...

  6. Non-communicable disease risk factors and treatment preference of obese patients in Cape Town

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Kathryn; Senekal, Marjanne; Harbron, Janetta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insights into the characteristics of treatment seekers for lifestyle changes and treatment preferences are necessary for intervention planning. Aim: To compile a profile of treatment-seeking obese patients with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) or NCD risk factors and to compare patients who choose group-based (facility-based therapeutic group [FBTG]) versus usual care (individual consultations) treatment. Setting: A primary healthcare facility in Cape Town, South Africa. ...

  7. Specialist report : Dry eye disease and aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilborg, M.M.A.; Kort, H.S.M.; Murphy, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    The common ocular pathologies relating to the aging eye, such as cataract, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, or macular degeneration, are all known to reduce visual functioning. Less wellknown is the effect of common, age-related dry eye disease (DED). The impact of DED on daily activities can be

  8. Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysu Şen

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD is characterised by subacute progressive dementia, cerebellar ataxia, myoclonic jerks together with pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs. It is a rare prion disease and definitive diagnosis can only be made by biopsy. It becomes progressively worse and the death is the rule. We presented two CJD cases because of their demonstrative characteristics. A 43 year-old female and a 52 year-old male patient was suspected to be CJD due to presence of subacute severe cognitive deterioration, neuropsychiatric disturbances, myoclonic jerks, ataxia, pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs and also periodic spike and wave complexes in EEG. Patients were lost in a short period of time because of the complications of disease process. Medical autopsy were done in both cases for definitive diagnosis and autopsy results displayed characteristic pathologic findings of CJD. Patients were diagnosed as definitive sporadic CJD according to Master’s, French and European criterias. CJD should be considered in patients with rapidly progressive dementia, that starts with various neuropsychiatric symptoms. Although seen very rare, CJD is a untreatable, fatal disease. Therefore we emphasize that, preventive precaution should be taken when a CJD diagnosis is suspected

  9. Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response Reporting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-intervention assessment on the groups was done.We analysed ... statistically significant (χ = 16.31;df= 1;p< 0.0000) in the intervention group. Conclusion: The study ..... staff; Nurses, Midwives, Environmental. Health Officers ... may also be found at other tiers of healthcare delivery. .... Performance of Integrated Disease.

  10. Report of mass communication Ceylon: October 1969-December 31, 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    Experience with media usage by the FPA (Family Planning Association of Ceylon between October 1969 and December 1970 is summarized. During this time, the Association purchased 100-200 column inches each of contract advertising space in 26 newspapers. The press has published 268 press release, I.P.P.F., U.N., features and international press clipping in addition to specialized medical articles on family planning methods and 8 articles by FPA office-bearers. In January 1970; the Association launched local radio's first 5-minute daily commercial in Sinhala and Tamil. The program was repeated from April to July 1970. A series of 5 slides on family planning has been shown in movie theathers and more sets are being prepared for viewing. Posters have been used on buses and are currently on display on the National Railways project. Folders, leaflect, and poster calendars have been produced and used. Family Planning stickers have put up in 700 barber saloons. The FPA had stalls in the 1970 3-day National Exhibition at Batticaloa, the 4-day U.N. Poster Exhibition at Badulla, and the 2-week Ceylon Medical College Centenary Exhibition in Colombo. The Information Unit of FPA has answered 18, 541 written inquiries. A family planning communication us regularly dispatched to members of the Cabinet, government and opposition members of parliament, senators, chairmen of local bodies, and key trade union officials.

  11. Addison's Disease Mimicking as Acute Pancreatitis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Sayani; Rao, Karthik N; Patil, Navin; Ommurugan, Balaji; Varghese, George

    2017-04-01

    Over past two decades there has been significant improvement in medical field in elucidating the underlying pathophysiology and genetics of Addison's disease. Adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease) is a rare disease with an incidence of 0.8/100,000 cases. The diagnosis may be delayed if the clinical presentation mimics a gastrointestinal disorder or psychiatric illness. We report a case of Addison's disease presenting as acute pain in abdomen mimicking clinical presentation of acute pancreatitis.

  12. The economic burden of chronic non-communicable diseases in rural Malawi: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qun; Brenner, Stephan; Kalmus, Olivier; Banda, Hastings Thomas; De Allegri, Manuela

    2016-09-01

    Evidence from population-based studies on the economic burden imposed by chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCDs) is still sparse in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our study aimed to fill this existing gap in knowledge by estimating both the household direct, indirect, and total costs incurred due to CNCDs and the economic burden households bear as a result of these costs in Malawi. The study used data from the first round of a longitudinal household health survey conducted in 2012 in three rural districts in Malawi. A cost-of-illness method was applied to estimate the economic burden of CNCDs. Indicators of catastrophic spending and impoverishment were used to estimate the economic burden imposed by CNCDs on households. A total 475 out of 5643 interviewed individuals reported suffering from CNCDs. Mean total costs of all reported CNCDs were 1,040.82 MWK, of which 56.8 % was contributed by direct costs. Individuals affected by chronic cardiovascular conditions and chronic neuropsychiatric conditions bore the highest levels of direct, indirect, and total costs. Using a threshold of 10 % of household non-food expenditure, 21.3 % of all households with at least one household member reporting a CNCD and seeking care for such a condition incurred catastrophic spending due to CNCDs. The poorest households were more likely to incur catastrophic spending due to CNCDs. An additional 1.7 % of households reporting a CNCD fell under the international poverty line once considering direct costs due to CNCDs. Our study showed that the economic burden of CNCDs is high, causes catastrophic spending, and aggravates poverty in rural Malawi, a country where in principle basic care for CNCDs should be offered free of charge at point of use through the provision of an Essential Health Package (EHP). Our findings further indicated that particularly high direct, indirect, and total costs were linked to specific diagnoses, although costs were high even for conditions targeted by the EHP. Our

  13. Implications of the World Trade Organization in combating non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A; Voon, T

    2011-12-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has proposed a number of strategies to combat non-communicable diseases such as cancers, cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes by targeting the risk factors of tobacco use, harmful use of alcohol and poor diet. A number of the domestic regulatory responses contemplated by WHO and individual countries have the potential to restrict or distort trade, raising the question of whether they are consistent with the obligations imposed on Members of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This article demonstrates that WTO rules do limit Members' flexibility in implementing public health measures to address these diseases. However, the focus of WTO provisions on preventing discrimination against or between imports and the exceptions incorporated in various WTO agreements leave sufficient scope for Members to design carefully directed measures to achieve genuine public health goals while minimizing negative effects on international trade. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Monitoring and accountability for the Pacific response to the non-communicable diseases crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Tolley

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-communicable diseases (NCD are the leading cause of premature death and disability in the Pacific. In 2011, Pacific Forum Leaders declared “a human, social and economic crisis” due to the significant and growing burden of NCDs in the region. In 2013, Pacific Health Ministers’ commitment to ‘whole of government’ strategy prompted calls for the development of a robust, sustainable, collaborative NCD monitoring and accountability system to track, review and propose remedial action to ensure progress towards the NCD goals and targets. The purpose of this paper is to describe a regional, collaborative framework for coordination, innovation and application of NCD monitoring activities at scale, and to show how they can strengthen accountability for action on NCDs in the Pacific. A key component is the Dashboard for NCD Action which aims to strengthen mutual accountability by demonstrating national and regional progress towards agreed NCD policies and actions. Discussion The framework for the Pacific Monitoring Alliance for NCD Action (MANA draws together core country-level components of NCD monitoring data (mortality, morbidity, risk factors, health system responses, environments, and policies and identifies key cross-cutting issues for strengthening national and regional monitoring systems. These include: capacity building; a regional knowledge exchange hub; innovations (monitoring childhood obesity and food environments; and a robust regional accountability system. The MANA framework is governed by the Heads of Health and operationalised by a multi-agency technical Coordination Team. Alliance membership is voluntary and non-conditional, and aims to support the 22 Pacific Island countries and territories to improve the quality of NCD monitoring data across the region. In establishing a common vision for NCD monitoring, the framework combines data collected under the WHO Global Framework for NCDs with a set of action

  15. Monitoring and accountability for the Pacific response to the non-communicable diseases crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolley, Hilary; Snowdon, Wendy; Wate, Jillian; Durand, A Mark; Vivili, Paula; McCool, Judith; Novotny, Rachel; Dewes, Ofa; Hoy, Damian; Bell, Colin; Richards, Nicola; Swinburn, Boyd

    2016-09-10

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are the leading cause of premature death and disability in the Pacific. In 2011, Pacific Forum Leaders declared "a human, social and economic crisis" due to the significant and growing burden of NCDs in the region. In 2013, Pacific Health Ministers' commitment to 'whole of government' strategy prompted calls for the development of a robust, sustainable, collaborative NCD monitoring and accountability system to track, review and propose remedial action to ensure progress towards the NCD goals and targets. The purpose of this paper is to describe a regional, collaborative framework for coordination, innovation and application of NCD monitoring activities at scale, and to show how they can strengthen accountability for action on NCDs in the Pacific. A key component is the Dashboard for NCD Action which aims to strengthen mutual accountability by demonstrating national and regional progress towards agreed NCD policies and actions. The framework for the Pacific Monitoring Alliance for NCD Action (MANA) draws together core country-level components of NCD monitoring data (mortality, morbidity, risk factors, health system responses, environments, and policies) and identifies key cross-cutting issues for strengthening national and regional monitoring systems. These include: capacity building; a regional knowledge exchange hub; innovations (monitoring childhood obesity and food environments); and a robust regional accountability system. The MANA framework is governed by the Heads of Health and operationalised by a multi-agency technical Coordination Team. Alliance membership is voluntary and non-conditional, and aims to support the 22 Pacific Island countries and territories to improve the quality of NCD monitoring data across the region. In establishing a common vision for NCD monitoring, the framework combines data collected under the WHO Global Framework for NCDs with a set of action-orientated indicators captured in a NCD Dashboard for

  16. An oral ulceration associated with Morgellons disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosskopf, Courtney; Desai, Bhavik; Stoopler, Eric T

    2011-08-01

    Morgellons disease is a psycho-dermatologic condition in which patients report fibers or filaments "growing" out of their skin. This case report highlights an oral ulceration in a young woman associated with Morgellons disease, a condition that has not been previously described in the dental literature. An increasing number of individuals are self-reporting this condition and oral health care providers must be familiar with this disorder. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An Evaluation of Provincial Infectious Disease Surveillance Reports in Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Ellen; Barnes, Morgan E.; Sharif, Omar

    2017-01-01

    Context: Public Health Ontario (PHO) publishes various infectious disease surveillance reports, but none have yet been formally evaluated. Objective: PHO evaluated its monthly and annual infectious disease surveillance reports to assess public health stakeholders' current perception of the products and to develop recommendations for improving future products. Design: An evaluation consisting of an online survey and a review of public Web sites of other jurisdictions with similar annual report...

  18. Determinants of public phobia about infectious diseases in South Korea: effect of health communication and gender difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo; Choi, Mankyu; Lee, Tae-Ro

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the individual and social determinants of the public's phobia of infectious diseases in South Korea, where collective action was recently fueled by the public phobia over mad cow disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy [BSE]). Gender-specific multivariate regression was used to compare the public perception of BSE and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). The analysis results differentiated between the determinants of the phobia for the 2 diseases, BSE and HPAI (N = 1002). As with HIV/AIDS and leprosy, the public fear of HPAI was expressed as a disease phobia that seeks to ensure the social exclusion of infection sources, whereas the fear of BSE was influenced by social and communication factors. Therefore, BSE, unlike previous HPAI, can be rapidly amplified amid the growing distrust in health communication, in which case the social determinants of disease phobia are associated with communicator trust, social values, and political attitude toward diseases rather than disease perception. © 2013 APJPH.

  19. Severity of self-reported diseases and symptoms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Rasmussen, Niels Kristian; Avlund, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    , more frequently than males, reported on all symptoms and all disease groups except injuries. People with relatively low levels of education reported most diseases, especially musculoskeletal and cardiovascular diseases, more frequently than people with higher education. Age-adjusted mean SF-36 scores...... for all dimensions combined showed that the symptoms of melancholy/depression and breathing difficulties, psychiatric disorders and respiratory diseases scored lowest (i.e. were most often associated with worse health). Females had lower SF-36 combined scores (worse health) than males on all symptoms. We......OBJECTIVE: To estimate and rank the relative severity of self-reported diseases and symptoms in Denmark. METHOD: The 1994 Danish Health and Morbidity Survey collected data from 5,472 Danes older than 16 years of age. Interviews (response frequency: 79%) gave information on diseases and symptoms...

  20. 47 CFR 43.53 - Reports regarding division of international toll communication charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reports regarding division of international... AFFILIATES § 43.53 Reports regarding division of international toll communication charges. (a) Each... between the continental United States and any foreign country (other than one to which the domestic word...

  1. Guide to Preparing SAND Reports and other communication products : quick reference guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-10-01

    This Quick Reference Guide supplements the more complete Guide to Preparing SAND Reports and Other Communication Products. It provides limited guidance on how to prepare SAND Reports at Sandia National Laboratories. Users are directed to the in-depth guide for explanations of processes.

  2. Guide to preparing SAND reports and other communication products : quick reference guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-03-01

    This 'Quick Reference Guide' supplements the more complete 'Guide to Preparing SAND Reports and Other Communication Products'. It provides limited guidance on how to prepare SAND Reports at Sandia National Laboratories. Users are directed to the in-depth guide for explanations of processes.

  3. Assessing competence in communication and interpersonal skills: the Kalamazoo II report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, F Daniel; Gordon, Geoffrey H; Whelan, Gerald; Cole-Kelly, Kathy; Frankel, Richard; Buffone, Natalie; Lofton, Stephanie; Wallace, MaryAnne; Goode, Leslie; Langdon, Lynn

    2004-06-01

    Accreditation of residency programs and certification of physicians requires assessment of competence in communication and interpersonal skills. Residency and continuing medical education program directors seek ways to teach and evaluate these competencies. This report summarizes the methods and tools used by educators, evaluators, and researchers in the field of physician-patient communication as determined by the participants in the "Kalamazoo II" conference held in April 2002. Communication and interpersonal skills form an integrated competence with two distinct parts. Communication skills are the performance of specific tasks and behaviors such as obtaining a medical history, explaining a diagnosis and prognosis, giving therapeutic instructions, and counseling. Interpersonal skills are inherently relational and process oriented; they are the effect communication has on another person such as relieving anxiety or establishing a trusting relationship. This report reviews three methods for assessment of communication and interpersonal skills: (1) checklists of observed behaviors during interactions with real or simulated patients; (2) surveys of patients' experience in clinical interactions; and (3) examinations using oral, essay, or multiple-choice response questions. These methods are incorporated into educational programs to assess learning needs, create learning opportunities, or guide feedback for learning. The same assessment tools, when administered in a standardized way, rated by an evaluator other than the teacher, and using a predetermined passing score, become a summative evaluation. The report summarizes the experience of using these methods in a variety of educational and evaluation programs and presents an extensive bibliography of literature on the topic. Professional conversation between patients and doctors shapes diagnosis, initiates therapy, and establishes a caring relationship. The degree to which these activities are successful depends, in

  4. First report of oligodendroglioma in a sheep : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Derakhshanfar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Oligodendrogliomas occur most commonly in the dog, but have also been reported in cattle, horses and cats. A 1-year-old sheep with neurological disturbances, including blindness, ataxia, circling and incoordination was referred to the veterinary clinic of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. Following euthanasia and necropsy, a soft, relatively well-demarcated mass was observed in the white and grey matter of the right cerebral hemisphere, close to the sylvian fissure in the right cerebral hemisphere. Microscopic examination revealed a sheet of densely packed tumour cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, lightly staining cytoplasm and characteristic perinuclear halo effect which is consistent with a diagnosis of oligodendroglioma. This is the 1st report of oligodendroglioma in sheep.

  5. Kienböck’s Disease: Case Report - Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayal Güler

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteonecrosis is defined as the death of bone due to interruption of the blood supply to the bone. Kienböck’s disease is osteonecrosis of lunate bone as a result of heavy repetitive loading on wrist. We planned to present a 39-year-old patient having pain, swelling and limitation of range of motion (ROM in right wrist, because Kienböck’s disease should be into account in differential diagnosis of such patients. X-ray of the right wrist of patient demonstrated sclerosis, cystic appearance and irregularity in lunate bone. Irregularities, loss of volume and diffuse low-intensity appearance were observed in lunate bone on T1-weighted MR images. T2-weighted fat-saturated MR images demonstrated diffuse hyperintensity in the same areas which is suggested bone-marrow edema. These findings were determined as the changes with related osteonecrosis of the lunate bone. Resting splint and antiinflammatory treatment were given to the patient. The patient was consulted to the department of orthopedics and traumatology. Patient refused operation. Pain, swelling and limitation of ROM of the patients improved after 3 weeks. In conclusion, Kienböck’s disease should be into account in the differential diagnosis of patients having pain, swelling and limitation of ROM in wrist. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2009;15:26-8

  6. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor and D. Barney

    2010-01-01

    CMS Centres, Outreach and the 7 TeV Media Event The new CMS Communications group is now established and is addressing three areas that are critical to CMS as it enters the physics operations phase: - Communications Infrastructure, including almost 50 CMS Centres Worldwide, videoconferencing systems, and CERN meeting rooms - Information systems, including the internal and external Web sites as well as the document preparation and management systems - Outreach and Education activities, including working with print, radio and TV media, visits to CMS, and exhibitions. The group has been active in many areas, with the highest priority being accorded to needs of CMS operations and preparations for the major media event planned for 7 TeV collisions. Unfortunately the CMS Centre@CERN suffered a major setback when, on 21st December, a cooling water pipe froze and burst on the floor above the CMS Centre main room. Water poured through the ceiling, flooding the floor and soaking some of the consoles, before e...

  7. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Petrilli

    2013-01-01

    The organisation of the Open Days at the end of September was the single biggest effort of the CMS Communications Group this year. We would like to thank all volunteers for their hard work to show our Point 5 facilities and explain science and technology to the general public. During two days more than 5,000 people visited the CMS detector underground and profited from the surface activities, which included an exhibition on CMS, a workshop on superconductivity, and an activity for our younger visitors involving wooden Kapla blocks. The Communications Group took advantage of the preparations to produce new CMS posters that can be reused at other venues. Event display images have been produced not just for this occasion but also for other exhibits, education purposes, publications etc. During the Open Days, Gilles Jobin, 2012 winner of CERN Collide@CERN prize, performed his Quantum show in Point 5, with the light installation of German artist Julius von Bismarck. Image 3: CERN Open Days at CMS wel...

  8. Using others' words: conversational use of reported speech by individuals with aphasia and their communication partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengst, Julie A; Frame, Simone R; Neuman-Stritzel, Tiffany; Gannaway, Rachel

    2005-02-01

    Reported speech, wherein one quotes or paraphrases the speech of another, has been studied extensively as a set of linguistic and discourse practices. Researchers agree that reported speech is pervasive, found across languages, and used in diverse contexts. However, to date, there have been no studies of the use of reported speech among individuals with aphasia. Grounded in an interactional sociolinguistic perspective, the study presented here documents and analyzes the use of reported speech by 7 adults with mild to moderately severe aphasia and their routine communication partners. Each of the 7 pairs was videotaped in 4 everyday activities at home or around the community, yielding over 27 hr of conversational interaction for analysis. A coding scheme was developed that identified 5 types of explicitly marked reported speech: direct, indirect, projected, indexed, and undecided. Analysis of the data documented reported speech as a common discourse practice used successfully by the individuals with aphasia and their communication partners. All participants produced reported speech at least once, and across all observations the target pairs produced 400 reported speech episodes (RSEs), 149 by individuals with aphasia and 251 by their communication partners. For all participants, direct and indirect forms were the most prevalent (70% of RSEs). Situated discourse analysis of specific episodes of reported speech used by 3 of the pairs provides detailed portraits of the diverse interactional, referential, social, and discourse functions of reported speech and explores ways that the pairs used reported speech to successfully frame talk despite their ongoing management of aphasia.

  9. Review of Infectious Disease Report in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.D. Sorokhan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an analysis of infectious disease report in Great Britain that is a member of the European Union. There are listed the infectious diseases and infectious agents of these diseases. There are described in detail how to fill the notification form and the methods and terms of sending it to Public Health England. Attention is focused on the importance of the analysis of infectious disease report in the European Union in the light of cooperation between Ukraine and the EU after the economic component of the Association Agreement has been signed.

  10. Available data sources for monitoring non-communicable diseases and their risk factors in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Wandai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Health information systems for monitoring chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs in South Africa (SA are relatively less advanced than those for infectious diseases (particularly tuberculosis and HIV and for maternal and child health. NCDs are now the largest cause of premature mortality owing to exposure to risk factors arising from obesity that include physical inactivity and accessible, cheap but unhealthy diets. The National Strategic Plan for the Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases 2013 - 17 developed by the SA National Department of Health outlines targets and monitoring priorities. Objectives. To assess data sources relevant for monitoring NCDs and their risk factors by identifying the strengths and weaknesses, including usability and availability, of surveys and routine systems focusing at national and certain sub-national levels. Methods. Publicly available survey and routine data sources were assessed for variables collected, their characteristics, frequency of data collection, geographical coverage and data availability. Results. Survey data sources were found to be quite different in the way data variables are collected, their geographical coverage and also availability, while the main weakness of routine data sources was poor quality of data. Conclusions. To provide a sound basis for monitoring progress of NCDs and related risk factors, we recommend harmonising and strengthening available SA data sources in terms of data quality, definitions, categories used, timeliness, disease coverage and biomarker measurement.

  11. Retrieval of radiology reports citing critical findings with disease-specific customization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacson, Ronilda; Sugarbaker, Nathanael; Prevedello, Luciano M; Ivan, Ip; Mar, Wendy; Andriole, Katherine P; Khorasani, Ramin

    2012-01-01

    Communication of critical results from diagnostic procedures between caregivers is a Joint Commission national patient safety goal. Evaluating critical result communication often requires manual analysis of voluminous data, especially when reviewing unstructured textual results of radiologic findings. Information retrieval (IR) tools can facilitate this process by enabling automated retrieval of radiology reports that cite critical imaging findings. However, IR tools that have been developed for one disease or imaging modality often need substantial reconfiguration before they can be utilized for another disease entity. THIS PAPER: 1) describes the process of customizing two Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Information Retrieval/Extraction applications - an open-source toolkit, A Nearly New Information Extraction system (ANNIE); and an application developed in-house, Information for Searching Content with an Ontology-Utilizing Toolkit (iSCOUT) - to illustrate the varying levels of customization required for different disease entities and; 2) evaluates each application's performance in identifying and retrieving radiology reports citing critical imaging findings for three distinct diseases, pulmonary nodule, pneumothorax, and pulmonary embolus. Both applications can be utilized for retrieval. iSCOUT and ANNIE had precision values between 0.90-0.98 and recall values between 0.79 and 0.94. ANNIE had consistently higher precision but required more customization. Understanding the customizations involved in utilizing NLP applications for various diseases will enable users to select the most suitable tool for specific tasks.

  12. Communicable disease control programmes and health systems: an analytical approach to sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigayeva, Altynay; Coker, Richard J

    2015-04-01

    There is renewed concern over the sustainability of disease control programmes, and re-emergence of policy recommendations to integrate programmes with general health systems. However, the conceptualization of this issue has remarkably received little critical attention. Additionally, the study of programmatic sustainability presents methodological challenges. In this article, we propose a conceptual framework to support analyses of sustainability of communicable disease programmes. Through this work, we also aim to clarify a link between notions of integration and sustainability. As a part of development of the conceptual framework, we conducted a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed literature on concepts, definitions, analytical approaches and empirical studies on sustainability in health systems. Identified conceptual proposals for analysis of sustainability in health systems lack an explicit conceptualization of what a health system is. Drawing upon theoretical concepts originating in sustainability sciences and our review here, we conceptualize a communicable disease programme as a component of a health system which is viewed as a complex adaptive system. We propose five programmatic characteristics that may explain a potential for sustainability: leadership, capacity, interactions (notions of integration), flexibility/adaptability and performance. Though integration of elements of a programme with other system components is important, its role in sustainability is context specific and difficult to predict. The proposed framework might serve as a basis for further empirical evaluations in understanding complex interplay between programmes and broader health systems in the development of sustainable responses to communicable diseases. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  13. Communicable diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: prevention and control 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Z; Mahjour, J; Khan, W

    2013-10-01

    One-third of all morbidities and mortalities in the Eastern Mediterranean Region are attributed to communicable diseases. A continued situation of war and conflict, and growing political unrest in the Region, coupled with factors such as travel and migration, and insufficient infrastructure and inadequate technical and managerial capacity ofthe programmes are the major challenges. Despite these challenges, the Region continued making progress towards the elimination of specific diseases such as lymphatic filariasis, measles, malaria, schistosomiasis and dracunculiasis during 2010-11. Coverage for vaccine-preventable diseases was enhanced. Preparedness and response to emerging (e.g. dengue fever in Pakistan and Yemen) and re-emerging (e.g. cholera in Sudan) infections was improved. The Region has continued its efforts for controlling tuberculosis and curbing HIV/AIDS. Looking ahead, the Region aims to improve surveillance and response capacities, legislation issues, coordination, bio-risk and bio-security and quality management in the coming years.

  14. Action to address the household economic burden of non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Stephen; Laba, Tracey-Lea; Essue, Beverley M; Gheorghe, Adrian; Muhunthan, Janani; Engelgau, Michael; Mahal, Ajay; Griffiths, Ulla; McIntyre, Diane; Meng, Qingyue; Nugent, Rachel; Atun, Rifat

    2018-05-19

    The economic burden on households of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, respiratory diseases, and diabetes, poses major challenges to global poverty alleviation efforts. For patients with NCDs, being uninsured is associated with 2-7-fold higher odds of catastrophic levels of out-of-pocket costs; however, the protection offered by health insurance is often incomplete. To enable coverage of the predictable and long-term costs of treatment, national programmes to extend financial protection should be based on schemes that entail compulsory enrolment or be financed through taxation. Priority should be given to eliminating financial barriers to the uptake of and adherence to interventions that are cost-effective and are designed to help the poor. In concert with programmes to strengthen national health systems and governance arrangements, comprehensive financial protection against the growing burden of NCDs is crucial in meeting the UN's Sustainable Development Goals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Political priority in the global fight against non–communicable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Maher

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of non–communicable diseases (NCDs – such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic respiratory diseases – is surging globally. Yet despite the availability of cost–effective interventions, NCDs receive less than 3% of annual development assistance for health to low and middle income countries. The top donors in global health – including the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the US Government, and the World Bank – together commit less than 2% of their budgets to the prevention and control of NCDs. Why is there such meagre funding on the table for the prevention and control of NCDs? Why has a global plan of action aimed at halting the spread of NCDs been so difficult to achieve?

  16. Association of perceived physician communication style with patient satisfaction, distress, cancer-related self-efficacy, and perceived control over the disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, R; Pedersen, C G; Jensen, A B

    2003-01-01

    -efficacy, and perceived control were completed prior to and after the consultation by 454 patients attending an oncology outpatient clinic. After the consultation, the patients also rated the physicians' communicative behaviours by completing a patient-physician relationship inventory (PPRI), and the physicians were......The aim of the study was to investigate the association of physician communication behaviours as perceived by the patient with patient reported satisfaction, distress, cancer-related self-efficacy, and perceived control over the disease in cancer patients. Questionnaires measuring distress, self...

  17. Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Lee

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a rare but typical case of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD. Two subcutaneous nodules appeared suddenly on the right of the neck of a 15-year-old girl. Microscopy of a surgical specimen of the larger nodule showed necrotizing lymphadenitis. Prompt treatment with mepirizole resulted in the disappearance of the smaller nodule. No recurrence was noted during 6 months of follow-up. KFD is a rare, self-limiting, necrotizing histiocytic lymphadenitis that needs to be differentiated from malignant lymphoma. Any nodal biopsy showing fragmented nuclei, necrosis, and karyorrhexis without prominent neutrophils should alert the physician to consideration of KFD, especially in a young woman presenting with cervical lymphadenopathy.

  18. Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Charles L.

    2011-12-31

    Research for the DOE Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers focused on Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). RVFV and VEEV are Category A and B pathogens respectively. Among the priority threats, RVFV and VEEV rank high in their potential for being weaponized and introduced to the United States, spreading quickly, and having a large health and economic impact. In addition, they both have live attenuated vaccine, which allows work to be performed at BSL-2. While the molecular biology of RVFV and VEEV are increasingly well-characterized, little is known about its host-pathogen interactions. Our research is aimed at determining critical alterations in host signaling pathways to identify therapeutics targeted against the host.

  19. Prevention and management of non-communicable disease: the IOC consensus statement, Lausanne 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Gordon O; Klügl, Martin; Engebretsen, Lars; Bendiksen, Fredrik; Blair, Steven N; Börjesson, Mats; Budgett, Richard; Derman, Wayne; Erdener, Uğur; Ioannidis, John P A; Khan, Karim M; Martinez, Rodrigo; van Mechelen, Willem; Mountjoy, Margo; Sallis, Robert E; Schwellnus, Martin; Shultz, Rebecca; Soligard, Torbjørn; Steffen, Kathrin; Sundberg, Carl Johan; Weiler, Richard; Ljungqvist, Arne

    2013-11-01

    Morbidity and mortality from preventable, non-communicable chronic disease (NCD) threatens the health of our populations and our economies. The accumulation of vast amounts of scientific knowledge has done little to change this. New and innovative thinking is essential to foster new creative approaches that leverage and integrate evidence through the support of big data, technology, and design thinking. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the results of a consensus meeting on NCD prevention sponsored by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in April, 2013. Within the context of advocacy for multifaceted systems change, the IOC's focus is to create solutions that gain traction within health care systems. The group of participants attending the meeting achieved consensus on a strategy for the prevention and management of chronic disease that includes the following: 1. Focus on behavioural change as the core component of all clinical programs for the prevention and management of chronic disease. 2. Establish actual centres to design, implement, study, and improve preventive programs for chronic disease. 3. Use human-centered design in the creation of prevention programs with an inclination to action, rapid prototyping and multiple iterations. 4. Extend the knowledge and skills of Sports and Exercise Medicine (SEM) professionals to build new programs for the prevention and treatment of chronic disease focused on physical activity, diet and lifestyle. 5. Mobilize resources and leverage networks to scale and distribute programs of prevention. True innovation lies in the ability to align thinking around these core strategies to ensure successful implementation of NCD prevention and management programs within health care. The IOC and SEM community are in an ideal position to lead this disruptive change. The outcome of the consensus meeting was the creation of the IOC Non-Communicable Diseases ad-hoc Working Group charged with the responsibility of moving this

  20. State patrol mobile data communications network : final report and local evaluation, phase 3, report 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-02

    The Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT) has implemented a statewide digital microwave backbone infrastructure that is used to transport communications voice and data information for 161 public safety agencies throughout the State of Wisco...

  1. Kawasaki disease following Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Aswine K

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Kawasaki disease is an idiopathic acute systemic vasculitis of childhood. Although it simulates the clinical features of many infectious diseases, an infectious etiology has not been established. This is the first reported case of Kawasaki disease following Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Case presentation We report the case of a 4-year-old girl who presented with fever and petechial rash. Serology confirmed Rocky Mountain spotted fever. While being treated with intravenous doxycycline, she developed swelling of her hands and feet. She had the clinical features of Kawasaki disease which resolved after therapy with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG and aspirin. Conclusion This case report suggests that Kawasaki disease can occur concurrently or immediately after a rickettsial illness such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, hypothesizing an antigen-driven immune response to a rickettsial antigen.

  2. Kawasaki disease following Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Aswine K; Kairys, Steven W

    2009-07-06

    Kawasaki disease is an idiopathic acute systemic vasculitis of childhood. Although it simulates the clinical features of many infectious diseases, an infectious etiology has not been established. This is the first reported case of Kawasaki disease following Rocky Mountain spotted fever. We report the case of a 4-year-old girl who presented with fever and petechial rash. Serology confirmed Rocky Mountain spotted fever. While being treated with intravenous doxycycline, she developed swelling of her hands and feet. She had the clinical features of Kawasaki disease which resolved after therapy with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) and aspirin. This case report suggests that Kawasaki disease can occur concurrently or immediately after a rickettsial illness such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, hypothesizing an antigen-driven immune response to a rickettsial antigen.

  3. COMMUNICATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    The Medical Service is taking part in the French, National Hearing Day You are invited on 15th May 2002 to come to the infirmary, build. 57 ground floor, between 9.00 and 16.00 to find out the possible harmful effects of noise, risk prevention and other auditory diseases and problems. A hard of Hearing Association member will be there to answer your questions. An on the spot hearing test will be available.

  4. Multiple symmetrical lipomatosis (Madelung's disease) - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Marcelo Vasconcelos; Abreu, Marcelo de; Furtado, Claudia Dietz; Silveira, Marcio Fleck da; Furtado, Alvaro Porto Alegre; Genro, Carlos Horacio; Grazziotin, Rossano Ughini

    2001-01-01

    Multiple symmetrical lipomatosis (Madelung's disease) is a rare disorder characterized by deep accumulation of fat tissue, involving mainly the neck, shoulders and chest. This disease is associated with heavy alcohol intake and it is more common in men of Mediterranean origin. This disease can cause severe aesthetic deformities and progressive respiratory dysfunction. We report a case of a patient with multiple symmetrical lipomatosis and describe the clinical and radiological features of this disorder. (author)

  5. Enhancing disease surveillance reporting using public transport in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancing disease surveillance reporting using public transport in Dodoma District, Central Tanzania. ... LEG Mboera, SF Rumisha, EJ Mwanemile, E Mziwanda, PK Mmbuji ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  6. Factors associated with adequate weekly reporting for disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IDSR) strategy in 1998 to strengthen disease surveillance and epidemic response. However, the goal of weekly surveillance reporting among health facilities has not been achieved. We conducted a crosssectional study to determine the ...

  7. Periodontal disease and anemias associated with Crohn's disease. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Swati; Acharya, Anirudh B; Thakur, Srinath L

    2012-03-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory bowel disease with oral findings, including periodontal manifestations. Anemias, such as iron deficiency and anemia of chronic disease (ACD), are the most common hematologic complications of CD. Periodontitis has systemic effects, and may tend toward anemia, which can be explained by depressed erythropoiesis. In the report presented here, the authors review a case of Crohn's disease diagnosed 10 years previous to the patient presenting with a changing anemic profile and periodontal disease. A discussion of patient and disease management is included.

  8. The global impact of non-communicable diseases on households and impoverishment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Loes; Colpani, Veronica; Chaker, Layal; van der Lee, Sven J; Muka, Taulant; Imo, David; Mendis, Shanthi; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Bramer, Wichor M; Falla, Abby; Pazoki, Raha; Franco, Oscar H

    2015-03-01

    The global economic impact of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) on household expenditures and poverty indicators remains less well understood. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature evaluating the global economic impact of six NCDs [including coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), cancer (lung, colon, cervical and breast), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD)] on households and impoverishment. Medline, Embase and Google Scholar databases were searched from inception to November 6th 2014. To identify additional publications, reference lists of retrieved studies were searched. Randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, cohorts, case-control, cross-sectional, modeling and ecological studies carried out in adults and assessing the economic consequences of NCDs on households and impoverishment. No language restrictions. All abstract and full text selection was done by two independent reviewers. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers and checked by a third independent reviewer. Studies were included evaluating the impact of at least one of the selected NCDs and on at least one of the following measures: expenditure on medication, transport, co-morbidities, out-of-pocket (OOP) payments or other indirect costs; impoverishment, poverty line and catastrophic spending; household or individual financial cost. From 3,241 references, 64 studies met the inclusion criteria, 75% of which originated from the Americas and Western Pacific WHO region. Breast cancer and DM were the most studied NCDs (42 in total); CKD and COPD were the least represented (five and three studies respectively). OOP payments and financial catastrophe, mostly defined as OOP exceeding a certain proportion of household income, were the most studied outcomes. OOP expenditure as a proportion of family income, ranged between 2 and 158% across the different NCDs and countries. Financial catastrophe due to

  9. Addison’s Disease: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay N. Agrawal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A female patient presented with progressive weakness, asthenia and generalized hyperpigmentation. The characteristic hyperpimentation pointed towards possibility of Addison’s disease which was proved by markedly decreased plasma cortisol levels, hyponatremia and hyperkalemia. This could be one of the very few cases of Addison’s Disease reported.

  10. Auditory and optic neuropathy in Kjer's disease : case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaksma-Schaafsma, S. C.; van Dijk, P.; Dikkers, F. G.

    Objective: Description of a female patient with diagnosed Kjer's disease and sensorineural hearing loss, who specifically complained of a progressive inability to understand speech in noisy situations. Design: Case report. Subject: A 30-year-old, Caucasian woman with Kjer's disease. Results:

  11. Case Report: CT and MRI findings in Lhermitte- Duclos disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... lesion of uncertain origin. It is linked to an autosomal- dominant phakomatosis known as Cowden's disease in 40% of patients. The MRI features of LDD are almost unique and can be considered diagnostic. We report on a patient who presented with the typical MRI features of the above disease, and discuss the imaging ...

  12. Erdheim-Chester disease: a two-case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hexsel, Fernando Fernandez; Suwa, Eiji; Aguiar, Paula Musa; Maciel, Antonio Carlos; Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, RS

    2009-01-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis of unknown etiology, affecting multiple organ system, involving bones, central nervous system, eyes, lungs, mediastinum, kidneys and retroperitoneum. The authors report two cases that progressed with the typical presentation of the disease. Radiological findings were in agreement with literature and guided the diagnosis, confirmed by immunohistochemistry. (author)

  13. Cortical involvement of marchiafava-bignami disease: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Han Won [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    Marchiafava-Bignami disease is a rare complication of chronic alcoholism and this malady typically manifests as callosal lesion. I report here on one patient with Marchiafava-bignami disease (MBD) who has symmetric restricted diffusion in both lateral-frontal cortices, in addition to the callosal lesion.

  14. Ocular manifestations of Gaucher disease: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejía-Turizo, Juan Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a patient with Gaucher disease (GD type 3b, with a homozygous GBA gene mutation (c.1448T > C p.L483P (L444P. Ocular findings characteristic of this mutation are described, including vitreous condensation and macular edema. To our knowledge this is the first case reported in Colombia with these characteristics. A review of the ocular manifestations of this disease is also presented.

  15. Anaesthesiological implications of Kimura's disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorbello Massimiliano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Kimura's disease is a chronic inflammatory condition belonging to the angio-lymphatic proliferative group of disorders, usually affecting young men of Asian race, but is rare in Western countries. It is a benign but locally injurious disease, of unknown aetiology, whose classical clinical features are a tumour-like swelling, usually in the head and neck, with or without satellite lymphadenopathy, often accompanied by eosinophilia and elevated serum IgE. Case presentation We report the case of a 33-year-old Caucasian woman with an atypical localization of Kimura's disease, discussing the anaesthesiological implications and reviewing the current literature on Kimura's disease. Conclusions The diagnosis of Kimura's disease can be difficult and misleading, and anaesthesiological precautions could be ignored. Patients with this disease are often evaluated for other disorders: unnecessary diagnostic tests and investigations, or even surgery, may be avoided by just being aware of Kimura's disease.

  16. Preiser’s disease: two cases report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Ferrari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Preiser’s syndrome is a rare osteochondrosis affecting the carpal scaphoid, frequently related with an avascular necrosis. Osteoarthritic changes of the articular cartilage, local synovitis, and loose fragments are the most common findings associated with this syndrome. We report here two patients with Preiser’s syndrome, one with and one without a traumatic history, both presenting with pain, swelling and functional impairement of the wrist. In one patient radiography was sufficient for the diagnosis, in the other NMR was necessary to clearly establish type and extension of the lesion. Differential diagnosis may be sometimes difficult and the therapeutic approach on depends on several aspects, including etiology and type of occupational activity.

  17. ORAL MANIFESTATIONS OF CROHN'S DISEASE: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhvić-Urek Miranda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Crohn´s disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease still with unknown etiology. In 0.5-20 % of patients, extraintestinal lesions in the oral cavity can be presented in forms of orofacial granulomatosis, cobblestone and corrugated oral mucosa, mucosal tags, deep linear ulcerations with hyperplastic folds, pyostomatits vegetans, aphthous ulcers, angular cheilitis, labial/facial edema and gingival erythema/edema. We describe a case of a 28-year-old male who was presented with oral lesions of Crohn´s disease and treatment procedure. The patient was candidate for biologic treatment so dental procedures and preparation of the patient for treatment are described. Good communication and cooperation between the patient's doctor and dentist are important for successful treatment.

  18. Preparedness of HIV care and treatment clinics for the management of concomitant non–communicable diseases: a cross–sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Claudia; Aris, Eric; Mhalu, Aisa; Siril, Hellen; Christian, Beatrice; Koda, Happiness; Samatta, Talumba; Maghimbi, Martha Tsere; Hirschhorn, Lisa R.; Chalamilla, Guerino; Hawkins, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, epidemiological studies have reported an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCD) among people living with HIV. NCD management can be feasibly integrated into HIV care; however, clinic readiness to provide NCD services in these settings should first be assessed and gaps in care identified. Methods A cross-sectional survey conducted in July 2013 assessed the resources available for NCD care at 14 HIV clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Sur...

  19. The burden of non-communicable diseases in Nigeria; in the context of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiyaki, Musa Baba; Garbati, Musa Abubakar

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the tenets of globalization and how its elements have spread to sub-Saharan Africa, and Nigeria in particular. It assesses the growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Nigeria and its relationship with globalization. It further describes the conceptual framework on which to view the impact of globalization on NCDs in Nigeria. It assesses the Nigerian dimension of the relationship between the risk factors of NCDs and globalization. Appropriate recommendations on tackling the burden of NCDs in Nigeria based on cost-effective, culturally sensitive, and evidence-based interventions are highlighted.

  20. A simple framework for analysing the impact of economic growth on non-communicable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan K. Cohen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCDs are currently the leading cause of death worldwide. In this paper, we examine the channels through which economic growth affects NCDs’ epidemiology. Following a production function approach, we develop a basic technique to break up the impact of economic growth on NCDs into three fundamental components: (1 a resource effect; (2 a behaviour effect; and (3 a knowledge effect. We demonstrate that each of these effects can be measured as the product of two elasticities, the output and income elasticity of the three leading factors influencing the frequency of NCDs in any population: health care, health-related behaviours and lifestyle, and medical knowledge.

  1. Quality of life in people with Parkinson's disease: the relevance of social relationships and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kayoko; Kamide, Naoto; Suzuki, Makoto; Fukuda, Michinari

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Maintaining high quality of life is crucial for the rehabilitation of patients with Parkinson's disease. The quality of life scales currently in use do not assess all quality of life domains or their importance for each individual. Therefore, a new quality of life measure, the Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life-Direct Weighting, was used to investigate quality of life in people with Parkinson's disease. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen people with idiopathic Parkinson's disaese (average age = 80.0 years, standard deviation = 10.3 years, Hoehn & Yahr stages 1-4) were interviewed using the Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life-Direct Weighting. Its quality of life constructs were tested by comparing them against disease-specific quality of life (39-items Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire), motor functioning (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III), and activities of daily living (Barthel Index). [Results] Social connections such as "family" and "friends" were revealed as important constructs of life satisfaction. The Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life-Direct Weighting was not significantly correlated with the 39-items Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III, or Barthel Index but was significantly correlated with the "communication" dimension of the 39-items Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire. [Conclusion] The Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life-Direct Weighting detected various domains of quality of life, especially social relationships with family and friends. "Being heard" was also revealed as an essential component of life satisfaction, as it provides patients with a feeling of acceptance and assurance, possibly resulting in better quality of life.

  2. 47 CFR 4.11 - Notification and initial and final communications outage reports that must be filed by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Notification shall provide: The name of the reporting entity; the date and time of onset of the outage; a brief... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL DISRUPTIONS TO COMMUNICATIONS Reporting Requirements for... and contact telephone number by which the Commission's technical staff may contact the reporting...

  3. Natural disasters and communicable diseases in the Americas: contribution of veterinary public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Tirado, Maria Cristina; Rereddy, Shruthi; Dugas, Raymond; Borda, Maria Isabel; Peralta, Eduardo Alvarez; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Cosivi, Ottorino

    2012-01-01

    The consequences of natural disasters on the people living in the Americas are often amplified by socio-economic conditions. This risk may be increased by climate-related changes. The public health consequences of natural disasters include fatalities as well as an increased risk of communicable diseases. Many of these diseases are zoonotic and foodborne diseases. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the importance of natural disasters for the Americas and to emphasise the contribution of veterinary public health (VPH) to the management of zoonotic and foodborne disease risks. An analysis was conducted of natural disasters that occurred in the Americas between 2004 and 2008. Five cases studies illustrating the contributions of VPH in situations of disaster are presented. The data shows that natural disasters, particularly storms and floods, can create very important public health problems. Central America and the Caribbean, particularly Haiti, presented a higher risk than the other areas of the Americas. Two priority areas of technical cooperation are recommended for this region, namely: reducing the risk of leptospirosis and other vector-borne disease outbreaks related to floods and hurricanes and improving food safety. The contribution of different disciplines and sectors in disaster preparedness and response is of paramount importance to minimise morbidity and mortality.

  4. Patient-reported Communication Quality and Perceived Discrimination in Maternity Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasio, Laura; Kozhimannil, Katy B

    2015-10-01

    High-quality communication and a positive patient-provider relationship are aspects of patient-centered care, a crucial component of quality. We assessed racial/ethnic disparities in patient-reported communication problems and perceived discrimination in maternity care among women nationally and measured racial/ethnic variation in the correlates of these outcomes. Data for this analysis came from the Listening to Mothers III survey, a national sample of women who gave birth to a singleton baby in a US hospital in 2011-2012. Outcomes were reluctance to ask questions and barriers to open discussion in prenatal care, and perceived discrimination during the birth hospitalization, assessed using multinomial and logistic regression. We also estimated models stratified by race/ethnicity. Over 40% of women reported communication problems in prenatal care, and 24% perceived discrimination during their hospitalization for birth. Having hypertension or diabetes was associated with higher levels of reluctance to ask questions and higher odds of reporting each type of perceived discrimination. Black and Hispanic (vs. white) women had higher odds of perceived discrimination due to race/ethnicity. Higher education was associated with more reported communication problems among black women only. Although having diabetes was associated with perceptions of discrimination among all women, associations were stronger for black women. Race/ethnicity was associated with perceived racial discrimination, but diabetes and hypertension were consistent predictors of communication problems and perceptions of discrimination. Efforts to improve communication and reduce perceived discrimination are an important area of focus for improving patient-centered care in maternity services.

  5. Congruence in reported frequency of parent-adolescent sexual health communication: A study from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atienzo, Erika E; Ortiz-Panozo, Eduardo; Campero, Lourdes

    2015-08-01

    Most studies on parent-adolescent sexual health communication come from developed countries and are based on either parents' or children's reports. In developing countries, there is little evidence about the agreement among reports of all parties involved in parent-adolescent sexual health communication. The objective of this study is to explore the congruence (agreement) between adolescents and their parents about how frequently they discuss on selected sexual health topics. A total of 1606 parent-adolescent dyads of adolescents attending the first year in public high schools and their parents, in Morelos, Mexico were sampled in this study. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that included the frequency of parent-adolescent communication about eight sexual health topics. An ordinal logistic threshold model was used to estimate intra-class correlation coefficients within parent-adolescent dyads (as a measure of congruence) and to test if thresholds were equal between parents and adolescents. Congruence in reported frequency of parent-adolescent sexual health communication ranged from 0.205 (menstruation) to 0.307 (condoms) for mother-adolescent dyads, and from 0.103 (ejaculation) to 0.380 (condoms) for father-adolescent dyads. The thresholds (i.e., the cutoff points that define the categories in the observed ordinal variable) differed between parents and adolescents for each of the sexual health topics explored (pcongruence between parents' and adolescents' reports on parent-adolescent sexual health communication. This might be due to interpretation of frequency and intensity of sexual health communication which differs between parents and adolescents.

  6. Integrated Reporting as a Tool for Communicating with Stakeholders - Advantages and Disadvantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszyk, Iwona; Rymkiewicz, Bartosz

    2018-03-01

    Financial and non-financial reporting from the beginning of its existence is the primary source of communication between the company and a wide range of stakeholders. Over the decades it has adapted to the needs of rapidly changing business and social environment. Currently, the final link in the evolution of organizational reporting, such as integrated reporting, assumes integration and mutual connectivity to both financial and non-financial data. The main interest in the concept of integrated reporting comes from the value it contributes to the organization. Undoubtedly, the concept of integrated reporting is a milestone in the evolution of organizational reporting. It is however important to consider whether it adequately addresses the information needs of a wide range of stakeholders, and whether it is a universal tool for communication between the company and its stakeholders. The aim of the paper is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the concept of integrated reporting as a tool for communication with stakeholders and to further directions of its development. The article uses the research methods such as literature analysis, the content analysis of the corporate publications and comparative analysis.

  7. Diagnostic pitfalls associated with a large true posterior communicating artery aneurysm: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Kimihiro; Otani, Naoki; Seno, Soichiro; Takeuchi, Satoru; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro

    2013-10-01

    True posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm is an aneurysm that originates from the PCoA, and large or giant true PCoA aneurysms are rare. We report a case of a large true PCoA aneurysm successfully clipped after anterior clinoidectomy and discuss the diagnostic pitfalls associated with this rare clinical entity.

  8. Status of the dedicated short-range communications technology and applications : report to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report responds to a Congressional request for an assessment of the 5.9 Gigahertz (GHz) Dedicated Short Range : Communications (DSRC) in accordance with the requirements provided by Congress in the Moving Ahead for Progress in the : 21st Century...

  9. The Effect of Daily Progress Reports on Parental Academic Support: Paper versus Electronic Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    In this age of data based decision making and accountability, parent involvement and data collection are paramount. This study represents a significant contribution to educational research by extending the understanding of home-school communication media with specific regard to daily progress reports. The purpose of this study was to compare…

  10. The experiences of patients and carers living with multimorbid, non-communicable diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeder, Stephen R; Jowsey, Tanisha; McNab, Justin W

    2018-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are increasing in prevalence and straining health systems globally. This creates a so-called 'burden of disease', which can be traced in terms of fiscal health system matters and in terms of quality of life and lived experiences of people with NCDs. The United Nations has called for a global agenda to manage NCDs and reduce their burden. The purpose of this article is to summarise key findings from the Serious and Continuing Illness Policy and Practice Study concerning patients’ and carers’ experiences of multimorbid NCDs in Australia. We focus on the relevance of findings for policy and general practitioners in Australia. We suggest that a complex multimorbidity policy is needed to contextualise and guide single-illness NCD policies. Our research suggests that specialist NCD nurses and allied health professionals could have important roles in improving care coordination between general practices and community health centres.  .

  11. Can Communicating Personalised Disease Risk Promote Healthy Behaviour Change? A Systematic Review of Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, David P; Cameron, Elaine; Benton, Jack S; Deaton, Christi; Harvie, Michelle

    2017-10-01

    The assessment and communication of disease risk that is personalised to the individual is widespread in healthcare contexts. Despite several systematic reviews of RCTs, it is unclear under what circumstances that personalised risk estimates promotes change in four key health-related behaviours: smoking, physical activity, diet and alcohol consumption. The present research aims to systematically identify, evaluate and synthesise the findings of existing systematic reviews. This systematic review of systematic reviews followed published guidance. A search of four databases and two-stage screening procedure with good reliability identified nine eligible systematic reviews. The nine reviews each included between three and 15 primary studies, containing 36 unique studies. Methods of personalising risk feedback included imaging/visual feedback, genetic testing, and numerical estimation from risk algorithms. The reviews were generally high quality. For a broad range of methods of estimating and communicating risk, the reviews found no evidence that risk information had strong or consistent effects on health-related behaviours. The most promising effects came from interventions using visual or imaging techniques and with smoking cessation and dietary behaviour as outcomes, but with inconsistent results. Few interventions explicitly used theory, few targeted self-efficacy or response efficacy, and a limited range of Behaviour Change Techniques were used. Presenting risk information on its own, even when highly personalised, does not produce strong effects on health-related behaviours or changes which are sustained. Future research in this area should build on the existing knowledge base about increasing the effects of risk communication on behaviour.

  12. An Evaluation of Provincial Infectious Disease Surveillance Reports in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ellen; Barnes, Morgan E; Sharif, Omar

    Public Health Ontario (PHO) publishes various infectious disease surveillance reports, but none have yet been formally evaluated. PHO evaluated its monthly and annual infectious disease surveillance reports to assess public health stakeholders' current perception of the products and to develop recommendations for improving future products. An evaluation consisting of an online survey and a review of public Web sites of other jurisdictions with similar annual reports. For the online survey, stakeholder organizations targeted were the 36 local public health units and the Health health ministry in Ontario, Canada. Survey participants included epidemiologists, managers, directors, and other public health practitioners from participating organizations. Online survey respondents' awareness and access to the reports, their rated usefulness of reports and subsections, and suggestions for improving usefulness; timeliness of select annual reports from other jurisdictions based on the period from data described to report publication. Among 57 survey respondents, between 74% and 97% rated each report as useful; the most common use was for situational awareness. Respondents ranked timeliness as the most important attribute of surveillance reports, followed by data completeness. Among 6 annual reports reviewed, the median time to publication was 11.5 months compared with 23.2 months for PHO. Recommendations based on this evaluation have already been applied to the monthly report (eg, focusing on the most useful sections) and have become key considerations when developing future annual reports and other surveillance reporting tools (eg, need to provide more timely reports). Other public health organizations may also use this evaluation to inform aspects of their surveillance report development and evaluation. The evaluation results have provided PHO with direction on how to improve its provincial infectious disease surveillance reporting moving forward, and formed a basis for

  13. The impact of dietary risk factors on the burden of non-communicable diseases in Ethiopia : findings from the Global Burden of Disease study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Temesgen, Awoke Misganaw; Deribew, Amare; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Deribe, Kebede; Sahle, Berhe W.; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Bekele, Tolesa; Lemma, Ferew; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Seid, Oumer; Endris, Kedir; Hiruye, Abiy; Worku, Amare; Adams, Robert; Taylor, Anne W.; Gill, Tiffany K.; Shi, Zumin; Afshin, Ashkan; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has increased in sub-Saharan countries, including Ethiopia. The contribution of dietary behaviours to the NCD burden in Ethiopia has not been evaluated. This study, therefore, aimed to assess diet-related burden of disease in Ethiopia

  14. Unilateral segmental Darier disease following Blaschko lines: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Bimbi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Darier disease is an autosomal-dominant disorder of keratin production which leads to a loss in epithelial adhesion and abnormal keratinization. The clinical correspondence is keratotic papules grouped in sebaceous areas of trunk, scalp, forehead and flexures. It is a rare disease and the variant focused on here of unilateral segmental distribution following the lines of Blaschko is rarer still, considering the fact that this presentation counts for only 10% of this already uncommom disease and with only 40 cases being reported in English medical literature. Mutation in this gene is expressed in the skin and brain. The treatment of Darier disease can be challenging and is often difficult and sometimes unsatisfactory. Systemic retinoids are considered the drug of choice for treating Darier disease. However, their use is limited by potential side effects. We described the case a metalworker male with unilateral segmental Darier disease following Blaschko lines and we review the literature on this subject.

  15. Emergency Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts Resources » Emergency Communication Emergency Communication Stay informed of emergencies, weather delays, closures, other alerts. Find links to

  16. Occupational health legislation and practices related to seafarers on passenger ships focused on communicable diseases: results from a European cross-sectional study (EU SHIPSAN PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlett Christopher LR

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seafarers play an important role in the transmission of communicable diseases. The aim of the present study is to draw information and identify possible gaps on occupational health practices related to seafarers sailing on ships within the European Union Member States (EU MS with focus on communicable diseases. Methods A structured questionnaire was sent to competent authorities from 21 EU MS. The questionnaire included questions about occupational health policies, medical certification of seafarers, communicable diseases reporting and relevant legislation. Descriptive analysis of the data was conducted by the use of Epi Info software: EU MS were categorized in four priority groups (A, B, C, D based on: number of passenger ships visits, volume of passengers, and number of ports in each country. Moreover, EU MS were categorized to old and new, based on the date of entry in the EU. Results All 21 countries with relevant competent authorities responded to the questionnaire. The existence of specific national legislation/regulation/guidelines related to vaccination of seafarers was reported by three out of the 21 (14% responding authorities. Surveillance data of communicable diseases related to seafarers are collected and analyzed by 4 (19% authorities. Five out of 21 of the responding countries (24% reported that tuberculin test result is required for the issuance of seafarer's medical certificate while a great variety of medical examination is required for the issuance of this certificate among countries. Gaps on occupational health services focused on communicable diseases related to maritime occupation have been reported by 33% of the responding countries. Responding authorities from Group A and B had the highest percentage of reported gaps followed by groups C and D. Old MS reported a higher frequency regarding gaps on occupational health services in comparison to new MS. Conclusion Our results revealed heterogeneity

  17. Periodontal disease in a patient receiving Bevacizumab: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gujral Dorothy M

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody that inhibits the action of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF thereby acting as an angiogenesis inhibitor. As a result, supply of oxygen and nutrients to tissues is impaired and tumour cell growth is reduced. Reported side effects due to bevacizumab are hypertension and increased risk of bleeding. Bowel perforation has also been reported. Periodontal disease in patients on bevacizumab therapy has not been reported before. Case Presentation We report a case of a forty-three year old woman who developed periodontitis whilst receiving bevacizumab for lung cancer. The periodontal disease remained stable on discontinuation of the drug. Conclusion Further investigations are needed to determine the mechanism for bevacizumab-induced periodontal disease.

  18. Indigenous Australian household structure: a simple data collection tool and implications for close contact transmission of communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vino, Thiripura; Singh, Gurmeet R; Davison, Belinda; Campbell, Patricia T; Lydeamore, Michael J; Robinson, Andrew; McVernon, Jodie; Tong, Steven Y C; Geard, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Households are an important location for the transmission of communicable diseases. Social contact between household members is typically more frequent, of greater intensity, and is more likely to involve people of different age groups than contact occurring in the general community. Understanding household structure in different populations is therefore fundamental to explaining patterns of disease transmission in these populations. Indigenous populations in Australia tend to live in larger households than non-Indigenous populations, but limited data are available on the structure of these households, and how they differ between remote and urban communities. We have developed a novel approach to the collection of household structure data, suitable for use in a variety of contexts, which provides a detailed view of age, gender, and room occupancy patterns in remote and urban Australian Indigenous households. Here we report analysis of data collected using this tool, which quantifies the extent of crowding in Indigenous households, particularly in remote areas. We use these data to generate matrices of age-specific contact rates, as used by mathematical models of infectious disease transmission. To demonstrate the impact of household structure, we use a mathematical model to simulate an influenza-like illness in different populations. Our simulations suggest that outbreaks in remote populations are likely to spread more rapidly and to a greater extent than outbreaks in non-Indigenous populations.

  19. Monitoring of risk and protective factors for chronic non communicable diseases by telephone survey in Brazilian State Capitals, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; da Silva, Sara Araújo; de Oliveira, Patrícia Pereira Vasconcelos; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Sardinha, Luciana Monteiro Vasconcelos; Moura, Lenildo de

    2012-09-01

    To estimate the prevalence of protective and risk factors for the most important chronic non communicable diseases in all Brazilian capitals, including the Federal District. Data used were collected in 2008 through VIGITEL, an ongoing population-based telephone survey surveillance system implemented in all Brazilian State capitals since 2006. In 2008, over 54,000 interviews were completed over the phone with a random sample of individuals living in all 27 capitals. The analyses showed differences in the prevalence of determinants of chronic diseases by demographic characteristics such as gender, age and schooling. Men were more likely to be current smokers, overweight, and consumers of soft drinks, fatty meat and alcohol. They were also more likely to be more active in leisure. Women reported being more likely to eat healthy, but also were more likely to have a physician diagnosis of high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, osteoporosis and overall poor health status. In general, the prevalence of risk factors studied increased with decreasing levels of schooling. The VIGITEL system was implemented to monitor changes in the prevalence of determinants of chronic diseases over time to inform public health workers and decision makers to adjust existing programs and policies according to the changing profile of consumers. The ultimate goal is to improve the health of the Brazilian population.

  20. Modifiable life style associated risk factors for non communicable diseases among students of pre-university college of Udupi taluk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shradha S Parsekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Non-communicable diseases are diseases of longer period and are increasing. This study was intended to find out the proportion of adolescents having modifiable life style associated risk factors. Materials and methods A cross sectional study was carried out in 15 pre-university colleges (PUC of Udupi taluk, which were randomly selected, a class from each PUC was randomly chosen. WHO stepwise approach was used to collect data. A total of 838 adolescents in the age group 15 to 19 years were included. Data was analysed using SPSS software version 15. Chi square test was used to find the association. Results Current smoking was found in 1.67% of the participants. Nearly 16.94% participants were exposed to second hand smoke. About 2.15% of the participants were current alcohol drinkers. Junk food consumption was found in 64.08% of the participants. About 89.86% of the participants were physically inactive. Nearly 31.98% of the participants reported adding extra salt to the diet. Conclusion The behavioural risk factors investigated in the present study are potentially modifiable; identifying subgroups having one or multiple risk factors at an early age is of extreme importance for preventing risk of acquiring chronic diseases in adult life.

  1. Indigenous Australian household structure: a simple data collection tool and implications for close contact transmission of communicable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiripura Vino

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Households are an important location for the transmission of communicable diseases. Social contact between household members is typically more frequent, of greater intensity, and is more likely to involve people of different age groups than contact occurring in the general community. Understanding household structure in different populations is therefore fundamental to explaining patterns of disease transmission in these populations. Indigenous populations in Australia tend to live in larger households than non-Indigenous populations, but limited data are available on the structure of these households, and how they differ between remote and urban communities. We have developed a novel approach to the collection of household structure data, suitable for use in a variety of contexts, which provides a detailed view of age, gender, and room occupancy patterns in remote and urban Australian Indigenous households. Here we report analysis of data collected using this tool, which quantifies the extent of crowding in Indigenous households, particularly in remote areas. We use these data to generate matrices of age-specific contact rates, as used by mathematical models of infectious disease transmission. To demonstrate the impact of household structure, we use a mathematical model to simulate an influenza-like illness in different populations. Our simulations suggest that outbreaks in remote populations are likely to spread more rapidly and to a greater extent than outbreaks in non-Indigenous populations.

  2. Adverse event reporting in Slovenia - the influence of safety culture, supervisors and communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birk Karin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The provision of safe healthcare is considered a priority in European Union (EU member states. Along with other preventative measures in healthcare, the EU also strives to eliminate the “causes of harm to human health”. The aim of this survey was to determine whether safety culture, supervisors and communication between co-workers influence the number of adverse event reports submitted to the heads of clinical departments and to the management of an institution. Methods. This survey is based on cross-sectional analysis. It was carried out in the largest Slovenian university hospital. We received 235 completed questionnaires. Respondents included professionals in the fields of nursingcare, physiotherapy, occupational therapy and radiological technology. Results. Safety culture influences the number of adverse event reports submitted to the head of a clinical department from the organizational point of view. Supervisors and communication between co-workers do not influence the number of adverse event reports. Conclusion. It can be concluded that neither supervisors nor the level of communication between co-workers influence the frequency of adverse event reporting, while safety culture does influence it from an organizational point of view. The presumed factors only partly influence the number of submitted adverse event reports, thus other causes of under-reporting must be sought elsewhere.

  3. Prevalence and Knowledge Assessment of HIV and Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors among Formal Sector Employees in Namibia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guariguata, Leonor; de Beer, Ingrid; Hough, Rina; Mulongeni, Pancho; Feeley, Frank G.; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2015-01-01

    The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is growing in sub-Saharan Africa combined with an already high prevalence of infectious disease, like HIV. Engaging the formal employment sector may present a viable strategy for addressing both HIV and NCDs in people of working age. This study assesses

  4. Radon risks: Attitudes, perceptions and actions. Risk communication series. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, L.

    1989-08-01

    As many as 8 million homes in the United States may have elevated radon levels, with accompanying lung cancer risks several orders of magnitude higher than for most other environmental risks. The U.S. Environmental Protection Program (EPA) does not have clear regulatory authority over radon, so has relied on an information program. Less than 5% of homes have been tested, which is disappointing from a public health stance. The report summarizes the available research on communicating about the risk from radon from the perspective of a psychologist. The research results are critiqued to draw practical conclusions for radon policy and suggest the most important topics for further risk communication research.

  5. Analysis of timeliness of infectious disease reporting in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretzschmar Mirjam EE

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Timely reporting of infectious disease cases to public health authorities is essential to effective public health response. To evaluate the timeliness of reporting to the Dutch Municipal Health Services (MHS, we used as quantitative measures the intervals between onset of symptoms and MHS notification, and between laboratory diagnosis and notification with regard to six notifiable diseases. Methods We retrieved reporting data from June 2003 to December 2008 from the Dutch national notification system for shigellosis, EHEC/STEC infection, typhoid fever, measles, meningococcal disease, and hepatitis A virus (HAV infection. For each disease, median intervals between date of onset and MHS notification were calculated and compared with the median incubation period. The median interval between date of laboratory diagnosis and MHS notification was similarly analysed. For the year 2008, we also investigated whether timeliness is improved by MHS agreements with physicians and laboratories that allow direct laboratory reporting. Finally, we investigated whether reports made by post, fax, or e-mail were more timely. Results The percentage of infectious diseases reported within one incubation period varied widely, between 0.4% for shigellosis and 90.3% for HAV infection. Not reported within two incubation periods were 97.1% of shigellosis cases, 76.2% of cases of EHEC/STEC infection, 13.3% of meningococcosis cases, 15.7% of measles cases, and 29.7% of typhoid fever cases. A substantial percentage of infectious disease cases was reported more than three days after laboratory diagnosis, varying between 12% for meningococcosis and 42% for shigellosis. MHS which had agreements with physicians and laboratories showed a significantly shorter notification time compared to MHS without such agreements. Conclusions Over the study period, many cases of the six notifiable diseases were not reported within two incubation periods, and many were

  6. Prioritization of intervention methods for prevention of communicable diseases in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, A. W.

    poor housing environment (14.5-24.0%). Water quality played the least role in transmission of diseases accounting for only 3-8%. It was concluded that provision of hygiene education, and improvement of water quantity and housing, in that order can significantly contribute to reduction of communicable diseases in the area. Improvement of water quality has potentially the least effect on the number of morbidity and mortality cases.

  7. Risk communication as a core public health competence in infectious disease management: Development of the ECDC training curriculum and programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickmann, Petra; Abraham, Thomas; Sarkar, Satyajit; Wysocki, Piotr; Cecconi, Sabrina; Apfel, Franklin; Nurm, Ülla-Karin

    2016-01-01

    Risk communication has been identified as a core competence for guiding public health responses to infectious disease threats. The International Health Regulations (2005) call for all countries to build capacity and a comprehensive understanding of health risks before a public health emergency to allow systematic and coherent communication, response and management. Research studies indicate that while outbreak and crisis communication concepts and tools have long been on the agenda of public health officials, there is still a need to clarify and integrate risk communication concepts into more standardised practices and improve risk communication and health, particularly among disadvantaged populations. To address these challenges, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) convened a group of risk communication experts to review and integrate existing approaches and emerging concepts in the development of a training curriculum. This curriculum articulates a new approach in risk communication moving beyond information conveyance to knowledge- and relationship-building. In a pilot training this approach was reflected both in the topics addressed and in the methods applied. This article introduces the new conceptual approach to risk communication capacity building that emerged from this process, presents the pilot training approach developed, and shares the results of the course evaluation.

  8. Matched and mismatched appraisals of the effectiveness of communication strategies by family caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savundranayagam, Marie Y; Orange, J B

    2014-01-01

    Communication problems stemming from Alzheimer's disease (AD) often result in misunderstandings that can be linked with problem behaviours and increased caregiver stress. Moreover, these communication breakdowns also can result either from caregivers' use of ineffective communication strategies, which paradoxically are perceived as helpful, or can occur as a result of not using effective communication strategies that are perceived as unhelpful. The two primary aims were to determine the effectiveness of strategies used to resolve communication breakdowns and to examine whether caregivers' ratings of strategy effectiveness were consistent with evidence from video-recorded conversations and with effective communication strategies documented in the literature. Twenty-eight mealtime conversations were recorded using a sample of 15 dyads consisting of individuals with early, middle and late clinical-stage AD and their family caregivers. Conversations were analysed using the trouble-source repair paradigm to identify the communication strategies used by caregivers to resolve breakdowns. Family caregivers also rated the helpfulness of communication strategies used to resolve breakdowns. Analyses were conducted to assess the overlap or match between the use and appraisals of the helpfulness of communication strategies. Matched and mismatched appraisals of communication strategies varied across stages of AD. Matched appraisals by caregivers of persons with early-stage AD were observed for 68% of 22 communication strategies, whereas caregivers of persons with middle- and late-stage AD had matched appraisals for 45% and 55% of the strategies, respectively. Moreover, caregivers of persons with early-stage AD had matched appraisals over and above making matched appraisals by chance alone, compared with caregivers of persons in middle- and late-stage AD. Mismatches illustrate the need for communication education and training, particularly to establish empirically derived

  9. Developmental Origins of Health and Disease: A Lifecourse Approach to the Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Baird

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCDs, such as cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis, affect individuals in all countries worldwide. Given the very high worldwide prevalence of NCDs across a range of human pathology, it is clear that traditional approaches targeting those at most risk in older adulthood will not efficiently ameliorate this growing burden. It will thus be essential to robustly identify determinants of NCDs across the entire lifecourse and, subsequently, appropriate interventions at every stage to reduce an individual’s risk of developing these conditions. A lifecourse approach has the potential to prevent NCDs, from before conception through fetal life, infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and into older age. In this paper, we describe the origins of the lifecourse concept, the importance of early life influences, for example during pregnancy, examine potential underlying mechanisms in both cell biology and behavior change, and finally describe current efforts to develop interventions that take a lifecourse approach to NCD prevention. Two principal approaches to improving women’s nutritional status are outlined: nutritional supplementation and behavior change.

  10. Family health history communication networks of older adults: importance of social relationships and disease perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Goodman, Melody; Schafer, Ellen J

    2013-10-01

    Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication (have shared and intend to share new FHH information with family members) to inform public health efforts to facilitate FHH dissemination. Information on 970 social network members enumerated by 99 seniors (aged 57 years and older) at 3 senior centers in Memphis, Tennessee, through face-to-face interviews was analyzed. Participants shared FHH information with 27.5% of the network members; 54.7% of children and 24.4% of siblings. Two-level logistic regression models showed that participants had shared FHH with those to whom they provided emotional support (odds ratio [OR] = 1.836) and felt close to (OR = 1.757). Network-members were more likely to have received FHH from participants with a cancer diagnosis (OR = 2.617) and higher familiarity with (OR = 1.380) and importance of sharing FHH with family (OR = 1.474). Participants intended to share new FHH with those who provide tangible support to (OR = 1.804) and were very close to them (OR = 2.112). Members with whom participants intend to share new FHH were more likely to belong to the network of participants with higher perceived severity if family members encountered heart disease (OR = 1.329). Many first-degree relatives were not informed of FHH. Perceptions about FHH and disease risk as well as quality of social relationships may play roles in whether seniors communicate FHH with their families. Future studies may consider influencing these perceptions and relationships.

  11. Osteopetrosis - Albers-Schoenberg disease: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeronymo, J.R.B.; Borba, L.A.N.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a brief review of the literature and report a case of osteopetrosis tardo which was diagnosed by chance at the Hospital de Clinicas - Universidade Federal do Parana. This patient had no clinical manifestation of the disease. The radiological findings were characteristic of osteopetrosis and the absence of clinical signs confirm the tardo form of this rare disease, with the patient been well at 74 years of age. (author)

  12. Dental erosion caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Cengiz, Seda; Cengiz, M ?nan?; Sara?, Y ?inasi

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Chronic regurgitation of gastric acids in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease may cause dental erosion, which can lead in combination with attrition or bruxism to extensive loss of coronal tooth tissue. Case presentation This clinical report describes treatment of severe tooth wear of a gastroesophageal reflux disease patient who is 54-year-old Turkish male patient. After his medical treatment, severe tooth wear, bruxism and decreased vertical dimensions were determined...

  13. Extranodal Rosai Dorfman disease in multiple sites: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Jong Joon; Kim, Ho Kyun; Shim, Jae Chan; Lee, Kyoung Eun; Lee, Ghi Jai; Suh, Jung Ho; Hong, Seong Woo; Lee, Hye Kyung [Seoul Paik Hospital/Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Rosai Dorfman disease involves an abnormal proliferation of histiocytes. This abnormal growth tends to occur within the lymph nodes, with occasional extranodal presentation. Rosai Dorfman disease is a rare disease, and the extranodal cases are even more uncommon. We report a rare case of extranodal Rosai Dorfman disease in multiple sites in a 56 year old male patient. Abdominopelvic CT revealed soft tissue attenuation masses, encasing both the renal pelvis and both ureters, as well as the thoracic vertebra. Following the neck sonography, both submandibular glands had an enlarged honey combed appearance. Although Rosai Dorfman disease is rare, it should be considered as a potential differential diagnosis when multiple sites involving soft tissue attenuation masses are observed with sonogram and CT.

  14. A New Wave of Vaccines for Non-Communicable Diseases: What Are the Regulatory Challenges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Jonathan J; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines represent one of the greatest achievements of medicine, dramatically reducing the incidence of serious or life-threatening infectious diseases and allowing people to live longer, healthier lives. As life expectancy has increased, however, the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cancer, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes has increased. This shifting burden of disease has heightened the already urgent need for therapies that treat or prevent NCDs, a need that is now being met with increased efforts to develop NCD vaccines. Like traditional vaccines, NCD vaccines work by modulating the human immune system, but target cells, proteins or other molecules that are associated with the NCD in question rather than pathogens or pathogen-infected cells. Efforts are underway to develop NCD vaccines to address not only cancer and hypertension, but also addiction, obesity, asthma, arthritis, psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, and Crohn's disease, among others. NCD vaccines present an interesting challenge for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which is tasked with approving new treatments on the basis of efficacy and safety. Should NCD vaccines be evaluated under the same analytic frame as traditional vaccines, or that of biologic drugs? Despite the borrowed nomenclature, NCD vaccines differ in important ways from infectious disease vaccines. Because infectious disease vaccines are generally administered to healthy individuals, often children, tolerance for adverse events is low and willingness to pay is limited. It is important to have infectious disease vaccines even for rare or eradicated disease (e.g., smallpox), in the event of an outbreak. The efficacy of infectious disease vaccines is generally high, and the vaccines convey population level benefits associated with herd immunity and potential eradication. The combination of substantial population-level benefits, low willingness to pay, and low tolerance for adverse events explains the

  15. Final Scientific/Technical Report Solar America Initiative: Solar Outreach and Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, Jane M

    2011-09-10

    The purpose of the Solar America Initiative: Solar Outreach and Communications grant was to promote better communications among stakeholders; address infrastructure barriers to solar energy; and coordinate with industry, the U.S. Department of Energy, national laboratories, states, cities and counties. The Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), a non-profit organization formed in 1982, approached this grant project by establishing a wide range of communication and outreach activities including newsletters, workshops, webinars, model practices and publications; by advancing easy and fair hook-up rules to the utility grid; and by upgrading training based on industry competency standards. The Connecting to the Grid project and the Solar Codes and Standards Public Hearings project offered communication coupled with technical assistance to overcome interconnection, net metering and other regulatory and program barriers. The Workforce Development Project tackled building a strong workforce through quality training and competency assessment programs. IREC's web site, the semi-monthly state and stakeholder newsletter and the metrics report resulted in better communications among stakeholders. Workshops and phone seminars offered technical assistance and kept stakeholders up-to-date on key issues. All of these activities resulted in implementing sustainable solutions to institutional and market barriers to solar energy and getting the right information to the right people.

  16. Web-based infectious disease reporting using XML forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Danhong; Wang, Xia; Pan, Feng; Xu, Yongyong; Yang, Peng; Rao, Keqin

    2008-09-01

    Exploring solutions for infectious disease information sharing among hospital and public health information systems is imperative to the improvement of disease surveillance and emergent response. This paper aimed at developing a method to directly transmit real-time data of notifiable infectious diseases from hospital information systems to public health information systems on the Internet by using a standard eXtensible Markup Language (XML) format. The mechanism and work flow by which notifiable infectious disease data are created, reported and used at health agencies in China was evaluated. The capacity of all participating providers to use electronic data interchange to submit transactions of data required for the notifiable infectious disease reporting was assessed. The minimum data set at national level that is required for reporting for national notifiable infectious disease surveillance was determined. The standards and techniques available worldwide for electronic health data interchange, such as XML, HL7 messaging, CDA and ATSM CCR, etc. were reviewed and compared, and an XML implementation format needed for this purpose was defined for hospitals that are able to access the Internet to provide a complete infectious disease reporting. There are 18,703 county or city hospitals in China. All of them have access to basic information infrastructures including computers, e-mail and the Internet. Nearly 10,000 hospitals possess hospital information systems used for electronically recording, retrieving and manipulating patients' information. These systems collect 23 data items required in the minimum data set for national notifiable infectious disease reporting. In order to transmit these data items to the disease surveillance system and local health information systems instantly and without duplication of data input, an XML schema and a set of standard data elements were developed to define the content, structure and semantics of the data set. These standards

  17. A middle aged man with Caroli's disease: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Sarker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Caroli's disease (CD is a rare congenital abnormality characterized by non-obstructive dilatation of intra hepatic bile ducts, which may be complicated by stone formation, recurrent cholangitis, biliary abscess and higher risk for biliary malignancy. We report a 37-year-old man with recurrent bouts of upper abdominal pain, high grade pyrexia, mild icterus with normal liver function tests who was diagnosed as a case of Caroli's disease. The laboratory studies confirmed Caroli' s disease with a SOL in liver suggestive of liver abscess and the patient received broad spectrum antibiotics with anaerobic and amoebicidal coverage. With 14 days course of antibiotics, he gradually recovered from his symptoms.

  18. Pilot study of an Internet patient-physician communication tool for heart failure disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Robert C; Delgado, Diego; Costigan, Jeannine; Ross, Heather; MacIver, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Internet disease management has the promise of improving care in patients with heart failure but evidence supporting its use is limited. We have designed a Heart Failure Internet Communication Tool (HFICT), allowing patients to enter messages for clinicians, as well as their daily symptoms, weight, blood pressure and heart rate. Clinicians review the information on the same day and provide feedback. This pilot study evaluated the feasibility and patients' acceptability of using the Internet to communicate with patients with symptomatic heart failure. Patients with symptomatic heart failure were instructed how to use the Internet communication tool. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of patients who used the system regularly by entering information on average at least once per week for at least 3 months. Secondary outcomes measures included safety and maintainability of the tool. We also conducted a content analysis of a subset of the patient and clinician messages entered into the comments field. Between 3 May 1999 and 1 November 2002, 62 patients (mean age 48.7 years) were enrolled. At 3 months 58 patients were alive and without a heart transplant. Of those, 26 patients (45%; 95% Confidence Interval, 0.33-0.58) continued using the system at 3 months. In 97% of all entries by participants weight was included; 68% of entries included blood pressure; and 71% of entries included heart rate. In 3,386 entries out of all 5,098 patient entries (66%), comments were entered. Functions that were not used included the tracking of diuretics, medications and treatment goals. The tool appeared to be safe and maintainable. Workload estimates for clinicians for entering a response to each patient's entry ranged from less than a minute to 5 minutes or longer for a detailed response. Patients sent 3,386 comments to the Heart Function Clinic. Based on the content analysis of 100 patient entries, the following major categories of communication were identified: patient

  19. Graves' disease presenting as pseudotumor cerebri: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitas Cláudia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pseudotumor cerebri is an entity characterized by elevated intracranial pressure with normal cerebrospinal fluid and no structural abnormalities detected on brain MRI scans. Common secondary causes include endocrine pathologies. Hyperthyroidism is very rarely associated and only three case reports have been published so far. Case presentation We report the case of a 31-year-old Luso-African woman with clinical symptoms and laboratory confirmation of Graves' disease that presented as pseudotumor cerebri. Conclusion This is a rare form of presentation of Graves' disease and a rare cause of pseudotumor cerebri. It should be remembered that hyperthyroidism is a potential cause of pseudotumor cerebri.

  20. "Boring" family routines reduce non-communicable diseases: a commentary and call for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Tomlinson, Mark; Davis, Emily

    2015-01-01

    As global donors shift their efforts from infectious diseases to non-communicable diseases (NCD), it is critical to capitalize on our prior mistakes and successes. Policy makers and public health administrators are often looking for magic bullets: drugs or treatments to eradicate disease. Yet, each potential magic bullet requires consistent, daily implementation and adherence to a new set of habits to actually work. Families' and communities' daily, interlocking routines will be the battlefield on which scientific and technological breakthroughs will be implemented and succeed or not. Currently, there are many evidence-based interventions (EBI) which have been demonstrated to shift specific habits which account for most NCD (eating, drinking, moving, and smoking). Yet, securing sustained uptake of these programs is rare - suggesting different intervention strategies are needed. Structural changes, policy nudges, and partnerships with private enterprise may be able to shift the health behaviors of more citizens faster and at a lower cost than existing EBI. Addressing concurrent risk and protective factors at the community level and intervening to shape new cultural routines may be useful to reduce NCD.

  1. Medicalization of global health 3: the medicalization of the non-communicable diseases agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jocalyn

    2014-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the massive global burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) due to their prevalence, projected social and economic costs, and traditional neglect compared to infectious disease. The 2011 UN Summit, WHO 25×25 targets, and support of major medical and advocacy organisations have propelled prominence of NCDs on the global health agenda. NCDs are by definition 'diseases' so already medicalized. But their social drivers and impacts are acknowledged, which demand a broad, whole-of-society approach. However, while both individual- and population-level targets are identified in the current NCD action plans, most recommended strategies tend towards the individualistic approach and do not address root causes of the NCD problem. These so-called population strategies risk being reduced to expectations of individual and behavioural change, which may have limited success and impact and deflect attention away from government policies or regulation of industry. Industry involvement in NCD agenda-setting props up a medicalized approach to NCDs: food and drink companies favour focus on individual choice and responsibility, and pharmaceutical and device companies favour calls for expanded access to medicines and treatment coverage. Current NCD framing creates expanded roles for physicians, healthcare workers, medicines and medical monitoring. The professional rather than the patient view dominates the NCD agenda and there is a lack of a broad, engaged, and independent NGO community. The challenge and opportunity lie in defining priorities and developing strategies that go beyond a narrow medicalized framing of the NCD problem and its solutions.

  2. Gaucher disease with jawbone involvement: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadieh, Azadeh; Farnad, Fariborz; Sedghizadeh, Parish P

    2014-11-05

    Gaucher disease is an autosomal recessive systemic condition, and the most common of the lysosomal storage disorders. It is characterized by lipid accumulation in certain cells and organs, particularly macrophages, which appear on light microscopy as 'Gaucher cells' or vacuolated lipid-laden reticuloendothelial cells. Long bone involvement is common in Gaucher disease, whereas craniofacial bone involvement is extremely rare. Reports confirming the diagnoses of Gaucher disease involving craniofacial bones by histopathologic evidence are even rarer. A 46-year-old Caucasian Ashkenazi Jewish woman with Gaucher disease presented with jawbone pain and lytic radiographic lesions of her mandible. Surgical biopsy of a mandibular lesion revealed Gaucher cells infiltrating the mandible, which correlated with radiographic and clinical findings, supporting a diagnosis of Gaucher disease with jawbone involvement. Lysosomal storage diseases can have head and neck manifestations, and bone involvement in Gaucher disease is common. Therefore, careful consideration of signs and symptoms and medical history, with a thorough review of systems, is important when evaluating patients with lysosomal storage disorders to rule out head and neck involvement of disease. Biopsy may be warranted in some cases for more definitive diagnosis of painful jawbone lesions and to rule out other odontogenic and non-odontogenic conditions in the differential diagnosis.

  3. [Analysis on probability of premature death and cause eliminated life expectancy of major non-communicable diseases in Chongqing Municipality, 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, X B; Tang, W W; Mao, D Q; Jiao, Y; Shen, Z Z

    2017-11-06

    Objective: To analyze the premature death probability and cause-eliminated life expectancy of cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease and diabetes in Chongqing residents in 2016 so as to provide recommendation for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) prevention and control in Chongqing. Methods: Death cases of Chongqing Municipality between January 1(st) and December 31(st), 2016 were reported through death case registry system of national center for disease prevention and control. Death cases were sorted by international classification of disease (ICD-10). Mortality rate, standardized mortality rate, constituent ratio, premature death probability, life expectancy, and cause-eliminated life expectancy of four major NCDs were analyzed. Results: A total of 218 004 death cases were reported in Chongqing, 2016, and the mortality rate was 731.73/100 000. Of them, a total of 179 637 death cases of the four major NCDs including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease and diabetes were reported, accounting for 82.40% of all death cases. The mortality rate and standardized mortality rate of four major NCDs was 602.95/100 000 and 455.82/100 000, respectively. The premature death probability of four major NCDs was 15.96%, and males (25.39%) had a higher premature death probability than females (10.78%). The premature death probability of cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and diabetes were 6.01%, 8.32%, 2.05%, and 0.43%, respectively. Life expectancy would increase by 6.02, 3.19, 1.89, and 0.19 years, after eliminating cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease and diabetes respectively. Conclusion: The premature death probability of major NCDs was high in Chongqing, and males had a higher premature death probability than females did. Intervention and health management of the population should be conducted according to different gender-based risk factors to reduce the premature death probability.

  4. Journal article reporting standards for quantitative research in psychology: The APA Publications and Communications Board task force report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Mark; Cooper, Harris; Kline, Rex B; Mayo-Wilson, Evan; Nezu, Arthur M; Rao, Stephen M

    2018-01-01

    Following a review of extant reporting standards for scientific publication, and reviewing 10 years of experience since publication of the first set of reporting standards by the American Psychological Association (APA; APA Publications and Communications Board Working Group on Journal Article Reporting Standards, 2008), the APA Working Group on Quantitative Research Reporting Standards recommended some modifications to the original standards. Examples of modifications include division of hypotheses, analyses, and conclusions into 3 groupings (primary, secondary, and exploratory) and some changes to the section on meta-analysis. Several new modules are included that report standards for observational studies, clinical trials, longitudinal studies, replication studies, and N-of-1 studies. In addition, standards for analytic methods with unique characteristics and output (structural equation modeling and Bayesian analysis) are included. These proposals were accepted by the Publications and Communications Board of APA and supersede the standards included in the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2010). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Non-communicable diseases: mapping research funding organisations, funding mechanisms and research practices in Italy and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephani, Victor; Sommariva, Silvia; Spranger, Anne; Ciani, Oriana

    2017-10-02

    Evidence shows that territorial borders continue to have an impact on research collaboration in Europe. Knowledge of national research structural contexts is therefore crucial to the promotion of Europe-wide policies for research funding. Nevertheless, studies assessing and comparing research systems remain scarce. This paper aims to further the knowledge on national research landscapes in Europe, focusing on non-communicable disease (NCD) research in Italy and Germany. To capture the architecture of country-specific research funding systems, a three-fold strategy was adopted. First, a literature review was conducted to determine a list of key public, voluntary/private non-profit and commercial research funding organisations (RFOs). Second, an electronic survey was administered qualifying RFOs. Finally, survey results were integrated with semi-structured interviews with key opinion leaders in NCD research. Three major dimensions of interest were investigated - funding mechanisms, funding patterns and expectations regarding outputs. The number of RFOs in Italy is four times larger than that in Germany and the Italian research system has more project funding instruments than the German system. Regarding the funding patterns towards NCD areas, in both countries, respiratory disease research resulted as the lowest funded, whereas cancer research was the target of most funding streams. The most reported expected outputs of funded research activity were scholarly publication of articles and reports. This cross-country comparison on the Italian and German research funding structures revealed substantial differences between the two systems. The current system is prone to duplicated research efforts, popular funding for some diseases and intransparency of research results. Future research will require addressing the need for better coordination of research funding efforts, even more so if European research efforts are to play a greater role.

  6. Non-communicable diseases, food and nutrition in Vietnam from 1975 to 2015: the burden and national response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan T; Hoang, Minh V

    2018-01-01

    This review manuscript examines the burden and national response to non-communicable diseases (NCDs), food and nutrition security in Vietnam from 1975 to 2015. We extracted data from peer-reviewed manuscripts and reports of nationally representative surveys and related policies in Vietnam. In 2010, NCDs accounted for 318,000 deaths (72% of total deaths), 6.7 million years of life lost, and 14 million disability-adjusted life years in Vietnam. Cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and diabetes mellitus were major contributors to the NCD burden. Adults had an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity (2.3% in 1993 to 15% in 2015) and hypertension (15% in 2002 to 20% in 2015). Among 25-64 years old in 2015, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 4.1% and the elevated blood cholesterol was 32%. Vietnamese had a low physical activity level, a high consumption of salt, instant noodles and sweetened non-alcoholic beverages as well as low consumption of fruit and vegetables and seafood. The alcohol consumption and smoking prevalence were high in men. Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke was high in men, women and youths at home, work, and public places. In Vietnam, policies for NCD prevention and control need to be combined with strengthened law enforcement and increased program coverage. There were increased food production and improved dietary intake (e.g., energy intake and protein-rich foods thanked to appropriate economic, agriculture, and nutrition strategies. NCDs and their risk factors are emerging problems in Vietnam, which need both disease-specific and sensitive strategies in health and related sectors.

  7. The Harbin Cohort Study on Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Non-communicable Diseases: study design and baseline characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Na

    Full Text Available Diet and nutrition have been reported to be associated with many common chronic diseases and blood-based assessment would be vital to investigate the association and mechanism, however, blood-based prospective studies are limited. The Harbin Cohort Study on Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Non-communicable Diseases was set up in 2010. From 2010 to 2012, 9,734 participants completed the baseline survey, including demographic characteristics, dietary intake, lifestyles and physical condition, and anthropometrics. A re-survey on 490 randomly selected participants was done by using the same methods which were employed in the baseline survey. For all participants, the mean age was 50 years and 36% of them were men. Approximately 99.4 % of cohort members donated blood samples. The mean total energy intake was 2671.7 kcal/day in men and 2245.9 kcal/day in women, the mean body mass index was 25.7 kg/m2 in men and 24.6 kg/m2 in women, with 18.4% being obese (≥ 28 kg/m2, 12.7% being diabetic, and 29.5% being hypertensive. A good agreement was obtained for the physical measurements between the baseline survey and re-survey. The resources from the cohort and its fasting and postprandial blood samples collected both at baseline and in each follow-up will be valuable and powerful in investigating relationship between diet, nutrition and chronic diseases and discovering novel blood biomarkers and the metabolism of these biomarkers related to chronic diseases.

  8. Monilethrix – Case report of a rare disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasleem Arif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Monilethrix is a rare genetic disorder of hair characterized by beaded appearance of the hair shaft leading to hair fragility and patchy dystrophic alopecia. In this disorder, the hair shaft has alternate widenings (nodes and constrictions (internodes that lead to fracture of hair shaft and varying degree of alopecia. We report an eight year old Kashmiri boy who presented with diffuse hair loss since infancy. As monilethrix is a rare disease entity which prompted us to report this case.

  9. Risk communication and crisis communication in infectious disease outbreaks in Germany: what is being done, and what needs to be done.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickmann, Petra; Biedenkopf, Nadine; Keeping, Sam; Eickmann, Markus; Becker, Stephan

    2014-06-01

    Risk communication plays a central role in the management of infectious disease. The World Health Organization's 2005 International Health Regulations have highlighted the need for countries to strengthen their capacities in this area to ensure effective responses to public health emergencies. We surveyed laboratories, hospitals, and public health institutions in Germany to detail the current situation regarding risk communication and crisis management and to identify which areas require further development. A mixed methods approach was adopted. An initial questionnaire was distributed to relevant persons in laboratories and hospitals, and semistructured interviews were conducted with selected participants. Representatives from state public health authorities, federal agencies, and media also were interviewed to add additional contextual information to the questionnaire responses. Based on the responses received, the universal sense among key stakeholders was that risk communication and crisis communication measures must be improved. Collaborative working was a consistent theme, with participants suggesting that a partnering strategy could help to improve performance. This approach could be achieved through better coordination between groups, for example, through a knowledge-sharing policy. More research is needed on how such collaboration might be implemented, along with a general conceptual framework for risk communication to underpin the overall strategy.

  10. Tunneling Nanotubes and Gap Junctions–Their Role in Long-Range Intercellular Communication during Development, Health, and Disease Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ariazi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell-to-cell communication is essential for the organization, coordination, and development of cellular networks and multi-cellular systems. Intercellular communication is mediated by soluble factors (including growth factors, neurotransmitters, and cytokines/chemokines, gap junctions, exosomes and recently described tunneling nanotubes (TNTs. It is unknown whether a combination of these communication mechanisms such as TNTs and gap junctions may be important, but further research is required. TNTs are long cytoplasmic bridges that enable long-range, directed communication between connected cells. The proposed functions of TNTs are diverse and not well understood but have been shown to include the cell-to-cell transfer of vesicles, organelles, electrical stimuli and small molecules. However, the exact role of TNTs and gap junctions for intercellular communication and their impact on disease is still uncertain and thus, the subject of much debate. The combined data from numerous laboratories indicate that some TNT mediate a long-range gap junctional communication to coordinate metabolism and signaling, in relation to infectious, genetic, metabolic, cancer, and age-related diseases. This review aims to describe the current knowledge, challenges and future perspectives to characterize and explore this new intercellular communication system and to design TNT-based therapeutic strategies.

  11. Nature Cure and Non-Communicable Diseases: Ecological Therapy as Health Care in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Joseph S; Nair, R M; Nair, Rukmani

    2017-12-07

    With rapidly increasing rates of non-communicable diseases, India is experiencing a dramatic public health crisis that is closely linked to changing lifestyles and the growth of the middle-class. In this essay we discuss how the practice of Nature Cure provides a way of understanding the scale and scope of the crisis, as it is embodied, and a way to understand key elements of a solution to problems that the crisis presents for institutionalized health care. As institutionalized in contemporary India, Nature Cure involves treatment and managed care using earth, air, sunlight, and water as well as a strict dietary regimen. In this regard, the essay shows how Nature Cure's bio-ecological orientation toward public health, which is grounded in the history of its modern incorporation into India, provides an expansionist, ecological model for holistic care that counters the reductionist logic of bio-medical pharmaceuticalization.

  12. Role of occupational health in managing non-communicable diseases in Brunei Darussalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pg Khalifah Pg Ismail

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Like most ASEAN countries, Brunei faces an epidemic of non-communicable diseases. To deal with the complexity of NCDs prevention, all perspectives - be it social, familial or occupational – need to be considered. In Brunei Darussalam, occupational health services (OHS offered by its Ministry of Health, among others, provide screening and management of NCDs at various points of service. The OHS does not only issue fitness to work certificates, but is a significant partner in co-managing patients’ health conditions, with the advantage of further management at the workplace. Holistic approach of NCD management in the occupational setting is strengthened with both employer and employee education and participation, targeting several approaches including risk management and advocating healthy lifestyles as part of a healthy workplace programme.

  13. Investing in non-communicable disease prevention and management to advance the Sustainable Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Rachel; Bertram, Melanie Y; Jan, Stephen; Niessen, Louis W; Sassi, Franco; Jamison, Dean T; Pier, Eduardo González; Beaglehole, Robert

    2018-05-19

    Reduction of the non-communicable disease (NCD) burden is a global development imperative. Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3 includes target 3·4 to reduce premature NCD mortality by a third by 2030. Progress on SDG target 3·4 will have a central role in determining the success of at least nine SDGs. A strengthened effort across multiple sectors with effective economic tools, such as price policies and insurance, is necessary. NCDs are heavily clustered in people with low socioeconomic status and are an important cause of medical impoverishment. They thereby exacerbate economic inequities within societies. As such, NCDs are a barrier to achieving SDG 1, SDG 2, SDG 4, SDG 5, and SDG 10. Productivity gains from preventing and managing NCDs will contribute to SDG 8. SDG 11 and SDG 12 offer clear opportunities to reduce the NCD burden and to create sustainable and healthy cities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Confidentiality in HIV-infection/AIDS--a comment on the Communicable Disease Control Act].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frich, J C

    1995-05-10

    The new Communicable Diseases Control Act has come into force in Norway. It makes it compulsory for a physician to warn a third party if it is obvious that a HIV-positive patient, with a high degree of certainty, puts the third party at risk of being infected with HIV. Some philosophers characterize medical confidentiality as an intransigent and absolute obligation, others as a prima facie duty. This article supports the latter view, but the author still argues that strict conditions have to be fulfilled before a physician should consider breaking medical confidentiality: The doctor must try repeatedly to gain the consent or co-operation of the patient involved. Possible negative long-term consequences for the preventive HIV-work support strict medical confidentiality.

  15. Country actions to meet UN commitments on non-communicable diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonita, Ruth; Magnusson, Roger; Bovet, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    declaration is suggested, with three key steps: planning, implementation, and accountability. Planning entails mobilisation of a multisectoral response to develop and support the national action plan, and to build human, financial, and regulatory capacity for change. Implementation of a few priority......Strong leadership from heads of state is needed to meet national commitments to the UN political declaration on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and to achieve the goal of a 25% reduction in premature NCD mortality by 2025 (the 25 by 25 goal). A simple, phased, national response to the political...... and feasible cost-effective interventions for the prevention and treatment of NCDs will achieve the 25 by 25 goal and will need only few additional financial resources. Accountability incorporates three dimensions: monitoring of progress, reviewing of progress, and appropriate responses to accelerate progress...

  16. Community health workers for non-communicable diseases prevention and control in developing countries: Evidence and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeet, Gursimer; Thakur, J S; Prinja, Shankar; Singh, Meenu

    2017-01-01

    National programs for non-communicable diseases (NCD) prevention and control in different low middle income countries have a strong community component. A community health worker (CHW) delivers NCD preventive services using informational as well as behavioural approaches. Community education and interpersonal communication on lifestyle modifications is imparted with focus on primordial prevention of NCDs and screening is conducted as part of early diagnosis and management. However, the effectiveness of health promotion and screening interventions delivered through community health workers needs to be established. This review synthesised evidence on effectiveness of CHW delivered NCD primary prevention interventions in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). A systematic review of trials that utilised community health workers for primary prevention/ early detection strategy in the management of NCDs (Diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cancers, stroke, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD)) in LMICs was conducted. Digital databases like PubMed, EMBASE, OVID, Cochrane library, dissertation abstracts, clinical trials registry web sites of different LMIC were searched for such publications between years 2000 and 2015. We focussed on community based randomised controlled trial and cluster randomised trials without any publication language limitation. The primary outcome of review was percentage change in population with different behavioural risk factors. Additionally, mean overall changes in levels of several physical or biochemical parameters were studied as secondary outcomes. Subgroup analyses was performed by the age and sex of participants, and sensitivity analyses was conducted to assess the robustness of the findings. Sixteen trials meeting the inclusion criteria were included in the review. Duration, study populations and content of interventions varied across trials. The duration of the studies ranged from mean follow up of 4 months for some risk

  17. Ethical models underpinning responses to threats to public health: a comparison of approaches to communicable disease control in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainotti, Sabina; Moran, Nicola; Petrini, Carlo; Shickle, Darren

    2008-11-01

    Increases in international travel and migratory flows have enabled infectious diseases to emerge and spread more rapidly than ever before. Hence, it is increasingly easy for local infectious diseases to become global infectious diseases (GIDs). National governments must be able to react quickly and effectively to GIDs, whether naturally occurring or intentionally instigated by bioterrorism. According to the World Health Organisation, global partnerships are necessary to gather the most up-to-date information and to mobilize resources to tackle GIDs when necessary. Communicable disease control also depends upon national public health laws and policies. The containment of an infectious disease typically involves detection, notification, quarantine and isolation of actual or suspected cases; the protection and monitoring of those not infected; and possibly even treatment. Some measures are clearly contentious and raise conflicts between individual and societal interests. In Europe national policies against infectious diseases are very heterogeneous. Some countries have a more communitarian approach to public health ethics, in which the interests of individual and society are more closely intertwined and interdependent, while others take a more liberal approach and give priority to individual freedoms in communicable disease control. This paper provides an overview of the different policies around communicable disease control that exist across a select number of countries across Europe. It then proposes ethical arguments to be considered in the making of public health laws, mostly concerning their effectiveness for public health protection.

  18. Bangladesh policy on prevention and control of non-communicable diseases: a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Tuhin; Pervin, Sonia; Tanim, Md Imtiaz Alam; Niessen, Louis; Islam, Anwar

    2017-06-19

    This paper is aimed at critically assessing the extent to which Non-Communicable Disease NCD-related policies introduced in Bangladesh align with the World Health Organization's (WHO) 2013-2020 Action Plan for the Global Strategy for the Prevention and Control of NCDs. The authors reviewed all relevant policy documents introduced by the Government of Bangladesh since its independence in 1971. The literature review targeted scientific and grey literature documents involving internet-based search, and expert consultation and snowballing to identify relevant policy documents. Information was extracted from the documents using a specific matrix, mapping each document against the six objectives of the WHO 2013-2020 Action Plan for the Global Strategy for the Prevention and Control of NCDs. A total of 51 documents were identified. Seven (14%) were research and/or surveys, nine were on established policies (17%), while seventeen (33%) were on action programmes. Five (10%) were related to guidelines and thirteen (25%) were strategic planning documents from government and non-government agencies/institutes. The study covered documents produced by the Government of Bangladesh as well as those by quasi-government and non-government organizations irrespective of the extent to which the intended policies were implemented. The policy analysis findings suggest that although the government has initiated many NCD-related policies or programs, they lacked proper planning, implementation and monitoring. Consequently, Bangladesh over the years had little success in effectively addressing the growing burden of non-communicable diseases. It is imperative that future research critically assess the effectiveness of national NCD policies by monitoring their implementation and level of population coverage.

  19. Risk Factors for Non-communicable Diseases in Vietnam: A Focus on Pesticides

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    Hoang V. Dang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Agent Orange, which was used in southern Vietnam, is confirmed the main source of dioxin exposure in Vietnam. Since early 1990s, agriculture of Vietnam has attained advances under intensive cultivation. Both production and yields per crop have increased significantly at the farm level, but the quantity of pesticides used in agriculture also increased in the absence of regulations and good practices. Illegal business of pesticides with false labels, as well as marketing of expired or poor quality products in stores without license are popular in Vietnam. Misuse and improper use in agriculture in Vietnam has led to a variety of problems, such as environmental pollution (including food producing animals and adverse health impact on animals and humans. Open dumpsites worsen the general scenario. Similar to the environmental exposure, human exposure to DDT in Vietnam was ranked among the highest worldwide, with recognized effects. Exposed communities have to face birth defects, health disorders and non-communicable diseases (NCDs, from metabolic syndrome, asthma, infertility and other reproductive disorders through to diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. A common feature of many chronic disorders and NCDs is metabolic disruption: environmental chemical factors disturb cellular homeostasis, thus affecting the ability of the body to restore a functional internal environment. Among these, endocrine disrupting pesticides can interfere with the action of hormones including metabolic hormones, and are likely to represent the main concern for developmentally-induced NCDs. Since pesticides are often persistent and bio-accumulate in the food chain through the living environment of food-producing organisms, this paper discusses relevant aspects of risk assessment, risk communication and risk management.

  20. Interventions for improving management of chronic non-communicable diseases in Dikgale, a rural area in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimela, Eric; Alberts, Marianne; Bastiaens, Hilde; Fraeyman, Jesicca; Meulemans, Herman; Wens, Johan; Van Geertruyden, Jeane Pierre

    2018-05-04

    Chronic disease management (CDM) is an approach to health care that keeps people as healthy as possible through the prevention, early detection and management of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to develop interventions to improve management of chronic diseases in the form of an integrated, evidence-based chronic disease management model in Dikgale, a rural area of Limpopo Province in South Africa. A multifaceted intervention, called 'quality circles' (QCs) was developed to improve the quality and the management of chronic diseases in the Dikgale Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). These QCs used the findings from previous studies which formed part of the larger project in the study area, namely, the quantitative study using STEPwise survey and qualitative studies using focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews. The findings from previous studies in Dikgale HDSS revealed that an epidemiological transition is occurring. Again, the most widely reported barriers from previous studies in this rural area were: lack of knowledge of NCDs; shortages of medication and shortages of nurses in the clinics, which results in patients having long waiting-time at clinics. Lack of training of health care providers on the management of chronic diseases and the lack of supervision by the district and provincial health managers, together with poor dissemination of guidelines, were contributing factors to the lack of knowledge of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) management among nurses and community health care workers (CHWs). Consideration of all of these findings led to the development of model which focuses on integrating nursing services, CHWs and traditional health practitioners (THPs), including a well-established clinical information system for health care providers. A novel aspect of the model is the inclusion of community ambassadors who are on treatment for NCDs and are, thus, repositories of knowledge who can serve as a bridge between

  1. Political priority in the global fight against non–communicable diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Anthony; Sridhar, Devi

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of non–communicable diseases (NCDs) – such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic respiratory diseases – is surging globally. Yet despite the availability of cost–effective interventions, NCDs receive less than 3% of annual development assistance for health to low and middle income countries. The top donors in global health – including the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the US Government, and the World Bank – together commit less than 2% of their budgets to the prevention and control of NCDs. Why is there such meagre funding on the table for the prevention and control of NCDs? Why has a global plan of action aimed at halting the spread of NCDs been so difficult to achieve? Methods This paper aims to tackle these two interrelated questions by analysing NCDs through the lens of Jeremy Shiffman’s 2009 political priority framework. We define global political priority as ‘the degree to which international and national political leaders actively give attention to an issue, and back up that attention with the provision of financial, technical, and human resources that are commensurate with the severity of the issue’. Grounded in social constructionism, this framework critically examines the relationship between agenda setting and ‘objective’ factors in global health, such as the existence of cost–effective interventions and a high mortality burden. From a methodological perspective, this paper fits within the category of discipline configurative case study. Results We support Shiffman’s claim that strategic communication – or ideas in the form of issue portrayals – ought to be a core activity of global health policy communities. But issue portrayals must be the products of a robust and inclusive debate. To this end, we also consider it essential to recognise that issue portrayals reach political leaders through a vast array of channels. Raising the political priority of NCDs means engaging with

  2. Political priority in the global fight against non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Anthony; Sridhar, Devi

    2012-12-01

    The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) - such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic respiratory diseases - is surging globally. Yet despite the availability of cost-effective interventions, NCDs receive less than 3% of annual development assistance for health to low and middle income countries. The top donors in global health - including the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the US Government, and the World Bank - together commit less than 2% of their budgets to the prevention and control of NCDs. Why is there such meagre funding on the table for the prevention and control of NCDs? Why has a global plan of action aimed at halting the spread of NCDs been so difficult to achieve? This paper aims to tackle these two interrelated questions by analysing NCDs through the lens of Jeremy Shiffman's 2009 political priority framework. We define global political priority as 'the degree to which international and national political leaders actively give attention to an issue, and back up that attention with the provision of financial, technical, and human resources that are commensurate with the severity of the issue'. Grounded in social constructionism, this framework critically examines the relationship between agenda setting and 'objective' factors in global health, such as the existence of cost-effective interventions and a high mortality burden. From a methodological perspective, this paper fits within the category of discipline configurative case study. We support Shiffman's claim that strategic communication - or ideas in the form of issue portrayals - ought to be a core activity of global health policy communities. But issue portrayals must be the products of a robust and inclusive debate. To this end, we also consider it essential to recognise that issue portrayals reach political leaders through a vast array of channels. Raising the political priority of NCDs means engaging with the diverse ways in which actors express concern for the

  3. Rare diseases in the media - Report April-June 2014 - Observatory for Rare Diseases FEDER (OBSER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Solves Almela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the analysis of how Spanish mass media dealt with the so-called rare deseases during the months of April, May and June of 2014. The report has the same general objective of the first one for the previous three months: understand how rare diseases are presented in the Spanish media and, correspondingly, how that media representation evolves. In this report, the data of the first trimester is compared to the second one.

  4. Report of a case of Hodgkin's nodular sclerosis disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canizares, Claudio; Araujo, Ivan; Flores, Marlon; Guerrero, Patricia; Sanchez, Mayra

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of Hodgkin's nodular sclerosis disease that presents moderate anemia and lymph node enlargement with a massive infiltrate to the bone marrow. It is rare for these patients to develop such an infiltrate, which give a bad prognosis. The treatment recommended in stage I is Radiotherapy and chemotherapy. (The author)

  5. Eales' Disease: Case report | Atipo-Tsiba | East African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eales' disease is a retinal vasculopathy of unknown origin. Ischaemic step associated retinal perivasculitis. Neovascularisation step after the previous one, characterised by vitreous haemorrhage in relation with retinal neo vessels. This observation presents the first reported case of this pathology in Brazzaville. A man of 32 ...

  6. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Venezuela a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro J. Caraballo H.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD in a 32 year old man is presented. The clinical picture included a rapid progressive dementia associated with ataxia, global aphasia, myoclonus and pyramidal signs, death ocurred after 13 months. The diagnosis of CJD was confirmed by CT and neuropathological studies. This is the first report of CJD occurring in Venezuela.

  7. Anemia: monosymptomatic celiac disease. A report of 3 cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Depla, A. C.; Bartelsman, J. F.; Mulder, C. J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1990-01-01

    Patients with monosymptomatic celiac disease (CD) can escape diagnosis for a long period. Anemia is a common finding in CD, although anemia as the sole symptom is relatively unknown. We report on three patients who presented with iron deficiency anemia and no other symptom, in whom CD was considered

  8. Alexander's disease in a neurologically normal child: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, Scott O.; Knowles, Paul; Marshall, Robert; Burton, Edward M.

    2003-01-01

    We report the clinical and MRI findings of symmetric hyperintensity involving the deep and subcortical white matter of the frontal lobes in a neurologically normal child with macrocephaly. In this patient, a serum test for mutations in glial fibrillary acidic protein, used to diagnose Alexander's disease (AD), was positive. This case indicates an extraordinarily mild or early form of juvenile-onset AD. (orig.)

  9. Report on a Round Table "Communication 1980" on Mass Communication Research and Policy. Hanko, Finland, April 9-11, 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnish Broadcasting Co., Helsinki.

    The papers presented at the conference fall into three main categories: 1) outlines for critical research into mass communication, 2) international perspectives in broadcasting, and 3) the functions and goals of mass communication, together with problems of democratic control over broadcasting. All papers have been translated into English, as have…

  10. Brief Report: Increasing Communication Skills for an Elementary-Aged Student with Autism Using the Picture Exchange Communication System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravits, Tamara R.; Kamps, Debra M.; Kemmerer, Katie; Potucek, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    Effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System on the spontaneous communication skills and social interactions of a 6-year-old girl with autism across her home and school environments were evaluated. Results indicated increases in spontaneous language, increases in intelligible verbalizations in two of three settings, and changes in peer…

  11. Traceability and communication of requirements in digital I and C systems development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, T.; Fredriksen, Rune; Thunem, A.P.J. [Inst. for Energy Technology, Halden (Norway); Holmberg, J.E.; Valkonen, J.; Ventae, O. [VTT (Finland); Andersson, J.O. [Ringhals AB (Sweden)

    2005-10-01

    The overall objective of the TACO project has been to improve the knowledge on principles and best practices related to the traceability and communication of requirements in digital I and C systems development. On the basis of experiences in the Nordic countries, the project has aimed at identifying the best practices and most important criteria for ensuring effective communication in relation to requirements elicitation and analysis, understandability of requirements to all parties, and traceability of requirements through the different design phases. It is expected that the project will provide important input to the development of guidelines and establishment of recommended practices related to these activities. The report provides a summary of the project activities and deliverables, discusses possible application areas, and provides a link to its utilization in the project 'Management of Requirements in NPP Modernization Projects' (NKS-R-2005-47). In the preparation of the final report, a number of application areas have been identified where the TACO deliverables, first of all the TACO Shell and the TACO Traceability Model, can be utilized. The report aims at facilitating such utilization, by defining the context and main issues, explaining the main aspects of the deliverables, discussing the challenges experienced in the different application domains with respect requirements management, traceability and communication and how can the TACO results contribute to solving these challenges. (au)

  12. Communicating diagnostic uncertainty in surgical pathology reports: disparities between sender and receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Sarah W; Gillies, Elizabeth M; Hassell, Lewis A

    2014-10-01

    Surgical pathologists use a variety of phrases to communicate varying degrees of diagnostic certainty which have the potential to be interpreted differently than intended. This study sought to: (1) assess the setting, varieties and frequency of use of phrases of diagnostic uncertainty in the diagnostic line of surgical pathology reports, (2) evaluate use of uncertainty expressions by experience and gender, (3) determine how these phrases are interpreted by clinicians and pathologists, and (4) assess solutions to this communication problem. We evaluated 1500 surgical pathology reports to determine frequency of use of uncertainty terms, identified those most commonly used, and looked for variations in usage rates on the basis of case type, experience and gender. We surveyed 76 physicians at tumor boards who were asked to assign a percentage of certainty to diagnoses containing expressions of uncertainty. We found expressions of uncertainty in 35% of diagnostic reports, with no statistically significant difference in usage based on age or gender. We found wide variation in the percentage of certainty clinicians assigned to the phrases studied. We conclude that non-standardized language used in the communication of diagnostic uncertainty is a significant source of miscommunication, both amongst pathologists and between pathologists and clinicians. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  13. Traceability and communication of requirements in digital I and C systems development. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivertsen, T.; Fredriksen, Rune; Thunem, A.P.J.; Holmberg, J.E.; Valkonen, J.; Ventae, O.; Andersson, J.O.

    2005-10-01

    The overall objective of the TACO project has been to improve the knowledge on principles and best practices related to the traceability and communication of requirements in digital I and C systems development. On the basis of experiences in the Nordic countries, the project has aimed at identifying the best practices and most important criteria for ensuring effective communication in relation to requirements elicitation and analysis, understandability of requirements to all parties, and traceability of requirements through the different design phases. It is expected that the project will provide important input to the development of guidelines and establishment of recommended practices related to these activities. The report provides a summary of the project activities and deliverables, discusses possible application areas, and provides a link to its utilization in the project 'Management of Requirements in NPP Modernization Projects' (NKS-R-2005-47). In the preparation of the final report, a number of application areas have been identified where the TACO deliverables, first of all the TACO Shell and the TACO Traceability Model, can be utilized. The report aims at facilitating such utilization, by defining the context and main issues, explaining the main aspects of the deliverables, discussing the challenges experienced in the different application domains with respect requirements management, traceability and communication and how can the TACO results contribute to solving these challenges. (au)

  14. Grover's Disease after Heart Transplantation: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanbattista Ippoliti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Grover's disease is a transient acantholytic dermatosis of unknown cause, manifesting clinically as a papular skin eruption that is usually located on the anterior chest and abdomen. Histologically characterized by an acantholytic pattern, it has been associated with numerous disorders, including hematologic malignancies, chronic renal failure, and HIV infection, as well as with chemotherapy and bone marrow and/or kidney transplant. Evaluation of followup and treatment is often complicated by spontaneous remission and the occasionally fluctuant course of the disease. Here we report the case of a patient with sudden onset of Grover's disease after heart transplantation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first observation of Grover's disease as diagnosed after heart transplantation.

  15. Case report of Graves’ disease manifesting with odynophagia and heartburn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evsyutina, Yulia; Trukhmanov, Alexander; Ivashkin, Vladimir; Storonova, Olga; Godjello, Elina

    2015-01-01

    Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disease, which can manifest with a variety of extrathyroidal clinical syndromes like ophthalmopathy, pretibial myxedema (dermopathy), acropathy, cardiomyopathy, and encephalopathy. Though quite rare, this disease can also manifest with gastrointestinal symptoms such as dysphagia, heartburn, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. We report a clinical case of Graves’ disease manifesting with dysfunction of the esophagus and heartburn in a 61-year-old man. In the muscular layer of the esophagus we found dystrophic changes led to its atony, which was documented by endoscopy and high-resolution manometry. The pathology features of esophageal symptoms were: focal proliferation of the basal cells, vascular distension, and dystrophy of the epithelial cells. Antithyroid treatment led to decrease of all clinical symptoms after 5 d of Thiamazole administration. Complete restoration of peristalsis in the esophagus, according to manometry, was observed in 1 mo after initiation of treatment. PMID:26730171

  16. Case report of Graves' disease manifesting with odynophagia and heartburn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evsyutina, Yulia; Trukhmanov, Alexander; Ivashkin, Vladimir; Storonova, Olga; Godjello, Elina

    2015-12-28

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease, which can manifest with a variety of extrathyroidal clinical syndromes like ophthalmopathy, pretibial myxedema (dermopathy), acropathy, cardiomyopathy, and encephalopathy. Though quite rare, this disease can also manifest with gastrointestinal symptoms such as dysphagia, heartburn, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. We report a clinical case of Graves' disease manifesting with dysfunction of the esophagus and heartburn in a 61-year-old man. In the muscular layer of the esophagus we found dystrophic changes led to its atony, which was documented by endoscopy and high-resolution manometry. The pathology features of esophageal symptoms were: focal proliferation of the basal cells, vascular distension, and dystrophy of the epithelial cells. Antithyroid treatment led to decrease of all clinical symptoms after 5 d of Thiamazole administration. Complete restoration of peristalsis in the esophagus, according to manometry, was observed in 1 mo after initiation of treatment.

  17. Non-communicable diseases and global health governance: enhancing global processes to improve health development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger S

    2007-05-22

    This paper assesses progress in the development of a global framework for responding to non-communicable diseases, as reflected in the policies and initiatives of the World Health Organization (WHO), World Bank and the UN: the institutions most capable of shaping a coherent global policy. Responding to the global burden of chronic disease requires a strategic assessment of the global processes that are likely to be most effective in generating commitment to policy change at country level, and in influencing industry behaviour. WHO has adopted a legal process with tobacco (the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control), but a non-legal, advocacy-based approach with diet and physical activity (the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health). The paper assesses the merits of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the FCTC as distinct global processes for advancing health development, before considering what lessons might be learned for enhancing the implementation of the Global Strategy on Diet. While global partnerships, economic incentives, and international legal instruments could each contribute to a more effective global response to chronic diseases, the paper makes a special case for the development of international legal standards in select areas of diet and nutrition, as a strategy for ensuring that the health of future generations does not become dependent on corporate charity and voluntary commitments. A broader frame of reference for lifestyle-related chronic diseases is needed: one that draws together WHO's work in tobacco, nutrition and physical activity, and that envisages selective use of international legal obligations, non-binding recommendations, advocacy and policy advice as tools of choice for promoting different elements of the strategy.

  18. Non-communicable diseases and global health governance: enhancing global processes to improve health development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnusson Roger S

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper assesses progress in the development of a global framework for responding to non-communicable diseases, as reflected in the policies and initiatives of the World Health Organization (WHO, World Bank and the UN: the institutions most capable of shaping a coherent global policy. Responding to the global burden of chronic disease requires a strategic assessment of the global processes that are likely to be most effective in generating commitment to policy change at country level, and in influencing industry behaviour. WHO has adopted a legal process with tobacco (the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, but a non-legal, advocacy-based approach with diet and physical activity (the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. The paper assesses the merits of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs and the FCTC as distinct global processes for advancing health development, before considering what lessons might be learned for enhancing the implementation of the Global Strategy on Diet. While global partnerships, economic incentives, and international legal instruments could each contribute to a more effective global response to chronic diseases, the paper makes a special case for the development of international legal standards in select areas of diet and nutrition, as a strategy for ensuring that the health of future generations does not become dependent on corporate charity and voluntary commitments. A broader frame of reference for lifestyle-related chronic diseases is needed: one that draws together WHO's work in tobacco, nutrition and physical activity, and that envisages selective use of international legal obligations, non-binding recommendations, advocacy and policy advice as tools of choice for promoting different elements of the strategy.

  19. McArdle disease: a case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alberto Leite, Narciso Oliveira, Manuela RochaInternal Medicine Department, Hospital de Braga, PortugalAbstract: McArdle disease (glycogen storage disease type V is a pure myopathy caused by an inherited deficit of myophosphorylase. The disease exhibits clinical heterogeneity, but patients typically experience exercise intolerance, acute crises of early fatigue, and contractures, sometimes with rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria, triggered by static muscle contractions or dynamic exercise. We present the case of a 54-year-old man with a lifelong history of fatigability, worsening on exertion. Laboratory evaluation revealed significant elevations in levels of creatine kinase (7924 U/L, lactate dehydrogenase (624 U/L, and myoglobulin (671 ng/mL. A muscle biopsy confirmed the presence of McArdle disease. This case report illustrates how, due to embarrassment, the patient hid his symptoms for many years and was eventually extremely relieved and “liberated” once McArdle disease was diagnosed 40 years later.Keywords: McArdle disease, glycogen storage disease, myophosphorylase

  20. Unilateral Darier’s disease – case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Węgłowska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Darier’s disease (dyskeratosis follicularis, keratosis follicularis, Darier-White disease, Darier disease is a rare genodermatosis inherited in autosomal dominant manner, caused by a mutation in the ATP2A2 gene located on chromosome 12. The gene encodes SERCA2 ATPase, an enzyme responsible for the metabolism of calcium ions in the endoplasmic reticulum. Darier’s disease is characterized by small brown hyperkeratotic papules which appear already in childhood or early adolescence. Skin lesions are located primarily in seborrhoeic areas. In addition to typical skin eruptions, the clinical picture may include involvement of the nails and mucous membranes. The histopathological pattern is characterized by the coexistence of two abnormalities: acantholysis and dyskeratosis. Objective . To present and discuss a case of unilateral Darier’s disease diagnosed and treated at our medical centre. Case report . We present the case of a 46-year old woman with Darier’s disease manifesting as skin lesions in the form of typical hyperkeratotic papules localized on the left part of the trunk and on left-side limbs. The diagnosis was made on the basis of clinical features and histopathological findings. A good therapeutic effect was achieved after introducing treatment with acitretin at a dose of 25 mg/day. Conclusions . The case presented is interesting because of the rarity of unilateral Darier’s disease.

  1. Identifying barriers to chronic disease reporting in Chicago Public Schools: a mixed-methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivkina, Victoria; Tapke, David E; Cardenas, Lilliana D; Harvey-Gintoft, Blair; Whyte, Stephanie A; Gupta, Ruchi S

    2014-12-06

    Chronic disease among school-aged children is a public health concern, particularly for asthma and food allergy. In Chicago Public Schools (CPS), rates of asthma and food allergy among students are underreported. The aim of this study was to determine the barriers to chronic disease reporting as experienced by CPS parents and school nurses. A mixed-methods approach included focus groups and key informant interviews with parents and school nurses, and a cross-sectional survey was completed by parents. Qualitative data analysis was performed and survey data were analyzed to determine the significant demographic and knowledge variables associated with successfully completing the reporting process. The three main barriers identified were 1) a lack of parental process knowledge; 2) limited communication from schools; and 3) insufficient availability of school nurses. Parents were significantly more likely to successfully complete the reporting process if they knew about special accommodations for chronic diseases, understood the need for physician verification, and/or knew the school nurse. These findings suggest that increasing parental knowledge of the reporting process will allow schools to better identify and manage their students' chronic conditions. A parent-focused intervention informed by these results has been completed.

  2. Online surveillance of media health event reporting in Nepal: digital disease detection from a One Health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwind, Jessica S; Norman, Stephanie A; Karmacharya, Dibesh; Wolking, David J; Dixit, Sameer M; Rajbhandari, Rajesh M; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Brownstein, John S

    2017-09-21

    Traditional media and the internet are crucial sources of health information. Media can significantly shape public opinion, knowledge and understanding of emerging and endemic health threats. As digital communication rapidly progresses, local access and dissemination of health information contribute significantly to global disease detection and reporting. Health event reports in Nepal (October 2013-December 2014) were used to characterize Nepal's media environment from a One Health perspective using HealthMap - a global online disease surveillance and mapping tool. Event variables (location, media source type, disease or risk factor of interest, and affected species) were extracted from HealthMap. A total of 179 health reports were captured from various sources including newspapers, inter-government agency bulletins, individual reports, and trade websites, yielding 108 (60%) unique articles. Human health events were reported most often (n = 85; 79%), followed by animal health events (n = 23; 21%), with no reports focused solely on environmental health. By expanding event coverage across all of the health sectors, media in developing countries could play a crucial role in national risk communication efforts and could enhance early warning systems for disasters and disease outbreaks.

  3. Outline of the report on cardiovascular disease in China, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sheng Shou; Kong, Ling Zhi; Gao, Run Lin; Zhu, Man Lu; Wang, Wen; Wang, Yong Jun; Wu, Zhao Su; Chen, Wei Wei; Liu, Ming Bo

    2012-06-01

    Major and profound changes have taken place in China over the past 30 years. Rapid socioeconomic progress has exerted a great impact on lifestyle, ranging from food, clothing, working and living conditions, and means of transportation to leisure activities and entertainment. At the same time, new health problems have emerged, and health services are facing new challenges. Presently, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are among the top health problems of the Chinese people, and pose a serious challenge to all engaged in the prevention and control of these diseases. An epidemic of CVD in China is emerging as a result of lifestyle changes, urbanization and longevity. Both national policy decision-making and medical practice urgently need an authoritative report which comprehensively reflects the trends in the epidemic of CVD and current preventive measures. Since 2005, guided by the Bureau of Disease Prevention of the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China and the National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases of China, nationwide experts in the fields of epidemiology, clinical medicine and health economics in the realms of CVD, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease, completed the Report on Cardiovascular Diseases in China every year. The report aims to provide a timely review of the trend of the epidemic and to assess the progress of prevention and control of CVD. In addition, as the report is authoritative, representative and readable, it will become an information platform in the CVD field and an important reference book for government, academic institutes, medical organizations and clinical physicians. This publication is expected to play a positive role in the prevention and control of CVD in China. We present an abstract from the Report on Cardiovascular Diseases in China (2010), including trends in CVD, morbidity and mortality of major CVDs, up-to-date assessment of risk factors, as well as health resources for CVD, and a profile of

  4. Inadvertent recovery in communication deficits following the upper limb mirror therapy in stroke: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Kamal Narayan; Pandian, Shanta

    2014-10-01

    Broca's aphasia is the most challenging communication deficit in stroke. Left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), a key region of the mirror-neuron system, gets lesioned in Broca's aphasia. Mirror therapy (MT), a form of action-observation, may trigger the mirror neurons. The aim of this study was to report a case of poststroke subject with Broca's aphasia, who exhibited an inadvertent and significant improvement in speech after MT for the paretic upper limb. The 20-month old stroke patient underwent MT through goal-directed tasks. He received a total absence of spontaneous speech, writing, and naming. After 45 sessions of task-based MT for the upper limb, he showed tremendous recovery in expressive communication. He had fluent and comprehensive communication; however, with a low pitch and minor pronunciation errors. He showed a substantial change (from 18/100 to 79/100) on the Communicative Effective Index, particularly, on items such as expressing emotions, one-to-one conversation, naming, and spontaneous conversation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Traumatic intracerebral pneumocephalus communicating with two different paranasal sinuses: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamoto, H; Miyazaki, H; Hayashi, T; Shimamoto, Y; Ishiyama, N

    1998-02-01

    We report a case of a 17-year-old male who had hit the front of his head in a traffic accident. CT scan revealed contusional hemorrhage and pneumocephalus of the left frontal lobe 10 hours after the accident. A month later he complained of rhinorrhea and CT scan revealed intracerebral pneumocephalus. One day he complained of headache and began to vomit after he sneezed. CT scan revealed that the pneumocephalus had become worse and air had spread throughout the subarachnoid space. Bone CT scan revealed the air communicated from the frontal sinus to the intracerebral air cavity. 3D-CT scan revealed bone defect in the roof of the ethmoid sinus. The intraoperative findings revealed that the intracerebral air cavity communicated with the frontal sinus and ethmoid sinus. Though the brain which dropped into the paranasal sinus, adhered to the dura mater around the bone defect, a part of the brain had come off from the dura mater around the frontal sinus. We suspected that the intracerebral air cavity communicated with the frontal sinus initially. When the air cavity communicated with the ethmoid sinus secondarily, intracranial pressure abated and air came into the subarachnoid space from the frontal sinus.

  6. Extremely long posterior communicating artery diagnosed by MR angiography: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Akira; Suzuki, Chihiro; Tanaka, Masahiko

    2015-07-01

    We report two cases of an extremely long left posterior communicating artery (PCoA) diagnosed by magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. The PCoA arose from the normal point of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery and fused with the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) at its posterior ambient segment, forming an extremely long PCoA and extremely long precommunicating segment of the PCA. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such variation. Careful observation of MR angiographic images is important for detecting rare arterial variations. To identify these anomalous arteries on MR angiography, partial maximum-intensity-projection images are useful.

  7. Reliable Reporting for Massive M2M Communications with Periodic Resource Pooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madueño, Germán Corrales; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    This letter considers a wireless M2M communication scenario with a massive number of M2M devices. Each device needs to send its reports within a given deadline and with certain reliability, e.g., 99.99%. A pool of resources available to all M2M devices is periodically available for transmission...... to guarantee the desired reliability of the report delivery within the deadline. The fact that the pool of resources is used by a massive number of devices allows to base the dimensioning on the central limit theorem. The results are interpreted in the context of LTE, but they are applicable to any M2M...

  8. Collocational Networks Supporting Strategic Planning of Brand Communication: Analysis of Quarterly Reports of Telecommunication Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pentti Järvi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses analysing quarterly reports from a brandtheoretical viewpoint. The study addresses the issue through a method which introduces both a quantitative tool based on linguistic theory and qualitative decisions of the researchers. The research objects of this study are two quarterly reports each of three telecommunications companies: Ericsson, Motorola and Nokia. The method used is a collocational network. The analyses show that there are differences in communication and message strategies among investigated companies and also changes during a quite short period in each company

  9. Performance Assessment of a Communicable Disease Surveillance System in Response to the Twin Earthquakes of East Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, Javad; Ardalan, Ali; Vatandoost, Hasan; Goya, Mohammad Mehdi; Akbari Sari, Ali

    2015-08-01

    Following the twin earthquakes on August 11, 2012, in the East Azerbaijan province of Iran, the provincial health center set up a surveillance system to monitor communicable diseases. This study aimed to assess the performance of this surveillance system. In this quantitative-qualitative study, performance of the communicable diseases surveillance system was assessed by using the updated guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Qualitative data were collected through interviews with the surveillance system participants, and quantitative data were obtained from the surveillance system. The surveillance system was useful, simple, representative, timely, and flexible. The data quality, acceptability, and stability of the surveillance system were 65.6%, 10.63%, and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity and positive predictive value were not calculated owing to the absence of a gold standard. The surveillance system satisfactorily met the goals expected for its setup. The data obtained led to the control of communicable diseases in the affected areas. Required interventions based on the incidence of communicable disease were designed and implemented. The results also reassured health authorities and the public. However, data quality and acceptability should be taken into consideration and reviewed for implementation in future disasters.

  10. The economic burden of physical inactivity: a global analysis of major non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Lawson, Kenny D; Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Finkelstein, Eric A; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; van Mechelen, Willem; Pratt, Michael

    2016-09-24

    responsible for a substantial economic burden. This paper provides further justification to prioritise promotion of regular physical activity worldwide as part of a comprehensive strategy to reduce non-communicable diseases. None. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Traditional local medicines in the republic of Palau and non-communicable diseases (NCD), signs of effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graz, Bertrand; Kitalong, Christopher; Yano, Victor

    2015-02-23

    The aim of this survey was to describe which traditional medicines (TM) are most commonly used for non-communicable diseases (NCD - diabetes, hypertension related to excess weight and obesity) in Pacific islands and with what perceived effectiveness. NCD, especially prevalent in the Pacific, have been subject to many public health interventions, often with rather disappointing results. Innovative interventions are required; one hypothesis is that some local, traditional approaches may have been overlooked. The method used was a retrospective treatment-outcome study in a nation-wide representative sample of the adult population (about 15,000 individuals) of the Republic of Palau, an archipelago of Micronesia. From 188 respondents (61% female, age 16-87, median 48,), 30 different plants were used, mostly self-prepared (69%), or from a traditional healer (18%). For excess weight, when comparing the two most frequent plants, Morinda citrifolia L. was associated with more adequate outcome than Phaleria nishidae Kaneh. (P=0.05). In case of diabetes, when comparing Phaleria nishidae (=Phaleria nisidai) and Morinda citrifolia, the former was statistically more often associated with the reported outcome "lower blood sugar" (P=0.01). Statistical association between a plant used and reported outcome is not a proof of effectiveness or safety, but it can help select plants of interest for further studies, e.g. through a reverse pharmacology process, in search of local products which may have a positive impact on population health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of genomics-related literacy on non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sho; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Katayama, Kayoko; Sho, Ri; Yoshioka, Takashi; Fukao, Akira; Kayama, Takamasa

    2017-09-01

    Recent progress in genomic research has raised expectations for the development of personalized preventive medicine, although genomics-related literacy of patients will be essential. Thus, enhancing genomics-related literacy is crucial, particularly for individuals with low genomics-related literacy because they might otherwise miss the opportunity to receive personalized preventive care. This should be especially emphasized when a lack of genomics-related literacy is associated with elevated disease risk, because patients could therefore be deprived of the added benefits of preventive interventions; however, whether such an association exists is unclear. Association between genomics-related literacy, calculated as the genomics literacy score (GLS), and the prevalence of non-communicable diseases was assessed using propensity score matching on 4646 participants (males: 1891; 40.7%). Notably, the low-GLS group (score below median) presented a higher risk of hypertension (relative risk (RR) 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.16) and obesity (RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.01-1.22) than the high-GLS group. Our results suggest that a low level of genomics-related literacy could represent a risk factor for hypertension and obesity. Evaluating genomics-related literacy could be used to identify a more appropriate population for health and educational interventions.

  13. Quality of care for patients with non-communicable diseases in the Dedza District, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Wood

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Malawi, non-communicable diseases (NCDs are thought to cause 28% of deaths in adults. The aim of this study was to establish the extent of primary care morbidity related to NCDs, as well as to audit the quality of care, in the primary care setting of Dedza District, central Malawi. Methods: This study was a baseline audit using clinic registers and a questionnaire survey of senior health workers at 5 clinics, focusing on care for hypertension, diabetes, asthma and epilepsy. Results: A total of 82 581 consultations were recorded, of which 2489 (3.0% were for the selected NCDs. Only 5 out of 32 structural criteria were met at all 5 clinics and 9 out of 29process criteria were never performed at any clinic. The only process criteria performed at all five clinics was measurement of blood pressure. The staff’s knowledge on NCDs was basic and the main barriers to providing quality care were lack of medication and essential equipment, inadequate knowledge and guidelines, fee-for-service at two clinics, geographic inaccessibility and lack of confidence in the primary health care system by patients. Conclusion: Primary care morbidity from NCDs is currently low, although other studies suggest a significant burden of disease. This most likely represents a lack of utilisation, recognition, diagnosis and ability to manage patients with NCDs. Quality of care is poor due to a lack of essential resources, guidelines, and training.

  14. Supermarket purchase contributes to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases in urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmler, Kathrin M; Klasen, Stephan; Nzuma, Jonathan M; Qaim, Matin

    2017-01-01

    While undernutrition and related infectious diseases are still pervasive in many developing countries, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD), typically associated with high body mass index (BMI), is rapidly rising. The fast spread of supermarkets and related shifts in diets were identified as possible factors contributing to overweight and obesity in developing countries. Potential effects of supermarkets on people's health have not been analyzed up till now. This study investigates the effects of purchasing food in supermarkets on people's BMI, as well as on health indicators such as fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood pressure (BP), and the metabolic syndrome. This study uses cross-section observational data from urban Kenya. Demographic, anthropometric, and bio-medical data were collected from 550 randomly selected adults. Purchasing food in supermarkets is defined as a binary variable that takes a value of one if any food was purchased in supermarkets during the last 30 days. In a robustness check, the share of food purchased in supermarkets is defined as a continuous variable. Instrumental variable regressions are applied to control for confounding factors and establish causality. Purchasing food in supermarkets contributes to higher BMI (+ 1.8 kg/m2) (Pobese (Pobesity, supermarkets contribute to nutrition-related NCDs. Effects of supermarkets on nutrition and health can mainly be ascribed to changes in the composition of people's food choices.

  15. Comprehensive Diabetes and Non-Communicable Disease Educator in the Low-Resource Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, M D

    2016-01-01

    The role of self-management education in diabetes and other major non-communicable diseases is clearly evident. To take care of and educate people with diabetes and other major NCD under the supervision of medical professionals and for education of other health care professionals, Comprehensive Diabetes and NCD Educators are needed in the routine service in peripheral health clinics and hospitals. The areas of training of CDNCD educator should match with the cost-effective interventions for diabetes and other major NCD that are feasible and planned for implementation in primary care in the low resource settings. Most of such interventions are part of diabetes education as required for Diabetes Self-Management Education programmes and traditional Diabetes Educator. The addition of use of inhaled steroids and bronchodilator in chronic respiratory disease and identification of presenting features of cancer, also required for many people with diabetes with various such common co-morbidities, will complete the areas of training of traditional Diabetes Educator as that of CDNCD Educator. Staff nurse and health assistants, who are as such already providing routine clinical service to all patients including with diabetes and major NCD in peripheral health clinics and hospitals, are most appropriate for CDNCD Educator training. The training of CDNCD Educator, like that of traditional Diabetes Educator, requires fulfilment of sufficient hours of practical work experience under supervision and achievement of the essential competencies entailing at least 6 month or more of intensive training schedules to be eligible to appear in its final certifying examination.

  16. Chronic non-communicable diseases, risk and health promotion: social construction of Vigitel participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika de Azevedo Leitão Mássimo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The dimension of choice and adherence to healthy lifestyles is in the area of social constructions made in representations of individuals and had not yet been included in the Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (VIGITEL analysis systems. This article aims to understand, in individual narratives, representations contained in the trajectories of people's lives selected from the 2010 VIGITEL sample, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. It is a qualitative study based on Social Representation Theory. Thirty in-depth and open interviews with subjects selected from the 2010 VIGITEL sample were conducted in Belo Horizonte in the State of Minas Gerais. The Structural Analysis of Narrative technique was used to reveal the content of speeches. Age and heredity representations related to NCDs are part of the spectrum of current scientific information. Learning from childhood onwards is the basis of care. The lack of comprehension of the pathophysiology of NCDs, and the depth of representations of illness and death related to communicable diseases, is partly responsible for the difficulty of preventing NCDs.

  17. Preventive Medicine in World War II. Volume 7. Communicable Diseases. Arthropodborne other than Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-01-01

    in Peru or in other countries. In Ecuador , bartonellosis has l»een report«! from the Provinces of Loja and Oro. This author " cultivated...fatal, caused by BartoneUa baciUiformis and transmitted by the bite of Phlebotomies. The dis- ease is limited to certain parts of Peru, Ecuador , and...Colombia. The disease was not a military problem in World War II. American troops stationed in Peru (Talara) and Ecuador (Salinas) were outside the

  18. The global impact of non-communicable diseases on healthcare spending and national income: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muka, Taulant; Imo, David; Jaspers, Loes; Colpani, Veronica; Chaker, Layal; van der Lee, Sven J; Mendis, Shanthi; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Bramer, Wichor M; Falla, Abby; Pazoki, Raha; Franco, Oscar H

    2015-04-01

    The impact of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in populations extends beyond ill-health and mortality with large financial consequences. To systematically review and meta-analyze studies evaluating the impact of NCDs (including coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer (lung, colon, cervical and breast), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic kidney disease) at the macro-economic level: healthcare spending and national income. Medical databases (Medline, Embase and Google Scholar) up to November 6th 2014. For further identification of suitable studies, we searched reference lists of included studies and contacted experts in the field. We included randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, cohorts, case-control, cross-sectional, modeling and ecological studies carried out in adults assessing the economic consequences of NCDs on healthcare spending and national income without language restrictions. All abstracts and full text selection was done by two independent reviewers. Any disagreements were resolved through consensus or consultation of a third reviewer. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers using a pre-designed data collection form. Studies evaluating the impact of at least one of the selected NCDs on at least one of the following outcome measures: healthcare expenditure, national income, hospital spending, gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product, net national income, adjusted national income, total costs, direct costs, indirect costs, inpatient costs, outpatient costs, per capita healthcare spending, aggregate economic outcome, capital loss in production levels in a country, economic growth, GDP per capita (per capita income), percentage change in GDP, intensive growth, extensive growth, employment, direct governmental expenditure and non-governmental expenditure. From 4,364 references, 153 studies met our inclusion criteria. Most of the studies were focused on healthcare related costs of NCDs

  19. Skeletal Manifestations in Gaucher Disease: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altınay Göksel Karatepe

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Gauchers disease is the most frequent hereditary lysosomal deposit storage disorder. It is characterized by a deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase that leads to an accumulation of glucocerebroside in the macrophage lysosomes. It is classified in three types, according to the presence of central nervous system involvement (type 2 and 3 or not (type 1. In the majority of patients there are hepatosplenomegaly, anemia and thrombocytopenia. Skeletal involvement is also important and it is the most disabling manifestation. In this case report, there is presented a case of Gauchers disease with multiple skeletal involvement and the literature is reviewed.

  20. An Unusual Presentation of Addison's Disease-A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Sandeep; Alam, Anwer; Dewan, Vivek; Yadav, Dinesh; Dubey, N K

    2011-07-01

    Addison's disease is most commonly due to autoimmune adrenalitis and tuberculosis and refers to primary hypoadrenalism caused by a total or near total destruction or dysfunction of both adrenal cortices. Usual manifestations involve chronic fatigue, muscle weakness, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hypotension and hyperpigmentation of skin. We herein report a case of primary adrenal insufficiency presenting with fever and seizures in an 11-yr-old boy. His symptoms resolved after starting specific therapy. This kind of presentation of Addison's disease is rather unusual.

  1. [Integration of mental health and chronic non-communicable diseases in Peru: challenges and opportunities for primary care settings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Ipince, Alessandra; Toyama, Mauricio; Benate-Galvez, Ysabel; Galán-Rodas, Edén; Medina-Verástegui, Julio César; Sánchez-Moreno, David; Araya, Ricardo; Miranda, J Jaime

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between mental health and chronic non-communicable diseases is discussed as well as the possibility to address them in a comprehensive manner in the Peruvian health system. First, the prevalence estimates and the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases and mental disorders worldwide and in Peru are reviewed. Then, the detrimental impact of depression in the early stages as well as the progress of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases is described. Additionally, the gap between access to mental health care in Peru is analyzed. Lastly, the alternatives to reduce the gap are explored. Of these alternatives, the integration of mental health into primary care services is emphasized; as a feasible way to meet the care needs of the general population, and people with chronic diseases in particular, in the Peruvian context.

  2. Towards reframing health service delivery in Uganda: the Uganda Initiative for Integrated Management of Non-Communicable Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy I. Schwartz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs is accelerating. Given that the capacity of health systems in LMICs is already strained by the weight of communicable diseases, these countries find themselves facing a double burden of disease. NCDs contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality, thereby playing a major role in the cycle of poverty, and impeding development. Methods: Integrated approaches to health service delivery and healthcare worker (HCW training will be necessary in order to successfully combat the great challenge posed by NCDs. Results: In 2013, we formed the Uganda Initiative for Integrated Management of NCDs (UINCD, a multidisciplinary research collaboration that aims to present a systems approach to integrated management of chronic disease prevention, care, and the training of HCWs. Discussion: Through broad-based stakeholder engagement, catalytic partnerships, and a collective vision, UINCD is working to reframe integrated health service delivery in Uganda.

  3. Patient-reported changes in communication after computer-based script training for aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheim, Larry M; Halper, Anita S; Cherney, Leora

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate changes in patient-reported communication difficulty after a home-based, computer-delivered intervention designed to improve conversational skills in adults with aphasia. Delayed treatment design with baseline, preintervention, postintervention, and follow-up observations. Outpatient rehabilitation. Twenty subjects with chronic aphasia. Sessions with the speech-language pathologist to develop personally relevant conversational scripts, followed by 9 weeks of intensive home practice using a computer program loaded on a laptop, and weekly monitoring visits with the speech-language pathologist. Communication Difficulty (CD) subscale of the Burden of Stroke Scale (BOSS). The intervention resulted in a statistically and clinically significant decrease of 6.79 points (P=.038) in the CD subscale of the BOSS during the intervention, maintained during the follow-up period. The findings of this study provide positive albeit preliminary and limited support for the use of a home-based, computer-delivered language intervention program for improving patient-reported communication outcomes in adults with chronic aphasia. Additional research will be required to examine the efficacy and effectiveness of this intervention.

  4. Healthcare model with use of information and communication technology for patients with chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisiecka-Biełanowicz, Mira; Wawrzyniak, Zbigniew

    2016-07-15

    The healthcare system is positioned in the patient's environment and works with other determinants of the treatment. Patient care requires a whole system compatible to the needs of organizational and technical solutions. The purpose of this study is to present a new model of patient-oriented care, in which the use of information and communication technology (ICT) can improve the effectiveness of healthcare for patients with chronic diseases. The study material is the process of healthcare for chronically ill patients. Knowledge of the circumstances surrounding ecosystem and of the patients' needs, taking into account the fundamental healthcare goals allows us to build a new models of care, starting with the economic assumptions. The method used is modeling the construction of efficient healthcare system with the patient-centered model using ICT tools. We present a new systemic concept of building patient's environment in which he is the central figure of the healthcare organization - so called patient centered system. The use of ICT in the model of chronic patient's healthcare can improve the effectiveness of this kind of care. The concept is a vision to making wide platform of information management in chronic disease in a real environment ecosystem of patient using ICT tools. On the basis of a systematic approach to the model of chronic disease, and the knowledge of the patient itself, a model of the ecosystem impacts and interactions through information feedback and the provision of services can be constructed. ICT assisted techniques will increase the effectiveness of patient care, in which nowadays information exchange plays a key role.

  5. Non-communicable diseases in Indian slums: re-framing the Social Determinants of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumagbas, Lily Beth; Coleman, Harry Laurence Selby; Bunders, Joske; Pariente, Antoine; Belonje, Anne; de Cock Buning, Tjard

    2018-01-01

    The epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in slums has pushed its residents to heightened vulnerability. The Social Determinants of Health (SDH) framework has been used to understand the social dynamics and impact of NCDs, especially in poorly resourced communities. Whilst the SDH has helped to discredit the characterisation of NCDs as diseases of affluence, its impact on policy has been less definite. Given the multitude of factors that interact in the presentation of NCDs, operationalising the SDH for policies and programmes that account for the contextual complexity of slums has stalled. To organise the complex networks of relations between SDH in slums so as to identify options for Indian municipal policy that are feasible to implement in the short term. The study reviews the literature describing SDH in Indian slums, specifically those that establish causal relations between SDH and NCDs. Root cause analysis was then used to organise the identified relations of SDH and NCDs. Although poverty remains the largest structural determinant of health in slums, the multi-dimensional relations between SDH and NCDs are structured around four themes that describe the dynamics of slums, namely scarce clean water, low education, physical (in)activity and transportation. From the reviewed literature, four logic trees visualising the relations between SDH in slums and NCDs were constructed. The logic trees separate symptomatic problems from their more distal causes, and recommendations were formulated based on features of these relationships that are amenable to policy intervention. Root cause analysis provides a means to focus the lens of examination of SDH, as evidenced here for Indian slums. It provides a guide for the development of policies that are grounded in the actual health concerns of people in slums, and takes account of the complex pathways through which diseases are socially constituted.

  6. Patent and exclusivity status of essential medicines for non-communicable disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim K Mackey

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The threat of non-communicable diseases ("NCDs" is increasingly becoming a global health crisis and are pervasive in high, middle, and low-income populations resulting in an estimated 36 million deaths per year. There is a need to assess intellectual property rights ("IPRs" that may impede generic production and availability and affordability to essential NCD medicines. METHODS: Using the data sources listed below, the study design systematically eliminated NCD drugs that had no patent/exclusivity provisions on API, dosage, or administration route. The first step identified essential medicines that treat certain high disease burden NCDs. A second step examined the patent and exclusivity status of active ingredient, dosage and listed route of administration using exclusion criteria outlined in this study. MATERIALS: We examined the patent and exclusivity status of medicines listed in the World Health Organization's ("WHO" Model List of Essential Drugs (Medicines ("MLEM" and other WHO sources for drugs treating certain NCDs. i.e., cardiovascular and respiratory disease, cancers, and diabetes. We utilized the USA Food and Drug Administration Orange Book and the USA Patent and Trademark Office databases as references given the predominant number of medicines registered in the USA. RESULTS: Of the 359 MLEM medicines identified, 22% (79/359 address targeted NCDs. Of these 79, only eight required in-depth patent or exclusivity assessment. Upon further review, no NCD MLEM medicines had study patent or exclusivity protection for reviewed criteria. CONCLUSIONS: We find that ensuring availability and affordability of potential generic formulations of NCD MLEM medicines appears to be more complex than the presence of IPRs with API, dosage, or administration patent or exclusivity protection. Hence, more sophisticated analysis of NCD barriers to generic availability and affordability should be conducted in order to ensure equitable access to global

  7. Culture and Risk Communication. A Report about the Farmworker Association of Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Kuhnhenn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this field report, I give an account of my research trip to the Farmworker Association of Florida in Central Florida near the area of Lake Apopka (U.S.. This non-governmental association works to empower and improve farmworkers’ living and working conditions. The field trip is embedded in my research on risk communication with a special focus on the risks of herbicides. This issue is closely linked to political, cultural and racial factors. Hence, I argue, risk communication must consider culture as a contextual key factor and should embrace a critical perspective. Such a perspective is culturally appropriate and addresses issues of race and language as well as socio-economic status

  8. Population exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by 'communicating meters'. Anses opinion. Collective expertise report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndagijimana, Fabien; Agnani, Jean-Benoit; Deltour, Isabelle; Dore, Jean-Francois; Ducimetiere, Pierre; Draetta, Laura; Gaudaire, Francois; Marchand, Dorothee; Martinsons, Christophe; Hours, Martine; Lelong, Joel; Bounouh, Alexandre; Feltin, Nicolas; Douki, Thierry; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Lafaye, Murielle; Moati, Frederique; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Soyez, Alain; Toppila, Esko; Yardin, Catherine; Huret, Fanny; Merckel, Olivier; Saddoki, Sophia; Gauthier, Mathieu; Tavner, Bastien; Debuire, Brigitte

    2016-10-01

    This document first presents the opinion of the Anses (the French National Agency for food, environment and work safety) about the assessment of the exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by communicating meters. This opinion and some associated recommendations are based on the content of the study report which is thereafter presented. This report first proposes a presentation of the context, objective, implemented method and organisation of this study, and a focus on how interest conflicts have been avoided. The next chapters presents some other aspects related to the deployment of these meters: European and French legal framework, normative framework, historical overview and current status of this deployment in France, in the European Union and abroad. The report also addresses and comments some controversies about these meters: the public controversy about Linky in France (literature overview, nature and actors of the controversy, dynamics about health issue), a legal conflict about the ownership and management of the Linky meters in France, and a case of controversy in Quebec (Canada). Technical descriptions of different communicating meters are then presented: Linky with the CPL or PLC technology, and Gazpar and water meters using a radio technology. The authors report measurements performed by EDF, public bodies and other actors, and also measurements performed in Finland of the exposure in the case of PLC meters, radio-wave-based meters and concentrators. Based on these exposure data, an assessment of health effect is proposed, followed by conclusions and recommendations

  9. Imaging Manifestations in Systemic Cat Scratch Disease: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero M, Julian F; Perez A, Maria C; Cerquera C, Fredy M

    2011-01-01

    Cat scratch disease is a zoonosis caused by Bartonella henselae, which is transmitted by scratches, bites or exposition to cats saliva (1). The disease typically manifests with local lymphadenitis after bacterial inoculation in the skin, however, there is an atypical systemic presentation in 5 to 10% of patients, which causes unspecific symptoms. There are several imaging findings that lead the radiologist to consider this diagnosis, in order to prevent an invasive procedure, especially if we consider that the majority of cases occur in the pediatric population (2,3). Although in the majority of cases the symptoms and imaging findings resolve spontaneously, there are specific indications like the systemic form of the disease,which requires antibiotic treatment. In the present article we are exposing a case report from Fundacion Cardioinfantil; we will review some epidemiologic aspects, clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods as well as imaging findings in Ultrasonography, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance and Nuclear Medicine.

  10. Imaging Manifestations in Systemic Cat Scratch Disease: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero Melo, Julian Francisco; Perez Alvarado, Maria Carolina; Cerquera Cabrera, Fredy Martin

    2011-01-01

    Cat scratch disease is a zoonosis caused by Bartonella henselae, which is transmitted by scratches, bites or exposition to cats saliva (1). The disease typically manifests with local lymphadenitis after bacterial inoculation in the skin, however, there is an atypical systemic presentation in 5 to 10% of patients, which causes unspecific symptoms. There are several imaging findings that lead the radiologist to consider this diagnosis, in order to prevent an invasive procedure, especially if we consider that the majority of cases occur in the pediatric population (2,3). Although in the majority of cases the symptoms and imaging findings resolve spontaneously, there are specific indications like the systemic form of the disease, which requires antibiotic treatment. In the present article we are exposing a case report from Fundacion Cardio infantil; we will review some epidemiologic aspects, clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods as well as imaging findings in Ultrasonography, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance and Nuclear Medicine.

  11. Hydatid disease in childhood: revisited report of an interesting case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairajpuri, Zeeba Shamim; Jetley, Sujata; Hassan, Md Jaseem; Hussain, Musharraf

    2012-10-01

    Hydatid disease is a zoonosis caused by the tapeworm of Echinococcus spp. The disease is widely endemic in many sheep and cattle rearing locales. However, hydatidosis does not remain restricted to endemic geographical locales anymore but rather is a global health concern. It is a major public health burden causing significant morbidity and mortality. Echinococcus granulosus involvement in children has a different pattern than adults. Children of all age groups are susceptible and localization of the disease in the lungs is more commonly seen. Multiple liver cysts in the paediatric age group is relatively uncommon. We report an interesting case of multiple liver cysts in a 5-year old boy which was diagnosed as hydatid cysts on histopathological examination.

  12. Examining Success of Communication Strategies Used by Formal Caregivers Assisting Individuals with Alzheimer's Disease during an Activity of Daily Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rozanne; Rochon, Elizabeth; Mihailidis, Alex; Leonard, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine how formal (i.e., employed) caregivers' use verbal and nonverbal communication strategies while assisting individuals with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) during the successful completion of an activity of daily living (ADL). Based on the literature, the authors hypothesized that caregivers' use of 1 proposition,…

  13. The Contribution of Online Peer-to-Peer Communication Among Patients With Adrenal Disease to Patient-Centered Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauw, D.; Repping-Wuts, H.; Noordzij, A.; Stikkelbroeck, N.; Hermus, A.R.; Faber, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Addison's disease and Cushing's syndrome are rare. The Dutch Adrenal Society offers an online forum for Dutch adrenal patients to meet and communicate. However, little is known about the added value such a forum has for the delivery of patient-centered care. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to

  14. Co-occurrence of behavioral risk factors of common non-communicable diseases among urban slum dwellers in Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Oti, Samuel; Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kyobutungi, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The four common non-communicable diseases (NCDs) account for 80% of NCD-related deaths worldwide. The four NCDs share four common risk factors. As most of the existing evidence on the common NCD risk factors is based on analysis of a single factor at a time, there is a need to investigate the

  15. Design and application of the emergency response mobile phone-based information system for infectious disease reporting in the Wenchuan earthquake zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiaqi; Zhou, Maigeng; Li, Yanfei; Guo, Yan; Su, Xuemei; Qi, Xiaopeng; Ge, Hui

    2009-05-01

    To describe the design and application of an emergency response mobile phone-based information system for infectious disease reporting. Software engineering and business modeling were used to design and develop the emergency response mobile phone-based information system for infectious disease reporting. Seven days after the initiation of the reporting system, the reporting rate in the earthquake zone reached the level of the same period in 2007, using the mobile phone-based information system. Surveillance of the weekly report on morbidity in the earthquake zone after the initiation of the mobile phone reporting system showed the same trend as the previous three years. The emergency response mobile phone-based information system for infectious disease reporting was an effective solution to transmit urgently needed reports and manage communicable disease surveillance information. This assured the consistency of disease surveillance and facilitated sensitive, accurate, and timely disease surveillance. It is an important backup for the internet-based direct reporting system for communicable disease. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

  16. Septated pericarditis associated with Kawasaki disease: a brief case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonçaği, Arzu; Devrim, Ilker; Karagöz, Tevfik; Dilber, Embiya; Celiker, Alpay; Ozen, Seza; Seçmeer, Gülten

    2007-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is primarily the systemic vasculitis of childhood that affects mainly the medium-sized arteries, such as the coronary arteries. KD is the leading cause of acquired heart disease, whereas the incidence of rheumatic fever has declined. The most serious complication is coronary artery involvement. Among the children with KD who developed cardiac complications, pericarditis is a rare complication, with an incidence of 0.07%. We report our experience in a 5.5-year-old child with KD complicated with aneurysm of the left anterior descendant coronary artery and septated pericardial effusion, which has not been reported in the literature. The pericardial effusion disappeared very dramatically with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy. We would like to point out that septated pericardial effusion in cases of KD do not need any further therapy other than IVIG and high-dose acetylsalicylic acid.

  17. Matched and Mismatched Appraisals of the Effectiveness of Communication Strategies by Family Caregivers of Persons with Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savundranayagam, Marie Y.; Orange, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Communication problems stemming from Alzheimer's disease (AD) often result in misunderstandings that can be linked with problem behaviours and increased caregiver stress. Moreover, these communication breakdowns also can result either from caregivers' use of ineffective communication strategies, which paradoxically are…

  18. Associations between exposure to information and communication technology (ICT) and reported discomfort among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Kristy; Ciccarelli, Marina; Falkmer, Torbjorn; Parsons, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are common among adolescents in their daily activities.Exposure to ICT has been associated with discomfort and musculoskeletal disorders in adults, with growing concern about the potential risks to children and adolescents' physical health. The objectives of this study were to (i) quantify self-reported discomfort and exposure to ICT among adolescents; and (ii) determine if associations exist between discomfort and levels of exposure. The participant group comprised 33 Australian adolescents aged 12-15 years. The study used self-reports by participants for a one week period. Intensity and location of discomfort was reported via a written discomfort log. ICT exposure and physical activity were reported through an electronic time-use diary. The most common ICT types reported by participants were television, mobile phones and desktop and laptop computers. Discomfort was reported by 86% of participants. The most frequently reported areas were the legs, head/neck, back and shoulders. There was no statistical association found between ICT exposure and discomfort. The majority of participants exceeded the recommended 60 minutes per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity. High exposure to ICT and high prevalence of low level discomfort was reported by the participants. Participating in regular physical activity may have some protective effect against ICT-related discomfort.

  19. Histiocytosis versus (Hand-Schuller-Christian disease) - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro Filho, Jose Olimar; Leite, Marta Santos; Andrade Neto, Jose Moacyr

    2002-01-01

    The authors report a case of a 4-year-old girl with headache, irritability, othorrea and unilateral exophtalmus. Computed tomography and plain films showed large lytic areas in the vault and base of the skull. No other bones were involved. The diagnosis of histiocytosis X (Hand-Schuller-Christian disease) was confirmed by bone marrow biopsy. This paper presents the cytological and radiological findings of this patient as well as a review of the literature. (author)

  20. Laryngeal lipoma associated with Madelung's disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landínez-Cepeda, Guillermo Arturo; Alarcos-Tamayo, Emilio V; Millás-Gómez, Teresa; Morais-Pérez, Darío

    2012-01-01

    Multiple symmetric lipomatosis is an alteration in the neck, upper trunk and upper extremities fat deposits. It produces an aesthetic problem and sometimes upper airway obstruction when the larynx is infiltrated by the mass. We report the case of a male with Madelung's disease, which began with acute dyspnea caused by laryngeal fat deposits and obstructive lipoma. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Madelung's disease: a case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, Maria da Graca Caminha; Londero, Thiza Massaia; Haygert, Carlos Jesus Pereira; Zagoury, Andre Rivas; Carrion, Rodrigo Previdello

    2010-01-01

    The authors report the case of a patient with Madelung's disease, which is clinically described as the presence of multiple and symmetric non-encapsulated masses of fatty tissue, usually involving the neck and the upper region of the trunk. Computed tomography was selected as the imaging method for diagnosis confirmation, considering its lower cost and higher availability as compared with magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  2. Clustering of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases among Adolescents from Southern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloyse Elaine Gimenes Nunes

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the simultaneous presence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases and the association of these risk factors with demographic and economic factors among adolescents from southern Brazil.The study included 916 students (14-19 years old enrolled in the 2014 school year at state schools in São José, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Risk factors related to lifestyle (i.e., physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet, demographic variables (sex, age and skin colour and economic variables (school shift and economic level were assessed through a questionnaire. Simultaneous behaviours were assessed by the ratio between observed and expected prevalences of risk factors for non-communicable diseases. The clustering of risk factors was analysed by multinomial logistic regression. The clusters of risk factors that showed a higher prevalence were analysed by binary logistic regression.The clustering of two, three, four, and five risk factors were found in 22.2%, 49.3%, 21.7% and 3.1% of adolescents, respectively. Subgroups that were more likely to have both behaviours of physical inactivity and unhealthy diet simultaneously were mostly composed of girls (OR = 3.03, 95% CI = 1.57-5.85 and those with lower socioeconomic status (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.05-3.21; simultaneous physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet were mainly observed among older adolescents (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.05-2.12. Subgroups less likely to have both behaviours of sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet were mostly composed of girls (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.38-0.89; simultaneous physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet were mainly observed among older individuals (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49-0.87 and those of the night shift (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.43-0.82.Adolescents had a high prevalence of simultaneous risk factors for NCDs

  3. Clustering of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases among Adolescents from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Heloyse Elaine Gimenes; Gonçalves, Eliane Cristina de Andrade; Vieira, Jéssika Aparecida Jesus; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the simultaneous presence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases and the association of these risk factors with demographic and economic factors among adolescents from southern Brazil. The study included 916 students (14-19 years old) enrolled in the 2014 school year at state schools in São José, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Risk factors related to lifestyle (i.e., physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet), demographic variables (sex, age and skin colour) and economic variables (school shift and economic level) were assessed through a questionnaire. Simultaneous behaviours were assessed by the ratio between observed and expected prevalences of risk factors for non-communicable diseases. The clustering of risk factors was analysed by multinomial logistic regression. The clusters of risk factors that showed a higher prevalence were analysed by binary logistic regression. The clustering of two, three, four, and five risk factors were found in 22.2%, 49.3%, 21.7% and 3.1% of adolescents, respectively. Subgroups that were more likely to have both behaviours of physical inactivity and unhealthy diet simultaneously were mostly composed of girls (OR = 3.03, 95% CI = 1.57-5.85) and those with lower socioeconomic status (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.05-3.21); simultaneous physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet were mainly observed among older adolescents (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.05-2.12). Subgroups less likely to have both behaviours of sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet were mostly composed of girls (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.38-0.89); simultaneous physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet were mainly observed among older individuals (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49-0.87) and those of the night shift (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.43-0.82). Adolescents had a high prevalence of simultaneous risk factors for NCDs. Demographic

  4. Non-communicable disease risk factors and treatment preference of obese patients in Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Manning

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insights into the characteristics of treatment seekers for lifestyle changes and treatment preferences are necessary for intervention planning. Aim: To compile a profile of treatment-seeking obese patients with non-communicable diseases (NCDs or NCD risk factors and to compare patients who choose group-based (facility-based therapeutic group [FBTG] versus usual care (individual consultations treatment. Setting: A primary healthcare facility in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods: One hundred and ninety-three patients were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Ninety six chose FBTG while 97 chose usual care. A questionnaire, the hospital database and patients’ folders were used to collect data. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured. STATA 11.0 was used for descriptive statistics and to compare the two groups. Results: The subjects’ mean age was 50.4 years, 78% were women and of low education levels and income, and 41.5% had type 2 diabetes, 83.4% hypertension and 69.5% high cholesterol. Mean (s.d. HbA1c was 9.1 (2.0%, systolic BP 145.6 (21.0 mmHg, diastolic BP 84.5 (12.0 mmHg, cholesterol 5.4 (1.2 mmol/L, body mass indicator (BMI 39.3 (7.3 kg/m2 and waist circumference 117 (12.6 cm. These figures were undesirable although pharmacological treatment for diabetes and hypertension was in place. Only 14% were physically active, while TV viewing was > 2h/day. Mean daily intake of fruit and vegetables (2.2 portions/day was low while added sugar (5 teaspoons and sugar-sweetened beverages (1.3 glasses were high. Usual care patients had a higher smoking prevalence, HbA1c, number of NCD risk factors and refined carbohydrate intake, and a lower fruit and vegetable intake. Conclusion: Treatment seekers were typically middle-aged, low income women with various modifiable and intermediate risk factors for NCDs. Patients choosing usual care could have more NCD risks. Keywords: Non-communicable diseases; primary health care; family

  5. The global impact of non-communicable diseases on macro-economic productivity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaker, Layal; Falla, Abby; van der Lee, Sven J; Muka, Taulant; Imo, David; Jaspers, Loes; Colpani, Veronica; Mendis, Shanthi; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Bramer, Wichor M; Pazoki, Raha; Franco, Oscar H

    2015-05-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have large economic impact at multiple levels. To systematically review the literature investigating the economic impact of NCDs [including coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), cancer (lung, colon, cervical and breast), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD)] on macro-economic productivity. Systematic search, up to November 6th 2014, of medical databases (Medline, Embase and Google Scholar) without language restrictions. To identify additional publications, we searched the reference lists of retrieved studies and contacted authors in the field. Randomized controlled trials, cohort, case-control, cross-sectional, ecological studies and modelling studies carried out in adults (>18 years old) were included. Two independent reviewers performed all abstract and full text selection. Disagreements were resolved through consensus or consulting a third reviewer. Two independent reviewers extracted data using a predesigned data collection form. Main outcome measure was the impact of the selected NCDs on productivity, measured in DALYs, productivity costs, and labor market participation, including unemployment, return to work and sick leave. From 4542 references, 126 studies met the inclusion criteria, many of which focused on the impact of more than one NCD on productivity. Breast cancer was the most common (n = 45), followed by stroke (n = 31), COPD (n = 24), colon cancer (n = 24), DM (n = 22), lung cancer (n = 16), CVD (n = 15), cervical cancer (n = 7) and CKD (n = 2). Four studies were from the WHO African Region, 52 from the European Region, 53 from the Region of the Americas and 16 from the Western Pacific Region, one from the Eastern Mediterranean Region and none from South East Asia. We found large regional differences in DALYs attributable to NCDs but especially for cervical and lung cancer. Productivity losses in the USA ranged from 88 million

  6. Active Case Finding for Communicable Diseases in Prison Settings: Increasing Testing Coverage and Uptake Among the Prison Population in the European Union/European Economic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroling, Hilde; Babudieri, Sergio; Monarca, Roberto; Vonk Noordegraaf-Schouten, Marije; Beer, Netta; Gomes Dias, Joana; O’Moore, Éamonn; Hedrich, Dagmar; Oordt-Speets, Anouk

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Prison populations are disproportionally affected by communicable diseases when compared with the general community because of a complex mix of socioeconomic determinants and environmental factors. Tailored and adequate health care provision in prisons has the potential to reach vulnerable and underserved groups and address their complex needs. We investigated the available evidence on modalities and effectiveness of active case-finding interventions in prisons by searching PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for records on prison and active case finding with no language limit. Conference abstracts and unpublished research reports also were retrieved. We analyzed the findings by testing modality, outcomes, and study quality. The included 90 records—63 peer-reviewed, 26 from gray literature, and 1 systematic review—reported variously on viral hepatitis, human immunodeficiency virus, sexually transmitted infections, and tuberculosis. No records were retrieved for other communicable diseases. Provider-initiated opt-in testing was the most frequently investigated modality. Testing at entry and provider-initiated testing were reported to result in comparatively higher uptake ranges. However, no comparative studies were identified that reported statistically significant differences between testing modalities. Positivity rates among tested inmates ranged broadly but were generally high for all diseases. The evidence on active case finding in correctional facilities is limited, heterogeneous, and of low quality, making it challenging to draw conclusions on the effect of different testing modalities. Scale-up of provider-initiated testing in European correctional facilities could substantially reduce the undiagnosed fraction and, hence, prevent additional disease transmission in both prison settings and the community at large. PMID:29648594

  7. Care-seeking patterns for fatal non-communicable diseases among women of reproductive age in rural northwest Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Shegufta S; Labrique, Alain B; Ullah, Barkat; Mehra, Sucheta; Rashid, Mahbubur; Ali, Hasmot; Jahan, Nusrat; Shamim, Abu A; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2012-08-15

    Though non-communicable diseases contribute to an increasing share of the disease burden in South Asia, health systems in most rural communities are ill-equipped to deal with chronic illness. This analysis seeks to describe care-seeking behavior among women of reproductive age who died from fatal non-communicable diseases as recorded in northwest rural Bangladesh between 2001 and 2007. This analysis utilized data from a large population-based cohort trial in northwest rural Bangladesh. To conduct verbal autopsies of women who died while under study surveillance, physicians interviewed family members to elicit the biomedical symptoms that the women experienced as well as a narrative of the events leading to deaths. We performed qualitative textual analysis of verbal autopsy narratives for 250 women of reproductive age who died from non-communicable diseases between 2001 and 2007. The majority of women (94%) sought at least one provider for their illnesses. Approximately 71% of women first visited non-certified providers such as village doctors and traditional healers, while 23% first sought care from medically certified providers. After the first point of care, women appeared to switch to medically certified practitioners when treatment from non-certified providers failed to resolve their illness. This study suggests that treatment seeking patterns for non-communicable diseases are affected by many of the sociocultural factors that influence care seeking for pregnancy-related illnesses. Families in northwest rural Bangladesh typically delayed seeking treatment from medically certified providers for NCDs due to the cost of services, distance to facilities, established relationships with non-certified providers, and lack of recognition of the severity of illnesses. Most women did not realize initially that they were suffering from a chronic illness. Since women typically reached medically certified providers in advanced stages of disease, they were usually told that

  8. Care-seeking patterns for fatal non-communicable diseases among women of reproductive age in rural northwest Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikder Shegufta S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though non-communicable diseases contribute to an increasing share of the disease burden in South Asia, health systems in most rural communities are ill-equipped to deal with chronic illness. This analysis seeks to describe care-seeking behavior among women of reproductive age who died from fatal non-communicable diseases as recorded in northwest rural Bangladesh between 2001 and 2007. Methods This analysis utilized data from a large population-based cohort trial in northwest rural Bangladesh. To conduct verbal autopsies of women who died while under study surveillance, physicians interviewed family members to elicit the biomedical symptoms that the women experienced as well as a narrative of the events leading to deaths. We performed qualitative textual analysis of verbal autopsy narratives for 250 women of reproductive age who died from non-communicable diseases between 2001 and 2007. Results The majority of women (94% sought at least one provider for their illnesses. Approximately 71% of women first visited non-certified providers such as village doctors and traditional healers, while 23% first sought care from medically certified providers. After the first point of care, women appeared to switch to medically certified practitioners when treatment from non-certified providers failed to resolve their illness. Conclusions This study suggests that treatment seeking patterns for non-communicable diseases are affected by many of the sociocultural factors that influence care seeking for pregnancy-related illnesses. Families in northwest rural Bangladesh typically delayed seeking treatment from medically certified providers for NCDs due to the cost of services, distance to facilities, established relationships with non-certified providers, and lack of recognition of the severity of illnesses. Most women did not realize initially that they were suffering from a chronic illness. Since women typically reached medically certified

  9. Fruit and vegetable consumption and prevalence of diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases in Zanzibar, Tanzania: a mixed-methods study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræbel, Tania Aase; Keller, Amélie; de Courten, Max

    2012-01-01

    of fruit and vegetables is associated with NCDs. In Zanzibar, the incidence of diabetes has increased from 252 new cases in 2006, to 373 in 2008, in an adult population of just over a million people and hypertension is the second commonest cause of death. We explored the association between fruit......Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death in developed countries and account for roughly a third of deaths in developing countries. According to the 2004 Food and Agricultural Organization and WHO joint report on fruit and vegetables for health, low consumption...... and vegetable consumption and prevalence of diet-related NCDs in Zanzibar....

  10. Using mixed methods to investigate factors influencing reporting of livestock diseases: a case study among smallholders in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon, Georgina; Lewis, Elisa G; Chang, Yu-Mei; Ruiz, Hugo; Balanza, Maria Elba; Guitian, Javier

    2014-02-01

    Livestock disease surveillance is particularly challenging in resource-scarce settings, where disease events are often unreported. Surveillance performance is determined as much by the quantifiable biological attributes of the disease, as it is by motivations and barriers perceived by livestock keepers for disease reporting. Mixed methods designs, which integrate the collection, analysis and interpretation of qualitative and quantitative data in a single study, are increasingly used across different disciplines. These designs allow for a deeper exploration of the topic under investigation, than can be achieved by either approach alone. In this study a mixed methods design was used in order to gain a greater understanding of the factors that influence reporting of livestock diseases in Bolivia. There is a need to strengthen passive surveillance in this country, among other reasons as part of an eradication programme for Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD). Findings revealed livestock keepers in the study area were extremely unlikely to report the occurrence of livestock health events to the Official Veterinary Services (OVS). Communication outside the local community occurs more often through alternative routes and this is positively correlated with disease awareness. The main barriers to disease reporting identified were a lack of institutional credibility and the conflicting priorities of the OVS and livestock keepers. As for other animal and human diseases across the developing world, passive surveillance of livestock diseases in Bolivia should be enhanced; this is urgent in view of the current FMD eradication programme. Increasing timeliness and smallholders' participation requires a detailed understanding of their likely actions and perceived barriers towards disease reporting. These insights are most likely to be developed through a holistic mixed methods approach of quantitative and qualitative analyses. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  11. Non-communicating extradural arachnoid cyst: a rare case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Asheesh Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Extradural arachnoid cysts in the spine are uncommon causes of spinal cord compression in the paediatric population that are thought to arise from congenital defects in the duramater. In most literatures it is describe that such cysts communicating with the intrathecal subarachnoid space through a small defect in the dura. In this case report we describe a case of a child who presented with spinal cord compression caused by a large spinal extradural arachnoid cyst that did not communicate with the intradural subarachnoid space. An 9 year-old girl presented with progressive lower-extremity weakness, myelopathy, and severe gait ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine demonstrated a large extradural arachnoid cyst extending from T4 to T9. The patient underwent a thoracic laminectomy for en bloc resection of the spinal extradural arachnoid cyst. Intra-operatively, the dura was intact and there was no evidence of communication into the intradural subarachnoid space. Postoperatively, the patient’s motor strength and ambulation improved immediately, and no subsequent cerebrospinal fluid leak occurred.

  12. Tuberculosis non-communicable disease comorbidity and multimorbidity in public primary care patients in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl

    2018-04-11

     Little is known about the prevalence of non-communicable disease (NCD) multimorbidity among tuberculosis (TB) patients in Africa.Aim and setting: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of NCD multimorbidity, its pattern and impact on adverse health outcomes among patients with TB in public primary care in three selected districts of South Africa.  In a cross-sectional survey, new TB and TB retreatment patients were interviewed, and medical records assessed in consecutive sampling within 1 month of anti-TB treatment. The sample included 4207 (54.5% men and 45.5% women) TB patients from 42 primary care clinics in three districts. Multimorbidity was measured as the simultaneous presence of two or more of 10 chronic conditions, including myocardial infarction or angina pectoris, arthritis, asthma, chronic lung disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, malignant neoplasms, tobacco and alcohol-use disorder.  The prevalence of comorbidity (with one NCD) was 26.9% and multimorbidity (with two or more NCDs) was 25.3%. We identified three patterns of multimorbidity: (1) cardio-metabolic disorders; (2) respiratory disorders, arthritis and cancer; and (3) substance-use disorders. The likelihood of multimorbidity was higher in older age, among men, and was lower in those with higher education and socio-economic status. The prevalence of physical health decreased, and common mental disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder increased with an increase in the number of chronic conditions.  High NCD comorbidity and multimorbidity were found among TB patients predicted by socio-economic disparity.

  13. Responsiveness of Lebanon's primary healthcare centers to non-communicable diseases and related healthcare needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassoub, Rami; Hashimi, Suha; Awada, Siham; El-Jardali, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    Lebanon currently faces a rise in non-communicable diseases (NCD) that is stressing the population's health and financial well-being. Preventive care is recognized as the optimal health equitable, cost-effective solution. The study aims to assess the responsiveness of primary health care centers (PHCs) to NCD, and identify the needed health arrangements and responsibilities of PHCs, the Ministry Of Public Health and other healthcare system entities, for PHCs to purse a more preventive role against NCD. Single and group interviews were conducted via a semi-structured questionnaire with 10 PHCs from Lebanon's primary health care network that have undergone recent pilot accreditation and are recognized for having quality services and facilities. This manifested administrative aspects and NCD-related services of PHCs and generated information regarding the centers' deficiencies, strengths and areas needing improvement for fulfilling a more preventive role. Administrative features of PHCs varied according to number and type of health personnel employed. Variations and deficiencies within and among PHCs were manifested specifically at the level of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and cancer. PHCs identified the pilot accreditation as beneficial at the administrative and clinical levels; however, various financial and non-financial resources, in addition to establishing a strong referral system with secondary care settings and further arrangements with MOPH, are necessary for PHCs to pursue a stronger preventive role. The generated results denote needed changes within the healthcare system's governance, financing and delivery. They involve empowering PHCs and increasing their breadth of services, allocating a greater portion of national budget to health and preventive care, and equipping PHCs with personnel skilled in conducting community-wide preventive activities. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Communicating projected survival with treatments for chronic kidney disease: patient comprehension and perspectives on visual aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowen, Frances; Sidhu, Karishma; Broadbent, Elizabeth; Pilmore, Helen

    2017-09-21

    Mortality in end stage renal disease (ESRD) is higher than many malignancies. There is no data about the optimal way to present information about projected survival to patients with ESRD. In other areas, graphs have been shown to be more easily understood than narrative. We examined patient comprehension and perspectives on graphs in communicating projected survival in chronic kidney disease (CKD). One hundred seventy-seven patients with CKD were shown 4 different graphs presenting post transplantation survival data. Patients were asked to interpret a Kaplan Meier curve, pie chart, histogram and pictograph and answer a multi-choice question to determine understanding. We measured interpretation, usefulness and preference for the graphs. Most patients correctly interpreted the graphs. There was asignificant difference in the percentage of correct answers when comparing different graph types (p = 0.0439). The pictograph was correctly interpreted by 81% of participants, the histogram by 79%, pie chart by 77% and Kaplan Meier by 69%. Correct interpretation of the histogram was associated with educational level (p = 0.008) and inversely associated with age > 65 (p = 0.008). Of those who interpreted all four graphs correctly, there was an association with employment (p = 0.001) and New Zealand European ethnicity (p = 0.002). 87% of patients found the graphs useful. The pie chart was the most preferred graph (p 0.002). The readability of the graphs may have been improved with an alternative colour choice, especially in the setting of visual impairment. Visual aids, can be beneficial adjuncts to discussing survival in CKD.

  15. Inequalities in non-communicable diseases between the major population groups in Israel: achievements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsen, Khitam; Green, Manfred S; Soskolne, Varda; Neumark, Yehuda

    2017-06-24

    Israel is a high-income country with an advanced health system and universal health-care insurance. Overall, the health status has improved steadily over recent decades. We examined differences in morbidity, mortality, and risk factors for selected non-communicable diseases (NCDs) between subpopulation groups. Between 1975 and 2014, life expectancy in Israel steadily increased and is currently above the average life expectancy for the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Nevertheless, life expectancy has remained lower among Israeli Arabs than Israeli Jews, and this gap has recently widened. Age-adjusted mortality as a result of heart disease, stroke, or diabetes remains higher in Arabs, whereas age-adjusted incidence and mortality of cancer were higher among Jews. The prevalence of obesity and low physical activity in Israel is considerably higher among Arabs than Jews. Smoking prevalence is highest for Arab men and lowest for Arab women. Health inequalities are also evident by the indicators of socioeconomic position and in subpopulations, such as immigrants from the former Soviet Union, ultra-Orthodox Jews, and Bedouin Arabs. Despite universal health coverage and substantial improvements in the overall health of the Israeli population, substantial inequalities in NCDs persist. These differences might be explained, at least in part, by gaps in social determinants of health. The Ministry of Health has developed comprehensive programmes to reduce these inequalities between the major population groups. Sustained coordinated multisectoral efforts are needed to achieve a greater impact and to address other social inequalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Supermarket purchase contributes to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases in urban Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin M Demmler

    Full Text Available While undernutrition and related infectious diseases are still pervasive in many developing countries, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD, typically associated with high body mass index (BMI, is rapidly rising. The fast spread of supermarkets and related shifts in diets were identified as possible factors contributing to overweight and obesity in developing countries. Potential effects of supermarkets on people's health have not been analyzed up till now.This study investigates the effects of purchasing food in supermarkets on people's BMI, as well as on health indicators such as fasting blood glucose (FBG, blood pressure (BP, and the metabolic syndrome.This study uses cross-section observational data from urban Kenya. Demographic, anthropometric, and bio-medical data were collected from 550 randomly selected adults. Purchasing food in supermarkets is defined as a binary variable that takes a value of one if any food was purchased in supermarkets during the last 30 days. In a robustness check, the share of food purchased in supermarkets is defined as a continuous variable. Instrumental variable regressions are applied to control for confounding factors and establish causality.Purchasing food in supermarkets contributes to higher BMI (+ 1.8 kg/m2 (P<0.01 and an increased probability (+ 20 percentage points of being overweight or obese (P<0.01. Purchasing food in supermarkets also contributes to higher levels of FBG (+ 0.3 mmol/L (P<0.01 and a higher likelihood (+ 16 percentage points of suffering from pre-diabetes (P<0.01 and the metabolic syndrome (+ 7 percentage points (P<0.01. Effects on BP could not be observed.Supermarkets and their food sales strategies seem to have direct effects on people's health. In addition to increasing overweight and obesity, supermarkets contribute to nutrition-related NCDs. Effects of supermarkets on nutrition and health can mainly be ascribed to changes in the composition of people's food choices.

  17. Medicalization of global health 3: the medicalization of the non-communicable diseases agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocalyn Clark

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is growing recognition of the massive global burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs due to their prevalence, projected social and economic costs, and traditional neglect compared to infectious disease. The 2011 UN Summit, WHO 25×25 targets, and support of major medical and advocacy organisations have propelled prominence of NCDs on the global health agenda. NCDs are by definition ‘diseases’ so already medicalized. But their social drivers and impacts are acknowledged, which demand a broad, whole-of-society approach. However, while both individual- and population-level targets are identified in the current NCD action plans, most recommended strategies tend towards the individualistic approach and do not address root causes of the NCD problem. These so-called population strategies risk being reduced to expectations of individual and behavioural change, which may have limited success and impact and deflect attention away from government policies or regulation of industry. Industry involvement in NCD agenda-setting props up a medicalized approach to NCDs: food and drink companies favour focus on individual choice and responsibility, and pharmaceutical and device companies favour calls for expanded access to medicines and treatment coverage. Current NCD framing creates expanded roles for physicians, healthcare workers, medicines and medical monitoring. The professional rather than the patient view dominates the NCD agenda and there is a lack of a broad, engaged, and independent NGO community. The challenge and opportunity lie in defining priorities and developing strategies that go beyond a narrow medicalized framing of the NCD problem and its solutions.

  18. The environmental roots of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and the epigenetic impacts of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineis, Paolo; Stringhini, Silvia; Porta, Miquel

    2014-08-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are increasing worldwide. We hypothesize that environmental factors (including social adversity, diet, lack of physical activity and pollution) can become "embedded" in the biology of humans. We also hypothesize that the "embedding" partly occurs because of epigenetic changes, i.e., durable changes in gene expression patterns. Our concern is that once such factors have a foundation in human biology, they can affect human health (including NCDs) over a long period of time and across generations. To analyze how worldwide changes in movements of goods, persons and lifestyles (globalization) may affect the "epigenetic landscape" of populations and through this have an impact on NCDs. We provide examples of such changes and effects by discussing the potential epigenetic impact of socio-economic status, migration, and diet, as well as the impact of environmental factors influencing trends in age at puberty. The study of durable changes in epigenetic patterns has the potential to influence policy and practice; for example, by enabling stratification of populations into those who could particularly benefit from early interventions to prevent NCDs, or by demonstrating mechanisms through which environmental factors influence disease risk, thus providing compelling evidence for policy makers, companies and the civil society at large. The current debate on the '25 × 25 strategy', a goal of 25% reduction in relative mortality from NCDs by 2025, makes the proposed approach even more timely. Epigenetic modifications related to globalization may crucially contribute to explain current and future patterns of NCDs, and thus deserve attention from environmental researchers, public health experts, policy makers, and concerned citizens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Perception of non-communicable diseases predicts consumption of fruits and vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Surjadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Nutrition has come to the fore as one of the major modifiable determinants of chronic disease. Establishing healthy eating habits during adolescence is important given that fruit and vegetable consumption has long-term health-protective benefits. The objective of this study was to investigate the determinant factors of fruit and vegetable consumption habits among Padang inhabitants Methods We conducted a questionnaire-based rapid assessment of 150 respondents who came from different settings: The questionnaire consisted of items on personal characteristics such as age, working status, gender, and personal knowledge of the subjects about the cause of non-communicable diseases (NCDs and their activities to prevent NCDs. Bivariate analysis was applied to look for variables significantly related to healthy eating (vegetable and fruit consumption. We applied multiple logistic regression to look for the best model to explain factors related to regular fruit and vegetable consumption. Results The age range of the subjects was 14 to 76 years, 60% of subjects were women, and 40% were men. The study indicated that 64.7% of the respondents perceived that eating habits relate to NCD, while 67.3% consumed fruits and vegetables regularly. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that gender (O.R.=2.74; 95% C.I. 1.54-5.27 and perception of NCD as being related to healthy eating (O.R.=5.62;95% C.I. 2.93-10.76 were significantly related to regular fruit and vegetable consumption. Conclusion This study demonstrated that perception of NCD was the most determinant factor of regular fruit and vegetable consumption. Activities to improve practice of regular fruit and vegetable consumption are part of control of NCD risk factors.

  20. Supermarket purchase contributes to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases in urban Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, Stephan; Nzuma, Jonathan M.; Qaim, Matin

    2017-01-01

    Background While undernutrition and related infectious diseases are still pervasive in many developing countries, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD), typically associated with high body mass index (BMI), is rapidly rising. The fast spread of supermarkets and related shifts in diets were identified as possible factors contributing to overweight and obesity in developing countries. Potential effects of supermarkets on people’s health have not been analyzed up till now. Objective This study investigates the effects of purchasing food in supermarkets on people’s BMI, as well as on health indicators such as fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood pressure (BP), and the metabolic syndrome. Design This study uses cross-section observational data from urban Kenya. Demographic, anthropometric, and bio-medical data were collected from 550 randomly selected adults. Purchasing food in supermarkets is defined as a binary variable that takes a value of one if any food was purchased in supermarkets during the last 30 days. In a robustness check, the share of food purchased in supermarkets is defined as a continuous variable. Instrumental variable regressions are applied to control for confounding factors and establish causality. Results Purchasing food in supermarkets contributes to higher BMI (+ 1.8 kg/m2) (Psupermarkets also contributes to higher levels of FBG (+ 0.3 mmol/L) (PSupermarkets and their food sales strategies seem to have direct effects on people’s health. In addition to increasing overweight and obesity, supermarkets contribute to nutrition-related NCDs. Effects of supermarkets on nutrition and health can mainly be ascribed to changes in the composition of people’s food choices. PMID:28934333

  1. Technology and Research Requirements for Combating Human Trafficking: Enhancing Communication, Analysis, Reporting, and Information Sharing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreyling, Sean J.; West, Curtis L.; Olson, Jarrod

    2011-03-17

    DHS’ Science & Technology Directorate directed PNNL to conduct an exploratory study on the domain of human trafficking in the Pacific Northwest in order to examine and identify technology and research requirements for enhancing communication, analysis, reporting, and information sharing – activities that directly support efforts to track, identify, deter, and prosecute human trafficking – including identification of potential national threats from smuggling and trafficking networks. This effort was conducted under the Knowledge Management Technologies Portfolio as part of the Integrated Federal, State, and Local/Regional Information Sharing (RISC) and Collaboration Program.

  2. Prevalence of Chronic non Communicable Diseases and Risk Factors in Older Adults in Holguín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Enrique Miguel Soca

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Foundation: chronic non communicable diseases and their associated risk factors constitute a health problem in the elderly. Objective: to determine the prevalence of non communicable chronic diseases and to identify their associated risk factors in the elderly in Holguín province. Method: across-sectional study was carried out with a multistage sampling of 2 085 adults from 4 municipalities in the province of Holguín. The variables analyzed were: age, weight, height, body mass index, abdominal perimeter, hip circumference, waist / hip index, waist / height index, blood pressure and laboratory complement. Quantitative variables were expressed as mean ± standard deviation of the mean with their respective 95 % confidence intervals. Results: prevalence rates of chronic diseases and associated factors were overweight: 33.7 %, obesity: 45.2 %, abdominal obesity: 68 %, waist / tall index: 91.2 %, prehypertension: 5.4 % , hypertension: 29.6 %, hypertriglyceridemia: 60.9 %, hypercholesterolemia 54.1 %, HDL-cholesterol under 43,9 %, high LDL-cholesterol 20.7 %, high plasma atherogenic index 53.4 %, metabolic syndrome 56.5 %, ischemic heart disease 24.8 %, hypothyroidism 8.5 %, smoking 17.3 % , positive C-reactive protein 6, 8 % and positive microalbuminuria 3.4 %. Conclusions: older adults presented greater deterioration of anthropometric and lipid profile measurements than non - elderly adults, with high prevalence rates of most of the non - communicable chronic diseases studied and their associated risk factors.

  3. [Transitions in context: findings related to rural-to-urban migration and chronic non-communicable diseases in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J Jaime; Wells, Jonathan C K; Smeeth, Liam

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand the emergence of chronic non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries this article seeks to present, in context, different transitional processes which societies and populations are currently undergoing. Relevant factors for specific contexts such as Peru are described, including internal migration, urbanization and profiles of adversity in early life, all of them linked to chronic non-communicable diseases, including obesity and overweight. The capacity-load model, which considers chronic disease risk in adulthood as a function of two generic traits, metabolic capacity and metabolic load, is described. The contribution of rural-to-urban migration to this problem is also presented. Finally, these topics are framed within pending challenges for public health in Peru.

  4. Descriptions of verbal communication errors between staff. An analysis of 84 root cause analysis-reports from Danish hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabøl, Louise Isager; Andersen, Mette Lehmann; Østergaard, Doris

    2011-01-01

    incidents. The objective of this study is to review RCA reports (RCAR) for characteristics of verbal communication errors between hospital staff in an organisational perspective. Method Two independent raters analysed 84 RCARs, conducted in six Danish hospitals between 2004 and 2006, for descriptions......Introduction Poor teamwork and communication between healthcare staff are correlated to patient safety incidents. However, the organisational factors responsible for these issues are unexplored. Root cause analyses (RCA) use human factors thinking to analyse the systems behind severe patient safety...... and characteristics of verbal communication errors such as handover errors and error during teamwork. Results Raters found description of verbal communication errors in 44 reports (52%). These included handover errors (35 (86%)), communication errors between different staff groups (19 (43%)), misunderstandings (13...

  5. Non-communicable diseases and HIV care and treatment: models of integrated service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Malia; Ojikutu, Bisola; Andrian, Soa; Sohng, Elaine; Minior, Thomas; Hirschhorn, Lisa R

    2017-08-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are a growing cause of morbidity in low-income countries including in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Integration of NCD and HIV services can build upon experience with chronic care models from HIV programmes. We describe models of NCD and HIV integration, challenges and lessons learned. A literature review of published articles on integrated NCD and HIV programs in low-income countries and key informant interviews were conducted with leaders of identified integrated NCD and HIV programs. Information was synthesised to identify models of NCD and HIV service delivery integration. Three models of integration were identified as follows: NCD services integrated into centres originally providing HIV care; HIV care integrated into primary health care (PHC) already offering NCD services; and simultaneous introduction of integrated HIV and NCD services. Major challenges identified included NCD supply chain, human resources, referral systems, patient education, stigma, patient records and monitoring and evaluation. The range of HIV and NCD services varied widely within and across models. Regardless of model of integration, leveraging experience from HIV care models and adapting existing systems and tools is a feasible method to provide efficient care and treatment for the growing numbers of patients with NCDs. Operational research should be conducted to further study how successful models of HIV and NCD integration can be expanded in scope and scaled-up by managers and policymakers seeking to address all the chronic care needs of their patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Addressing non-communicable diseases in the Seychelles: towards a comprehensive plan of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovet, Pascal; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Shamlaye, Conrad; Romain, Sarah; Gedeon, Jude

    2010-06-01

    This article reviews the different steps taken during the past 20 years for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the Seychelles. National surveys revealed high levels of several cardiovascular risk factors and prompted an organized response, starting with the creation of an NCD unit in the Ministry of Health. Information campaigns and nationwide activities raised awareness and rallied increasingly broad and high-level support. Significant policy was developed including comprehensive tobacco legislation and a School Nutrition Policy that bans soft drinks in schools. NCD guidelines were developed and specialized 'NCD nurses' were trained to complement doctors in district health centers. Decreasing smoking prevalence is evidence of success, but the raising so-called diabesity epidemic calls for an integrated multi-sector policy to mould an environment conducive to healthy behaviors. Essential components of these efforts include: effective surveillance mechanisms supplemented by focused research; generating broad interest and consensus; mobilizing leadership and commitment at all levels; involving local and international expertise; building on existing efforts; and seeking integrated, multi-disciplinary and multi-sector approaches.

  7. Developing a Performance Assessment Framework and Indicators for Communicable Disease Management in Natural Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, Javad; Ardalan, Ali; Vatandoost, Hasan; Goya, Mohammad Mehdi; Akbarisari, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Communicable disease management (CDM) is an important component of disaster public health response operations. However, there is a lack of any performance assessment (PA) framework and related indicators for the PA. This study aimed to develop a PA framework and indicators in CDM in disasters. In this study, a series of methods were used. First, a systematic literature review (SLR) was performed in order to extract the existing PA frameworks and indicators. Then, using a qualitative approach, some interviews with purposively selected experts were conducted and used in developing the PA framework and indicators. Finally, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used for weighting of the developed indicators. The input, process, products, and outcomes (IPPO) framework was found to be an appropriate framework for CDM PA. Seven main functions were revealed to CDM during disasters. Forty PA indicators were developed for the four categories. There is a lack of any existing PA framework in CDM in disasters. Thus, in this study, a PA framework (IPPO framework) was developed for the PA of CDM in disasters through a series of methods. It can be an appropriate framework and its indicators could measure the performance of CDM in disasters.

  8. Non-communicable diseases and human rights: Global synergies, gaps and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Laura; Tarantola, Daniel; Hoffmann, Michael; Gruskin, Sofia

    2017-10-01

    The incorporation of human rights in health policy and programmes is known to strengthen responses to health problems and help address disparities created or exacerbated by illness yet this remains underexplored in relation to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Aiming to understand existing synergies and how they might be further strengthened, we assessed the extent to which human rights are considered in global NCD policies and strategies and the degree of attention given to NCDs by select United Nations human rights mechanisms. Across global NCD policies and strategies, rhetorical assertions regarding human rights appear more often than actionable statements, thus limiting their implementation and impact. Although no human rights treaty explicitly mentions NCDs, some human rights monitoring mechanisms have been paying increasing attention to NCDs. This provides important avenues for promoting the incorporation of human rights norms and standards into NCD responses as well as for accountability. Linking NCDs and human rights at the global level is critical for encouraging national-level action to promote better outcomes relating to both health and human rights. The post-2015 development agenda constitutes a key entry point for highlighting these synergies and strengthening opportunities for health and rights action at global, national and local levels.

  9. [Chronic non-communicable diseases: a global epidemic of the 21st century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Karl; Gudnason, Vilmundur

    2012-11-01

    Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the cause of 86% of all deaths in the EU and 65% of deaths worldwide. A third of these deaths occur before the age of sixty years. The NCDs affect 40% of the adult population of the EU and two thirds of the population reaching retirement age suffers from two or more NCDs. The NCDs are a global epidemic challenging economic growth in most countries. According to the WHO, NCDs are one of the major threats to worldwide social and economic development in the 21st century. The problem is of great concern to the international community and was discussed at a High level meeting at the UN General Assembly in September 2011. In this paper we review the epidemic of NCDs both from a national and international perspective. We discuss the causes and consequences. In a second review paper we reflect on the political health policy issues raised by the international community in order to respond to the problem. These issues will become a major challenge for social and economic development in most countries of the world in the coming decades.

  10. Does Your Heart Forecast help practitioner understanding and confidence with cardiovascular disease risk communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Sue; Kerr, Andrew; Broadbent, Elizabeth; MacKenzie, Craig; Cole, Karl; McLachlan, Andy

    2011-03-01

    Explaining what cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk means and engaging in shared decision-making regarding risk factor modification is challenging. An electronic CVD risk visualisation tool containing multiple risk communication strategies (Your Heart Forecast) was designed in 2009. To assess whether this tool facilitated explaining CVD risk to primary care patients. Health professionals who accessed a Primary Health Organisation website or who attended educational peer groups over a three-month period were invited to complete questionnaires before and after viewing a four-minute video about the tool. Respondents were asked to make an informed guess of the CVD risk of a 35-year-old patient (actual CVD risk 5%) and rate the following sentence as being true or false: 'If there were 100 people like Mr Andrews, five would go on to have a cardiac event in the next five years.' They also were asked to rank their understanding of CVD risk and confidence in explaining the concept to patients. Fifty health professionals (37 GPs, 12 practice nurses, one other) completed before and after questionnaires. Respondents' CVD risk estimates pre-video ranged from confidence in explaining risk reduced in range and shifted towards greater efficacy. Whether this tool facilitates discussions of CVD risk with patients and improves patient understanding and lifestyle behaviour needs to be evaluated in a randomised trial.

  11. AWARENESS OF NON COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR RISK FACTORS AMONG RURAL SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharudha Shivalli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Behavioral interventions for Non Communicable Diseases (NCD abeyance would profit the most, if initiated at an early age. Major risk factors of NCDs are changing life style and behavior pattern which are largely due to practices adopted in younger age. Students' awareness about NCDs and their risk factors is an important part of population based prevention strategy. Objective: To assess the awareness of NCDs and their risk factors among rural intermediate school children. Methodology: A School based cross sectional study was conducted in Chiraigaon Community Development Block of Varanasi from July - Aug 2010. Intermediate school children from eight inter-colleges of Chiraigaon development block were the study subjects. Pretested questionnaire was used in the study and frequency and proportions were used to analyze the data. Results: Less than one third of the children were aware about Diabetes and Hypertension (27% and 31% respectively. Only 18% knew about Body Mass Index (BMI as an indicator of obesity. In general awareness of NCDs was more in boys than girl. Conclusion: Over all awareness of NCDs and their risk factors among students was not satisfactory. There is a need and scope for health education activity regarding NCDs and their risk factors to promote healthy life style among these school children.

  12. Socioeconomic status, health inequalities and non-communicable diseases: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, Santiago; Cantarero, David; Rivera, Berta; Pascual, Marta; Blázquez-Fernández, Carla; Casal, Bruno; Reyes, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive approach to health highlights its close relationship with the social and economic conditions, physical environment and individual lifestyles. However, this relationship is not exempt from methodological problems that may bias the establishment of direct effects between the variables studied. Thus, further research is necessary to investigate the role of socioeconomic variables, their composition and distribution according to health status, particularly on non-communicable diseases. To shed light on this field, here a systematic review is performed using PubMed, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science. A 7-year retrospective horizon was considered until 21 July 2017. Twenty-six papers were obtained from the database search. Additionally, results from "hand searching" were also included, where a wider horizon was considered. Five of the 26 studies analyzed used aggregated data compared to 21 using individual data. Eleven considered income as a study variable, while 17 analyzed the effect of income inequality on health status (2 of the studies considered both the absolute level and distribution of income). The most used indicator of inequality in the literature was the Gini index. Although different types of analysis produce very different results concerning the role of health determinants, the general conclusion is that income distribution is related to health where it represents a measure of the differences in social class in the society. The effect of income inequality is to increase the gap between social classes or to widen differences in status.

  13. The politics of non-communicable diseases in the global South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubi, David; Herrick, Clare; Brown, Tim

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we explore the emergence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) as an object of political concern in and for countries of the global South. While epidemiologists and public health practitioners and scholars have long expressed concern with the changing global distribution of the burden of NCDs, it is only in more recent years that the aetiology, politics and consequences of these shifts have become an object of critical social scientific enquiry. These shifts mark the starting point for this special issue on 'The Politics of NCDs in the Global South' and act as the basis for new, critical interventions in how we understand NCDs. In this paper, we aim not only to introduce and contextualise the six contributions that form this special issue, but also to identify and explore three themes - problematisation, care and culture - that index the main areas of analytical and empirical concern that have motivated analyses of NCDs in the global South and are central to critical engagement with their political contours. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Development and Implementation of Worksite Health and Wellness Programs: A Focus on Non-Communicable Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalin, Lawrence P; Kaminsky, Leonard; Lavie, Carl J; Briggs, Paige; Cahalin, Brendan L; Myers, Jonathan; Forman, Daniel E; Patel, Mahesh J; Pinkstaff, Sherry O; Arena, Ross

    2015-01-01

    The development and implementation of worksite health and wellness programs (WHWPs) in the United States (US) hold promise as a means to improve population health and reverse current trends in non-communicable disease incidence and prevalence. However, WHWPs face organizational, economic, systematic, legal, and logistical challenges which have combined to impact program availability and expansion. Even so, there is a burgeoning body of evidence indicating WHWPs can significantly improve the health profile of participating employees in a cost effective manner. This foundation of scientific knowledge justifies further research inquiry to elucidate optimal WHWP models. It is clear that the development, implementation and operation of WHWPs require a strong commitment from organizational leadership, a pervasive culture of health and availability of necessary resources and infrastructure. Since organizations vary significantly, there is a need to have flexibility in creating a customized, effective health and wellness program. Furthermore, several key legal issues must be addressed to facilitate employer and employee needs and responsibilities; the US Affordable Care Act will play a major role moving forward. The purposes of this review are to: 1) examine currently available health and wellness program models and considerations for the future; 2) highlight key legal issues associated with WHWP development and implementation; and 3) identify challenges and solutions for the development and implementation of as well as adherence to WHWPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Aquaporin-4 mediates communication between astrocyte and microglia: Implications of neuroinflammation in experimental Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H; Liang, R; Yang, B; Zhou, Y; Liu, M; Fang, F; Ding, J; Fan, Y; Hu, G

    2016-03-11

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a water-selective membrane transport protein, is up-regulated in astrocytes in various inflammatory lesions, including Parkinson disease (PD). However, the exact functional roles of AQP4 in neuroinflammation remain unknown. In the present study, we investigated how AQP4 participates in the neuroinflammation of PD using AQP4 knockout (KO) mice and astrocyte-microglial co-cultures. We found that AQP4 KO mice exhibited increased basal and inducible canonical NF-κB activity, and showed significantly enhanced gliosis (astrocytosis and microgliosis) in chronic MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine)/probenecid PD models, companying with the increase in the production of IL-1β and TNF-α in the midbrain. Similarly, AQP4 deficiency augmented the activation of the NF-κB pathway and the production of IL-1β and TNF-α in midbrain astrocyte cultures treated with MPP(+) (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium). Furthermore, AQP4 deficiency promoted activation of microglial cells in the co-cultured system. Our data provide the first evidence that AQP4 modulates astrocyte-to-microglia communication in neuroinflammation, although its effect on astrocyte inflammatory activation remains to be explored. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Improving patient-centered communication while using an electronic health record: Report from a curriculum evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Colleen T; Winters, Paul; Farah, Subrina

    2016-05-01

    Researchers and clinicians are concerned about the impact of electronic health record use and patient-centered communication. Training about patient-centered clinical communication skills with the electronic health record may help clinicians adapt and remain patient-centered. We developed an interactive workshop eliciting challenges and opportunities of working with the electronic health record in clinical practice, introduction of specific patient-centered behaviors and mindful practice techniques, and video demonstrating contrasts in common behavior and "better practices." One hundred thirty-nine resident physicians and faculty supervisors in five residency training programs at the University of Rochester Medical Center participated in the workshops. Participants were asked to complete an 11-item survey of behaviors related to their use of the electronic health record prior to training and after attending training. We used paired t-tests to assess changes in self-reported behavior from pre-intervention to post-intervention. We trained 139 clinicians in the workshops; 110 participants completed the baseline assessment and 39 completed both the baseline and post-intervention assessment. Data from post-curriculum respondents found a statistically significant increase in "I told the patient when turning my attention from the patient to the computer," from 60% of the time prior to the training to 70% of the time after. Data from our program evaluation demonstrated improvement in one communication behavior. Sample size limited the detection of other changes; further research should investigate effective training techniques for patient-centered communication while using the electronic health record. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Overweight, obesity and related non-communicable diseases in Asian Indian girls and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, S M; Misra, A; Gulati, S; Gupta, R

    2013-07-01

    The prevalence of obesity is rising globally and in India. Overweight, obesity and related diseases need to be delineated in Asian Indian women. A literature search was done using key words like 'obesity', 'Asian Indian women', 'body fat distribution', 'type 2 diabetes', 'fertility', 'polycystic ovarian disease', metabolic syndrome', 'cardiovascular disease', 'non-alcoholic fatty liver disease', 'gender', 'sex' and 'prevalence' up to September 2012 in Pubmed and Google Scholar search engines. This review highlights the Asian Indian body composition with regards to obesity and provides a collated perspective of gender-specific prevalence of the co-morbidities. Recent data show that women (range of prevalence of overweight and obesity from different studies 15-61%) have higher prevalence of overweight and obesity as compared with men (range of prevalence of overweight and obesity from different studies 12-54%) in India and that obesity is increasing in the youth. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in both men and women steeply rose in a Punjabi community from Jaipur. Importantly, prevalence of abdominal obesity has been consistently higher in women than in men. The lowest prevalence (6.0%) of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women is reported from South India (rural Andhra Pradesh; 2006) and the highest (14.0%) by the National Urban Diabetes Survey (2001). Although the clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors was generally high, it increased further in post-menopausal women. There are a number of factors that predispose Indian women to obesity; sedentary behaviour, imbalanced diets, sequential and additive postpartum weight gain and further decrease in physical activity during this period and cultural issues. In view of these data, preventive measures should be specifically targeted to Indian women.

  18. Burden and correlates of non-communicable-diseases among rural residents: a cross-sectional study in Hebei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junjun; Yu, Wenya; Zhou, Qiang; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Li, Yiqiu; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Lei; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Yan, Yuying; Tang, Weiming

    2015-06-20

    Burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing rapidly in most of the developing countries including China, even in rural areas. Dearth of representative data called for an investigation to estimate the burden and identify the correlates of NCDs in rural China. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving a representative sample of 6003 consenting randomly selected rural residents aged 15 years or more, from 36 villages of Shijiazhuang in Hebei province of China between July 2010 and June 2011. Information on demographics and behavior were collected, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were measured and blood samples were tested to diagnose diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Majority participants were aged problems (12.1%) and gastrointestinal NCDs (7.8%) were identified among the participants, while proportion of subjects with one, two and three or more NCDs were 43%, 14.4% and 5.5% respectively. Higher odds of having more NCDs were associated with higher BMI (Kg/M(2)), family history of NCDs, daily and past history of smoking and drinking, passive smoking, lack of exercise, skipping breakfast and psychological disturbances. Despite limitations associated with cross-sectional design and self-reporting, observation in this large sample of rural residents could develop important insights regarding high burden of NCDs in this population. Based on the identified correlates, targeted intervention strategies seem to be required urgently to control NCDs in rural China.

  19. Age, chronic non-communicable disease and choice of traditional Chinese and western medicine outpatient services in a Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeoh Eng

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1997 Hong Kong reunified with China and the development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM started with this change in national identity. However, the two latest discussion papers on Hong Kong's healthcare reform have failed to mention the role of TCM in primary healthcare, despite TCM's public popularity and its potential in tackling the chronic non-communicable disease (NCD challenge in the ageing population. This study aims to describe the interrelationship between age, non-communicable disease (NCD status, and the choice of TCM and western medicine (WM services in the Hong Kong population. Methods This study is a secondary analysis of the Thematic Household Survey (THS 2005 dataset. The THS is a Hong Kong population representative face to face survey was conducted by the Hong Kong Administrative Region Government of China. A random sample of respondents aged >15 years were invited to report their use of TCM and WM in the past year, together with other health and demographic information. A total of 33,263 persons were interviewed (response rate 79.2%. Results Amongst those who received outpatient services in the past year (n = 18,087, 80.23% only visited WM doctors, 3.17% consulted TCM practitioners solely, and 16.60% used both type of services (double consulters. Compared to those who only consulted WM doctor, multinomial logistic regression showed that double consulters were more likely to be older, female, NCD patients, and have higher socioeconomic backgrounds. Further analysis showed that the association between age and double consulting was curvilinear (inverted U shaped regardless of NCD status. Middle aged (45-60 years NCD patients, and the NCD free "young old" group (60-75 years were most likely to double consult. On the other hand, the relationship between age and use of TCM as an alternative to WM was linear regardless of NCD status. The NCD free segment of the population was more inclined to use TCM alone

  20. The Effect of Noise on Relationships Between Speech Intelligibility and Self-Reported Communication Measures in Tracheoesophageal Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, Tanya L; Otero, Devon Sawin; Bolt, Susan; Kapsner-Smith, Mara; Sullivan, Jessica R

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how sentence intelligibility relates to self-reported communication in tracheoesophageal speakers when speech intelligibility is measured in quiet and noise. Twenty-four tracheoesophageal speakers who were at least 1 year postlaryngectomy provided audio recordings of 5 sentences from the Sentence Intelligibility Test. Speakers also completed self-reported measures of communication-the Voice Handicap Index-10 and the Communicative Participation Item Bank short form. Speech recordings were presented to 2 groups of inexperienced listeners who heard sentences in quiet or noise. Listeners transcribed the sentences to yield speech intelligibility scores. Very weak relationships were found between intelligibility in quiet and measures of voice handicap and communicative participation. Slightly stronger, but still weak and nonsignificant, relationships were observed between measures of intelligibility in noise and both self-reported measures. However, 12 speakers who were more than 65% intelligible in noise showed strong and statistically significant relationships with both self-reported measures (R2 = .76-.79). Speech intelligibility in quiet is a weak predictor of self-reported communication measures in tracheoesophageal speakers. Speech intelligibility in noise may be a better metric of self-reported communicative function for speakers who demonstrate higher speech intelligibility in noise.

  1. Pattern of breast diseases: preliminary report of breast clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, K.; Rasool, I.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To find out the pattern of breast disease in this part of the county and create public awareness about breast diseases especially cancer. Design: Ac cross sectional and cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Department of Surgery, Jinnah Hospital /Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore from March 1999 to July 2000. Subjects and Methods: All the female patients reported were included in this study. They were diagnosed by history, physical examination and rel event investigations like ultrasonography, mammography, FNAS and biopsy. Appropriate medical and surgical management was carried out. The breast cancer was treated according to TNA staging system by multidisciplinary approach. Method of breast self examination (BSE) was taught with the help of charts and brochures. Results: The age ranged from 10 years to 75 years. Maximum number of patients (30%) was seen between 20-29 years of age while 15 (1%) cases did not suffer from any disease. Among 1485 patients the common conditions were non cyclical mastalgia in 362 (24.37%), fibroadenoma in 289 (19.46%), fibrocystic disease in 276(17.98%) breast abscess in 149 (10%) and breast cancer (6.19%). Other diseases were puberty mastitis 49(3.2%), galactocele 40(2.69%), accessory breast 45(3%) and nipple discharge 28(1.88%). Among the palpable lumps, breast caner accounted for 11.75%. The commonest age of presentation of breast cancer was 5th decade (31%) followed by 4th decade (26%). Majority of cancer patients (45%) presented in stage III. All the women with beast abscesses were lactating. Non cyclical mastalgia was commonly seen in 4th decade (30.66%) while 44.63% patients of fibroadenoma reported in the 2nd decade. Fibrocystic disease was reported between 3rd and 4th decade (62.17%). Conclusion: Commonest being conditions were non cyclical mastalgia followed by fibroadenoma while breast cancer contributed a significant percentage of palpable lumps. Due to effective public awareness

  2. Perceived Changes in Communication as an Effect of STN Surgery in Parkinson's Disease: A Qualitative Interview Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Ahlberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore four individuals' perspective of the way their speech and communication changed as a result of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation treatment for Parkinson's disease. Interviews of two men and two women were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Three themes emerged as a result of the analysis. The first theme included sub-themes describing both increased and unexpected communication difficulties such as a more vulnerable speech function, re-emerging stuttering and cognitive difficulties affecting communication. The second theme comprised strategies to improve communication, using different speech techniques and communicative support, as well as trying to achieve changes in medical and stimulation parameters. The third theme included descriptions of mixed feelings surrounding the surgery. Participants described the surgery as an unavoidable dramatic change, associated both with improved quality of life but also uncertainty and lack of information, particularly regarding speech and communication changes. Despite negative effects on speech, the individuals were generally very pleased with the surgical outcome. More information before surgery regarding possible side effects on speech, meeting with a previously treated patient and possibly voice and speech therapy before or after surgery are suggested to facilitate the adjustment to the new speech conditions.

  3. Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis complicating Legionnaires' disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daumas Aurélie

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Legionnaires' disease is recognized as a multi-systemic illness. Afflicted patients may have pulmonary, renal, gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system complications. However, renal insufficiency is uncommon. The spectrum of renal involvement may range from a mild and transient elevation of serum creatinine levels to anuric renal failure requiring dialysis and may be linked to several causes. In our present case report, we would like to draw attention to the importance of the pathological documentation of acute renal failure by reporting a case of a patient with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis complicating Legionnaires' disease. Case presentation A 55-year-old Caucasian man was admitted to our hospital for community-acquired pneumonia complicated by acute renal failure. Legionella pneumophila serogroup type 1 was diagnosed. Although the patient's respiratory illness responded to intravenous erythromycin and ofloxacin therapy, his renal failure worsened, he became anuric, and hemodialysis was started. A renal biopsy was performed, which revealed severe tubulointerstitial nephritis. After initiation of steroid therapy, his renal function improved dramatically. Conclusions This case highlights the importance of kidney biopsies in cases where acute renal failure is a complicating factor in Legionnaires' disease. If the presence of acute tubulointerstitial nephritis can be confirmed, it will likely respond favorably to steroidal treatment and thus irreversible renal damage and chronic renal failure will be avoided.

  4. A Case Report of Cushing's Disease Presenting as Hair Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkowitz, Emily G; Cossman, Jack P; Fournier, John B

    2017-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome is a rare endocrine disorder that comprises a large group of signs and symptoms resulting from chronic exposure to excess corticosteroids. Most cases of Cushing's syndrome are due to increased adrenocorticotropic hormone production from a pituitary adenoma, which is referred to as Cushing's disease. Most of the signs and symptoms are nonspecific and common in the general population, making a diagnosis often challenging. However, several dermatological manifestations, such as fragile skin, easy bruising, and reddish purple striae, are more discriminatory. Because uncontrolled Cushing's syndrome of any etiology is associated with substantial morbidity, including increased cardiovascular disease and mortality, it is important to make an early diagnosis. Unfortunately, median delays of 2 years to diagnosis have been reported. We report a case of a woman who had multiple dermatological findings, including facial plethora, easy bruising, violaceous striae, hirsutism, and acne, the latter 2 signs reflecting androgen excess. Of interest, our patient presented with a chief complaint of hair loss, a common complaint in the general population that occurs with a greater frequency in patients with Cushing's disease and is attributed to androgenetic alopecia, but it is rarely the presenting symptom.

  5. Danon disease: A case report and literature overview

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    Ćatović Suad

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Danon disease, a rare glycogen storage disease, is a dominant X-linked disorder. It is due to mutation in gene for lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP 2. The LAMP 2 gene is located on Xq24, and its mutation causes primary deficiency of LAMP 2 and myocyte hypertrophy by accumulations of vacuoles containing glycogen. Danon disease is clinically characterized by the triad of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM, proximal myopathy and mental retardation. Myopathy and mental retardation can be absent, and cardiomyopathy is usually hypertrophic. This is a case report of the patient with genetically confirmed Danon disease and mixed cardiomyopathy, but without myopathy and mental retardation. ECG showed typical Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW pattern while echocardiography demonstrated hypertrophy and dilatation of all cardiac chambers with impaired systolic and diastolic function. Male sex, early onset of symptoms, massive hypertrophy of the myocardium and ventricular preexcitation indicate a genetic basis for HCM. Therapeutic measures, except heart transplantation, do not improve prognosis substantially. Only an accurate diagnosis in patients with unexplained HCM helps in establishing of the appropriate treatment strategies and adequate genetic consultation. .

  6. [Wilson disease. A case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva-Moncayo, Edith; Castro-Tarín, María; González-Serrano, Adolfo

    2011-01-01

    Wilson disease is a problem of cuprum metabolism, with recesive autosomic hereditary transmission and a prevalence of one in 30,000 habitants. The cuprum is deposit in a progressive and irreversible way in the liver and encephalus and it is not liberated with quelant treatment. Neurological manifestations are tremor, disartria, extrapiramidal manifestations or distonia. Ophthalmic exploration shows corneal limb with sign of Kayser-Fleischer. a 15-year-old masculine patient with previous hepatitis outbreak in two times. During the last year he presented distonia, bradicinecious, stiffness and indifference with ictericia. Ophthalmological examination reported Kayser-Fleisher rings. Magnetic resonance of brain showed high dense images in lenticular, pallidus globe and caudate nucleus suggestive of Wilson disease. Ceruloplasmin concentration, cuprum in the liver biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. the importance of the case was the hepatic initial manifestations and two years after presented with inexpressive face, and it was considered a psychiatric disease, but the neurological evaluation and the liver biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of Wilson disease.

  7. Lyme disease: case report of persistent Lyme disease from Pulaski County, Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmieri JR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available James R Palmieri,1 Scott King,1 Matthew Case,1 Arben Santo21Department of Microbiology, Infectious and Emerging Diseases, 2Department of Pathology, Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine, Blacksburg, VA, USAAbstract: A 50-year-old woman from Pulaski, Virginia, presented to a local clinic with headaches, fever, generalized joint pain, excessive thirst and fluid intake, and a progressing rash on her back. On physical examination, she had a large circular red rash on her back with a bull's-eye appearance, 16 × 18 cm in diameter. Serologic tests confirmed a diagnosis of Lyme disease. The patient could recall a walk through the woods 3 weeks prior, although she never noticed a tick on her body. Following a prolonged course of antibiotics, this case report presents a patient with ongoing symptoms consistent with post-treatment Lyme disease.Keywords: arthritis, chronic Lyme disease (CLD, ELISA, erythema migrans, ixodid ticks, Lyme disease, post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS, Western blotting

  8. Associations between communication climate and the frequency of medical error reporting among pharmacists within an inpatient setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Mark E; Pace, Heather A; Fincham, Jack E

    2013-09-01

    Although error-reporting systems enable hospitals to accurately track safety climate through the identification of adverse events, these systems may be underused within a work climate of poor communication. The objective of this analysis is to identify the extent to which perceived communication climate among hospital pharmacists impacts medical error reporting rates. This cross-sectional study used survey responses from more than 5000 pharmacists responding to the 2010 Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC). Two composite scores were constructed for "communication openness" and "feedback and about error," respectively. Error reporting frequency was defined from the survey question, "In the past 12 months, how many event reports have you filled out and submitted?" Multivariable logistic regressions were used to estimate the likelihood of medical error reporting conditional upon communication openness or feedback levels, controlling for pharmacist years of experience, hospital geographic region, and ownership status. Pharmacists with higher communication openness scores compared with lower scores were 40% more likely to have filed or submitted a medical error report in the past 12 months (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.7; P = 0.004). In contrast, pharmacists with higher communication feedback scores were not any more likely than those with lower scores to have filed or submitted a medical report in the past 12 months (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.8-1.3; P = 0.97). Hospital work climates that encourage pharmacists to freely communicate about problems related to patient safety is conducive to medical error reporting. The presence of feedback infrastructures about error may not be sufficient to induce error-reporting behavior.

  9. Control and Non-Payload Communications Generation 1 Prototype Radio Flight Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalkhauser, Kurt A.; Young, Daniel P.; Bretmersky, Steven C.; Ishac, Joseph A.; Walker, Steven H.; Griner, James H.; Kachmar, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    regularity of flight. Only recently has radiofrequency (RF) spectrum been allocated by the International Telecommunications Union specifically for commercial UA C2, LOS communication (L-Band: 960 to 1164 MHz, and C-Band: 5030 to 5091 MHz). The safe and efficient integration of UA into the NAS requires the use of protected RF spectrum allocations and a new data communications system that is both secure and scalable to accommodate the potential growth of these new aircraft. Data communications for UA-referred to as control and non-payload communications (CNPC)-will be used to exchange information between a UA and a ground station (GS) to ensure safe, reliable, and effective UA flight operation. The focus of this effort is on validating and allocating new RF spectrum and data link communications to enable civil UA integration into the NAS. Through a cost-sharing cooperative agreement with Rockwell Collins, Inc., the NASA Glenn Research Center is exploring and performing the necessary development steps to realize a prototype UA CNPC system. These activities include investigating signal waveforms and access techniques, developing representative CNPC radio hardware, and executing relevant testing and validation activities. There is no intent to manufacture the CNPC end product, rather the goals are to study, demonstrate, and validate a typical CNPC system that will allow safe and efficient communications within the L-Band and C-Band spectrum allocations. The system is addressing initial "seed" requirements from RTCA, Inc., Special Committee 203 (SC-203) and is on a path to Federal Aviation Administration certification. This report provides results from the flight testing campaign of the Rockwell Collins Generation 1 prototype radio, referred hereafter as the "radio." The radio sets operate within the 960- to 977-MHz frequency band with both air and ground radios using identical hardware. Flight tests involved one aircraft and one GS. Results include discussion of aircraft flight

  10. Leflunomide-Induced Interstitial Lung Disease: A Case Report

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    Aygül Güzel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leflunomide (LEF induced interstitial pneumonitis is a very rare condition but potentially fatal. We report a case of LEF induced interstitial pneumonitis. A 63-year-old woman followed-up for 37 years with the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis treated with LEF (20 mg/day since 5 months were admitted to our hospital with cough, dyspnea, fever, and dark sputum.Chest radiography represented bilateral alveolar consolidation. High-resolution computed tomography demonstrated diffuse ground-glass appearance and interlobular septal thickening. Since the patient’s clinics and radiologic findings improved dramatically after the cessation of LEF and recieving oral steriod therapy, she was diagnosed as drug-induced interstitial lung disease. In conclusion, when nonspecific clinical signs such as respiratory distress, cough and fever seen during the use of LEF, drug-induced interstitial lung disease should be kept in mind for the differantial diagnosis.

  11. A description of QUALCOMM Automatic Satellite Position Reporting (QASPR(R)) for mobile communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, William G.

    1990-01-01

    Two satellite position reporting has been introduced into the OmniTRACS mobile satellite communication system. This system significantly improves position reporting reliability and accuracy while simplifying the terminal's hardware. The positioning technique uses the original OmniTRACS TDMA timing signal formats in the forward and return link directions plus an auxiliary, low power forward link signal through a second satellite to derive distance values. The distances are then converted into the mobile terminal's latitude and longitude in real time. A minor augmentation of the spread spectrum profile of the return link allowed the resolution of periodic ambiguities. The system also locates the two satellites in real time with fixed platforms in known locations using identical mobile terminal hardware. Initial accuracies of 1/4 mile have been realized uniformly throughout the USA using a satellite separation of 22 degrees and there are no dead zones, skywaves, or cycle slips as found in terrestrial systems like LORAN-C.

  12. Importance of intersectoral co-ordination in the control of communicable diseases, with special reference to plague in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilonzo, B S

    1994-07-01

    Human health, agriculture, including livestock, energy, education, wildlife, construction, forestry and trade sectors are inter-related and their co-ordination is an important pre-requisite for successful control of most communicable diseases including plague. Similar linkage between research, policy, training and extension activities in each sector are essential for any successful control strategy. Inadequate agricultural produce, inaccessibility of people to the available food and ignorance on proper preparation and usage of available food materials are responsible for malnutrition, and malnourished people are very vulnerable to disease. Irrigation schemes facilitate breeding of various disease vectors and transmission of some communicable diseases. Forests are ecologically favourable for some disease vectors and reservoirs for tsetse flies and rodents, while deforestation leads to soil erosion, lack of rainfall and consequently reduced productivity in agriculture which may result in poor nutrition of the population. Wildlife and livestock serve as reservoirs and/or carriers of various zoonoses including plague, trypanosomiasis and rabies. Lack of proper co-ordination of these sectors in communicable disease control programmes can result in serious and undesirable consequences. Indiscriminate killing of rodents in order to minimize food damage by these vermin forces their flea ectoparasites to seek alternative hosts, including man, a development which may result in transmission of plague from rodents to man. Similarly, avoidance of proper quarantine during plague epidemics, an undertaking which is usually aimed at maintaining economic and social links with places outside the affected focus, can result in the disease becoming widespread and consequently make any control strategies more difficult and expensive.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Double burden of diseases worldwide: coexistence of undernutrition and overnutrition-related non-communicable chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jungwon; Zhao, Yaling; Slivka, Lauren; Wang, Youfa

    2018-01-01

    This systematic examination and meta-analysis examined the scope and variation of the worldwide double burden of diseases and identified related socio-demographic factors. We searched PubMed for studies published in English from January 1, 2000, through September 28, 2016, that reported on double disease burden. Twenty-nine studies from 18 high-income, middle-income and low-income countries met inclusion criteria and provided 71 obesity-undernutrition ratios, which were included in meta-regression analysis. All high-income countries had a much higher prevalence of obesity than undernutrition (i.e. all the obesity/undernutrition ratios >1); 55% of the ratios in lower middle-income and low-income countries were <1, but only 28% in upper middle-income countries. Meta-analysis showed a pooled obesity-undernutrition ratio of 4.3 (95% CI = 3.1-5.5), which varied by country income level, subjects' age and over time. The average ratio was higher in high-income rather than that in lower middle-income and low-income countries (β [SE] = 10.8 [2.6]), in adults versus children (7.1 [2.2]) and in data collected since 2000 versus before 2000 (5.2 [1.5]; all P values < 0.05). There are considerable differences in the obesity versus undernutrition ratios and in their prevalence by country income level, age groups and over time, which may be a consequence of the cumulative exposure to an obesogenic environment. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  14. Non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors and diabetes among adults living in slum areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Lal B; Biswas, Tuhin; Khandker, Nusrat Nausheen; Saha, Shekhar Ranjan; Bidat Chowdhury, Mohammed Mahiul; Khan, Abdullah Nurus Salam; Chowdhury, Enamul Hasib; Renzaho, Andre

    2017-01-01

    Despite one-third of the urban population in Bangladesh living in urban slums and at increased risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), little is known about the NCD risk profile of this at-risk population. The aim of the study was to identify the prevalence of the NCD risk factors and the association of NCD risk factors with socio-demographic factors among the adults of urban slums in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted among adult slum dwellers (aged 25 and above) residing in three purposively selected urban slums of Dhaka for at least six months preceding the survey. The risk factors assessed were- currently smoking, fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, hypertension and body mass index (BMI). Information on self-reported diabetes was also taken. A total of 507 participants (252 females; 49.7%) were interviewed and their physical measures were taken using the WHO NCD STEPS instrument. The overall prevalence of NCD risk factors was: 36.0% (95% CI: 31.82-40.41) for smoking; 95.60% (95% CI: 93.60-97.40) for insufficient fruit and vegetable intake; 15.30% (95% CI:12.12-18.71) for low physical activity;13.70% (95% CI: 10.71-16.92) for hypertension; 22.70% (95% CI: 19.31-26.02) for overweight or obesity; and 5.00% (95%: 3.20-7.00) for self-reported diabetes. In the logistic regression model, the clustering of three or more NCD risk factors was positively associated with younger age groups (p = 0.02), no formal education (p slum adults. These findings are important to support the formulation and implementation of NCD-related polices and plan of actions that recognize urban slum populations in Bangladesh as a priority sub-population.

  15. Public health impact of global heating due to climate change: potential effects on chronic non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Butler, Ainslie J; Lucas, Robyn M; Bonita, Ruth

    2010-04-01

    Several categories of ill health important at the global level are likely to be affected by climate change. To date the focus of this association has been on communicable diseases and injuries. This paper briefly analyzes potential impacts of global climate change on chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). We reviewed the limited available evidence of the relationships between climate exposure and chronic and NCDs. We further reviewed likely mechanisms and pathways for climatic influences on chronic disease occurrence and impacts on pre-existing chronic diseases. There are negative impacts of climatic factors and climate change on some physiological functions and on cardio-vascular and kidney diseases. Chronic disease risks are likely to increase with climate change and related increase in air pollution, malnutrition, and extreme weather events. There are substantial research gaps in this arena. The health sector has a major role in facilitating further research and monitoring the health impacts of global climate change. Such work will also contribute to global efforts for the prevention and control of chronic NCDs in our ageing and urbanizing global population.

  16. Case Report: Giant Right Atrium in Rheumatic Mitral Disease

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    Deniz Demir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dilation and hypertrophy of the atria occur in patients with valvular heart disease especially in mitral regurgitation, mitral stenosis or tricuspid abnormalities. Dilatation of the atriums which occurs slowly in time, becomes evident with ritim disturbances and embolic events. We report a case of an unusual giant right atrium in context of rheumatic mitral stenosis, mitral regurgitation, pulmonar hypertansion and severe tricuspid regurgitation in a 40-year-old man who underwent succesfull operations as mitral valve replacement, Maze-IV radiofrequency ablation, right atrium atrioplasty and De Vega anuloplasty. [J Contemp Med 2014; 4(2.000: 98-102

  17. Atypical Primary Cutaneous Rosai Dorfman Disease: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinio, Anna E; Sawchuk, Michael A; Pratt, Melanie

    Rosai Dorfman disease (RDD) is a rare disorder that typically presents with bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy and follows a benign course. We present a case of late-onset atypical primary cutaneous RDD that is resistant to treatment modalities described in the literature. Case report. An 84-year-old woman presented with a 7-year history of cutaneous lesions histologically consistent with RDD. She later failed initial treatments of acitretin and thalidomide. Physicians must be aware of unusual presentations of RDD. Also, further treatment options must be explored for patients resistant to classical management of RDD.

  18. Treatment of alzheimer disease with CT scans - a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttler, J.M. [Cuttler & Associates Inc., Vaughan, Ontario (Canada); Moore, E.R. [Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI (United States); Hosfeld, V.D. [MidMichigan Health, Midland, MI (United States); Nadolski, D.L. [Midland Internal Medicine Associates PC, Midland, MI (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Alzheimer disease (AD) primarily affects older adults. This neurodegenerative disorder is the most common cause of dementia and is a leading source of their morbidity and mortality. U.S. patient care costs are about 200 billion dollars and will more than double by 2040. This case report describes the remarkable improvement of an advanced AD patient in hospice, who received five CT scans of the brain, about 40 mGy each, over a period of three months. The mechanism appears to be radiation-induced up-regulation of the patient's adaptive protection systems against AD, which partially restored cognition, memory, speech, movement, and appetite. (author)

  19. Treatment of alzheimer disease with CT scans - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuttler, J.M.; Moore, E.R.; Hosfeld, V.D.; Nadolski, D.L.

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) primarily affects older adults. This neurodegenerative disorder is the most common cause of dementia and is a leading source of their morbidity and mortality. U.S. patient care costs are about 200 billion dollars and will more than double by 2040. This case report describes the remarkable improvement of an advanced AD patient in hospice, who received five CT scans of the brain, about 40 mGy each, over a period of three months. The mechanism appears to be radiation-induced up-regulation of the patient's adaptive protection systems against AD, which partially restored cognition, memory, speech, movement, and appetite. (author)

  20. Community health workers for non-communicable diseases prevention and control in developing countries: Evidence and implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gursimer Jeet

    Full Text Available National programs for non-communicable diseases (NCD prevention and control in different low middle income countries have a strong community component. A community health worker (CHW delivers NCD preventive services using informational as well as behavioural approaches. Community education and interpersonal communication on lifestyle modifications is imparted with focus on primordial prevention of NCDs and screening is conducted as part of early diagnosis and management. However, the effectiveness of health promotion and screening interventions delivered through community health workers needs to be established.This review synthesised evidence on effectiveness of CHW delivered NCD primary prevention interventions in low and middle-income countries (LMICs.A systematic review of trials that utilised community health workers for primary prevention/ early detection strategy in the management of NCDs (Diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD, cancers, stroke, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD in LMICs was conducted. Digital databases like PubMed, EMBASE, OVID, Cochrane library, dissertation abstracts, clinical trials registry web sites of different LMIC were searched for such publications between years 2000 and 2015. We focussed on community based randomised controlled trial and cluster randomised trials without any publication language limitation. The primary outcome of review was percentage change in population with different behavioural risk factors. Additionally, mean overall changes in levels of several physical or biochemical parameters were studied as secondary outcomes. Subgroup analyses was performed by the age and sex of participants, and sensitivity analyses was conducted to assess the robustness of the findings.Sixteen trials meeting the inclusion criteria were included in the review. Duration, study populations and content of interventions varied across trials. The duration of the studies ranged from mean follow up of 4 months

  1. Self-Reported Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease by Sex and Disease Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ju Young; Pohlig, Ryan T; Habermann, Barbara

    2017-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with a wide range of symptom presentations. The purpose of this research was to compare self-reported motor and non-motor symptoms of PD by sex and disease duration. This study was a cross-sectional descriptive survey in community-dwelling people with PD. A total of 141 participants (64.6% response rate; 59.6% men; M age = 69.7 years) were included. Males reported more rigidity, speech problems, sexual dysfunction, memory problems, and socializing problems than females. The number of motor symptoms in three groups divided by increments of 5 years was significantly increased. Postural instability, freezing, off periods, dyskinesia, speech problems, and hallucinations/psychosis were significantly increased as the disease duration increased. Thorough assessment of motor and non-motor symptoms could decrease the risk of inadequate symptom management. Provision of information regarding PD symptoms at each stage may help people with PD and their caregivers in planning their future care and life.

  2. Innovations in non-communicable diseases management in ASEAN: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Lim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs are reaching epidemic proportions worldwide and present an unprecedented challenge to economic and social development globally. In Southeast Asia, the challenges are exacerbated by vastly differing levels of health systems development and funding availability. In addressing the burden of NCDs, ASEAN nations need to fundamentally re-examine how health care services are structured and delivered and discover new models as undiscerning application of models from other geographies with different cultures and resources will be problematic. Objective: We sought to examine cases of innovation and identify critical success factors in NCD management in ASEAN. Design: A qualitative design, focusing on in-depth interviews and site visits to explore the meanings and perceptions of participants regarding innovations in NCD against the backdrop of the overall context of delivering health care within the country's context was adopted. Results: In total 12 case studies in six ASEAN countries were analysed. Primary interventions accounted for five of the total cases, whereas secondary interventions comprised four, and tertiary interventions three. Five core themes contributing to successful innovation for NCD management were identified. They include: 1 encourage better outcomes through leadership and support, 2 strengthen inter-disciplinary partnership, 3 community ownership is key, 4 recognise the needs of the people and what appeals to them, and 5 raise awareness through capacity building and increasing health literacy. Conclusions: Innovation is vital in enabling ASEAN nations to successfully address the growing crisis of NCDs. More of the same or wholesale transfers of developed world models will be ineffective and lead to financially unsustainable programmes or programmes lacking appropriate human capital. The case studies have demonstrated the transformative impact of innovation and identified key factors in

  3. Innovations in non-communicable diseases management in ASEAN: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeremy; Chan, Melissa M H; Alsagoff, Fatimah Z; Ha, Duc

    2014-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are reaching epidemic proportions worldwide and present an unprecedented challenge to economic and social development globally. In Southeast Asia, the challenges are exacerbated by vastly differing levels of health systems development and funding availability. In addressing the burden of NCDs, ASEAN nations need to fundamentally re-examine how health care services are structured and delivered and discover new models as undiscerning application of models from other geographies with different cultures and resources will be problematic. We sought to examine cases of innovation and identify critical success factors in NCD management in ASEAN. A qualitative design, focusing on in-depth interviews and site visits to explore the meanings and perceptions of participants regarding innovations in NCD against the backdrop of the overall context of delivering health care within the country's context was adopted. In total 12 case studies in six ASEAN countries were analysed. Primary interventions accounted for five of the total cases, whereas secondary interventions comprised four, and tertiary interventions three. Five core themes contributing to successful innovation for NCD management were identified. They include: 1) encourage better outcomes through leadership and support, 2) strengthen inter-disciplinary partnership, 3) community ownership is key, 4) recognise the needs of the people and what appeals to them, and 5) raise awareness through capacity building and increasing health literacy. Innovation is vital in enabling ASEAN nations to successfully address the growing crisis of NCDs. More of the same or wholesale transfers of developed world models will be ineffective and lead to financially unsustainable programmes or programmes lacking appropriate human capital. The case studies have demonstrated the transformative impact of innovation and identified key factors in successful implementation. Beyond pilot success, the bigger challenge is

  4. The role of law and governance reform in the global response to non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger S; Patterson, David

    2014-06-05

    Addressing non-communicable diseases ("NCDs") and their risk-factors is one of the most powerful ways of improving longevity and healthy life expectancy for the foreseeable future - especially in low- and middle-income countries. This paper reviews the role of law and governance reform in that process. We highlight the need for a comprehensive approach that is grounded in the right to health and addresses three aspects: preventing NCDs and their risk factors, improving access to NCD treatments, and addressing the social impacts of illness. We highlight some of the major impediments to the passage and implementation of laws for the prevention and control of NCDs, and identify important practical steps that governments can take as they consider legal and governance reforms at country level.We review the emerging global architecture for NCDs, and emphasise the need for governance structures to harness the energy of civil society organisations and to create a global movement that influences the policy agenda at the country level. We also argue that the global monitoring framework would be more effective if it included key legal and policy indicators. The paper identifies priorities for technical legal assistance in implementing the WHO Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs 2013-2020. These include high-quality legal resources to assist countries to evaluate reform options, investment in legal capacity building, and global leadership to respond to the likely increase in requests by countries for technical legal assistance. We urge development agencies and other funders to recognise the need for development assistance in these areas. Throughout the paper, we point to global experience in dealing with HIV and draw out some relevant lessons for NCDs.

  5. Educational status and beliefs regarding non-communicable diseases among children in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badasu, Delali M; Abuosi, Aaron A; Adzei, Francis A; Anarfi, John K; Yawson, Alfred E; Atobrah, Deborah A

    2018-03-05

    Increasing prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has been observed in Ghana as in other developing countries. Past research focused on NCDs among adults. Recent researches, however, provide evidence on NCDs among children in many countries, including Ghana. Beliefs about the cause of NCDs among children may be determined by the socioeconomic status of parents and care givers. This paper examines the relationship between educational status of parents and/or care givers of children with NCDs on admission and their beliefs regarding NCDs among children. A total of 225 parents and/or care givers of children with NCDS hospitalized in seven hospitals in three regions (Greater Accra, Ashanti and Volta) were selected for the study. Statistical techniques, including the chi-square and multinomial logistic regression, were used for the data analysis. Educational status is a predictor of care giver's belief about whether enemies can cause NCDs among children or not. This is the only belief with which all the educational categories have significant relationship. Also, post-secondary/polytechnic (p-value =0.029) and university (p-value = 0.009) levels of education are both predictors of care givers being undecided about the belief that NCDs among children can be caused by enemies, when background characteristics are controlled for. Significant relationship is found between only some educational categories regarding the other types of beliefs and NCDs among children. For example, those with Middle/Juniour Secondary School (JSS)/Juniour High School (JHS) education are significantly undecided about the belief that the sin of parents can cause NCDs among children. Education is more of a predictor of the belief that enemies can cause NCDs among children than the other types of beliefs. Some categories of ethnicity, residential status and age have significant relationship with the beliefs when background characteristics of the parents and/or care givers were controlled

  6. THE DEVELOPMENT OF DIAGNOSTICS AND ALIMENTARY PREVENTION SYSTEM OF NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pogozheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Violation of dietary intake structure leads to changes in nutritional status. This contributes to the development of non-communicable diseases, which account for more than half of causes of death inRussia. Materials and methods: In a consultative and diagnostic center "Healthy Nutrition" of theInstituteofNutritionthe nutritional status of 3580 patients (mean age 48.4±0.3  years has been examined, including genomic and post-translational analysis. 30.0% of patients were overweight and 34.1% were obese.Results: Analysis of actual dietary intake showed an increase in energy intake due to excess intake of total (44.2%  energy and saturated fat (13.6%. Serum biochemistry analyses revealed increased cholesterol levels in 68.7%  of patients, increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in 63.9%, increased triglycerides in 22.5%, and increased blood glucose in 29.4%. The frequencies of risk alleles of genes associated with development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus were as follows: 47.8% for the polymorphism rs9939609 (FTO gene, 8.3% for the polymorphism rs4994 (gene ADRB3, 60.2% for the polymorphism rs659366 (gene UCP2, 36.6% for the rs5219  polymorphism in the gene of ATPdependent potassium channel.Conclusion: These results can be used for development of a personalized diet based on assessment of a patient's nutritional status. 

  7. Socio-Economic Inequality of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Tuhin; Islam, Md. Saimul; Linton, Natalie; Rawal, Lal B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a major public health challenge, and undermine social and economic development in much of the developing world, including Bangladesh. Epidemiologic evidence on the socioeconomic status (SES)-related pattern of NCDs remains limited in Bangladesh. This study assessed the relationship between three chronic NCDs and SES among the Bangladeshi population, paying particular attention to the differences between urban and rural areas. Materials and Method Data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey were used for this study. Using a concentration index (CI), we measured relative inequality across pre-diabetes, diabetes, pre-hypertension, hypertension, and BMI (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese) in urban and rural areas in Bangladesh. A CI and its associated curve can be used to identify whether socioeconomic inequality exists for a given health variable. In addition, we estimated the health achievement index, integrating mean coverage and the distribution of coverage by rural and urban populations. Results Socioeconomic inequalities were observed across diseases and risk factors. Using CI, significant inequalities observed for pre-hypertension (CI = 0.09, p = 0.001), hypertension (CI = 0.10, p = 0.001), pre-diabetes (CI = -0.01, p = 0.005), diabetes (CI = 0.19, pconditions among the urban richest, a significant difference in CI was observed for pre-hypertension (CI = -0.20, p = 0.001), hypertension (CI = -0.20, p = 0.005), pre-diabetes (CI = -0.15, p = 0.005), diabetes (CI = -0.26, p = 0.004) and overweight/obesity (CI = 0.25, p = 0.004) were observed more among the low wealth quintiles of rural population. In the same vein, the poorest rural households had more co-morbidities compared to the richest rural households (p = 0.003), and prevalence of co-morbidities was much higher for the richest urban households compared to the poorest urban households. On the other hand in rural the

  8. Socio-Economic Inequality of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuhin Biswas

    Full Text Available Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs are a major public health challenge, and undermine social and economic development in much of the developing world, including Bangladesh. Epidemiologic evidence on the socioeconomic status (SES-related pattern of NCDs remains limited in Bangladesh. This study assessed the relationship between three chronic NCDs and SES among the Bangladeshi population, paying particular attention to the differences between urban and rural areas.Data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey were used for this study. Using a concentration index (CI, we measured relative inequality across pre-diabetes, diabetes, pre-hypertension, hypertension, and BMI (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese in urban and rural areas in Bangladesh. A CI and its associated curve can be used to identify whether socioeconomic inequality exists for a given health variable. In addition, we estimated the health achievement index, integrating mean coverage and the distribution of coverage by rural and urban populations.Socioeconomic inequalities were observed across diseases and risk factors. Using CI, significant inequalities observed for pre-hypertension (CI = 0.09, p = 0.001, hypertension (CI = 0.10, p = 0.001, pre-diabetes (CI = -0.01, p = 0.005, diabetes (CI = 0.19, p<0.001, and overweight/obesity (CI = 0.45, p<0.001. In contrast to the high prevalence of the chronic health conditions among the urban richest, a significant difference in CI was observed for pre-hypertension (CI = -0.20, p = 0.001, hypertension (CI = -0.20, p = 0.005, pre-diabetes (CI = -0.15, p = 0.005, diabetes (CI = -0.26, p = 0.004 and overweight/obesity (CI = 0.25, p = 0.004 were observed more among the low wealth quintiles of rural population. In the same vein, the poorest rural households had more co-morbidities compared to the richest rural households (p = 0.003, and prevalence of co-morbidities was much higher for the richest urban households

  9. Socio-Economic Inequality of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Tuhin; Islam, Md Saimul; Linton, Natalie; Rawal, Lal B

    2016-01-01

    Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a major public health challenge, and undermine social and economic development in much of the developing world, including Bangladesh. Epidemiologic evidence on the socioeconomic status (SES)-related pattern of NCDs remains limited in Bangladesh. This study assessed the relationship between three chronic NCDs and SES among the Bangladeshi population, paying particular attention to the differences between urban and rural areas. Data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey were used for this study. Using a concentration index (CI), we measured relative inequality across pre-diabetes, diabetes, pre-hypertension, hypertension, and BMI (underweight, normal weight, and overweight/obese) in urban and rural areas in Bangladesh. A CI and its associated curve can be used to identify whether socioeconomic inequality exists for a given health variable. In addition, we estimated the health achievement index, integrating mean coverage and the distribution of coverage by rural and urban populations. Socioeconomic inequalities were observed across diseases and risk factors. Using CI, significant inequalities observed for pre-hypertension (CI = 0.09, p = 0.001), hypertension (CI = 0.10, p = 0.001), pre-diabetes (CI = -0.01, p = 0.005), diabetes (CI = 0.19, p<0.001), and overweight/obesity (CI = 0.45, p<0.001). In contrast to the high prevalence of the chronic health conditions among the urban richest, a significant difference in CI was observed for pre-hypertension (CI = -0.20, p = 0.001), hypertension (CI = -0.20, p = 0.005), pre-diabetes (CI = -0.15, p = 0.005), diabetes (CI = -0.26, p = 0.004) and overweight/obesity (CI = 0.25, p = 0.004) were observed more among the low wealth quintiles of rural population. In the same vein, the poorest rural households had more co-morbidities compared to the richest rural households (p = 0.003), and prevalence of co-morbidities was much higher for the richest urban households compared

  10. Food pricing strategies, population diets, and non-communicable disease: a systematic review of simulation studies.

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    Helen Eyles

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Food pricing strategies have been proposed to encourage healthy eating habits, which may in turn help stem global increases in non-communicable diseases. This systematic review of simulation studies investigates the estimated association between food pricing strategies and changes in food purchases or intakes (consumption (objective 1; Health and disease outcomes (objective 2, and whether there are any differences in these outcomes by socio-economic group (objective 3. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Electronic databases, Internet search engines, and bibliographies of included studies were searched for articles published in English between 1 January 1990 and 24 October 2011 for countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Where ≥ 3 studies examined the same pricing strategy and consumption (purchases or intake or health outcome, results were pooled, and a mean own-price elasticity (own-PE estimated (the own-PE represents the change in demand with a 1% change in price of that good. Objective 1: pooled estimates were possible for the following: (1 taxes on carbonated soft drinks: own-PE (n  =  4 studies, -0.93 (range, -0.06, -2.43, and a modelled -0.02% (-0.01%, -0.04% reduction in energy (calorie intake for each 1% price increase (n  =  3 studies; (2 taxes on saturated fat: -0.02% (-0.01%, -0.04% reduction in energy intake from saturated fat per 1% price increase (n  =  5 studies; and (3 subsidies on fruits and vegetables: own-PE (n = 3 studies, -0.35 (-0.21, -0.77. Objectives 2 and 3: variability of food pricing strategies and outcomes prevented pooled analyses, although higher quality studies suggested unintended compensatory purchasing that could result in overall effects being counter to health. Eleven of 14 studies evaluating lower socio-economic groups estimated that food pricing strategies would be associated with pro-health outcomes. Food pricing strategies also have the potential to reduce

  11. The impact of economic crises on communicable disease transmission and control: a systematic review of the evidence.

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    Marc Suhrcke

    Full Text Available There is concern among public health professionals that the current economic downturn, initiated by the financial crisis that started in 2007, could precipitate the transmission of infectious diseases while also limiting capacity for control. Although studies have reviewed the potential effects of economic downturns on overall health, to our knowledge such an analysis has yet to be done focusing on infectious diseases. We performed a systematic literature review of studies examining changes in infectious disease burden subsequent to periods of crisis. The review identified 230 studies of which 37 met our inclusion criteria. Of these, 30 found evidence of worse infectious disease outcomes during recession, often resulting from higher rates of infectious contact under poorer living circumstances, worsened access to therapy, or poorer retention in treatment. The remaining studies found either reductions in infectious disease or no significant effect. Using the paradigm of the "SIR" (susceptible-infected-recovered model of infectious disease transmission, we examined the implications of these findings for infectious disease transmission and control. Key susceptible groups include infants and the elderly. We identified certain high-risk groups, including migrants, homeless persons, and prison populations, as particularly vulnerable conduits of epidemics during situations of economic duress. We also observed that the long-term impacts of crises on infectious disease are not inevitable: considerable evidence suggests that the magnitude of effect depends critically on budgetary responses by governments. Like other emergencies and natural disasters, preparedness for financial crises should include consideration of consequences for communicable disease control.

  12. Who will deliver comprehensive healthy lifestyle interventions to combat non-communicable disease? Introducing the healthy lifestyle practitioner discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Ross; Lavie, Carl J; Hivert, Marie-France; Williams, Mark A; Briggs, Paige D; Guazzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics (i.e., physical inactivity, excess body mass, poor diet, and smoking) as well as associated poor health metrics (i.e., dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension) are the primary reasons for the current non-communicable disease crisis. Compared to those with the poorest of lifestyles and associated health metrics, any movement toward improving lifestyle and associated health metrics improves health outcomes. To address the non-communicable disease crisis we must: 1) acknowledge that healthy lifestyle (HL) interventions are a potent medicine; and 2) move toward a healthcare system that embraces primordial as much as, if not more than, secondary prevention with a heavy focus on HL medicine. This article introduces the Healthy Lifestyle Practitioner, focused on training health professionals to deliver HL medicine.

  13. The first report on mushroom green mould disease in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatvani, Lóránt; Sabolić, Petra; Kocsubé, Sándor; Kredics, László; Czifra, Dorina; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Kaliterna, Joško; Ivić, Dario; Đermić, Edyta; Kosalec, Ivan

    2012-12-01

    Green mould disease, caused by Trichoderma species, is a severe problem for mushroom growers worldwide, including Croatia. Trichoderma strains were isolated from green mould-affected Agaricus bisporus (button or common mushroom) compost and Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) substrate samples collected from Croatian mushroom farms. The causal agents of green mould disease in the oyster mushroom were T. pleurotum and T. pleuroticola, similar to other countries. At the same time, the pathogen of A. bisporus was exclusively the species T. harzianum, which is different from earlier findings and indicates that the range of mushroom pathogens is widening. The temperature profiles of the isolates and their hosts overlapped, thus no range was found that would allow optimal growth of the mushrooms without mould contamination. Ferulic acid and certain phenolic compounds, such as thymol showed remarkable fungistatic effect on the Trichoderma isolates, but inhibited the host mushrooms as well. However, commercial fungicides prochloraz and carbendazim were effective agents for pest management. This is the first report on green mould disease of cultivated mushrooms in Croatia.

  14. Dental erosion caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease: a case report.

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    Cengiz, Seda; Cengiz, M Inanç; Saraç, Y Sinasi

    2009-07-22

    Chronic regurgitation of gastric acids in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease may cause dental erosion, which can lead in combination with attrition or bruxism to extensive loss of coronal tooth tissue. This clinical report describes treatment of severe tooth wear of a gastroesophageal reflux disease patient who is 54-year-old Turkish male patient. After his medical treatment, severe tooth wear, bruxism and decreased vertical dimensions were determined. The vertical dimension was re-established and maxillary and mandibular anterior and posterior teeth were prepared for metal-ceramic restorations. Metal-ceramic fixed partial dentures were fabricated as full mouth restorations for both maxillary and mandibular arches because of splinting all teeth. And then maxillary stabilization splint was fabricated for his bruxism history. Significant loss of coronal tooth structure must taken into consideration. Gastroesophageal reflux disease by itself or in combination with attrition, abrasion or bruxism may be responsible for the loss. An extensive diagnostic evaluation is essential for the medical and dental effects of the problem.

  15. Retroperitoneal unicentric Castleman's disease (giant lymph node hyperplasia: case report

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    Jaques Waisberg

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Castleman's disease, or giant lymph node hyperplasia, is a rare disorder of the lymphoid tissue that causes lymph node enlargement. It is considered benign in its localized form, but aggressive in the multicentric type. The definitive diagnosis is based on postoperative pathological findings. The aim here was to describe a case of retroperitoneal unicentric Castleman's disease in the retroperitoneum. CASE REPORT: A 61-year old white male with weight loss and listlessness presented with moderate arterial hypertension and leukopenia. Abdominal tomography revealed a 5 x 4 x 5 cm oval mass of low attenuation, with inner calcification and intense enhancement on intravenous contrast, located in the retroperitoneal region, between the left kidney and the aorta, at the renal hilus. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a non-pulsatile solid oval mass situated in the retroperitoneum, adjacent to the left renal hilus. The retroperitoneal lesion was removed in its entirety. Examination of frozen samples revealed benign lymph node tissue and histopathological examination of the surgical sample revealed hyaline-vascular giant lymph node hyperplasia (Castleman's disease. The patient was discharged on the 12th day without significant events. Two months after the operation, the patient was readmitted with severe cardiac insufficiency, acute renal failure and bronchopneumonia, which progressed to acute respiratory insufficiency, sepsis and death.

  16. Coronary arterial disease after electroconvulsive therapy: a case report

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    Nataly Pimentel Rodrigues

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Unipolar depression (UPD is a leading cause of global burden of diseases, particularly among the elderly, whose treatment may be challenging. In such cases, ECT is often recommended due to its safety and efficacy. This report presents a case of a 67-year-old male inpatient that developed a rare cardiac complication during ECT. Methods Clinical case report with patient’s consent and bibliographic review. Results A 67-year-old male inpatient with recurrent severe psychotic depression was hospitalized and ECT was indicated after failure of the pharmacological treatment. A comprehensive clinical pre-evaluation revealed only nonspecific ST-segment changes in electrocardiogram. During the 7th ECT session, it was observed transitory ST-segment depression followed by a discrete increase of plasma troponin I. Severe tri-vessel coronary artery stenosis was found and a percutaneous coronary angioplasty was performed, with satisfactory psychiatric and cardiac outcomes. Conclusions Unipolar depression (UPD and cardiovascular disease are often coexistent conditions, especially among the elderly. In the current case, myocardial ischemia was detected lately during ECT therapy and its treatment allowed the UPD treatment to be completed adequately.

  17. A national survey on availability, price and affordability of selected essential medicines for non communicable diseases in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Dabare, Panthihage Ruvini L; Wanigatunge, Chandanie A; Beneragama, BVS Hemantha

    2014-01-01

    Background Access to medicines is a universal right. Low availability and low affordability of medicines are issues that deny this right to a significant proportion of the world population. The objective of this study was to determine the availability, price and affordability of essential medicines prescribed to treat non communicable diseases in Sri Lanka. Methods Methodology was based on the 2nd edition of the World Health Organization Health Action International Manual. A country survey wa...

  18. The role and importance of economic evaluation of traditional herbal medicine use for chronic non-communicable diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes GD; Aboyade OM; Hill JD; Rasu RS

    2015-01-01

    Gail D Hughes,1 Oluwaseyi M Aboyade,1 John D Hill,2 Rafia S Rasu3 1South African Herbal Science and Medicine Institute, University of the Western Cape, Western Cape, South Africa; 2Department of Pharmacy, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, 3School of Pharmacy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCD) constitute major public health problems globally, with an impact on morbidity and mortality ranking high and second to HIV/AIDS. Existing studies conduct...

  19. Predictors of health related quality of life in older people with non-communicable diseases attending three primary care clinics in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazlina, S G; Zaiton, A; Nor Afiah, M Z; Hayati, K S

    2012-05-01

    To determine the health related quality of life and its predictive factors among older people with non-communicable diseases attending primary care clinics. Cross-sectional study. Three public primary care clinics in a district in Selangor, Malaysia. Registered patients aged 55 years and above. A face-to-face interview was conducted using a validated questionnaire of Medical Outcome Study 36-item short form health survey (SF-36). The outcome measure was the health related quality of life (HRQoL) and other factors measured were socio demography, physical activity, social support (Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire), and presence of non-communicable diseases. A total of 347 participants had non-communicable diseases which included hypertension (41.8%), type 2 diabetes (33.7%), asthma (4.8%), hyperlipidaemia (1.7%), coronary heart disease (1.2%), and osteoarthritis (0.2%). Age ≥ 65 years old (OR =2.23; 95%CI=1.42, 3.50), single (OR=1.75; 95%CI=1.06,2.90), presence of co-morbid condition (OR=1.66; 95%CI=1.06, 2.61), and poorer social support (OR=2.11; 95%CI=1.27, 3.51; p=0.002) were significant predictors of poorer physical component of HRQoL . In predicting lower mental health component of HRQoL, the significant predictors were women (OR=2.28; 95%CI=1.44, 3.62), Indian ethnicity (OR=1.86; 95%CI=1.08, 3.21) and poorer social support (OR=2.71; 95%CI=1.63, 4.51). No interactions existed between these predictors. Older people with non-communicable diseases were susceptible to lower health related quality of life. Increasing age, single, presence of co-morbid conditions, and poorer social support were predictors of lower physical health component of HRQoL. While the older women, Indian ethnicity and poorer social support reported lower mental health component of HRQoL.

  20. [Assessment on the capacity for programs regarding chronic non-communicable diseases prevention and control, in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Xiang; Zhai, Yi; Shi, Xiaoming

    2014-06-01

    To assess the policies and programs on the capacity of prevention and control regarding non-communicable diseases (NCDs) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCs) at all levels and grass roots health care institutions, in China. On-line questionnaire survey was adopted by 3 352 CDCs at provincial, city and county levels and 1 200 grass roots health care institutions. 1) On policies: 75.0% of the provincial governments provided special funding for chronic disease prevention and control, whereas 19.7% city government and 11.3% county government did so. 2) Infrastructure:only 7.1% county level CDCs reported having a department taking care of NCD prevention and control. 8 263 staff members worked on NCDs prevention and control, accounting for 4.2% of all the CDCs' personnel. 40.2% CDCs had special funding used for NCDs prevention and control. 3)Capacity on training and guidance:among all the CDCs, 96.9% at provincial level, 50.3% at city level and 42.1% at county level had organized training on NCDs prevention and control. Only 48.3% of the CDCs at county level provided technical guidance for grass-roots health care institutions. 4) Capacities regarding cooperation and participation: 20.2% of the CDCs had experience in collaborating with mass media. 5) Surveillance capacity: 64.6% of the CDCs at county level implemented death registration, compare to less than 30.0% of CDCs at county level implemented surveillance programs on major NCDs and related risk factors. In the grass roots health care institutions, 18.6% implemented new stroke case reporting system but only 3.0% implemented program on myocardial infarction case reporting. 6) Intervention and management capacity: 36.1% and 32.2% of the CDCs conducted individualized intervention on hypertension and diabetes, while less than another 20% intervened into other NCDs and risk factors. More than 50% of the grass roots health care institutions carried follow-up survey on hypertension and diabetes. Rates