WorldWideScience

Sample records for reported communicable diseases

  1. Completeness of Communicable Disease Reporting, North Carolina, USA, 1995–1997 and 2000–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, David J.; Poole, Charles; MacDonald, Pia D.M.; Maillard, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Despite widespread use of communicable disease surveillance data to inform public health intervention and control measures, the reporting completeness of the notifiable disease surveillance system remains incompletely assessed. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive study of reporting completeness with an analysis of 53 diseases reported by 8 health care systems across North Carolina, USA, during 1995–1997 and 2000–2006. All patients who were assigned an International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification, diagnosis code for a state-required reportable communicable disease were matched to surveillance records. We used logistic regression techniques to estimate reporting completeness by disease, year, and health care system. The completeness of reporting varied among the health care systems from 2% to 30% and improved over time. Disease-specific reporting completeness proportions ranged from 0% to 82%, but were generally low even for diseases with great public health importance and opportunity for interventions. PMID:21192850

  2. Communicable Disease Reporting Systems in the World: A System­atic Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali JANATI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Communicable disease reporting and surveillance system has poor infrastructure and supporters in most of countries. Its quality improvement is a challenge and requires an accurate and efficient care and reporting systems at all levels to achieve new and simple models. This study evaluates reporting systems of communicable diseases using systematic review.Methods: This was a systematic review study. For data collection, we used the following database and search engines: Proquest, Science direct, Pub MED, Scopes, Springer, and EBESCO. For Persian databases, we used SID, Iranmedex and Magiran. Our key words were "Communicable Diseases", "Notifiable Disease", "Disease Notification", "Reporting System"," Surveillance Systems" and "evaluation". Two independent researchers reviewed the resources and the results were classified in different domains.Results: From 1889 cases, only 66 resources were studied. The results were classified in several domains, including those who were reporting, reporting methods and procedures, responsibilities and reporting system characteristics, problems and solutions of the report, the reporting process, and receptor level.Conclusion: Disease-reporting system has similar problems in all parts of the world. Change, improve, update and continuous monitoring of the reporting system are very important. Although the reporting process can vary in different regions, but being perfect and timely are important principles in system design. Detailed explanations of tasks and providing appropriate instructions are the most important points to integrate an efficient reporting system. Keywords: Reporting, Diseases surveillance system, Disease control

  3. Communicable Disease Reporting Systems in the World: A Systematic Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    JANATI, Ali; HOSSEINY, Mozhgan; GOUYA, Mohammad Mehdi; MORADI, Ghobad; GHADERI, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Communicable disease reporting and surveillance system has poor infrastructure and supporters in most of countries. Its quality improvement is a challenge and requires an accurate and efficient care and reporting systems at all levels to achieve new and simple models. This study evaluates reporting systems of communicable diseases using systematic review. Methods: This was a systematic review study. For data collection, we used the following database and search engines: Proquest, Science direct, Pub MED, Scopes, Springer, and EBESCO. For Persian databases, we used SID, Iranmedex and Magiran. Our key words were “Communicable Diseases”, “Notifiable Disease”, “Disease Notification”, “Reporting System”,” Surveillance Systems” and “evaluation”. Two independent researchers reviewed the resources and the results were classified in different domains. Results: From 1889 cases, only 66 resources were studied. The results were classified in several domains, including those who were reporting, reporting methods and procedures, responsibilities and reporting system characteristics, problems and solutions of the report, the reporting process, and receptor level. Conclusion: Disease-reporting system has similar problems in all parts of the world. Change, improve, update and continuous monitoring of the reporting system are very important. Although the reporting process can vary in different regions, but being perfect and timely are important principles in system design. Detailed explanations of tasks and providing appropriate instructions are the most important points to integrate an efficient reporting system. PMID:26744702

  4. Report of a serious reportable communicable disease at a major sporting event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummiskey, J; Borrione, P; Bachil, N; Ergen, E; Pigozzi, F

    2008-06-01

    A European Youth Olympic Sports Festival (EYOF), in Jaca, Northern Aragon, Spain, involving 1500 athletes, from 43 countries was held in January for 7 days. The event was marred by a case of type B Neisseria meningitidis. The usual care of the patient was performed in a local hospital. He eventually made a full recovery. The case was reported to the Local Health Authority and the National Public Health authority of the patient's country. Their advice was to treat the core case, give prophylactic therapy to the inner circle (28 athletes and officials) and surveillance of the other close contacts (84 total) with temperature and symptom review daily. They advised against further information being given to the rest of the athletes and officials, in case it might give rise to a panic situation. The dilemma of the responsible physicians was that 1500 athletes were traveling back to 43 countries within the incubation period of the bacterial meningitis. It was decided that informing each country was appropriate. This was done at the event by informing the Chef of the Missions and writing to the Secretary Generals of each National Olympic Committee attending. This was the first serious contagious disease at a major sporting event. The way in which the wider dispersing attendees were informed at the event should form the basis of management at sporting events in the likelihood of a serious communicable disease.

  5. Nutrient reference value: non-communicable disease endpoints--a conference report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, J R; Blumberg, J B; L'Abbe, M; LeDoux, M; Rice, H B; von Schacky, C; Yaktine, A; Griffiths, J C

    2016-03-01

    scientific evidence does exist to confirm a relationship between the intake of a specific bioactive constituent and enhanced health conditions or reduced risk of a chronic disease. Further, research on the putative mechanisms of action of various classes of bioactives is supported by national and pan-national government agencies, and academic institutions, as well as functional food and dietary supplement manufacturers. Consumers are becoming educated and are seeking to purchase products containing bioactives, yet there is no evaluative process in place to let the public know how strong the science is behind the benefits or the quantitative amounts needed to achieve these beneficial health effects or to avoid exceeding the upper level (UL). When one lacks an essential nutrient, overt deficiency with concomitant physiological determents and eventually death are expected. The absence of bioactive substances from the diet results in suboptimal health, e.g., poor cellular and/or physiological function, which is relative and not absolute. Regrettably at this time, there is no DRI process to evaluate bioactives, although a recent workshop convened by the National Institutes of Health (Options for Consideration of Chronic Disease Endpoints for Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs); March 10-11, 2015; http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dri/ ) did explore the process to develop DVs for nutrients, the lack of which result in increased risk of chronic disease (non-communicable disease) endpoints. A final report is expected soon. This conference (CRN-International Scientific Symposium; "Nutrient Reference Value-Non-Communicable Disease (NRV-NCD) Endpoints," 20 November in Kronberg, Germany; http://www.crn-i.ch/2015symposium/ ) explores concepts related to the Codex NRV process, the public health opportunities in setting NRVs for bioactive constituents, and further research and details on the specific class of bioactives, n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (also termed omega-3 fatty

  6. Report of the Council for Exceptional Children's Task Force on Policy Issues Relating to the Management of Students with Communicable Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA.

    How schools can effectively work with exceptional students who have communicable diseases was the focus of an eight-member Task Force appointed by the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) Governmental Relations Committee. Its report begins with an overview of existing guidelines and defines specific communicable diseases (Hepatitis B,…

  7. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in developing countries: a symposium report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Purnat, Tina Dannemann; Phuong, Nguyen Thi Anh; Mwingira, Upendo; Schacht, Karsten; Fröschl, Günter

    2014-12-11

    In recent years, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have globally shown increasing impact on health status in populations with disproportionately higher rates in developing countries. NCDs are the leading cause of mortality worldwide and a serious public health threat to developing countries. Recognizing the importance and urgency of the issue, a one-day symposium was organized on NCDs in Developing Countries by the CIHLMU Center for International Health, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich on 22nd March 2014. The objective of the symposium was to understand the current situation of different NCDs public health programs and the current trends in NCDs research and policy, promote exchange of ideas, encourage scientific debate and foster networking, partnerships and opportunities among experts from different clinical, research, and policy fields. The symposium was attended by more than seventy participants representing scientists, physicians, academics and students from several institutes in Germany and abroad. Seven key note presentations were made at the symposium by experts from Germany, UK, France, Bangladesh and Vietnam. This paper highlights the presentations and discussions during the symposium on different aspects of NCDs in developing countries. The symposium elucidated the dynamics of NCDs in developing countries and invited the participants to learn about evidence-based practices and policies for prevention and management of major NCDs and to debate the way forward.

  8. SurvNet@RKI--a multistate electronic reporting system for communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faensen, D; Claus, H; Benzler, J; Ammon, A; Pfoch, T; Breuer, T; Krause, G

    2006-01-01

    In 2001 Germany implemented a new electronic reporting system for surveillance of notifiable infectious diseases (SurvNet@RKI). The system is currently being used in all 431 local health departments (LHD), the 16 state health departments (SHD) and the Robert Koch-Institut (RKI), the national agency for infectious disease epidemiology. The SurvNet@RKI software is written in MS Access 97 and Visual Basic and it supports MS Access as well as MS SQL Server database management systems as a back-end. The database is designed as a distributed, dynamic database for 73 reporting categories with more than 600 fields and about 7000 predefined entry values. An integrated version management system documents deletion, undeletion, completion and correction of cases at any time and entry level and allows reproduction of previously conducted queries. Integrated algorithms and help functions support data quality and the application of case definitions. RKI makes the system available to all LHDs and SHDs free of charge. RKI receives an average of 300,000 case reports and 6240 outbreak reports per year through this system. A public web-based query interface, SurvStat@RKI, assures extensive and timely publication of the data. During the 5 years that SurvNet@RKI has been running in all LHDs and SHDs in Germany it has coped well with a complex federal structure which makes this system particularly attractive to multinational surveillance networks. The system is currently being migrated to Microsoft C#/.NET and transport formats in XML. Based on our experiences, we provide recommendations for the design and implementation of national or international electronic surveillance systems.

  9. Communicable behavior of non-communicable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Shukla

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Communicability of non- communicable diseases can be explained using the prototype of non- communicable diseases. The concept can be further extended to other non- communicable diseases. Diabetes mellitus (DM is regarded as the prototype of non-communicable diseases. Its subtype, type 2 DM is usually associated with obesity. Obesity, in turn, can be attributed to deranged eating habits and lack of physical activity. Eating habits of a person bears a close resemblance to the parental eating habits. Other factors contributing to obesity like alcoholism can also be transmitted from parents to child. Smoking, another factor implicated in DM, can be picked as a habit from peer group as well as family. All these factors implicated directly or indirectly in the pathogenesis of DM are actually components of lifestyle. These lifestyle components can be transmitted both in an inter-generation and intra-generation fashion. And so the chances of transmission of DM (a lifestyle disease in the same fashion cannot be ruled out. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(5.000: 1711-1714

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for self-reported non-communicable diseases among older Ugandans: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Ojiambo Wandera

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is limited evidence about the prevalence and risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs among older Ugandans. Therefore, this article is aimed at investigating the prevalence of self-reported NCDs and their associated risk factors using a nationally representative sample. Design: We conducted a secondary analysis of the 2010 Uganda National Household Survey (UNHS using a weighted sample of 2,382 older people. Frequency distributions for descriptive statistics and Pearson chi-square tests to identify the association between self-reported NCDs and selected explanatory variables were done. Finally, multivariable complementary log–log regressions to estimate the risk factors for self-reported NCDs among older people in Uganda were done. Results: About 2 in 10 (23% older persons reported at least one NCD [including hypertension (16%, diabetes (3%, and heart disease (9%]. Among all older people, reporting NCDs was higher among those aged 60–69 and 70–79; Muslims; and Pentecostals and Seventh Day Adventists (SDAs. In addition, the likelihood of reporting NCDs was higher among older persons who depended on remittances and earned wages; owned a bicycle; were sick in the last 30 days; were disabled; and were women. Conversely, the odds of reporting NCDs were lower for those who were relatives of household heads and were poor. Conclusions: In Uganda, self-reported NCDs were associated with advanced age, being a woman, having a disability, ill health in the past 30 days, being rich, depended on remittances and earning wages, being Muslim, Pentecostal and SDAs, and household headship. The Ministry of Health should prevent and manage NCDs by creating awareness in the public and improving the supply of essential drugs for these health conditions. Finally, there is a need for specialised surveillance studies of older people to monitor the trends and patterns of NCDs over time.

  11. Cardiovascular risk factors and non-communicable diseases in Abia state, Nigeria: report of a community-based survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O S Ogah; O O Madukwe; U U Onyeonoro; I I Chukwuonye; A U Ukegbu; M O Akhimien; I G Okpechi

    2013-01-01

      The purpose of this survey was to determine the burden of non-communicable diseases as well as associated cardiovascular risk factors in the state using the World Health Organization (WHO) steps approach...

  12. Communicable Diseases in Childhood Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Networks, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter addresses managing the spread of communicable diseases in childhood settings as well as educational program concerns for children who are HIV infected. Noting that communicable diseases are a source of concern no matter how minor they might appear, the newsletter suggests that it is important for individuals who work with the…

  13. Self-reported prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases and associated factors among older adults in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Phaswana-Mafuya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about the prevalence and predictors of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs of older adults in South Africa. This study aims to investigate the self-reported prevalences of major chronic NCDs and their predictors among older South Africans. Methods: We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional survey with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or above in South Africa in 2008. The outcome variable was the self-reported presence of chronic NCDs suffered, namely, arthritis, stroke, angina, diabetes, chronic lung disease, asthma, depression, and hypertension. The exposure variables were sociodemographic characteristics: age, gender, education, wealth status, race, marital status, and residence. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine sociodemographic factors predictive of the presence of chronic NCDs. Results: The prevalence of chronic NCDs was 51.8%. The prevalence of multimorbidity (≥2 chronic conditions was 22.5%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that being female, being in age groups 60–79 and 70–79, being Coloured or Asian, having no schooling, having greater wealth, and residing in an urban area were associated with the presence of NCDs. Conclusion: The rising burden of chronic NCDs affecting older people places a heavy burden on the healthcare system as a result of increased demand and access to healthcare services. Concerted effort is needed to develop strategies for the prevention and management of NCDs, especially among economically disadvantaged individuals who need these services the most.

  14. Short communication report Final for Jerome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Ahmed

    Short communication report. AN ANALYSIS OF HUMAN ... Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research. PMB 2077 ... The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the trends of the disease in Nigeria .... Springer-Verlag, Paris,. 215-233. Ford, J.

  15. Disparities in Reportable Communicable Disease Incidence by Census Tract-Level Poverty, New York City, 2006–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin-Rector, Alison; Hadler, James L.; Fine, Annie D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We described disparities in selected communicable disease incidence across area-based poverty levels in New York City, an area with more than 8 million residents and pronounced household income inequality. Methods. We geocoded and categorized cases of 53 communicable diseases diagnosed during 2006 to 2013 by census tract-based poverty level. Age-standardized incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated for areas with 30% or more versus fewer than 10% of residents below the federal poverty threshold. Results. Diseases associated with high poverty included rickettsialpox (IRR = 3.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.29, 5.95), chronic hepatitis C (IRR for new reports = 3.58; 95% CI = 3.50, 3.66), and malaria (IRR = 3.48; 95% CI = 2.97, 4.08). Diseases associated with low poverty included domestic tick-borne diseases acquired through travel to areas where infected vectors are prevalent, such as human granulocytic anaplasmosis (IRR = 0.08; 95% CI = 0.03, 0.19) and Lyme disease (IRR = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.32, 0.36). Conclusions. Residents of high poverty areas were disproportionately affected by certain communicable diseases that are amenable to public health interventions. Future work should clarify subgroups at highest risk, identify reasons for the observed associations, and use findings to support programs to minimize disparities. PMID:26180961

  16. International law and communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aginam, Obijiofor

    2002-01-01

    Historically, international law has played a key role in global communicable disease surveillance. Throughout the nineteenth century, international law played a dominant role in harmonizing the inconsistent national quarantine regulations of European nation-states; facilitating the exchange of epidemiological information on infectious diseases; establishing international health organizations; and standardization of surveillance. Today, communicable diseases have continued to re-shape the boundaries of global health governance through legally binding and "soft-law" regimes negotiated and adopted within the mandate of multilateral institutions - the World Health Organization, the World Trade Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization, and the Office International des Epizooties. The globalization of public health has employed international law as an indispensable tool in global health governance aimed at diminishing human vulnerability to the mortality and morbidity burdens of communicable diseases.

  17. Tuberculosis Comorbidity with Communicable and Noncommunicable Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Matthew; Marais, Ben J; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2015-02-06

    The 18th WHO Global Tuberculosis Annual Report indicates that there were an estimated 8.6 million incident cases of tuberculosis (TB) in 2012, which included 2.9 million women and 530,000 children. TB caused 1.3 million deaths including 320,000 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people; three-quarters of deaths occurred in Africa and Southeast Asia. With one-third of the world's population latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), active TB disease is primarily associated with a break down in immune surveillance. This explains the strong link between active TB disease and other communicable diseases (CDs) or noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) that exert a toll on the immune system. Comorbid NCD risk factors include diabetes, smoking, malnutrition, and chronic lung disease, all of which have increased relentlessly over the past decade in developing countries. The huge overlap between killer infections such as TB, HIV, malaria, and severe viral infections with NCDs, results in a "double burden of disease" in developing countries. The current focus on vertical disease programs fails to recognize comorbidities or to encourage joint management approaches. This review highlights major disease overlaps and discusses the rationale for better integration of tuberculosis care with services for NCDs and other infectious diseases to enhance the overall efficiency of the public health responses. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  18. State synergies and disease surveillance: creating an electronic health data communication model for cancer reporting and comparative effectiveness research in kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reams, Christopher; Powell, Mallory; Edwards, Rob

    2014-01-01

    This case study describes the collaboration between a state public health department, a major research university, and a health extension service funded as part of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act to establish an interoperable health information system for disease surveillance through electronic reporting of systemic therapy data from numerous oncology practices in Kentucky. The experience of the Kentucky cancer surveillance system can help local and state entities achieve greater effectiveness in designing communication efforts to increase usage of electronic health records (EHRs) and health information exchanges (HIEs), help eligible clinicians meet these new standards in patient care, and conduct disease surveillance in a learning health system. We document and assess the statewide efforts of early health information technology (HIT) adopters in Kentucky to facilitate the nation's first electronic transmission of a clinical document architecture (CDA) from a physician office to a state cancer surveillance registry in November 2012. Successful transmission of the CDA not only represented a landmark for technology innovators, informaticists, and clinicians, but it also set in motion a new communication mechanism by which state and federal agencies can capture and trade vital cancer statistics in a way that is safe, secure, and timely. The corresponding impact this has on cancer surveillance and comparative effective research is immense. With guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Kentucky Cancer Registry (KCR), the Kentucky Health Information Exchange (KHIE), and the Kentucky Regional Extension Center (KREC) have moved one step further in transforming the interoperable health environment for improved disease surveillance. This case study describes the efforts of established and reputable agencies, including the KCR, the state department of health, state and federal governmental

  19. Acoustic communication in insect disease vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe de Mello Vigoder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic signalling has been extensively studied in insect species, which has led to a better understanding of sexual communication, sexual selection and modes of speciation. The significance of acoustic signals for a blood-sucking insect was first reported in the XIX century by Christopher Johnston, studying the hearing organs of mosquitoes, but has received relatively little attention in other disease vectors until recently. Acoustic signals are often associated with mating behaviour and sexual selection and changes in signalling can lead to rapid evolutionary divergence and may ultimately contribute to the process of speciation. Songs can also have implications for the success of novel methods of disease control such as determining the mating competitiveness of modified insects used for mass-release control programs. Species-specific sound “signatures” may help identify incipient species within species complexes that may be of epidemiological significance, e.g. of higher vectorial capacity, thereby enabling the application of more focussed control measures to optimise the reduction of pathogen transmission. Although the study of acoustic communication in insect vectors has been relatively limited, this review of research demonstrates their value as models for understanding both the functional and evolutionary significance of acoustic communication in insects.

  20. Enhancing Disease Surveillance Event Communication Among Jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabernero, Nathaniel R; Loschen, Wayne A; Jorgensen, Joel; Suereth, Joshua; Coberly, Jacqueline S; Holtry, Rekha S; Sikes, Marvin L; Babin, Steven M; Lewis, Sheryl L Happel

    2009-01-01

    Automated disease surveillance systems are becoming widely used by the public health community. However, communication among non-collocated and widely dispersed users still needs improvement. A web-based software tool for enhancing user communications was completely integrated into an existing automated disease surveillance system and was tested during two simulated exercises and operational use involving multiple jurisdictions. Evaluation of this tool was conducted by user meetings, anonymous surveys, and web logs. Public health officials found this tool to be useful, and the tool has been modified further to incorporate features suggested by user responses. Features of the automated disease surveillance system, such as alerts and time series plots, can be specifically referenced by user comments. The user may also indicate the alert response being considered by adding a color indicator to their comment. The web-based event communication tool described in this article provides a common ground for collaboration and communication among public health officials at different locations.

  1. Tuberculosis comorbidity with communicable and non-communicable diseases: integrating health services and control efforts.

    OpenAIRE

    Marais, BJ; Lönnroth, K.; Lawn, SD; Migliori, GB; Mwaba, P.; Glaziou, P; Bates, M; Colagiuri, R; Zijenah, L; Swaminathan, S; Memish, ZA; Pletschette, M; Hoelscher, M; Abubakar, I; Hasan, R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent data for the global burden of disease reflect major demographic and lifestyle changes, leading to a rise in non-communicable diseases. Most countries with high levels of tuberculosis face a large comorbidity burden from both non-communicable and communicable diseases. Traditional disease-specific approaches typically fail to recognise common features and potential synergies in integration of care, management, and control of non-communicable and communicable diseases. In resource-limite...

  2. Pragmatic communication is impaired in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Deborah; Ouyang, Bichun; Lonnquist, Eryn; Newcombe, Jill

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether severity of disease, cognitive function, age, gender, or amount of social interaction were associated with pragmatic dysfunction in Parkinson disease. No studies have previously been done to investigate variables that may be associated with pragmatic dysfunction in Parkinson disease. A case-control study was conducted with 17 Parkinson disease patients and 17 convenience controls. Each Parkinson disease patient and a control were interviewed, and their pragmatic skills were evaluated using a scale of pragmatic communication skills. Correlation analysis was used to determine what factors were associated with pragmatic dysfunction in the Parkinson disease patients. Cases scored lower on the pragmatic scale with a mean of 29.7 compared with 38.9 in the controls (p pragmatic communication skills had moderate to strong correlations with the MMSE (r = .81, p = .002), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score (r = -.71, p = .002), and duration of disease (r = -.53, p = .03). These results show that Parkinson disease patients have impaired pragmatic function compared with controls on both verbal and nonverbal sections, and this impairment correlates with mental state, duration, and severity of disease.

  3. When Are High-Tech Communicators Effective in Parkinson's Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriero, Giorgio; Caligari, Marco; Ronconi, Gianpaolo; Franchignoni, Franco

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a 63-year-old woman with Parkinson's disease showing loss of intelligibility of speech and severely impaired handwriting, despite undergoing physical and speech therapies. As the patient had sufficient residual motor abilities and adequate cognitive function and motivation, a computer-based communication aid with a software…

  4. Digital communication support and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Anna; Ferm, Ulrika; Samuelsson, Christina

    2015-12-06

    Communication is one of the areas where people with dementia and their caregivers experience most challenges. The purpose of this study is to contribute to the understanding of possibilities and pitfalls of using personalized communication applications installed on tablet computers to support communication for people with dementia and their conversational partners. The study is based on video recordings of a woman, 52 years old, with Alzheimer's disease interacting with her husband in their home. The couple was recorded interacting with and without a tablet computer including a personalized communication application. The results from the present study reveal both significant possibilities and potential difficulties in introducing a digital communication device to people with dementia and their conversational partners. For the woman in the present study, the amount of interactive actions and the number of communicative actions seem to increase with the use of the communication application. The results also indicate that problems associated with dementia are foregrounded in interaction where the tablet computer is used.

  5. Bacteria without borders: communicable disease politics in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Scott L; Mätzke, Margitta

    2012-12-01

    Communicable disease control might be one of the oldest and most important functions of the modern state, but it receives very little attention today. This article introduces a special issue on the Europeanization of communicable disease control politics in Europe. The Europeanization of communicable disease control is a case of both European integration and communicable disease politics. We first analyze the problems and tensions in communicable disease control as a problem of overlapping interprofessional, interorganizational, intergovernmental, and international tensions. We then present the European Union, a new and understudied actor in communicable disease politics, sketching the theoretical background for Europeanization of the field and introducing the articles in the special issue.

  6. 76 FR 41273 - National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Tribal Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... Continuum, which are key indicators of consistent success in response- level communications. Tribes with... SECURITY National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Tribal Report AGENCY: National Protection and... Directorate (NPPD), Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C), Office of Emergency Communications...

  7. 42 CFR 70.3 - All communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false All communicable diseases. 70.3 Section 70.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING INTERSTATE QUARANTINE § 70.3 All communicable diseases. A person who has a communicable disease in...

  8. Celiac disease - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojković Gradimir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Celiac disease (nontropical sprue, gluten-sensitive enteropathy, chronic intestinal malabsorption disorder is caused by gluten intolerance. This hereditary disorder is caused by sensitivity to gliadin. Because the body's own immune system causes the damage, celiac disease is considered to be an autoimmune disorder. However, it is also classified as a disease of malabsorption because nutrients are not absorbed. When people with celiac disease eat foods containing gluten, their immune system responds by damaging the small intestine. Specifically, tiny finger-like protrusions, called villi, on the lining of the small intestine are lost. The diagnosis is suspected on the basis of symptoms and signs, enhanced by laboratory and x-ray studies, and confirmed by biopsy revealing flat mucosa and subsequent clinical and histologic improvement on a gluten-free diet. Gluten must be excluded from diet. Supplementary vitamins, minerals and hematinics may be given depending on deficiency. Case report This is a case report of a 23-year old female patient with a mineralization defect (osteomalacia and secondary osteoporosis caused by long-time unrecognized celiac disease. The patient had many symptoms: short stature, steatorrhea, anemia, weight loss and chronic bone pain. Laboratory and x-ray studies and jejunal biopsy revealed a chronic intestinal malabsorption disorder caused by gluten intolerance. Gluten-free diet and supplementary vitamins, minerals and hematinics were included with apparent clinical remission. Discussion and Conclusion Some people with celiac disease may not have symptoms. The undamaged part of their small intestine is able to absorb enough nutrients to prevent symptoms. However, people without symptoms are still at risk for complications of celiac disease. Biopsy of the small intestine is the best way to diagnose celiac disease. Decreased bone density (osteoporosis and osteomalacia is a serious problem for celiacs. If calcium

  9. Communication and Huntington's Disease: Qualitative Interviews and Focus Groups with Persons with Huntington's Disease, Family Members, and Carers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartelius, Lena; Jonsson, Maria; Rickeberg, Anneli; Laakso, Katja

    2010-01-01

    Background: As an effect of the cognitive, emotional and motor symptoms associated with Huntington's disease, communicative interaction is often dramatically changed. No study has previously included the subjective reports on this subject from individuals with Huntington's disease. Aims: To explore the qualitative aspects of how communication is…

  10. [Non-verbal communication in Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiaratura, Loris Tamara

    2008-09-01

    This review underlines the importance of non-verbal communication in Alzheimer's disease. A social psychological perspective of communication is privileged. Non-verbal behaviors such as looks, head nods, hand gestures, body posture or facial expression provide a lot of information about interpersonal attitudes, behavioral intentions, and emotional experiences. Therefore they play an important role in the regulation of interaction between individuals. Non-verbal communication is effective in Alzheimer's disease even in the late stages. Patients still produce non-verbal signals and are responsive to others. Nevertheless, few studies have been devoted to the social factors influencing the non-verbal exchange. Misidentification and misinterpretation of behaviors may have negative consequences for the patients. Thus, improving the comprehension of and the response to non-verbal behavior would increase first the quality of the interaction, then the physical and psychological well-being of patients and that of caregivers. The role of non-verbal behavior in social interactions should be approached from an integrative and functional point of view.

  11. THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS OF THE FINANCIAL REPORTING

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolaescu Cristina; Moț Ioana

    2013-01-01

    An information has value through the financial reporting. Such are taken into account factors such as: the nature of the event referred to financial reporting, the adequacy of the presentation, the credibility and integrity of information, readability necessary to allow some conclusions on a reasonable impact on the financial statements, the investors risk profile and processing skills recovery opportunities. Communication is not an end in itself. Its existence can not be conceived outside su...

  12. FINANCIAL COMMUNICATION AND INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL REPORTING PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BELENESI (BUMBA MARIOARA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a highly competitive economy, driven by globalization, the abundance of digital information and communication facilities, the investor directs its capital to those companies that promise added value of the invested capital. Even so, companies seek to obtain favorable terms of financing by rendering sensitive the investors. To achieve their goal, they must provide information about their financial and non financial performance with sufficient regularity to meet the information needs of actual or potential capital bidders in decision making. Financial communication through standardized annual statements of financial reporting in the context of corporate governance is no longer sufficient. The organization has more resources than those included in its balance sheet, capable of attracting huge benefits, but which do not meet the criteria for recognition in the financial statements. It requires, therefore, a voluntary disclosure of information on intangible resources, which are key factors in creating future value for both the organization itself and the industry it is part of. The reports of intellectual capital can effectively complement the shortcomings of the traditional model of accounting and financial reporting. In our paper we wanted to analyze financial communication in the context of corporate governance, presented through financial statements, reaching the intellectual capital reporting practices, as a means to improve communication of the organization with the outside. In this sense we presented two examples of good practice of two service companies (consultancy and design that publish annually intellectual capital reports. To alleviate the negative consequences of non-recognition of intangible assets in the financial statements, we are for the voluntary disclosure of information on intangible assets in the intellectual capital reports, annual reports, those regarding corporate responsibility, or at least in the explanatory notes of

  13. The Viewpoints of General Practitioners Owning a Private office in North and East of Tehran about Barriers and Problems of Reporting of Communicable Diseases in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali-Asghar Kolahi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: Effective Prevention and control of infectious diseases requires the surveillance system for developing efficient procedures for the priority infectious diseases. According to the less than expected reports and lack of studies on problems and barriers of reporting, this study was done with the aim of identifying the barriers and problems of surveillance system, the suitable way and time of education, the believes, the requirements and the expectations in order to improve the quality and quantity of surveillance system in the viewpoint of general practitioners (GPs who have privet office in the north and east metropolitan area of Tehran. Materials and methods: This cross sectional study was performed with the participation of GPs undertaking their private practices around the Shahid Beheshti University in the north and east of Tehran in 2011. The sample size was 336 GPs and the sampling method was simple random. Data was collected by questionnaire and interview. Result: A total of 336 GPs participated in the study. 131(39% of them were male, and 205 (61% were female. The mean age of females was 36.6 ± 6 years and for males was 41.1 ± 8.6 years. The barriers to reporting included: lack of patients consent for report (26.5%, lack of adequate information by heath centers (23.8%, uncertainty of diagnosis (22%, lack of feedback of health centers (21.7% and lack of sufficient time (21%, conflict over patient privacy (18.5%, lack of knowledge to reporting, not clearly defined reporting necessity, feeling the reports as useless 12.5%, not known identity of report giver 11.5%, not proper working time of health centers (9.8%, inappropriate behavior with referred patients (8.6%, disconnected or busy phone (8.6%, concern for missing patients (7.4%, to avoid adverse consequences of reporting (7.1% and long distance between private office and health center (3.3%. Except uncertainty of diagnosis between two sex, which the

  14. [Epidemic trend on notifiable communicable diseases from 2010 to 2015 in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J H; Huang, R G

    2016-06-01

    To analyze the trends and epidemiological characteristics of notifiable communicable diseases from 2010 to 2015 in Beijing so as to provide reliable reference data. Data on the epidemiological characteristics was gathered and analyzed through the monitoring programs on notifiable diseases, reported by the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention, from 2010 to 2015. A total of 764 290 cases of notifiable communicable diseases were reported from 2010 to 2015 in Beijing. The annual reported incidence on notifiable communicable diseases showed an annual downward (χ(2)=1.25×10(4), Pdiseases and respiratory infectious diseases also showed an annual downward (χ(2)=1.25×10(4), Pchildren under 7 years old appeared higher than that of the other age groups that accounted for 47.79% of the total reported cases. High incidence mainly appeared in children that living scattering around which accounted for 31.64% of the total reported cases. The first three leading incidence rates seen in other infectious diseases were infectious diarrhea, hand-foot-and-mouth disease and dysentery for the last consecutive 6 years. The laboratory diagnosed rate on notifiable disease was 16.67%, but with a trend of annual increase. Intestinal infective diseases kept the highest incidence among all the notifiable communicable diseases, suggesting the necessity of improving the prevention and control programs on notifiable communicable diseases in preschool, especially in those children with their houses scattered around. Programs on laboratory diagnosis also need to be strengthened.

  15. Exploring family communication about sickle cell disease in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, J Carolyn; Hankins, Jane; Graves, Rebecca J; Robitaille, Kimberly Y; Roberts, Ruth; Cejda, Katherine; Hardy, Belinda T; Johnson, Margery; Porter, Jerlym S

    2012-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a lifelong disorder that involves progressive organ damage and requires ongoing medical attention to prevent and treat episodic acute complications. Children with SCD need ongoing monitoring and extra attention that may be stressful to family members. Communication within families can help resolve family stress and may be associated with medical follow-up and management of SCD. Focus groups were conducted with 12 African American families to explore the communication that occurred within and outside of the family from the perspectives of adolescents with SCD, siblings, and parents. Factors that influence family communication were explored. The extended family was an important social network and resource to adolescents, siblings, and parents. Family member knowledge of SCD was an important factor that influenced communication about SCD; adolescents and parents communicated more easily than siblings and also reported having more knowledge of SCD than siblings. Future research focusing on the knowledge of immediate and extended family members and their recognition of their contribution to the child with SCD is recommended.

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids and non-communicable diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铎

    2003-01-01

    Objective To review the relation between dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) and non-communicable diseases. Method Data were collected from scientific journals and conference publications, MEDLINE (1979-2002) and current content which included 68 prospective, cross-sectional, case control and dietary-intervention studies. Scientific paper selections were based on the association between ω-3 PUFA and non-communicable diseases. Results ω-3 PUFA has beneficial effects on increasing heart rate variability, decreasing the risk of stroke, reducing both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, insulin resistance and glucose metabolism. Long chain ω-3 PUFA has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities. ω-3 PUFA has also been reported to have a beneficial effect on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia, and may be effective in managing depression in adults. Conclusions Results from epidemiological and dietary intervention studies have shown that ω-3 PUFA represent powerfully a class of bioactive compounds and that dietary intake of ω-3 PUFA plays a critical role in human health in relation to non-communicable diseases.

  17. High performance computing and communications panel report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    In FY92, a presidential initiative entitled High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) was launched, aimed at securing U.S. preeminence in high performance computing and related communication technologies. The stated goal of the initiative is threefold: extend U.S. technological leadership in high performance computing and computer communications; provide wide dissemination and application of the technologies; and spur gains in U.S. productivity and industrial competitiveness, all within the context of the mission needs of federal agencies. Because of the importance of the HPCC program to the national well-being, especially its potential implication for industrial competitiveness, the Assistant to the President for Science and Technology has asked that the President's Council of Advisors in Science and Technology (PCAST) establish a panel to advise PCAST on the strengths and weaknesses of the HPCC program. The report presents a program analysis based on strategy, balance, management, and vision. Both constructive recommendations for program improvement and positive reinforcement of successful program elements are contained within the report.

  18. Association between periodontal disease and non-communicable diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hong; Oh, Jin-Young; Youk, Tae-Mi; Jeong, Seong-Nyum; Kim, Young-Taek; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The National Health Insurance Service–Health Examinee Cohort during 2002 to 2013 was used to investigate the associations between periodontal disease (PD) and the following non-communicable diseases (NCDs): hypertension, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, cerebral infarction, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and obesity. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusting for potential confounders during the follow-up period—including age, sex, household income, insurance status, residence area, health status, and comorbidities—were used to estimated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in order to assess the associations between PD and NCDs. We enrolled 200,026 patients with PD and 154,824 subjects with a healthy oral status. Statistically, significant associations were found between PD and the investigated NCDs except for cerebral and myocardial infarction after adjusting for sociodemographic and comorbidity factors (P periodontitis pathogenesis as a triggering and mediating mechanism. PMID:28658175

  19. Waterfowl disease conference report : 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A Waterfowl Disease Conference was held in Denver the fall of 1980 to develop a better program for dealing with waterfowl disease problems. Most of the report dealt...

  20. Communicating and reporting on the business model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Lund, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The problem – as well as the prospect – with business models is that they are concerned with being different; as business in general thrives on some sort of unique selling point. So the bundle of indicators on value creation, business models, strategy, intellectual capital, and so on, which...... will be relevant to analyze or communicate about will differ from firm to firm. Therefore, this chapter focuses on the business model as the integrating concept for reporting and analysis of strategic types of information on e.g. management strategies, critical success factors, risk factors and value drivers....

  1. Communicative aspects and coping strategies in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Pereira da Costa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD, which are the coping strategies used and the relation between type of coping, voice symptoms and communicative aspects. Method: 73 subjects, 33 in the experimental group, with diagnosis of PD, and 40 subjects in the control group, healthy and without vocal complaints. They underwent the following procedures: application of the Voice Symptons Scale – VoiSS – Brazilian Version, Voice Disability Coping Questionnaire – VDCQ – Brazilian Version, and the questionnaire Living with Dysarthria – LwD. Results: The experimental group showed deviations in all protocols: VDCQ (p<0.001, VoiSS (p<0.001, LwD (p<0.001. The most frequently used coping strategy was self-control (p<0.001. The correlation between vocal symptoms and communicative aspects showed that the greater the impairment in communication, the greater the VoiSS emotional scores and the greater will be the amount of voice symptoms and signs. However, the vocal signs and symptoms and communicative aspects showed no correlation with coping. Conclusion: Patients with PD have a high amount of vocal signs and symptoms and the higher the occurrence, the more the patient reports being difficult to live with dysarthria, particularly when there are deviations in the emotional domain.

  2. Some Aspects of Communicable and Non-Communicable Diseases in Pacific Island Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Azmat

    2009-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the incidence of the communicable and non-communicable diseases in Pacific Island countries. Available health statistics confirms that children continue to die annually due to neonatal causes, diarrhoeal diseases, pneumonia and measles. The adult population in several countries reveals presence and emergence of…

  3. Some Aspects of Communicable and Non-Communicable Diseases in Pacific Island Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Azmat

    2009-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the incidence of the communicable and non-communicable diseases in Pacific Island countries. Available health statistics confirms that children continue to die annually due to neonatal causes, diarrhoeal diseases, pneumonia and measles. The adult population in several countries reveals presence and emergence of…

  4. The annual report: Communicating through metaphor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2005-01-01

    The annual report is the company's one-yearly statement of affairs or outlook presented to its shareholders and other interested parties. In this paper, interest is not solely in the financial performance and achievements of international companies, but also involves the way business information ...... is communicated to the public. Taking its starting point in Conceptual Metaphor Theory, the paper investigates the role of metaphor in structuring understanding and in providing a particular image of the company and its strategies.......The annual report is the company's one-yearly statement of affairs or outlook presented to its shareholders and other interested parties. In this paper, interest is not solely in the financial performance and achievements of international companies, but also involves the way business information...

  5. Tuberculosis comorbidity with communicable and non-communicable diseases: integrating health services and control efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Ben J; Lönnroth, Knut; Lawn, Stephen D; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Mwaba, Peter; Glaziou, Philippe; Bates, Matthew; Colagiuri, Ruth; Zijenah, Lynn; Swaminathan, Soumya; Memish, Ziad A; Pletschette, Michel; Hoelscher, Michael; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Hasan, Rumina; Zafar, Afia; Pantaleo, Guiseppe; Craig, Gill; Kim, Peter; Maeurer, Markus; Schito, Marco; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2013-05-01

    Recent data for the global burden of disease reflect major demographic and lifestyle changes, leading to a rise in non-communicable diseases. Most countries with high levels of tuberculosis face a large comorbidity burden from both non-communicable and communicable diseases. Traditional disease-specific approaches typically fail to recognise common features and potential synergies in integration of care, management, and control of non-communicable and communicable diseases. In resource-limited countries, the need to tackle a broader range of overlapping comorbid diseases is growing. Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS persist as global emergencies. The lethal interaction between tuberculosis and HIV coinfection in adults, children, and pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa exemplifies the need for well integrated approaches to disease management and control. Furthermore, links between diabetes mellitus, smoking, alcoholism, chronic lung diseases, cancer, immunosuppressive treatment, malnutrition, and tuberculosis are well recognised. Here, we focus on interactions, synergies, and challenges of integration of tuberculosis care with management strategies for non-communicable and communicable diseases without eroding the functionality of existing national programmes for tuberculosis. The need for sustained and increased funding for these initiatives is greater than ever and requires increased political and funder commitment. Copyright © 2013 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd/Inc/BV. All rights reserved. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Survey of Communicable Diseases Surveillance System in Hospitals of Iran: A Qualitative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehcheshmeh, Nayeb Fadaei; Arab, Mohammad; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Farzianpour, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Communicable Disease Surveillance and reporting is one of the key elements to combat against diseases and their control. Fast and timely recognition of communicable diseases can be helpful in controlling of epidemics. One of the main sources of management of communicable diseases reporting is hospitals that collect communicable diseases’ reports and send them to health authorities. One of the focal problems and challenges in this regard is incomplete and imprecise reports from hospitals. In this study, while examining the implementation processes of the communicable diseases surveillance in hospitals, non-medical people who were related to the program have been studied by a qualitative approach. Methods: This study was conducted using qualitative content analysis method. Participants in the study included 36 informants, managers, experts associated with health and surveillance of communicable diseases that were selected using targeted sampling and with diverse backgrounds and work experience (different experiences in primary health surveillance and treatment, Ministry levels, university staff and operations (hospitals and health centers) and sampling was continued until arrive to data saturation. Results: Interviews were analyzed after the elimination of duplicate codes and integration of them. Finally, 73 codes were acquired and categorized in 6 major themes and 21 levels. The main themes included: policy making and planning, development of resources, organizing, collaboration and participation, surveillance process, and monitoring and evaluation of the surveillance system. In point of interviewees, attention to these themes is necessary to develop effective and efficient surveillance system for communicable diseases. Conclusion: Surveillance system in hospitals is important in developing proper macro - policies in health sector, adoption of health related decisions and preventive plans appropriate to the existing situation. Compilation, changing

  7. Fiber Optic Communications Technology. A Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Joseph A.

    Fiber optic communications (communications over very pure glass transmission channels of diameter comparable to a human hair) is an emerging technology which promises most improvements in communications capacity at reasonable cost. The fiber transmission system offers many desirable characteristics representing improvements over conventional…

  8. Communicable disease in the South Pacific Islands, 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshman, J H

    1976-11-13

    An outline is given of the pattern of communicable disease in the South Pacific, as far as it is known. Surveillance and research are imcomplete and the World Health Organization is assisting in carrying these out. Reporting and laboratory diagnosis of communicable disease are inadequate and sometimes inaccurate. This is being improved. Medical checks for intending migrants from the South Pacific are, in a number of cases, inadequately performed in the country of origin and this situation should be altered. The risks to surrounding developed countries from migrants, temporary workers and returning travellers are not tremendous but they cannot be neglected and vigilance has to be maintained. Tuberculosis importation does present risks, as does that of typhoid. Malaria importation carries risks for Northern Australia. Leprosy poses little real risk to Australia or New Zealand and neither does filariasis. Cholera would have to be watched for closely should there ever be a South Pacific outbreak, but the developed countries around the South Pacific which are cholera-non-receptive can control occasional cases. Other than malaria, tuberculosis, typhoid and possibly dengue, problems are thus mainly in the diagnosis and treatment of individuals.

  9. Shelters for Battered Women and Their Children: An Under-Recognized Source of Communicable Disease Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Thomas P.; Rosenberg, Mark L.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study of various aspects of communicable disease occurrence (focusing on diarrheal illness) in shelters for battered women and their children, the extent and methods of screening for disease, training of staff in health care principles, resources available for health care needs, and the health regulations governing these shelters. (PS)

  10. Preventing the Epidemic of Non-Communicable Diseases: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Anthony,

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Diet, lifestyle and environment do not just affect a person's health, they also determine the health of their children and possibly the health of their grandchildren. Non-communicable disease is a global epidemic because of the combined effect of the modern diet (including drug abuse) and a sedentary lifestyle. A low energy dense, drug-free diet rich in bioavailable nutrients-plus-exercise is most effective for preventing non-communicable disease throughout life. Nanoc...

  11. Preventing the Epidemic of Non-Communicable Diseases: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Diet, lifestyle and environment do not just affect a person's health, they also determine the health of their children and possibly the health of their grandchildren. Non-communicable disease is a global epidemic because of the combined effect of the modern diet (including drug abuse) and a sedentary lifestyle. A low energy dense, drug-free diet rich in bioavailable nutrients-plus-exercise is most effective for preventing non-communicable disease throughout life. Nanoc...

  12. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 4 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Marin, Jose A.; Nelson, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG), and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures on a 24/7 basis. ECT is a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. This is the fourth year of the project.

  13. Non-communicable diseases in the Arab world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Hanan F Abdul; Sibai, Abla; Khader, Yousef; Hwalla, Nahla; Fadhil, Ibtihal; Alsiyabi, Huda; Mataria, Awad; Mendis, Shanthi; Mokdad, Ali H; Husseini, Abdullatif

    2014-01-25

    According to the results of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010, the burden of non-communicable diseases (cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic lung diseases, and diabetes) in the Arab world has increased, with variations between countries of different income levels. Behavioural risk factors, including tobacco use, unhealthy diets, and physical inactivity are prevalent, and obesity in adults and children has reached an alarming level. Despite epidemiological evidence, the policy response to non-communicable diseases has been weak. So far, Arab governments have not placed a sufficiently high priority on addressing the high prevalence of non-communicable diseases, with variations in policies between countries and overall weak implementation. Cost-effective and evidence-based prevention and treatment interventions have already been identified. The implementation of these interventions, beginning with immediate action on salt reduction and stricter implementation of tobacco control measures, will address the rise in major risk factors. Implementation of an effective response to the non-communicable-disease crisis will need political commitment, multisectoral action, strengthened health systems, and continuous monitoring and assessment of progress. Arab governments should be held accountable for their UN commitments to address the crisis. Engagement in the global monitoring framework for non-communicable diseases should promote accountability for effective action. The human and economic burden leaves no room for inaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Communicable disease control in China: From Mao to now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipgrave, David

    2011-01-01

    China’s progress on communicable disease control (CDC) in the 30 years after establishment of the People’s Republic in 1949 is widely regarded as remarkable. Life expectancy soared by around 30 years, infant mortality plummeted and smallpox, sexually transmitted diseases and many other infections were either eliminated or decreased massively in incidence, largely as a result of CDC. By the mid-1970s, China was already undergoing the epidemiologic transition, years ahead of other nations of similar economic status. These early successes can be attributed to population mobilization, mass campaigns and a focus on sanitation, hygiene, clean water and clean delivery, and occurred despite political instability and slow economic progress. The 10-year Cultural Revolution from 1966 brought many hardships, but also clinical care and continuing public health programs to the masses through community-funded medical schemes and the establishment of community-based health workers. These people-focused approaches broke down with China’s market reforms from 1980. Village doctors turned to private practice as community funding ceased, and the attention paid to rural public health declined. CDC relied on vertical programs, some of them successful (such as elimination of lymphatic filariasis and child immunisation), but others (such as control of schistosomiasis and tuberculosis) demonstrating only intermittent progress due to failed strategies or reliance on support by the poorest governments and health workers, who could not or would not collaborate. In addition, China’s laissez-faire approach to public health placed it at great risk, as evidenced by the outbreak in 2003 of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Since then, major changes to disease reporting, the priority given to CDC including through major new domestic resources and reform of China’s health system offer encouragement for CDC. While decentralized funding and varying quality diagnosis, reporting and

  15. Communicable disease control in China: From Mao to now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hipgrave

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s progress on communicable disease control (CDC in the 30 years after establishment of the People’s Republic in 1949 is widely regarded as remarkable. Life expectancy soared by around 30 years, infant mortality plummeted and smallpox, sexually transmitted diseases and many other infections were either eliminated or decreased massively in incidence, largely as a result of CDC. By the mid-1970s, China was already undergoing the epidemiologic transition, years ahead of other nations of similar economic status. These early successes can be attributed initially to population mobilization, mass campaigns and a focus on sanitation, hygiene, clean water and clean delivery, and occurred despite political instability and slow economic progress. The 10-year Cultural Revolution from 1966 brought many hardships, but also clinical care and continuing public health programs to the masses through community-funded medical schemes and the establishment of community-based health workers. These people-focused approaches broke down with China’s market reforms from 1980. Village doctors turned to private practice as community funding ceased, and the attention paid to rural public health declined. CDC relied on vertical programs, some of them successful (such as elimination of lymphatic filariasis and child immunisation, but others (such as control of schistosomiasis and tuberculosis demonstrating only intermittent progress due to failed strategies or reliance on support by the poorest governments and health workers, who could not or would not collaborate. In addition, China’s laissez-faire approach to public health placed it at great risk, as evidenced by the outbreak in 2003 of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Since then, major changes to disease reporting, the priority given to CDC including through major new domestic resources and reform of China’s health system offer encouragement for CDC. While decentralized funding and varying quality

  16. Development Communication Report. No. 47, Autumn 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development Communication Report, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This newsletter describes development projects that utilize varied media, including microcomputers, videotape, and print materials, and discusses development communications issues. Specific articles are as follows: "Microcomputers for Education in the Developing World" (Kurt D. Moses); "Social Marketing: Two Views, Two…

  17. Infantile refsum disease: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choksi, Vaishali; Hoeffner, Ellen; Karaarslan, Ercan; Yalcinkaya, Cengiz; Cakirer, Sinan

    2003-01-01

    Infantile Refsum disease is a rare inborn error of phytanic acid metabolism. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and frequently causes signs and symptoms in the neonate period. The only source of phytanic acid in humans is exogenous, from diet. We report the MR imaging findings in two cases of infantile Refsum disease and note the MR imaging changes that occurred over time because of further progression of the disease. The initial diagnosis in both patients was made on basis of history, clinical findings, and biochemical studies.

  18. Non-communicable diseases in emergencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demaio, Alessandro; Jamieson, Jennifer; Horn, Rebecca;

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have demonstrated the devastating health consequences of complex emergencies and natural disasters and thereby highlighted the importance of comprehensive and collaborative approaches to humanitarian responses and risk reduction. Simultaneously, noncommunicable diseases are now...... recognised as a real and growing threat to population health and development; a threat that is magnified by and during emergencies. Noncommunicable diseases, however, continue to receive little attention from humanitarian organisations in the acute phase of disaster and emergency response. This paper calls...... on all sectors to recognise and address the specific health challenges posed by noncommunicable diseases in emergencies and disaster situations. This publication aims to highlight the need for: • Increased research on morbidity and mortality patterns due to noncommunicable diseases during and following...

  19. National mortality burden due to communicable, non-communicable, and other diseases in Ethiopia, 1990-2015: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misganaw, Awoke; Haregu, Tilahun N; Deribe, Kebede; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Deribew, Amare; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Amare, Azmeraw T; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Gedefaw, Molla; Dessalegn, Muluken; Lakew, Yihunie; Bekele, Tolesa; Mohammed, Mesoud; Yirsaw, Biruck Desalegn; Damtew, Solomon Abrha; Krohn, Kristopher J; Achoki, Tom; Blore, Jed; Assefa, Yibeltal; Naghavi, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Ethiopia lacks a complete vital registration system that would assist in measuring disease burden and risk factors. We used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) estimates to describe the mortality burden from communicable, non-communicable, and other diseases in Ethiopia over the last 25 years. GBD 2015 mainly used cause of death ensemble modeling to measure causes of death by age, sex, and year for 195 countries. We report numbers of deaths and rates of years of life lost (YLL) for communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) disorders, non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and injuries with 95% uncertainty intervals (UI) for Ethiopia from 1990 to 2015. CMNN causes of death have declined by 65% in the last two-and-a-half decades. Injury-related causes of death have also decreased by 70%. Deaths due to NCDs declined by 37% during the same period. Ethiopia showed a faster decline in the burden of four out of the five leading causes of age-standardized premature mortality rates when compared to the overall sub-Saharan African region and the Eastern sub-Saharan African region: lower respiratory infections, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and diarrheal diseases; however, the same could not be said for ischemic heart disease and other NCDs. Non-communicable diseases, together, were the leading causes of age-standardized mortality rates, whereas CMNN diseases were leading causes of premature mortality in 2015. Although lower respiratory infections, tuberculosis, and diarrheal disease were the leading causes of age-standardized death rates, they showed major declines from 1990 to 2015. Neonatal encephalopathy, iron-deficiency anemia, protein-energy malnutrition, and preterm birth complications also showed more than a 50% reduction in burden. HIV/AIDS-related deaths have also decreased by 70% since 2005. Ischemic heart disease, hemorrhagic stroke, and ischemic stroke were among the top causes of premature mortality and age

  20. Communication partner training of enrolled nurses working in nursing homes with people with communication disorders caused by stroke or Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Karin; Forsgren, Emma; Hartelius, Lena; Saldert, Charlotta

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of a communication partner training programme directed to enrolled nurses working with people with communication disorders in nursing homes, using an individualised approach. Five dyads consisting of a person with stroke-induced aphasia (n = 4) or Parkinson's disease (PD) (n = 1) living in different nursing homes and his/her enrolled nurse participated in the study, which had a replicated single-subject design with multiple baselines across individuals. The main element of the intervention was supervised analysis of video-recorded natural interaction in everyday nursing situations and the formulation of individual goals to change particular communicative strategies. Outcome was measured via blinded assessments of filmed natural interaction obtained at baseline, intervention and follow-up and showed an increased use of the target communicative strategies. Subjective measures of goal attainment by the enrolled nurses were consistent with these results. Measures of perceived functional communication on behalf of the persons with communication disorders were mostly positive; four of five participants with communication disorders and two of five enrolled nurses reported improved functional communication after intervention. The use of an individualised communication partner training programme led to significant changes in natural interaction, which contributes importantly to a growing body of knowledge regarding communication partner training. Communication partner training can improve the communicative environment of people with communication disorders. For people with communication disorders who live in institutions, the main conversation partner is likely to be a professional caretaker. An individualised approach for communication partner training that focussed on specific communication patterns was successful in increasing the use of supportive strategies that enrolled nurses used in natural interaction with persons with communication disorders

  1. Communication in Organizations. Technical Report No. 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Lyman W.; Roberts, Karlene H.

    This review of research literature from 1963 to 1972 discusses implications of research for analysis of communication behavior in work organizations. The review is organized into four sections: contributions from organizational theory; research related to the interpersonal milieu; research related to the organizational milieu; and an examination…

  2. Managing the Classroom with Technology. On Progress Reports and Online Communications, and How To Manage the Two Different Communication Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprowicz, Tim

    2002-01-01

    Describes how one teacher bridged the communications gap among teachers, parents, and students through the use of technology in managing his classroom. Discusses progress reports and online communications and how to manage the two different communication techniques. (JOW)

  3. Research Report on China's Communications Industry Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Basic&Vslue-added Telecommunication Operators According to Article 8 of Regulations on Telecommunications of the People' s Republic of China, telecoms services in China are divided into basic telecoms services and value-added telecoms services. Basic telecoms services refer to the one supplying public network infrastructure, public data transmission and basic voice communications services. Value-added telecoms services refer to the one supplying telecoms and information servicesthrough public network infrastructure.

  4. Communicable diseases in complex emergencies: impact and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Máire A; Gayer, Michelle; Ryan, Michael J; Salama, Peter; Spiegel, Paul; Heymann, David L

    Communicable diseases, alone or in combination with malnutrition, account for most deaths in complex emergencies. Factors promoting disease transmission interact synergistically leading to high incidence rates of diarrhoea, respiratory infection, malaria, and measles. This excess morbidity and mortality is avoidable as effective interventions are available. Adequate shelter, water, food, and sanitation linked to effective case management, immunisation, health education, and disease surveillance are crucial. However, delivery mechanisms are often compromised by loss of health staff, damage to infrastructure, insecurity, and poor co-ordination. Although progress has been made in the control of specific communicable diseases in camp settings, complex emergencies affecting large geographical areas or entire countries pose a greater challenge. Available interventions need to be implemented more systematically in complex emergencies with higher levels of coordination between governments, UN agencies, and non-governmental organisations. In addition, further research is needed to adapt and simplify interventions, and to explore novel diagnostics, vaccines, and therapies.

  5. Non-communicable diseases – harnessing the current opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jane Brandt; Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll; Østergaard, Lise Rosendal

    2012-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) receive growing attention, which brings a unique opportunity to utilise solutions available to address them. These diseases are largely preventable; proven, cost-effective interventions are available; and when NCDs have emerged, means exist to treat them, prevent...... complications, and to improve quality of life. Yet, there is a lack in progress in responding effectively to NCDs, and the current discussion and research focus predominantly on challenges rather than the opportunities, which this paper outlines....

  6. Outbreaks: Sources of Epidemiological Knowledge in Communicable Disease Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.L.J.M. Mertens (Paulus Leonardus Johannes Marie)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPublic health has been defined as the science and art of disease prevention, prolonging life, and promoting health and well-being through organized community effort for the sanitation of the environment, the control of communicable infections, the organization of medical and nursing serv

  7. Outbreaks: Sources of Epidemiological Knowledge in Communicable Disease Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.L.J.M. Mertens (Paulus Leonardus Johannes Marie)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPublic health has been defined as the science and art of disease prevention, prolonging life, and promoting health and well-being through organized community effort for the sanitation of the environment, the control of communicable infections, the organization of medical and nursing

  8. Development of an observer rating scale for caregiver communication in persons with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christine L; Parker, Carlo

    2012-04-01

    There have been few reported studies of communication between spouses with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementia. An observer rating scale for verbal and nonverbal behavior, Verbal-Nonverbal Interaction Scale for Caregivers (VNVIS-CG), was developed to study caregiver communication in couples affected by AD. Preliminary psychometric testing showed that the VNVIS-CG evidenced good reliability and validity. Researchers observed both common caregiver communication strategies and novel strategies that have not been reported in the literature. In future studies, researchers can examine the relationship between caregiver communication and indicators of mental health. Everyday conversations provide fertile ground for nurses to influence family relationships. Nurses can teach caregivers to use strategies that promote engagement and avoid those that discourage participation.

  9. Functional communication ability in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Albuquerque M. de Carvalho

    Full Text Available Abstract Functional communication is crucial for independent and efficient communicative behavior in response to every day activities. In the course of dementia progression, cognitive losses may impair these abilities. For this reason, functional communication assessment should be part of a formal assessment to quantify and qualify the impact of deficiency on patients' lives. Objective: To compare functional communication abilities in fronto-temporal lobar degeneration (FLTD and Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods: Six AD patients (mean age: 82.50±2.66 years; mean education: 5.67±3.61 years, and eight FTLD patients (mean age: 57.13±9.63 years; mean education: 10.86±6.91 years had their close relatives answer the Functional Assessment of Communication Skills for Adults (Asha-facs . Statistical analyses correlated the performance on each of the Asha-facs domains (social communication, communication of basic needs; reading, writing, number concept and daily planning between both groups. Results: Analyses showed that functional communication was similar for AD and FTLD patients. Only two items had statistical difference, namely 'Comprehension of inference' (AD 6.7±1.33; FTLD 2.43±2.30, p=0.017 and 'capacity to make basic money transactions' (AD 2.17±2.04; FTLD 4.00±0.90, p=0.044. Comparison among the four domains' mean scores revealed no significant difference. Conclusion: The Asha-facs is a useful instrument to characterize functional communication abilities in both FTLD and AD. Nevertheless, the analysis presented for this sample showed that the Asha-facs could not discriminate which aspects of the FTLD and AD differed.

  10. Organelle communication: signaling crossroads between homeostasis and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Sagua, Roberto; Torrealba, Natalia; Paredes, Felipe; Morales, Pablo E; Pennanen, Christian; López-Crisosto, Camila; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Criollo, Alfredo; Chiong, Mario; Hill, Joseph A; Simmen, Thomas; Quest, Andrew F; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-05-01

    Cellular organelles do not function as isolated or static units, but rather form dynamic contacts between one another that can be modulated according to cellular needs. The physical interfaces between organelles are important for Ca2+ and lipid homeostasis, and serve as platforms for the control of many essential functions including metabolism, signaling, organelle integrity and execution of the apoptotic program. Emerging evidence also highlights the importance of organelle communication in disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension, cancer, skeletal and cardiac muscle dysfunction. Here, we provide an overview of the current literature on organelle communication and the link to human pathologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Epidemic parotiditis, a reportable disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boverhoff, J C; Baart, J A

    2013-01-01

    Three consecutive patients with an acute swelling of one of the cheeks, were diagnosed with epidemic parotiditis. The first phase of the diagnostic procedure for an acute cheek swelling is to eliminate the possibility of odontogenic causes. When odontogenic problems have been excluded, non-dentition-related causes may be considered. An acute, progressive swelling in the preauricular area can often be attributed to an inflammation of the parotid gland, but epidemic parotiditis should also be considered. Epidemic parotiditis, or mumps, is caused by the mumps virus. Contamination occurs aerogenically. In the Netherlands, mumps vaccine is an ingredient of the governmental combined mump-measles-rubella inoculation programme. However, in recent years several small-scale parotiditis epidemics have broken out, predominantly among young, inoculated adults. Oropharyngeal mucus and blood samples are needed to diagnose the disease. Each case of the disease should be reported to the community healthcare service.

  12. [Chronic non-communicable diseases in Brazil: priorities for disease management and research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Chor, Dóra; Aquino, Estela M L; Bensenor, Isabela M; Mill, José Geraldo; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Vigo, Alvaro; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2012-12-01

    Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases are the main source of disease burden in Brazil. In 2011, the Brazilian Ministry of Health launched the Strategic Plan of Action for Management of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases focusing on population-based interventions to manage cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory diseases mainly through fighting tobacco use, unhealthy diets, physical inactivity and the harmful use of alcohol. Although a significant number of scientific studies on chronic diseases and their risk factors have been undertaken in Brazil, few are of cohort design. In this context, the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a cohort study of 15,105 Brazilian public servants reflects the reality of high prevalences of diabetes, hypertension and the main chronic diseases risk factors. The diversity of information that the Study will produce can provide important input to better understand the causes of chronic diseases and to support public policies for fighting them.

  13. A new perspective on John Snow's communicable disease theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelstein, W

    1995-11-01

    When John Snow undertook the studies of the cholera epidemic of 1854 in London, he was testing his theory of communicable disease, which had been enunciated in an oration delivered at the 80th anniversary of the Medical Society of London. Snow had been elected orator of the year for 1853 and, according to his biographer, had spent the better part of a year in preparation. The oration was titled, "On Continuous Molecular Changes, More Particularly in Their Relation to Epidemic Diseases." Although the text of this oration is readily available in the 1936 Commonwealth Fund facsimile reprint of Snow's more famous cholera studies, few modern epidemiologists are familiar with the work. In it, Snow lays out a theory which includes recognition that for each communicable disease there is a distinct and specific cause, that the causal agent is a living organism which is stable over many generations of propagation, that infection is necessary for communication to occur, and that the quantity of infectious material transmitted is increased by multiplication after infection to produce disease manifestations. Although Snow's theory is similar to Jacob Henle's formulations of a decade earlier, it is more precise, more comprehensive, and more explicit. On the basis of this work alone, Snow deserves broader recognition than he has received.

  14. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 3 Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Bates, Lakesha D.; Nelson, Richard A.

    2004-01-01

    The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV), Orbital Space Plane, Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures. ECT was a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. RISM identified the three advance communication technologies investigated under ECT. These were Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi), Free Space Optics (FSO), and Ultra Wideband (UWB). Due to the report s size, it has been broken into three volumes: 1) Main Report 2) Appendices 3) UWB.

  15. Using Reporting in the Internal Communication Process of the Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Marian Iosif

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Internal communication can be regarded either as a subsistent process of the organization, or as a process helping to decode and more easily understand them. Organizations are based on the internal communication process, because without it, information, ideas could not be sent, the organization’s goals and values could not be built, and its organizational culture would simply not exist. The internal communication process is centered on sending ideas, information in the organization. This is directly proportional with the efficiency of the organization. Internal communication allows for the best decision to be taken, for information to be sent towards the interior of the company, towards the employees, but also has the purpose of strengthening the relations between persons. Internal communication has at its basis the verbal and non-verbal communication, but they have great disadvantages, because: verbal communication has losses of information, depends on the moment of transmission, but also on the receiver.Keywords: report, internal communication, neuro linguistic programming, company

  16. The Role of Technical Reports in Scienctific and Technical Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brearley, Neil

    1973-01-01

    During the past 30 years the technical report has developed into an important primary medium of communication in science and technology, to the extent that it is sometimes seen as a threat to primary journal publication. At the same time the (unclassified) report has been accused of not meeting the same standards of authority, scientific rigor,…

  17. A family living with Alzheimer's disease: The communicative challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Danielle

    2015-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease irrevocably challenges a person's capacity to communicate with others. Earlier research on these challenges focused on the language disorders associated with the condition and situated language deficit solely in the limitations of a person's cognitive and semantic impairments. This research falls short of gaining insight into the actual interactional experiences of a person with Alzheimer's and their family. Drawing on a UK data set of 70 telephone calls recorded over a two-and-a-half year period (2006-2008) between one elderly woman with Alzheimer's disease, and her daughter and son-in-law, this paper explores the role which communication (and its degeneration) plays in family relationships. Investigating these interactions, using a conversation analytic approach, reveals that there are clearly communicative difficulties, but closer inspection suggests that they arise due to the contingencies that are generated by the other's contributions in the interaction. That being so, this paper marks a departure from the traditional focus on language level analysis and the assumption that deficits are intrinsic to the individual with Alzheimer's, and instead focuses on the collaborative communicative challenges that arise in the interaction itself and which have a profound impact on people's lives and relationships.

  18. General practitioners role in the notification of communicable diseases - study in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauci, C; Gilles, H; O'Brien, S; Mamo, J; Calleja, N

    2007-11-01

    General practitioners (GPs) have an essential role in notification of communicable diseases. The main aim of the study described here was to assess the GPs' awareness of and attitudes towards the notification system in Malta, with special focus on infectious intestinal disease (IID). A questionnaire collecting demographic data, information on reporting practices, opinions on the existing notification system and suggestions for improvement was sent to 256 GPs working in either private or public health sector. In all, 150 GPs took part in the survey (response rate 58.6%). The responses revealed that Maltese GPs were aware of their obligations to notify communicable diseases but often did not report them, relying on the hospitals or laboratories to do so. The Disease Surveillance Unit (DSU) website and medical school training were the main sources of information on notification. Notification forms were obtained from health centres and usually kept at the place of work. Most GPs reported filling in the forms during the patients' visits. Private GPs tended to notify earlier than GPs working in public health centers. Among IID, food-borne illness was reported more frequently than person-to-person transmitted gastroenteritis and was considered to be of a higher priority with regard to public health importance (p<0.001). The survey highlighted also some areas for improvement, including need of feedback especially by direct communication or a newsletter.

  19. NNDSS - Table I. infrequently reported notifiable diseases

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table I. infrequently reported notifiable diseases - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected infrequently reported notifiable diseases (<1,000...

  20. NNDSS - Table I. infrequently reported notifiable diseases

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table I. infrequently reported notifiable diseases - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected†infrequently reported notifiable diseases...

  1. NNDSS - Table I. infrequently reported notifiable diseases

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table I. infrequently reported notifiable diseases - 2014.In this Table, provisional cases of selected infrequently reported notifiable diseases (<1,000...

  2. NNDSS - Table I. infrequently reported notifiable diseases

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table I. infrequently reported notifiable diseases - 2015. In this Table, provisional cases of selected infrequently reported notifiable diseases (<1,000...

  3. The heart-liver metabolic axis: defective communication exacerbates disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Kedryn K; Bookout, Angie L; Olson, Eric N

    2014-04-01

    The heart has been recognized as an endocrine organ for over 30 years (de Bold, 2011); however, little is known about how the heart communicates with other organs in the body, and even less is known about this process in the diseased heart. In this issue of EMBO Molecular Medicine, Magida and Leinwand (2014) introduce the concept that a primary genetic defect in the heart results in aberrant hepatic lipid metabolism, which consequently exacerbates hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). This study provides evidence in support of the hypothesis that crosstalk occurs between the heart and liver, and that this becomes disrupted in the diseased state.

  4. Addressing the growing burden of non–communicable disease by leveraging lessons from infectious disease management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Piot 1

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in decreasing morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases and poor maternal– and child–health low– and middle–income countries now face an additional burden with the inexorable rise of non–communicable diseases.

  5. Communication strategies employed by rare disease patient organizations in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Esparcia, Antonio; López-Villafranca, Paloma

    2016-08-01

    The current study focuses on communication strategies employed by rare disease patient organizations. The aims of these organizations are: educate and inform the public about rare diseases, raise awareness of the problems related to rare diseases, and achieve social legitimacy in order give visibility to their demands. We analyzed the portrayal of rare disease and patient organizations by Spain's major media organizations in terms of circulation and viewership - the press (El País, El Mundo, La Vanguardia,ABC and El Periódico), radio (CadenaSer, Onda Cero, Cope and RNE), and television (Telecinco, Antena 3, La 1, La Sexta, Cuatro) -between 2012 and 2014.We then carried out a descriptive analysis of communication activities performed via the World Wide Web and social networks by 143 national organizations. Finally, we conducted a telephone questionnaire of a representative sample of 90 organizations in order to explore the association between media presence and funding and public image. The triangulation of quantitative and qualitative methods allowed us to meet the study's objectives. Increased visibility of the organizations afforded by an increase in the coverage of the topic by the medialed to an increase in membership - but not in donations - and increased awareness of these diseases.

  6. Communicable disease control in England; recommendations from an American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detels, R

    1994-12-01

    The problems associated with the Wakefield salmonella and the Stafford Legionnaires' disease outbreaks and the recommendations of the Acheson Committee formed in response led to the creation of the position of Consultant in Communicable Disease Control (CCDC) within the District Health Authorities. The reality of the position as implemented differs from that envisaged by the Acheson Committee and has resulted in ambiguities about the role of the CsCDC, the source of their support, and the range of their responsibilities. This paper, by an American invited to review the position, outlines the history of the position, the current status of CsCDC, and the barriers to effective performance of the position. It ends with a series of recommendations for improving disease control within England by solidifying the position, establishing its role in disease control within the National Health Service and recommending an educational/training pathway to attract and prepare physicians for the position.

  7. Herd Immunity: A Realistic Goal for Elimination of Communicable Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of immunization programs are beyond prevention of specific diseases in individuals. Efficacious vaccine not only protects the immunized, but also extends their benefits to unimmunized individuals of the community through and #8220;herd protection and #8221; or and #8220;herd immunity and #8221;. Herd immunity is the basis on which all national immunization programs are designed. It is defined as the resistance of a group of people to an attack by a disease to which a large proportion of the members of the group are immune. The percentage of the population that must however be immunized depends on three factors: the infectivity of the disease, the vulnerability of the population, and environmental factors. The aim of herd immunity is to reduce effective reproduction rate to less than 1 for each disease thus barring the disease propagation in community. Herd immunity has been found to be effective in multiple respiratory and diarrheal diseases. To conclude, no vaccine offers complete protection, but the spread of disease from person-to-person is much higher in those who remain unvaccinated. Herd immunity can definitely protect the susceptible individuals from acquiring the infection if the numbers of immunized individual are above the threshold level. It is an achievable goal for majority of the communicable diseases and all efforts should be taken by the program managers to amplify it in the community. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(2.000: 187-188

  8. Australia's notifiable disease status, 2014: Annual report of the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    In 2014, 69 diseases and conditions were nationally notifiable in Australia. States and territories reported a total of 275,581 notifications of communicable diseases to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, an increase of 22% on the number of notifications in 2013. In 2014, the most frequently notified diseases were sexually transmissible infections (105,719 notifications, 38% of total notifications), vaccine preventable diseases (101,400 notifications, 37% of total notifications), and gastrointestinal diseases (40,367 notifications, 15% of total notifications). There were 17,411 notifications of bloodborne diseases; 8,125 notifications of vectorborne diseases; 1,942 notifications of other bacterial infections; 615 notifications of zoonoses and 2 notifications of quarantinable diseases.

  9. Effect of the vegetarian diet on non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Duo

    2014-01-30

    A vegetarian diet generally includes plenty of vegetables and fruits, which are rich in phytochemicals, antioxidants, fiber, magnesium, vitamins C and E, Fe³⁺, folic acid and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), and is low in cholesterol, total fat and saturated fatty acid, sodium, Fe²⁺, zinc, vitamin A, B₁₂ and D, and especially n-3 PUFA. Mortality from all-cause, ischemic heart disease, and circulatory and cerebrovascular diseases was significantly lower in vegetarians than in omnivorous populations. Compared with omnivores, the incidence of cancer and type 2 diabetes was also significantly lower in vegetarians. However, vegetarians have a number of increased risk factors for non-communicable diseases such as increased plasma homocysteine, mean platelet volume and platelet aggregability compared with omnivores, which are associated with low intake of vitamin B₁₂ and n-3 PUFA. Based on the present data, it would seem appropriate for vegetarians to carefully design their diet, specifically focusing on increasing their intake of vitamin B₁₂ and n-3 PUFA to further reduce already low mortality and morbidity from non-communicable diseases. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Physiotherapists` knowledge of the transmission and prevention of communicable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Grobler

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available With the world-wide increase of communicable diseases, adequate knowledge by health professionals of the transmission and prevention of these diseases is essential to ensure effective protection.  The aim of this study was to determine whether practising physiotherapists’ knowledge of the transmission and prevention of tuberculosis, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV/AIDS was adequate to ensure effective protection.A descriptive study was conducted.  One hundred and forty six practising physiotherapists in the Free State received questionnaires on which they had to indicate the relevant transmission and preventative measures for each disease. One hundred and three (70.5% questionnaires were returned.  Points were allocated for the knowledge of transmission and preventative measures.  The medians with respect to transmission were: tuberculosis 83%, hepatitis A 58%, hepatitis B 67%, hepatitis C 75% and HIV/AIDS 92%.  The medians with respect to preventative measures were: tuberculosis 57%, hepatitis A 58%, hepatitis B 77%, hepatitis C 67% and HIV/AIDS 71%.  The knowledge of transmission was better than the knowledge of preventative measures.  An increase in the knowledge of practising physiotherapists in the Free State is needed to ensure their maximal protection against communicable diseases.

  11. Assessment and seasonal variations of communicable diseases: 3 year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kalyani

    2016-04-01

    Results: Results showed that a total of 34,981 had been treated at the inpatient departments from the year 2011 to 2013. It was observed that communicable diseases constituted about 85% (30,082 of the total disease burden with viral infections being the commonest. Most of the diseases were observed to have a seasonal variation. The most common disease identified was viral fever 8713 (28.96%, secondly acute diarrheal diseases 7965(26.52% followed by enteric fever 2958 (9.83% and malaria 2443(8.12%. The least common were Rabies 80 (0.26 % and pertussis 37 (0.12%. Outbreaks of Measles and Diphtheria were also noted in this study. Conclusions: Many diseases have a seasonal variation and the burden of these diseases could be reduced if we device measures to detect the changes in their trend through the implementation of surveillance programs. The knowledge of the burden of these would also assist the health administrators in allocation of the resources. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(4.000: 1186-1192

  12. Reputation, relationships, risk communication, and the role of trust in the prevention and control of communicable disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Georgina; de Andrade, Marisa; MacDonald, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Population-level compliance with health protective behavioral advice to prevent and control communicable disease is essential to optimal effectiveness. Multiple factors affect perceptions of trustworthiness, and trust in advice providers is a significant predeterminant of compliance. While competency in assessment and management of communicable disease risks is critical, communications competency may be equally important. Organizational reputation, quality of stakeholder relationships and risk information provision strategies are trust moderating factors, whose impact is strongly influenced by the content, timing and coordination of communications. This article synthesizes the findings of 2 literature reviews on trust moderating communications and communicable disease prevention and control. We find a substantial evidence base on risk communication, but limited research on other trust building communications. We note that awareness of good practice historically has been limited although interest and the availability of supporting resources is growing. Good practice and policy elements are identified: recognition that crisis and risk communications require different strategies; preemptive dialogue and planning; evidence-based approaches to media relations and messaging; and building credibility for information sources. Priority areas for future research include process and cost-effectiveness evaluation and the development of frameworks that integrate communication and biomedical disease control and prevention functions, conceptually and at scale.

  13. The effect of depression on physician-patient communication among Hispanic end-stage renal disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Amelia Victoria; Siegel, Jason T; Alvaro, Eusebio M; O'Brien, Erin Keely

    2013-01-01

    End-stage renal disease is associated with increased level of depression. Depression is associated with a reduction in the ability of people to effectively communicate in interpersonal settings. The interaction between end-stage renal disease patients and their physicians has important implications for the course of the treatment of this disease; however, there is limited research examining the influence of depression on general patient-physician communication. This study examines the association between depression and physician-patient communication in a sample of Hispanic end-stage renal disease patients. Participating patients filled out the Beck Depression Inventory and self-reported their feelings about meeting with physicians. Patients then met with a physician, and a nurse practitioner observed the interaction. Results indicate that depression was negatively associated with patients' self-reported perceptions of their readiness for the appointment (r =-.20) and with self-reported communication efficacy (r =-.19). Moreover, the nurse practitioner rated patients with depression as being significantly less likely (a) to ask for clarification (r =-.40), (b) to be engaged in the conversation (r =-.46), and (c) to be forthcoming with the physician (r =-.37). Results of this study have significant implications for communication between physicians and end-stage renal disease patients and for the influence of depression on patient-physician communication.

  14. Report: Genetics of complex diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOTULSKY Arno G.

    2006-01-01

    Approaches to the study of the genetic basis of common complex diseases and their clinical applications are considered. Monogenic Mendelian inheritance in such conditions is infrequent but its elucidation may help to detect pathogenic mechanisms in the more common variety of complex diseases. Involvement by multiple genes in complex diseases usually occurs but the isolation and identification of specific genes so far has been exceptional. The role of common polymorphisms as indicators of disease risk in various studies is discussed.

  15. A Nephrology Fellows' Communication Skills Course: An Educational Quality Improvement Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robert A; Jackson, Vicki A; Norwich, Diana; Schell, Jane O; Schaefer, Kristen; Ship, Amy N; Sullivan, Amy M

    2016-08-01

    Nephrology fellows need expertise navigating challenging conversations with patients throughout the course of advanced kidney disease. However, evidence shows that nephrologists receive inadequate training in this area. This study assessed the effectiveness of an educational quality improvement intervention designed to enhance fellows' communication with patients who have advanced kidney disease. Quality improvement project. Full-day annual workshops (2013-2014) using didactics, discussion, and practice with simulated patients. Content focused on delivering bad news, acknowledging emotion, discussing care goals in dialysis decision making when prognosis is uncertain, and addressing dialysis therapy withdrawal and end of life. Participants were first-year nephrology fellows from 2 Harvard-affiliated training programs (N=26). Study assessed the effectiveness of an intervention designed to enhance fellows' communication skills. Primary outcomes were changes in self-reported patient communication skills, attitudes, and behaviors related to discussing disease progression, prognostic uncertainty, dialysis therapy withdrawal, treatments not indicated, and end of life; responding to emotion; eliciting patient goals and values; and incorporating patient goals into recommendations. Surveys measured prior training, pre- and postcourse perceived changes in skills and values, and reported longer term (3-month) changes in communication behaviors, using both closed- and open-ended items. Response rates were 100% (pre- and postsurveys) and 68% (follow-up). Participants reported improvement in all domains, with an overall mean increase of 1.1 (summed average scores: precourse, 2.8; postcourse, 3.9 [1-5 scale; 5 = "extremely well prepared"]; Pskills taught, such as "Ask-Tell-Ask" and using open-ended questions. Self-reported data may overestimate actual changes; small sample size and the programs' affiliation with a single medical school may limit generalizability. A day

  16. Progress Report on Alzheimer Disease: Volume III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Aging (DHHS/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This report summarizes advances in the understanding of Alzheimer's disease, the major cause of mental disability among older Americans. The demography of the disease is discussed, noting that approximately 2.5 million American adults are afflicted with the disease and that the large increase in the number of Alzheimer's disease patients is due to…

  17. Gender and communication policy in Asia. Special report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, H

    1997-01-01

    This report was prepared as background information for a regional conference of the World Association for Christian Communication. It provides information on gender issues related to communication structures in Australia, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mongolia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. For each country, a brief description of the policy environment is followed by: 1) a summary of pertinent legislation, policies, and self-regulation efforts; and 2) a discussion of the role of existing mass media councils and monitoring organizations.

  18. FY16 Analysis report: Financial systems dependency on communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyeler, Walter E.

    2017-03-01

    Within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Office of Cyber and Infrastructure Analysis (OCIA)'s National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) develops capabilities to support the DHS mission and the resilience of the Nation’s critical infrastructure. At Sandia National Laboratories, under DHS/OCIA direction, NISAC is developing models of financial sector dependence on communications. This capability is designed to improve DHS's ability to assess potential impacts of communication disruptions to major financial services and the effectiveness of possible mitigations. This report summarizes findings and recommendations from the application of that capability as part of the FY2016 NISAC program plan.

  19. Information and communication technology in disease surveillance, India: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Sampath K

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract India has made appreciable progress and continues to demonstrate a strong commitment for establishing and operating a disease surveillance programme responsive to the requirements of the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]. Within five years of its launch, India has effectively used modern information and communication technology for collection, storage, transmission and management of data related to disease surveillance and effective response. Terrestrial and/or satellite based linkages are being established within all states, districts, state-run medical colleges, infectious disease hospitals, and public health laboratories. This network enables speedy data transfer, video conferencing, training and e-learning for outbreaks and programme monitoring. A 24x7 call centre is in operation to receive disease alerts. To complement these efforts, a media scanning and verification cell functions to receive reports of early warning signals. During the 2009 H1N1 outbreak, the usefulness of the information and communication technology (ICT network was well appreciated. India is using ICT as part of its Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP to help overcome the challenges in further expansion in hard-to-reach populations, to increase the involvement of the private sector, and to increase the use of other modes of communication like e-mail and voicemail.

  20. Information and communication technology in disease surveillance, India: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Lalit; Krishnan, Sampath K

    2010-12-03

    India has made appreciable progress and continues to demonstrate a strong commitment for establishing and operating a disease surveillance programme responsive to the requirements of the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]). Within five years of its launch, India has effectively used modern information and communication technology for collection, storage, transmission and management of data related to disease surveillance and effective response. Terrestrial and/or satellite based linkages are being established within all states, districts, state-run medical colleges, infectious disease hospitals, and public health laboratories. This network enables speedy data transfer, video conferencing, training and e-learning for outbreaks and programme monitoring. A 24x7 call centre is in operation to receive disease alerts. To complement these efforts, a media scanning and verification cell functions to receive reports of early warning signals. During the 2009 H1N1 outbreak, the usefulness of the information and communication technology (ICT) network was well appreciated. India is using ICT as part of its Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP) to help overcome the challenges in further expansion in hard-to-reach populations, to increase the involvement of the private sector, and to increase the use of other modes of communication like e-mail and voicemail.

  1. The visibility of non-communicable diseases in northern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, Susan Reynolds; Park, Sung-Joon; Odong, George;

    2015-01-01

    Background : WHO and Uganda’s Ministry of Health emphasize the need to address the growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Treatment for these conditions is urgent in northern Uganda where war has negatively affected both health and the public health care system. Objectives : We aimed......, diabetes, depression, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We checked the availability of diagnostic instruments and medicines, and interviewed health workers. Results : The four conditions were rarely diagnosed in the outpatient population. Hypertension was the most common, but still constituted...

  2. Refuge Disease Report 1978-79

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Wildlife Disease Reports (mostly focused on birds) include information on distribution and summaries of disease pickups on refuges, and sometimes necropsy results.

  3. Disease Loss Report, 1986-87

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Wildlife Disease Reports (mostly focused on birds) include information on distribution and summaries of disease pickups on refuges, and sometimes necropsy results.

  4. Disease Loss Report, 1987-88

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Wildlife Disease Reports (mostly focused on birds) include information on distribution and summaries of disease pickups on refuges, and sometimes necropsy results.

  5. Disease Loss Report 1997-1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Wildlife Disease Reports (mostly focused on birds) include information on distribution and summaries of disease pickups on refuges, and sometimes necropsy results.

  6. Disease Loss Report, 1983-84

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Wildlife Disease Reports (mostly focused on birds) include information on distribution and summaries of disease pickups on refuges, and sometimes necropsy results.

  7. Disease Loss Report 1990-91

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Wildlife Disease Reports (mostly focused on birds) include information on distribution and summaries of disease pickups on refuges, and sometimes necropsy results.

  8. Disease Loss Report 1993-1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Wildlife Disease Reports (mostly focused on birds) include information on distribution and summaries of disease pickups on refuges, and sometimes necropsy results.

  9. Disease Loss Report 1994-1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Wildlife Disease Reports (mostly focused on birds) include information on distribution and summaries of disease pickups on refuges, and sometimes necropsy results.

  10. Pompe disease: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Çim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pompe disease is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, and is usually observed in the children of asymptomatic carriers. Pompe disease, known as Glycogen Storage Disorder type II, is caused by pathogenic mutations in the gene encoding lysosomal acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA. There are three types of Pompe disease: classical infantile form, non-classical infantile form and late-onset Pompe disease. Age of onset and severity of the disease determine the type of Pompe disease. We aimed to identify a mutation in GAA gene in parents who were first cousins and their baby girl was passed away due to the Pompe disease. The baby girl had reduced acid alpha-glucosidase activity, but genetic analysis had not been performed. Mutation analysis of parents was performed using high-throughput DNA sequencing method. Heterozygous mutation of c.896 T>C in exon 5 was found in parents, and prenatal diagnosis was performed for their next pregnancy. In conclusion, c.896 T>C substitution in GAA gene may lead to the severe type of Pompe disease. Using a relatively fast and reliable molecular genetic analysis method to confirm the early diagnosis of the Pompe disease is important for the management of the disease.

  11. Using Talking Mats to Support Communication in Persons with Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferm, Ulrika; Sahlin, Anna; Sundin, Linda; Hartelius, Lena

    2010-01-01

    Background: Many individuals with Huntington's disease experience reduced functioning in cognition, language and communication. Talking Mats is a visually based low technological augmentative communication framework that supports communication in people with different cognitive and communicative disabilities. Aims: To evaluate Talking Mats as a…

  12. Advancing digital methods in the fight against communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot-Couture, Guillaume; Seaman, Vincent Y; Wenger, Jay; Moonen, Bruno; Magill, Alan

    2015-03-01

    Important advances are being made in the fight against communicable diseases by using new digital tools. While they can be a challenge to deploy at-scale, GPS-enabled smartphones, electronic dashboards and computer models have multiple benefits. They can facilitate program operations, lead to new insights about the disease transmission and support strategic planning. Today, tools such as these are used to vaccinate more children against polio in Nigeria, reduce the malaria burden in Zambia and help predict the spread of the Ebola epidemic in West Africa. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Event communication in a regional disease surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loschen, Wayne; Coberly, Jacqueline; Sniegoski, Carol; Holtry, Rekha; Sikes, Marvin; Happel Lewis, Sheryl

    2007-10-11

    When real-time disease surveillance is practiced in neighboring states within a region, public health users may benefit from easily sharing their concerns and findings regarding potential health threats. To better understand the need for this capability, an event communications component (ECC) was added to the National Capital Region Disease Surveillance System, an operational biosurveillance system employed in the District of Columbia and in surrounding Maryland and Virginia counties. Through usage analysis and user survey methods, we assessed the value of the enhanced system in daily operational use and during two simulated exercises. Results suggest that the system has utility for regular users of the system as well as suggesting several refinements for future implementations.

  14. Agricultural policy, food policy, and communicable disease policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Wyn

    2012-12-01

    Food and agricultural policy is an essential element of a communicable disease policy. The European Union has developed a more systematic and broadly based interest in questions of food safety and animal health and welfare linked to modernization of the Common Agricultural Policy, reflected in a new treaty obligation on animal welfare. Following the bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis, moves were made to create a European competency, but implementation and enforcement resources reside with the member states. The European Animal Health Strategy is meant to lead to an EU animal health law, but this has already been constrained by fiscal austerity. The development of such a law may lead to a lowest common denominator formula that does little to enhance consumer protection or improve animal welfare. This is an inherent risk with top-down forms of Europeanization; more attention should be paid to lessons to be learned from bottom-up initiatives of the type used to counteract the bovine diarrhea virus. There will always be a tension among what is good policy for reducing the incidence of communicable disease, policy that is popular with EU citizens, and policy that is acceptable to member states.

  15. [Wilson's disease - a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowska, Kornelia; Skrzypek, Julita; Chabik, Grzegorz; Członkowska, Anna; Zaborowska, Marzena; Wawrzyniak, Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    Wilson's disease (WD) or hepatolenticular degeneration, is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by mutations in the Wilson disease protein (ATP7B) gene. It is characterized by impaired copper metabolism leading to its accumulation in various tissues and organs, including the liver and central nervous system, this results in the development of characteristic liver disease and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Liver symptoms usually appear during first three decades of life, while psychiatric symptoms are observed in people who are in their twenties or older. WD is one of few genetic diseases that can be effectively treated with pharmacotherapy. However, some cases, especially diagnosed late in the course of the disease, may not respond well to treatment. Here we present a case of a 22-year-old male with neurological, psychiatric and liver disease symptoms as an example of diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in patients. Wilson's disease (WD) should be considered in all patients presenting with neurological, psychiatric and liver disease symptoms especially those of young age.

  16. Communicable diseases as health risks at mass gatherings other than Hajj: what is the evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Gautret

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mass gatherings are characterized by the concentration of people temporally and spatially, and may lead to the emergence of infectious diseases due to enhanced transmission between attendees. This is well-demonstrated in the context of the Hajj and Umrah pilgrimages in Saudi Arabia. The goal of this review was to present the available evidence on outbreaks associated with a variety of pathogens, or also the lack thereof, as assessed by thorough surveillance at any mass gatherings with the exception of those in Saudi Arabia. A systematic search for relevant articles in the literature was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Sixty-eight studies were identified. Although outbreaks have not been reported frequently in or after mass gatherings outside the Hajj and Umrah pilgrimages, they have sometimes occurred at Muslim, Christian, and Hindu religious events, at sports events, and at large-scale open air festivals. In this review it was found that the most common outbreaks at these mass gatherings involved vaccine preventable diseases, mainly measles and influenza, but also mumps and hepatitis A. Meningococcal disease has rarely been recorded. Additionally it was found that the transmission of various communicable diseases that may not be prevented by vaccination has been recorded in association with mass gatherings. These were mainly gastrointestinal infections, caused by a variety of pathogens. It was also noted that some outbreaks occurring at mass gatherings have resulted in the international spread of communicable diseases.

  17. Presymptomatic risk assessment for chronic non-communicable diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badri Padhukasahasram

    Full Text Available The prevalence of common chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCDs far overshadows the prevalence of both monogenic and infectious diseases combined. All CNCDs, also called complex genetic diseases, have a heritable genetic component that can be used for pre-symptomatic risk assessment. Common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that tag risk haplotypes across the genome currently account for a non-trivial portion of the germ-line genetic risk and we will likely continue to identify the remaining missing heritability in the form of rare variants, copy number variants and epigenetic modifications. Here, we describe a novel measure for calculating the lifetime risk of a disease, called the genetic composite index (GCI, and demonstrate its predictive value as a clinical classifier. The GCI only considers summary statistics of the effects of genetic variation and hence does not require the results of large-scale studies simultaneously assessing multiple risk factors. Combining GCI scores with environmental risk information provides an additional tool for clinical decision-making. The GCI can be populated with heritable risk information of any type, and thus represents a framework for CNCD pre-symptomatic risk assessment that can be populated as additional risk information is identified through next-generation technologies.

  18. Steal phenomenon through the anterior communicating artery in Moyamoya disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Soo Mee [Ewha Womans University, Department of Radiology, Mok-dong Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Chae, Eun Jin; Kim, Min Yeong; Kim, Sang Joon; Choi, Choong Gon; Pyun, Hae Wook; Suh, Dae Chul [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Jae Kyun [Seoul Veterans Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Ahn, Jae Sung; Ra, Young-Shin [University of Ulsan, Asan Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Jong-Uk; Hahm, Kyung Don [University of Ulsan, Asan Medical Center, Department of Anesthesiology, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2007-01-15

    Branch occlusion of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is regarded as a part of Moyamoya disease. The purpose of this study is to define the ACA steal phenomenon (SP) in Moyamoya disease and to evaluate temporal changes according to the disease progression. From 139 Moyamoya patients we defined ACASP as narrowing of the ipsilateral A1-2 junction while preserving the anterior communicating artery and supplying the contralateral ACA cortical branches with the development of leptomeningeal collaterals by the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery into the hypoperfused ipsilateral ACA territory. Direction of the steal related to the stage in both hemispheres by Suzuki classification was statistically analyzed using the binomial test based on binomial distribution. Follow-ups of ACASP were evaluated in five patients. We identified ACASP in 13 (9%) patients (male:female=7:6, mean age 18 years, range: 2-58 years) of the 139 study patients. The presenting pattern was ischemic in 12 and hemorrhagic in one. The direction of SP occurred from the hemisphere in the lower to the higher stage of Suzuki classification (two-tail P value=0.0002). After revascularization surgery, ACASP disappeared or diminished. ACASP may occur in bilaterally different stages of Moyamoya disease as a transient self-adaptive process. It regresses after revascularization surgery. (orig.)

  19. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe, First International Computers Communications Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Hong Kong Telephone has employed fibre optic technology in its transmission network since 1981. Fibre optic transmission systems are used to...leased datalines. The potentials of fibre optic systems are large, and in this paper, some examples will be given to illustrate how the attributes of... fibre optic systems are exploited in Hong Kong Telephone. This report of Science & Technology Europe, First International Computers Communications Conference.

  20. Communications and control for electric power systems: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, H.

    1998-04-01

    This report is a summary of some of the work done on the Communications and Control project, with particular emphasis on the achievements during the years 1986--1996. During those years, the project moved away from concern with dispersed storage and generation and its impact on power system operation (the team was responsible for studies in this area, and for making a power system simulator that included DSG), and became involved in more concrete work aimed at applying high-tech solutions to problems of power system communications and control. This report covers work done at JPL on the following topics: (1) the measurement of electric and magnetic fields, both ac and dc; (2) the use of optical power to supply low-power electronics; (3) the design of a fault-tolerant communication system designed for distribution automation; and (4) a digital phase locked loop that allows the use of low-power transmitting electronics to recreate a good-quality signal at the receiver. In a report of this kind, only the results and highlights of the work are described.

  1. Assessing clarity of message communication for mandated USEPA drinking water quality reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phetxumphou, Katherine; Roy, Siddhartha; Davy, Brenda M; Estabrooks, Paul A; You, Wen; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2016-04-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency mandates that community water systems (CWSs), or drinking water utilities, provide annual consumer confidence reports (CCRs) reporting on water quality, compliance with regulations, source water, and consumer education. While certain report formats are prescribed, there are no criteria ensuring that consumers understand messages in these reports. To assess clarity of message, trained raters evaluated a national sample of 30 CCRs using the Centers for Disease Control Clear Communication Index (Index) indices: (1) Main Message/Call to Action; (2) Language; (3) Information Design; (4) State of the Science; (5) Behavioral Recommendations; (6) Numbers; and (7) Risk. Communication materials are considered qualifying if they achieve a 90% Index score. Overall mean score across CCRs was 50 ± 14% and none scored 90% or higher. CCRs did not differ significantly by water system size. State of the Science (3 ± 15%) and Behavioral Recommendations (77 ± 36%) indices were the lowest and highest, respectively. Only 63% of CCRs explicitly stated if the water was safe to drink according to federal and state standards and regulations. None of the CCRs had passing Index scores, signaling that CWSs are not effectively communicating with their consumers; thus, the Index can serve as an evaluation tool for CCR effectiveness and a guide to improve water quality communications.

  2. A Survey of Earthquake-Affected Region and Controlling Actions to Communicable and Non-Communicable Diseases in Azerbaijan Earthquake, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad koosha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and Objectives : There are always changes in our planet that can threat human life and earthquake is one of them and has an increasing importance. This study aims to survey earthquake-affected region and controlling actions to communicable and non-communicable diseases in Azerbaijan Earthquake, 2012. Material and Methods : This is a cross-sectional study that its data were collected by East Azerbaijan province health center personnel and were analyzed and reported by current research team on the disease categories and relevant, controlling activities. In addition, the researchers assessed strengths and weaknesses of the teams’ performance from their members’ perspectives by interview. Results : The findings indicate that status of environmental health and psychological disorders is suitable and status of communicable and non-communicable diseases is acceptable. The strengths points of health teams included rapid assessment and on-time response to earthquake and constant monitoring of diseases and weaknesses were lack of coordination and organizing in disaster management Conclusion : This study showed that implemented activities for disease control and preventing epidemics had enough effectiveness and this experience can be used as a suitable model for disaster management in similar situations.

  3. Business Reporting and Communications: Reaching the $20 Trillion Target--a Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, M.

    2007-07-01

    Without immediate reporting and communications reform in the energy sector, business may fail to achieve the US$20 trillion investment required to meet the world's energy demand by 2030. This KPMG paper argues that a new business-reporting and communications framework is urgently required that enables investors to award capital to competing energy projects according to merit. The current reporting and communications framework does not paint a clear picture of strategy, performance, value and prospects. A new strategy would ensure improved stakeholder understanding of business strategies and better decision-making insights into performance drivers, risks and outlook. These should be conveyed through a portfolio of communications, including a flagship business performance report and special purpose reports tailored to meet stakeholders' needs. The paper also analyzes the roles and responsibilities of key players in changing the investment climate. The time for reform is ripe: the accounting profession is calling for reform, and many leading energy-sector businesses are already implementing new approaches to business reporting. By implementing a reporting and communications framework that helps investors differentiate competing energy propositions, the sector will meet one precondition to raising the $20 trillion investment. (auth)

  4. Preventing & Managing Communicable Diseases. Training Guides for the Head Start Learning Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman (James) Associates, San Francisco, CA.

    This training guide is intended to improve the skills of Head Start staff and families in dealing with communicable diseases. The guide addresses attitudes toward communicable diseases, how to reduce the spread of disease, and how to recognize and manage illnesses more effectively. The guide consists of six working sections. The first three are…

  5. Helminth infections on Flores Island, Indonesia : associations with communicable and non-communicable diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiria, Aprilianto Eddy

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we reported our investigations of the relationship between soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and a number of outcomes, in particular malaria, insulin resistance (a marker for type-2 diabetes (T2D)) and atherosclerosis (a marker for cardiovascular diseases (CVD)) on Flores island, Indon

  6. Targeting mitochondrial phenotypes for non-communicable diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengtang Qi; Shuzhe Ding

    2016-01-01

    The concept that“Exercise is Medicine”has been challenged by the rising prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs). This is partly due to the fact that the underlying mechanisms of how exercise influences energy homeostasis and counteracts high-fat diets and physical inactivity is complex and remains relatively poorly understood on a molecular level. In addition to genetic polymorphisms in humans that lead to gross variations in responsiveness to exercise, adaptation in mitochondrial networks is central to physical activity, inactivity, and diet. To harness the benefits of exercise for NCDs, much work still needs to be done to improve health effectively on a societal level such as developing personalized exercise interventions aided by advances in high-throughput genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. We propose that understanding the mitochondrial phenotype according to the molecular information of genotypes, lifestyles, and exercise responsiveness in individuals will optimize exercise effects for prevention of NCDs.

  7. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 2 Report. Volume 1; Main Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Chiodini, Robert; Nelson, Richard A.; Huang, PoTien; Kruhm, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV), Orbital Space Plane, Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures. ECT was a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. RISM identified the three advance communication technologies investigated under ECT. These were Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi), Free Space Optics (FSO), and Ultra Wideband (UWB). Due to the report s size, it has been broken into three volumes: 1) Main Report 2) Appendices 3) UWB.

  8. Ethnic and gender differentials in non-communicable diseases and self-rated health in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane K L Teh

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This paper examines the ethnic and gender differentials in high blood pressure (HBP, diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD, arthritis and asthma among older people in Malaysia, and how these diseases along with other factors affect self-rated health. Differentials in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases among older people are examined in the context of socio-cultural perspectives in multi-ethnic Malaysia. METHODS: Data for this paper are obtained from the 2004 Malaysian Population and Family Survey. The survey covered a nationally representative sample of 3,406 persons aged 50 and over, comprising three main ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians and all other indigenous groups. Bivariate analyses and hierarchical logistic regression were used in the analyses. RESULTS: Arthritis was the most common non-communicable disease (NCD, followed by HBP, diabetes, asthma and CHD. Older females were more likely than males to have arthritis and HBP, but males were more likely to have asthma. Diabetes and CHD were most prevalent among Indians, while arthritis and HBP were most prevalent among the Indigenous groups. Older people were more likely to report poor health if they suffered from NCD, especially CHD. Controlling for socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors, Chinese were least likely to report poor health, whereas Indians and Indigenous people were more likely to do so. Chinese that had HBP were more likely to report poor health compared to other ethnic groups with the same disease. Among those with arthritis, Indians were more likely to report poor health. CONCLUSION: Perceived health status and prevalence of arthritis, HBP, diabetes, asthma and CHD varied widely across ethnic groups. Promotion of healthy lifestyle, early detection and timely intervention of NCDs affecting different ethnic groups and gender with socio-cultural orientations would go a long way in alleviating the debilitating effects of the common NCDs among

  9. Ethnic and gender differentials in non-communicable diseases and self-rated health in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Jane K L; Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the ethnic and gender differentials in high blood pressure (HBP), diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), arthritis and asthma among older people in Malaysia, and how these diseases along with other factors affect self-rated health. Differentials in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases among older people are examined in the context of socio-cultural perspectives in multi-ethnic Malaysia. Data for this paper are obtained from the 2004 Malaysian Population and Family Survey. The survey covered a nationally representative sample of 3,406 persons aged 50 and over, comprising three main ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians) and all other indigenous groups. Bivariate analyses and hierarchical logistic regression were used in the analyses. Arthritis was the most common non-communicable disease (NCD), followed by HBP, diabetes, asthma and CHD. Older females were more likely than males to have arthritis and HBP, but males were more likely to have asthma. Diabetes and CHD were most prevalent among Indians, while arthritis and HBP were most prevalent among the Indigenous groups. Older people were more likely to report poor health if they suffered from NCD, especially CHD. Controlling for socio-economic, health and lifestyle factors, Chinese were least likely to report poor health, whereas Indians and Indigenous people were more likely to do so. Chinese that had HBP were more likely to report poor health compared to other ethnic groups with the same disease. Among those with arthritis, Indians were more likely to report poor health. Perceived health status and prevalence of arthritis, HBP, diabetes, asthma and CHD varied widely across ethnic groups. Promotion of healthy lifestyle, early detection and timely intervention of NCDs affecting different ethnic groups and gender with socio-cultural orientations would go a long way in alleviating the debilitating effects of the common NCDs among older people.

  10. Mandatory reporting of occupational diseases by clinicians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, E.; Seligman, P.J. (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (USA)); Chorba, T.L.; Safford, S.K.; Drachman, J.G. (Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA (USA)); Hull, H.R. (New Mexico Health and Environment Department, Santa Fe (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Occupational disease surveillance is a critical step in the prevention of work-related injury and illness. Case reporting by health care providers to public health authorities is one way of identifying sources of exposure toward which control measures can be directed. Most health care providers are familiar with the existence of reporting requirements for infectious diseases; however, less attention has been paid by the medical community to recognizing and reporting occupationally related conditions. The Department of labor estimated that in 1978 approximately 1.9 million people were severely or partially disabled from occupationally related diseases, at an annual cost of $11.4 billion in lost wages alone.

  11. Disease, communication, and the ethics of (in) visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak-Franger, Monika Monika; Holmes, Martha Stoddard

    2014-12-01

    As the recent Ebola outbreak demonstrates, visibility is central to the shaping of political, medical, and socioeconomic decisions. The symposium in this issue of the Journal of Bioethical Inquiry explores the uneasy relationship between the necessity of making diseases visible, the mechanisms of legal and visual censorship, and the overall ethics of viewing and spectatorship, including the effects of media visibility on the perception of particular "marked" bodies. Scholarship across the disciplines of communication, anthropology, gender studies, and visual studies, as well as a photographer's visual essay and memorial reflection, throw light on various strategies of visualization and (de)legitimation and link these to broader socioeconomic concerns. Questions of the ethics of spectatorship, such as how to evoke empathy in the representation of individuals' suffering without perpetuating social and economic inequalities, are explored in individual, (trans-)national, and global contexts, demonstrating how disease (in)visibility intersects with a complex nexus of health, sexuality, and global/national politics. A sensible management of visibility--an "ecology of the visible"--can be productive of more viable ways of individual and collective engagement with those who suffer.

  12. Inequalities in non-communicable diseases and effective responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cesare, Mariachiara; Khang, Young-Ho; Asaria, Perviz; Blakely, Tony; Cowan, Melanie J; Farzadfar, Farshad; Guerrero, Ramiro; Ikeda, Nayu; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Msyamboza, Kelias P; Oum, Sophal; Lynch, John W; Marmot, Michael G; Ezzati, Majid

    2013-02-16

    In most countries, people who have a low socioeconomic status and those who live in poor or marginalised communities have a higher risk of dying from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) than do more advantaged groups and communities. Smoking rates, blood pressure, and several other NCD risk factors are often higher in groups with low socioeconomic status than in those with high socioeconomic status; the social gradient also depends on the country's stage of economic development, cultural factors, and social and health policies. Social inequalities in risk factors account for more than half of inequalities in major NCDs, especially for cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. People in low-income countries and those with low socioeconomic status also have worse access to health care for timely diagnosis and treatment of NCDs than do those in high-income countries or those with higher socioeconomic status. Reduction of NCDs in disadvantaged groups is necessary to achieve substantial decreases in the total NCD burden, making them mutually reinforcing priorities. Effective actions to reduce NCD inequalities include equitable early childhood development programmes and education; removal of barriers to secure employment in disadvantaged groups; comprehensive strategies for tobacco and alcohol control and for dietary salt reduction that target low socioeconomic status groups; universal, financially and physically accessible, high-quality primary care for delivery of preventive interventions and for early detection and treatment of NCDs; and universal insurance and other mechanisms to remove financial barriers to health care.

  13. Communicative competence in Alzheimer's disease: metaphor and sarcasm comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Yohko; Yamaguchi, Tomoharu; Koeda, Tatsuya; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the deficits of metaphor and sarcasm comprehension in Alzheimer's disease (AD), as pragmatic interpretation such as metaphor and sarcasm comprehension is required in social communication. A total of 31 young normal controls, 104 aged normal controls (ANC), 42 patients with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and 30 patients with mild AD were evaluated by Metaphoric and Sarcastic Scenario Test, which consists of 5 metaphoric and 5 sarcastic questions with 5 answer choices. Scores were analyzed using the repeated measures analysis of variance (metaphor/sarcasm vs 4 participant groups). Sarcasm comprehension, which requires second-order Theory of Mind (ToM), started to deteriorate in ANC, and metaphor comprehension, which requires first-order ToM, started to deteriorate in aMCI, and both deteriorated as disease progressed. Literal interpretation of pragmatic language is characteristic in patients with mild AD. Such misinterpretation would result in social miscommunication, even if they still retained semantic-lexical competence.

  14. An Adaptation of the Teaching Reference Community Developed by the National Communicable Disease Center. Dixon, Tiller County, U. S. A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocks, Barry

    Demographic and other descriptive data on a hypothetical metropolitan area (Dixon City, Tiller County) are presented in the report, which is intended as a health study and training model. Most of the statistical and descriptive data are drawn from a health training model developed by the Communicable Disease Center, U. S. Department of Health,…

  15. Ruptured aneurysm of the PICA communicating artery: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Daisuke; Kuroki, Takao; Andoh, Shunpei; Nemoto, Masaaki; Sugo, Nobuo; Nagao, Takeki

    2014-01-01

    A 47-year-old man presented with a rare aneurysm arising from the posterior inferior cerebellar artery communicating artery (PICA com A), manifesting as subarachnoid with intraventricular hemorrhage. Cerebral angiography showed a defect of the left PICA, and the left PICA region was supplied by a communicating artery formed by the fusion of branches from the right PICA and right vertebral artery. Aneurysms arose in the communicating artery, and a small, unruptured fusiform aneurysm was observed adjacent to a ruptured aneurysm. Trapping was performed for the 2 aneurysms with occipital artery (OA)-PICA bypass. Six cases of aneurysms occurring in this vessel including ours have been reported, and hemodynamic factors and congenital fragility of the arterial wall have been suggested as causative factors. Ours is the first case in which a ruptured aneurysm of this vessel was treated surgically with concurrent vascular reconstruction. If the aneurysm has a shape that is difficult to clip, the affected vessel is difficult to preserve, and collateral blood flow to the affected PICA region is considered insufficient, trapping with OA-PICA bypass is recommended.

  16. Guide to preparing SAND reports and other communication products.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-09-01

    This guide describes the R&A process, Common Look and Feel requirements, and preparation and publishing procedures for communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Samples of forms and examples of published communications products are provided. This guide takes advantage of the wealth of material now available on the Web as a resource. Therefore, it is best viewed as an electronic document. If some of the illustrations are too small to view comfortably, you can enlarge them on the screen as needed. The format of this document is considerably different than that usually expected of a SAND Report. It was selected to permit the large number of illustrations and examples to be placed closer to the text that references them. In the case of forms, covers, and other items that are included as examples, a link to the Web is provided so that you can access the items and download them for use. This guide details the processes for producing a variety of communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Figure I-1 shows the general publication development process. Because extensive supplemental material is available from Sandia on the internal web or from external sources (Table I-1), the guide has been shortened to make it easy to find information that you need.

  17. Communication issues at the end of life: reports from hospice volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planalp, Sally; Trost, Melanie R

    2008-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to inventory and understand difficult communication issues or dilemmas that arise among hospice volunteers, patients, and their families. Hospice volunteers reported, based on their observations and experience, that denial was the most common communication issue or dilemma for patients, family, and caregivers, followed by negative feelings and family conflicts. Volunteers reported that for themselves, the most common problem was patient impairments such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease that made conversation difficult. Powerful and wide-ranging emotions were also challenging for dying patients and their caregivers. Problematic integration theory and terror management theory could be developed further by expanding the role of emotions, and trauma management theories could be enhanced by developing deeper understanding of how the loss of social bonds may be as traumatic as the loss of life.

  18. Non-Communicable Disease Preventive Screening by HIV Care Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Corinne M; Chang, Yuchiao; Regan, Susan; Triant, Virginia A

    2017-01-01

    The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic has evolved, with an increasing non-communicable disease (NCD) burden emerging and need for long-term management, yet there are limited data to help delineate the optimal care model to screen for NCDs for this patient population. The primary aim was to compare rates of NCD preventive screening in persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) by type of HIV care model, focusing on metabolic/cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer screening. We hypothesized that primary care models that included generalists would have higher preventive screening rates. Prospective observational cohort study. Partners HealthCare System (PHS) encompassing Brigham & Women's Hospital, Massachusetts General Hospital, and affiliated community health centers. PLWHA age >18 engaged in active primary care at PHS. HIV care model categorized as infectious disease (ID) providers only, generalist providers only, or ID plus generalist providers. Odds of screening for metabolic/CVD outcomes including hypertension (HTN), obesity, hyperlipidemia (HL), and diabetes (DM) and cancer including colorectal cancer (CRC), cervical cancer, and breast cancer. In a cohort of 1565 PLWHA, distribution by HIV care model was 875 ID (56%), 90 generalists (6%), and 600 ID plus generalists (38%). Patients in the generalist group had lower odds of viral suppression but similar CD4 counts and ART exposure as compared with ID and ID plus generalist groups. In analyses adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical covariates and clustering within provider, there were no significant differences in metabolic/CVD or cancer screening rates among the three HIV care models. There were no notable differences in metabolic/CVD or cancer screening rates by HIV care model after adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors. These findings suggest that HIV patients receive similar preventive health care for NCDs independent of HIV care model.

  19. Bioactive Peptide of Marine Origin for the Prevention and Treatment of Non-Communicable Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Pangestuti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCD are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The four main leading causes of NCD are cardiovascular diseases, cancers, respiratory diseases and diabetes. Recognizing the devastating impact of NCD, novel prevention and treatment strategies are extensively sought. Marine organisms are considered as an important source of bioactive peptides that can exert biological functions to prevent and treatment of NCD. Recent pharmacological investigations reported cardio protective, anticancer, antioxidative, anti-diabetic, and anti-obesity effects of marine-derived bioactive peptides. Moreover, there is available evidence supporting the utilization of marine organisms and its bioactive peptides to alleviate NCD. Marine-derived bioactive peptides are alternative sources for synthetic ingredients that can contribute to a consumer’s well-being, as a part of nutraceuticals and functional foods. This contribution focus on the bioactive peptides derived from marine organisms and elaborates its possible prevention and therapeutic roles in NCD.

  20. Challenges to implementing communicable disease surveillance in New York City evacuation shelters after Hurricane Sandy, November 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridpath, Alison D; Bregman, Brooke; Jones, Lucretia; Reddy, Vasudha; Waechter, HaeNa; Balter, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy hit New York City (NYC) on October 29, 2012. Before and after the storm, 73 temporary evacuation shelters were established. The total census of these shelters peaked at approximately 6,800 individuals. Concern about the spread of communicable diseases in shelters prompted the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) to rapidly develop a surveillance system to report communicable diseases and emergency department transports from shelters. We describe the implementation of this system. Establishing effective surveillance in temporary shelters was challenging and required in-person visits by DOHMH staff to ensure reporting. After system establishment, surveillance data were used to identify some potential disease clusters. For the future, we recommend pre-event planning for disease surveillance.

  1. Post-fine-needle aspiration biopsy communication and the integrated and standardized cytopathology report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Martha B; Black-Schaffer, W Stephen

    2017-06-01

    Communication between cytopathologists and patients and their care team is a critical component of accurate and timely patient management. The most important single means of communication for the cytopathologist is through the cytopathology report. Implementation of standardized terminology schemes and structured, templated reporting facilitates the ability of the cytopathologist to provide a comprehensive and integrated report. Cytopathology has been among the pathology subspecialties that have led the way in developing standardized reporting, beginning with the 1954 Papanicolaou classification scheme for cervical-vaginal cytology and continuing through the Bethesda systems for gynecological cytology and several nongynecological cytology systems. The effective reporting of cytopathology necessarily becomes more complex as it addresses increasingly sophisticated management options, requiring the integration of information from a broader range of sources. In addition to the complexity of information inputs, a wider spectrum of consumers of these reports is emerging, from patients themselves to primary care providers to subspecialized disease management experts. Both these factors require that the reporting cytopathologist provide the integration and interpretation necessary to translate diverse forms of information into meaningful and actionable reports that will inform the care team while enabling the patient to meaningfully participate in his or her own care. To achieve such broad and focused communications will require first the development of standardized and integrated reports and ultimately the involvement of cytopathologists in the development of the clinical informatics needed to treat all these items of information as structured data elements with flexible reporting operators to address the full range of patient and patient care needs. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125(6 suppl):486-93. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  2. Communicative strategies used by spouses of individuals with communication disorders related to stroke-induced aphasia and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Emilia; Hartelius, Lena; Saldert, Charlotta

    2014-11-01

    A communicative disability interferes with the affected person's ability to take active part in social interaction, but non-disabled communication partners may use different strategies to support communication. However, it is not known whether similar strategies can be used to compensate for different types of communicative disabilities, nor what factors contribute to the development of a particular approach by communication partners. To develop a set of categories to describe the strategies used by communication partners of adults who have problems expressing themselves due to neurogenic communicative disabilities. The reliability of assessment was a particular focus. The material explored consisted of 21 video-recorded everyday conversations involving seven couples where one spouse had a communicative disability. Three of the dyads included a person with dysarthria and anomia related to later stages of Parkinson's disease, while four of them included a person with stroke-induced aphasia involving anomia. First a qualitative interaction analysis was performed to explore the strategies used by the communication partners when their spouses had problems expressing themselves. The strategies were then categorized, the reliability of the categorizations was explored and the relative frequency of the various strategies was examined. The analysis of the conversational interactions resulted in a set of nine different strategies used by the communication partners without a communicative disability. Each of these categories belonged to one of three overall themes: No participation in repair; Request for clarification or modification; and Providing candidate solutions. The reliability of the categorization was satisfactory. There were no statistically significant differences between diagnoses in the frequency of use of strategies, but the spouses of the persons with Parkinson's disease tended to use open-class initiations of repair more often than the spouses of the persons

  3. Looking Beyond the Terrestrial: The Potential of Seaweed Derived Bioactives to Treat Non-Communicable Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth G. Collins

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are a large and diverse group of marine organisms that are commonly found in the maritime regions of the world. They are an excellent source of biologically active secondary metabolites and have been shown to exhibit a wide range of therapeutic properties, including anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities. Several Asian cultures have a strong tradition of using different varieties of seaweed extensively in cooking as well as in herbal medicines preparations. As such, seaweeds have been used to treat a wide variety of health conditions such as cancer, digestive problems, and renal disorders. Today, increasing numbers of people are adopting a “westernised lifestyle” characterised by low levels of physical exercise and excessive calorific and saturated fat intake. This has led to an increase in numbers of chronic Non-communicable diseases (NCDs such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus, being reported. Recently, NCDs have replaced communicable infectious diseases as the number one cause of human mortality. Current medical treatments for NCDs rely mainly on drugs that have been obtained from the terrestrial regions of the world, with the oceans and seas remaining largely an untapped reservoir for exploration. This review focuses on the potential of using seaweed derived bioactives including polysaccharides, antioxidants and fatty acids, amongst others, to treat chronic NCDs such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus.

  4. Random Assignment to Illness: Teaching Illness and Disease in the Introductory Health Communication Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jennifer B.; Riley, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    A key concept in health communication is the difference between disease and illness: disease refers to the physical manifestations of a condition, while illness encompasses the physical, emotional, social, communicative, and psychological experience of living with a condition. The individual illness experience takes into account the full story of…

  5. Random Assignment to Illness: Teaching Illness and Disease in the Introductory Health Communication Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jennifer B.; Riley, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    A key concept in health communication is the difference between disease and illness: disease refers to the physical manifestations of a condition, while illness encompasses the physical, emotional, social, communicative, and psychological experience of living with a condition. The individual illness experience takes into account the full story of…

  6. Safety Measures with Communicable Diseases. Courseware Evaluation for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbrough, Stephen

    This courseware evaluation rates the "Safety Measures with Communicable Diseases" program developed by Lane Community College in Eugene, Oregon. (This program--not contained in this document--is designed to teach means of preventing the spread of communicable respiratory diseases and ways of protecting oneself.) Part A describes the program in…

  7. CREUTZFELDT - JAKOB DISEASE : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theophilus Premkumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases caused by the trans - formation of an endogenous protein, PrP (prion - related protein, into an abnormal conformation, the most common of which in humans is Creutzfeldt - Jakob disease. We report t he case of a 40 year old lady who presented with rapidly progressive dementia with pyramidal, extra - pyramidal, cerebellar symptoms, myoclonus and akinetic mutism. Her EEG showed typical periodic sharp wave complexes and MRI Brain revealed DWI>FLAIR intensi ty in bilateral caudate nuclei, putamen & bilateral subcortical frontal lobes . The clinico - radiological correlation was consistent with the diagnosis of Creutzfeldt - Jakob disease.

  8. Report of a case : Kimura disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Mohsenpour1

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 15 Jun, 2008 ; Accepted 4 Mar, 2009AbstractKimura is a rare disease that its etiology is not defined exactly. Immunologic and allergic responses are the probable cause of disease. Kimura is most often reported mostly in Asian men. Kimura is presented by subcutaneous nodule or multiple nodules in head and neck region. This Disease is benign. The kimura disease is rare and until 1994 about 120 were reported. In our literature research one documented case was reported in Iran. Treatment of disease include surgery, corticosteroid and cyclosporine. The presented case was a 36 years old man with right parotid gland and submentum lymph nodes enlargement. Excision of mass was done and kimura was documented by pathological examination. Recurrence of disease was happened and treatment was done by cyclosporine, prednisolon and cetirizine.kimura is a very rare disease that may be mistaken with malignancy. Therapy includes surgical excision and medical treatment. Correct diagnosis of disease can prevent radical surgery. J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(68:84-88 (Persian

  9. Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease: pediatric case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda Lewis, Eduardo; Vásquez Paz, Héctor

    2015-09-28

    The Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease is a rare disease that occurs mostly in young adults, although some cases have been reported in children. It is usually characterized by fever and cervical lymphadenopathy. The etiology of the disease remains unknown. Its course is usually benign and self-limited. It has special histopathological features that allow the differential diagnosis with other entities, which from a clinical point of view can be very complicated. We report a 9 years 11 months old girl with lymphadenopathy and fever with five months evolution, which is the longest evolution among the cases reviewed by the authors in world literature. Given that the presentation of this disease in children is very rare, we estimate that the knowledge of this disease is relevant and pediatricians must consider it in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin in children.

  10. 75 FR 62515 - Notice of Availability of Report on the Communications Requirements of Smart Grid Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... of Availability of Report on the Communications Requirements of Smart Grid Technologies AGENCY..., ``Communications Requirements of Smart Grid Technologies.'' In this report, DOE sets forth recommendations and observations on current and potential communications requirements of the Smart Grid, as well as the types of...

  11. 11 CFR 104.20 - Reporting electioneering communications (2 U.S.C. 434(f)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... POLITICAL COMMITTEES AND OTHER PERSONS (2 U.S.C. 434) § 104.20 Reporting electioneering communications (2 U... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting electioneering communications (2 U.S... electioneering communication is publicly distributed provided that the person making the...

  12. Development of the Medical Intensive Care Unit Shift Report Communication Scale as a measure of nurses' perception of communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available David James,1 Angela Jukkala,2 Andres Azuero,2 Pamela Autrey,3 Lynne Vining,4 Rebecca Miltner2 1Center for Nursing Excellence, University of Alabama at Birmingham Hospital, 2School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 3Nursing Administration, University of Alabama at Birmingham Hospital, 4Medical Intensive Care Unit, University of Alabama at Birmingham Hospital, Birmingham, Alabama, USA Objective: Evidence documenting the negative impact of poor communication on patient safety during intra-hospital transfer is prevalent and attributed to 80% of serious medical errors. An event particularly vulnerable to communication error is the patient "handoff." One of the more common handoffs occurring in health care settings is the report provided between nurses at the change of shift. The objective of this article is to report the process used to develop and examine the reliability and validity of a Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU Shift Report Communication Scale to measure nurses' perception of the quality and quantity of communication during shift report. Design and participants: This was a scale development and descriptive study undertaken at the Medical Intensive Care Unit within an Academic Health Center. Forty-three medical intensive care nurses took part. Results: An exploratory factor analysis revealed three domains: communication openness, quality of information, and shift report. Medical Intensive Care Unit Shift Report Communication Scale scores ranged from 12 to 27 (mean = 18.78; standard deviation = 3.28. Perception of communication did not vary between nurses based on years of nursing experience or age. Scale reliability was good (Cronbach's alpha = 0.079. Nurses were likely to have had a positive perception of the openness of communication on the unit. However, they had a less favorable perception of peer ability to fully understand information shared during shift report and identified as a common problem the frequent need to

  13. Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigafoos, J.; Lancioni, G.E.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lang, R.; Singh, N.N.; Didden, H.C.M.; Green, V.A.; Marschik, P.B.

    2016-01-01

    Communication disorders are common among people with intellectual disabilities. Consequently, enhancing the communication skills of such individuals is a major intervention priority. This chapter reviews the nature and prevalence of the speech, language, and communication problems associated with

  14. Screening for Non-Communicable Diseases among transport employees of a University: A Descriptive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chythra R Rao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In most parts of the world today, non-communicable diseases (NCDs are on the rise. Worldwide they are currently responsible for almost half (42% of the premature deaths which occurs before the age of 70. Due to sedentary lifestyle, workers of transportation department may be at a higher risk for development of obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycaemia.Objective: To screen all the transport employees of a university for non-communicable diseases.Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among all transport employees to screen for hypertension, Type II diabetes, obesity and visual impairment. Data was collected by personal interviews using a pre designed questionnaire. Anthropometry, blood pressure recording, fasting blood glucose testing, vision assessment followed by electrocardiogram recording was done for all subjects.Results: Out of 90 participants, 10(11.1% had diabetes, 26(28.9% were hypertensive, 36(40.0% were overweight and obese, three individuals had myopia and abnormal colour vision, whereas 17(18.9% had impaired near vision. The screen positives were referred to tertiary care hospital for further management. Over half of the subjects reported alcohol use while 21(23.4% were using tobacco. Only 43(47.8% used seat belts while driving.Conclusion: Proportion of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes was found to be more among the transport employees. This demands an urgent need for appropriate preventive and health promotive interventions to address these chronic diseases.

  15. Men's health: non-communicable chronic diseases and social vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidinotto, Daniele Natália Pacharone Bertolini; Simonetti, Janete Pessuto; Bocchi, Silvia Cristina Mangini

    2016-08-15

    to evaluate the relationship between absences in scheduled appointments and the number of non-communicable chronic diseases and to investigate the relationship between spatial distribution of these diseases and social vulnerability, using geoprocessing. a quantitative study of sequential mixed approach by analyzing 158 medical records of male users to relate the absences and 1250 medical records for geoprocessing. the higher the number of absences in the scheduled medical appointments, the less were the number of non-communicable chronic diseases and the ones listed in the International Classification of Diseases in single men. There were 21 significant geostatistically cases of glucose intolerance in the urban area. Of these, 62% lived in a region with a social vulnerability rating of Very Low, Medium 19%, 14% Low and 5% High. it was observed that the older the men, the greater is the number of chronic diseases and the less they miss scheduled appointments. Regarding the use of geoprocessing, we obtained a significant number of cases of glucose intolerance in urban areas, the majority classified as Very Low social vulnerability. It was possible to relate the spatial distribution of these diseases with the social vulnerability classification; however, it was not possible to perceive a relationship of them with the higher rates of social vulnerability. avaliar a relação entre as faltas em consultas agendadas e o número de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis e averiguar a relação entre distribuição espacial dessas doenças e vulnerabilidade social, utilizando-se o geoprocessamento. estudo quantitativo, de abordagem mista sequencial, sendo analisados 158 prontuários de usuários do sexo masculino para se relacionar as faltas e 1250 prontuários para o geoprocessamento. quanto maior o número de faltas nas consultas médicas agendadas, menores foram a quantidade de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis e as listadas na Classificação Internacional de

  16. Comedonal Darier's disease: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Faruk Elmas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Darier's disease is an inherited dermatosis of hair follicles characterized by hyperkeratotic papules. The trunk and scalp are usually affected. Comedonal Darier's disease is a rare subtype of Darier's disease. Comedonal lesions are seen beside the typical signs. Our case was a 59-yearold woman presented with hyperkeratotic papules and comedonal lesions on her bilateral axillary area and trunk, and below the breasts. Focal parakeratosis, acantholytic dyskeratotic cells in these focuses, basophilic nuclear dusts, clefts, edema and perivascular nonspecific mononuclear cells infiltrations in dermis were found in histopathological investigations. We decided to report this case because comedonal Darier is a rare form of Darier's disease and there are only few reported cases in the literature.

  17. Guide to preparing SAND Reports and other communication products.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-02-01

    This guide describes the R&A process, Common Look and Feel requirements, and preparation and publishing procedures for communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Samples of forms and examples of published communications products are provided.

  18. Physiotherapy in the management of non-communicable diseases: facing the challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Frantz

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available There is mounting evidence of the rising incidence and prevalence of non-communicable diseases in developing countries. Governments are facing serious challenges in health care due to the rising trends in non-communicable diseases as a result of demographic and epidemiological changes, as well as economic globalization. Cardiovascular disease, cancers, diabetes, respiratory disease, obesity andother non-communicable conditions now account for 59 percent of the 56.5 million global deaths annually, and almost half, or 46 percent, of the global burden of disease. It is estimated that by 2020, non-communicable diseases will account for 60% of the global burden of disease. The burden of non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa is already substantial, and patients with these conditions make significant demands on health resources. How do these changes affect physiotherapists? This paper aims to highlight the need for physiotherapists to shift their focus from curative to preventive care in order to face the challenge of non-communicable diseases.

  19. Health Seeking Behaviour of Non Communicable Disease in Sulaho Village, Lasusua Sub District, North Kolaka Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cati Martiyana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non communicable diseases is a chronic disease that is not spread from person to person. Public knowledge about type of non communicable disease is quite good, but generally they don’t understand about effect of non communicable disease risk factors, impacts and consider non communicable disease due to genetic factors, disease ofolder or rich people. This research to describe the fi ndings of non communicable diseases and health seeking behavior for these types of disease. Method: This study is a qualitative study used ethnographic methods. The research location at Sulaho village, Lasusua sub district, North Kolaka regency. Informants selected with snowball sampling methods. Participant observation and indepth interviews supported with documentation as data collection methods. Analysis of qualitative data with domain analysis, taxonomic analysis, komponensial analysis and analysis of the cultural theme supported with triangulation of sources and data collection methods. Results: Non communicable disease founded at Sulaho were cases of hypertension, stroke, diseases caused by workplace accidents and iodine defi ciency disorders (IDD. Informan knows name of diseases, but they did not know good knowledge of caused, impact and prevention of it. Traditional healer (sanro is still the main reference before went to the health worker when someone sick, this indicates that people still have the will to take advantage of health care of health seeking behaviour. Conclusion: Traditional healer (sanro generally become the main reference for health seeking behaviour of non communicable diseases before someone went to the health workers.Recommendation: Health workers has to be practice to approach the community through community leaders or kinship based.

  20. Lifestyle and Non-Communicable Diseases: A double edged sword for future India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Kumar Chakma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle has long been associated with the development of many chronic diseases. WHO has recognized diabetes, cardiovascular disease and stroke, cancer and chronic lung disease/COPD as major non-communicable diseases (NCDs. These major NCDs share common lifestyle related risk factors like physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, tobacco use and harmful use of alcohol. Globally, the current scenario of NCDs is the major cause of morbidity and mortality. According to WHO Report 2004, they account for almost 60% of deaths and 47% of global burden of disease. Epidemics of NCDs are presently emerging or accelerating in most developing countries. In India, 53% of the deaths in 2008 were due to NCDs (WHO and cardiovascular disease (CVDs alone account for 24 percent of all deaths. As of 2005, India experienced the “highest loss in potentially productive years of life” worldwide and the leading cause of death was cardiovascular disease; mostly affecting people aged 35-64 years. The projected cumulative loss of national income for India due to NCDs mortality for 2006-2015 will be USD237 billion. By 2030, this productivity loss is expected to double to 17.9 million years lost. These major NCDs are largely preventable through effective interventions by tackling the lifestyle related modifiable risk factors. This review discusses the current scenario of NCDs with their impact on health and socioeconomic development, the threat posed by the rising trends of disease burden along with socio-demographic transition and the challenges needs to be addressed for the prevention and control of NCDs.

  1. [Rosai-Dorfman disease: Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffia, Silvia A; Peruffo, María V; Malvaso, Roque; Senor, Varinea; Pollono, Daniel; Altamirano, Eugenia M

    2015-12-01

    Rosai-Dorfman disease, also known as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy, is a rare dis order of unknown etiology, generally associated with enlargement of superficial and/or deep lymph nodes. Most patients do not require treatment. We report the case of a 10 month old infant who was admitted with a left cervical tumor of 25 days duration.

  2. MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS OF VALUE CREATION IN SUSTAINABLE ORGANIZATIONS. THE PRACTICE OF INTEGRATED REPORTS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Madalina Dumitru; Raluca Gina Guse; Liliana Feleaga; Dragos Marian Mangiuc; Alexandra Ionelia Feldioreanu

    2015-01-01

      This paper represents an investigation of the communication practices used by the organizations included in the International Integrated Reporting Council's Pilot Programme, in order to investigate...

  3. Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S

    2012-03-29

    This document describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) meets the requirements and management practices of federal regulation 10 CFR 850, 'Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP).' This revision of the LLNL CBDPP incorporates clarification and editorial changes based on lessons learned from employee discussions, observations and reviews of Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and commercial industry beryllium (Be) safety programs. The information is used to strengthen beryllium safety practices at LLNL, particularly in the areas of: (1) Management of small parts and components; and (2) Communication of program status to employees. Future changes to LLNL beryllium activities and on-going operating experience will be incorporated into the program as described in Section S, 'Performance Feedback.'

  4. Extralinguistic Communication Compensates for the Loss of Verbal Fluency: A Case Study of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabat, Steven R.; Cagigas, Xavier E.

    1997-01-01

    The case study of an older woman with Alzheimer's disease shows that while her command of words and syntax had deteriorated, her ability to use other forms of communication had not. Her alternative forms of communication included use of gesture, facial expression, posture, and tone of voice. (MSE)

  5. The Economic impact of Non-communicable Diseases on households in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelgau Michael M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs and injuries account for an estimated 62% of the total age-standardized burden of forgone Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs. Public and private financing of clinical services to reduce the NCD burden is a major challenge. Methods We used National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO survey data from 1995-96 and 2004 covering nearly 200 thousand households to assess healthcare utilization patterns and out of pocket health spending by disease category. For this purpose, self-reported diseases and conditions were categorized into NCDs and non-NCDs. Survey data were used to assess how households financed their overall health expenditures and related this pattern to specific health conditions. We measured catastrophic spending on NCD-related hospitalization, defined as occurring when health expenditures exceeded 40% of a household's ability to pay, that is, household consumption spending less combined survival consumption expenditure; and impoverishment when per capita expenditure within the household decreased to below the poverty line once health spending was netted out. Results The share of NCDs in out of pocket health expenses incurred by households increased over time, from 31.6 percent in 1995-96 to 47.3 percent in 2004. In both years, own savings and income were the most important source of financing for many health conditions, typically between 40-60 percent of all spending, whereas 30-35 percent was from borrowing. The odds of catastrophic hospitalization expenditures for cancer was nearly 170% greater and for CVD and injuries 22 percent greater than the odds due to communicable diseases. Impoverishment patterns were similar. Conclusions Out of pocket expenses for treating NCDs rose sharply over the period from 1995-96 to 2004. When NCDs are present, the financial risks to which Indians households are exposed are significant.

  6. Effect of communication style and physician-family relationships on satisfaction with pediatric chronic disease care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedlund, Matthew P; Schumacher, Jayna B; Young, Henry N; Cox, Elizabeth D

    2012-01-01

    Over 8% of children have a chronic disease and many are unable to adhere to treatment. Satisfaction with chronic disease care can impact adherence. We examine how visit satisfaction is associated with physician communication style and ongoing physician-family relationships. We collected surveys and visit videos for 75 children ages 9-16 years visiting for asthma, diabetes, or sickle cell disease management. Raters assessed physician communication style (friendliness, interest, responsiveness, and dominance) from visit videos. Quality of the ongoing relationship was measured with four survey items (parent-physician relationship, child-physician relationship, comfort asking questions, and trust in the physician), while a single item assessed satisfaction. Correlations and chi square were used to assess association of satisfaction with communication style or quality of the ongoing relationship. Satisfaction was positively associated with physician to parent (p communication style and the quality of the ongoing relationship contribute to pediatric chronic disease visit satisfaction.

  7. Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease: three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Andrade Sousa

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD manifests in most cases as unilateral cervical lymphadenomegaly, with or without accompanying fever. The disease mainly affects young women and has a self-limited course. It is more common in oriental countries, with few reports of its occurrence in Brazil. KFD should be included in the differential diagnosis of suspected cases of viral infections, tuberculosis, reactive lymphadenitis, systemic lupus erythematosus and metastatic diseases. It can be histologically confused with lymphoma. The disease is benign and self-limiting and an excisional biopsy of an affected lymph node is necessary for diagnosis. There is no specific therapy. CASE REPORTS: This study reports on three cases of non-Asian female patients with KFD who were attended at our service between 2003 and 2006. A review of the literature was carried out, with a systematic search on this topic, with the aim of informing physicians about this entity that is manifested by cervical masses and fever.

  8. Microparticles Novel Mechanisms of Intracellular Communication: Implication in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevailing view that eukaryotic cells are restrained from intercellular exchange of genetic information has been challenged by recent reports on nanotubes, exosomes, apoptotic bodies, and nucleic acid—binding peptides that provide novel pathways for cell—cell communication, with implications in health and disease. CONTENT: Microparticles (MPs are a heterogeneous population of small plasma membrane structures that serve as important signaling structures between cells. MPs are composed of a phospholipid bilayer that exposes transmembrane proteins and receptors and encloses cytosolic components such as enzymes, transcription factors, and mRNA derived from their parent cells. Growing evidence suggests that MPs regulate inflammation, stimulate coagulation, affect vascular functions and apoptosis, and can also play a role in cell proliferation or differentiation. MPs circulate in the bloodstream, can be detected in the peripheral blood, and may originate from different vascular cell types (eg, platelets, monocytes, endothelial cells, red blood cells, and granulocytes. SUMMARY: Cells of various types release small membrane vesicles called MP on their activation, as well as during the process of apoptosis. The properties and roles of MP generated in different contexts are diverse and are determined by their parent cell and the pathway of their generation, which affects their content. MP are involved in multiple cellular functions, including immunomodulation, inflammation, coagulation, and intercellular communication. MPs are able to deliver molecular signals in the form of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, or functional trans-membrane proteins from the parent cell to distantly located targets. From a clinical point of view, MP may serve as biomarkers for disease status and may be found useful for developing novel therapeutic strategies. KEYWORDS: microparticles, microvesicle, membrane remodeling, intercellular communication.

  9. Burgeoning burden of non-communicable diseases in Nepal: a scoping review

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Shiva Raj; Neupane, Dinesh; Bhandari, Parash Mani; Khanal, Vishnu; Kallestrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades, prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has escalated in Nepal. This study reviews existing evidence on the burden of non-communicable diseases in Nepal using the framework developed by Arksey and O’Malley for scoping reviews. A total of 110 articles were identified from database searches, and four from additional searches. The titles and abstracts were reviewed using predetermined screening criteria. We limited our search to existing literature in English language...

  10. COMMUNICATION SATELLITES FOR EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND CULTURE. REPORTS AND PAPERS ON MASS COMMUNICATION, NO. 53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHRAMM, WILBUR

    THE TECHNOLOGY OF COMMUNICATION SATELLITES IS SUFFICIENTLY ADVANCED THAT CONCERNED AGENCIES, SUCH AS UNESCO, SHOULD BEGIN TO PLAN FOR THEIR USE IN EXCHANGE OF DATA, NEWS TRANSMISSION, CULTURAL EXCHANGE, AND EDUCATION. GROUNDWORK IN TECHNOLOGY, IN THE DESIGN OF A SATELLITE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM, IN VALUE JUDGMENTS, IN AGREEMENTS OF COOPERATION AND…

  11. Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, I-Min; Shiroma, Eric J; Lobelo, Felipe;

    2012-01-01

    Strong evidence shows that physical inactivity increases the risk of many adverse health conditions, including major non-communicable diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and colon cancers, and shortens life expectancy. Because much of the world's population...... is inactive, this link presents a major public health issue. We aimed to quantify the eff ect of physical inactivity on these major non-communicable diseases by estimating how much disease could be averted if inactive people were to become active and to estimate gain in life expectancy at the population level....

  12. Available data sources for monitoring non-communicable diseases and their risk factors in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandai, M.; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens; Day, C.

    2017-01-01

    mortality owing to exposure to risk factors arising from obesity that include physical inactivity and accessible, cheap but unhealthy diets. The National Strategic Plan for the Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases 2013 - 17 developed by the SA National Department of Health outlines targets......Background. Health information systems for monitoring chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in South Africa (SA) are relatively less advanced than those for infectious diseases (particularly tuberculosis and HIV) and for maternal and child health. NCDs are now the largest cause of premature......, categories used, timeliness, disease coverage and biomarker measurement....

  13. Challenges in communication during clerkships: A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, M.H. van de; Weel-Baumgarten, E.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Patient-centered communication skills training is an integral part of the medical training of students of the Radboud Univeristy Nijmegen Medical Centre. During their clerkships, however, students are confronted with a variety of physicians, demonstrating communication skills which differ from what

  14. Communicating risk and promoting disease mitigation measures in epidemics and emerging disease settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavo, Renata; May Leung, May; Brown, Mason

    2014-03-01

    This review aims to identify and assess evidence on interventions to communicate risk and promote disease mitigation measures in epidemics and emerging disease outbreak settings. The study focuses on data that are relevant to low and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. We conducted a comprehensive literature search using five major electronic databases (Pubmed Medline, Biomed Central, EMBASE, Science of Citation Index, and Cochrane Library) and other sources to identify relevant studies published from January 2002 to July 2013. The review was guided by the socio-ecological model/perspective of public health and the ideation theory and focused on interventions at the community, healthcare, and multi-sectoral settings, which also reflect key intervention levels of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. Eligible quantitative studies were selected according to specific study criteria and assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) framework. Conversely, qualitative studies, reviews, case studies, and editorials were not included. Studies were selected by two independent reviewers. Twenty-nine relevant studies from 16 countries were included. Most studies focused on a single intervention or intervention level, rather than multi-sectoral interventions. The majority of the evidence relates to programs aimed at behavioral and social results (or relevant intermediate steps) within a specific population group. Two studies included implications for improvements in health service delivery, two studies examined the intervention's impact on health systems-related outcomes, and three had also implications for environmental health outcomes. Cost- and health equity-related implications for select evidence were also discussed. The paucity of well-designed quantitative evaluations of interventions to communicate health risk and promote disease control measures in LMICs does not allow for any definitive conclusions. Yet, the review identified several promising

  15. Zika Virus Disease in Colombia - Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Oscar; Beltrán, Mauricio; Nelson, Christina A; Valencia, Diana; Tolosa, Natalia; Farr, Sherry L; Padilla, Ana V; Tong, Van T; Cuevas, Esther L; Espinosa-Bode, Andrés; Pardo, Lissethe; Rico, Angélica; Reefhuis, Jennita; González, Maritza; Mercado, Marcela; Chaparro, Pablo; Martínez Duran, Mancel; Rao, Carol Y; Muñoz, María M; Powers, Ann M; Cuéllar, Claudia; Helfand, Rita; Huguett, Claudia; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A; Ospina Martínez, Martha L

    2016-06-15

    Background Colombia began official surveillance for Zika virus disease (ZVD) in August 2015. In October 2015, an outbreak of ZVD was declared after laboratory-confirmed disease was identified in nine patients. Methods Using the national population-based surveillance system, we assessed patients with clinical symptoms of ZVD from August 9, 2015, to April 2, 2016. Laboratory test results and pregnancy outcomes were evaluated for a subgroup of pregnant women. Concurrently, we investigated reports of microcephaly for evidence of congenital ZVD. Results By April 2, 2016, there were 65,726 cases of ZVD reported in Colombia, of which 2485 (4%) were confirmed by means of reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay. The overall reported incidence of ZVD among female patients was twice that in male patients. A total of 11,944 pregnant women with ZVD were reported in Colombia, with 1484 (12%) of these cases confirmed on RT-PCR assay. In a subgroup of 1850 pregnant women, more than 90% of women who were reportedly infected during the third trimester had given birth, and no infants with apparent abnormalities, including microcephaly, have been identified. A majority of the women who contracted ZVD in the first or second trimester were still pregnant at the time of this report. Among the cases of microcephaly investigated from January 2016 through April 2016, four patients had laboratory evidence of congenital ZVD; all were born to asymptomatic mothers who were not included in the ZVD surveillance system. Conclusions Preliminary surveillance data in Colombia suggest that maternal infection with the Zika virus during the third trimester of pregnancy is not linked to structural abnormalities in the fetus. However, the monitoring of the effect of ZVD on pregnant women in Colombia is ongoing. (Funded by Colombian Instituto Nacional de Salud and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).

  16. Dejerine-Sottas disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Luvisotto Marinho

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Hereditary peripheral neuropathies (hereditary motor-sensory neuropathies or hereditary demyelinating neuropathies are abnormalities of Schwann cells and their myelin sheaths, with peripheral nerve dysfunction. They include Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, Dejerine-Sottas disease, congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present work was to describe a case of Dejerine-Sottas disease. CASE REPORT: A 9-year-old boy presented progressive slight motor deficit in the lower limbs, particularly in the feet, and generalized hyporeflexia. Electromyography disclosed significant reduction in motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities. Sural nerve biopsy showed axons surrounded by a thin myelin sheath and concentrically arranged cytoplasmic processes of Schwann cells forming onion-bulbs. No axon damage was observed.

  17. Menkes Disease: Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Barzegar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Menkes disease is a rare X-linked recessive disorder of copper metabolism. It is characterized by progressive cerebral degeneration with psychomotor deterioration, hypothermia, seizures and characteristic facial appearance with hair abnormalities.Case Presentation: We report on two cases of classical Menkes disease with typical history, (progressive psychomotor deterioration and seizures}, clinical manifestations (cherubic appearance, with brittle, scattered and hypopigmented scalp hairs, and progression. Light microscopic examination of the hair demonstrated the pili torti pattern. The low serum copper content and ceruloplasmin confirmed the diagnosis.Conclusion: Menkes disease is an under-diagnosed entity, being familiar with its manifestation and maintaining high index of suspicion are necessary for early diagnosis.

  18. Leigh’s Disease: A case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Verma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Leigh disease is a progressive degenerative, mitochondrial disorder of childhood with most cases become apparent during infancy. In most cases it presents as a progressive neurological disease with motor and intellectual developmental delay, developmental regression and signs and symptoms of brain stem and/or basal ganglia involvement. Raised lactate levels in blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid is noted. It is the neuro imaging, mainly the Magnetic Resonance Imaging showing characteristic symmetrical necrotic lesions in the basal ganglia and/or brain stem that leads to the diagnosis. Here, we report a case of 3years old male child presenting to us with status epilepticus, delayed developmental milestones and regression of the achieved milestones suspected to be a case of neurodegenerative disorder, which on MRI was diagnosed as Leigh’s disease.

  19. Communicating uncertainty - how Australian television reported H1N1 risk in 2009: a content analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blood R Warwick

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health officials face particular challenges in communicating with the public about emerging infectious diseases of unknown severity such as the 2009 H1N1(swine 'flu pandemic (pH1N1. Statements intended to create awareness and convey the seriousness of infectious disease threats can draw accusations of scare-mongering, while officials can be accused of complacency if such statements are not made. In these communication contexts, news journalists, often reliant on official sources to understand issues are pivotal in selecting and emphasising aspects of official discourse deemed sufficiently newsworthy to present to the public. This paper presents a case-study of news communication regarding the emergence of pH1N1. Methods We conducted a content analysis of all television news items about pH1N1. We examined news and current affairs items broadcast on 5 free-to-air Sydney television channels between April 25 2009 (the first report and October 9 (prior to the vaccine release for statements about 1 the seriousness of the disease 2 how the public could minimise contagion 3 government responses to emerging information. Results pH1N1 was the leading health story for eight of 24 weeks and was in the top 5 for 20 weeks. 353 news items were identified, yielding 3086 statements for analysis, with 63.4% related to the seriousness of the situation, 12.9% providing advice for viewers and 23.6% involving assurances from government. Coverage focused on infection/mortality rates, the spread of the virus, the need for public calm, the vulnerability of particular groups, direct and indirect advice for viewers, and government reassurances about effective management. Conclusions Overall, the reporting of 2009 pH1N1 in Sydney, Australia was generally non-alarmist, while conveying that pH1N1 was potentially serious. Daily infection rate tallies and commentary on changes in the pandemic alert level were seldom contextualised to assist viewers in

  20. Reports and memoranda. Communication techniques for effective management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Parsons

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available In any organisational structure, either in private or public sectors, the lines and methods of communication need to be fully understood and utilised by everyone in the organisation if efficiency of the institution or service is to be obtained. Communication may be upward, downward or horisontal, and it is essential for cohesion and morale in the institution that there is accuracy and courtesy throughout each stage of com m u n ic a tio n . Breakdown in communication at any point in the process or at any level in the hierachy will affect the functioning and the reputation of the whole institution or service.

  1. Patient–provider communication, self-reported medication adherence, and race in a postmyocardial infarction population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zullig LL

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Leah L Zullig,1,2 Ryan J Shaw,1,3 Bimal R Shah,4,5 Eric D Peterson,4,5 Jennifer H Lindquist,1 Matthew J Crowley,1,2 Steven C Grambow,6 Hayden B Bosworth1–3,7 1Center for Health Services Research in Primary Care, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2Division of General Internal Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA, 3School of Nursing, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA, 4Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 5Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Durham, NC, USA; 6Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA, 7Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA Objectives: Our objectives were to: 1 describe patient-reported communication with their provider and explore differences in perceptions of racially diverse adherent versus nonadherent patients; and 2 examine whether the association between unanswered questions and patient-reported medication nonadherence varied as a function of patients’ race. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline in-person survey data from a trial designed to improve postmyocardial infarction management of cardiovascular disease risk factors. Results: Overall, 298 patients (74% reported never leaving their doctor’s office with unanswered questions. Among those who were adherent and nonadherent with their medications, 183 (79% and 115 (67% patients, respectively, never left their doctor’s office with unanswered questions. In multivariable logistic regression, although the simple effects of the interaction term were different for patients of nonminority race (odds ratio [OR]: 2.16; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19–3.92 and those of minority race (OR: 1.19; 95% CI: 0.54–2.66, the overall interaction effect was not statistically significant (P=0.24. Conclusion: The quality of patient–provider communication is critical for cardiovascular

  2. Communication in the Classroom: Research and Observation. ERIC Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boileau, Don M.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of ERIC resources on the following topics: teacher communication; research on classroom interaction; using systematic observations to improve teaching; different systems of classroom observations; and research on classroom observation techniques. (PD)

  3. Public communication, risk perception, and the viability of preventive vaccination against communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas

    2005-08-01

    Because of the nature of preventive vaccination programs, the viability of these public health interventions is particularly susceptible to public perceptions. This is because vaccination relies on a concept of 'herd immunity', achievement of which requires rational public behavior that can only be obtained through full and accurate communication about risks and benefits. This paper describes how irrational behavior that threatens the effectiveness of vaccination programs--both in crisis and non-crisis situations--can be tied to public perceptions created by media portrayals of health risks. I concentrate on childhood vaccination as an exemplar of 'non-crisis' preventive vaccination, and on the recent flu vaccine shortage as a 'crisis' situation. The paper concludes with an examination of the steps necessary to resolve these threats through better public communication.

  4. Developmental determinants in non-communicable chronic diseases and ageing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, J; Anto, J M; Berkouk, K; Gergen, P; Antunes, J Pinto; Augé, P; Camuzat, T; Bringer, J; Mercier, J; Best, N; Bourret, R; Akdis, M; Arshad, S H; Bedbrook, A; Berr, C; Bush, A; Cavalli, G; Charles, M A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Gillman, M; Gold, D R; Goldberg, M; Holloway, J W; Iozzo, P; Jacquemin, S; Jeandel, C; Kauffmann, F; Keil, T; Koppelman, G H; Krauss-Etschmann, S; Kuh, D; Lehmann, S; Carlsen, K C Lodrup; Maier, D; Méchali, M; Melén, E; Moatti, J P; Momas, I; Nérin, P; Postma, D S; Ritchie, K; Robine, J M; Samolinski, B; Siroux, V; Slagboom, P E; Smit, H A; Sunyer, J; Valenta, R; Van de Perre, P; Verdier, J M; Vrijheid, M; Wickman, M; Yiallouros, P; Zins, M

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal and peri-natal events play a fundamental role in health, development of diseases and ageing (Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)). Research on the determinants of active and healthy ageing is a priority to: (i) inform strategies for reducing societal and individual costs of

  5. State model for partly undetected non-communicable diseases (NCDs)

    OpenAIRE

    Brinks, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes an age-structured compartment model for irreversible diseases with a pre-clinical state of undiagnosed cases that precedes the diagnosis. The model is able to cope with mortality rates differing between the pre-clinical and the clinical state (differential mortality). Applicability is tested in a hypothetical disease with realistic incidence and mortality rates.

  6. The global impact of non-communicable diseases on macro-economic productivity: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Chaker (Layal); A. Falla (Abby); S. van der Lee (Sven); T. Muka (Taulant); D. Imo (David); L. Jaspers (Loes); V. Colpani (Veronica); S. Mendis (Shanthi); R. Chowdhury (Rajiv); W.M. Bramer (Wichor M); R. Pazoki (Raha); O.H. Franco (Oscar)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractNon-communicable diseases (NCDs) have large economic impact at multiple levels. To systematically review the literature investigating the economic impact of NCDs [including coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), cancer (lung, colon, cervical and breast), chr

  7. The global impact of non-communicable diseases on macro-economic productivity: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Chaker (Layal); A. Falla (Abby); S. van der Lee (Sven); T. Muka (Taulant); D. Imo (David); L. Jaspers (Loes); V. Colpani (Veronica); S. Mendis (Shanthi); R. Chowdhury (Rajiv); W.M. Bramer (Wichor); R. Pazoki (Raha); O.H. Franco (Oscar)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractNon-communicable diseases (NCDs) have large economic impact at multiple levels. To systematically review the literature investigating the economic impact of NCDs [including coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), cancer (lung, colon, cervical and breast), chr

  8. Using online health communication to manage chronic sorrow: mothers of children with rare diseases speak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Adriana D

    2015-01-01

    Families affected by rare disease experience psychosocial reactions similar to families with prevalent chronic diseases. The ability to respond and manage the condition depends on psychosocial factors. This phenomenological study of 16 mothers of children with Alagille syndrome explored their lived experience in using online health communications to manage their chronic sorrow. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews analyzed using techniques described by van Manen. Analysis yielded four essential themes: connectedness, online triggers, empowerment, and seasons of online use contributed to online communication essential to a rare disease community. Findings suggest mothers need emotional support and help accessing appropriate online resources.

  9. Rising Health Expenditure due to Non-communicable Diseases in India: An Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasis Barik

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: With ongoing demographic transition, epidemiological transition in India has been emerged as a growing concern in India. The share of non-communicable disease in total disease burden has increased from 31 per cent in 1990 to 45 per cent in 2010. This paper seeks to explore the health scenario of India in the wake of the growing pace of non-communicable diseases like diabetes, hypertension among Indian population using data from health and morbidity survey of the National Sample Survey Organisation (2004 and notifies about the resource needed to tackle this growing health risk. Given the share of private players (70 per cent in Indian health system, results indicate a higher private expenditure, mostly out-of-pocket expense, on account of non-communicable diseases. A timely look into the matter may tackle a more dreadful situation in near future.

  10. Rising Health Expenditure Due to Non-Communicable Diseases in India: An Outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Debasis; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam

    2016-01-01

    With ongoing demographic transition, epidemiological transition has been emerged as a growing concern in India. The share of non-communicable disease in total disease burden has increased from 31% in 1990 to 45% in 2010. This paper seeks to explore the health scenario of India in the wake of the growing pace of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes and hypertension among Indian population using data from health and morbidity survey of the National Sample Survey Organisation (2004) and notifies about the resource needed to tackle this growing health risk. Given the share of private players (70%) in Indian health system, results indicate a higher private expenditure, mostly out-of-pocket expense, on account of non-communicable diseases. A timely look into the matter may tackle a more dreadful situation in near future.

  11. Impact of information and communication technology on interprofessional collaboration for chronic disease management: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Neil; Vania, Diana; Randall, Glen; Mulvale, Gillian

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Information and communication technology is often lauded as the key to enhancing communication among health care providers. However, its impact on interprofessional collaboration is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which it improves communication and, subsequently, enhances interprofessional collaboration in chronic disease management. Methods A systematic review of academic literature using two electronic platforms: HealthSTAR and Web of Science (core collection and MEDLINE). To be eligible for inclusion in the review, articles needed to be peer-reviewed; accessible in English and focused on how technology supports, or might support, collaboration (through enhanced communication) in chronic disease management. Studies were assessed for quality and a narrative synthesis conducted. Results The searches identified 289 articles of which six were included in the final analysis (three used qualitative methods, two were descriptive and one used mixed methods). Various forms of information and communication technology were described including electronic health records, online communities/learning resources and telehealth/telecare. Three themes emerged from the studies that may provide insights into how communication that facilitates collaboration in chronic disease management might be enhanced: professional conflict, collective engagement and continuous learning. Conclusions The success of technology in enhancing collaboration for chronic disease management depends upon supporting the social relationships and organization in which the technology will be placed. Decision-makers should take into account and work toward balancing the impact of technology together with the professional and cultural characteristics of health care teams.

  12. Does physician communication style impact patient report of decision quality for breast cancer treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Kathryn A; Resnicow, Ken; Williams, Geoffrey C; Silva, Marlene; Abrahamse, Paul; Shumway, Dean A; Wallner, Lauren P; Katz, Steven J; Hawley, Sarah T

    2016-12-01

    Provider communication that supports patient autonomy has been associated with numerous positive patient outcomes. However, to date, no research has examined the relationship between perceived provider communication style and patient-assessed decision quality in breast cancer. Using a population-based sample of women with localized breast cancer, we assessed patient perceptions of autonomy-supportive communication from their surgeons and medical oncologists, as well as patient-reported decision quality. We used multivariable linear regression to examine the association between autonomy-supportive communication and subjective decision quality for surgery and chemotherapy decisions, controlling for sociodemographic and clinical factors, as well as patient-reported communication preference (non-directive or directive). Among the 1690 women included in the overall sample, patient-reported decision quality scores were positively associated with higher levels of perceived autonomy-supportive communication from surgeons (β=0.30; pcommunication style preference moderated the association between physician communication style received and perceived decision quality. Autonomy-supportive communication by physicians was associated with higher subjective decision quality among women with localized breast cancer. These results support future efforts to design interventions that enhance autonomy-supportive communication. Autonomy-supportive communication by cancer doctors can improve patients' perceived decision quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chagas' Disease: an acute transfusional case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Marli Valério Wanderley

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Report of a case of acute transfusional Chagas'disease in a four-year-old child with a previous diagnosis of acute lymphocytic leukemia, transmitted in São Paulo, the Capital of São Paulo State, Brazil. Epidemiological investigation disclosed the donor's serological positivity and his previous residence in an area where Chagas' disease is endemic. The importance of adequate sorological screening in blood donors is evident. It should be stressed that this is the first case notified to the Superintendência de Controle de Endemias (SUCEN (Superintendency for the Endemy Control of the State Secretariat of Health, São Paulo, for the last five years.

  14. Monitoring Heart Disease and Diabetes with Mobile Internet Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mulvaney

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A telemedicine system is described for monitoring vital signs and general health indicators of patients with cardiac and diabetic conditions. Telemetry from wireless sensors and readings from other instruments are combined into a comprehensive set of measured patient parameters. Using a combination of mobile device applications and web browser, the data can be stored, accessed, and displayed using mobile internet communications to the central server. As an extra layer of security in the data transmission, information embedded in the data is used in its verification. The paper highlights features that could be enhanced from previous systems by using alternative components or methods.

  15. Online Communication and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølling, Ina Koldkjær; Carøe, Per; Lindgren, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    -eases, as well as the lack of financial resources. There is an assumption that welfare technology can provide cost effective solutions to the benefit of future citizens despite the strained economy. The technology used is based on an online encrypted connection with synchronous video communication. Via......In 2013 Slagelse Municipality implemented an online rehabili-tation program, “Online Viva” with respiratory training and district nursing consultancy for elderly people (aged 61-90) with COPD. In September 2014, 20 citizens with moderate (50%) to severe (15%) reduced lung function were included...

  16. Comprehensive Instructional Managmenent Systems-Communication Arts (CIMS-CA), 1988-89. Evaluation Section Report. OREA REport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Frank; And Others

    This report presents the results of the evaluation of the 1988-89 Comprehensive Instructional Management Systems-Communication Arts (CIMS-CA) program, which focused on developing a holistic communication arts curriculum and staff development program reflecting the most recent research for students in kindergarten through eighth grade;…

  17. Dopamine depletion affects communicative intentionality in Parkinson's disease patients: Evidence from action kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straulino, Elisa; Scaravilli, Tomaso; Castiello, Umberto

    2016-04-01

    Appropriate communication is at the heart of successful, healthy social interactions in humans. Deficits in social communication are a hallmark of several neurological and psychiatric disorders. Yet, very little research has been devoted to understanding the mechanisms underlying these issues. It has been suggested that dopamine is a candidate neurotransmitter system involved in stimulating communication in individuals that are not highly motivated to communicate. A typical model to study dopaminergic dysfunctions in humans is represented by Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, who show motor, cognitive and motivational symptoms. Our study aimed to investigate the effects of social communication on actions in non-demented PD patients receiving dopamine replacement therapy (Levodopa = l-Dopa) and in neurologically healthy control participants. Patients' ability to modulate motor patterning depending on the communicative intention motivating the action to be performed was evaluated both in "on" (with l-Dopa) and "off" (without l-Dopa) states. In two main conditions, participants were requested to reach towards, grasp an object, and either simply lift it (individual condition) or lift it with the intent to communicate a meaning to a partner (communicative condition). Movements' kinematics was recorded using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. The results indicate that kinematics is sensitive to communicative intention and that l-Dopa treatment has positive effects on translating communicative intentions into specific motor patterns in PD patients. Although the to-be-grasped object remained the same both the controls and the PD patients in an 'on' state adopted different kinematic patterning for the 'individual' and the 'communication' conditions. The PD patients in the 'off' state, instead, were unable to kinematically differentiate between the two conditions. We contend that social and communicative impairments are associated with abnormalities in

  18. Baltic Nuclear workshop. Final report[Crisis communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlberg, L.G

    2001-05-01

    Proceedings of the NKS/BOK-1.6 workshop on crisis communication 'Baltic Nuclear', held in Stockholm March 19 -20, 2001, with participants from the nuclear power plants and nuclear authorities in the Baltic Sea region. The main content of the workshop was founded on the principle of 'learning by doing'. The participants were therefore practically trained in how to handle a crisis from an information and communication point of view. Added to that there were three different lectures. (au)

  19. A Guide to Satellite Communication. Reports and Papers on Mass Communication Number 66.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    Basic information about the characteristics, uses, and implications of communication satellites is presented. Characteristics covered include the various types of systems--such as point-to-point, distribution, and broadcasting satellites--and the flexibility, capacity, geographical coverage, cost and disadvantages of satellites. The section on…

  20. First Italian Ebola virus disease case: management of hospital internal and external communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salce, Lorella; Barbato, Simona; Renna, Daniela; Bianchini, Francesco; Vaccaro, Paola; Mazzeo, Fabio; Gasparini, Annunziatina; Rizza, Claudio; Lanfranchi, Emanuele; Petrosillo, Nicola; Nicastri, Emanuele; Di Caro, Antonino; Capobianchi, Maria R; Puro, Vincenzo; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    On November 25, 2014, an Italian physician infected by Ebola virus in Sierra Leone was admitted to the "Lazzaro Spallanzani" National Institute for Infectious Diseases in Rome, Italy. He was the first Italian case and was successfully cured in 38 days. The staff responsible for communication had a critical role ensuring that this challenging mission went smoothly. The Institutional Press Office working together with the press offices of the Ministry of Health was able to provide the high level of expertise necessary within both medical and communication contexts. Communication strategy, tools and procedures adopted before and after the arrival of the patient are summarized.

  1. Canine Degenerative Valve Disease: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmenza Janneth Benavides Melo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Degenerative valvular disease or endocardiosis is the most common cardiovascular pathology in dogs. It is characterized by regurgitation of blood into the atria with decreased cardiac output, leading to volume overload with eccentric hypertrophy and congestive heart failure. This report describes the clinical and autopsy findings of a dog, suggestive of valvular endocardiosis. The patient was admitted to the outpatient Veterinary Clinic “Carlos Martínez Hoyos” at the University of Nariño (Pasto, Colombia. His owner said the dog was sick for two months, with signs of respiratory disease, weight loss, and decay. Clinical examination showed very pale mucous membranes, inspiratory dyspnea, rale, split S2, grade 4 mid-systolic murmur of regurgitation, and abdominal dilatation with sign of positive shock wave. Necropsy evidenced plenty of translucent watery material in the abdominal, chest and pericardium cavity, severely enlarged and rounded heart with thickened atrioventricular valves, moderate reduction in liver size and signs of lobulation, severely diminished and pale kidneys with irregular surface showing the presence of multiple cystic areas in corticomedullary region. Samples were taken from these tissues and fixed in 10% buffered formalin to be processed for histopathological analysis at the Laboratory of Pathology at the University of Nariño, using hematoxylin and eosin stain. This way, degenerative valvular disease was diagnosed.

  2. [Tuberculous rheumatism "Poncet's disease". Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Zamudio, Gustavo Esteban; Barbosa-Cobos, Rosa Elda; González-Ramírez, Laura Virginia; Delgado-Ochoa, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Deaths due to tuberculosis have reached 2.5 million cases per year worldwide. Poncet's disease is an infrequent form of tuberculosis characterised by a clinical picture of polyarthritis. A 24-year-old male presented with morning stiffness, arthralgias, bilateral symmetric arthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joints, wrists, knees, ankles, and shoulders, and adenomegalies at the cervical, submandibular, left supraclavicular, axillary and inguinal levels, without fever. Laboratory results were as follows: ESR 44mm/h, C-reactive protein 4.35, normal levels of complement C3 and C4, negative rheumatoid factor and anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, positive antinuclear antibodies with fine speckled pattern (1:320) and cytoplasm (1:160) pattern and negative anti-Smith, -double-stranded DNA, Sjogren's syndrome-antigen A and Sjogren's syndrome-antigen B. Histological report of cervical node tissue revealed granulomatous lesions compatible with tuberculosis. Rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus were ruled out. Anti-tuberculosis agents were initiated that resolved the clinical picture. Diagnosis of Poncet's disease was confirmed. The differential diagnosis between tuberculosis and autoimmune inflammatory joint diseases is a clinical challenge. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. Effective Teaching of Business Communications: Responding to Reported Business Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Thomas E.

    Research indicates that skills in listening to and motivating people need to be emphasized more in undergraduate business communication courses. Three theories of motivation--Maslow's hierarchy of needs, McClelland's achievement motive, and Hersberg's motivation-hygiene theory--can introduce students to the systems perspective, an approach…

  4. Epidemiology of major non-communicable diseases in Ethiopia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misganaw, Awoke; Mariam, Damen Haile; Ali, Ahmed; Araya, Tekebash

    2014-03-01

    Impact of non-communicable diseases is not well-documented in Ethiopia. We aimed to document the prevalence and mortality associated with four major non-communicable diseases in Ethiopia: cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Associated risk factors: hypertension, tobacco-use, harmful use of alcohol, overweight/obesity, and khat-chewing were also studied. Systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature between 1960 and 2011 was done using PubMed search engines and local libraries to identify prevalence studies on the four diseases. In total, 32 studies were found, and half of these studies were from Addis Ababa. Two hospital-based studies reviewed the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and found a prevalence of 7.2% and 24%; a hospital-based study reviewed cancer prevalence and found a prevalence of 0.3%; two hospital-based studies reviewed diabetes prevalence and found a prevalence of 0.5% and 1.2%; and two hospital-based studies reviewed prevalence of asthma and found a prevalence of 1% and 3.5%. Few community-based studies were done on the prevalence of diabetes and chronic pulmonary obstructive disease among the population. Several studies reviewed the impact of these diseases on mortality: cardiovascular disease accounts for 24% of deaths in Addis Ababa, cancer causes 10% of deaths in the urban settings and 2% deaths in rural setting, and diabetes causes 5% and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease causes 3% of deaths. Several studies reviewed the impact of these diseases on hospital admissions: cardiovascular disease accounts for 3%-12.6% and found to have increased between 1970s and 2000s; cancer accounts for 1.1%-2.8%, diabetes accounts for 0.5%-1.2%, and chronic obstructive diseases account for 2.7%-4.3% of morbidity. Overall, the major non-communicable diseases and related risk factors are highly prevalent, and evidence-based interventions should be designed.

  5. Novel Neuromodulation Techniques to Assess Interhemispheric Communication in Neural Injury and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Samuel S.; Pelled, Galit

    2017-01-01

    Interhemispheric interaction has a major role in various neurobehavioral functions. Its disruption is a major contributor to the pathological changes in the setting of brain injury such as traumatic brain injury, peripheral nerve injury, and stroke, as well as neurodegenerative diseases. Because interhemispheric interaction has a crucial role in functional consequence in these neuropathological states, a review of noninvasive and state-of-the-art molecular based neuromodulation methods that focus on or have the potential to elucidate interhemispheric interaction have been performed. This yielded approximately 170 relevant articles on human subjects or animal models. There has been a recent surge of reports on noninvasive methods such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. Since these are noninvasive techniques with little to no side effects, their widespread use in clinical studies can be easily justified. The overview of novel neuromodulation methods and how they can be applied to study the role of interhemispheric communication in neural injury and neurodegenerative disease is provided. Additionally, the potential of each method in therapeutic use as well as investigating the pathophysiology of interhemispheric interaction in neurodegenerative diseases and brain injury is discussed. New technologies such as transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial direct current stimulation could have a great impact in understanding interhemispheric pathophysiology associated with acquired injury and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as designing improved rehabilitation therapies. Also, advances in molecular based neuromodulation techniques such as optogenetics and other chemical, thermal, and magnetic based methods provide new capabilities to stimulate or inhibit a specific brain location and a specific neuronal population. PMID:28337129

  6. [Analysis on urban elderly people's preference for prevention and treatment of non-communicable diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ming-fan; Feng, Xing-lin

    2014-04-18

    To investigate the outpatient provider preference and its influencing factors among residents older than 45 years in China's urban areas. The data of China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS) taking place in the year 2011 were analyzed with the method of multinominal logistic regression. In the last month, the rates of respondents with hypertension or/and diabetes who were reported being ill and seeking treatment were higher than that of those without such diseases. 51.73% of the hypertensive and 64.81% of the diabetic preferred hospitals to community health service (CHS) and private clinics. Regression results showed that people with Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI), higher education level, higher capacity to pay and diabetes tended to choose hospitals rather than CHS. Urban people with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) preferred to use hospitals rather than the CHS, which reflected CHS's low performance in NCDs management. UEBMI failed to channel off the insured people to CHS. CHS needs to strengthen its ability to manage NCDs, and UEBMI should implement measures to attract patients' flow to CHS.

  7. Content Analysis in Mass Communication: Assessment and Reporting of Intercoder Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Matthew; Snyder-Duch, Jennifer; Bracken, Cheryl Campanella

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the importance of intercoder agreement for content analysis in mass communication research. Describes several indices for calculating this type of reliability (varying in appropriateness, complexity, and apparent prevalence of use). Presents a content analysis of content analyses reported in communication journals to establish how…

  8. Annual Enrollment Report Number of Students Studying Journalism and Mass Communication at All-time High.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lee B.; Vlad, Tudor; Huh, Jisu; Prine, Joelle

    2001-01-01

    Finds that journalism and mass communication programs appear to be entering another period of rapid enrollment growth, swept up by overall increases in enrollments at United States universities. Finds that only about four in ten of the journalism and mass communication programs report enrollments by race, suggesting many administrators are not…

  9. Legal aspects of public health: how law frames communicable disease control in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzianastasiou, Sophia; Pavli, Androula; Maltezou, Helena C

    2011-11-01

    We reviewed Greek law (legislation, historic Royal Decrees, and modern Presidential ones, 1833-2010) pertinent to control of communicable diseases and compared this body of Greek law with the revised International Health Regulations. Greece authorizes and regulates communicable disease control commensurate with public health risks, and integrates the principles of equality, objectivity, and respect for human rights. Despite strength at the level of principles, Greek law lacks coherence, clarity, and systematization. An inadequate body of regulations means legislation falls short of adequate implementing authority and guidelines; public health authorities often cannot find or understand the laws, nor are they certain about allocation of jurisdictional authority. We identified areas for improvement.

  10. Evaluating the use of verbal probability expressions to communicate likelihood information in IPCC reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Adam

    2014-05-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) prescribes that the communication of risk and uncertainty information pertaining to scientific reports, model predictions etc. be communicated with a set of 7 likelihood expressions. These range from "Extremely likely" (intended to communicate a likelihood of greater than 99%) through "As likely as not" (33-66%) to "Extremely unlikely" (less than 1%). Psychological research has investigated the degree to which these expressions are interpreted as intended by the IPCC, both within and across cultures. I will present a selection of this research and demonstrate some problems associated with communicating likelihoods in this way, as well as suggesting some potential improvements.

  11. Final Report Report: Smart Grid Ready PV Inverters with Utility Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seal, Brian [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Huque, Aminul [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Rogers, Lindsey [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Key, Tom [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Riley, Cameron [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Li, Huijuan [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); York, Ben [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Purcell, Chris [BPL Global, Inc., Canonsburg, PA (United States); Pacific, Oliver [Spirae, Inc., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Ropp, Michael [Northern Plains Power Technologies, Brookings, SD (United States); Tran, Teresa [DTE Energy, Detroit, MI (United States); Asgeirsson, Hawk [DTE Energy, Detroit, MI (United States); Woodard, Justin [National Grid, Warwick (United Kingdom); Steffel, Steve [Pepco Holdings, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-30

    In 2011, EPRI began a four-year effort under the Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems - Advanced Concepts (SEGIS-AC) to demonstrate smart grid ready inverters with utility communication. The objective of the project was to successfully implement and demonstrate effective utilization of inverters with grid support functionality to capture the full value of distributed photovoltaic (PV). The project leveraged ongoing investments and expanded PV inverter capabilities, to enable grid operators to better utilize these grid assets. Developing and implementing key elements of PV inverter grid support capabilities will increase the distribution system’s capacity for higher penetration levels of PV, while reducing the cost. The project team included EPRI, Yaskawa-Solectria Solar, Spirae, BPL Global, DTE Energy, National Grid, Pepco, EDD, NPPT and NREL. The project was divided into three phases: development, deployment, and demonstration. Within each phase, the key areas included: head-end communications for Distributed Energy Resources (DER) at the utility operations center; methods for coordinating DER with existing distribution equipment; back-end PV plant master controller; and inverters with smart-grid functionality. Four demonstration sites were chosen in three regions of the United States with different types of utility operating systems and implementations of utility-scale PV inverters. This report summarizes the project and findings from field demonstration at three utility sites.

  12. Chronic Non-communicable Diseases in Health Care Workers: a Multidisciplinary Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: the rise of chronic non-communicable diseases requires urgent attention within the projections of the health system in order to contribute to the control and better management of the multiple risk factors that accompany them. Objective: to determine major chronic non-communicable diseases and risk factors in health care workers. Methods: a correlational, case series study including workers of the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima University General Hospital in Cienfuegos was conducted from January 2009 through July 2012. A two-stage sampling design was used. The sample consisted of 187 subjects. Selected variables were: sex, age, occupation, educational level, chronic diseases, behavioural risk factors and emotional risk factors. Results: women (61 % and subjects who completed studies beyond 12th grade (48.6 % were more commonly affected by non-communicable diseases, as well as nurses (31 % and physicians (27.8 % in terms of occupation. Most frequent chronic diseases were hypertension (33.69 %, diabetes mellitus (19.78 % and ischemic heart disease (13 %. Major emotional risk factors included: stress (79.82 %, followed by anxiety (64.16 % and depression (35.29 %. Smoking predominated in 28.87 % of the subjects. Conclusions: professionals, women and workers aged 40 to 50 years predominated. It was demonstrated that chronic conditions studied and risk factors are most common in women. Over 50 % of the workers suffer from chronic diseases. Risk factors are present in subjects both with and without chronic conditions.

  13. Communicable disease among displaced Afghans: refuge without shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabali, Alefiyah; Moin, Omer; Ansari, Amna S; Khanani, Mohammad R; Ali, Syed H

    2009-08-01

    More than 23 years of warfare in Afghanistan has caused over 6 million Afghans to seek asylum in approximately 70 different countries, with most Afghan refugees settling in the developing countries of Pakistan and Iran. In a developing host country, poor sanitation and nutrition, overcrowding and inaccessibility to health care facilities act synergistically to influence morbidity and mortality from infectious disease in the refugee population. In this Science and Society article we discuss the prevalence of transmissible infection, modes of transmission, associated risk factors, and the state of health and health care in the displaced Afghan population.

  14. [Verbal and gestural communication in interpersonal interaction with Alzheimer's disease patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiaratura, Loris Tamara; Di Pastena, Angela; Askevis-Leherpeux, Françoise; Clément, Sylvain

    2015-03-01

    Communication can be defined as a verbal and non verbal exchange of thoughts and emotions. While verbal communication deficit in Alzheimer's disease is well documented, very little is known about gestural communication, especially in interpersonal situations. This study examines the production of gestures and its relations with verbal aspects of communication. Three patients suffering from moderately severe Alzheimer's disease were compared to three healthy adults. Each one were given a series of pictures and asked to explain which one she preferred and why. The interpersonal interaction was video recorded. Analyses concerned verbal production (quantity and quality) and gestures. Gestures were either non representational (i.e., gestures of small amplitude punctuating speech or accentuating some parts of utterance) or representational (i.e., referring to the object of the speech). Representational gestures were coded as iconic (depicting of concrete aspects), metaphoric (depicting of abstract meaning) or deictic (pointing toward an object). In comparison with healthy participants, patients revealed a decrease in quantity and quality of speech. Nevertheless, their production of gestures was always present. This pattern is in line with the conception that gestures and speech depend on different communicational systems and look inconsistent with the assumption of a parallel dissolution of gesture and speech. Moreover, analyzing the articulation between verbal and gestural dimensions suggests that representational gestures may compensate for speech deficits. It underlines the importance for the role of gestures in maintaining interpersonal communication.

  15. Brain-gut-microbe communication in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenham, Sue; Clarke, Gerard; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G

    2011-01-01

    Bidirectional signalling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain is regulated at neural, hormonal, and immunological levels. This construct is known as the brain-gut axis and is vital for maintaining homeostasis. Bacterial colonization of the intestine plays a major role in the post-natal development and maturation of the immune and endocrine systems. These processes are key factors underpinning central nervous system (CNS) signaling. Recent research advances have seen a tremendous improvement in our understanding of the scale, diversity, and importance of the gut microbiome. This has been reflected in the form of a revised nomenclature to the more inclusive brain-gut-enteric microbiota axis and a sustained research effort to establish how communication along this axis contributes to both normal and pathological conditions. In this review, we will briefly discuss the critical components of this axis and the methodological challenges that have been presented in attempts to define what constitutes a normal microbiota and chart its temporal development. Emphasis is placed on the new research narrative that confirms the critical influence of the microbiota on mood and behavior. Mechanistic insights are provided with examples of both neural and humoral routes through which these effects can be mediated. The evidence supporting a role for the enteric flora in brain-gut axis disorders is explored with the spotlight on the clinical relevance for irritable bowel syndrome, a stress-related functional gastrointestinal disorder. We also critically evaluate the therapeutic opportunities arising from this research and consider in particular whether targeting the microbiome might represent a valid strategy for the management of CNS disorders and ponder the pitfalls inherent in such an approach. Despite the considerable challenges that lie ahead, this is an exciting area of research and one that is destined to remain the center of focus for some time to come.

  16. Brain-Gut-Microbe Communication in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue eGrenham

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bidirectional signalling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain is regulated at neural, hormonal and immunological levels. This construct is known as the brain-gut axis and is vital for maintaining homeostasis. Bacterial colonisation of the intestine plays a major role in the post-natal development and maturation of the immune and endocrine systems. These processes are key factors underpinning central nervous system (CNS signalling. Recent research advances have seen a tremendous improvement in our understanding of the scale, diversity and importance of the gut microbiome. This has been reflected in the form of a revised nomenclature to the more inclusive brain-gut-enteric microbiota axis and a sustained research effort to establish how communication along this axis contributes to both normal and pathological conditions. In this review, we will briefly discuss the critical components of this axis and the methodological challenges that have been presented in attempts to define what constitutes a normal microbiota and chart its temporal development. Emphasis is placed on the new research narrative that confirms the critical influence of the microbiota on mood and behaviour. Mechanistic insights are provided with examples of both neural and humoral routes through which these effects can be mediated. The evidence supporting a role for the enteric flora in brain-gut axis disorders is explored with the spotlight on the clinical relevance for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, a stress-related functional gastrointestinal disorder. We also critically evaluate the therapeutic opportunities arising from this research and consider in particular whether targeting the microbiome might represent a valid strategy for the management of CNS disorders and ponder the pitfalls inherent in such an approach. Despite the considerable challenges that lie ahead, this is an exciting area of research and one that is destined to remain the centre of focus for some

  17. TOWARDS A 'GLOBAL' STRATEGY FOR TACKLING THE GLOBAL BURDEN OF COMMUNICABLE AND NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES IN RESOURSE LIMITED SETTINGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesina, Adekunle; Hiruye, Abiy; Berhe, Ephrem; Haile, Amanuel; Akinloye, Olugbenga; Abreha, Hagos; Tesfaye, Hagazi; Klaus, Kimberly; Enquselassie, Fikre

    2014-10-01

    The global burden of communicable diseases (CD) and non-communicable diseases (NCD) in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) likely stems from a common substratum of societal and system inadequacies. In order to appropriately control these conditions and to manage the determinants and deterrents of both CDs and NCDs related deaths and disabilities, joint strategies aimed at both systemic and population levels are warranted. Although deficiencies exist within the health systems of LMICs, assets which could be leveraged efficiently to produce desirable outcomes also abound. Significant changes are already taking place through health initiatives within LMICs, opening up opportunities for further success through the involvement of international agencies. The role of these agencies, including donor countries and LMICs' Diaspora, is to strengthen and support the opportunities offered by on-going changes at the country level. There is a need to better understand and support the drivers and processes of positive change within LMICs in order to harness them for more widespread benefit through scale-up efforts. Strategies for addressing CDs and NCDs should be devised and implemented as complementary rather than competing 'sides of the same coin'.

  18. Fruit and vegetable consumption and prevalence of diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases in Zanzibar, Tanzania: a mixed-methods study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræbel, Tania Aase; Keller, Amélie; de Courten, Max

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death in developed countries and account for roughly a third of deaths in developing countries. According to the 2004 Food and Agricultural Organization and WHO joint report on fruit and vegetables for health, low consumption of...

  19. The future of mathematical communication. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christy, J.

    1994-12-31

    One of the first fruits of cooperation with LBL was the use of the MBone (Multi-Cast Backbone) to broadcast the Conference on the Future of Mathematical Communication, held at MSRI November 30--December 3, 1994. Late last fall, MSRI brought together more than 150 mathematicians, librarians, software developers, representatives of scholarly societies, and both commercial and not-for-profit publishers to discuss the revolution in scholarly communication brought about by digital technology. The conference was funded by the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and the Paul and Gabriella Rosenbaum Foundation. It focused on the impact of the technological revolution on mathematics, but necessarily included issues of a much wider scope. There were talks on electronic publishing, collaboration across the Internet, economic and intellectual property issues, and various new technologies which promise to carry the revolution forward. There were panel discussions of electronic documents in mathematics, the unique nature of electronic journals, technological tools, and the role of scholarly societies. There were focus groups on Developing Countries, K-12 Education, Libraries, and Te{sub X}. The meeting also embodied the promises of the revolution; it was multicast over the MBone channel of the Internet to hundreds of sites around the world and much information on the conference will be available on their World Wide Web server at the URL http://www.msri.org/fmc. The authors have received many comments about the meeting indicating that it has had a profound impact on how the community thinks about how scientists can communicate and make their work public.

  20. Improving communication of diagnostic radiology findings through structured reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lawrence H; Panicek, David M; Berk, Alexandra R; Li, Yuelin; Hricak, Hedvig

    2011-07-01

    To compare the content, clarity, and clinical usefulness of conventional (ie, free-form) and structured radiology reports of body computed tomographic (CT) scans, as evaluated by referring physicians, attending radiologists, and radiology fellows at a tertiary care cancer center. The institutional review board approved the study as a quality improvement initiative; no written consent was required. Three radiologists, three radiology fellows, three surgeons, and two medical oncologists evaluated 330 randomly selected conventional and structured radiology reports of body CT scans. For nonradiologists, reports were randomly selected from patients with diagnoses relevant to the physician's area of specialization. Each physician read 15 reports in each format and rated both the content and clarity of each report from 1 (very dissatisfied or very confusing) to 10 (very satisfied or very clear). By using a previously published radiology report grading scale, physicians graded each report's effectiveness in advancing the patient's position on the clinical spectrum. Mixed-effects models were used to test differences between report types. Mean content satisfaction ratings were 7.61 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.12, 8.16) for conventional reports and 8.33 (95% CI: 7.82, 8.86) for structured reports, and the difference was significant (P < .0001). Mean clarity satisfaction ratings were 7.45 (95% CI: 6.89, 8.02) for conventional reports and 8.25 (95% CI: 7.68, 8.82) for structured reports, and the difference was significant (P < .0001). Grade ratings did not differ significantly between conventional and structured reports. Referring clinicians and radiologists found that structured reports had better content and greater clarity than conventional reports.

  1. Taipei's use of a multi-channel mass risk communication program to rapidly reverse an epidemic of highly communicable disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh-Yong Yen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In September 2007, an outbreak of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC occurred in Keelung City and spread to Taipei City. In response to the epidemic, a new crisis management program was implemented and tested in Taipei. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Having noticed that transmission surged on weekends during the Keelung epidemic, Taipei City launched a multi-channel mass risk communications program that included short message service (SMS messages sent directly to approximately 2.2 million Taipei residents on Friday, October 12th, 2007. The public was told to keep symptomatic students from schools and was provided guidelines for preventing the spread of the disease at home. Epidemiological characteristics of Taipei's outbreak were analyzed from 461 sampled AHC cases. Median time from exposure to onset of the disease was 1 day. This was significantly shorter for cases occurring in family clusters than in class clusters (mean+/-SD: 2.6+/-3.2 vs. 4.39+/-4.82 days, p = 0.03, as well as for cases occurring in larger family clusters as opposed to smaller ones (1.2+/-1.7 days vs. 3.9+/-4.0 days, p<0.01. Taipei's program had a significant impact on patient compliance. Home confinement of symptomatic children increased from 10% to 60% (p<0.05 and helped curb the spread of AHC. Taipei experienced a rapid decrease in AHC cases between the Friday of the SMS announcement and the following Monday, October 15, (0.70% vs. 0.36%. By October 26, AHC cases reduced to 0.01%. The success of this risk communication program in Taipei (as compared to Keelung is further reflected through rapid improvements in three epidemic indicators: (1 significantly lower crude attack rates (1.95% vs. 14.92%, p<0.001, (2 a short epidemic period of AHC (13 vs. 34 days, and (3 a quick drop in risk level (1 approximately 2 weeks in Taipei districts that border Keelung (the original domestic epicenter. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The timely launch of this systematic

  2. Molecular communications between plant heat shock responses and disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hoon; Yun, Hye Sup; Kwon, Chian

    2012-08-01

    As sessile, plants are continuously exposed to potential dangers including various abiotic stresses and pathogen attack. Although most studies focus on plant responses under an ideal condition to a specific stimulus, plants in nature must cope with a variety of stimuli at the same time. This indicates that it is critical for plants to fine-control distinct signaling pathways temporally and spatially for simultaneous and effective responses to various stresses. Global warming is currently a big issue threatening the future of humans. Reponses to high temperature affect many physiological processes in plants including growth and disease resistance, resulting in decrease of crop yield. Although plant heat stress and defense responses share important mediators such as calcium ions and heat shock proteins, it is thought that high temperature generally suppresses plant immunity. We therefore specifically discuss on interactions between plant heat and defense responses in this review hopefully for an integrated understanding of these responses in plants.

  3. Communicable disease surveillance and control in the context of conflict and mass displacement in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif A. Ismail

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Five years into the crisis, some progress has been made in disease surveillance, but governance and coordination problems, variable immunization coverage, and the dynamic and indiscriminate nature of the conflict continue to pose a serious threat to population health in Syria and surrounding countries. The risk of major cross-border communicable disease outbreaks is high, and challenges for health in a post-conflict Syria are formidable.

  4. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of mHealth interventions against non-communicable diseases in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephani, Victor; Opoku, Daniel; Quentin, Wilm

    2016-07-15

    The reasons of deaths in developing countries are shifting from communicable diseases towards non-communicable diseases (NCDs). At the same time the number of health care interventions using mobile phones (mHealth interventions) is growing rapidly. We review studies assessing the health-related impacts of mHealth on NCDs in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs). A systematic literature search of three major databases was performed in order to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mHealth interventions. Identified studies were reviewed concerning key characteristics of the trial and the intervention; and the relationship between intervention characteristics and outcomes was qualitatively assessed. The search algorithms retrieved 994 titles. 8 RCTs were included in the review, including a total of 4375 participants. Trials took place mostly in urban areas, tested different interventions (ranging from health promotion over appointment reminders and medication adjustments to clinical decision support systems), and included patients with different diseases (diabetes, asthma, hypertension). Except for one study all showed rather positive effects of mHealth interventions on reported outcome measures. Furthermore, our results suggest that particular types of mHealth interventions that were found to have positive effects on patients with communicable diseases and for improving maternal care are likely to be effective also for NCDs. Despite rather positive results of included RCTs, a firm conclusion about the effectiveness of mHealth interventions against NCDs is not yet possible because of the limited number of studies, the heterogeneity of evaluated mHealth interventions and the wide variety of reported outcome measures. More research is needed to better understand the specific effects of different types of mHealth interventions on different types of patients with NCDs in LaMICs.

  5. Patient Health Communication Mediating Effects Between Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Gastrointestinal Worry in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varni, James W; Shulman, Robert J; Self, Mariella M; Saeed, Shehzad A; Patel, Ashish S; Nurko, Samuel; Neigut, Deborah A; Saps, Miguel; Zacur, George M; Dark, Chelsea V; Bendo, Cristiane B; Pohl, John F

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the effects of patient health communication regarding their inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to their health care providers and significant others in their daily life as a mediator in the relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and gastrointestinal worry in pediatric patients. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Gastrointestinal Symptoms, Gastrointestinal Worry, and Communication Scales, and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales were completed in a 9-site study by 252 pediatric patients with IBD. Gastrointestinal Symptoms Scales measuring stomach pain, constipation, or diarrhea and patient communication were tested for bivariate and multivariate linear associations with Gastrointestinal Worry Scales specific to patient worry about stomach pain or bowel movements. Mediational analyses were conducted to test the hypothesized mediating effects of patient health communication as an intervening variable in the relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and gastrointestinal worry. The predictive effects of gastrointestinal symptoms on gastrointestinal worry were mediated in part by patient health communication with health care providers/significant others in their daily life. In predictive models using multiple regression analyses, the full conceptual model of demographic variables, gastrointestinal symptoms (stomach pain, constipation, or diarrhea), and patient communication significantly accounted for 46, 43, and 54 percent of the variance in gastrointestinal worry (all Ps < 0.001), respectively, reflecting large effect sizes. Patient health communication explains in part the effects of gastrointestinal symptoms on gastrointestinal worry in pediatric patients with IBD. Supporting patient disease-specific communication to their health care providers and significant others may improve health-related quality of life for pediatric patients with IBD.

  6. Formulaic Language as a Barrier to Effective Communication with People with Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Carers recognize that the linguistic problems associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be detrimental to effective communication, but they are often not sure what they can do to help. This article examines the use of formulaic language in AD, including routines, repetitions, and fillers, through the lens of a model of how cognitive and social…

  7. 21 CFR 1271.145 - Prevention of the introduction, transmission, or spread of communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prevention of the introduction, transmission, or spread of communicable diseases. 1271.145 Section 1271.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good...

  8. Non-communicable disease training for public health workers in low- and middle-income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davila, Evelyn P; Suleiman, Zubeda; Mghamba, Janneth;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are increasing worldwide. A lack of training and experience in NCDs among public health workers is evident in low- and middle- income countries. METHODS: We describe the design and outcomes of applied training in NCD epidemiology and control piloted in...

  9. Family Health History Communication Networks of Older Adults: Importance of Social Relationships and Disease Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Goodman, Melody; Schafer, Ellen J.

    2013-01-01

    Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication ("have shared" and "intend to share…

  10. Formulaic Language as a Barrier to Effective Communication with People with Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Carers recognize that the linguistic problems associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be detrimental to effective communication, but they are often not sure what they can do to help. This article examines the use of formulaic language in AD, including routines, repetitions, and fillers, through the lens of a model of how cognitive and social…

  11. Patients’ Perceptions of Cholesterol, Cardiovascular Disease Risk, and Risk Communication Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, Roberta E.; Parker, Donna R.; Eaton, Charles B.; Borkan, Jeffrey M.; Gramling, Robert; Cover, Rebecca T.; Ahern, David K.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE Despite some recent improvement in knowledge about cholesterol in the United States, patient adherence to cholesterol treatment recommendations remains suboptimal. We undertook a qualitative study that explored patients’ perceptions of cholesterol and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and their reactions to 3 strategies for communicating CVD risk.

  12. Country actions to meet UN commitments on non-communicable diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonita, Ruth; Magnusson, Roger; Bovet, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Strong leadership from heads of state is needed to meet national commitments to the UN political declaration on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and to achieve the goal of a 25% reduction in premature NCD mortality by 2025 (the 25 by 25 goal). A simple, phased, national response to the political ...

  13. Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailenson, Jeremy; Buzzanell, Patrice; Deetz, Stanley; Tewksbury, David; Thompson, Robert J.; Turow, Joseph; Bichelmeyer, Barbara; Bishop, M. J.; Gayeski, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of communications were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Jeremy Bailenson, Patrice Buzzanell, Stanley Deetz, David Tewksbury, Robert J. Thompson, and…

  14. Below the poverty line and non-communicable diseases in Kerala: The Epidemiology of Non-communicable Diseases in Rural Areas (ENDIRA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Jaideep; Vijayakumar, N; Joseph, Joseph K; David, P C; Menon, M N; Mukundan, Shyam; Dorphy, P D; Banerjee, Amitava

    2015-01-01

    India carries the greatest burden of global non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Poverty is strongly associated with NCDs but there are few prevalence studies which have measured poverty in India, particularly in rural settings. In Kerala, India, a population of 113,462 individuals was identified. The "Epidemiology of Non-communicable Diseases in Rural Areas" (ENDIRA) study was conducted via ASHAs (Accredited Social Health Activists). Standardised questionnaires were used in household interviews of individuals ≥18years during 2012 to gather sociodemographic, lifestyle and medical data for this population. The Government of Kerala definition of "the poverty line" was used. The association between below poverty line (BPL) status, NCDs and risk factors was analysed in multivariable regression models. 84,456 adults were included in the analyses (25.4% below the poverty line). The prevalence of NCDs was relatively common: myocardial infarction (MI) 1.4%, stroke 0.3%, respiratory diseases 5.0%, and cancer 1.1%. BPL status was not associated with age (p=0.96) or gender (p=0.26). Compared with those above the poverty line (APL), the BPL group was less likely to have diabetes, hypertension or dyslipidaemia (ppoverty line status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The visibility of non-communicable diseases in northern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, Susan Reynolds; Park, Sung-Joon; Odong, George

    2015-01-01

    to explore the recognized presence of selected chronic conditions in the out-patient population and to relate this ‘visibility’ to the ability of health units to diagnose and treat them. Methods : At six health facilities we reviewed patient registers for one month to determine the frequency of hypertension......, diabetes, depression, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We checked the availability of diagnostic instruments and medicines, and interviewed health workers. Results : The four conditions were rarely diagnosed in the outpatient population. Hypertension was the most common, but still constituted...... under 1% of diagnoses. Patterns of diagnosis were uneven, with higher frequency of particular diagnoses at some health facilities. Diagnostic equipment was not sufficient and screening was irregular. Medicine was mostly available although stockouts of some relevant drugs were reported. Conclusions...

  16. Are there any changes in burden and management of communicable diseases in areas affected by Cyclone Nargis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriwan Pichit

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to assess the situation of communicable diseases under national surveillance in the Cyclone Nargis-affected areas in Myanmar (Burma before and after the incident. Methods Monthly data during 2007, 2008 and 2009 from the routine reporting system for disease surveillance of the Myanmar Ministry of Health (MMOH were reviewed and compared with weekly reporting from the Early Warning and Rapid Response (EWAR system. Data from some UN agencies, NGOs and Tri-Partite Core Group (TCG periodic reviews were also extracted for comparisons with indicators from Sphere and the Inter-Agency Standing Committee. Results Compared to 2007 and 2009, large and atypical increases in diarrheal disease and especially dysentery cases occurred in 2008 following Cyclone Nargis. A seasonal increase in ARI reached levels higher than usual in the months of 2008 post-Nargis. The number of malaria cases post-Nargis also increased, but it was less clear if this reflected normal seasonal patterns or was specifically associated with the disaster event. There was no significant change in the occurrence of other communicable diseases in Nargis-affected areas. Except for a small decrease in mortality for diarrheal diseases and ARI in 2008 in Nargis-affected areas, population-based mortality rates for all other communicable diseases showed no significant change in 2008 in these areas, compared to 2007 and 2009. Tuberculosis control programs reached their targets of 70% case detection and 85% treatment success rates in 2007 and 2008. Vaccination coverage rates for DPT 3rd dose and measles remained at high though measles coverage still did not reach the Sphere target of 95% even by 2009. Sanitary latrine coverage in the Nargis-affected area dropped sharply to 50% in the months of 2008 following the incident but then rose to 72% in 2009. Conclusion While the incidence of diarrhea, dysentery and ARI increased post-Nargis in areas affected by the

  17. Examining U.S. and Spanish Annual Reports: Crisis Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Silveira, Juan C.; Ruiz-Garrido, Miguel F.

    2014-01-01

    Crisis has affected businesses worldwide. Many international corporations must cope with this turmoil, which affects their economic liability. Firms express their actual financial situation in the annual reports they issue every year. The annual report is a document that combines both promotional and informative features. Our study tries to find…

  18. Computer-mediated communication and the Gallaudet University community: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Nanette M; Lomicky, Carol S; Weiner, Stephen F

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) among individuals involved in a conflict sparked by the appointment of an administrator as president-designate of Gallaudet University in 2006. CMC was defined as forms of communication used for transmitting (sharing) information through networks with digital devices. There were 662 survey respondents. Respondents reported overwhelmingly (98%) that they used CMC to communicate. Students and alumni reported CMC use in larger proportions than any other group. The favorite devices among all respondents were Sidekicks, stationary computers, and laptops. Half of all respondents also reported using some form of video device. Nearly all reported using e-mail; respondents also identified Web surfing, text messaging, and blogging as popular CMC activities. The authors plan another article reporting on computer and electronic technology use as a mechanism connecting collective identity to social movements.

  19. Globalisation and the prevention and control of non-communicable disease: the neglected chronic diseases of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaglehole, R; Yach, D

    2003-09-13

    The growing global burden of non-communicable diseases in poor countries and poor populations has been neglected by policy makers, major multilateral and bilateral aid donors, and academics. Despite strong evidence for the magnitude of this burden, the preventability of its causes, and the threat it poses to already strained health care systems, national and global actions have been inadequate. Globalisation is an important determinant of non-communicable disease epidemics since it has direct effects on risks to populations and indirect effects on national economies and health systems. The globalisation of the production and marketing campaigns of the tobacco and alcohol industries exemplify the challenges to policy makers and public health practitioners. A full range of policy responses is required from government and non-governmental agencies; unfortunately the capacity and resources for this response are insufficient, and governments need to respond appropriately. The progress made in controlling the tobacco industry is a modest cause for optimism.

  20. Lyme disease associated neuroretinitis - Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanya, Melinda; Fejes, Imre; Jako, Maria; Tula, Areta; Terhes, Gabriella; Janaky, Marta; Bartfai, Gyorgy

    2015-12-01

    We describe a rare case of Lyme disease complicated by unilateral neuroretinitis in the right eye. We report a case of a 27-year-old woman with blurred vision on her right eye. Because of the suspicion of optic neuritis (multiplex sclerosis) neurological examination was ordered. Surprisingly, computer tomography of the brain revealed incomplete empty sella, which generally results not monocular, but bilateral optic nerve swelling. Opthalmological examination (ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography) indicated not only monocular optic nerve, but retinal oedema next to the temporal part of the right optic disk. Visual evoked potentials (VEP) demonstrated no P100 latency delay and mild differences between the amplitudes of the responses of the left and right eye. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) demonstrated the swelling of the optic nerve head and oedematous retina at the temporal part of the disk. Suspicion of an inflammatory cause of visual disturbance blood tests was ordered. Doxycycline treatment was ordered till the result of the blood test arrived. The Western blot and ELISA test were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Following one week corticosteroide and ceftriaxone treatments, the patient displayed a clinical improvement. Unilateral neuroretinitis with optic disk swelling due to neuroborreliosis is a rare complication and in many cases it is difficult to distinguish between inflammatory and ischemic lesions. Further difficulty in the diagnosis can occur when intracranial alterations such as empty sella is demonstrated by CT examination.

  1. Prevention of non-communicable diseases in Australia: What role should public health law play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvany, Kate

    2015-09-01

    This article explores the role of public health law in the prevention of non-communicable diseases in Australia. The growing urgency to address these diseases is acknowledged and the definition of public health law explored. It is argued that a broad definition of public health law would allow greater recognition of the numerous ways that law can positively influence health outcomes at the population level. Far from substantiating claims of over-reaching state intervention, public health law in the 21st century in Australia should be viewed as a more nuanced and protective strategy in promoting better public health. Adopting this approach offers a way forward towards addressing rising rates of non-communicable diseases, as well as significant health inequities, but it will require greater political will and leadership.

  2. Communicable diseases in rural and remote Australia: the need for improved understanding and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Emma K; Massey, Peter D; Speare, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Rural and remote communities of Australia, particularly those including Aboriginal people, experience greater morbidity and mortality across a range of health outcomes compared to urban communities. Previous national data have demonstrated that rural and remote communities experience a disproportionate burden of communicable diseases compared to their urban counterparts. This systematic review was undertaken to describe the types of research that have explored the epidemiology of communicable diseases in rural and remote communities in Australia, with particular reference to the social determinants of health. We conducted a keyword search of several databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE/PubMed, RURAL, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Database, Web of Science Core Collection, and Google and Google Scholar websites) for peer-reviewed and grey literature that described or analysed the epidemiology of communicable diseases in rural and/or remote communities of Australia from 2004 to 2013. Exclusion criteria were applied to keep the review focused on rural and/or remote communities and the population-level epidemiological analysis of communicable diseases. From 2287 retrieved articles, a total of 50 remained after applying exclusion criteria. The majority of included articles were descriptive studies (41/50). Seven of the total 50 articles contained analytical studies; one systematic literature review and one experimental study were also identified. Due to the diversity of approaches in measuring disease burden, we performed a narrative synthesis of the articles according to the review objectives. Most of the articles investigated the disease burden in remote (n=37/50) and Aboriginal communities only (n=21/50). The studies highlighted a high prevalence or incidence of skin, eye and respiratory infections for remote Aboriginal communities, particularly children over the past decade. There was emerging evidence to suggest that housing and social conditions play an

  3. Framing Strategies to Avoid Mother-Blame in Communicating the Origins of Chronic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winett, Liana B; Wulf, Alyssa B; Wallack, Lawrence

    2016-08-01

    Evolving research in epigenetics and the developmental origins of health and disease offers tremendous promise in explaining how the social environment, place, and resources available to us have enduring effects on our health. Troubling from a communications perspective, however, is the tendency in framing the science to hold mothers almost uniquely culpable for their offspring's later disease risk. The purpose of this article is to add to the conversation about avoiding this unintended outcome by (1) discussing the importance of cognitive processing and issue frames, (2) describing framing challenges associated with communicating about developmental origins of health and disease and offering principles to address them, and (3) providing examples of conceptual metaphors that may be helpful in telling this complex and contextual story for public health.

  4. Non communicable disease and risky behaviour in an urban university community Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ige, O K; Owoaje, E T; Adebiyi, O A

    2013-03-01

    Most developing countries have only limited information on the burden of Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) even though rapid transitions in these NCDs have been predicted. To describe the burden of selected NCDs and associated risk behaviours in an urban university community in Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of 525 representative staff of a University in a large city in Nigeria was conducted. In all, 27.6% were already diagnosed with at least one NCD (hypertension-21.5%, diabetes-11%, cancer 2.9%) while 67.4% reported at least one risk behaviour (unhealthy diet- 96%, sedentary living- 27.4% excessive alcohol use-5.1% and smoking- 1.9%). Multiple risk behaviours were observed in 29.9% with no significant variation by sex or age. Those 40 years and above had significantly higher prevalence of NCD, particularly for hypertension (p<0.05). Only 7%, considered themselves to be at risk of NCDs. Those whose parents had NCDs OR: 5.9 (2.4-14.5) and those who currently had NCDs OR: 3.9(1.8-8.1) perceived themselves at risk of one or more NCDs, but not those with multiple risk behaviours. The high burden of NCDs and risk behaviours in the face of limited self-perceived risk has been demonstrated and calls for urgent intervention.

  5. Information and communication technology systems to improve quality of life and safety of Alzheimer's disease patients: a multicenter international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotto, Alberto; D'Onofrio, Grazia; Benelli, Edoardo; Zanesco, Antonio; Cabello, Ana; Margelí, M Carmen; Wanche-Politis, Sophia; Seferis, Kostas; Sancarlo, Daniele; Kilias, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Within the frame of the European Commission funded Smart Home for Elderly People (HOPE) Project, relatives/caregivers of 223 Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients were recruited in Italy, Spain, and Greece for a multicenter international survey on the potential role of Information and Communication Technology system (ICT-systems) for AD patients. A five-minute video on HOPE ICT-systems was shown, and all relatives/caregivers completed a 13-item questionnaire that evaluated the potential role of: A) ICT-systems in improving quality of life, care, and safety; B) devices for monitoring personal movements, medication use, and ambient environmental conditions; C) devices to improve communication, home-based rehabilitation, and reduction of specific risks; and D) possible agreement in using ICT-systems by AD patients. Relatives/caregivers reported that ICT-systems could be very useful to improve: A) quality of life (66.4%), care (56.1%), and safety (87.0%); B) monitoring bed rest and movements (80.7%), medication use (87.4%), and ambient environmental conditions (85.2%); and C) emergency communication (83.4%). Relatives/caregivers reported that ICT-systems could be significantly more useful for AD patients aged 75-84 than patients aged educational level considered ICT-systems more useful than relatives/caregivers aged educational level (p ICT-system could be useful to improve the management of AD patients.

  6. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 2 Report. Volume 3; Ultra Wideband (UWB) Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Chiodini, Robert; Nelson, Richard A.; Huang, PoTien; Kruhm, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV), Orbital Space Plane, Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures. ECT was a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. RISM identified the three advance communication technologies investigated under ECT. These were Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi), Free Space Optics (FSO), and Ultra Wideband (UWB). Due to the report s size, it has been broken into three volumes: 1) Main Report 2) Appendices 3) UWB

  7. Prevalence of self reported musculoskeletal diseases is high

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.S.J. Picavet (Susan); J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To present the prevalence of self reported musculoskeletal diseases, the coexistence of these diseases, the test-retest reliability with six months in between, and the association with musculoskeletal pain symptoms. METHODS: Twelve layman descriptions of com

  8. Hailey- Hailey Disease - A Report Of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Jayasri

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hailey-Hailey disease is a benign familial chronic vesicobullous disease with unique histopathology. Four cases of this rare genodermatosis are reported here. All of them had the history of exacerbation in hot and humid weather.

  9. Torsion of a Communicating Hydrocele Presented as Acute Scrotum: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méio, Ivens Baker; Ferrante, Saulo Marcos Rebello; Forny, Danielle Nunes; da Cunha, André Lima

    2016-01-01

    Torsion of a communicating hydrocele is extremely rare, and the cause is unclear. We report the case of a 3-year-old boy referred to us with acute scrotum. Operative findings revealed torsion of a communicating hydrocele with a 360-degree rotation of the distal end. We performed surgical excision of the necrotic cystic mass and high ligation of the peritoneal communication. A high index of suspicion is required for the correct diagnosis and treatment of this condition, which should be included among the causes of acute scrotum in childhood. PMID:28003926

  10. COMMUNICATING ARTERY NOT VISUALIZED BY CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY-REPORT OF FOUR CASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊延; 王忠诚; 石祥恩

    1994-01-01

    Four cases of anterior communicating aneurysms are reported with clinical presentations of recurrent intracranial hemorrhage undisclosed in their cerbral angiography.Operative exploration revealed anterior communicating aneurysms in these patients.It is thought possible that these patients harbored aneurysms which failed to exhibit on angiograms due to temporary thrombosis or development of abnormal cerebral vessels.CT scanning was important for tdiagnosis of these patients.

  11. Report on university students’ hopes and fears for career planning--from interpersonal communication prospective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏晓非

    2014-01-01

    Recently there is a widespread concern about university students’ hopes and fears for the future especially when it comes to career planning. So we design a survey in order to find out university students’ thoughts about career planning through questionnaire. Our title is divided into 4 focuses and my report is from interpersonal communication. This paper provides an overview of the reality of university students’ interpersonal communication .

  12. Report on university students’ hopes and fears for career planning——from interpersonal communication prospective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏晓非

    2014-01-01

    Recently there is a widespread concern about university students’ hopes and fears for the future especially when it comes to career planning. So we design a survey in order to find out university students’ thoughts about career planning through questionnaire. Our title is divided into 4 focuses and my report is from interpersonal communication. This paper provides an overview of the reality of university students’ interpersonal communication.

  13. Guide to preparing SAND reports and other communication products : quick reference guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-03-01

    This 'Quick Reference Guide' supplements the more complete 'Guide to Preparing SAND Reports and Other Communication Products'. It provides limited guidance on how to prepare SAND Reports at Sandia National Laboratories. Users are directed to the in-depth guide for explanations of processes.

  14. Guide to Preparing SAND Reports and other communication products : quick reference guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-10-01

    This Quick Reference Guide supplements the more complete Guide to Preparing SAND Reports and Other Communication Products. It provides limited guidance on how to prepare SAND Reports at Sandia National Laboratories. Users are directed to the in-depth guide for explanations of processes.

  15. Communicating the Americans with Disabilities Act. Transcending Compliance: A Case Report on Sears, Roebuck and Co.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanck, Peter David

    This report examines the employment practices of Sears, Roebuck and Company, before and after the implementation of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). By studying the corporate behavior of Sears, which employs an estimated 20,000 people with disabilities, the report attempts to stimulate discussion of the communication issues that Sears…

  16. Fahr’s Disease: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    İlhan Kılınç

    2007-01-01

    Fahr’s disease is characterized with presence of calcifications in basal ganglions, dentate nucleus, and centrum semiovale. Common clinical findings of the disease are Parkinsonism, dystonia, chorea, ataxia, dementia, and mood disorders. We present a patient, in whom a diagnosis of Fahr disease established, with clinical and radiological findings. Neurological and physical exam of the 56 year-old female with complaints of memory loss and speech disorder for one year. Brain CT showed Fahr type...

  17. Communicable disease control programmes and health systems: an analytical approach to sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigayeva, Altynay; Coker, Richard J

    2015-04-01

    There is renewed concern over the sustainability of disease control programmes, and re-emergence of policy recommendations to integrate programmes with general health systems. However, the conceptualization of this issue has remarkably received little critical attention. Additionally, the study of programmatic sustainability presents methodological challenges. In this article, we propose a conceptual framework to support analyses of sustainability of communicable disease programmes. Through this work, we also aim to clarify a link between notions of integration and sustainability. As a part of development of the conceptual framework, we conducted a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed literature on concepts, definitions, analytical approaches and empirical studies on sustainability in health systems. Identified conceptual proposals for analysis of sustainability in health systems lack an explicit conceptualization of what a health system is. Drawing upon theoretical concepts originating in sustainability sciences and our review here, we conceptualize a communicable disease programme as a component of a health system which is viewed as a complex adaptive system. We propose five programmatic characteristics that may explain a potential for sustainability: leadership, capacity, interactions (notions of integration), flexibility/adaptability and performance. Though integration of elements of a programme with other system components is important, its role in sustainability is context specific and difficult to predict. The proposed framework might serve as a basis for further empirical evaluations in understanding complex interplay between programmes and broader health systems in the development of sustainable responses to communicable diseases.

  18. Perspectives on healthcare, chronic non-communicable disease, and healthworlds in an urban and rural setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez-Gonzalez, Daniel Lopes

    2014-12-01

    Background Amidst diverging discourses describing chronic non-communicable disease (NCD) and healthcare access, the hermeneutical tradition within sociology, particularly as exemplified in the work of Jurgen Habermas, provides a starting point for exploring and interpreting the experiences of chronic illness and healthcare access. In this study, we aimed to understand how women living with NCDs experience their illness and access healthcare in an urban and rural context. Methods This study was a mixed-methods comparative case study of the healthcare access experiences of women with NCDs in an urban and rural area in South Africa. The core of the study methodology was a comparative qualitative case study, with quantitative methods serving to contextualise the findings. Results The cross-sectional survey describes a low resource population with a high prevalence of NCDs. Slightly over half the respondents in urban Soweto (50.7%) reported having at least one NCD. Only around a third (33.3%) of these participants reported accessing formal healthcare services in the past 6 months. Similar trends were found in the review of research carried out in rural Agincourt. The qualitative case study in Soweto is characterised by a preoccupation with how medicine from the clinic interacts with the body. The Agincourt qualitative case study highlights the importance of church membership, particularly of African Christian Churches, as the strongest factor motivating against the open use of traditional medicine. Discussion A consideration of the findings suggests five broad themes for further research: 1) processes of constructing body narratives; 2) encounters with purposive-rational systems; 3) encounters with traditional medicine; 4) encounters with contemporary informal medicine; and 5) religion and healthcare. These five themes constitute the beginning of a comprehensive schema of the lifeworld/healthworld.

  19. Perspectives on healthcare, chronic non-communicable disease, and healthworlds in an urban and rural setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lopes Ibanez-Gonzalez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amidst diverging discourses describing chronic non-communicable disease (NCD and healthcare access, the hermeneutical tradition within sociology, particularly as exemplified in the work of Jurgen Habermas, provides a starting point for exploring and interpreting the experiences of chronic illness and healthcare access. In this study, we aimed to understand how women living with NCDs experience their illness and access healthcare in an urban and rural context. Methods: This study was a mixed-methods comparative case study of the healthcare access experiences of women with NCDs in an urban and rural area in South Africa. The core of the study methodology was a comparative qualitative case study, with quantitative methods serving to contextualise the findings. Results: The cross-sectional survey describes a low resource population with a high prevalence of NCDs. Slightly over half the respondents in urban Soweto (50.7% reported having at least one NCD. Only around a third (33.3% of these participants reported accessing formal healthcare services in the past 6 months. Similar trends were found in the review of research carried out in rural Agincourt. The qualitative case study in Soweto is characterised by a preoccupation with how medicine from the clinic interacts with the body. The Agincourt qualitative case study highlights the importance of church membership, particularly of African Christian Churches, as the strongest factor motivating against the open use of traditional medicine. Discussion: A consideration of the findings suggests five broad themes for further research: 1 processes of constructing body narratives; 2 encounters with purposive–rational systems; 3 encounters with traditional medicine; 4 encounters with contemporary informal medicine; and 5 religion and healthcare. These five themes constitute the beginning of a comprehensive schema of the lifeworld/healthworld.

  20. Intraoral Morgellons disease or delusional parasitosis: a first case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovigi, Allan J

    2010-08-01

    Morgellons disease is a new emerging disease that is still controversial and believed to be, by some practitioners, as nothing more than delusional parasitosis. The Center for Disease Control has recently launched an epidemiological investigation into this disease due to the increased number of reports. A first case is reported of an oral lesion and symptoms consistent with Morgellons disease. The nature of the characteristic fibers associated with the intraoral lesion is investigated. Research has started at a number of institutions to elucidate the nature of this emerging disease.

  1. Health communication, genetic determinism, and perceived control: the roles of beliefs about susceptibility and severity versus disease essentialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Roxanne; Kahl, Mary L; Ndiaye, Khadidiatou; Traeder, Tara

    2012-08-01

    This research examined the lay public's beliefs about genes and health that might be labeled deterministic. The goals of this research were to sort through the divergent and contested meanings of genetic determinism in an effort to suggest directions for public health genomic communication. A survey conducted in community-based settings of 717 participants included 267 who self-reported race as African American and 450 who self-reported race as Caucasian American. The survey results revealed that the structure of genetic determinism included 2 belief sets. One set aligned with perceived threat, encompassing susceptibility and severity beliefs linked to genes and health. The other set represents beliefs about biological essentialism linked to the role of genes for health. These concepts were found to be modestly positively related. Threat beliefs predicted perceived control over genes. Public health efforts to communicate about genes and health should consider effects of these messages for (a) perceived threat relating to susceptibility and severity and (b) perceptions of disease essentialism. Perceived threat may enhance motivation to act in health protective ways, whereas disease essentialist beliefs may contribute to a loss of motivation associated with control over health.

  2. First report of oligodendroglioma in a sheep : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Derakhshanfar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Oligodendrogliomas occur most commonly in the dog, but have also been reported in cattle, horses and cats. A 1-year-old sheep with neurological disturbances, including blindness, ataxia, circling and incoordination was referred to the veterinary clinic of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. Following euthanasia and necropsy, a soft, relatively well-demarcated mass was observed in the white and grey matter of the right cerebral hemisphere, close to the sylvian fissure in the right cerebral hemisphere. Microscopic examination revealed a sheet of densely packed tumour cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, lightly staining cytoplasm and characteristic perinuclear halo effect which is consistent with a diagnosis of oligodendroglioma. This is the 1st report of oligodendroglioma in sheep.

  3. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Document Server

    A. Petrilli

    2013-01-01

    The organisation of the Open Days at the end of September was the single biggest effort of the CMS Communications Group this year. We would like to thank all volunteers for their hard work to show our Point 5 facilities and explain science and technology to the general public. During two days more than 5,000 people visited the CMS detector underground and profited from the surface activities, which included an exhibition on CMS, a workshop on superconductivity, and an activity for our younger visitors involving wooden Kapla blocks. The Communications Group took advantage of the preparations to produce new CMS posters that can be reused at other venues. Event display images have been produced not just for this occasion but also for other exhibits, education purposes, publications etc. During the Open Days, Gilles Jobin, 2012 winner of CERN Collide@CERN prize, performed his Quantum show in Point 5, with the light installation of German artist Julius von Bismarck. Image 3: CERN Open Days at CMS wel...

  4. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor and D. Barney

    2010-01-01

    CMS Centres, Outreach and the 7 TeV Media Event The new CMS Communications group is now established and is addressing three areas that are critical to CMS as it enters the physics operations phase: - Communications Infrastructure, including almost 50 CMS Centres Worldwide, videoconferencing systems, and CERN meeting rooms - Information systems, including the internal and external Web sites as well as the document preparation and management systems - Outreach and Education activities, including working with print, radio and TV media, visits to CMS, and exhibitions. The group has been active in many areas, with the highest priority being accorded to needs of CMS operations and preparations for the major media event planned for 7 TeV collisions. Unfortunately the CMS Centre@CERN suffered a major setback when, on 21st December, a cooling water pipe froze and burst on the floor above the CMS Centre main room. Water poured through the ceiling, flooding the floor and soaking some of the consoles, before e...

  5. Integration of mental health and chronic non-communicable diseases in Peru: challenges and opportunities for primary care settings

    OpenAIRE

    Diez-Canseco, Francisco; CRONICAS Centro de Excelencia en Enfermedades Crónicas, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú. Psicólogo, magíster en Salud Pública.; Ipince, Alessandra; CRONICAS Centro de Excelencia en Enfermedades Crónicas, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú. antropóloga.; Toyama, Mauricio; CRONICAS Centro de Excelencia en Enfermedades Crónicas, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú. Facultad de Letras y Ciencias Humanas, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima, Perú. estudiante de Psicología.; Benate-Galvez, Ysabel; Gerencia de Prestaciones Primarias de Salud, Gerencia Central de Prestaciones de Salud, Seguro Social del Perú. médico geriatra.; Galán-Rodas, Edén; Gerencia de Prestaciones Primarias de Salud, Gerencia Central de Prestaciones de Salud, Seguro Social del Perú, EsSalud. Lima, Perú. médico cirujano.; Medina-Verástegui, Julio César; Gerencia de Prestaciones Primarias de Salud, Gerencia Central de Prestaciones de Salud, Seguro Social del Perú, EsSalud. Lima, Perú. médico pediatra.; Sánchez-Moreno, David; Centro de Salud “El Progreso”, Microrred de Salud Carabayllo, Red de Salud Túpac Amaru, DISA V Lima Ciudad, Ministerio de Salud, Lima, Perú. psicólogo.; Araya, Ricardo; Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Londres, Reino Unido. médico psiquiatra, doctor en Epidemiología Psiquiátrica.; Miranda, J. Jaime; CRONICAS Centro de Excelencia en Enfermedades Crónicas, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. médico, magíster y doctor en Epidemiología.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between mental health and chronic non-communicable diseases is discussed as well as the possibility to address them in a comprehensive manner in the Peruvian health system. First, the prevalence estimates and the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases and mental disorders worldwide and in Peru are reviewed. Then, the detrimental impact of depression in the early stages as well as the progress of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases is described. Addition...

  6. Improved maternal nutrition decreases children’s long-term risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    Improved maternal nutrition to decrease children’s long-term risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and obesity The nutritional well-being of pregnant women affects not only their health and their fetuses' development but also children's long-term risk of developing NCDs or obesity, according...... been recognized for decades, the report offers a systematized review of the most recent evidence on maternal nutrition and obesity and NCD prevention. The findings confirm that a mother's nutritional status – including overweight and obesity, excessive gestational weight gain and gestational diabetes...... – affects not only her child's health as an infant but also the child's risk of obesity and related chronic diseases as an adult. In short, maternal nutrition can truly have an intergenerational impact. Fighting NCDs and obesity through measures to improve maternal nutrition: NCDs are the leading cause...

  7. Exploring employment in consultation reports of patients with neuromuscular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerkens, Yvonne; Kuyk-Minis, Marie Antoinette van; Cup, Edith; Engels, Josephine; Engelen, Baziel van; Oostendorp, Rob

    2012-01-01

    To explore consultation reports for patient and employment characteristics and recommendations on employment regarding patients with neuromuscular diseases (NMDs). Eighty percent of the included consultation reports contained information on employment. Less than half the patients with NMD were emplo

  8. Exploring employment in consultation reports of patients with neuromuscular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minis, M.A.H; Cup, E.H.C.; Heerkens, Y.F.; Engels, J.A.; Engelen, B.G. van; Oostendorp, R.A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Minis MA, Cup EH, Heerkens YF, Engels JA, van Engelen BG, Oostendorp RA. Exploring employment in consultation reports of patients with neuromuscular diseases. OBJECTIVES: To explore consultation reports for patient and employment characteristics and recommendations on employment regarding patients

  9. Rationale for Using Social Media to Collect Patient-Reported Outcomes in Patients with Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kt; Harris, Merissa; Khavari, Nasim; Khosla, Chaitan

    2014-02-01

    Patients with celiac disease (CD) are increasingly interconnected through social media, exchanging patient experiences and health-tracking information between individuals through various web-based platforms. Social media represents potentially unique communication interface between gastroenterologists and active social media users - especially young adults and adolescents with celiac disease-regarding adherence to the strict gluten-free diet, gastrointestinal symptoms, and meaningful discussion about disease management. Yet, various social media platforms may be underutilized for research purposes to collect patient-reported outcomes data. In this commentary, we summarize the scientific rationale and potential for future growth of social media in patient-reported outcomes research, focusing on college freshmen with celiac disease as a case study and provide overview of the methodological approach. Finally, we discuss how social media may impact patient care in the future through increasing mobile technology use.

  10. Addison's disease and pregnancy: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosimo, Caterina; Franco, Ciro

    2009-10-01

    Addisonian crises, a rare but life-threatening event in pregnant women, may accompany stressful conditions such as labor, puerperium, infection, hyperemesis gravidarum or surgery. A 36-year-old woman, primigravida, with Addison's disease, diagnosed when she was 10 year-old and treated with cortisone and fludrocortisone. The therapy was regulated to avoid adrenal crisis during pregnancy. The woman underwent to caesarean section at 38th week and gave birth to a normal baby. The successful management of pregnant women with Addison's disease, regarding her state and that of the foetus, reassures those women that nowadays Addison's disease and pregnancy are not incompatible when proper monitoring and management is provided.

  11. Preventive Medicine in World War II. Volume 7. Communicable Diseases. Arthropodborne other than Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-01-01

    Personal communication. Harr/ Mo« MD.. Professor of Preventive Media or. Mew Tork Unl- Tcrsltr Coll ’.«« of Medicine, to Henry E. ».elener. M.D., Research...Fierre Jaune. L’Encyelopeclle M&lico- chirurgicale , 2d edition, Paris. 12- 1WÖC.) 362 rnSIJIIMI’AHI.E DISEASES Government, which in turn have

  12. Comprehension of insincere communication in neurodegenerative disease: lies, sarcasm, and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shany-Ur, Tal; Poorzand, Pardis; Grossman, Scott N; Growdon, Matthew E; Jang, Jung Y; Ketelle, Robin S; Miller, Bruce L; Rankin, Katherine P

    2012-01-01

    Comprehension of insincere communication is an important aspect of social cognition requiring visual perspective taking, emotion reading, and understanding others' thoughts, opinions, and intentions. Someone who is lying intends to hide their insincerity from the listener, while a sarcastic speaker wants the listener to recognize they are speaking insincerely. We investigated whether face-to-face testing of comprehending insincere communication would effectively discriminate among neurodegenerative disease patients with different patterns of real-life social deficits. We examined ability to comprehend lies and sarcasm from a third-person perspective, using contextual cues, in 102 patients with one of four neurodegenerative diseases (behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia [bvFTD], Alzheimer's disease [AD], progressive supranuclear palsy [PSP], and vascular cognitive impairment) and 77 healthy older adults (normal controls--NCs). Participants answered questions about videos depicting social interactions involving deceptive, sarcastic, or sincere speech using The Awareness of Social Inference Test. All subjects equally understood sincere remarks, but bvFTD patients displayed impaired comprehension of lies and sarcasm compared with NCs. In other groups, impairment was not disease-specific but was proportionate to general cognitive impairment. Analysis of the task components revealed that only bvFTD patients were impaired on perspective taking and emotion reading elements and that both bvFTD and PSP patients had impaired ability to represent others' opinions and intentions (i.e., theory of mind). Test performance correlated with informants' ratings of subjects' empathy, perspective taking and neuropsychiatric symptoms in everyday life. Comprehending insincere communication is complex and requires multiple cognitive and emotional processes vulnerable across neurodegenerative diseases. However, bvFTD patients show uniquely focal and severe impairments at every level

  13. An assessment of non-communicable diseases, diabetes, and related risk factors in the Republic of Palau: a systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiho, Henry M; Demei, Yorah; Kuartei, Stevenson; Aitaoto, Nia

    2013-05-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have been identified as a health emergency in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI).1 This assessment, funded by the National Institutes of Health, was conducted in the Republic of Palau and describes the burden due to selected NCD (diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, stroke, chronic kidney disease); and assesses the system of service capacity and current activities for service delivery, data collection, and reporting as well as identifying the issues that need to be addressed. There has been a 7.1% increase in the population between 2000 and 2010. Significant shifts in the age groups show declines among children and young adults under 34 years of age and increases among adult residents over 45 years of age. Findings reveal that the risk factors of poor diet, lack of physical activity, and lifestyle behaviors are associated with overweight and obesity and subsequent NCD that play a significant role in the morbidity and mortality of the population. The leading causes of death include heart disease and cancer. A 2003 community household survey was conducted and 22.4% of them reported a history of diabetes in the household. A survey among Ministry of Health employees showed that 44% of the men and 47% of the women were overweight and 46% of the men and 42% of the women were obese. Other findings show significant gaps in the system of administrative, clinical, and support services to address these NCD. Priority issues and needs for the administrative and clinical systems were identified.

  14. Addison's disease secondary to connective tissue diseases: a report of six cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuo-li; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Wei; Hao, Yan-jie

    2009-04-01

    Addison's disease is an autoimmune process. However, Addison's disease associated with connective tissue diseases (CTD) is only occasionally reported. Here, we report six cases of Addison's disease secondary to a variety of CTD, which include systemic lupus erythematosus, Takayasu arteritis, systemic sclerosis, ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. The association of Addison's disease with Takayasu arteritis and AS is reported for the first time. We also found high prevalence of hypothyroidism as concomitant autoimmune disorder. Our case series highlight the autoimmune features of Addison's disease. Therefore, we suggest considering adrenal dysfunction in patients with CTD.

  15. Responding to non-communicable diseases in Zambia: a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukanu, Mulenga M; Zulu, Joseph Mumba; Mweemba, Chrispin; Mutale, Wilbroad

    2017-04-24

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are an emerging global health concern. Reports have shown that, in Zambia, NCDs are also an emerging problem and the government has begun initiating a policy response. The present study explores the policy response to NCDs by the Ministry of Health in Zambia using the policy triangle framework of Walt and Gilson. A qualitative approach was used for the study. Data collected through key informant interviews with stakeholders who were involved in the NCD health policy development process as well as review of key planning and policy documents were analysed using thematic analysis. The government's policy response was as a result of international strategies from WHO, evidence of increasing disease burden from NCDs and pressure from interest groups. The government developed the NCD strategic plan based on the WHO Global Action Plan for NCDs 2013-2030. Development of the NCD strategic plan was driven by the government through the Ministry of Health, who set the agenda and adopted the final document. Stakeholders participated in the fine tuning of the draft document from the Ministry of Health. The policy development process was lengthy and this affected consistency in composition of the stakeholders and policy development momentum. Lack of representative research evidence for some prioritised NCDs and use of generic targets and indicators resulted in the NCD strategic plan being inadequate for the Zambian context. The interventions in the strategic plan also underutilised the potential of preventing NCDs through health education. Recent government pronouncements were also seen to be conflicting the risk factor reduction strategies outlined in the NCD strategic plan. The content of the NCD strategic plan inadequately covered all the major NCDs in Zambia. Although contextual factors like international strategies and commitments are crucial catalysts to policy development, there is need for domestication of international guidelines and

  16. Fahr’s Disease: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhan Kılınç

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fahr’s disease is characterized with presence of calcifications in basal ganglions, dentate nucleus, and centrum semiovale. Common clinical findings of the disease are Parkinsonism, dystonia, chorea, ataxia, dementia, and mood disorders. We present a patient, in whom a diagnosis of Fahr disease established, with clinical and radiological findings. Neurological and physical exam of the 56 year-old female with complaints of memory loss and speech disorder for one year. Brain CT showed Fahr type calcification in the basal ganglion, thalamus, periventricular white matter, centrum semiovale, and cerebellum. Fahr’s disease must be present in differential diagnosis of patients with calcification in basal ganglion, thalamus, periventricular white matter, centrum semiovale, and cerebellum on CT or MRI that could not be explained otherwise.

  17. [Constructing an ACP Simulation-Situation Communication Training Program for Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jui-O; Lin, Chiu-Chu

    2016-06-01

    The aging population and changing lifestyles have lead to the increased general risk of chronic kidney disease. Taiwan currently has the highest incidence and prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) of any country or region in the world. Hemodialysis patients must endure comorbidities and face the uncertainties of death. The best way to achieve a good death is for patients to sign advance care planning (ACP). However, the key factors contributing to low ACP signature rates have been the lack of communication skills and related training among medical staffs. This article explores the dilemma of ACP using an example of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and proposes a theory-based approach to develop a theoretical framework for an ACP simulation-situation communication training program that integrates the simulation situation model, PREPARED model, and scaffolding theory. Readers may use this framework to design ACP simulation-situation communication training programs that conform to their own conditions and then test the effectiveness and feasibility of these programs in clinical settings.

  18. A Simulation of Communicable Disease and Herd Immunity for the Microbiology Classroom or Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Wiles

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern medicine has reduced the incidence of communicable disease, but humanity continues to suffer from a wide variety of ailments caused by infectious microorganisms. Modelling this transmission allows for a greater awareness of the various mechanisms through which disease can spread. This procedure allows students to participate in a completely safe, real-time exercise that demonstrates the ease at which a susceptible population can become infected. In addition, this exercise allows for a demonstration of the efficacy of herd immunity. An easily-prepared set of cards takes the place of actual microorganisms.

  19. Differentials in risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases from the race/color standpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Carvalho Malta; Lenildo de Moura; Regina Tomie Ivata Bernal

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the differences between the prevalence of risk factors of non-communicable chronic disease by race/color. It is a cross-sectional study using data from a telephone survey of 45,448 adults. Prevalence ratios for chronic disease risk factors by race/color were calculated. After adjustments were made for education and income, race/color differences persisted. Among afro-descendant and mulatto women and mulatto men a higher prevalence ratio was identified of physical ...

  20. Diaphragm disease of the small intestine: an interesting case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Sana; Ajab, Shereen; Rao, Rajashekhar; Raghunathan, Girish; DaCosta, Philip

    2015-06-01

    Diaphragm disease of small intestine usually presents with nonspecific clinical features. Radiological investigations often fail to differentiate it from small intestinal tumors and inflammatory bowel disease. It is therefore diagnosed on final histology after surgical resection. We hereby report an interesting case of a suspected small bowel tumor later diagnosed as diaphragm disease on histology.

  1. Determinants of public phobia about infectious diseases in South Korea: effect of health communication and gender difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo; Choi, Mankyu; Lee, Tae-Ro

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the individual and social determinants of the public's phobia of infectious diseases in South Korea, where collective action was recently fueled by the public phobia over mad cow disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy [BSE]). Gender-specific multivariate regression was used to compare the public perception of BSE and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). The analysis results differentiated between the determinants of the phobia for the 2 diseases, BSE and HPAI (N = 1002). As with HIV/AIDS and leprosy, the public fear of HPAI was expressed as a disease phobia that seeks to ensure the social exclusion of infection sources, whereas the fear of BSE was influenced by social and communication factors. Therefore, BSE, unlike previous HPAI, can be rapidly amplified amid the growing distrust in health communication, in which case the social determinants of disease phobia are associated with communicator trust, social values, and political attitude toward diseases rather than disease perception.

  2. Legionnaires' disease after a campervan holiday: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euser, Sjoerd M; Diederen, Bram M W; Bakker, Meta; Honing, Marina L H; Bruin, Jacob P; Brandsema, Petra S; Reijnen, Linda; Den Boer, Jeroen W

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a case of Legionnaires' disease for whom the source of infection was the campervan in which the patient had travelled for 3 months. This case shows that Legionnaires' disease can be acquired by exposure to a relatively new (not previously reported) source that is commonly used as (holiday)transportation vehicle.

  3. COMMUNICATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    The Medical Service is taking part in the French, National Hearing Day You are invited on 15th May 2002 to come to the infirmary, build. 57 ground floor, between 9.00 and 16.00 to find out the possible harmful effects of noise, risk prevention and other auditory diseases and problems. A hard of Hearing Association member will be there to answer your questions. An on the spot hearing test will be available.

  4. Horizontal inequity in public health care service utilization for non-communicable diseases in urban Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Duy Kien

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A health system that provides equitable health care is a principal goal in many countries. Measuring horizontal inequity (HI in health care utilization is important to develop appropriate and equitable public policies, especially policies related to non-communicable diseases (NCDs. Design: A cross-sectional survey of 1,211 randomly selected households in slum and non-slum areas was carried out in four urban districts of Hanoi city in 2013. This study utilized data from 3,736 individuals aged 15 years and older. Respondents were asked about health care use during the previous 12 months; information included sex, age, and self-reported NCDs. We assessed the extent of inequity in utilization of public health care services. Concentration indexes for health care utilization and health care needs were constructed via probit regression of individual utilization of public health care services, controlling for age, sex, and NCDs. In addition, concentration indexes were decomposed to identify factors contributing to inequalities in health care utilization. Results: The proportion of healthcare utilization in the slum and non-slum areas was 21.4 and 26.9%, respectively. HI in health care utilization in favor of the rich was observed in the slum areas, whereas horizontal equity was achieved among the non-slum areas. In the slum areas, we identified some key factors that affect the utilization of public health care services. Conclusion: Our results suggest that to achieve horizontal equity in utilization of public health care services, policy should target preventive interventions for NCDs, focusing more on the poor in slum areas.

  5. Legal priorities for prevention of non-communicable diseases: innovations from WHO's Eastern Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostin, L O; Abou-Taleb, H; Roache, S A; Alwan, A

    2017-03-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death globally and in the World Health Organization's (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR). This paper reports on a research collaboration between the WHO's Eastern Mediterranean Office (EMRO) and the O'Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law at Georgetown University that aims to identify (1) regionally relevant, cost-effective and affordable legal interventions to prevent NCDs, and (2) methods to strengthen implementation and enforcement. Comparative analysis of >200 international, regional and domestic interventions addressing key NCD risk factors, including tobacco, alcohol, diet and physical inactivity. Researchers searched legal and policy databases including the WHO Nutrition, Obesity and Physical Activity Database and drew upon academic commentary and 'grey' literature. Measures included evidence of impact; evidence of cost-effectiveness; and monitoring and enforcement mechanisms. Researchers identified many examples of legal interventions effectively reducing NCD risk factors. Key enabling factors for effective NCD-related laws include regulatory capacity; governance mechanisms promoting multisectoral collaboration and accountability; and tailoring interventions to local legal, economic and social contexts. In the EMR, and globally, law can be a cost-effective and affordable means of curbing underlying drivers of the NCD pandemic, such as rampant junk food marketing. Building upon this research, together with international and regional experts, EMRO has identified 10 priority interventions in the areas of tobacco control, unhealthy diets and NCD governance. The EMRO/O'Neill Institute partnership will develop guidance tools and capacity building initiatives to support Member States to harness the power of law to achieve population health improvements. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. 47 CFR 4.13 - Reports by the National Communications System (NCS) and by special offices and facilities, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... day in the FCC's Communications and Crisis Management Center in Washington, DC. Notification may be... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reports by the National Communications System (NCS) and by special offices and facilities, and related responsibilities of communications...

  7. A Surveillance Model for Human Avian Influenza with a Comprehensive Surveillance System for Local-Priority Communicable Diseases in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafusa, Shigeki; Muhadir, Andi; Santoso, Hari; Tanaka, Kohtaroh; Anwar, Muhammad; Sulistyo, Erwan Tri; Hachiya, Masahiko

    2012-01-01

    The government of Indonesia and the Japan International Cooperation Agency launched a three-year project (2008–2011) to strengthen the surveillance of human avian influenza cases through a comprehensive surveillance system of local-priority communicable diseases in South Sulawesi Province. Based on findings from preliminary and baseline surveys, the project developed a technical protocol for surveillance and response activities in local settings, consistent with national guidelines. District surveillance officers (DSOs) and rapid-response-team members underwent training to improve surveillance and response skills. A network-based early warning and response system for weekly reports and a short message service (SMS) gateway for outbreak reports, both encompassing more than 20 probable outbreak diseases, were introduced to support existing paper-based systems. Two further strategies were implemented to optimize project outputs: a simulation exercise and a DSO-centered model. As a result, the timeliness of weekly reports improved from 33% in 2009 to 82% in 2011. In 2011, 65 outbreaks were reported using the SMS, with 64 subsequent paper-based reports. All suspected human avian influenza outbreaks up to September 2011 were reported in the stipulated format. A crosscutting approach using human avian influenza as the core disease for coordinating surveillance activities improved the overall surveillance system for communicable diseases. PMID:23532690

  8. Addison's Disease Mimicking as Acute Pancreatitis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Sayani; Rao, Karthik N; Patil, Navin; Ommurugan, Balaji; Varghese, George

    2017-04-01

    Over past two decades there has been significant improvement in medical field in elucidating the underlying pathophysiology and genetics of Addison's disease. Adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease) is a rare disease with an incidence of 0.8/100,000 cases. The diagnosis may be delayed if the clinical presentation mimics a gastrointestinal disorder or psychiatric illness. We report a case of Addison's disease presenting as acute pain in abdomen mimicking clinical presentation of acute pancreatitis.

  9. Patient-reported Communication Quality and Perceived Discrimination in Maternity Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasio, Laura; Kozhimannil, Katy B

    2015-10-01

    High-quality communication and a positive patient-provider relationship are aspects of patient-centered care, a crucial component of quality. We assessed racial/ethnic disparities in patient-reported communication problems and perceived discrimination in maternity care among women nationally and measured racial/ethnic variation in the correlates of these outcomes. Data for this analysis came from the Listening to Mothers III survey, a national sample of women who gave birth to a singleton baby in a US hospital in 2011-2012. Outcomes were reluctance to ask questions and barriers to open discussion in prenatal care, and perceived discrimination during the birth hospitalization, assessed using multinomial and logistic regression. We also estimated models stratified by race/ethnicity. Over 40% of women reported communication problems in prenatal care, and 24% perceived discrimination during their hospitalization for birth. Having hypertension or diabetes was associated with higher levels of reluctance to ask questions and higher odds of reporting each type of perceived discrimination. Black and Hispanic (vs. white) women had higher odds of perceived discrimination due to race/ethnicity. Higher education was associated with more reported communication problems among black women only. Although having diabetes was associated with perceptions of discrimination among all women, associations were stronger for black women. Race/ethnicity was associated with perceived racial discrimination, but diabetes and hypertension were consistent predictors of communication problems and perceptions of discrimination. Efforts to improve communication and reduce perceived discrimination are an important area of focus for improving patient-centered care in maternity services.

  10. Congruence in reported frequency of parent-adolescent sexual health communication: A study from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atienzo, Erika E; Ortiz-Panozo, Eduardo; Campero, Lourdes

    2015-08-01

    Most studies on parent-adolescent sexual health communication come from developed countries and are based on either parents' or children's reports. In developing countries, there is little evidence about the agreement among reports of all parties involved in parent-adolescent sexual health communication. The objective of this study is to explore the congruence (agreement) between adolescents and their parents about how frequently they discuss on selected sexual health topics. A total of 1606 parent-adolescent dyads of adolescents attending the first year in public high schools and their parents, in Morelos, Mexico were sampled in this study. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that included the frequency of parent-adolescent communication about eight sexual health topics. An ordinal logistic threshold model was used to estimate intra-class correlation coefficients within parent-adolescent dyads (as a measure of congruence) and to test if thresholds were equal between parents and adolescents. Congruence in reported frequency of parent-adolescent sexual health communication ranged from 0.205 (menstruation) to 0.307 (condoms) for mother-adolescent dyads, and from 0.103 (ejaculation) to 0.380 (condoms) for father-adolescent dyads. The thresholds (i.e., the cutoff points that define the categories in the observed ordinal variable) differed between parents and adolescents for each of the sexual health topics explored (p<0.05 for father-adolescent dyads and p<0.001 for mother-adolescent dyads). Our findings suggest a low congruence between parents' and adolescents' reports on parent-adolescent sexual health communication. This might be due to interpretation of frequency and intensity of sexual health communication which differs between parents and adolescents.

  11. Applying the WHO ICF Framework to Communication Assessment and Goal Setting in Huntington's Disease: A Case Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Emma; Anderson, Alison; Togher, Leanne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Huntington's Disease (HD) is a fatal, hereditary neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by a triad of motor, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms that impact on both communicative effectiveness and the treatment techniques used to maximize communicative participation. The purpose of this article is to describe the application of…

  12. Applying the WHO ICF Framework to Communication Assessment and Goal Setting in Huntington's Disease: A Case Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Emma; Anderson, Alison; Togher, Leanne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Huntington's Disease (HD) is a fatal, hereditary neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by a triad of motor, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms that impact on both communicative effectiveness and the treatment techniques used to maximize communicative participation. The purpose of this article is to describe the application of…

  13. Design for an Analysis and Assessment of the Education Satellite Communications Demonstration: Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Practical Concepts, Inc., Washington, DC.

    A 3-month evaluation design effort developed a strategy and implementation plan for a policy level evaluation of the Educational Satellite Communications Demonstration (ESCD). The final report of the effort covers: (1) development of the evaluation strategy and plan; (2) data collection and analysis; (3) measurement of the impact of satellite TV…

  14. The Neutral in A Communication Network Under Conditions of Conflict. A Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziller, Robert C.; And Others

    Two laboratory experiments are reported which describe the effects of the presence of a neutral in a communication network during the resolution of differences of opinion between two persons. The presence of a neutral was found to be associated with increased resistance to persuasion, increased number of messages between parties, and increased…

  15. American Psychologist Task Force Report: Clarifying Mission, Coverage, Communication, and Review Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbardo, Philip G.

    2002-01-01

    An American Psychological Association task force reviewed the role and function of "American Psychologist," (AP) focusing on its coverage domain and issues related to its editorial review process. This report examines AP editorial domain, AP editorial instructions, AP editorship, communications within the AP editorial process, use of ad…

  16. IFPA meeting 2016 workshop report I: Genomic communication, bioinformatics, trophoblast biology and transport systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Christiane; Baker, Julie C; Blundell, Cassidy; Chavez, Shawn L; Carbone, Lucia; Chamley, Larry; Hannibal, Roberta L; Illsley, Nick; Kurre, Peter; Laurent, Louise C; McKenzie, Charles; Morales-Prieto, Diana; Pantham, Priyadarshini; Paquette, Alison; Powell, Katie; Price, Nathan; Rao, Balaji M; Sadovsky, Yoel; Salomon, Carlos; Tuteja, Geetu; Wilson, Samantha; O'Tierney-Ginn, P F

    2017-01-11

    Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting as they allow for discussion of specialized topics. At IFPA meeting 2016 there were twelve themed workshops, four of which are summarized in this report. These workshops covered innovative technologies applied to new and traditional areas of placental research: 1) genomic communication; 2) bioinformatics; 3) trophoblast biology and pathology; 4) placental transport systems.

  17. An oral ulceration associated with Morgellons disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosskopf, Courtney; Desai, Bhavik; Stoopler, Eric T

    2011-08-01

    Morgellons disease is a psycho-dermatologic condition in which patients report fibers or filaments "growing" out of their skin. This case report highlights an oral ulceration in a young woman associated with Morgellons disease, a condition that has not been previously described in the dental literature. An increasing number of individuals are self-reporting this condition and oral health care providers must be familiar with this disorder. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease: a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Sarraf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease is a prion disease which has a wide range of clinical presentations. Its diagnosis is not simple and clinical manifestation along with EEG, MR imaging findings and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis should be considered for a definite diagnosis. A-50-year-old woman referred with cognitive impairment, myoclonic jerks, mutism and difficulty in swallowing to our clinic. EEG (Electroencephalography results showed bilaterally periodic sharp and slow-wave discharges. Protein 14-3-3 in CSF was detected. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings revealed hyperintensity of the caudate and putamen in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI, T2 Weighted (T2W sequences and Fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR images. Patients who have progressive dementia should be evaluated by means of MR imaging and CSF analysis for CJD specific proteins should be considered.

  19. Political priority in the global fight against non–communicable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Maher

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of non–communicable diseases (NCDs – such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic respiratory diseases – is surging globally. Yet despite the availability of cost–effective interventions, NCDs receive less than 3% of annual development assistance for health to low and middle income countries. The top donors in global health – including the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the US Government, and the World Bank – together commit less than 2% of their budgets to the prevention and control of NCDs. Why is there such meagre funding on the table for the prevention and control of NCDs? Why has a global plan of action aimed at halting the spread of NCDs been so difficult to achieve?

  20. Communicating the financial worth of the CNS through the use of fiscal reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro-McDuffie, A; Chan, J S; Jerome, A M

    1993-03-01

    To maintain the clinical nurse specialist's (CNS's) leading role within hospital nursing services, routine communication to hospital administration of the impact of the CNS role on the hospital's budget is imperative. The CNS group at Children's Hospital of The King's Daughters implemented a quarterly Fiscal Report to clarify the financial worth of CNS practice. The Fiscal Report presents cost savings and revenue generating activities utilizing the role components of the CNS. During fiscal year 1991, the CNS group reported a total impact of $1,600,000. This article describes in detail the use of the Fiscal Report.

  1. Kikuchi's disease (histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis): report of one case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, C H; Yang, W; Tsai, Y C; Huang, P H

    1999-01-01

    Kikuchi's disease (histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis) is a self-limited disease of unknown cause. The disease often presents with persistently intermittent fever and enlarged cervical lymph nodes. It usually occurs in adult group and is unresponsive to antibiotic therapy. The diagnosis can be confirmed by histopathological findings of lymph node in open biopsy. We report a pediatric case of Kikuchi's disease in an 8-year-8-month-old school-age boy with generalized lymphadenopathy. He was hospitalized under the impression of fever of unknown origin. A diagnosis of Kikuchi's disease was made by cervical lymph node histology. Reviewing the literature of Kikuchi's disease, we found very few reports in young pediatric group. We conclude that Kikuchi's disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin in children, even in the absence of cervical lymphadenopathy.

  2. Adverse event reporting in Slovenia - the influence of safety culture, supervisors and communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birk Karin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The provision of safe healthcare is considered a priority in European Union (EU member states. Along with other preventative measures in healthcare, the EU also strives to eliminate the “causes of harm to human health”. The aim of this survey was to determine whether safety culture, supervisors and communication between co-workers influence the number of adverse event reports submitted to the heads of clinical departments and to the management of an institution. Methods. This survey is based on cross-sectional analysis. It was carried out in the largest Slovenian university hospital. We received 235 completed questionnaires. Respondents included professionals in the fields of nursingcare, physiotherapy, occupational therapy and radiological technology. Results. Safety culture influences the number of adverse event reports submitted to the head of a clinical department from the organizational point of view. Supervisors and communication between co-workers do not influence the number of adverse event reports. Conclusion. It can be concluded that neither supervisors nor the level of communication between co-workers influence the frequency of adverse event reporting, while safety culture does influence it from an organizational point of view. The presumed factors only partly influence the number of submitted adverse event reports, thus other causes of under-reporting must be sought elsewhere.

  3. Prevention and management of non-communicable disease: the IOC consensus statement, Lausanne 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Gordon O; Klügl, Martin; Engebretsen, Lars; Bendiksen, Fredrik; Blair, Steven N; Börjesson, Mats; Budgett, Richard; Derman, Wayne; Erdener, Ugur; Ioannidis, John P A; Khan, Karim M; Martinez, Rodrigo; Van Mechelen, Willem; Mountjoy, Margo; Sallis, Robert E; Schwellnus, Martin; Shultz, Rebecca; Soligard, Torbjørn; Steffen, Kathrin; Sundberg, Carl Johan; Weiler, Richard; Ljungqvist, Arne

    2013-11-01

    Morbidity and mortality from preventable, non-communicable chronic disease (NCD) threatens the health of our populations and our economies. The accumulation of vast amounts of scientific knowledge has done little to change this. New and innovative thinking is essential to foster new creative approaches that leverage and integrate evidence through the support of big data, technology and design thinking. The purpose of this paper is to summarise the results of a consensus meeting on NCD prevention sponsored by the IOC in April 2013. Within the context of advocacy for multifaceted systems change, the IOC's focus is to create solutions that gain traction within healthcare systems. The group of participants attending the meeting achieved consensus on a strategy for the prevention and management of chronic disease that includes the following: (1) Focus on behavioural change as the core component of all clinical programmes for the prevention and management of chronic disease. (2) Establish actual centres to design, implement, study and improve preventive programmes for chronic disease. (3) Use human-centred design in the creation of prevention programmes with an inclination to action, rapid prototyping and multiple iterations. (4) Extend the knowledge and skills of Sports and Exercise Medicine (SEM) professionals to build new programmes for the prevention and treatment of chronic disease focused on physical activity, diet and lifestyle. (5) Mobilise resources and leverage networks to scale and distribute programmes of prevention. True innovation lies in the ability to align thinking around these core strategies to ensure successful implementation of NCD prevention and management programmes within healthcare. The IOC and SEM community are in an ideal position to lead this disruptive change. The outcome of the consensus meeting was the creation of the IOC Non-Communicable Diseases ad hoc Working Group charged with the responsibility of moving this agenda forward.

  4. Prevention and management of non-communicable disease: the IOC consensus statement, Lausanne 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Gordon O; Klügl, Martin; Engebretsen, Lars; Bendiksen, Fredrik; Blair, Steven N; Börjesson, Mats; Budgett, Richard; Derman, Wayne; Erdener, Uğur; Ioannidis, John P A; Khan, Karim M; Martinez, Rodrigo; van Mechelen, Willem; Mountjoy, Margo; Sallis, Robert E; Schwellnus, Martin; Shultz, Rebecca; Soligard, Torbjørn; Steffen, Kathrin; Sundberg, Carl Johan; Weiler, Richard; Ljungqvist, Arne

    2013-11-01

    Morbidity and mortality from preventable, non-communicable chronic disease (NCD) threatens the health of our populations and our economies. The accumulation of vast amounts of scientific knowledge has done little to change this. New and innovative thinking is essential to foster new creative approaches that leverage and integrate evidence through the support of big data, technology, and design thinking. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the results of a consensus meeting on NCD prevention sponsored by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in April, 2013. Within the context of advocacy for multifaceted systems change, the IOC's focus is to create solutions that gain traction within health care systems. The group of participants attending the meeting achieved consensus on a strategy for the prevention and management of chronic disease that includes the following: 1. Focus on behavioural change as the core component of all clinical programs for the prevention and management of chronic disease. 2. Establish actual centres to design, implement, study, and improve preventive programs for chronic disease. 3. Use human-centered design in the creation of prevention programs with an inclination to action, rapid prototyping and multiple iterations. 4. Extend the knowledge and skills of Sports and Exercise Medicine (SEM) professionals to build new programs for the prevention and treatment of chronic disease focused on physical activity, diet and lifestyle. 5. Mobilize resources and leverage networks to scale and distribute programs of prevention. True innovation lies in the ability to align thinking around these core strategies to ensure successful implementation of NCD prevention and management programs within health care. The IOC and SEM community are in an ideal position to lead this disruptive change. The outcome of the consensus meeting was the creation of the IOC Non-Communicable Diseases ad-hoc Working Group charged with the responsibility of moving this

  5. Global Strategies for the Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases and Non-Communicable Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Nakatani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article on global health reviews the environment surrounding health strategies and plans, as well as lessons learned from the first 15 years of the 21st century, followed by a discussion on the quest for a new paradigm for disease control efforts and challenges and opportunities for Japan.

  6. Review of Infectious Disease Report in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.D. Sorokhan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an analysis of infectious disease report in Great Britain that is a member of the European Union. There are listed the infectious diseases and infectious agents of these diseases. There are described in detail how to fill the notification form and the methods and terms of sending it to Public Health England. Attention is focused on the importance of the analysis of infectious disease report in the European Union in the light of cooperation between Ukraine and the EU after the economic component of the Association Agreement has been signed.

  7. CDC Periodontal Disease Surveillance Project: background, objectives, and progress report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Paul I; Genco, Robert J

    2007-07-01

    This supplement contains papers presented at the 2006 International Association of Dental Research (IADR) symposium entitled "Development of Self-Reported Measures for Population-Based Surveillance of Periodontitis." These papers highlight activities of an independent periodontal disease surveillance workgroup convened by the Division of Oral Health (DOH), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in collaboration with the American Academy of Periodontology, to examine the feasibility of using self-reported measures for population-based surveillance of periodontal disease in the United States. This workgroup was convened in 2003 as part of a CDC periodontal disease surveillance project.

  8. Lafora Disease and Congenital Generalized Lipodystrophy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Fan Tseng

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a patient with congenital generalized lipodystrophy who had suffered from seizures, myoclonus, ataxia and cognitive decline since late childhood. Lafora disease was diagnosed based on skin biopsy results, which revealed pathognomonic Lafora bodies. The results of genetic analysis for mutations in EPM2A and EPM2B genes were negative. This is the first case report describing an association between congenital generalized lipodystrophy and Lafora disease. Further studies focusing on the relationship between these two diseases and the identification of a third locus for Lafora disease are needed.

  9. Mondor's disease in puerperium: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto,Rita Mesquita; Manso,Pedro; Urzal,Cecília; Batista, Joana; Aragão,Carlos; Vaz,Francisco Cortez

    2014-01-01

    Mondor's disease is a rare entity characterized by sclerosing thrombophlebitis classically involving one or more of the subcutaneous veins of the breast and anterior chest wall. It is usually a self-limited, benign condition, despite of rare cases of association to cancer. We present the case of a 32 year-old female, breast-feeding, who went to emergency due to left mastalgia for the past week. She was taking antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, previously prescribed for sus...

  10. Kienböck disease, case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Paola Ledezma-Martínez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A case of Kienböck’s disease, defined as a rare clinical condition characterized by pain and limited movement of the radio-carpal joint restricting activities of daily living with impairment in social role and occupational. It is the physician who makes the diagnosis. When the patient is referred for functional rehabilitation, physiotherapist should perform the evaluation using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and states of Health (ICF, in order to establish the more appropriate treatment plan to allow functionality of the hand.

  11. The global impact of non-communicable diseases on households and impoverishment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Loes; Colpani, Veronica; Chaker, Layal; van der Lee, Sven J; Muka, Taulant; Imo, David; Mendis, Shanthi; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Bramer, Wichor M; Falla, Abby; Pazoki, Raha; Franco, Oscar H

    2015-03-01

    The global economic impact of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) on household expenditures and poverty indicators remains less well understood. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature evaluating the global economic impact of six NCDs [including coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), cancer (lung, colon, cervical and breast), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD)] on households and impoverishment. Medline, Embase and Google Scholar databases were searched from inception to November 6th 2014. To identify additional publications, reference lists of retrieved studies were searched. Randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, cohorts, case-control, cross-sectional, modeling and ecological studies carried out in adults and assessing the economic consequences of NCDs on households and impoverishment. No language restrictions. All abstract and full text selection was done by two independent reviewers. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers and checked by a third independent reviewer. Studies were included evaluating the impact of at least one of the selected NCDs and on at least one of the following measures: expenditure on medication, transport, co-morbidities, out-of-pocket (OOP) payments or other indirect costs; impoverishment, poverty line and catastrophic spending; household or individual financial cost. From 3,241 references, 64 studies met the inclusion criteria, 75% of which originated from the Americas and Western Pacific WHO region. Breast cancer and DM were the most studied NCDs (42 in total); CKD and COPD were the least represented (five and three studies respectively). OOP payments and financial catastrophe, mostly defined as OOP exceeding a certain proportion of household income, were the most studied outcomes. OOP expenditure as a proportion of family income, ranged between 2 and 158% across the different NCDs and countries. Financial catastrophe due to

  12. European Non-Communicable Respiratory Disease Research, 2002-13: Bibliometric Study of Outputs and Funding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mursheda Begum

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to map European research in chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs. It was intended to assist the European Commission and other research funders to identify gaps and overlaps in their portfolios, and to suggest ways in which they could improve the effectiveness of their support and increase the impact of the research on patient care and on the reduction of the incidence of the CRDs. Articles and reviews were identified in the Web of Science on research in six non-communicable respiratory diseases that were published in 2002-13 from 31 European countries. They represented only 0.8% of biomedical research output but these diseases accounted for 4.7% of the European disease burden, as measured by Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs, so the sub-field is seriously under-researched. Europe is prominent in the sub-field and published 56% of the world total, with the UK the most productive and publishing more than France and Italy, the next two countries, combined. Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD were the diseases with the most publications and the highest citation rates. They also received the most funding, with around two acknowledgments per paper (in 2009-13, whereas cystic fibrosis and emphysema averaged only one. Just over 37% of papers had no specific funding and depended on institutional support from universities and hospitals.

  13. Exploring the use of social network analysis to measure communication between disease programme and district managers at sub-national level in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawonga, Mary; Blaauw, Duane; Fonn, Sharon

    2015-06-01

    With increasing interest in maximising synergies between disease control programmes (DCP) and general health services (GHS), methods are needed to measure interactions between DCP and GHS actors. In South Africa, administrative integration reforms make GHS managers at decentralised level (district managers) responsible for the oversight of DCP operations within districts, with DCP managers (programme managers) providing specialist support. The reforms necessitate interdependence, but these actors work together ineffectively. Communication is crucial for joint working, but no research to assess communication between these actors has been done. This study explores the use of social network analysis (SNA) to measure the extent to which programme and district managers in South Africa communicate, using HIV monitoring and evaluation (M&E) as an exemplar. Data were collected from fifty one managers in two provinces during 2010-2011, to measure: a) one-on-one task-related communication - talking about the collation (verification, reporting) and use of HIV data for monitoring HIV interventions; and b) group communication through co-participating in management committees where HIV data are used for monitoring HIV interventions in districts. SNA measures were computed to describe actor centrality, network density (cohesion), and communication within and between respective manager groups. Block modelling was applied to identify management committees that connect respective manager groups. Results show HIV programme managers located at higher level communicated largely amongst themselves as a group (homophily), seldom talked to the district managers to whom they are supposed to provide specialist HIV M&E support, and rarely participated with them in management committees. This research demonstrates the utility of SNA as a tool for measuring the extent of communication between DCP and GHS actors at sub-national level. Actions are needed to bridge observed communication gaps in

  14. Infantile Onset Glycogen Storage Disease Type 2: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Bilge Koca

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Glycogen storage disease type 2 (Pompe’s disease is an autosomal recessive, fatal glycogen storage disease presenting with hypotonia and muscle weakness. It is known that deficiency of lysosomal acid alpha-glucosidase (acid maltase leads to progressive generalised myopathy, cardiomyopathy and death in early infancy because of respiratory muscle weakness. Excessive undegradable intracellular glycogen deposition plays a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Here we report a 3.5 month-old girl presenting with respiratory failure due to pneumonia and hypotonia, who was later diagnosed as Pompe disease.

  15. Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) Prototype Radio - Generation 2 Flight Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishac, Joseph A.; Iannicca, Dennis C.; Shalkhauser, Kurt A.; Kachmar, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center conducted a series of flight tests for the purpose of evaluating air-to-ground communications links for future unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). The primary objective of the test effort was to evaluate the transition of the aircraft communications from one ground station to the next, and to monitor data flow during the "hand-off" event. To facilitate the testing, ground stations were installed at locations in Cleveland, Ohio and Albany, Ohio that each provides line-of-sight radio communications with an overflying aircraft. This report describes results from the flight tests including flight parameters, received signal strength measurements, data latency times, and performance observations for the air-to-ground channel.

  16. Assessment of risk factors of non-communicable diseases among high school students in Mangalore, India

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    Animesh Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Non-communicable diseases are ever increasing and will soon outnumber the prevalence of communicable diseases. This study aims to detect prevalence of risk factors of non-communicable diseases in high school students and its comparison among students of private and government schools, Mangalore. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted amongst consenting high-school students. The data collected included socio-demographic factors, dietary habits, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, height and weight. Data was tabulated and analyzed using Microsoft excel and SPSS version 11.5 software. Chi square test was used to determine the association of various factors with risk factors, P < 0.05 was considered significant. The results were presented as tables. Result: 413 students were surveyed from private and government schools. Age range was 13-15 years. One-tenth of the students had adequate dietary habits. Though most students were physically active, the type and duration of activity was inadequate. Two students were obese, both females. There were statistically significant differences among various socioeconomic classes, type of school and the presence of certain risk factors. Alcohol intake among students of upper class was significant ( P = 0.006. Conclusion: The prevalence of risk factors for NCD is low among high-school students of Mangalore. Students should be educated about having adequate amount of fruits and vegetables and advised to reduce the consumption of fast food. Vigorous activity should be encouraged amongst the students to prevent them from getting obese.

  17. Synopsis of non-communicable diseases in children admitted to the paediatric ward of the university of Nigeria teaching hospital (UNTH) Enugu, Nigeria: A ten year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emodi, Ij; Ikefuna, An; Ujunwa, Fa; Chinawa, Jm

    2014-11-01

    Non-communicable diseases are increasing worldwide due to rapidly changing lifestyles and socio-economic status. It is contributing significantly to the global burden of diseases. To determine the pattern of non-communicable diseases in children admitted into the Paediatrics ward in a tertiary health centre in Enugu. A review of admissions into the Paediatrics ward of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu, between January 1999 and December 2008 was done using the registry of admission and discharge. The age range of patients admitted during the period was 2 months to 18 years (mean 5.27 ± 5.42 years). There were 1173 (59.6%) males and 796 (40.4%) females. Disorders of the haematological system accounted for 514 (23.3%) of the non-communicable diseases among the admissions, malignancies accounted for 424 (19.2%) among the admissions, whereas the renal, central nervous, and cardiovascular systems were involved in 282 (12.8%), 274 (12.4%), and 241 (10.9%) patients, respectively. There were 274 (12.4%) deaths and 1667 (75.5%) discharges while 38 (1.7%) were discharged against medical advice. Data on 221(10.2%) of the patients were reported missing. Malignancies contributed to 75 (27.3%) of the deaths, haematological disorders accounted for 44 (16%) whereas renal disorders and nutritional disorders contributed to 43 (15.7%) and 41 (15%) of the deaths, respectively. Non-communicable diseases affect children in our environment and contribute to morbidity and mortality in children. Strategies to prevent these diseases should be encouraged in order to avert the challenges of double burden of the diseases in children.

  18. Synopsis of non-communicable diseases in children admitted to the paediatric ward of the university of Nigeria teaching hospital (UNTH Enugu, Nigeria: A ten year review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I J Emodi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-communicable diseases are increasing worldwide due to rapidly changing lifestyles and socio-economic status. It is contributing significantly to the global burden of diseases. Objective: To determine the pattern of non-communicable diseases in children admitted into the Paediatrics ward in a tertiary health centre in Enugu. Materials and Methods: A review of admissions into the Paediatrics ward of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu, between January 1999 and December 2008 was done using the registry of admission and discharge. Results: The age range of patients admitted during the period was 2 months to 18 years (mean 5.27 ± 5.42 years. There were 1173 (59.6% males and 796 (40.4% females. Disorders of the haematological system accounted for 514 (23.3% of the non-communicable diseases among the admissions, malignancies accounted for 424 (19.2% among the admissions, whereas the renal, central nervous, and cardiovascular systems were involved in 282 (12.8%, 274 (12.4%, and 241 (10.9% patients, respectively. There were 274 (12.4% deaths and 1667 (75.5% discharges while 38 (1.7% were discharged against medical advice. Data on 221(10.2% of the patients were reported missing. Malignancies contributed to 75 (27.3% of the deaths, haematological disorders accounted for 44 (16% whereas renal disorders and nutritional disorders contributed to 43 (15.7% and 41 (15% of the deaths, respectively. Conclusion: Non-communicable diseases affect children in our environment and contribute to morbidity and mortality in children. Strategies to prevent these diseases should be encouraged in order to avert the challenges of double burden of the diseases in children.

  19. A case report of juvenile Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Choudhary

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance, movement disorder, dementia, and behavioural disturbances. It is caused by a mutation in IT15 gene on chromosome 4p16.3, which leads to unstable CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion. The onset of juvenile HD occurs before the 2nd decade of life and comprises approximately 10% of total HD patients. Juvenile HD differs in symptomatology and is usually transmitted from paternal side with genetic anticipation phenomenon. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain shows specific changes of early affection of caudate nucleus and putamen. Multidisciplinary approach with symptomatic treatment of specific symptoms is the current available management. Gene editing and gene silencing treatment are under trial. Hereby, we introduce a case of an 8-year-old boy, who presented with typical symptoms of juvenile HD, positive family history with genetic anticipation phenomenon and characteristic MRI findings.

  20. Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Charles L.

    2011-12-31

    Research for the DOE Infectious Disease Proteome Biomarkers focused on Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV). RVFV and VEEV are Category A and B pathogens respectively. Among the priority threats, RVFV and VEEV rank high in their potential for being weaponized and introduced to the United States, spreading quickly, and having a large health and economic impact. In addition, they both have live attenuated vaccine, which allows work to be performed at BSL-2. While the molecular biology of RVFV and VEEV are increasingly well-characterized, little is known about its host-pathogen interactions. Our research is aimed at determining critical alterations in host signaling pathways to identify therapeutics targeted against the host.

  1. The burden of non-communicable diseases in Nigeria; in the context of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiyaki, Musa Baba; Garbati, Musa Abubakar

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the tenets of globalization and how its elements have spread to sub-Saharan Africa, and Nigeria in particular. It assesses the growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Nigeria and its relationship with globalization. It further describes the conceptual framework on which to view the impact of globalization on NCDs in Nigeria. It assesses the Nigerian dimension of the relationship between the risk factors of NCDs and globalization. Appropriate recommendations on tackling the burden of NCDs in Nigeria based on cost-effective, culturally sensitive, and evidence-based interventions are highlighted.

  2. 47 CFR 4.11 - Notification and initial and final communications outage reports that must be filed by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Notification shall provide: The name of the reporting entity; the date and time of onset of the outage; a brief... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL DISRUPTIONS TO COMMUNICATIONS Reporting Requirements for... and contact telephone number by which the Commission's technical staff may contact the...

  3. Self-reported health, self-management, and the impact of living with inflammatory bowel disease during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfred, Helene; Saalman, Robert; Nilsson, Staffan; Sparud-Lundin, Carina; Lepp, Margret

    2012-06-01

    Perceptions of living with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) during adolescence were explored in a cross-sectional study with a multimethod design. The adolescents as a group described general well-being and ability to handle the disease, which was related to their self-reported self-esteem. However, a subgroup of adolescents with a severe disease course reported a more negative view of the impact of IBD in their daily lives. Encouraging adolescents to communicate in different ways may help professionals to identify vulnerable subgroups with impaired health and to provide more appropriate support and treatment for those most in need.

  4. Final Scientific/Technical Report Solar America Initiative: Solar Outreach and Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, Jane M

    2011-09-10

    The purpose of the Solar America Initiative: Solar Outreach and Communications grant was to promote better communications among stakeholders; address infrastructure barriers to solar energy; and coordinate with industry, the U.S. Department of Energy, national laboratories, states, cities and counties. The Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC), a non-profit organization formed in 1982, approached this grant project by establishing a wide range of communication and outreach activities including newsletters, workshops, webinars, model practices and publications; by advancing easy and fair hook-up rules to the utility grid; and by upgrading training based on industry competency standards. The Connecting to the Grid project and the Solar Codes and Standards Public Hearings project offered communication coupled with technical assistance to overcome interconnection, net metering and other regulatory and program barriers. The Workforce Development Project tackled building a strong workforce through quality training and competency assessment programs. IREC's web site, the semi-monthly state and stakeholder newsletter and the metrics report resulted in better communications among stakeholders. Workshops and phone seminars offered technical assistance and kept stakeholders up-to-date on key issues. All of these activities resulted in implementing sustainable solutions to institutional and market barriers to solar energy and getting the right information to the right people.

  5. Refsum disease. Clinical and morphological report on a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savettieri, G; Camarda, R; Galatioto, S; Bonavita, V

    1982-10-01

    An atypical case of Refsum disease is reported together with the peripheral nerve morphological data. The body fluids must be assayed for phytanic acid whenever an atypical chronic peripheral neuropathy is observed.

  6. Cortical involvement of marchiafava-bignami disease: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Han Won [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    Marchiafava-Bignami disease is a rare complication of chronic alcoholism and this malady typically manifests as callosal lesion. I report here on one patient with Marchiafava-bignami disease (MBD) who has symmetric restricted diffusion in both lateral-frontal cortices, in addition to the callosal lesion.

  7. [Castleman's disease with abdominal localization. Report of an unusual case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, R; Vertemati, G; Carzaniga, P L; Ballerini, A; Rossi, G; Zuccoli, E

    1995-10-01

    Castleman's disease is an unusual condition characterized by uncontrolled growth of lymphoid tissue. The first case was recorded by Castleman in 1956. In this paper a case of the above-mentioned disease is reported with regard to its unusual clinica-histologic aspect (localized form of plasmacellular type) and surgical therapeutic strategies.

  8. Addison’s Disease: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay N. Agrawal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A female patient presented with progressive weakness, asthenia and generalized hyperpigmentation. The characteristic hyperpimentation pointed towards possibility of Addison’s disease which was proved by markedly decreased plasma cortisol levels, hyponatremia and hyperkalemia. This could be one of the very few cases of Addison’s Disease reported.

  9. Low income parents' reports of communication problems with health care providers: effects of language and insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemans-Cope, Lisa; Kenney, Genevieve

    2007-01-01

    This study examines how parental reports of communication problems with health providers vary over a wider range of characteristics of low income children than considered in previous studies. Data were drawn from the 1999 and 2002 National Survey of America's Families. Communication problems, insurance type, socioeconomic characteristics, health factors, and provider type were examined. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate techniques. Bivariate analysis identified that the parents of 24.4% of low income children and 36.4% of publicly covered low income children with a Spanish interview reported poor communication with health providers. Coefficients from regression analysis suggest that, controlling for covariates, foreign-born parents with a Spanish interview were 11.8 percentage points (plow income publicly covered children with a Spanish interview, regression analysis suggests that parents of children who used clinics or hospital outpatient departments as their usual source of care were 9.5 percentage points (plow income children, particularly those with foreign-born parents whose native language is not English, may be necessary to reduce health disparities relative to higher income children across a variety of health domains including utilization, satisfaction, and outcomes. Focusing attention on the availability of professional translation services in clinics or hospital outpatient departments may be a cost-effective strategy for reducing communication problems for publicly insured children.

  10. Molecular Communication Model for Targeted Drug Delivery in Multiple Disease Sites With Diversely Expressed Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chude-Okonkwo, Uche A K; Malekian, Reza; Maharaj, B T Sunil

    2016-04-01

    Targeted drug delivery (TDD) for disease therapy using liposomes as nanocarriers has received extensive attention in the literature. The liposome's ability to incorporate capabilities such as long circulation, stimuli responsiveness, and targeting characteristics, makes it a versatile nanocarrier. Timely drug release at the targeted site requires that trigger stimuli such as pH, light, and enzymes be uniquely overexpressed at the targeted site. However, in some cases, the targeted sites may not express trigger stimuli significantly, hence, achieving effective TDD at those sites is challenging. In this paper, we present a molecular communication-based TDD model for the delivery of therapeutic drugs to multiple sites that may or may not express trigger stimuli. The nanotransmitter and nanoreceiver models for the molecular communication system are presented. Here, the nanotransmitter and nanoreceiver are injected into the targeted body system's blood network. The compartmental pharmacokinetics model is employed to model the transportation of these therapeutic nanocarriers to the targeted sites where they are meant to anchor before the delivery process commences. We also provide analytical expressions for the delivered drug concentration. The effectiveness of the proposed model is investigated for drug delivery on tissue surfaces. Results show that the effectiveness of the proposed molecular communication-based TDD depends on parameters such as the total transmitter volume capacity, the receiver radius, the diffusion characteristic of the microenvironment of the targeted sites, and the concentration of the enzymes associated with the nanotransmitter and the nanoreceiver designs.

  11. Urbanization and non-communicable disease in Southeast Asia: a review of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angkurawaranon, C; Jiraporncharoen, W; Chenthanakij, B; Doyle, P; Nitsch, D

    2014-10-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have been highlighted as a major public health issue in the Southeast (SE) Asian region. One of the major socio-environmental factors that are considered to be associated with such a rise in NCDs is urbanization. Urbanization is associated with behavioural changes such as eating an unhealthy diet, and a decrease in physical activities, which may result in associated obesity. The SE Asian region also has a substantive burden of infectious disease such as HIV and malaria, which may modify associations between urbanization and development of NCDs. A systematic review was conducted until April 2013. Using four databases: EMBASE, PubMed, GlobalHealth and DigitalJournal, the systematic review pools existing evidence on urban-rural gradients in NCD prevalence/incidence. The study found that in SE Asia, urban exposure was positively associated with coronary heart disease, diabetes and respiratory diseases in children. Urban exposure was negatively associated with rheumatic heart diseases. The stages of economic development may also modify the association between urbanization and NCDs such as diabetes. There was pronounced heterogeneity between associations. It is recommended that future studies examine the major constituents of NCDs separately and also focus on the interplay between lifestyle and infectious risk factors for NCDs. Prospective studies are needed to understand the diverse causal pathways between urbanization and NCDs in SE Asia.

  12. Natural disasters and communicable diseases in the Americas: contribution of veterinary public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Schneider

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of natural disasters on the people living in the Americas are often amplified by socio-economic conditions. This risk may be increased by climate-related changes. The public health consequences of natural disasters include fatalities as well as an increased risk of communicable diseases. Many of these diseases are zoonotic and foodborne diseases. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the importance of natural disasters for the Americas and to emphasise the contribution of veterinary public health (VPH to the management of zoonotic and foodborne disease risks. An analysis was conducted of natural disasters that occurred in the Americas between 2004 and 2008. Five cases studies illustrating the contributions of VPH in situations of disaster are presented. The data shows that natural disasters, particularly storms and floods, can create very important public health problems. Central America and the Caribbean, particularly Haiti, presented a higher risk than the other areas of the Americas. Two priority areas of technical cooperation are recommended for this region, namely: reducing the risk of leptospirosis and other vector-borne disease outbreaks related to floods and hurricanes and improving food safety. The contribution of different disciplines and sectors in disaster preparedness and response is of paramount importance to minimise morbidity and mortality.

  13. Natural disasters and communicable diseases in the Americas: contribution of veterinary public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Tirado, Maria Cristina; Rereddy, Shruthi; Dugas, Raymond; Borda, Maria Isabel; Peralta, Eduardo Alvarez; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Cosivi, Ottorino

    2012-01-01

    The consequences of natural disasters on the people living in the Americas are often amplified by socio-economic conditions. This risk may be increased by climate-related changes. The public health consequences of natural disasters include fatalities as well as an increased risk of communicable diseases. Many of these diseases are zoonotic and foodborne diseases. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the importance of natural disasters for the Americas and to emphasise the contribution of veterinary public health (VPH) to the management of zoonotic and foodborne disease risks. An analysis was conducted of natural disasters that occurred in the Americas between 2004 and 2008. Five cases studies illustrating the contributions of VPH in situations of disaster are presented. The data shows that natural disasters, particularly storms and floods, can create very important public health problems. Central America and the Caribbean, particularly Haiti, presented a higher risk than the other areas of the Americas. Two priority areas of technical cooperation are recommended for this region, namely: reducing the risk of leptospirosis and other vector-borne disease outbreaks related to floods and hurricanes and improving food safety. The contribution of different disciplines and sectors in disaster preparedness and response is of paramount importance to minimise morbidity and mortality.

  14. ORAL MANIFESTATIONS OF CROHN'S DISEASE: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhvić-Urek Miranda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Crohn´s disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease still with unknown etiology. In 0.5-20 % of patients, extraintestinal lesions in the oral cavity can be presented in forms of orofacial granulomatosis, cobblestone and corrugated oral mucosa, mucosal tags, deep linear ulcerations with hyperplastic folds, pyostomatits vegetans, aphthous ulcers, angular cheilitis, labial/facial edema and gingival erythema/edema. We describe a case of a 28-year-old male who was presented with oral lesions of Crohn´s disease and treatment procedure. The patient was candidate for biologic treatment so dental procedures and preparation of the patient for treatment are described. Good communication and cooperation between the patient's doctor and dentist are important for successful treatment.

  15. Genetic diagnosis of Huntington's disease: cases report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Ting-ting; Wu Wei; Wan Qi; Cui Yu-gui; Liu Jia-yin

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To assess the efficiency of the PCR combined DNA sequencing to ascertain CAG repeat size of Huntington's disease(HD)gene as for gene diagnosis of HD.Method:Three patients with HD were diagnosed genetically with the technology of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis by assessing the CAG repeat size of HD gene.DNA sequencing then was used as verification test for HD gene.Results:Nine members of three nuclear families were included in this study,three patients were HD proband.In those families,CAG repeats of all spouse of propositus were in normal range.CAG repeats of all propositus and their descendants with the normal allele were in normal range,while CAG copy number of the other mobigenous allele was obviously abnormal.Conclusion:PCR combined DNA sequencing can be used to effectively ascertain CAG repeat of HD gene.CAG-repeat expansion mutations were accounted for 99% of HD cases,so HD can be accurately diagnosed by this method.

  16. Patient communication self-efficacy, self-reported illness symptoms, physician communication style and mental health and illness in hospital outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Vincenza

    2016-07-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the associations between patient communication self-efficacy and self-reported symptoms in doctor-patient communication, as perceived by patients, and the mental health and illness of hospital outpatients. Using data from a sample of 74 outpatients (mean age = 37.58 years, standard deviation = 12.54), a structural equation model was calculated. The results showed that communication self-efficacy and respectful behaviour were associated with mental health and illness. Furthermore, self-reported symptoms were correlated with mental illness. Gender and educational differences also occurred. The findings suggest that enhancing patients' communication skills could benefit outpatients in general, but female and less educated patients in particular.

  17. Preiser’s disease: two cases report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Ferrari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Preiser’s syndrome is a rare osteochondrosis affecting the carpal scaphoid, frequently related with an avascular necrosis. Osteoarthritic changes of the articular cartilage, local synovitis, and loose fragments are the most common findings associated with this syndrome. We report here two patients with Preiser’s syndrome, one with and one without a traumatic history, both presenting with pain, swelling and functional impairement of the wrist. In one patient radiography was sufficient for the diagnosis, in the other NMR was necessary to clearly establish type and extension of the lesion. Differential diagnosis may be sometimes difficult and the therapeutic approach on depends on several aspects, including etiology and type of occupational activity.

  18. Preferences of patients with Parkinson's disease for communication about advanced care planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Keiran K; Brod, Lissa; Nutt, John; Fromme, Erik K

    2015-02-01

    Despite shortening life, Parkinson's disease (PD) is often not considered "terminal." Uncertainty exists about when to discuss end-of-life planning. A survey was sent to patients with PD assessing attitudes toward the timing and initiation of discussions regarding their disease. Data were analyzed for patient preferences regarding communication. Of 585 surveys, 267 were returned. Ninety-four percent of patients wanted prognosis and treatment information early. Half of the patients wanted to discuss advanced care documents early. Some wanted early discussions about end-of-life care planning (27%) or end-of-life care options such as hospice (21%). The majority felt shared responsibility for initiating discussions about life expectancy, advance care documents, and end-of-life care planning. Preferences regarding end-of-life discussions vary. Consequently, neurologists should ask patients about their preferences for this information and offer discussion periodically. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Risk communication as a core public health competence in infectious disease management: Development of the ECDC training curriculum and programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickmann, Petra; Abraham, Thomas; Sarkar, Satyajit; Wysocki, Piotr; Cecconi, Sabrina; Apfel, Franklin; Nurm, Ülla-Karin

    2016-01-01

    Risk communication has been identified as a core competence for guiding public health responses to infectious disease threats. The International Health Regulations (2005) call for all countries to build capacity and a comprehensive understanding of health risks before a public health emergency to allow systematic and coherent communication, response and management. Research studies indicate that while outbreak and crisis communication concepts and tools have long been on the agenda of public health officials, there is still a need to clarify and integrate risk communication concepts into more standardised practices and improve risk communication and health, particularly among disadvantaged populations. To address these challenges, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) convened a group of risk communication experts to review and integrate existing approaches and emerging concepts in the development of a training curriculum. This curriculum articulates a new approach in risk communication moving beyond information conveyance to knowledge- and relationship-building. In a pilot training this approach was reflected both in the topics addressed and in the methods applied. This article introduces the new conceptual approach to risk communication capacity building that emerged from this process, presents the pilot training approach developed, and shares the results of the course evaluation.

  20. Interdisciplinary communication of infectious disease research - translating complex epidemiological findings into understandable messages for village chicken farmers in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Joerg; Hla, Than; Meers, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Improvement in animal disease control and prevention is dependent on several factors including farmers' uptake of new technologies and skills, particularly in developing countries. Extension is the means by which information about these technologies and skills is delivered to farmers, in order that they can use this knowledge to improve farming practices and their quality of life. This implies a shift from traditional methods to new science-based methods of production. However, in many developing countries farmers are illiterate and unable to understand written outcomes of scientific research. This paper summarizes approaches to communicate epidemiological findings and reports on experiences obtained from a research project in Myanmar, where results from epidemiological field investigations and intervention studies were 'translated' in an understandable manner to village communities. Rural chicken farmers were the central focus of this extension work and simple and sustainable methods to improve the health and production of scavenging chicken flocks were promoted. Unique extension materials transformed scientific outputs published in international journals into clear pictographic messages comprehendible by villagers, while maintaining country-specific, traditional, religious and public perspectives. Benefits, difficulties and pitfalls in using extension methods to communicate advice on preventive veterinary medicine measures in different cross-cultural settings are discussed and guidelines on how to distribute epidemiological research results to illiterate farmers are provided.

  1. Severity of self-reported diseases and symptoms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Rasmussen, Niels Kristian; Avlund, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate and rank the relative severity of self-reported diseases and symptoms in Denmark. METHOD: The 1994 Danish Health and Morbidity Survey collected data from 5,472 Danes older than 16 years of age. Interviews (response frequency: 79%) gave information on diseases and symptoms......; a self-administered SF-36 questionnaire (response frequency: 64%) provided information on health-related quality of life. The severity of diseases and symptoms was represented by the health-related quality of life scores that individuals suffering from particular diseases and symptoms obtained...

  2. Chronic urticaria and celiac disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroni, Diego G; Paiola, Giulia; Tenero, Laura; Fornaro, Martina; Bodini, Alessandro; Pollini, Federica; Piacentini, Giorgio L

    2010-01-01

    We describe a case of a 9-year-old girl who presented chronic urticaria associated with celiac disease. The prevalence of the manifestation of chronic urticaria in celiac disease is unknown but increase in atopic immunologic disorders has been reported in the setting of gluten enteropathy. Relationship between the clinical manifestations is not clear. The present case of subclinical celiac disease diagnosis in an otherwise asymptomatic child with chronic urticaria further reinforces the evidence that differential for celiac disease warrants to be always considered in children with refractory urticaria.

  3. Feline Lower Urinary Tract DiseaseReport of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zohaib*, Zeeshan Taj, Awais-ur-Rehman Sial, Muhammad Ahsan Naeem and Muhammad Saqlein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the lower urinary tract disease (LUTD in four male cats with two different etiologies. All animals were under three years of age and on commercial dry diet. Treatment guidelines prescribed for obstructive and non-obstructive cases were followed. This appears to be the first clinical report on feline LUTD in Pakistan.

  4. Using the EC decision on case definitions for communicable diseases as a terminology source--lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkanyi, Laszlo; Heja, Gergely; Nagy, Attlia

    2014-01-01

    Extracting scientifically accurate terminology from an EU public health regulation is part of the knowledge engineering work at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). ECDC operates information systems at the crossroads of many areas - posing a challenge for transparency and consistency. Semantic interoperability is based on the Terminology Server (TS). TS value sets (structured vocabularies) describe shared domains as "diseases", "organisms", "public health terms", "geo-entities" "organizations" and "administrative terms" and others. We extracted information from the relevant EC Implementing Decision on case definitions for reporting communicable diseases, listing 53 notifiable infectious diseases, containing clinical, diagnostic, laboratory and epidemiological criteria. We performed a consistency check; a simplification - abstraction; we represented lab criteria in triplets: as 'y' procedural result /of 'x' organism-substance/on 'z' specimen and identified negations. The resulting new case definition value set represents the various formalized criteria, meanwhile the existing disease value set has been extended, new signs and symptoms were added. New organisms enriched the organism value set. Other new categories have been added to the public health value set, as transmission modes; substances; specimens and procedures. We identified problem areas, as (a) some classification error(s); (b) inconsistent granularity of conditions; (c) seemingly nonsense criteria, medical trivialities; (d) possible logical errors, (e) seemingly factual errors that might be phrasing errors. We think our hypothesis regarding room for possible improvements is valid: there are some open issues and a further improved legal text might lead to more precise epidemiologic data collection. It has to be noted that formal representation for automatic classification of cases was out of scope, such a task would require other formalism, as e.g. those used by rule

  5. Early disruption of glial communication via connexin gap junction in multiple sclerosis, Baló's disease and neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Katsuhisa

    2015-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica (NMO), and Baló's disease (BD) are inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the CNS. We previously reported anti-aquaporin-4 (anti-AQP4) antibody-dependent AQP4 loss occurs in some NMO patients, while antibody-independent AQP4 astrocytopathy can occur in heterogeneous demyelinating conditions, including MS, NMO and BD. To investigate the relationship between astrocytopathy and demyelination, we focused on connexins (Cxs), which form gap junctions (GJs) between astrocytes and oligodendrocytes and maintain homeostasis in the CNS. We evaluated expression of astrocytic Cx43/Cx30 and oligodendrocytic Cx47/Cx32 in autopsied materials from MS, NMO and BD patients. Astrocytic Cx43 and oligodendrocytic Cx32/Cx47 expressions were significantly diminished in both demyelinated and preserved myelin layers in all BD samples. In the leading edge of BD lesions, Cx43 and AQP4 loss preceded Cx32/Cx47 loss. Half of the NMO and MS samples showed preferential loss of astrocytic Cx43 expression in actively demyelinating and chronic active lesions, where heterotypic Cx43/Cx47 astrocyte-oligodendrocyte GJs were lost. Cases with Cx43 loss were significantly associated with rapid disease progression, regardless of the disease phenotype. Pathologically, Cx43 loss was frequently accompanied by distal oligodendrogliopathy. Our findings suggest that Cx43 astrocytopathy can occur in MS, BD and NMO. Moreover, astrocytic Cx43 loss may be associated with disease aggressiveness and distal oligodendrogliopathy in demyelinating conditions. Early disruption of glial communications via GJs may cause loss of glia syncytium, thereby inducing oligodendroglial damage and myelin loss. Inhibition of Cx hemichannels and restoration of GJs may be a possible therapeutic target for demyelinating disorders. © 2015 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  6. Traceability and communication of requirements in digital I and C systems development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, T.; Fredriksen, Rune; Thunem, A.P.J. [Inst. for Energy Technology, Halden (Norway); Holmberg, J.E.; Valkonen, J.; Ventae, O. [VTT (Finland); Andersson, J.O. [Ringhals AB (Sweden)

    2005-10-01

    The overall objective of the TACO project has been to improve the knowledge on principles and best practices related to the traceability and communication of requirements in digital I and C systems development. On the basis of experiences in the Nordic countries, the project has aimed at identifying the best practices and most important criteria for ensuring effective communication in relation to requirements elicitation and analysis, understandability of requirements to all parties, and traceability of requirements through the different design phases. It is expected that the project will provide important input to the development of guidelines and establishment of recommended practices related to these activities. The report provides a summary of the project activities and deliverables, discusses possible application areas, and provides a link to its utilization in the project 'Management of Requirements in NPP Modernization Projects' (NKS-R-2005-47). In the preparation of the final report, a number of application areas have been identified where the TACO deliverables, first of all the TACO Shell and the TACO Traceability Model, can be utilized. The report aims at facilitating such utilization, by defining the context and main issues, explaining the main aspects of the deliverables, discussing the challenges experienced in the different application domains with respect requirements management, traceability and communication and how can the TACO results contribute to solving these challenges. (au)

  7. Leveraging rapid community-based HIV testing campaigns for non-communicable diseases in rural Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Chamie

    Full Text Available The high burden of undiagnosed HIV in sub-Saharan Africa limits treatment and prevention efforts. Community-based HIV testing campaigns can address this challenge and provide an untapped opportunity to identify non-communicable diseases (NCDs. We tested the feasibility and diagnostic yield of integrating NCD and communicable diseases into a rapid HIV testing and referral campaign for all residents of a rural Ugandan parish.A five-day, multi-disease campaign, offering diagnostic, preventive, treatment and referral services, was performed in May 2011. Services included point-of-care screening for HIV, malaria, TB, hypertension and diabetes. Finger-prick diagnostics eliminated the need for phlebotomy. HIV-infected adults met clinic staff and peer counselors on-site; those with CD4 ≤ 100/µL underwent intensive counseling and rapid referral for antiretroviral therapy (ART. Community participation, case-finding yield, and linkage to care three months post-campaign were analyzed.Of 6,300 residents, 2,323/3,150 (74% adults and 2,020/3,150 (69% children participated. An estimated 95% and 52% of adult female and male residents participated respectively. Adult HIV prevalence was 7.8%, with 46% of HIV-infected adults newly diagnosed. Thirty-nine percent of new HIV diagnoses linked to care. In a pilot subgroup with CD4 ≤ 100, 83% linked and started ART within 10 days. Malaria was identified in 10% of children, and hypertension and diabetes in 28% and 3.5% of adults screened, respectively. Sixty-five percent of hypertensives and 23% of diabetics were new diagnoses, of which 43% and 61% linked to care, respectively. Screening identified suspected TB in 87% of HIV-infected and 19% of HIV-uninfected adults; 52% percent of HIV-uninfected TB suspects linked to care.In an integrated campaign engaging 74% of adult residents, we identified a high burden of undiagnosed HIV, hypertension and diabetes. Improving male attendance and optimizing linkage to care

  8. Computer-based interactive health communications for people with chronic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey LM

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Leanne M Casey,1 Bonnie A Clough,1 Mary E Mihuta,1 Heather Green,1 Wayne Usher,2 Daniel A James,3,4 David D Rowlands,3 E-Liisa Laakso5 1Griffith Health Institute Behavioural Basis of Health Program, School of Applied Psychology, 2School of Education and Professional Studies, 3Sports and Biomedical Engineering Laboratory, School of Engineering, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia; 4Centre of Excellence for Applied Sport Science Research, Queensland Academy of Sport, Queensland, Australia; 5Griffith Health Institute Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, School of Allied Health Sciences, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia Abstract: Chronic diseases (CD – such as cardiovascular, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory diseases – are projected to be the most common causes of mortality and morbidity by 2030. Use of a participatory decision-making model that emphasizes a partnership among practitioners, patients, and their families to achieve desired goals is a key strategy in achieving optimal outcomes. The Interactive Health Communication Applications (IHCAs can support participatory decision making by providing the unique infrastructure needed to deliver support for the multiple requirements of patients with CD. The aim of this paper is to provide a descriptive review of the use of IHCAs in the treatment of chronic disease. Patient acceptability and satisfaction were identified as key issues that can be enhanced by ensuring that IHCAs provide: 1 emotional support and empowerment; 2 education and information from health professionals; and 3 telecommunication instead of onsite visiting. An important benefit of IHCAs can be an improved quality of communication between the patients and the health care professionals, which is a critical and predictive factor of treatment outcomes for many patients with CD. Similarly, there is good evidence to suggest that IHCAs can improve the patients’ adherence to both medication and behavioral

  9. Physician Survey Assessing Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Knowledge and Attitudes to Identify Diagnosing and Reporting Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Misty; Katz, Alan R; Hayes, Donald; Maddock, Jay E

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a notifiable disease in Hawaii with legal implications for noncompliance. A previous study comparing PID diagnoses in Hawaii's hospitals and state surveillance data confirmed underreporting in Hawaii. Reasons for noncompliance and underreporting are not well understood. All licensed primary care physicians in Hawaii were mailed a survey addressing PID diagnosis and reporting attitudes and practices. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to determine if physician characteristics, PID knowledge, or attitudes related to the diagnosis or reporting of PID, increased the odds of diagnosing and reporting PID. Among survey respondents (486 of 1,062; response rate of 45.8%), 104 (21.4%) had diagnosed PID. The PID reporting rate was 55.8% (58 of 104). The majority of physicians who diagnosed PID reported that PID reporting was time consuming. In hierarchical regression, obstetrician/gynecologists and family practitioners had the highest odds of diagnosing PID and internists had the lowest odds of reporting PID, those 15 years or longer since residency were less likely to report PID than those fewer than 15 years since residency, and increased PID diagnosing and reporting knowledge increased the odds of PID reporting by 1.63 times. Our findings suggest the need for training of all physicians on reportable diagnoses on a regular basis. There is a need to simplify the reporting process, because the time burden of reporting may present a modifiable barrier to reporting. Increased PID-related communication between local health departments and physicians is essential, and physicians should be provided technical assistance with reporting. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Global health governance and the challenge of chronic, non-communicable disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger S

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers how we can conceptualize a "global response" to chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs)--including cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and tobacco-related diseases. These diseases are the leading cause of death and disability in developed countries, and also in developing countries outside sub-Saharan Africa. The paper reviews emerging and proposed initiatives for global NCD governance, explains why NCDs merit a global response, and the ways in which global initiatives ultimately benefit national health outcomes. As the global response to NCDs matures, and the number of initiatives and partnerships increases, it will become increasingly important to map their respective contributions, and to evaluate progress overall. It is not yet clear what institutional mechanism, if any, will rise above the sea of surrounding initiatives to play this global role. This paper therefore aims to provide a conceptual map for making sense of what individual initiatives contribute to global governance. This map also draws attention to the distinctively "global" public health functions that a global response to NCDs should seek to discharge.

  11. Periodontal disease in a patient receiving Bevacizumab: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gujral Dorothy M

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody that inhibits the action of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF thereby acting as an angiogenesis inhibitor. As a result, supply of oxygen and nutrients to tissues is impaired and tumour cell growth is reduced. Reported side effects due to bevacizumab are hypertension and increased risk of bleeding. Bowel perforation has also been reported. Periodontal disease in patients on bevacizumab therapy has not been reported before. Case Presentation We report a case of a forty-three year old woman who developed periodontitis whilst receiving bevacizumab for lung cancer. The periodontal disease remained stable on discontinuation of the drug. Conclusion Further investigations are needed to determine the mechanism for bevacizumab-induced periodontal disease.

  12. Application of risk perception and communication strategies to manage disease outbreaks of coastal shrimp farming in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan

    2008-01-01

      Risk and uncertainty are very common issues in coastal shrimp industry like in any other business. A variety of risks are associated in shrimp farming like, production risks, technical risks, economical risks and disease of shrimp. However, risk of economic losses due to shrimp mortality (for...... diseases) is the major concern of shrimp producers of developing countries like Bangladesh, India, Thailand, China and many other countries. The risk of disease outbreaks in shrimp farms could be effectively prevented and managed by early identification of disease occurrence and by rapid communication...... of such a risk to the shrimp farmers. The risk perception and communication concepts could be applied to identify and to manage the disease occurrence in the initial stage. This conceptual paper provides the models to prevent and to manage shrimp diseases in coastal shrimp farming of Bangladesh and other...

  13. Prioritization of intervention methods for prevention of communicable diseases in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, A. W.

    poor housing environment (14.5-24.0%). Water quality played the least role in transmission of diseases accounting for only 3-8%. It was concluded that provision of hygiene education, and improvement of water quantity and housing, in that order can significantly contribute to reduction of communicable diseases in the area. Improvement of water quality has potentially the least effect on the number of morbidity and mortality cases.

  14. Annual US Air Force Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Report, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This report evaluates the 1995 US Air Force (USAF) Sexually Transmitted Diseases ( STD ) Prevention and Control Program. The report analyzes data from...88 medical treatment facilities worldwide and compares 1995 data with that from 1992-94. The 1995 USAF active duty total STD incidence rate was 7.64...cases per 1,000 personnel. This rate represents a 18.9% decline from the 1994 reported STD incidence rate of 9.41 per 1,000 personnel. Among active

  15. Inadvertent recovery in communication deficits following the upper limb mirror therapy in stroke: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Kamal Narayan; Pandian, Shanta

    2014-10-01

    Broca's aphasia is the most challenging communication deficit in stroke. Left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), a key region of the mirror-neuron system, gets lesioned in Broca's aphasia. Mirror therapy (MT), a form of action-observation, may trigger the mirror neurons. The aim of this study was to report a case of poststroke subject with Broca's aphasia, who exhibited an inadvertent and significant improvement in speech after MT for the paretic upper limb. The 20-month old stroke patient underwent MT through goal-directed tasks. He received a total absence of spontaneous speech, writing, and naming. After 45 sessions of task-based MT for the upper limb, he showed tremendous recovery in expressive communication. He had fluent and comprehensive communication; however, with a low pitch and minor pronunciation errors. He showed a substantial change (from 18/100 to 79/100) on the Communicative Effective Index, particularly, on items such as expressing emotions, one-to-one conversation, naming, and spontaneous conversation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Family health history communication networks of older adults: importance of social relationships and disease perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Goodman, Melody; Schafer, Ellen J

    2013-10-01

    Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication (have shared and intend to share new FHH information with family members) to inform public health efforts to facilitate FHH dissemination. Information on 970 social network members enumerated by 99 seniors (aged 57 years and older) at 3 senior centers in Memphis, Tennessee, through face-to-face interviews was analyzed. Participants shared FHH information with 27.5% of the network members; 54.7% of children and 24.4% of siblings. Two-level logistic regression models showed that participants had shared FHH with those to whom they provided emotional support (odds ratio [OR] = 1.836) and felt close to (OR = 1.757). Network-members were more likely to have received FHH from participants with a cancer diagnosis (OR = 2.617) and higher familiarity with (OR = 1.380) and importance of sharing FHH with family (OR = 1.474). Participants intended to share new FHH with those who provide tangible support to (OR = 1.804) and were very close to them (OR = 2.112). Members with whom participants intend to share new FHH were more likely to belong to the network of participants with higher perceived severity if family members encountered heart disease (OR = 1.329). Many first-degree relatives were not informed of FHH. Perceptions about FHH and disease risk as well as quality of social relationships may play roles in whether seniors communicate FHH with their families. Future studies may consider influencing these perceptions and relationships.

  17. Collocational Networks Supporting Strategic Planning of Brand Communication: Analysis of Quarterly Reports of Telecommunication Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pentti Järvi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses analysing quarterly reports from a brandtheoretical viewpoint. The study addresses the issue through a method which introduces both a quantitative tool based on linguistic theory and qualitative decisions of the researchers. The research objects of this study are two quarterly reports each of three telecommunications companies: Ericsson, Motorola and Nokia. The method used is a collocational network. The analyses show that there are differences in communication and message strategies among investigated companies and also changes during a quite short period in each company

  18. Wilson disease in a Nigerian child: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esezobor Christopher

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Wilson disease is rarely reported among African children. This report describes the second case report of a Nigerian child with Wilson disease in three decades. Case presentation An eight-year-old African boy presented with generalized oedema and ascites and proteinuria. Over the next three weeks he developed conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia, severe coagulopathy and prominent extrapyramidal features consisting of rigidity, tremors at rest and in action, shuffling gait, slurred speech and emotional lability. Slit-lamp examination of his eyes revealed Kayser-Fleischer rings and sunflower cataracts. His serum caeruloplasmin level was 5mg/dL. Using the scoring system proposed by the 8th International Meeting of Wilson Disease and Menkes Disease, a diagnosis of Wilson disease was made. Conclusions Wilson disease does occur in African children, although the diagnosis is rarely made. A diagnosis of Wilson disease should be entertained in the evaluation of African children presenting with liver dysfunction and/or extrapyramidal neurological features.

  19. Chronic non-communicable disease and healthcare access in middle-aged and older women living in Soweto, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lopes Ibanez-Gonzalez

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to describe the healthcare access, beliefs, and practices of middle-aged and older women residing in Soweto. This is a cross-sectional study of the primary (female caregivers of the Birth to Twenty Cohort, based in Soweto, South Africa. The study instrument was administered to 1 102 caregivers as part of routine annual data collection. Over half the respondents (50.7% reported having at least one chronic non-communicable disease (CND, only a small portion (33.3% of whom reported accessing a healthcare service in the last 6 months. Reported availability of private medical practice and government clinics was high (75.1% and 61.5% respectively. The low utilisation of healthcare services by women with CND is a concern in terms of healthcare management. There is a need to further investigate how healthcare beliefs are formed, as well as the feasibility of programmes to support the ongoing management of CND in Soweto.

  20. Analysis of timeliness of infectious disease reporting in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretzschmar Mirjam EE

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Timely reporting of infectious disease cases to public health authorities is essential to effective public health response. To evaluate the timeliness of reporting to the Dutch Municipal Health Services (MHS, we used as quantitative measures the intervals between onset of symptoms and MHS notification, and between laboratory diagnosis and notification with regard to six notifiable diseases. Methods We retrieved reporting data from June 2003 to December 2008 from the Dutch national notification system for shigellosis, EHEC/STEC infection, typhoid fever, measles, meningococcal disease, and hepatitis A virus (HAV infection. For each disease, median intervals between date of onset and MHS notification were calculated and compared with the median incubation period. The median interval between date of laboratory diagnosis and MHS notification was similarly analysed. For the year 2008, we also investigated whether timeliness is improved by MHS agreements with physicians and laboratories that allow direct laboratory reporting. Finally, we investigated whether reports made by post, fax, or e-mail were more timely. Results The percentage of infectious diseases reported within one incubation period varied widely, between 0.4% for shigellosis and 90.3% for HAV infection. Not reported within two incubation periods were 97.1% of shigellosis cases, 76.2% of cases of EHEC/STEC infection, 13.3% of meningococcosis cases, 15.7% of measles cases, and 29.7% of typhoid fever cases. A substantial percentage of infectious disease cases was reported more than three days after laboratory diagnosis, varying between 12% for meningococcosis and 42% for shigellosis. MHS which had agreements with physicians and laboratories showed a significantly shorter notification time compared to MHS without such agreements. Conclusions Over the study period, many cases of the six notifiable diseases were not reported within two incubation periods, and many were

  1. Developmental Origins of Health and Disease: A Lifecourse Approach to the Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Baird

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCDs, such as cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis, affect individuals in all countries worldwide. Given the very high worldwide prevalence of NCDs across a range of human pathology, it is clear that traditional approaches targeting those at most risk in older adulthood will not efficiently ameliorate this growing burden. It will thus be essential to robustly identify determinants of NCDs across the entire lifecourse and, subsequently, appropriate interventions at every stage to reduce an individual’s risk of developing these conditions. A lifecourse approach has the potential to prevent NCDs, from before conception through fetal life, infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and into older age. In this paper, we describe the origins of the lifecourse concept, the importance of early life influences, for example during pregnancy, examine potential underlying mechanisms in both cell biology and behavior change, and finally describe current efforts to develop interventions that take a lifecourse approach to NCD prevention. Two principal approaches to improving women’s nutritional status are outlined: nutritional supplementation and behavior change.

  2. Developmental Origins of Health and Disease: A Lifecourse Approach to the Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Janis; Jacob, Chandni; Barker, Mary; Fall, Caroline H. D.; Hanson, Mark; Harvey, Nicholas C.; Inskip, Hazel M.; Kumaran, Kalyanaraman; Cooper, Cyrus

    2017-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis, affect individuals in all countries worldwide. Given the very high worldwide prevalence of NCDs across a range of human pathology, it is clear that traditional approaches targeting those at most risk in older adulthood will not efficiently ameliorate this growing burden. It will thus be essential to robustly identify determinants of NCDs across the entire lifecourse and, subsequently, appropriate interventions at every stage to reduce an individual’s risk of developing these conditions. A lifecourse approach has the potential to prevent NCDs, from before conception through fetal life, infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and into older age. In this paper, we describe the origins of the lifecourse concept, the importance of early life influences, for example during pregnancy, examine potential underlying mechanisms in both cell biology and behavior change, and finally describe current efforts to develop interventions that take a lifecourse approach to NCD prevention. Two principal approaches to improving women’s nutritional status are outlined: nutritional supplementation and behavior change. PMID:28282852

  3. A New Wave of Vaccines for Non-Communicable Diseases: What Are the Regulatory Challenges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Jonathan J; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines represent one of the greatest achievements of medicine, dramatically reducing the incidence of serious or life-threatening infectious diseases and allowing people to live longer, healthier lives. As life expectancy has increased, however, the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cancer, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes has increased. This shifting burden of disease has heightened the already urgent need for therapies that treat or prevent NCDs, a need that is now being met with increased efforts to develop NCD vaccines. Like traditional vaccines, NCD vaccines work by modulating the human immune system, but target cells, proteins or other molecules that are associated with the NCD in question rather than pathogens or pathogen-infected cells. Efforts are underway to develop NCD vaccines to address not only cancer and hypertension, but also addiction, obesity, asthma, arthritis, psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, and Crohn's disease, among others. NCD vaccines present an interesting challenge for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which is tasked with approving new treatments on the basis of efficacy and safety. Should NCD vaccines be evaluated under the same analytic frame as traditional vaccines, or that of biologic drugs? Despite the borrowed nomenclature, NCD vaccines differ in important ways from infectious disease vaccines. Because infectious disease vaccines are generally administered to healthy individuals, often children, tolerance for adverse events is low and willingness to pay is limited. It is important to have infectious disease vaccines even for rare or eradicated disease (e.g., smallpox), in the event of an outbreak. The efficacy of infectious disease vaccines is generally high, and the vaccines convey population level benefits associated with herd immunity and potential eradication. The combination of substantial population-level benefits, low willingness to pay, and low tolerance for adverse events explains the

  4. Hodgkin's disease in a patient with Von Hippel-Lindau disease. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'hondt, R; Thomas, J; Van Oosterom, A T; Dewolf-Peeters, C

    2000-01-01

    Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder with a predisposition to develop a wide variety of lesions: retinal, cerebellar, spinal and medullar hemangioblastomas, renal cell carcinomas, phaeochromocytomas, and renal, pancreatic and epididymal cysts are the most frequent manifestations of the disease. The prevalence of VHL disease has been estimated to be 1 per 36,000 persons. We report the case of a 68-year-old woman with Von Hipple-Lindau disease who developed high fever with pulmonary and hepatic lesions proven to be Hodgkin's disease on biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Hodgkin's disease in a patient with Von Hippel-Lindau.

  5. First Reported Case of Proliferative Retinopathy in Hemoglobin SE Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Baciu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of proliferative sickle cell retinopathy in a patient with hemoglobin SE (Hb SE disease. Only a few dozen cases of Hb SE disease have been reported previously, and none had evidence of proliferative retinopathy. A 56-year-old African American man presented to our clinic for routine examination and was found to have sea-fan peripheral neovascularization bilaterally without maculopathy. Hemoglobin analysis revealed Hb SE heterozygosity. Sector laser photocoagulation to areas of nonperfusion in both eyes resulted in regression of the peripheral neovascularization over a period of 6 months. Although Hb SE disease is rare, the incidence of Hb SE disease is postulated to rise in the future. Awareness of its potential ocular complications is needed to appropriately refer these patients for screening.

  6. Non-communicable diseases in the South-East Asia region: burden, strategies and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narain, Jai P; Garg, Renu; Fric, Anton

    2011-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a global health and developmental emergency, as they cause premature deaths,exacerbate poverty and threaten national economies. In 2008, they were the top killers in the South-East Asia region, causing 7.9 million deaths; the number of deaths is expected to increase by 21% over the next decade. One-third of the 7.9 million deaths (34%) occurred in those strategies for the prevention and control of NCDs include (i) reducing exposure to risk factors through health promotion and primary prevention, (ii) early diagnosis and management of people with NCDs, and (iii) surveillance to monitor trends in risk factors and diseases. Tackling NCDs calls for a paradigm shift: from addressing each NCD separately to collectively addressing a cluster of diseases in an integrated manner, and from using a biomedical approach to a public health approach guided by the principles of universal access and social justice. High levels of commitment and multisectoral actions are needed to reverse the growing burden of NCDs in the South-East Asia region.

  7. Chinese new immigrant mothers' perception about adult-onset non-communicable diseases prevention during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linda Dong Ling; Lam, Wendy Wing Tak; Wu, Joseph Tsz Kei; Fielding, Richard

    2015-12-01

    Many non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are largely preventable via behaviour change and healthy lifestyle, which may be best established during childhood. This study sought insights into Chinese new immigrant mothers' perceptions about adult-onset NCDs prevention during childhood. Twenty-three semi-structured interviews were carried out with new immigrant mothers from mainland China who had at least one child aged 14 years or younger living in Hong Kong. Interviews were audio taped, transcribed and analysed using a Grounded Theory approach. The present study identified three major themes: perceived causes of adult NCDs, beliefs about NCDs prevention and everyday health information practices. Unhealthy lifestyle, contaminated food and environment pollution were perceived as the primary causes of adult NCDs. Less than half of the participants recognized that parents had responsibility for helping children establish healthy behaviours from an early age to prevent diseases in later life. Most participants expressed helplessness about chronic diseases prevention due to lack of knowledge of prevention, being perceived as beyond individual control. Many participants experienced barriers to seeking health information, the most common sources of health information being interpersonal conversation and television. Participants' everyday information practice was passive and generally lacked awareness regarding early prevention of adult-onset NCDs. Updated understanding of this issue has notable implications for future health promotion interventions. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. "Boring" family routines reduce non-communicable diseases: a commentary and call for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Tomlinson, Mark; Davis, Emily

    2015-01-01

    As global donors shift their efforts from infectious diseases to non-communicable diseases (NCD), it is critical to capitalize on our prior mistakes and successes. Policy makers and public health administrators are often looking for magic bullets: drugs or treatments to eradicate disease. Yet, each potential magic bullet requires consistent, daily implementation and adherence to a new set of habits to actually work. Families' and communities' daily, interlocking routines will be the battlefield on which scientific and technological breakthroughs will be implemented and succeed or not. Currently, there are many evidence-based interventions (EBI) which have been demonstrated to shift specific habits which account for most NCD (eating, drinking, moving, and smoking). Yet, securing sustained uptake of these programs is rare - suggesting different intervention strategies are needed. Structural changes, policy nudges, and partnerships with private enterprise may be able to shift the health behaviors of more citizens faster and at a lower cost than existing EBI. Addressing concurrent risk and protective factors at the community level and intervening to shape new cultural routines may be useful to reduce NCD.

  9. Medicalization of global health 3: the medicalization of the non-communicable diseases agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jocalyn

    2014-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the massive global burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) due to their prevalence, projected social and economic costs, and traditional neglect compared to infectious disease. The 2011 UN Summit, WHO 25×25 targets, and support of major medical and advocacy organisations have propelled prominence of NCDs on the global health agenda. NCDs are by definition 'diseases' so already medicalized. But their social drivers and impacts are acknowledged, which demand a broad, whole-of-society approach. However, while both individual- and population-level targets are identified in the current NCD action plans, most recommended strategies tend towards the individualistic approach and do not address root causes of the NCD problem. These so-called population strategies risk being reduced to expectations of individual and behavioural change, which may have limited success and impact and deflect attention away from government policies or regulation of industry. Industry involvement in NCD agenda-setting props up a medicalized approach to NCDs: food and drink companies favour focus on individual choice and responsibility, and pharmaceutical and device companies favour calls for expanded access to medicines and treatment coverage. Current NCD framing creates expanded roles for physicians, healthcare workers, medicines and medical monitoring. The professional rather than the patient view dominates the NCD agenda and there is a lack of a broad, engaged, and independent NGO community. The challenge and opportunity lie in defining priorities and developing strategies that go beyond a narrow medicalized framing of the NCD problem and its solutions.

  10. The PACSAT Communications Experiment (PCE). Final report, August 13, 1990--February 12, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-12

    While VITA (Volunteers in Technical Assistance) is the recognized world leader in low earth orbiting (LEO) satellite technology (below 1 GHz), its involvement in communications technologies is to facilitate renewable energy technology transfer to developing countries. A communications payload was incorporated into the UoSat 2 satellite (Surrey Univ., UK), launched in 1984; a prototype satellite (PCE) was also launched Jan 1990. US DOE awarded a second grant to VITA to design and test the prototype ground stations (command and field), install field ground stations in several developing country sites, pursue the operational licensing process, and transfer the evaluation results to the design of an operating system. This report covers the principal tasks of this grant.

  11. Kyasanur Forest Disease - First Reported Case in Kerala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiji, P V; Viswanath, Veena; Sreekumar, Sreena; Sreejith, R; Majeed, Abdul; Udayabhaskaran, V

    2016-03-01

    Kyasanur Forest disease is a tick-borne arboviral fever with biphasic course of illness with prominent hemorrhagic features in the first phase and encephalitic picture in the second phase. So far it has been described in the southern Karnataka only. Here we report a case of Kyasanur Forest Disease for the first time from Kerala in an 18 year old male from Noolpuzha - Alathoor colony of Wayanad district.

  12. Dental erosion caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Cengiz,Seda; Cengiz, M ?nan?; Sara?, Y ?inasi

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Chronic regurgitation of gastric acids in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease may cause dental erosion, which can lead in combination with attrition or bruxism to extensive loss of coronal tooth tissue. Case presentation This clinical report describes treatment of severe tooth wear of a gastroesophageal reflux disease patient who is 54-year-old Turkish male patient. After his medical treatment, severe tooth wear, bruxism and decreased vertical dimensions were determined...

  13. The Harbin Cohort Study on Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Non-communicable Diseases: study design and baseline characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Na

    Full Text Available Diet and nutrition have been reported to be associated with many common chronic diseases and blood-based assessment would be vital to investigate the association and mechanism, however, blood-based prospective studies are limited. The Harbin Cohort Study on Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Non-communicable Diseases was set up in 2010. From 2010 to 2012, 9,734 participants completed the baseline survey, including demographic characteristics, dietary intake, lifestyles and physical condition, and anthropometrics. A re-survey on 490 randomly selected participants was done by using the same methods which were employed in the baseline survey. For all participants, the mean age was 50 years and 36% of them were men. Approximately 99.4 % of cohort members donated blood samples. The mean total energy intake was 2671.7 kcal/day in men and 2245.9 kcal/day in women, the mean body mass index was 25.7 kg/m2 in men and 24.6 kg/m2 in women, with 18.4% being obese (≥ 28 kg/m2, 12.7% being diabetic, and 29.5% being hypertensive. A good agreement was obtained for the physical measurements between the baseline survey and re-survey. The resources from the cohort and its fasting and postprandial blood samples collected both at baseline and in each follow-up will be valuable and powerful in investigating relationship between diet, nutrition and chronic diseases and discovering novel blood biomarkers and the metabolism of these biomarkers related to chronic diseases.

  14. Alzheimer's disease: The next frontier-Special Report 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlawish, Jason; Jack, Clifford R; Rocca, Walter A; Snyder, Heather M; Carrillo, Maria C

    2017-04-01

    In the history of medicine, one means to progress is when we make the decision that our assumptions and definitions of disease are no longer consistent with the scientific evidence, and no longer serve our health care needs. The arc of scientific progress is now requiring a change in how we diagnose Alzheimer's disease. Both the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association (NIA-AA) 2011 workgroup and the International Work Group (IWG) have proposed guidelines that use detectable measures of biological changes in the brain, commonly known as biological markers, or biomarkers, as part of the diagnosis. This Special Report examines how the development and validation of Alzheimer's disease biomarkers-including those detectable in the blood or cerebral spinal fluid, or through neuroimaging-is a top research priority. This has the potential to markedly change how we diagnose Alzheimer's disease and, as a result, how we count the number of people with this disease. As research advances a biomarker-based method for diagnosis and treatment at the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease, we envision a future in which Alzheimer's disease is placed in the same category as other chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease or diabetes, which can be readily identified with biomarkers and treated before irrevocable disability occurs. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Confidentiality in HIV-infection/AIDS--a comment on the Communicable Disease Control Act].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frich, J C

    1995-05-10

    The new Communicable Diseases Control Act has come into force in Norway. It makes it compulsory for a physician to warn a third party if it is obvious that a HIV-positive patient, with a high degree of certainty, puts the third party at risk of being infected with HIV. Some philosophers characterize medical confidentiality as an intransigent and absolute obligation, others as a prima facie duty. This article supports the latter view, but the author still argues that strict conditions have to be fulfilled before a physician should consider breaking medical confidentiality: The doctor must try repeatedly to gain the consent or co-operation of the patient involved. Possible negative long-term consequences for the preventive HIV-work support strict medical confidentiality.

  16. Role of occupational health in managing non-communicable diseases in Brunei Darussalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pg Khalifah Pg Ismail

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Like most ASEAN countries, Brunei faces an epidemic of non-communicable diseases. To deal with the complexity of NCDs prevention, all perspectives - be it social, familial or occupational – need to be considered. In Brunei Darussalam, occupational health services (OHS offered by its Ministry of Health, among others, provide screening and management of NCDs at various points of service. The OHS does not only issue fitness to work certificates, but is a significant partner in co-managing patients’ health conditions, with the advantage of further management at the workplace. Holistic approach of NCD management in the occupational setting is strengthened with both employer and employee education and participation, targeting several approaches including risk management and advocating healthy lifestyles as part of a healthy workplace programme.

  17. McArdle disease: a case report and review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Alberto; Oliveira, Narciso; Rocha, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    McArdle disease (glycogen storage disease type V) is a pure myopathy caused by an inherited deficit of myophosphorylase. The disease exhibits clinical heterogeneity, but patients typically experience exercise intolerance, acute crises of early fatigue, and contractures, sometimes with rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria, triggered by static muscle contractions or dynamic exercise. We present the case of a 54-year-old man with a lifelong history of fatigability, worsening on exertion. Laboratory evaluation revealed significant elevations in levels of creatine kinase (7924 U/L), lactate dehydrogenase (624 U/L), and myoglobulin (671 ng/mL). A muscle biopsy confirmed the presence of McArdle disease. This case report illustrates how, due to embarrassment, the patient hid his symptoms for many years and was eventually extremely relieved and “liberated” once McArdle disease was diagnosed 40 years later. PMID:23754915

  18. Juvenile Huntington's disease: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Molón, L; Yáñez Sáez, R M; López-Ibor Alcocer, M I

    2010-01-01

    Huntington's disease is the most frequent neurodegenerative disease with a prevalence of fewer than 10 cases per 10,000 inhabitants; the juvenile form is responsible for less than 10% of all cases. Huntington's disease belongs to the group known as "triad syndromes," which evolve with cognitive, motor and neuropsychiatric manifestations. Around 30% of patients debut with behavioral symptoms, which are a major challenge for management by patients, families, and caregivers. Huntington's disease (HD) is reviewed and a case of juvenile onset is reported in this article. The characteristics of juvenile-onset Huntington's disease (HD) differ from those of adult-onset HD, as chorea does not occur, although bradykinesia, dystonia, and signs of cerebellar disorder, such as rigidity, are present, frequently in association with convulsive episodes and psychotic manifestations.

  19. Ethical models underpinning responses to threats to public health: a comparison of approaches to communicable disease control in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainotti, Sabina; Moran, Nicola; Petrini, Carlo; Shickle, Darren

    2008-11-01

    Increases in international travel and migratory flows have enabled infectious diseases to emerge and spread more rapidly than ever before. Hence, it is increasingly easy for local infectious diseases to become global infectious diseases (GIDs). National governments must be able to react quickly and effectively to GIDs, whether naturally occurring or intentionally instigated by bioterrorism. According to the World Health Organisation, global partnerships are necessary to gather the most up-to-date information and to mobilize resources to tackle GIDs when necessary. Communicable disease control also depends upon national public health laws and policies. The containment of an infectious disease typically involves detection, notification, quarantine and isolation of actual or suspected cases; the protection and monitoring of those not infected; and possibly even treatment. Some measures are clearly contentious and raise conflicts between individual and societal interests. In Europe national policies against infectious diseases are very heterogeneous. Some countries have a more communitarian approach to public health ethics, in which the interests of individual and society are more closely intertwined and interdependent, while others take a more liberal approach and give priority to individual freedoms in communicable disease control. This paper provides an overview of the different policies around communicable disease control that exist across a select number of countries across Europe. It then proposes ethical arguments to be considered in the making of public health laws, mostly concerning their effectiveness for public health protection.

  20. Fahr disease with atypical presentation: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Tunç

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Fahr’s disease is a rare disorder where bilateral, almost symmetric, calcium and other mineral deposits occur in basal ganglia, cerebellar dentate nucleus and white matter. Common clinical findings of the disease are characterizing parkinsonism, dystonia, chorea, ataxia and psychiatric symptoms. Fahr’s disease is associated with various metabolic disorders especially with parathyroid disorders. In this article a 65 year old female patient with vision loss and headache, bilateral basal ganglia and cerebellar calsification on Computerized Tomography examination and a 45 year old female patient with convulsive state and bilateral caudat nucleus calcification on Computerized Tomography examination were reported.

  1. Anesthetic considerations in Leigh disease: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leigh disease is an extremely rare disorder, characterized by a progressive neurodegenerative course, with subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy. It usually presents in infancy with developmental delay, seizures, dysarthria, and ataxia. These patients may also develop episodes of lactic acidosis that usually lead to respiratory failure and death. Due to the rarity of the condition, the most appropriate anesthetic plan remains unclear. We present a patient with Leigh disease, who required general anesthesia. The pathogenesis of the disease is discussed and previous reports of perioperative care from the literature are reviewed.

  2. Optic neuropathy secondary to cat scratch disease: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Optic neuropathy due to cat scratch disease is a relatively infrequent occurrence associated with macular star formation and is characterized by sudden painless loss of vision mostly unilateral. Bartonella henselae is well recognized as the etiologic agent in cat scratch disease. Ocular complications of the disease occur in up to 10% of patients and include neuroretinitis. Ocular bartonelosis is usually self-limited with complete or near-complete recovery of vision in otherwise healthy patients. A case of a boy with neuroretinitis caused by B. henselae is reported.

  3. Community-based integration of management of non-communicable diseases in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a leading cause of deaths and of disease burden in China.This paper analyzes the rationale and implications of a community-based approach to a better coordinated NCDs care and management system in China.As argued by the author, the buildup of an integrated NCDs care delivery system is feasible now and large health expenditures will be saved if more stable outpatients with NCDs could be shifted to community health facilities to receive their medications.However,the key issues remain in building a general practitioner led (GP-led) primary care delivery system in China.Some prominent issues include the shortage of quality generalists, lack of proper incentives and management mechanisms, and the absence of patients and provider, and restrictive arrangements in basic health insurance policies.Even with these hard-to-solve issues, some recent reform initiatives for integrated NCDs care delivery in some localities have demonstrated originality and creativeness in developing better coordination between primary and secondary NCDs care.However, without large-scale public sector reform, innate issues with human resource development, income distribution and financing of public healthcare providers cannot be solved.It may take a long time to see deep integration of primary and secondary NCDs care in China.Copyright 2015, Chinese Medical Association Production.Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.on behalf of KeAi Communications Co., Ltd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/ by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  4. Graves' disease presenting as pseudotumor cerebri: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitas Cláudia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pseudotumor cerebri is an entity characterized by elevated intracranial pressure with normal cerebrospinal fluid and no structural abnormalities detected on brain MRI scans. Common secondary causes include endocrine pathologies. Hyperthyroidism is very rarely associated and only three case reports have been published so far. Case presentation We report the case of a 31-year-old Luso-African woman with clinical symptoms and laboratory confirmation of Graves' disease that presented as pseudotumor cerebri. Conclusion This is a rare form of presentation of Graves' disease and a rare cause of pseudotumor cerebri. It should be remembered that hyperthyroidism is a potential cause of pseudotumor cerebri.

  5. [Hemorrhagic Adult Unilateral Moyamoya Disease with Multiple Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms: A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Saya; Inoue, Akihiro; Miyazaki, Hajime; Onoue, Shinji; Ichikawa, Haruhisa; Fukumoto, Shinya; Iwata, Shinji; Kohno, Kanehisa

    2016-02-01

    Adult unilateral moyamoya disease with intracranial aneurysm is frequently reported in the literature, but there is much variation in its treatment. In this case report, we describe the time course and treatment regimen of a patient with moyamoya disease and review the literature regarding moyamoya disease with intracranial aneurysm. A 64-year-old man had untreated intracranial aneurysm and unilateral moyamoya disease for 10 years. He presented with sudden-onset right hemiparesis and aphasia due to a subcortical hemorrhage. He was admitted to the local neurosurgical unit, and upon resolution of symptoms, he was admitted to our hospital. A cerebral angiogram revealed the champagne bottleneck sign of the left carotid artery and obliteration of the top of the left intracranial carotid artery with a moyamoya phenomenon. Two unruptured intracranial aneurysms were identified in the anterior communicating artery(Acom A) and the right intracranial carotid artery(C3). We performed superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis followed by aneurysmal neck clipping of the Acom A aneurysm. Postoperative imaging showed no new ischemic damage and improved cerebral blood flow. Although the patient experienced temporal worsening of aphasia, his function recovered a few months later and he was able to resume his normal daily life activities. The combination of direct bypass surgery and aneurysmal neck clipping might be a therapeutic option for hemorrhagic unilateral moyamoya disease with unruptured intracranial aneurysm.

  6. Physical inactivity associated with the risk of non-communicable diseases in Japanese working mothers with young children: A cross-sectional study in Nagano city, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Sakuraba, Keishoku; Shinjo, Tokiko; Maruyama-Nagao, Asako; Nakaniida, Atsuko; Kadoya, Haruka; Shibata, Marika; Matsukawa, Takehisa; Itoh, Hiroaki; Yokoyama, Kazuhito

    2017-06-01

    Physical activity helps to prevent the development of chronic non-communicable diseases. However, childbearing generally reduces parents' level of physical activity, particularly in mothers. Therefore, mothers with young children generally have lower levels of physical activity and have a higher risk of developing non-communicable diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine this risk in Japanese working mothers with young children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four nursery schools in Nagano city, Japan. All mothers were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding abnormal findings at their proximate annual medical examination, and were asked to record their normal physical activity. A total of 182 mothers completed the questionnaires, and 36 reported having abnormal findings (ABN group). Mothers in the ABN group were significantly older than those without abnormal findings (NOR; P=0.043). No significant differences in physical activity were observed between the two groups; however, mothers in the ABN group spent a significantly longer time sitting than those in the NOR group (P=0.028). Regarding socioeconomic characteristics, mothers in the ABN group had a significantly higher educational background (P=0.040) and a higher annual family income (Pchildren developing non-communicable diseases.

  7. Descriptions of verbal communication errors between staff. An analysis of 84 root cause analysis-reports from Danish hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabøl, Louise Isager; Andersen, Mette Lehmann; Østergaard, Doris; Bjørn, Brian; Lilja, Beth; Mogensen, Torben

    2011-03-01

    Poor teamwork and communication between healthcare staff are correlated to patient safety incidents. However, the organisational factors responsible for these issues are unexplored. Root cause analyses (RCA) use human factors thinking to analyse the systems behind severe patient safety incidents. The objective of this study is to review RCA reports (RCAR) for characteristics of verbal communication errors between hospital staff in an organisational perspective. Two independent raters analysed 84 RCARs, conducted in six Danish hospitals between 2004 and 2006, for descriptions and characteristics of verbal communication errors such as handover errors and error during teamwork. Raters found description of verbal communication errors in 44 reports (52%). These included handover errors (35 (86%)), communication errors between different staff groups (19 (43%)), misunderstandings (13 (30%)), communication errors between junior and senior staff members (11 (25%)), hesitance in speaking up (10 (23%)) and communication errors during teamwork (8 (18%)). The kappa values were 0.44-0.78. Unproceduralized communication and information exchange via telephone, related to transfer between units and consults from other specialties, were particularly vulnerable processes. With the risk of bias in mind, it is concluded that more than half of the RCARs described erroneous verbal communication between staff members as root causes of or contributing factors of severe patient safety incidents. The RCARs rich descriptions of the incidents revealed the organisational factors and needs related to these errors.

  8. Online surveillance of media health event reporting in Nepal: digital disease detection from a One Health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwind, Jessica S; Norman, Stephanie A; Karmacharya, Dibesh; Wolking, David J; Dixit, Sameer M; Rajbhandari, Rajesh M; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Brownstein, John S

    2017-09-21

    Traditional media and the internet are crucial sources of health information. Media can significantly shape public opinion, knowledge and understanding of emerging and endemic health threats. As digital communication rapidly progresses, local access and dissemination of health information contribute significantly to global disease detection and reporting. Health event reports in Nepal (October 2013-December 2014) were used to characterize Nepal's media environment from a One Health perspective using HealthMap - a global online disease surveillance and mapping tool. Event variables (location, media source type, disease or risk factor of interest, and affected species) were extracted from HealthMap. A total of 179 health reports were captured from various sources including newspapers, inter-government agency bulletins, individual reports, and trade websites, yielding 108 (60%) unique articles. Human health events were reported most often (n = 85; 79%), followed by animal health events (n = 23; 21%), with no reports focused solely on environmental health. By expanding event coverage across all of the health sectors, media in developing countries could play a crucial role in national risk communication efforts and could enhance early warning systems for disasters and disease outbreaks.

  9. Health status of patients with self-reported chronic diseases in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Boume

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Developing countries such as Jamaica suffer increasingly from high levels of public health problems related to chronic diseases. Aims: To examine the physical health status and use a model to determine the significant predictors of poor health status of Jamaicans who reported being diagnosed with a chronic non-communicable disease. Methods and Materials: The current study extracted a sub-sample of 714 people from a larger nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 6,783 Jamaicans. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data from the sample. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square to investigate non-metric variables, and logistic regression to determine predictors of poor health status. Results: Approximately one-quarter (25.3% of the sample reported that they had poor health status. Thirty-three percent of the sample indicated unspecified chronic diseases: 7.8% arthritis, 28.9% hypertension, 17.2% diabetes mellitus and 13.3% asthma. Asthma affected 47.2% of children and 23.2% of young adults. Significant predictors of poor health status of Jamaicans who reported being diagnosed with chronic diseases were: age of respondents, area of residence and inability to work. Conclusion: Majority of the respondents in the sample had good health, and adults with poor health status were more likely to report having hypertension followed by diabetes mellitus and arthritis, while asthma was the most prevalent among children. Improvement in chronic disease control and health status can be achieved with improved patient education on the importance of compliance, access to more effective medication and development of support groups among chronic disease patients.

  10. Health status of patients with self-reported chronic diseases in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Boume

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Developing countries such as Jamaica suffer increasingly from high levels of public health problems related to chronic diseases. Aims : To examine the physical health status and use a model to determine the significant predictors of poor health status of Jamaicans who reported being diagnosed with a chronic non-communicable disease. Methods and Materials : The current study extracted a sub-sample of 714 people from a larger nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 6,783 Jamaicans. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data from the sample. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square to investigate non-metric variables, and logistic regression to determine predictors of poor health status. Results : Approximately one-quarter ( 25.3% of the sample reported that they had poor health status. Thirty-three percent of the sample indicated unspecified chronic diseases: 7.8% arthritis, 28.9% hypertension, 17.2% diabetes mellitus and 13.3% asthma. Asthma affected 47.2% of children and 23.2% of young adults. S ignificant predictors of poor health status of Jamaicans who reported being diagnosed with chronic diseases were: age of respondents, area of residence and inability to work . Conclusion : Majority of the respondents in the sample had good health, and adults with poor health status were more likely to report having hypertension followed by diabetes mellitus and arthritis, while asthma was the most prevalent among children. Improvement in chronic disease control and health status can be achieved with improved patient education on the importance of compliance, access to more effective medication and development of support groups among chronic disease patients.

  11. Optimising and communicating options for the control of invasive plant disease when there is epidemiological uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunniffe, Nik J; Stutt, Richard O J H; DeSimone, R Erik; Gottwald, Tim R; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2015-04-01

    Although local eradication is routinely attempted following introduction of disease into a new region, failure is commonplace. Epidemiological principles governing the design of successful control are not well-understood. We analyse factors underlying the effectiveness of reactive eradication of localised outbreaks of invading plant disease, using citrus canker in Florida as a case study, although our results are largely generic, and apply to other plant pathogens (as we show via our second case study, citrus greening). We demonstrate how to optimise control via removal of hosts surrounding detected infection (i.e. localised culling) using a spatially-explicit, stochastic epidemiological model. We show how to define optimal culling strategies that take account of stochasticity in disease spread, and how the effectiveness of disease control depends on epidemiological parameters determining pathogen infectivity, symptom emergence and spread, the initial level of infection, and the logistics and implementation of detection and control. We also consider how optimal culling strategies are conditioned on the levels of risk acceptance/aversion of decision makers, and show how to extend the analyses to account for potential larger-scale impacts of a small-scale outbreak. Control of local outbreaks by culling can be very effective, particularly when started quickly, but the optimum strategy and its performance are strongly dependent on epidemiological parameters (particularly those controlling dispersal and the extent of any cryptic infection, i.e. infectious hosts prior to symptoms), the logistics of detection and control, and the level of local and global risk that is deemed to be acceptable. A version of the model we developed to illustrate our methodology and results to an audience of stakeholders, including policy makers, regulators and growers, is available online as an interactive, user-friendly interface at http://www.webidemics.com/. This version of our model

  12. Optimising and communicating options for the control of invasive plant disease when there is epidemiological uncertainty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik J Cunniffe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although local eradication is routinely attempted following introduction of disease into a new region, failure is commonplace. Epidemiological principles governing the design of successful control are not well-understood. We analyse factors underlying the effectiveness of reactive eradication of localised outbreaks of invading plant disease, using citrus canker in Florida as a case study, although our results are largely generic, and apply to other plant pathogens (as we show via our second case study, citrus greening. We demonstrate how to optimise control via removal of hosts surrounding detected infection (i.e. localised culling using a spatially-explicit, stochastic epidemiological model. We show how to define optimal culling strategies that take account of stochasticity in disease spread, and how the effectiveness of disease control depends on epidemiological parameters determining pathogen infectivity, symptom emergence and spread, the initial level of infection, and the logistics and implementation of detection and control. We also consider how optimal culling strategies are conditioned on the levels of risk acceptance/aversion of decision makers, and show how to extend the analyses to account for potential larger-scale impacts of a small-scale outbreak. Control of local outbreaks by culling can be very effective, particularly when started quickly, but the optimum strategy and its performance are strongly dependent on epidemiological parameters (particularly those controlling dispersal and the extent of any cryptic infection, i.e. infectious hosts prior to symptoms, the logistics of detection and control, and the level of local and global risk that is deemed to be acceptable. A version of the model we developed to illustrate our methodology and results to an audience of stakeholders, including policy makers, regulators and growers, is available online as an interactive, user-friendly interface at http://www.webidemics.com/. This version

  13. [Non-communicable chronic diseases in Brazil: from risk factors to social impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessa, I; Mendonça, G A; Teixeira, M T

    1996-05-01

    The current epidemiologic profile of Brazil includes both the diseases of underdevelopment and those associated with modern life. Consequently, the country faces the difficult task of carrying out health promotion and protection activities aimed at controlling communicable diseases as well as noncommunicable chronic diseases (NCDs). This study sought to describe the epidemiologic situation of Brazilian adults with regard to NCDs and to present available data on the quality of care provided for these diseases and their social impact. To these ends, a literature review was conducted for the period 1964-1995--that is, since the beginning of the production and dissemination of data on cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes. Of the 153 bibliographic references that were discovered, 97 were used. The social, political, economic, and health inequities that exist among Brazil's geographic regions are reflected in the national scientific production, which is concentrated in the Southeast and South. Most of the studies based on primary data come from those regions. Information is scarce from the North-east, except the city of Salvador. Therefore, the health profile of adults--including risk factors and morbidity and mortality--can be better delineated for residents of the South and Southeast of the country, whereas for the other regions the necessary information is practically nonexistent. Risk factors linked to life-style are as widespread and important in Brazil as they are in industrialized countries. Prevalence and mortality rates among persons with or without certain socio-environmental risks (such as low level of schooling or unskilled occupations) indicate that NCDs predominate in the lowest social strata. Inter-regional differences in the prevalence of arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, the most common fatal cardiovascular causes, and the predominant cancers, as well as morbidity and mortality in both sexes, illustrate the political, social, and

  14. Rare Submandibular Presentation of Pediatric Castleman Disease: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jodi; Mandel, Louis

    2017-04-01

    Castleman disease (CD), a benign lymphoproliferative disorder that affects lymph nodes, is uncommon in children, with only approximately 100 cases published. Although 23% of pediatric CD cases are found in the neck, there is no substantial reported percentage found in the salivary glands, especially the submandibular salivary gland (SMSG). A pediatric case of CD involving the SMSG is reported because of its extreme rarity. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance Assessment of a Communicable Disease Surveillance System in Response to the Twin Earthquakes of East Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, Javad; Ardalan, Ali; Vatandoost, Hasan; Goya, Mohammad Mehdi; Akbari Sari, Ali

    2015-08-01

    Following the twin earthquakes on August 11, 2012, in the East Azerbaijan province of Iran, the provincial health center set up a surveillance system to monitor communicable diseases. This study aimed to assess the performance of this surveillance system. In this quantitative-qualitative study, performance of the communicable diseases surveillance system was assessed by using the updated guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Qualitative data were collected through interviews with the surveillance system participants, and quantitative data were obtained from the surveillance system. The surveillance system was useful, simple, representative, timely, and flexible. The data quality, acceptability, and stability of the surveillance system were 65.6%, 10.63%, and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity and positive predictive value were not calculated owing to the absence of a gold standard. The surveillance system satisfactorily met the goals expected for its setup. The data obtained led to the control of communicable diseases in the affected areas. Required interventions based on the incidence of communicable disease were designed and implemented. The results also reassured health authorities and the public. However, data quality and acceptability should be taken into consideration and reviewed for implementation in future disasters.

  16. Descriptions of verbal communication errors between staff. An analysis of 84 root cause analysis-reports from Danish hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabøl, Louise Isager; Østergaard, Doris; Jensen, Brian Bjørn

    2011-01-01

    incidents. The objective of this study is to review RCA reports (RCAR) for characteristics of verbal communication errors between hospital staff in an organisational perspective. Method Two independent raters analysed 84 RCARs, conducted in six Danish hospitals between 2004 and 2006, for descriptions...... and characteristics of verbal communication errors such as handover errors and error during teamwork. Results Raters found description of verbal communication errors in 44 reports (52%). These included handover errors (35 (86%)), communication errors between different staff groups (19 (43%)), misunderstandings (13...... units and consults from other specialties, were particularly vulnerable processes. Conclusion With the risk of bias in mind, it is concluded that more than half of the RCARs described erroneous verbal communication between staff members as root causes of or contributing factors of severe patient safety...

  17. Effectiveness of Chronic Disease Self-management Program in Japan: preliminary report of a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukawa, Keiko; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko; Yonekura, Yuki; Togari, Taisuke; Abbott, Fusae K; Homma, Mieko; Park, Minjeong; Kagawa, Yumi

    2010-12-01

    This is the preliminary report of a study to evaluate the effectiveness of the Chronic Disease Self-management Program in Japan by comparing changes in health outcomes at the baseline and 3-month and 6-month follow-ups. The program is a patient-centered educational program for the self-management of chronic conditions. The study's participants were recruited from among the attendees of the program workshops. During the study period (August 2006 to May 2007), 18 workshops were held and 128 attendees agreed to participate in the study. The health outcomes that were measured included health status, self-management behaviors, utilization of health services, self-efficacy, satisfaction with daily living, and clinical indicators. These indicators were further analyzed by disease type: diabetes, rheumatic disease, and cardiovascular disease/dyslipidemia. The findings indicated statistically significant positive changes in health distress, coping with symptoms, stretching exercises, communication with the physician, and satisfaction with daily living. The positive changes were especially remarkable among the groups with diabetes and rheumatic disease. These findings suggest that the Chronic Disease Self-management Program can be effective for Japanese people with chronic conditions.

  18. Case Report of Arm Kimura Disease with Atypical MR Finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Young; Kim, Baek Hyun; Lee, Young Hen; Kang, Chang Ho; Lee, Guen Young; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Lee, Ju Han [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ye Lim; Hong, Suk Ju [Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    Kimura disease is a rare chronic inflammatory condition of unknown origin that occurs mainly in young Asian male patients. Kimura disease is characterized by painless subcutaneous swelling and lymphadenopathy of the head and neck, associated with peripheral blood eosinophilia and increased serum IgE. According to some previous reports about a rare form of Kimura disease of the upper arm, soft tissue masses of the subcutaneous fat layer were demonstrated in the medial trochlear area, which showed strong and homogenous enhancement with marked perilesional edema and fat infiltrations on enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this case report, we introduce a case of Kimura disease of the upper arm in a 13-year male patient, which was seen as a well-marginated soft tissue mass without perilesional edema or fatty infiltrations on MRI. In this case study, we discuss the characteristics of the clinical and pathologic findings associated with unusual MRI findings, and report the Kimura disease with a different pathophysiology by anti-inflammatory drugs.

  19. [Health Communication: Preventing the Spread of Ebola Virus Disease in the Portuguese Spoken African Countries--Methodology KISS & KEYWORDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Isabel De; Miguel, José Pereira; Antunes, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    In this work, Health Communication is considered as an important discipline in medicine and health sciences for his role as true determinant of health. We highlight their contribution to health promotion and disease prevention. Thus, the Health Communication Plan (PCS): Preventing the spread of Ebola virus disease in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries - KISS & KEYWORDS methodology is a tool that aims to minimize the risk of infection by Ebola virus in the Portuguese Speaking African Countries and also train for a general improvement of health conditions of the local populations. In the PCS design are especially considered the social and cultural contexts of the target populations, especially the customs, traditions and religion. Health Communication is considered as an Essential Function of Public Health and its main is to provide a population-based approach. The target of communication actions are population groups in addition to the individual communication, target-audiences are people without access to the media, in Guinea Bissau, Cape Verde and Sao Tome and Principe. Under the communication plan uses the methodology, models and practices both by media professionals as health. A proximity approach and cultural mediation, previously identified key facts, are defined objectives; outlines to the Plan in concrete and its implementation methodology (target-audience and following intervention, materials to be used and key-messages and partners to mobilize) following the World Health Organisation standards.

  20. Technology and Research Requirements for Combating Human Trafficking: Enhancing Communication, Analysis, Reporting, and Information Sharing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreyling, Sean J.; West, Curtis L.; Olson, Jarrod

    2011-03-17

    DHS’ Science & Technology Directorate directed PNNL to conduct an exploratory study on the domain of human trafficking in the Pacific Northwest in order to examine and identify technology and research requirements for enhancing communication, analysis, reporting, and information sharing – activities that directly support efforts to track, identify, deter, and prosecute human trafficking – including identification of potential national threats from smuggling and trafficking networks. This effort was conducted under the Knowledge Management Technologies Portfolio as part of the Integrated Federal, State, and Local/Regional Information Sharing (RISC) and Collaboration Program.

  1. Reports on work in support of NASA's tracking and communication division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feagin, Terry; Lekkos, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    This is a report on the research conducted during the period October 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991. The research is divided into two primary areas: (1) generalization of the Fault Isolation using Bit Strings (FIBS) technique to permit fuzzy information to be used to isolate faults in the tracking and communications system of the Space Station; and (2) a study of the activity that should occur in the on board systems in order to attempt to recover from failures that are external to the Space Station.

  2. Multiple immune disorders in unrecognized celiac disease: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giorgio La Villa; Peietro Pantaleo; Roberto Tarquini; Lino Cirami; Federico Perfetto; Francesco Mancuso; Giacomo Laffi

    2003-01-01

    We reported a female patient with unrecognized celiac disease and multiple extra intestinal manifestations, mainly related to a deranged immune function, including macroamilasemia, macrolipasemia, IgA nephropathy,thyroiditis, and anti-b2-glicoprotein-1 antibodies, that disappeared or improved after the implementation of a gluten-free diet.

  3. MRI in primary intraspinal extradural hydatid disease: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, C. [Department of Neurosurgery, Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, Avicenna Medical Centre, Ankara (Turkey); Ciftci, E. [Camlik Sitesi, Ankara (Turkey); Erdogan, A. [Department of Radiology, Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, Avicenna Medical Centre, Ankara (Turkey)

    1998-06-01

    A rare case of pathologically proven primary intraspinal extradural hydatid disease of the thoracic region with spinal cord compression is reported. The diagnosis was established preoperatively on the basis of the MRI findings. The patient underwent surgery and recovered completely. (orig.) With 2 figs., 12 refs.

  4. Crohn's disease confined to the duodenum: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dong Jin; Whang, Il Soon; Choi, Hyung Wook; Jeong, Cheol Yun; Jung, Sung Hoon

    2016-06-16

    Crohn's disease (CD) can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to anus. However, gastroduodenal CD is rare with a frequency reported to range between 0.5% and 4.0%. Most patients with gastroduodenal CD have concomitant lesions in the terminal ileum or colon, but isolated gastroduodenal Crohn's disease is an extremely rare presentation of the disease accounting for less than 0.07% of all patients with CD. The symptoms of gastroduodenal CD include epigastric pain, dyspepsia, early satiety, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. The diagnosis of gastroduodenal CD requires a high level of clinical suspicion and can be made by comprehensive clinical evaluation. Here we report a rare case of isolated duodenal CD not confirmed by identification of granuloma on biopsy, but diagnosed by clinical evaluation.

  5. Moyamoya disease: report of three cases in Brazilian patients

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    FRANCO CLÉLIA MARIA RIBEIRO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Moyamoya disease (MMD is a chronic occlusive cerebrovascular disease of unknown etiology reported mainly in the Japanese. Most cases occur in children. The disease is rare in non-Oriental adults manifesting itself mostly as intracerebral hemorrhages. We describe MMD in 2 non-Oriental young adults and one adolescent that developed cerebral infarctions. The adults were medicated with aspirin and no medication was given to the adolescent. All patients did not deteriorate in a follow-up period from 1 to 4 years. Although rare, MMD is an important cause of stroke in young individuals and may well be underreported: only 18 patients have been reported till 1997 in Brazil. Neurologists should include MMD in differential diagnosis of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes in young adults.

  6. The Effect of Noise on Relationships Between Speech Intelligibility and Self-Reported Communication Measures in Tracheoesophageal Speakers.

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    Eadie, Tanya L; Otero, Devon Sawin; Bolt, Susan; Kapsner-Smith, Mara; Sullivan, Jessica R

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how sentence intelligibility relates to self-reported communication in tracheoesophageal speakers when speech intelligibility is measured in quiet and noise. Twenty-four tracheoesophageal speakers who were at least 1 year postlaryngectomy provided audio recordings of 5 sentences from the Sentence Intelligibility Test. Speakers also completed self-reported measures of communication-the Voice Handicap Index-10 and the Communicative Participation Item Bank short form. Speech recordings were presented to 2 groups of inexperienced listeners who heard sentences in quiet or noise. Listeners transcribed the sentences to yield speech intelligibility scores. Very weak relationships were found between intelligibility in quiet and measures of voice handicap and communicative participation. Slightly stronger, but still weak and nonsignificant, relationships were observed between measures of intelligibility in noise and both self-reported measures. However, 12 speakers who were more than 65% intelligible in noise showed strong and statistically significant relationships with both self-reported measures (R2 = .76-.79). Speech intelligibility in quiet is a weak predictor of self-reported communication measures in tracheoesophageal speakers. Speech intelligibility in noise may be a better metric of self-reported communicative function for speakers who demonstrate higher speech intelligibility in noise.

  7. lnvestigation on children with acute non-communicable diseases and their caregivers in developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aaron Asibi Abuosi; Delali Margaret Badasu; Alfred Edwin Yawson; Francis Anderson Adzei; Deborah Atobrah; John Kwasi Anarfi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate children with acute non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and their caregivers in developing countries. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three out of the ten regions of Ghana. A total of 1 540 caregivers/parents of children with NCDs were interviewed. Data was analysed with the aid of IBM SPSS version 20. Statistical techniques used in the analysis included frequencies, means, SD and factor analysis. Findings were analysed according to the major themes of the study. Results: Caregivers indicated that the incidence of NCDs among children is on the in-crease. They also believed that enemies can cause diseases in children. Caregivers tend to seek treatment in hospitals/clinics rather than from traditional or herbal medicine. However, they complement biomedical treatment with prayers for healing/deliverance. It was also found that NCDs have a negative effect on the physical and mental development of children as well as their school performance;and caring for children with NCDs also poses material, emotional and financial burden to caregivers. Conclusions: Serious attention needs to be given to the development and implementa-tion of policies to better the lot of children with NCDs. Conscious efforts need to be made to encourage and assist the caregivers with necessary resources to cater for their children's educational and health needs in particular.

  8. Chronic non-communicable diseases, risk and health promotion: social construction of Vigitel participants

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    Erika de Azevedo Leitão Mássimo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The dimension of choice and adherence to healthy lifestyles is in the area of social constructions made in representations of individuals and had not yet been included in the Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (VIGITEL analysis systems. This article aims to understand, in individual narratives, representations contained in the trajectories of people's lives selected from the 2010 VIGITEL sample, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. It is a qualitative study based on Social Representation Theory. Thirty in-depth and open interviews with subjects selected from the 2010 VIGITEL sample were conducted in Belo Horizonte in the State of Minas Gerais. The Structural Analysis of Narrative technique was used to reveal the content of speeches. Age and heredity representations related to NCDs are part of the spectrum of current scientific information. Learning from childhood onwards is the basis of care. The lack of comprehension of the pathophysiology of NCDs, and the depth of representations of illness and death related to communicable diseases, is partly responsible for the difficulty of preventing NCDs.

  9. Profile of non-communicable disease risk factors among employees at a Saudi university.

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    Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Al Sultan, Ali Ibrahim; Mostafa, Ola Abdelmoniem; Darwish, Amr Ahmed; Al-Naboli, Mohamed Rashad

    2014-01-01

    There is paucity of studies defining the prevalence of non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors in Saudi Arabia despite the surging epidemic of obesity, change in dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the prevalence of NCDs risk factors among employees at King Faisal University in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia and to determine the possible correlates for clustering of NCDs risk factors among them. All employees were invited to participate; the World Health Organization STEPwise approach was used for data collection which consisted of a personal interview to collect socio-demographic characteristics, NCD history, tobacco use, vegetables and fruit consumption, and physical activity (PA), followed by anthropometric measurements namely weight, height and waist circumference and blood pressure measurements, subjects were finally subjected to biochemical tests with determination of fasting plasma glucose, serum triglycerides, cholesterol and high density lipoproteins. Of the surveyed employees (n=691), daily current smokers accounted for 22.7%. 94.9%, 95.1% and 86% consumed university's employees had multiple (≥3) NCD risk factors. Screening and health promotion initiatives should be launched at least targeting the modifiable factors to avert the excessive risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and several types of cancers.

  10. Differentials in risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases from the race/color standpoint.

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    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; de Moura, Lenildo; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata

    2015-03-01

    This article aims to analyze the differences between the prevalence of risk factors of non-communicable chronic disease by race/color. It is a cross-sectional study using data from a telephone survey of 45,448 adults. Prevalence ratios for chronic disease risk factors by race/color were calculated. After adjustments were made for education and income, race/color differences persisted. Among afro-descendant and mulatto women and mulatto men a higher prevalence ratio was identified of physical activity at work and physical activity at home. Afro-descendant women and mulatto men indulged in less physical inactivity. Mulatto men and women showed a lower prevalence of smoking and consumption of 20 cigarettes daily and lower consumption of fruit and vegetables. A higher consumption of full-fat milk with and beans was observed among afro-descendant and mulatto men. Afro-descendant women had a lower prevalence of drinking and driving. Afro-descendant women and men ate more meat with fat and afro-descendant men suffered more from hypertension. Differences in risk factors by race/color can be explained by cultural aspects, by not fully adjustable socioeconomic differences that determine less access to goods and less opportunities for the afro-descendant population.

  11. Differentials in risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases from the race/color standpoint

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    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the differences between the prevalence of risk factors of non-communicable chronic disease by race/color. It is a cross-sectional study using data from a telephone survey of 45,448 adults. Prevalence ratios for chronic disease risk factors by race/color were calculated. After adjustments were made for education and income, race/color differences persisted. Among afro-descendant and mulatto women and mulatto men a higher prevalence ratio was identified of physical activity at work and physical activity at home. Afro-descendant women and mulatto men indulged in less physical inactivity. Mulatto men and women showed a lower prevalence of smoking and consumption of 20 cigarettes daily and lower consumption of fruit and vegetables. A higher consumption of full-fat milk with and beans was observed among afro-descendant and mulatto men. Afro-descendant women had a lower prevalence of drinking and driving. Afro-descendant women and men ate more meat with fat and afro-descendant men suffered more from hypertension. Differences in risk factors by race/color can be explained by cultural aspects, by not fully adjustable socioeconomic differences that determine less access to goods and less opportunities for the afro-descendant population.

  12. Quality of care for patients with non-communicable diseases in the Dedza District, Malawi

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    Rachel Wood

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Malawi, non-communicable diseases (NCDs are thought to cause 28% of deaths in adults. The aim of this study was to establish the extent of primary care morbidity related to NCDs, as well as to audit the quality of care, in the primary care setting of Dedza District, central Malawi.Methods: This study was a baseline audit using clinic registers and a questionnaire survey of senior health workers at 5 clinics, focusing on care for hypertension, diabetes, asthma and epilepsy.Results: A total of 82 581 consultations were recorded, of which 2489 (3.0% were for the selected NCDs. Only 5 out of 32 structural criteria were met at all 5 clinics and 9 out of 29process criteria were never performed at any clinic. The only process criteria performed at all five clinics was measurement of blood pressure. The staff’s knowledge on NCDs was basic and the main barriers to providing quality care were lack of medication and essential equipment, inadequate knowledge and guidelines, fee-for-service at two clinics, geographic inaccessibility and lack of confidence in the primary health care system by patients.Conclusion: Primary care morbidity from NCDs is currently low, although other studies suggest a significant burden of disease. This most likely represents a lack of utilisation, recognition, diagnosis and ability to manage patients with NCDs. Quality of care is poor due to a lack of essential resources, guidelines, and training.

  13. [Integration of mental health and chronic non-communicable diseases in Peru: challenges and opportunities for primary care settings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Ipince, Alessandra; Toyama, Mauricio; Benate-Galvez, Ysabel; Galán-Rodas, Edén; Medina-Verástegui, Julio César; Sánchez-Moreno, David; Araya, Ricardo; Miranda, J Jaime

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between mental health and chronic non-communicable diseases is discussed as well as the possibility to address them in a comprehensive manner in the Peruvian health system. First, the prevalence estimates and the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases and mental disorders worldwide and in Peru are reviewed. Then, the detrimental impact of depression in the early stages as well as the progress of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases is described. Additionally, the gap between access to mental health care in Peru is analyzed. Lastly, the alternatives to reduce the gap are explored. Of these alternatives, the integration of mental health into primary care services is emphasized; as a feasible way to meet the care needs of the general population, and people with chronic diseases in particular, in the Peruvian context.

  14. Towards reframing health service delivery in Uganda: the Uganda Initiative for Integrated Management of Non-Communicable Diseases

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    Jeremy I. Schwartz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs is accelerating. Given that the capacity of health systems in LMICs is already strained by the weight of communicable diseases, these countries find themselves facing a double burden of disease. NCDs contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality, thereby playing a major role in the cycle of poverty, and impeding development. Methods: Integrated approaches to health service delivery and healthcare worker (HCW training will be necessary in order to successfully combat the great challenge posed by NCDs. Results: In 2013, we formed the Uganda Initiative for Integrated Management of NCDs (UINCD, a multidisciplinary research collaboration that aims to present a systems approach to integrated management of chronic disease prevention, care, and the training of HCWs. Discussion: Through broad-based stakeholder engagement, catalytic partnerships, and a collective vision, UINCD is working to reframe integrated health service delivery in Uganda.

  15. Towards reframing health service delivery in Uganda: the Uganda Initiative for Integrated Management of Non-Communicable Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jeremy I; Dunkle, Ashley; Akiteng, Ann R; Birabwa-Male, Doreen; Kagimu, Richard; Mondo, Charles K; Mutungi, Gerald; Rabin, Tracy L; Skonieczny, Michael; Sykes, Jamila; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is accelerating. Given that the capacity of health systems in LMICs is already strained by the weight of communicable diseases, these countries find themselves facing a double burden of disease. NCDs contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality, thereby playing a major role in the cycle of poverty, and impeding development. Integrated approaches to health service delivery and healthcare worker (HCW) training will be necessary in order to successfully combat the great challenge posed by NCDs. In 2013, we formed the Uganda Initiative for Integrated Management of NCDs (UINCD), a multidisciplinary research collaboration that aims to present a systems approach to integrated management of chronic disease prevention, care, and the training of HCWs. Through broad-based stakeholder engagement, catalytic partnerships, and a collective vision, UINCD is working to reframe integrated health service delivery in Uganda.

  16. Case reports: delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction in sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, S K; Sears, D A; Werch, J B; Udden, M M; Milam, J D

    1996-10-01

    This article reports the details of delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions in four patients with sickle cell disease. These cases demonstrate the characteristics of the reactions, the significant risks involved, and the principles useful in diagnosis and treatment. Patients with sickle cell disease are at particular risk for delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions because they may be transfused at intervals over many years; they frequently form alloantibodies because of antigenic differences from the donor population; and they may receive emergency care in different hospitals where transfusion records are not available. In addition, exchange transfusions, which are often used for patients with sickle cell disease and which were given in three of these cases, raise the risks through increased exposure to foreign erythrocyte antigens and through an increased volume of erythrocytes susceptible to hemolysis. It was concluded that the hazards of these transfusion reactions justify preventive measures, such as extended erythrocyte phenotyping of patients with sickle cell disease and extended phenotypic matching of transfused cells.

  17. Grover's Disease after Heart Transplantation: A Case Report

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    Giovanbattista Ippoliti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Grover's disease is a transient acantholytic dermatosis of unknown cause, manifesting clinically as a papular skin eruption that is usually located on the anterior chest and abdomen. Histologically characterized by an acantholytic pattern, it has been associated with numerous disorders, including hematologic malignancies, chronic renal failure, and HIV infection, as well as with chemotherapy and bone marrow and/or kidney transplant. Evaluation of followup and treatment is often complicated by spontaneous remission and the occasionally fluctuant course of the disease. Here we report the case of a patient with sudden onset of Grover's disease after heart transplantation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first observation of Grover's disease as diagnosed after heart transplantation.

  18. Matched and Mismatched Appraisals of the Effectiveness of Communication Strategies by Family Caregivers of Persons with Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savundranayagam, Marie Y.; Orange, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Communication problems stemming from Alzheimer's disease (AD) often result in misunderstandings that can be linked with problem behaviours and increased caregiver stress. Moreover, these communication breakdowns also can result either from caregivers' use of ineffective communication strategies, which paradoxically are…

  19. McArdle disease: a case report and review

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    Leite A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alberto Leite, Narciso Oliveira, Manuela RochaInternal Medicine Department, Hospital de Braga, PortugalAbstract: McArdle disease (glycogen storage disease type V is a pure myopathy caused by an inherited deficit of myophosphorylase. The disease exhibits clinical heterogeneity, but patients typically experience exercise intolerance, acute crises of early fatigue, and contractures, sometimes with rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria, triggered by static muscle contractions or dynamic exercise. We present the case of a 54-year-old man with a lifelong history of fatigability, worsening on exertion. Laboratory evaluation revealed significant elevations in levels of creatine kinase (7924 U/L, lactate dehydrogenase (624 U/L, and myoglobulin (671 ng/mL. A muscle biopsy confirmed the presence of McArdle disease. This case report illustrates how, due to embarrassment, the patient hid his symptoms for many years and was eventually extremely relieved and “liberated” once McArdle disease was diagnosed 40 years later.Keywords: McArdle disease, glycogen storage disease, myophosphorylase

  20. Benefit of Report Card Feedback After Point-of-Care Assessment of Communication Quality Indicators

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    Michael H. Farrell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Communication is crucial for patient experience and biomedical outcomes. Training programs improve communication but are too resource-intensive for sustained use across an entire health care organization. This study demonstrates in a heterogeneous set of encounters the efficacy of quantitative feedback on two groups of physician communication behaviors: 1 jargon explanation, and 2 assessment of patient understanding. Methods: We used a secure Internet application to audio-record conversations between primary care physicians and 54 patients. Transcripts were quantitatively abstracted using explicit-criteria definitions for assessments of understanding and jargon explanations. These data were conveyed to physicians using a previously tested report card. Finally, physicians were audio-recorded with 48 other patients and compared against their baseline. Results: Baseline transcripts included an average of 15.5 unique jargon words. Many words were spoken more than once so the total jargon count averaged 25.1. Jargon explanations were infrequent (median of 2.6/ transcript. The jargon explanation ratio (fraction of jargon words spoken after or alongside a jargon explanation for that word averaged 0.26 out of 1.0. Assessments of understanding were found in 61.1% of transcripts, but most were "OK?" questions (median of 2.22/transcript or close-ended assessments of understanding (median of 0.59/transcript. After the report card, use of jargon explanations improved to a median of 4.8/transcript (P < 0.001, and the jargon explanation ratio improved to 0.37 (P < 0.02. Assessments of understanding improved to 81.3% of transcripts (P < 0.03, largely due to increased use of close-ended assessments of understanding to 1.08/transcript (P < 0.006. Conclusions: It is feasible to audio-record at the point of care, abstract transcripts at a central office and improve physician-to-patient communication quality via a report card. A larger, multifaceted program

  1. Chronic non-communicable diseases in Cameroon - burden, determinants and current policies

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    Echouffo-Tcheugui Justin B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cameroon is experiencing an increase in the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs, which accounted for 43% of all deaths in 2002. This article reviews the published literature to critically evaluate the evidence on the frequency, determinants and consequences of NCDs in Cameroon, and to identify research, intervention and policy gaps. The rising trends in NCDs have been documented for hypertension and diabetes, with a 2-5 and a 10-fold increase in their respective prevalence between 1994 and 2003. Magnitudes are much higher in urban settings, where increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity (by 54-82% was observed over the same period. These changes largely result from the adoption of unfavorable eating habits, physical inactivity, and a probable increasing tobacco use. These behavioral changes are driven by the economic development and social mobility, which are part of the epidemiologic transition. There is still a dearth of information on chronic respiratory diseases and cancers, as well as on all NDCs and related risk factors in children and adolescents. More nationally representative data is needed to tract risk factors and consequences of NCDs. These conditions are increasingly been recognized as a priority, mainly through locally generated evidence. Thus, national-level prevention and control programs for chronic diseases (mainly diabetes and hypertension have been established. However, the monitoring and evaluation of these programs is necessary. Budgetary allocations data by the ministry of health would be helpful, to evaluate the investment in NCDs prevention and control. Establishing more effective national-level tobacco control measures and food policies, as well as campaigns to promote healthy diets, physical activity and tobacco cessation would probably contribute to reducing the burden of NCDs.

  2. Translational informatics approach for identifying the functional molecular communicators linking coronary artery disease, infection and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ankit; Ghatge, Madankumar; Mundkur, Lakshmi; Vangala, Rajani Kanth

    2016-05-01

    Translational informatics approaches are required for the integration of diverse and accumulating data to enable the administration of effective translational medicine specifically in complex diseases such as coronary artery disease (CAD). In the current study, a novel approach for elucidating the association between infection, inflammation and CAD was used. Genes for CAD were collected from the CAD‑gene database and those for infection and inflammation were collected from the UniProt database. The cytomegalovirus (CMV)‑induced genes were identified from the literature and the CAD‑associated clinical phenotypes were obtained from the Unified Medical Language System. A total of 55 gene ontologies (GO) termed functional communicator ontologies were identified in the gene sets linking clinical phenotypes in the diseasome network. The network topology analysis suggested that important functions including viral entry, cell adhesion, apoptosis, inflammatory and immune responses networked with clinical phenotypes. Microarray data was extracted from the Gene Expression Omnibus (dataset: GSE48060) for highly networked disease myocardial infarction. Further analysis of differentially expressed genes and their GO terms suggested that CMV infection may trigger a xenobiotic response, oxidative stress, inflammation and immune modulation. Notably, the current study identified γ‑glutamyl transferase (GGT)‑5 as a potential biomarker with an odds ratio of 1.947, which increased to 2.561 following the addition of CMV and CMV‑neutralizing antibody (CMV‑NA) titers. The C‑statistics increased from 0.530 for conventional risk factors (CRFs) to 0.711 for GGT in combination with the above mentioned infections and CRFs. Therefore, the translational informatics approach used in the current study identified a potential molecular mechanism for CMV infection in CAD, and a potential biomarker for risk prediction.

  3. Patent and exclusivity status of essential medicines for non-communicable disease.

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    Tim K Mackey

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The threat of non-communicable diseases ("NCDs" is increasingly becoming a global health crisis and are pervasive in high, middle, and low-income populations resulting in an estimated 36 million deaths per year. There is a need to assess intellectual property rights ("IPRs" that may impede generic production and availability and affordability to essential NCD medicines. METHODS: Using the data sources listed below, the study design systematically eliminated NCD drugs that had no patent/exclusivity provisions on API, dosage, or administration route. The first step identified essential medicines that treat certain high disease burden NCDs. A second step examined the patent and exclusivity status of active ingredient, dosage and listed route of administration using exclusion criteria outlined in this study. MATERIALS: We examined the patent and exclusivity status of medicines listed in the World Health Organization's ("WHO" Model List of Essential Drugs (Medicines ("MLEM" and other WHO sources for drugs treating certain NCDs. i.e., cardiovascular and respiratory disease, cancers, and diabetes. We utilized the USA Food and Drug Administration Orange Book and the USA Patent and Trademark Office databases as references given the predominant number of medicines registered in the USA. RESULTS: Of the 359 MLEM medicines identified, 22% (79/359 address targeted NCDs. Of these 79, only eight required in-depth patent or exclusivity assessment. Upon further review, no NCD MLEM medicines had study patent or exclusivity protection for reviewed criteria. CONCLUSIONS: We find that ensuring availability and affordability of potential generic formulations of NCD MLEM medicines appears to be more complex than the presence of IPRs with API, dosage, or administration patent or exclusivity protection. Hence, more sophisticated analysis of NCD barriers to generic availability and affordability should be conducted in order to ensure equitable access to global

  4. Healthcare model with use of information and communication technology for patients with chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisiecka-Biełanowicz, Mira; Wawrzyniak, Zbigniew

    2016-07-15

    The healthcare system is positioned in the patient's environment and works with other determinants of the treatment. Patient care requires a whole system compatible to the needs of organizational and technical solutions. The purpose of this study is to present a new model of patient-oriented care, in which the use of information and communication technology (ICT) can improve the effectiveness of healthcare for patients with chronic diseases. The study material is the process of healthcare for chronically ill patients. Knowledge of the circumstances surrounding ecosystem and of the patients' needs, taking into account the fundamental healthcare goals allows us to build a new models of care, starting with the economic assumptions. The method used is modeling the construction of efficient healthcare system with the patient-centered model using ICT tools. We present a new systemic concept of building patient's environment in which he is the central figure of the healthcare organization - so called patient centered system. The use of ICT in the model of chronic patient's healthcare can improve the effectiveness of this kind of care. The concept is a vision to making wide platform of information management in chronic disease in a real environment ecosystem of patient using ICT tools. On the basis of a systematic approach to the model of chronic disease, and the knowledge of the patient itself, a model of the ecosystem impacts and interactions through information feedback and the provision of services can be constructed. ICT assisted techniques will increase the effectiveness of patient care, in which nowadays information exchange plays a key role.

  5. Socioeconomic inequalities in premature mortality in Colombia, 1998-2007: The double burden of non-communicable diseases and injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Arroyave (Ivan); A. Burdorf (Alex); D. Cardona (Doris); M. Avendano Pabon (Mauricio)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: Non-communicable diseases have become the leading cause of death in middle-income countries, but mortality from injuries and infections remains high. We examined the contribution of specific causes to disparities in adult premature mortality (ages 25-64) by educational level

  6. Promotion of access to essential medicines for non-communicable diseases : practical implications of the UN political declaration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogerzeil, Hans V.; Liberman, Jonathan; Wirtz, Veronika J.; Kishore, Sandeep P.; Selvaraj, Sakthi; Kiddell-Monroe, Rachel; Mwangi-Powell, Faith N.; von Schoen-Angerer, Tido

    2013-01-01

    Access to medicines and vaccines to prevent and treat non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is unacceptably low worldwide. In the 2011 UN political declaration on the prevention and control of NCDs, heads of government made several commitments related to access to essential medicines, technologies, and v

  7. The Contribution of Online Peer-to-Peer Communication Among Patients With Adrenal Disease to Patient-Centered Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauw, D.; Repping-Wuts, H.; Noordzij, A.; Stikkelbroeck, N.; Hermus, A.R.; Faber, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Addison's disease and Cushing's syndrome are rare. The Dutch Adrenal Society offers an online forum for Dutch adrenal patients to meet and communicate. However, little is known about the added value such a forum has for the delivery of patient-centered care. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to

  8. Do You Remember? How Caregivers Question Their Spouses Who Have Alzheimer's Disease and the Impact on Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Jeff A.; Perry, JoAnn

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the types of questions caregivers use and their outcomes when conversing with their spouse with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Of particular interest was caregivers' use of yes-no and open-ended questions and the demands they make on the memory of the person with AD. It was hypothesized that communication between caregivers and…

  9. Partnering to meet training needs: a communicable-disease continuing education course for public health nurses in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Lorraine K; Dail, Kathy; Horney, Jennifer A; Davis, Mary V; Wallace, John W; Maillard, Jean-Marie; MacDonald, Pia

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, the General Communicable Disease Control Branch of the North Carolina Division of Public Health and the North Carolina Center for Public Health Preparedness partnered to create a free continuing education course in communicable-disease surveillance and outbreak investigations for public health nurses. The course was a competency-based curriculum with 14 weeks of Internet-based instruction, culminating in a two-day classroom-based skills demonstration. In spring 2006, the course became mandatory for all public health nurses who spend at least three-fourths of their time on tasks related to communicable diseases. As of December 2006, 177 nurses specializing in communicable diseases from 74 North Carolina counties had completed the course. Evaluations indicated that participants showed statistically significant improvements in self-perceived confidence to perform competencies addressed by the course. This course has become a successful model that combines academic expertise in curriculum development and teaching technologies with practical expertise in course content and audience needs. Through a combination of Internet and classroom instruction, this course has delivered competency-based training to the public health professionals who perform as frontline epidemiologists throughout North Carolina.

  10. The Contribution of Online Peer-to-Peer Communication Among Patients With Adrenal Disease to Patient-Centered Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauw, D.; Repping-Wuts, H.; Noordzij, A.; Stikkelbroeck, N.; Hermus, A.R.; Faber, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Addison's disease and Cushing's syndrome are rare. The Dutch Adrenal Society offers an online forum for Dutch adrenal patients to meet and communicate. However, little is known about the added value such a forum has for the delivery of patient-centered care. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to ana

  11. Nurse-led care interventions for high blood pressure control: Implications for non-communicable disease programs in Uganda

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    Godfrey Katende

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Nurses play a significant role in the control of high blood pressure when they employ effective evidence based strategies in identification, prevention and management of hypertension. Adapting effective evidence based strategies in identification, prevention and management of non-communicable diseases could improve patient outcomes in Uganda.

  12. The Contribution of Online Peer-to-Peer Communication Among Patients With Adrenal Disease to Patient-Centered Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauw, D.; Repping-Wuts, H.; Noordzij, A.; Stikkelbroeck, N.; Hermus, A.R.; Faber, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Addison's disease and Cushing's syndrome are rare. The Dutch Adrenal Society offers an online forum for Dutch adrenal patients to meet and communicate. However, little is known about the added value such a forum has for the delivery of patient-centered care. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to ana

  13. Control and Non-Payload Communications Generation 1 Prototype Radio Flight Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalkhauser, Kurt A.; Young, Daniel P.; Bretmersky, Steven C.; Ishac, Joseph A.; Walker, Steven H.; Griner, James H.; Kachmar, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    regularity of flight. Only recently has radiofrequency (RF) spectrum been allocated by the International Telecommunications Union specifically for commercial UA C2, LOS communication (L-Band: 960 to 1164 MHz, and C-Band: 5030 to 5091 MHz). The safe and efficient integration of UA into the NAS requires the use of protected RF spectrum allocations and a new data communications system that is both secure and scalable to accommodate the potential growth of these new aircraft. Data communications for UA-referred to as control and non-payload communications (CNPC)-will be used to exchange information between a UA and a ground station (GS) to ensure safe, reliable, and effective UA flight operation. The focus of this effort is on validating and allocating new RF spectrum and data link communications to enable civil UA integration into the NAS. Through a cost-sharing cooperative agreement with Rockwell Collins, Inc., the NASA Glenn Research Center is exploring and performing the necessary development steps to realize a prototype UA CNPC system. These activities include investigating signal waveforms and access techniques, developing representative CNPC radio hardware, and executing relevant testing and validation activities. There is no intent to manufacture the CNPC end product, rather the goals are to study, demonstrate, and validate a typical CNPC system that will allow safe and efficient communications within the L-Band and C-Band spectrum allocations. The system is addressing initial "seed" requirements from RTCA, Inc., Special Committee 203 (SC-203) and is on a path to Federal Aviation Administration certification. This report provides results from the flight testing campaign of the Rockwell Collins Generation 1 prototype radio, referred hereafter as the "radio." The radio sets operate within the 960- to 977-MHz frequency band with both air and ground radios using identical hardware. Flight tests involved one aircraft and one GS. Results include discussion of aircraft flight

  14. Synopsis of non-communicable diseases in children admitted to the paediatric ward of the university of Nigeria teaching hospital (UNTH) Enugu, Nigeria: A ten year review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emodi, Ij; Ikefuna, An; Ujunwa, Fa; Chinawa, Jm

    2014-01-01

    .... It is contributing significantly to the global burden of diseases. To determine the pattern of non-communicable diseases in children admitted into the Paediatrics ward in a tertiary health centre in Enugu...

  15. Cost of care of chronic non-communicable diseases in Jamaican patients: the role of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. Fray-Aiken

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the economic cost of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases (CNCDs and the portion attributable to obesity among patients in Jamaica. METHODS: The cost-of-illness approach was used to estimate the cost of care in a hospital setting in Jamaica for type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, gallbladder disease, breast cancer, colon cancer, osteoarthritis, and high cholesterol. Cost and service utilization data were collected from the hospital records of all patients with these diseases who visited the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI during 2006. Patients were included in the study if they were between15 and 74 years of age and if female, were not pregnant during that year. Costs were categorized as direct or indirect. Direct costs included costs for prescription drugs, consultation visits (emergency and clinic visits, hospitalizations, allied health services, diagnostic and treatment procedures. Indirect costs included costs attributed to premature mortality, disability (permanent and temporary, and absenteeism. Indirect costs were discounted at 3% rate. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 554 patients (40% males (60% females. The economic burden of the nine diseases was estimated at US$ 5,672,618 (males 37%; females 63% and the portion attributable to obesity amounted to US$ 1,157,173 (males 23%; females 77%. Total direct cost was estimated at US$ 3,740,377 with female patients accounting for 69.9% of this cost. Total indirect cost was estimated at US$ 1,932,241 with female patients accounting for 50.6% of this cost. The greater cost among women was not found to be statistically significant. Overall, on a per capita basis, males and females accrued similar costs-of-illness (US$ 9,451.75 vs. US$ 10,758.18. CONCLUSIONS: In a country with per capita GDP of less than US$ 5,300, a per capita annual cost of illness of US$ 10,239 for CNCDs is excessive and has detrimental implications for the

  16. Impact of Communicating Familial Risk of Diabetes on Illness Perceptions and Self-Reported Behavioral Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijl, Miranda; Timmermans, Danielle R.M.; Claassen, Liesbeth; Janssens, A. Cecile J.W.; Nijpels, Giel; Dekker, Jacqueline M.; Marteau, Theresa M.; Henneman, Lidewij

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the potential effectiveness of communicating familial risk of diabetes on illness perceptions and self-reported behavioral outcomes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Individuals with a family history of diabetes were randomized to receive risk information based on familial and general risk factors (n = 59) or general risk factors alone (n = 59). Outcomes were assessed using questionnaires at baseline, 1 week, and 3 months. RESULTS Compared with individuals receiving general risk information, those receiving familial risk information perceived heredity to be a more important cause of diabetes (P < 0.01) at 1-week follow-up, perceived greater control over preventing diabetes (P < 0.05), and reported having eaten more healthily (P = 0.01) after 3 months. Behavioral intentions did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSIONS Communicating familial risk increased personal control and, thus, did not result in fatalism. Although the intervention did not influence intentions to change behavior, there was some evidence to suggest it increases healthy behavior. PMID:19131458

  17. An Unusual Presentation of Addison's Disease-A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Sandeep; Alam, Anwer; Dewan, Vivek; Yadav, Dinesh; Dubey, N K

    2011-07-01

    Addison's disease is most commonly due to autoimmune adrenalitis and tuberculosis and refers to primary hypoadrenalism caused by a total or near total destruction or dysfunction of both adrenal cortices. Usual manifestations involve chronic fatigue, muscle weakness, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hypotension and hyperpigmentation of skin. We herein report a case of primary adrenal insufficiency presenting with fever and seizures in an 11-yr-old boy. His symptoms resolved after starting specific therapy. This kind of presentation of Addison's disease is rather unusual.

  18. Skeletal Manifestations in Gaucher Disease: A Case Report

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    Altınay Göksel Karatepe

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Gauchers disease is the most frequent hereditary lysosomal deposit storage disorder. It is characterized by a deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase that leads to an accumulation of glucocerebroside in the macrophage lysosomes. It is classified in three types, according to the presence of central nervous system involvement (type 2 and 3 or not (type 1. In the majority of patients there are hepatosplenomegaly, anemia and thrombocytopenia. Skeletal involvement is also important and it is the most disabling manifestation. In this case report, there is presented a case of Gauchers disease with multiple skeletal involvement and the literature is reviewed.

  19. ANESTHESIA FOR CHARCOT-MARIE-TOOTH DISEASE: CASE REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzaben, Khalid R; Samarah, Omar Q; Obeidat, Salameh S; Halhouli, Oday; Al Kharabsheh, Murad

    2016-06-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease comprises a group of disorders characterized by progressive muscle weakness and wasting. Reviewing the anaesthetic literature produced conflicting reports about the best anaesthetic options for patients with CMTD; as they are at increased risk of prolonged response to muscle relaxants, malignant hyperthermia and risks of regional anaesthesia. We present a case of the successful use of total intravenous anaesthesia with dexmedetomidine and propofol combined with caudal block using bupivacaine mixed with dexmedetomidine without any complications, for a 17 year old male patient with Charcot Marie-Tooth disease who underwent a lower limb orthopedic surgery.

  20. Addressing geographical variation in the progression of non-communicable diseases in Peru: the CRONICAS cohort study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Smeeth, Liam; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William

    2012-01-01

    Background The rise in non-communicable diseases in developing countries has gained increased attention. Given that around 80% of deaths related to non-communicable diseases occur in low- and middle-income countries, there is a need for local knowledge to address such problems. Longitudinal studies can provide valuable information about disease burden of non-communicable diseases in Latin America to inform both public health and clinical settings. Methods The CRONICAS cohort is a longitudinal study performed in three Peruvian settings that differ by degree of urbanisation, level of outdoor and indoor pollution and altitude. The author sought to enrol an age- and sex-stratified random sample of 1000 participants at each site. Study procedures include questionnaires on socio-demographics and well-known risk factors for cardiopulmonary disease, blood draw, anthropometry and body composition, blood pressure and spirometry before and after bronchodilators. All participants will be visited at baseline, at 20 and 40 months. A random sample of 100 households at each site will be assessed for 24 h particulate matter concentration. Primary outcomes include prevalence of risk factors for cardiopulmonary diseases, changes in blood pressure and blood glucose over time and decline in lung function. Discussion There is an urgent need to characterise the prevalence and burden of non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Peru is a middle-income country currently undergoing a rapid epidemiological transition. This longitudinal study will provide valuable information on cardiopulmonary outcomes in three different settings and will provide a platform to address potential interventions that are locally relevant or applicable to other similar settings in Latin America.

  1. Non-communicable disease risk factors and treatment preference of obese patients in Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Manning

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insights into the characteristics of treatment seekers for lifestyle changes and treatment preferences are necessary for intervention planning.Aim: To compile a profile of treatment-seeking obese patients with non-communicable diseases (NCDs or NCD risk factors and to compare patients who choose group-based (facility-based therapeutic group [FBTG] versus usual care (individual consultations treatment.Setting: A primary healthcare facility in Cape Town, South Africa.Methods: One hundred and ninety-three patients were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Ninety six chose FBTG while 97 chose usual care. A questionnaire, the hospital database and patients’ folders were used to collect data. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured. STATA 11.0 was used for descriptive statistics and to compare the two groups.Results: The subjects’ mean age was 50.4 years, 78% were women and of low education levels and income, and 41.5% had type 2 diabetes, 83.4% hypertension and 69.5% high cholesterol. Mean (s.d. HbA1c was 9.1 (2.0%, systolic BP 145.6 (21.0 mmHg, diastolic BP 84.5 (12.0 mmHg, cholesterol 5.4 (1.2 mmol/L, body mass indicator (BMI 39.3 (7.3 kg/m2 and waist circumference 117 (12.6 cm. These figures were undesirable although pharmacological treatment for diabetes and hypertension was in place. Only 14% were physically active, while TV viewing was > 2h/day. Mean daily intake of fruit and vegetables (2.2 portions/day was low while added sugar (5 teaspoons and sugar-sweetened beverages (1.3 glasses were high. Usual care patients had a higher smoking prevalence, HbA1c, number of NCD risk factors and refined carbohydrate intake, and a lower fruit and vegetable intake.Conclusion: Treatment seekers were typically middle-aged, low income women with various modifiable and intermediate risk factors for NCDs. Patients choosing usual care could have more NCD risks.Keywords: Non-communicable diseases; primary health care; family

  2. Clustering of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases among Adolescents from Southern Brazil.

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    Heloyse Elaine Gimenes Nunes

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the simultaneous presence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases and the association of these risk factors with demographic and economic factors among adolescents from southern Brazil.The study included 916 students (14-19 years old enrolled in the 2014 school year at state schools in São José, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Risk factors related to lifestyle (i.e., physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet, demographic variables (sex, age and skin colour and economic variables (school shift and economic level were assessed through a questionnaire. Simultaneous behaviours were assessed by the ratio between observed and expected prevalences of risk factors for non-communicable diseases. The clustering of risk factors was analysed by multinomial logistic regression. The clusters of risk factors that showed a higher prevalence were analysed by binary logistic regression.The clustering of two, three, four, and five risk factors were found in 22.2%, 49.3%, 21.7% and 3.1% of adolescents, respectively. Subgroups that were more likely to have both behaviours of physical inactivity and unhealthy diet simultaneously were mostly composed of girls (OR = 3.03, 95% CI = 1.57-5.85 and those with lower socioeconomic status (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.05-3.21; simultaneous physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet were mainly observed among older adolescents (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.05-2.12. Subgroups less likely to have both behaviours of sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet were mostly composed of girls (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.38-0.89; simultaneous physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet were mainly observed among older individuals (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49-0.87 and those of the night shift (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.43-0.82.Adolescents had a high prevalence of simultaneous risk factors for NCDs

  3. Adult gaucher disease in southern Tunisia: report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Rhouma Faten

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gaucher disease (GD is the most frequent lysosomal storage disorder; type 1 is by far the most common form. It is characterized by variability in age of onset, clinical signs and progression. It is usually diagnosed in the first or second decade of life with the appearance of bone pains, splenomegaly and thrombocytopenia, but the disease may be diagnosed at any age between 1 and 73 years. In the present study, we report 3 cases with late onset of GD in whom the disease was a surprise finding including one patient with Parkinson disease. This late onset is described as an adult form of Gaucher disease. Findings Molecular investigation showed mutational homogeneity in Tunisian adult patients suffering from GD. Indeed, all patients carry the p.N370S mutation: two patients at a homozygous state and one patient at compound heterozygous state. Conclusion The p.N370S mutation presents a large variability in the onset of the disease and its clinical manifestation supporting the view that GD should be considered as a continuum phenotype rather than a predefined classification.

  4. Case Report: Takayasu's arteritis associated with Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-shi LIU; You-hong FANG; Ling-xiang RUAN; You-ming LI; Lin LI; Ling-ling JIANG

    2009-01-01

    Takayasu's arteritis (TA), also known as the "pulseless disease," is a chronic vasculitis of the aorta and aortic branches. TA with Crohn's disease is rare and has not been documented in China before. In this paper we report on a case of Takayasu's arteritis associated with concurrent Crohn's disease. A 17-year-old Chinese male developed upper limb sourness and a sensation of fatigue, and his upper limb pulses were absent. He was diagnosed with TA and underwent an axillary artery bypass with autolo-gous great saphenous vein on the left subclavian artery. After the surgery, he regained the normal blood pressure. This patient also had years of diarrhea and developed an anal canal ulcer, and was diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease and ulcerative colitis before. Five months after the TA surgery, he was hospitalized for severe stomachache and diarrhea and was finally diagnosed with Crohn's disease. The possible pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for concurrent existence of TA and Crohn's disease may be associated with immune disorders, especially autoimmunity.

  5. Paget disease of bone: A classic case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Uday Shankar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paget disease of bone (PDB is a chronic progressive disease of the bone of uncertain etiology, characterized initially by an increase in bone resorption, followed by a disorganized and excessive formation of bone, leading to pain, fractures, and deformities. It can manifest as a monostotic or polyostotic disease. The prevalence of PDB is common in the Anglo-Saxon population, but relatively rare in India. The disease is often asymptomatic and commonly seen in an aging population. The diagnosis of the disease is mostly based on radiological examination and on biochemical markers of bone turnover. Markedly elevated serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP is a constant feature while calcium and phosphate levels are typically within normal limits. It is being successfully treated by biphosphonates, a group of anti-resorptive drugs, thereby decreasing the morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. We report a classic case of PDB with craniofacial involvement resulting in Leontiasis Ossea (lion like face, cotton wool appearance of the skull and elevated SAP.

  6. Care-seeking patterns for fatal non-communicable diseases among women of reproductive age in rural northwest Bangladesh

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    Sikder Shegufta S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though non-communicable diseases contribute to an increasing share of the disease burden in South Asia, health systems in most rural communities are ill-equipped to deal with chronic illness. This analysis seeks to describe care-seeking behavior among women of reproductive age who died from fatal non-communicable diseases as recorded in northwest rural Bangladesh between 2001 and 2007. Methods This analysis utilized data from a large population-based cohort trial in northwest rural Bangladesh. To conduct verbal autopsies of women who died while under study surveillance, physicians interviewed family members to elicit the biomedical symptoms that the women experienced as well as a narrative of the events leading to deaths. We performed qualitative textual analysis of verbal autopsy narratives for 250 women of reproductive age who died from non-communicable diseases between 2001 and 2007. Results The majority of women (94% sought at least one provider for their illnesses. Approximately 71% of women first visited non-certified providers such as village doctors and traditional healers, while 23% first sought care from medically certified providers. After the first point of care, women appeared to switch to medically certified practitioners when treatment from non-certified providers failed to resolve their illness. Conclusions This study suggests that treatment seeking patterns for non-communicable diseases are affected by many of the sociocultural factors that influence care seeking for pregnancy-related illnesses. Families in northwest rural Bangladesh typically delayed seeking treatment from medically certified providers for NCDs due to the cost of services, distance to facilities, established relationships with non-certified providers, and lack of recognition of the severity of illnesses. Most women did not realize initially that they were suffering from a chronic illness. Since women typically reached medically certified

  7. How do patients with peripheral arterial disease communicate their knowledge about their illness and treatments? A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wann-Hansson, Christine; Wennick, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease is a chronic illness, and patients with peripheral arterial disease should receive advice about lifestyle changes and medical therapies to reduce further atherosclerotic complications. Previous research has indicated that patients with peripheral arterial disease lack information about their disease and secondary prevention measures. The aim was to elucidate how patients with peripheral arterial disease communicate their knowledge about their illness and treatments. During 2009, seven focus group interviews were conducted with twenty-one patients (50-81 years old) with peripheral arterial disease and were analysed using content analysis. When respondents with PAD communicate their knowledge about the illness and its treatments they "Navigate through uncertainty, believes and facts about PAD, displaying an active or passive information-seeking behaviour". After discharge, they felt a feeling of relief at first, which was later exchanged into uncertainty from their restricted knowledge about the illness and how to behave following revascularisation. For example, during the discussions about risk factors, smoking was noted as a major risk factor, that triggered feelings of guilt. Thus, the respondents needed to consult other sources of information to manage their everyday lives. Following endovascular treatment, the short amount of time spent with peripheral arterial disease patients requires innovative guidance in clinical practice to meet individuals' needs regardless of whether the patient actively or passively understands and manages their peripheral arterial disease.

  8. Chronic Non-Communicable Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Disease in sub-Saharan Africa: An Academic Model for Countering the Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Gerald S.; Kimaiyo, Sylvester; Carter, E. Jane; Binanay, Cynthia; Corey, G. Ralph; Einterz, Robert M.; Tierney, William M.; Velazquez, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Non-communicable diseases are rapidly overtaking infectious, perinatal, nutritional and maternal diseases as the major causes of worldwide death and disability. It is estimated that within the next 10-15 years, the increasing burden of chronic diseases and the ageing of the population will expose the world to an unprecedented burden of chronic diseases. Preventing the potential ramifications of a worldwide epidemic of chronic non-communicable diseases in a sustainable manner requires coordinated, collaborative efforts. Herein we present our collaboration's strategic plan to understand, treat and prevent chronic cardiovascular and pulmonary disease in Western Kenya which builds on a two decade partnership between academic universities in North America and Kenya; the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH). We emphasize the importance of training Kenyan clinician-investigators who will ultimately lead efforts in cardiovascular and pulmonary disease care, education and research. This penultimate aim will be achieved by our five main goals. Our goals include creating an administrative core capable of managing operations, develop clinical and clinical research training curricula, enhancing existing technology infrastructure and implementing relevant research programs. Leveraging a strong international academic partnership with respective expertise in cardiovascular medicine, pulmonary medicine and medical informatics we have undertaken to understand and counter cardiovascular and pulmonary disease in Kenya by addressing patient care, teaching and clinical research. PMID:21570512

  9. The global impact of non-communicable diseases on macro-economic productivity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaker, Layal; Falla, Abby; van der Lee, Sven J; Muka, Taulant; Imo, David; Jaspers, Loes; Colpani, Veronica; Mendis, Shanthi; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Bramer, Wichor M; Pazoki, Raha; Franco, Oscar H

    2015-05-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have large economic impact at multiple levels. To systematically review the literature investigating the economic impact of NCDs [including coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), cancer (lung, colon, cervical and breast), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD)] on macro-economic productivity. Systematic search, up to November 6th 2014, of medical databases (Medline, Embase and Google Scholar) without language restrictions. To identify additional publications, we searched the reference lists of retrieved studies and contacted authors in the field. Randomized controlled trials, cohort, case-control, cross-sectional, ecological studies and modelling studies carried out in adults (>18 years old) were included. Two independent reviewers performed all abstract and full text selection. Disagreements were resolved through consensus or consulting a third reviewer. Two independent reviewers extracted data using a predesigned data collection form. Main outcome measure was the impact of the selected NCDs on productivity, measured in DALYs, productivity costs, and labor market participation, including unemployment, return to work and sick leave. From 4542 references, 126 studies met the inclusion criteria, many of which focused on the impact of more than one NCD on productivity. Breast cancer was the most common (n = 45), followed by stroke (n = 31), COPD (n = 24), colon cancer (n = 24), DM (n = 22), lung cancer (n = 16), CVD (n = 15), cervical cancer (n = 7) and CKD (n = 2). Four studies were from the WHO African Region, 52 from the European Region, 53 from the Region of the Americas and 16 from the Western Pacific Region, one from the Eastern Mediterranean Region and none from South East Asia. We found large regional differences in DALYs attributable to NCDs but especially for cervical and lung cancer. Productivity losses in the USA ranged from 88 million

  10. Perceived Changes in Communication as an Effect of STN Surgery in Parkinson's Disease: A Qualitative Interview Study

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    Emilia Ahlberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore four individuals' perspective of the way their speech and communication changed as a result of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation treatment for Parkinson's disease. Interviews of two men and two women were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Three themes emerged as a result of the analysis. The first theme included sub-themes describing both increased and unexpected communication difficulties such as a more vulnerable speech function, re-emerging stuttering and cognitive difficulties affecting communication. The second theme comprised strategies to improve communication, using different speech techniques and communicative support, as well as trying to achieve changes in medical and stimulation parameters. The third theme included descriptions of mixed feelings surrounding the surgery. Participants described the surgery as an unavoidable dramatic change, associated both with improved quality of life but also uncertainty and lack of information, particularly regarding speech and communication changes. Despite negative effects on speech, the individuals were generally very pleased with the surgical outcome. More information before surgery regarding possible side effects on speech, meeting with a previously treated patient and possibly voice and speech therapy before or after surgery are suggested to facilitate the adjustment to the new speech conditions.

  11. Advance Care Planning and Goals of Care Communication in Older Adults with Cardiovascular Disease and Multi-Morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Hillary D; Sudore, Rebecca L

    2016-05-01

    This article provides an approach to advance care planning (ACP) and goals of care communication in older adults with cardiovascular disease and multi-morbidity. The goal of ACP is to ensure that the medical care patients receive is aligned with their values and preferences. In this article, the authors outline common benefits and challenges to ACP for older adults with cardiovascular disease and multimorbidity. Recognizing that these patients experience diverse disease trajectories and receive care in multiple health care settings, the authors provide practical steps for multidisciplinary teams to integrate ACP into brief clinic encounters.

  12. Inequalities in non-communicable diseases between the major population groups in Israel: achievements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsen, Khitam; Green, Manfred S; Soskolne, Varda; Neumark, Yehuda

    2017-06-24

    Israel is a high-income country with an advanced health system and universal health-care insurance. Overall, the health status has improved steadily over recent decades. We examined differences in morbidity, mortality, and risk factors for selected non-communicable diseases (NCDs) between subpopulation groups. Between 1975 and 2014, life expectancy in Israel steadily increased and is currently above the average life expectancy for the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Nevertheless, life expectancy has remained lower among Israeli Arabs than Israeli Jews, and this gap has recently widened. Age-adjusted mortality as a result of heart disease, stroke, or diabetes remains higher in Arabs, whereas age-adjusted incidence and mortality of cancer were higher among Jews. The prevalence of obesity and low physical activity in Israel is considerably higher among Arabs than Jews. Smoking prevalence is highest for Arab men and lowest for Arab women. Health inequalities are also evident by the indicators of socioeconomic position and in subpopulations, such as immigrants from the former Soviet Union, ultra-Orthodox Jews, and Bedouin Arabs. Despite universal health coverage and substantial improvements in the overall health of the Israeli population, substantial inequalities in NCDs persist. These differences might be explained, at least in part, by gaps in social determinants of health. The Ministry of Health has developed comprehensive programmes to reduce these inequalities between the major population groups. Sustained coordinated multisectoral efforts are needed to achieve a greater impact and to address other social inequalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-communicable diseases among children in Ghana: health and social concerns of parent/caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawson, Alfred E; Abuosi, Aaron A; Badasu, Delali M; Atobra, Deborah; Adzei, Francis A; Anarfi, John K

    2016-06-01

    Globally, there is a progressive rise in the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This paper examined the health and social concerns of parents/caregivers on in-patient care for children with NCDs in Ghana. This was a cross-sectional study in three large health facilities in Ghana (the largest in the South, the largest in the North and the largest in the Eastern part of Ghana. Data was collected with a structured questionnaire among 225 caregivers (≥18 years) of 149 children with NCDs in health facilities in the three regions. Data was analyzed with simple descriptive statistics. Most caregivers 169(75.0%) were women, relatively young (median age 35years), mostly married and resided in urban areas. Sickle cell disease was the commonest NCD among the children. All 169(75.0%) caregivers believed children suffer NCDs because of sins of parents/ancestors, 29(12.9%) believed herbalists/spiritualists have insights into treating NCDs and 73(32.6%) have previously used herbs/traditional medicine for child's illness. NCD in children was a burden and caused financial difficulties for families. Most caregivers (>96.0%) indicated NCDs in children should be included in national health insurance benefits package and a comprehensive national NCD policy is needed. Absence of national NCD policy for children is a major challenge. The burden of care rests mainly on the parents/caregivers. A national strategic intervention on the importance of awareness generation on the causes, risk factors, prevention and treatment of NCDs for families and communities is essential. Government support through national health and social policy initiatives are essential.

  14. Medicalization of global health 3: the medicalization of the non-communicable diseases agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocalyn Clark

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is growing recognition of the massive global burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs due to their prevalence, projected social and economic costs, and traditional neglect compared to infectious disease. The 2011 UN Summit, WHO 25×25 targets, and support of major medical and advocacy organisations have propelled prominence of NCDs on the global health agenda. NCDs are by definition ‘diseases’ so already medicalized. But their social drivers and impacts are acknowledged, which demand a broad, whole-of-society approach. However, while both individual- and population-level targets are identified in the current NCD action plans, most recommended strategies tend towards the individualistic approach and do not address root causes of the NCD problem. These so-called population strategies risk being reduced to expectations of individual and behavioural change, which may have limited success and impact and deflect attention away from government policies or regulation of industry. Industry involvement in NCD agenda-setting props up a medicalized approach to NCDs: food and drink companies favour focus on individual choice and responsibility, and pharmaceutical and device companies favour calls for expanded access to medicines and treatment coverage. Current NCD framing creates expanded roles for physicians, healthcare workers, medicines and medical monitoring. The professional rather than the patient view dominates the NCD agenda and there is a lack of a broad, engaged, and independent NGO community. The challenge and opportunity lie in defining priorities and developing strategies that go beyond a narrow medicalized framing of the NCD problem and its solutions.

  15. The environmental roots of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and the epigenetic impacts of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineis, Paolo; Stringhini, Silvia; Porta, Miquel

    2014-08-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are increasing worldwide. We hypothesize that environmental factors (including social adversity, diet, lack of physical activity and pollution) can become "embedded" in the biology of humans. We also hypothesize that the "embedding" partly occurs because of epigenetic changes, i.e., durable changes in gene expression patterns. Our concern is that once such factors have a foundation in human biology, they can affect human health (including NCDs) over a long period of time and across generations. To analyze how worldwide changes in movements of goods, persons and lifestyles (globalization) may affect the "epigenetic landscape" of populations and through this have an impact on NCDs. We provide examples of such changes and effects by discussing the potential epigenetic impact of socio-economic status, migration, and diet, as well as the impact of environmental factors influencing trends in age at puberty. The study of durable changes in epigenetic patterns has the potential to influence policy and practice; for example, by enabling stratification of populations into those who could particularly benefit from early interventions to prevent NCDs, or by demonstrating mechanisms through which environmental factors influence disease risk, thus providing compelling evidence for policy makers, companies and the civil society at large. The current debate on the '25 × 25 strategy', a goal of 25% reduction in relative mortality from NCDs by 2025, makes the proposed approach even more timely. Epigenetic modifications related to globalization may crucially contribute to explain current and future patterns of NCDs, and thus deserve attention from environmental researchers, public health experts, policy makers, and concerned citizens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Perception of non-communicable diseases predicts consumption of fruits and vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Surjadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Nutrition has come to the fore as one of the major modifiable determinants of chronic disease. Establishing healthy eating habits during adolescence is important given that fruit and vegetable consumption has long-term health-protective benefits. The objective of this study was to investigate the determinant factors of fruit and vegetable consumption habits among Padang inhabitants Methods We conducted a questionnaire-based rapid assessment of 150 respondents who came from different settings: The questionnaire consisted of items on personal characteristics such as age, working status, gender, and personal knowledge of the subjects about the cause of non-communicable diseases (NCDs and their activities to prevent NCDs. Bivariate analysis was applied to look for variables significantly related to healthy eating (vegetable and fruit consumption. We applied multiple logistic regression to look for the best model to explain factors related to regular fruit and vegetable consumption. Results The age range of the subjects was 14 to 76 years, 60% of subjects were women, and 40% were men. The study indicated that 64.7% of the respondents perceived that eating habits relate to NCD, while 67.3% consumed fruits and vegetables regularly. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that gender (O.R.=2.74; 95% C.I. 1.54-5.27 and perception of NCD as being related to healthy eating (O.R.=5.62;95% C.I. 2.93-10.76 were significantly related to regular fruit and vegetable consumption. Conclusion This study demonstrated that perception of NCD was the most determinant factor of regular fruit and vegetable consumption. Activities to improve practice of regular fruit and vegetable consumption are part of control of NCD risk factors.

  17. Mirtazapine improves visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagai, Kenji; Nagata, Tomoyuki; Shinagawa, Shunichiro; Tsuno, Norifumi; Ozone, Motohiro; Nakayama, Kazuhiko

    2013-06-01

    Psychotic symptoms often occur as a complication in Parkinson's disease patients, and a set of criteria for Parkinson's disease with psychosis (PDPsy) has been established. Among these criteria, hallucinations are one of the specific symptoms, with visual hallucinations being the most common. While atypical antipsychotic agents are often used for the treatment of PDPsy, adverse effects, including extrapyramidal symptoms, often hinder its continuation or tolerance. There have been some reports and reviews indicating that antidepressants may be effective for PDPsy and other forms of dementia with psychosis. In this report, we present a patient with PDPsy who was treated with one of the new-generation antidepressants, mirtazapine. Mirtazapine improved the patient's refractory psychotic symptoms, especially her visual hallucinations, without worsening her motor symptoms.

  18. Septated pericarditis associated with Kawasaki disease: a brief case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonçaği, Arzu; Devrim, Ilker; Karagöz, Tevfik; Dilber, Embiya; Celiker, Alpay; Ozen, Seza; Seçmeer, Gülten

    2007-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is primarily the systemic vasculitis of childhood that affects mainly the medium-sized arteries, such as the coronary arteries. KD is the leading cause of acquired heart disease, whereas the incidence of rheumatic fever has declined. The most serious complication is coronary artery involvement. Among the children with KD who developed cardiac complications, pericarditis is a rare complication, with an incidence of 0.07%. We report our experience in a 5.5-year-old child with KD complicated with aneurysm of the left anterior descendant coronary artery and septated pericardial effusion, which has not been reported in the literature. The pericardial effusion disappeared very dramatically with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy. We would like to point out that septated pericardial effusion in cases of KD do not need any further therapy other than IVIG and high-dose acetylsalicylic acid.

  19. Oral Manifestations of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Two Case Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Manoela Seadi; Munerato, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are known as chronic inflammatory disorders of the digestive tract, represented mainly by Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Among the main oral manifestations of IBD are cobblestoning of the oral mucosa, labial swellings with vertical fissures, pyostomatitis vegetans, angular cheilitis, perioral erythema, and glossitis. In this sense, understanding these nosological entities by dentists would help reach early and differential diagnosis. Thus, two case reports are presented and discussed based on theoretical references obtained by a literature review. The first case report refers to an adult patient whose IBD diagnosis was established after stomatological assessment. The second case was a patient with CD diagnosed in childhood with characteristic oral lesions. PMID:26864508

  20. Using mixed methods to investigate factors influencing reporting of livestock diseases: a case study among smallholders in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon, Georgina; Lewis, Elisa G; Chang, Yu-Mei; Ruiz, Hugo; Balanza, Maria Elba; Guitian, Javier

    2014-02-01

    Livestock disease surveillance is particularly challenging in resource-scarce settings, where disease events are often unreported. Surveillance performance is determined as much by the quantifiable biological attributes of the disease, as it is by motivations and barriers perceived by livestock keepers for disease reporting. Mixed methods designs, which integrate the collection, analysis and interpretation of qualitative and quantitative data in a single study, are increasingly used across different disciplines. These designs allow for a deeper exploration of the topic under investigation, than can be achieved by either approach alone. In this study a mixed methods design was used in order to gain a greater understanding of the factors that influence reporting of livestock diseases in Bolivia. There is a need to strengthen passive surveillance in this country, among other reasons as part of an eradication programme for Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD). Findings revealed livestock keepers in the study area were extremely unlikely to report the occurrence of livestock health events to the Official Veterinary Services (OVS). Communication outside the local community occurs more often through alternative routes and this is positively correlated with disease awareness. The main barriers to disease reporting identified were a lack of institutional credibility and the conflicting priorities of the OVS and livestock keepers. As for other animal and human diseases across the developing world, passive surveillance of livestock diseases in Bolivia should be enhanced; this is urgent in view of the current FMD eradication programme. Increasing timeliness and smallholders' participation requires a detailed understanding of their likely actions and perceived barriers towards disease reporting. These insights are most likely to be developed through a holistic mixed methods approach of quantitative and qualitative analyses. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  1. Age, chronic non-communicable disease and choice of traditional Chinese and western medicine outpatient services in a Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeoh Eng

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1997 Hong Kong reunified with China and the development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM started with this change in national identity. However, the two latest discussion papers on Hong Kong's healthcare reform have failed to mention the role of TCM in primary healthcare, despite TCM's public popularity and its potential in tackling the chronic non-communicable disease (NCD challenge in the ageing population. This study aims to describe the interrelationship between age, non-communicable disease (NCD status, and the choice of TCM and western medicine (WM services in the Hong Kong population. Methods This study is a secondary analysis of the Thematic Household Survey (THS 2005 dataset. The THS is a Hong Kong population representative face to face survey was conducted by the Hong Kong Administrative Region Government of China. A random sample of respondents aged >15 years were invited to report their use of TCM and WM in the past year, together with other health and demographic information. A total of 33,263 persons were interviewed (response rate 79.2%. Results Amongst those who received outpatient services in the past year (n = 18,087, 80.23% only visited WM doctors, 3.17% consulted TCM practitioners solely, and 16.60% used both type of services (double consulters. Compared to those who only consulted WM doctor, multinomial logistic regression showed that double consulters were more likely to be older, female, NCD patients, and have higher socioeconomic backgrounds. Further analysis showed that the association between age and double consulting was curvilinear (inverted U shaped regardless of NCD status. Middle aged (45-60 years NCD patients, and the NCD free "young old" group (60-75 years were most likely to double consult. On the other hand, the relationship between age and use of TCM as an alternative to WM was linear regardless of NCD status. The NCD free segment of the population was more inclined to use TCM alone

  2. Non-communicable diseases and human rights: Global synergies, gaps and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Laura; Tarantola, Daniel; Hoffmann, Michael; Gruskin, Sofia

    2017-10-01

    The incorporation of human rights in health policy and programmes is known to strengthen responses to health problems and help address disparities created or exacerbated by illness yet this remains underexplored in relation to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Aiming to understand existing synergies and how they might be further strengthened, we assessed the extent to which human rights are considered in global NCD policies and strategies and the degree of attention given to NCDs by select United Nations human rights mechanisms. Across global NCD policies and strategies, rhetorical assertions regarding human rights appear more often than actionable statements, thus limiting their implementation and impact. Although no human rights treaty explicitly mentions NCDs, some human rights monitoring mechanisms have been paying increasing attention to NCDs. This provides important avenues for promoting the incorporation of human rights norms and standards into NCD responses as well as for accountability. Linking NCDs and human rights at the global level is critical for encouraging national-level action to promote better outcomes relating to both health and human rights. The post-2015 development agenda constitutes a key entry point for highlighting these synergies and strengthening opportunities for health and rights action at global, national and local levels.

  3. Behavioural Risk Factors for Non Communicable Disease among Rural Adults in Andra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trupti N Bodhare, Kanchi Venkatesh, Samir Bele, Gali Kashiram, Sujata Devi, Achanta Vivekanand

    2013-01-01

    Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in rural area of Karimnagar among 410 participants. Various risk factors assessed were smoking and alcohol intake, physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension and stress among participants. Results: The mean age of the participants was 56.41 ± 11.90 years. Male accounted for 55.6% of the total sample, 34.9% were illiterate and 70.7% belonged to an upper lower class. Presence of at least one risk factor was observed among 76.3% of participants. The prevalence of hypertension was 38.5% among participants, 24.6% were current smokers whereas 29.8% were current alcohol users. Stress was exhibited by 24.9% and 25.9% were physically inactive. A binary logistic regression analysis revealed that older age (p = 0.000, male gender (p = 0.001, illiteracy (p = 0.007 and lower socio-economic status (p = 0.001 were associated with the presence of at least one risk factor. Conclusion: High prevalence of risk factors among rural popula-tion warrants an immediate attention. There is a need for careful monitoring and control of non-communicable disease risk factors in rural area.

  4. Embedding non-communicable diseases in the post-2015 development agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, George; Binagwaho, Agnes; Haines, Andy; Jahan, Selim; Nugent, Rachel; Rojhani, Ariella; Stuckler, David

    2013-02-16

    The post-2015 development agenda will build on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), in which health is a core component. This agenda will focus on human development, incorporate the components of the Millennium Declaration, and will be made sustainable by support from the social, economic, and environmental domains of activity, represented graphically as the strands of a triple helix. The approaches to prevention and control of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have been elaborated in the political declaration of the UN high-level meeting on NCDs and governments have adopted a goal of 25% reduction in relative mortality from NCDs by 2025 (the 25 by 25 goal), but a strong movement is needed based on the evidence already available, enhanced by effective partnerships, and with political support to ensure that NCDs are embedded in the post-2015 human development agenda. NCDs should be embedded in the post-2015 development agenda, since they are leading causes of death and disability, have a negative effect on health, and, through their effect on the societal, economic, and the environmental domains, impair the sustainability of development. Some drivers of unsustainable development, such as the transport, food and agriculture, and energy sectors, also increase the risk of NCDs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development and Implementation of Worksite Health and Wellness Programs: A Focus on Non-Communicable Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalin, Lawrence P; Kaminsky, Leonard; Lavie, Carl J; Briggs, Paige; Cahalin, Brendan L; Myers, Jonathan; Forman, Daniel E; Patel, Mahesh J; Pinkstaff, Sherry O; Arena, Ross

    2015-01-01

    The development and implementation of worksite health and wellness programs (WHWPs) in the United States (US) hold promise as a means to improve population health and reverse current trends in non-communicable disease incidence and prevalence. However, WHWPs face organizational, economic, systematic, legal, and logistical challenges which have combined to impact program availability and expansion. Even so, there is a burgeoning body of evidence indicating WHWPs can significantly improve the health profile of participating employees in a cost effective manner. This foundation of scientific knowledge justifies further research inquiry to elucidate optimal WHWP models. It is clear that the development, implementation and operation of WHWPs require a strong commitment from organizational leadership, a pervasive culture of health and availability of necessary resources and infrastructure. Since organizations vary significantly, there is a need to have flexibility in creating a customized, effective health and wellness program. Furthermore, several key legal issues must be addressed to facilitate employer and employee needs and responsibilities; the US Affordable Care Act will play a major role moving forward. The purposes of this review are to: 1) examine currently available health and wellness program models and considerations for the future; 2) highlight key legal issues associated with WHWP development and implementation; and 3) identify challenges and solutions for the development and implementation of as well as adherence to WHWPs.

  6. Developing a Performance Assessment Framework and Indicators for Communicable Disease Management in Natural Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, Javad; Ardalan, Ali; Vatandoost, Hasan; Goya, Mohammad Mehdi; Akbarisari, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Communicable disease management (CDM) is an important component of disaster public health response operations. However, there is a lack of any performance assessment (PA) framework and related indicators for the PA. This study aimed to develop a PA framework and indicators in CDM in disasters. In this study, a series of methods were used. First, a systematic literature review (SLR) was performed in order to extract the existing PA frameworks and indicators. Then, using a qualitative approach, some interviews with purposively selected experts were conducted and used in developing the PA framework and indicators. Finally, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used for weighting of the developed indicators. The input, process, products, and outcomes (IPPO) framework was found to be an appropriate framework for CDM PA. Seven main functions were revealed to CDM during disasters. Forty PA indicators were developed for the four categories. There is a lack of any existing PA framework in CDM in disasters. Thus, in this study, a PA framework (IPPO framework) was developed for the PA of CDM in disasters through a series of methods. It can be an appropriate framework and its indicators could measure the performance of CDM in disasters.

  7. AWARENESS OF NON COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR RISK FACTORS AMONG RURAL SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharudha Shivalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Behavioral interventions for Non Communicable Diseases (NCD abeyance would profit the most, if initiated at an early age. Major risk factors of NCDs are changing life style and behavior pattern which are largely due to practices adopted in younger age. Students' awareness about NCDs and their risk factors is an important part of population based prevention strategy. Objective: To assess the awareness of NCDs and their risk factors among rural intermediate school children. Methodology: A School based cross sectional study was conducted in Chiraigaon Community Development Block of Varanasi from July - Aug 2010. Intermediate school children from eight inter-colleges of Chiraigaon development block were the study subjects. Pretested questionnaire was used in the study and frequency and proportions were used to analyze the data. Results: Less than one third of the children were aware about Diabetes and Hypertension (27% and 31% respectively. Only 18% knew about Body Mass Index (BMI as an indicator of obesity. In general awareness of NCDs was more in boys than girl. Conclusion: Over all awareness of NCDs and their risk factors among students was not satisfactory. There is a need and scope for health education activity regarding NCDs and their risk factors to promote healthy life style among these school children.

  8. Non-communicable diseases and HIV care and treatment: models of integrated service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Malia; Ojikutu, Bisola; Andrian, Soa; Sohng, Elaine; Minior, Thomas; Hirschhorn, Lisa R

    2017-08-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are a growing cause of morbidity in low-income countries including in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Integration of NCD and HIV services can build upon experience with chronic care models from HIV programmes. We describe models of NCD and HIV integration, challenges and lessons learned. A literature review of published articles on integrated NCD and HIV programs in low-income countries and key informant interviews were conducted with leaders of identified integrated NCD and HIV programs. Information was synthesised to identify models of NCD and HIV service delivery integration. Three models of integration were identified as follows: NCD services integrated into centres originally providing HIV care; HIV care integrated into primary health care (PHC) already offering NCD services; and simultaneous introduction of integrated HIV and NCD services. Major challenges identified included NCD supply chain, human resources, referral systems, patient education, stigma, patient records and monitoring and evaluation. The range of HIV and NCD services varied widely within and across models. Regardless of model of integration, leveraging experience from HIV care models and adapting existing systems and tools is a feasible method to provide efficient care and treatment for the growing numbers of patients with NCDs. Operational research should be conducted to further study how successful models of HIV and NCD integration can be expanded in scope and scaled-up by managers and policymakers seeking to address all the chronic care needs of their patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Feasibility and acceptability of gut-directed hypnosis on inflammatory bowel disease: a brief communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Laurie; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2007-10-01

    Hypnotically assisted treatments have been used to reduce stress, improve gastrointestinal motility, strengthen immune function, and potentially reduce inflammation. Such treatments may also help reduce disease flares and improve quality of life in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The authors report the results of a case series of 8 white female patients with inactive IBD. All participants initiated and completed treatment, supporting the general acceptability of hypnotically assisted treatment among IBD patients. There was a significant improvement in IBD-quality of life scores for the group posttreatment, t(7) = -3.38, p = .01, with a mean improvement in quality of life of 29 points with significant changes in all 4 subscales. No negative effects of treatment were found.

  10. Collapsing glomerulopathy in sickle cell disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sealy Peter L

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sickle cell disease has been associated with many renal structural and functional abnormalities. Collapsing glomerulopathy or the collapsing variant of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is a rare clinicopathologic entity in patients with sickle cell disease that requires timely diagnosis and aggressive management. Case presentation In this case report we describe a 21-year-old African-American woman with a medical history of significant sickle cell disease and asthma. She was admitted for pain, decreased urine output, bilateral leg swelling and reported weight gain. During her period of hospitalisation she developed acute renal failure requiring dialysis. Further investigation revealed the collapsing variant of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Conclusions Although focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is a common feature of sickle cell nephropathy, the collapsing variant of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis or collapsing glomerulopathy has been rarely documented. Even when other risk factors are controlled, collapsing glomerulopathy has a very poor prognosis. This is a rare case of a patient with massive proteinuria presenting as acute renal failure with a very poor response to corticosteroids and a much faster rate of progression to end-stage renal disease.

  11. Reliable Reporting for Massive M2M Communications with Periodic Resource Pooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madueño, Germán Corrales; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    This letter considers a wireless M2M communication scenario with a massive number of M2M devices. Each device needs to send its reports within a given deadline and with certain reliability, e.g., 99.99%. A pool of resources available to all M2M devices is periodically available for transmission....... The number of transmissions required by an M2M device within the pool is random due to two reasons - random number of arrived reports since the last reporting opportunity and requests for retransmission due to random channel errors. We show how to dimension the pool of M2M-dedicated resources in order...... to guarantee the desired reliability of the report delivery within the deadline. The fact that the pool of resources is used by a massive number of devices allows to base the dimensioning on the central limit theorem. The results are interpreted in the context of LTE, but they are applicable to any M2M...

  12. Vehicle to Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Smart Grid Communications Interface Research and Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Morrow; Dimitri Hochard; Jeff Wishart

    2011-09-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and extended range electric vehicles, are under evaluation by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) and other various stakeholders to better understand their capability and potential petroleum reduction benefits. PEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard hybrid electric vehicles, and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, PEVs may have the ability to eliminate petroleum consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The AVTA is working jointly with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) to assist in the further development of standards necessary for the advancement of PEVs. This report analyzes different methods and available hardware for advanced communications between the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and the PEV; particularly Power Line Devices and their physical layer. Results of this study are not conclusive, but add to the collective knowledge base in this area to help define further testing that will be necessary for the development of the final recommended SAE communications standard. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Applications conduct the AVTA for the United States Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program.

  13. Guide to preparing SAND reports and other communication products : version 4.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brittenham, Phillip W.

    2007-09-01

    This guide describes the R&A process, Common Look and Feel requirements, and preparation and publishing procedures for communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Samples of forms and examples of published communications products are provided. This guide takes advantage of the wealth of material now available on the Web as a resource. Therefore, it is best viewed as an electronic document. If some of the illustrations are too small to view comfortably, you can enlarge them on the screen as needed. The most significant changes since Version 1 involve the introduction of the electronic Review and Approval application at the Sandia/California (CA) and Sandia/New Mexico (NM) sites. Authors are advised to check the most current material on the application Web site before initiating the R&A process. The format of this document is considerably different than that expected of a SAND Report. It was selected to permit the large number of illustrations and examples to be placed closer to the text that references them. In the case of forms, covers, and other items that are included as examples, a link to the Web is provided so that you can access the items and download them for use.

  14. Guide to preparing SAND reports and other communication products : version 3.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brittenham, Phillip W.

    2007-03-01

    This guide describes the R&A process, Common Look and Feel requirements, and preparation and publishing procedures for communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Samples of forms and examples of published communications products are provided. This guide takes advantage of the wealth of material now available on the Web as a resource. Therefore, it is best viewed as an electronic document. If some of the illustrations are too small to view comfortably, you can enlarge them on the screen as needed. The most significant changes since Version 1 involve the introduction of the electronic Review and Approval application at the Sandia/California (CA) and Sandia/New Mexico (NM) sites. Authors are advised to check the most current material on the application Web site before initiating the R&A process. The format of this document is considerably different than that expected of a SAND Report. It was selected to permit the large number of illustrations and examples to be placed closer to the text that references them. In the case of forms, covers, and other items that are included as examples, a link to the Web is provided so that you can access the items and download them for use.

  15. CSU Final Report on the Math/CS Institute CACHE: Communication-Avoiding and Communication-Hiding at the Extreme Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strout, Michelle [Colorado State University

    2014-06-10

    The CACHE project entails researching and developing new versions of numerical algorithms that result in data reuse that can be scheduled in a communication avoiding way. Since memory accesses take more time than any computation and require the most power, the focus on turning data reuse into data locality is critical to improving performance and reducing power usage in scientific simulations. This final report summarizes the accomplishments at Colorado State University as part of the CACHE project.

  16. New South Wales annual vaccine-preventable disease report, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rosewell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We aim to describe the epidemiology of selected vaccine-preventable diseases in New South Wales (NSW for 2012. Data from the NSW Notifiable Conditions Information Management System were analysed by: local health district of residence, age, Aboriginality, vaccination status and organism, where available. Risk factor and vaccination status data were collected by public health units for cases following notification under the NSW Public Health Act 2010. The largest outbreak of measles since 1998 was reported in 2012. Pacific Islander and Aboriginal people were at higher risk as were infants less than 12 months of age. Notifications of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD in children less than five years declined; however, the overall number of notifications for IPD increased. Mumps case notifications were also elevated. There were no Haemophilus influenzae type b case notifications in children less than five years of age for the first time since the vaccine was introduced. Invasive meningococcal disease case notifications were at their lowest rates since case notification began in 1991. Case notification rates for other selected vaccine-preventable diseases remained stable. Vaccine-preventable disease control is continually strengthening in NSW with notable successes in invasive bacterial infections. However, strengthening measles immunization in Pacific Islander and Aboriginal communities remains essential to maintain measles elimination.

  17. Primary nasopharyngeal Hodgkin's disease: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjaafar Nourredine

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary Hodgkin's disease of the nasopharynx is a rare and uncommon event. It has a relatively favorable prognosis and represents less than 1% of all documented cases of Hodgkin's disease. Case presentation A 40-year-old Arabic man presented initially with bilateral nasal obstruction, which was then followed by a significant involvement of his bilateral cervical lymph nodes. His nasopharyngeal biopsy together with immunohistochemistry analysis showed negative expressions of CD15, CD20 and CD3, but positive expressions of CD30 and epithelial membrane antigen. This confirmed the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal Hodgkin's disease of a mixed cellularity subtype. The disease was at stage IIEA. Our patient received four cycles of chemotherapy, which yielded a 75% response. This was followed by irradiation of his Waldeyer's ring and supraclavicular lymph nodes. He remains in good local control after 30 months of follow-up. Conclusion The literature review and our case report discuss the optimal management of this rare and atypical localization of Hodgkin's disease, which should be differentiated from lymphoproliferations associated with Epstein-Barr virus and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  18. Intestinal Behcet's disease with pyoderma gangrenosum: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshio Nakamura; Hiroaki Yagi; Kiyotaka Kurachi; Shohachi Suzuki; Hiroyuki Konno

    2006-01-01

    We report here a very rare case of intestinal Behcet's disease with pyoderma gangrenosum. A 16-year-old woman who was diagnosed with intestinal Behcet's disease by the presence of cutaneous pathergy together with two major criteria (oral and genital aphthoses) and one minor criterion (gastrointestinal manifestations), was referred to our hospital with a left lower leg ulcer and abdominal pain in September 1989. Colonoscopy demonstrated flare-up colitis involving the entire colon. Her lower leg lesion was a painful destructive ulcer with an irregular margin and a ragged overhanging edge. Based on these clinical and laboratory findings, we diagnosed her cutaneous ulcer as pyoderma gangrenosum developing with exacerbated intestinal Behcet's disease.Her cutaneous and intestinal lesions were poorly controlled though she received oral prednisolone treatment for a month. Because of aggravated abdominal symptoms with peritoneal irritation, we performed total colectomy in November 1989. The resected specimen was histologically compatible with intestinal Behcet's disease showing severe inflammation with deep ulcerations and neutrophil accumulation. Subsequently,pyoderma gangrenosum rapidly improved. This clinical course may suggest the close relationship between pyoderma gangrenosum and intestinal Behcet's disease.

  19. Development of moyamoya disease in pregnancy and puerperium: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Yosuke; Fujimura, Miki; Uenohara, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Tominaga, Teiji

    2014-01-01

    Progressive moyamoya disease in pregnancy and puerperium has not been reported previously. Here, we present a 39-year-old woman who had been found to have moderate stenosis of right middle cerebral artery (MCA) 4 years prior to her pregnancy, finally suffering minor completed stroke due to progressive moyamoya disease at the early postpartum period. Three days after cesarean section without any complication, she developed cerebral infraction at right hemisphere, when magnetic resonance angiography indicated apparent progression of the proximal MCA stenosis. Catheter angiography demonstrated nearly occlusion of the right terminal internal carotid artery (ICA) and the development of an abnormal vascular network at the base of the brain as well as MCA stenosis, indicating a definitive diagnosis of moyamoya disease with unilateral involvement. The patient underwent superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis 1 month after the onset of stroke, and she did not manifest as further neurological events during the follow-up period of 2 years. Moyamoya disease could newly develop in pregnancy and puerperium, which should be noted as a pitfall of the management of moyamoya disease with pregnancy.

  20. Overweight, obesity and related non-communicable diseases in Asian Indian girls and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, S M; Misra, A; Gulati, S; Gupta, R

    2013-07-01

    The prevalence of obesity is rising globally and in India. Overweight, obesity and related diseases need to be delineated in Asian Indian women. A literature search was done using key words like 'obesity', 'Asian Indian women', 'body fat distribution', 'type 2 diabetes', 'fertility', 'polycystic ovarian disease', metabolic syndrome', 'cardiovascular disease', 'non-alcoholic fatty liver disease', 'gender', 'sex' and 'prevalence' up to September 2012 in Pubmed and Google Scholar search engines. This review highlights the Asian Indian body composition with regards to obesity and provides a collated perspective of gender-specific prevalence of the co-morbidities. Recent data show that women (range of prevalence of overweight and obesity from different studies 15-61%) have higher prevalence of overweight and obesity as compared with men (range of prevalence of overweight and obesity from different studies 12-54%) in India and that obesity is increasing in the youth. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in both men and women steeply rose in a Punjabi community from Jaipur. Importantly, prevalence of abdominal obesity has been consistently higher in women than in men. The lowest prevalence (6.0%) of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women is reported from South India (rural Andhra Pradesh; 2006) and the highest (14.0%) by the National Urban Diabetes Survey (2001). Although the clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors was generally high, it increased further in post-menopausal women. There are a number of factors that predispose Indian women to obesity; sedentary behaviour, imbalanced diets, sequential and additive postpartum weight gain and further decrease in physical activity during this period and cultural issues. In view of these data, preventive measures should be specifically targeted to Indian women.

  1. Human communication dynamics in digital footsteps: a study of the agreement between self-reported ties and email networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuchty, Stefan; Uzzi, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Digital communication data has created opportunities to advance the knowledge of human dynamics in many areas, including national security, behavioral health, and consumerism. While digital data uniquely captures the totality of a person's communication, past research consistently shows that a subset of contacts makes up a person's "social network" of unique resource providers. To address this gap, we analyzed the correspondence between self-reported social network data and email communication data with the objective of identifying the dynamics in e-communication that correlate with a person's perception of a significant network tie. First, we examined the predictive utility of three popular methods to derive social network data from email data based on volume and reciprocity of bilateral email exchanges. Second, we observed differences in the response dynamics along self-reported ties, allowing us to introduce and test a new method that incorporates time-resolved exchange data. Using a range of robustness checks for measurement and misreporting errors in self-report and email data, we find that the methods have similar predictive utility. Although e-communication has lowered communication costs with large numbers of persons, and potentially extended our number of, and reach to contacts, our case results suggest that underlying behavioral patterns indicative of friendship or professional contacts continue to operate in a classical fashion in email interactions.

  2. Human communication dynamics in digital footsteps: a study of the agreement between self-reported ties and email networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Wuchty

    Full Text Available Digital communication data has created opportunities to advance the knowledge of human dynamics in many areas, including national security, behavioral health, and consumerism. While digital data uniquely captures the totality of a person's communication, past research consistently shows that a subset of contacts makes up a person's "social network" of unique resource providers. To address this gap, we analyzed the correspondence between self-reported social network data and email communication data with the objective of identifying the dynamics in e-communication that correlate with a person's perception of a significant network tie. First, we examined the predictive utility of three popular methods to derive social network data from email data based on volume and reciprocity of bilateral email exchanges. Second, we observed differences in the response dynamics along self-reported ties, allowing us to introduce and test a new method that incorporates time-resolved exchange data. Using a range of robustness checks for measurement and misreporting errors in self-report and email data, we find that the methods have similar predictive utility. Although e-communication has lowered communication costs with large numbers of persons, and potentially extended our number of, and reach to contacts, our case results suggest that underlying behavioral patterns indicative of friendship or professional contacts continue to operate in a classical fashion in email interactions.

  3. Human Communication Dynamics in Digital Footsteps: A Study of the Agreement between Self-Reported Ties and Email Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuchty, Stefan; Uzzi, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Digital communication data has created opportunities to advance the knowledge of human dynamics in many areas, including national security, behavioral health, and consumerism. While digital data uniquely captures the totality of a person's communication, past research consistently shows that a subset of contacts makes up a person's “social network” of unique resource providers. To address this gap, we analyzed the correspondence between self-reported social network data and email communication data with the objective of identifying the dynamics in e-communication that correlate with a person's perception of a significant network tie. First, we examined the predictive utility of three popular methods to derive social network data from email data based on volume and reciprocity of bilateral email exchanges. Second, we observed differences in the response dynamics along self-reported ties, allowing us to introduce and test a new method that incorporates time-resolved exchange data. Using a range of robustness checks for measurement and misreporting errors in self-report and email data, we find that the methods have similar predictive utility. Although e-communication has lowered communication costs with large numbers of persons, and potentially extended our number of, and reach to contacts, our case results suggest that underlying behavioral patterns indicative of friendship or professional contacts continue to operate in a classical fashion in email interactions. PMID:22114665

  4. Diabetes and Low-Health Literacy: A Preliminary Outcome Report of a Mediated Intervention to Enhance Patient-Physician Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shue, Carolyn K.; O'Hara, Laura L. S.; Marini, David; McKenzie, Jim; Schreiner, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Patients with diabetes who experience low-health literacy often struggle in their roles as health consumers. A multi-disciplinary group of educators and researchers collaborated to develop a video intervention to help these patients better understand their disease and communicate more effectively with their physician. We describe the assessment…

  5. ASSESSMENT OF LIFESTYLE-RELATED RISK FACTORS CONTRIBUTING FOR CHRONIC NON COMMUNICABLE DISEASE IN PATIENTS VISITING RURAL TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Dahal Prasanna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Non-communicable diseases remain an area of high public health concern especially in developing countries where growing middle class and ever changing lifestyle have led to the rapid increase in the burden of non-communicable disease. The study aimed to assess various lifestyle and behavioral risk factors contributing for non-communicable chronic disease in patients visiting rural tertiary care hospital. A total of 152 patients were selected and analyzed in the study out of which 49 (32.22% were female and 102 (67.78% were male. The average age of the male patients were found to be 61.79years (SD±9.28 and females were 57.1years (SD±10.3. Majority of patients were from lower socioeconomic and educational status. Various risk factors contributing for chronic non-communicable disease that are identified in the study were advance age i.e. > 40years 142 (93.42%, genetically risk factor 46 (30.26%, poor income status 120 (78.95%, occupational exposure to dust, smoke and irritants 111 (73.03%, high body mass index (BMI75 (49.34%, stress 110 (72.37%, inadequate sleep 5 (3.29%, smoking habit 69 (45.4%, Alcohol consuming habit 63 (41.48%, lack of physical activity 59 (38.81%, rare fruit consuming habit 72 (47.37% and less vegetable consumption i.e. ≤ 1/day were 32 (21.05%. Study concluded that substantially high levels of the various lifestyle and behavioral related risk factors such as poor socioeconomic status, smoking, alcohol consumption, high BMI or obesity, stress etc, were significantly associated in patients with chronic disease.

  6. Prevalence of Risk Factors for Chronic Non-communicable Diseases Using WHO Steps Approach in an Adult Population in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Ankur; Anand, Tanu; Sharma, Urvi; Kishore, Jugal; Chakraborty, Mantosh; Ray, Prakash Chandra; Ingle, Gopal Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing worldwide largely due to prevalence of various risk factors, which can be controlled. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to measure the prevalence of major preventable risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi, using STEPS approach. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study, that included a random sample of 200 adults, was conducted. A study tool based on the WHO STEPS questionnaire for assessing non-communicable diseases and their risk factors was used. Fasting venous blood sample was collected to assess the lipid profile and fasting blood sugar. Anthropometric measurements of the participants were also taken. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: Out of the 200 participants, 26% (n = 52) were consuming alcohol and 17% (n = 34) were smoking. Majority (77.5%) had a raised waist circumference, and more than two-thirds were either overweight or obese. Fasting blood sugar levels were found to be raised in 18% of the study population. More than third participants had raised systolic and diastolic blood pressures and abnormal lipid profiles. More males were found to be overweight in comparison to females (P < 0.01), but in contrast, obesity (P < 0.05) and raised waist circumference (P < 0.001) were more common in females. Tobacco use was more common in lower class (P < 0.05), whereas obesity was commoner in the upper socio-economic class (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Study showed a high burden of risk factors for NCDs in the study population, pointing towards changing disease epidemiology of non-communicable diseases in India. PMID:25161966

  7. Parent and teacher report of pragmatic aspects of communication: use of the children's communication checklist in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, D V; Baird, G

    2001-12-01

    The Children's Communication Checklist (CCC) was developed to provide an objective assessment of pragmatic aspects of children's communication difficulties. We aimed to (1) see whether the checklist provided valid and reliable information when completed by parents, and (2) consider its usefulness in a clinical context. Checklists were completed by parents and a professional who knew the child well for all 5 to 17-year-old referrals to a tertiary developmental paediatrics centre over a 31-month period. Children who were not yet speaking in sentences were excluded. From a sample of 151 children (81% male; mean age 8.7 years) with pervasive or specific developmental disorders, valid checklists were completed by 119 parents and 93 professionals. Reliability, as measured by internal consistency, was 0.7 or higher for most scales. Correlations between ratings for parents and professionals were in the range of 0.30 to 0.58 for individual pragmatic scales, with a correlation of 0.46 (n=82) for the pragmatic composite. For both parents and professionals, the pragmatic composite was lowest for children with a diagnosis of autism; intermediate for those with a diagnosis of Asperger syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified or attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); and highest for those with a diagnosis of specific learning disability. The strongest relation between the pragmatic composite and diagnosis was seen when ratings from parents and professionals were combined. Differences between diagnostic groups were not explicable in terms of age or verbal IQ.

  8. Infantile refsum disease with enamel defects: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dorothy; Greenhill, William; Wilson, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to present the case of a 15-year-old female diagnosed with infantile Refsum disease (IRD) that presented with generalized enamel defects in the primary and permanent dentition. IRD is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder characterized by aberrant peroxisome function. IRD patients present with multiple clinical manifestations, including: retinitis pigmentosa; nystagmus; sensorineural hearing loss; mental and developmental delays; neuromotor defects; and cerebral ataxia. Craniofacial abnormalities reported include: high forehead; hypoplastic supraorbital ridges; epicanthal folds; midface hypoplasia; and large anterior fontanelle. At present, there is only one known report of dental anomaly associated with this syndrome. This represents the first known reported case in the pediatric dental literature.

  9. The Role of Gender in Chagas Disease Prevention and Control in Honduras: An Analysis of Communication and Collaboration Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana, Diana Rocío Rodríguez; Mertens, Frédéric; Zúniga, Concepción Valeriano; Mendoza, Yolanda; Nakano, Eduardo Yoshio; Monroy, Maria Carlota

    2016-09-01

    In Honduras, where Chagas disease is a serious health and environmental concern, prevention measures face the challenge of achieving widespread and long-term sustainable adoption by communities. The article integrates social network analysis and a gender-sensitive approach to understand the role of men and women in the implementation of a community-level intervention, based on the adoption of housing improvements to reduce the presence of the insect vector. A total of 108 people in the community of El Salitre were interviewed. Data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics, participation in project activities, communication and collaboration networks related to Chagas disease prevention, knowledge of Chagas disease, and adoption of housing improvements techniques. Communication mostly occurred between the same gender individuals and was associated with knowledge of Chagas disease. Socioeconomic status, Chagas disease knowledge, and collaboration with men were associated with women adopting housing improvements. For men, however, participation in project activities, formal education, and collaboration with women were associated with adoption. These findings suggest that men and women were driven by distinct concerns, interests, and motivations when adopting new Chagas disease prevention strategies. Participatory community interventions that seek to generate health knowledge and foster collaborations to reduce health risk should address gender differences.

  10. Public health impact of global heating due to climate change: potential effects on chronic non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Butler, Ainslie J; Lucas, Robyn M; Bonita, Ruth

    2010-04-01

    Several categories of ill health important at the global level are likely to be affected by climate change. To date the focus of this association has been on communicable diseases and injuries. This paper briefly analyzes potential impacts of global climate change on chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). We reviewed the limited available evidence of the relationships between climate exposure and chronic and NCDs. We further reviewed likely mechanisms and pathways for climatic influences on chronic disease occurrence and impacts on pre-existing chronic diseases. There are negative impacts of climatic factors and climate change on some physiological functions and on cardio-vascular and kidney diseases. Chronic disease risks are likely to increase with climate change and related increase in air pollution, malnutrition, and extreme weather events. There are substantial research gaps in this arena. The health sector has a major role in facilitating further research and monitoring the health impacts of global climate change. Such work will also contribute to global efforts for the prevention and control of chronic NCDs in our ageing and urbanizing global population.

  11. Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis complicating Legionnaires' disease: a case report

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    Daumas Aurélie

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Legionnaires' disease is recognized as a multi-systemic illness. Afflicted patients may have pulmonary, renal, gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system complications. However, renal insufficiency is uncommon. The spectrum of renal involvement may range from a mild and transient elevation of serum creatinine levels to anuric renal failure requiring dialysis and may be linked to several causes. In our present case report, we would like to draw attention to the importance of the pathological documentation of acute renal failure by reporting a case of a patient with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis complicating Legionnaires' disease. Case presentation A 55-year-old Caucasian man was admitted to our hospital for community-acquired pneumonia complicated by acute renal failure. Legionella pneumophila serogroup type 1 was diagnosed. Although the patient's respiratory illness responded to intravenous erythromycin and ofloxacin therapy, his renal failure worsened, he became anuric, and hemodialysis was started. A renal biopsy was performed, which revealed severe tubulointerstitial nephritis. After initiation of steroid therapy, his renal function improved dramatically. Conclusions This case highlights the importance of kidney biopsies in cases where acute renal failure is a complicating factor in Legionnaires' disease. If the presence of acute tubulointerstitial nephritis can be confirmed, it will likely respond favorably to steroidal treatment and thus irreversible renal damage and chronic renal failure will be avoided.

  12. Synopsis of non-communicable diseases in children admitted to the paediatric ward of the university of Nigeria teaching hospital (UNTH) Enugu, Nigeria: A ten year review

    OpenAIRE

    I J Emodi; Ikefuna, A. N.; F A Ujunwa; Chinawa, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Non-communicable diseases are increasing worldwide due to rapidly changing lifestyles and socio-economic status. It is contributing significantly to the global burden of diseases. Objective: To determine the pattern of non-communicable diseases in children admitted into the Paediatrics ward in a tertiary health centre in Enugu. Materials and Methods: A review of admissions into the Paediatrics ward of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu, between January 1999 and Dece...

  13. Danon disease: A case report and literature overview

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    Ćatović Suad

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Danon disease, a rare glycogen storage disease, is a dominant X-linked disorder. It is due to mutation in gene for lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP 2. The LAMP 2 gene is located on Xq24, and its mutation causes primary deficiency of LAMP 2 and myocyte hypertrophy by accumulations of vacuoles containing glycogen. Danon disease is clinically characterized by the triad of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM, proximal myopathy and mental retardation. Myopathy and mental retardation can be absent, and cardiomyopathy is usually hypertrophic. This is a case report of the patient with genetically confirmed Danon disease and mixed cardiomyopathy, but without myopathy and mental retardation. ECG showed typical Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW pattern while echocardiography demonstrated hypertrophy and dilatation of all cardiac chambers with impaired systolic and diastolic function. Male sex, early onset of symptoms, massive hypertrophy of the myocardium and ventricular preexcitation indicate a genetic basis for HCM. Therapeutic measures, except heart transplantation, do not improve prognosis substantially. Only an accurate diagnosis in patients with unexplained HCM helps in establishing of the appropriate treatment strategies and adequate genetic consultation. .

  14. Innovations in non-communicable diseases management in ASEAN: a case series

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    Jeremy Lim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs are reaching epidemic proportions worldwide and present an unprecedented challenge to economic and social development globally. In Southeast Asia, the challenges are exacerbated by vastly differing levels of health systems development and funding availability. In addressing the burden of NCDs, ASEAN nations need to fundamentally re-examine how health care services are structured and delivered and discover new models as undiscerning application of models from other geographies with different cultures and resources will be problematic. Objective: We sought to examine cases of innovation and identify critical success factors in NCD management in ASEAN. Design: A qualitative design, focusing on in-depth interviews and site visits to explore the meanings and perceptions of participants regarding innovations in NCD against the backdrop of the overall context of delivering health care within the country's context was adopted. Results: In total 12 case studies in six ASEAN countries were analysed. Primary interventions accounted for five of the total cases, whereas secondary interventions comprised four, and tertiary interventions three. Five core themes contributing to successful innovation for NCD management were identified. They include: 1 encourage better outcomes through leadership and support, 2 strengthen inter-disciplinary partnership, 3 community ownership is key, 4 recognise the needs of the people and what appeals to them, and 5 raise awareness through capacity building and increasing health literacy. Conclusions: Innovation is vital in enabling ASEAN nations to successfully address the growing crisis of NCDs. More of the same or wholesale transfers of developed world models will be ineffective and lead to financially unsustainable programmes or programmes lacking appropriate human capital. The case studies have demonstrated the transformative impact of innovation and identified key factors in

  15. The role of law and governance reform in the global response to non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger S; Patterson, David

    2014-06-05

    Addressing non-communicable diseases ("NCDs") and their risk-factors is one of the most powerful ways of improving longevity and healthy life expectancy for the foreseeable future - especially in low- and middle-income countries. This paper reviews the role of law and governance reform in that process. We highlight the need for a comprehensive approach that is grounded in the right to health and addresses three aspects: preventing NCDs and their risk factors, improving access to NCD treatments, and addressing the social impacts of illness. We highlight some of the major impediments to the passage and implementation of laws for the prevention and control of NCDs, and identify important practical steps that governments can take as they consider legal and governance reforms at country level.We review the emerging global architecture for NCDs, and emphasise the need for governance structures to harness the energy of civil society organisations and to create a global movement that influences the policy agenda at the country level. We also argue that the global monitoring framework would be more effective if it included key legal and policy indicators. The paper identifies priorities for technical legal assistance in implementing the WHO Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs 2013-2020. These include high-quality legal resources to assist countries to evaluate reform options, investment in legal capacity building, and global leadership to respond to the likely increase in requests by countries for technical legal assistance. We urge development agencies and other funders to recognise the need for development assistance in these areas. Throughout the paper, we point to global experience in dealing with HIV and draw out some relevant lessons for NCDs.

  16. Tobacco use: A major risk factor for non communicable diseases in South-East Asia region

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    J S Thakur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is a serious public health problem in the South East Asia Region where use of both smoking and smokeless form of tobacco is widely prevalent. The region has almost one quarter of the global population and about one quarter of all smokers in the world. Smoking among men is high in the Region and women usually take to chewing tobacco. The prevalence across countries varies significantly with smoking among adult men ranges from 24.3% (India to 63.1% (Indonesia and among adult women from 0.4% (Sri Lanka to 15% (Myanmar and Nepal. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men varies from 1.3% (Thailand to 31.8% (Myanmar, while for women it is from 4.6% (Nepal to 27.9% (Bangladesh. About 55% of total deaths are due to Non communicable diseases (NCDs with 53.4% among females with highest in Maldives (79.4% and low in Timor-Leste (34.4%. Premature mortality due to NCDs in young age is high in the region with 60.7% deaths in Timor Leste and 60.6% deaths in Bangladesh occurring below the age of 70 years. Age standardized death rate per 100,000 populations due to NCDs ranges from 793 (Bhutan and 612 (Maldives among males and 654 (Bhutan and 461 (Sri Lanka among females respectively. Out of 5.1 millions tobacco attributable deaths in the world, more than 1 million are in South East Asia Region (SEAR countries. Reducing tobacco use is one of the best buys along with harmful use of alcohol, salt reduction and promotion of physical activity for preventing NCDs. Integrating tobacco control with broader population services in the health system framework is crucial to achieve control of NCDs and sustain development in SEAR countries.

  17. THE DEVELOPMENT OF DIAGNOSTICS AND ALIMENTARY PREVENTION SYSTEM OF NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

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    A. V. Pogozheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Violation of dietary intake structure leads to changes in nutritional status. This contributes to the development of non-communicable diseases, which account for more than half of causes of death inRussia. Materials and methods: In a consultative and diagnostic center "Healthy Nutrition" of theInstituteofNutritionthe nutritional status of 3580 patients (mean age 48.4±0.3  years has been examined, including genomic and post-translational analysis. 30.0% of patients were overweight and 34.1% were obese.Results: Analysis of actual dietary intake showed an increase in energy intake due to excess intake of total (44.2%  energy and saturated fat (13.6%. Serum biochemistry analyses revealed increased cholesterol levels in 68.7%  of patients, increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in 63.9%, increased triglycerides in 22.5%, and increased blood glucose in 29.4%. The frequencies of risk alleles of genes associated with development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus were as follows: 47.8% for the polymorphism rs9939609 (FTO gene, 8.3% for the polymorphism rs4994 (gene ADRB3, 60.2% for the polymorphism rs659366 (gene UCP2, 36.6% for the rs5219  polymorphism in the gene of ATPdependent potassium channel.Conclusion: These results can be used for development of a personalized diet based on assessment of a patient's nutritional status. 

  18. Impact of school policies on non-communicable disease risk factors - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ankur; Bassi, Shalini; Nazar, Gaurang P; Saluja, Kiran; Park, MinHae; Kinra, Sanjay; Arora, Monika

    2017-04-04

    Globally, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are identified as one of the leading causes of mortality. NCDs have several modifiable risk factors including unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use and alcohol abuse. Schools provide ideal settings for health promotion, but the effectiveness of school policies in the reduction of risk factors for NCD is not clear. This study reviewed the literature on the impact of school policies on major NCD risk factors. A systematic review was conducted to identify, collate and synthesize evidence on the effectiveness of school policies on reduction of NCD risk factors. A search strategy was developed to identify the relevant studies on effectiveness of NCD policies in schools for children between the age of 6 to 18 years in Ovid Medline, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Data extraction was conducted using pre-piloted forms. Studies included in the review were assessed for methodological quality using the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) quality assessment tool. A narrative synthesis according to the types of outcomes was conducted to present the evidence on the effectiveness of school policies. Overall, 27 out of 2633 identified studies were included in the review. School policies were comparatively more effective in reducing unhealthy diet, tobacco use, physical inactivity and inflammatory biomarkers as opposed to anthropometric measures, overweight/obesity, and alcohol use. In total, for 103 outcomes independently evaluated within these studies, 48 outcomes (46%) had significant desirable changes when exposed to the school policies. Based on the quality assessment, 18 studies were categorized as weak, six as moderate and three as having strong methodological quality. Mixed findings were observed concerning effectiveness of school policies in reducing NCD risk factors. The findings demonstrate that schools can be a good setting for initiating positive changes in reducing NCD risk factors, but more research is

  19. Innovations in non-communicable diseases management in ASEAN: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeremy; Chan, Melissa M H; Alsagoff, Fatimah Z; Ha, Duc

    2014-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are reaching epidemic proportions worldwide and present an unprecedented challenge to economic and social development globally. In Southeast Asia, the challenges are exacerbated by vastly differing levels of health systems development and funding availability. In addressing the burden of NCDs, ASEAN nations need to fundamentally re-examine how health care services are structured and delivered and discover new models as undiscerning application of models from other geographies with different cultures and resources will be problematic. We sought to examine cases of innovation and identify critical success factors in NCD management in ASEAN. A qualitative design, focusing on in-depth interviews and site visits to explore the meanings and perceptions of participants regarding innovations in NCD against the backdrop of the overall context of delivering health care within the country's context was adopted. In total 12 case studies in six ASEAN countries were analysed. Primary interventions accounted for five of the total cases, whereas secondary interventions comprised four, and tertiary interventions three. Five core themes contributing to successful innovation for NCD management were identified. They include: 1) encourage better outcomes through leadership and support, 2) strengthen inter-disciplinary partnership, 3) community ownership is key, 4) recognise the needs of the people and what appeals to them, and 5) raise awareness through capacity building and increasing health literacy. Innovation is vital in enabling ASEAN nations to successfully address the growing crisis of NCDs. More of the same or wholesale transfers of developed world models will be ineffective and lead to financially unsustainable programmes or programmes lacking appropriate human capital. The case studies have demonstrated the transformative impact of innovation and identified key factors in successful implementation. Beyond pilot success, the bigger challenge is

  20. Innovations in non-communicable diseases management in ASEAN: a case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeremy; Chan, Melissa M. H.; Alsagoff, Fatimah Z.; Ha, Duc

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are reaching epidemic proportions worldwide and present an unprecedented challenge to economic and social development globally. In Southeast Asia, the challenges are exacerbated by vastly differing levels of health systems development and funding availability. In addressing the burden of NCDs, ASEAN nations need to fundamentally re-examine how health care services are structured and delivered and discover new models as undiscerning application of models from other geographies with different cultures and resources will be problematic. Objective We sought to examine cases of innovation and identify critical success factors in NCD management in ASEAN. Design A qualitative design, focusing on in-depth interviews and site visits to explore the meanings and perceptions of participants regarding innovations in NCD against the backdrop of the overall context of delivering health care within the country's context was adopted. Results In total 12 case studies in six ASEAN countries were analysed. Primary interventions accounted for five of the total cases, whereas secondary interventions comprised four, and tertiary interventions three. Five core themes contributing to successful innovation for NCD management were identified. They include: 1) encourage better outcomes through leadership and support, 2) strengthen inter-disciplinary partnership, 3) community ownership is key, 4) recognise the needs of the people and what appeals to them, and 5) raise awareness through capacity building and increasing health literacy. Conclusions Innovation is vital in enabling ASEAN nations to successfully address the growing crisis of NCDs. More of the same or wholesale transfers of developed world models will be ineffective and lead to financially unsustainable programmes or programmes lacking appropriate human capital. The case studies have demonstrated the transformative impact of innovation and identified key factors in successful