WorldWideScience

Sample records for reported clear recollections

  1. Training Recollection in Healthy Older Adults: Clear Improvements on the Training Task, but Little Evidence of Transfer

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    Vess eStamenova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal aging holds negative consequences for memory, in particular for the ability to recollect the precise details of an experience. With this in mind, Jennings and Jacoby (2003 developed a recollection training method using a single-probe recognition memory paradigm in which new items (i.e., foils were repeated during the test phase at increasingly long intervals. In previous reports, this method has appeared to improve older adults’ performance on several non-trained cognitive tasks. We aimed to further examine potential transfer effects of this training paradigm and to determine which cognitive functions might predict training gains. Fifty-one older adults were assigned to either recollection training (n = 30 or an active control condition (n = 21 for six sessions over two weeks. Afterward, the recollection training group showed a greatly enhanced ability to reject the repeated foils. Surprisingly, however, the training and the control groups improved to the same degree as one another in recognition accuracy (d’ on their respective training tasks. Further, despite the recollection group’s significant improvement in rejecting the repeated foils, we observed little evidence of transfer to non-trained tasks (including a temporal source memory test. Age and higher baseline scores on a measure of global cognitive function (as measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment tool and working memory (as measured by Digit Span Backward predicted gains made by the recollection training group members.

  2. Doyon report clears Quebec NUGs

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    McArthur, D; Salaff, S

    1997-06-01

    In mid-1995 the Parti Quebecois, then in opposition, claimed evidence of influence peddling, international drug money laundering, kickbacks and fraud in Quebec`s independent power program. It also claimed evidence of irregularities at Hydro-Quebec in its procedures for approving hydropower projects. The Liberal Quebec government of the day ordered a public inquiry, led by Quebec superior court judge Francois Doyon. He submitted the Commission`s final report in April 1997. The report exonerated Hydro-Quebec and the province`s independent power industry of any criminal wrong doing regarding their respect for legal and regulatory directives and the `ethical norms and practices` of sound business management. In its 600-plus page report, the Doyon Commission found that while there was a certain lack of administrative rigor which allowed certain Hydro-Quebec executives to put themselves in questionable conflict-of-interest situations, their actions were not illegal. The current Parti Quebecois Government accepted the report and its recommendation concerning tightening conflict-of-interest guidelines. The current Liberal opposition in the National Assembly charged that the conclusions of the Commission were a foregone conclusion since the demand for the inquiry was politically motivated right from the beginning.

  3. Locus of control, optimism, and recollections of depression and self-reported cognitive functioning following treatment for colorectal cancer.

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    Wilson, Carlene; Giles, Kristy; Nettelbeck, Ted; Hutchinson, Amanda

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the effects of disposition (locus of control, optimism, and depression) on recollections of cognitive functioning following cancer treatment. Participants were survivors of colorectal cancer (n = 88) and their spouses (n = 40). Survivors retrospectively rated their cognitive functioning and depression, as experienced following treatment and currently rated their dispositions for optimism and locus of control. Survivors' spouses likewise provided their recollections of survivors' cognitive functioning and depression at time following treatment. Correlations between survivors' and spouses' ratings for cognitive functioning were statistically significant but not for depression. Results supported validity of survivors' longer term retrospective reports. Although internal locus of control correlated positively with retrospectively self-reported cognitive functioning, and negatively with retrospectively self-reported depression, moderated hierarchical multiple regression found independent contribution of internal locus of control was limited to predicting quality of life; and that, among variables tested, depression correlated strongest with cognitive functioning. Neither internal locus of control nor optimism in colorectal cancer survivors influences correlation between cognition and depression. Health care providers should note individual differences in responses to treatment and be alert to the impact of depression on perceived everyday functioning. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. ClearFuels-Rentech Integrated Biorefinery Final Report

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    Pearson, Joshua [Project Director

    2014-02-26

    The project Final Report describes the validation of the performance of the integration of two technologies that were proven individually on a pilot scale and were demonstrated as a pilot scale integrated biorefinery. The integrated technologies were a larger scale ClearFuels’ (CF) advanced flexible biomass to syngas thermochemical high efficiency hydrothermal reformer (HEHTR) technology with Rentech’s (RTK) existing synthetic gas to liquids (GTL) technology.

  5. Mere Recollection of Food Reduces Altruistic Behavior

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    Okamura Yasuto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was twofold: Experiment 1 tested the possibility that the mere recollection of food aroused a state of hunger and that different types of food influenced the state of hunger differently; Experiment 2 tested the possibility that food cues affected altruistic behavior. In Experiment 1, 28 participants reported how hungry they felt before and after their recollection of certain foods (noodles and pudding. Results suggest that recollection of food increased hunger and that the type of food influenced the degree of hunger (F(2,54 = 31.88, p < .001, η2 = .54. In Experiment 2, 63 participants were randomly assigned to one of three recollection conditions: (1 noodles, (2 pudding, and (3 control. Participants in the two conditions described each food in detail; control group participants did not. Participants were then asked how much they would be willing to participate in an ostensible experiment. Results indicate that recollection-induced hunger reduced altruistic behavior (F(2, 60 = 4.11, p = .021, η2 = .12. Cue reactivity theory and the hierarchy of needs could explain these results.

  6. A soundscape study: What kinds of sounds can elderly people affected by dementia recollect?

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    Nagahata, K; Fukushima, T; Ishibashi, N; Takahashi, Y; Moriyama, M

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the kinds of sounds recollected by elderly people with dementia were investigated as a first step towards improving their sound environment. Onomatopoeias were presented to elderly people as keys to recollecting sounds, and they told what they imagined from each onomatopoeia. The results are summarized as follows. (1) Generally speaking, sounds from nature, such as the songs of birds and the sound of rain were recollected easily from onomatopoeias, regardless of gender. (2) Sounds of kitchen work were recollected by women only. (3) Sounds from old routines were recollected clearly. (4) Sounds that elicited feelings of nostalgia were also recollected intensely from onomatopoeias. These results show that elderly people suffering from dementia are able to recollect the sounds that had once occupied very important parts of their lives. However, these sounds in themselves are not unusual sounds in their daily lives. This suggests the importance of soundscape design in daily life.

  7. Anterior Crossbite and Crowding Correction with a Series of Clear Aligners Involving Lower Incisor Extraction: "The Clear Way" Case Report.

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    Bawaskar, Naval Suresh

    2015-01-01

    The Clear Aligner can be used to correct tooth movement without involving extraction, surgery, and other adjunct orthopaedic appliances. Some forms ofattachments are required with clear aligners to achieve all major types of orthodontic tooth movements. The Clear Aligner is a procedure that can be performed by a clinician with computer simulation/calculation. Since the Clear Aligner can be fabricated in steps, it is readily available to change the treatment sequence throughout the course of the treatment in cases of complex malocclusions. The patient can receive any necessary dental procedures with ease during the course of the treatment. The treatment can also be easily resumed even if the patient has not worn the aligners for a period of time. The purpose of this article is to report dental anterior crossbite correction with a series of Clear Aligners without the use of any forms of attachments. The Clear Aligner could be used as an alternative in appropriate cases for those who are reluctant with conventional appliances.

  8. Recollecting positive and negative autobiographical memories disrupts working memory.

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    Allen, Richard J; Schaefer, Alexandre; Falcon, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The present article reports two experiments examining the impact of recollecting emotionally valenced autobiographical memories on subsequent working memory (WM) task performance. Experiment 1 found that negatively valenced recollection significantly disrupted performance on a supra-span spatial WM task. Experiment 2 replicated and extended these findings to a verbal WM task (digit recall), and found that both negative and positive autobiographical recollections had a detrimental effect on verbal WM. In addition, we observed that these disruptive effects were more apparent on early trials, immediately following autobiographical recollection. Overall, these findings show that both positive and negative affect can disrupt WM when the mood-eliciting context is based on autobiographical memories. Furthermore, these results indicate that the emotional disruption of WM can take place across different modalities of WM (verbal and visuo-spatial). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Pictures, images, and recollective experience.

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    Dewhurst, S A; Conway, M A

    1994-09-01

    Five experiments investigated the influence of picture processing on recollective experience in recognition memory. Subjects studied items that differed in visual or imaginal detail, such as pictures versus words and high-imageability versus low-imageability words, and performed orienting tasks that directed processing either toward a stimulus as a word or toward a stimulus as a picture or image. Standard effects of imageability (e.g., the picture superiority effect and memory advantages following imagery) were obtained only in recognition judgments that featured recollective experience and were eliminated or reversed when recognition was not accompanied by recollective experience. It is proposed that conscious recollective experience in recognition memory is cued by attributes of retrieved memories such as sensory-perceptual attributes and records of cognitive operations performed at encoding.

  10. VL: a further case of erroneous recollection.

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    Craik, Fergus I M; Barense, Morgan D; Rathbone, Clare J; Grusec, Joan E; Stuss, Donald T; Gao, Fuqiang; Scott, Christopher J M; Black, Sandra E

    2014-04-01

    We report a single-case study of a female patient (VL) who exhibited frequent episodes of erroneous recollections triggered by everyday events. Based on neuropsychological testing, VL was classified as suffering from mild to moderate dementia (MMSE=18) and was given a diagnosis of probable Alzheimer׳s disease. Her memory functions were uniformly impaired but her verbal abilities were generally well preserved. A structural MRI scan showed extensive areas of gray matter atrophy particularly in frontal and medial-temporal (MTL) areas. Results of experimental recognition tests showed that VL had very high false alarm rates on tests using pictures, faces and auditory stimuli, but lower false alarm rates on verbal tests. We provide a speculative account of her erroneous recollections in terms of her MTL and frontal pathology. In outline, we suggest that owing to binding failures in MTL regions, VL׳s recognition processes were forced to rely on earlier than normal stages of analysis. Environmental features on a given recognition trial may have combined with fragments persisting from previous trials resulting in erroneous feelings of familiarity and of recollection that were not discounted or edited out, due to her impaired frontal processes. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Water-clear cell adenoma of the parathyroid. A case report with immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy.

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    Grenko, R T; Anderson, K M; Kauffman, G; Abt, A B

    1995-11-01

    We report a water-clear cell adenoma of the parathyroid gland, a lesion which to our knowledge has not been described previously. Like its rare but well-described hyperplastic counterpart, water-clear cell hyperplasia, this adenoma is composed of cells with abundant foamy-to-granular cytoplasm and mild nuclear pleomorphism. The cells form glandular structures and cell nests separated by fine fibrovascular septae. The tumor cells stain positively with anti-parathyroid hormone and show characteristic glassy and flocculate material by electron microscopy. Unlike water-clear cell hyperplasia, water-clear cell adenoma is a solitary lesion that compresses the residual nonneoplastic parathyroid gland.

  12. Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma of the eyelid: a case report with a review of the literature.

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    Singh, Gurcharan; Narasimha, Aparna; Kumar, Harendra; Datti, Narendra

    2013-04-01

    Clear cell hidradenocarcinomas are extremely rare neoplasms, with very few well-documented cases reported in the literature. The most common sites are the head and neck regions. These tumors are histologically malignant but are not always aggressive. They are known for recurrence and may metastasize widely. Treatment is wide local resection. We report on a case of clear cell hidradenocarcinoma occurring over the eyelid together with a review of the literature.

  13. Anterior crossbite correction with a series of clear removable appliances: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Tae Weon

    2009-01-01

    The Clear Aligner can be used to correct tooth movement without involving extraction, surgery, and other adjunct orthopedic appliances. The Clear Aligner is a procedure that can be performed by either an orthodontist or a general dentist without computer simulation/calculation. Since the Clear Aligner is fabricated from the stone model for new appliance at each or every other appointment, it is readily available to change the treatment sequence throughout the course of the treatment. The patient can receive any necessary dental procedures with ease during the course of the treatment. The treatment can also be easily resumed even if the patient has not worn the aligners for a period of time. The purpose of this article is to report dental anterior crossbite correction with a series of Clear Aligners. The Clear Aligner could be used as an alternative in appropriate cases for those who are reluctant with conventional appliances.

  14. Only visual impressions are almost always present in long-term memories, and reported completeness, accuracy, and verbalizability of recollections increase with age.

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    Westman, A S; Orellana, C

    1996-10-01

    In two studies, students answered questions about their earliest memories from childhood and either elementary school and high school or college and yesterday. Visual sensory impressions were present in all childhood and almost all later memories. Sound aspects were more frequent in memories from high school and college than in those from childhood. Earliest memories from yesterday almost always included internal sensations. Recollections were rated as more accurate, complete, and verbalizable as events occurred later in life. Memories from childhood, elementary, and high school were thought about, found useful, or shared equally frequently. Yesterday's events were less likely shared, but, if shared, enhanced social relationships.

  15. Clear cell urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a case report and review of the literature.

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    Knez, Virginia M; Barrow, Willis; Lucia, M Scott; Wilson, Shandra; La Rosa, Francisco G

    2014-08-14

    The occurrence of clear cell tumors in the bladder is not uncommon. Clear cell dysplasia is well-described and characterized by focal replacement of transitional mucosa by cells with abundant clear cytoplasm, nuclear enlargement, and a granular chromatin pattern. Clear cells can also be seen in clear cell adenocarcinoma, which is rare, comprising 0.5% to 2.0% of the reported bladder carcinomas. Other clear cell tumors found in the bladder to be considered in the differential diagnosis are tumors of Müllerian origin and metastatic lesions, such as renal cell carcinoma, clear cell sarcoma, and malignant melanoma. Clear cell urothelial carcinoma is exceedingly rare, with only nine clinical cases described in the literature. We report the case of a 75-year-old Caucasian man who presented with intermittent hematuria, in whom a bladder tumor was identified. A final histopathology examination of a cystoprostatectomy specimen revealed a pT3b, G3 urothelial carcinoma of clear cell type (>90% clear cells) and a prostatic adenocarcinoma of Gleason grade 3+3 (score=6). The bladder tumor consisted of sheets of malignant cells with severe nuclear atypia and abundant clear cytoplasm; no glandular or tubular structures were identified. Tumor cells were periodic acid-Schiff positive and negative after diastase treatment; additional mucicarmine and oil red O stains were negative. Immunohistochemical stains showed the tumor cells positive for cytokeratin 7 (CK7), p63 (>80% nuclei), p53 (about 30% nuclei), vimentin, E-cadherin, cluster of differentiation (CD10), and Ki-67 (>70% nuclei). Stains for cell adhesion molecule 5.2 (CAM 5.2), CD117, cytokeratin 20 (CK20), human melanoma black 45 (HMB-45), paired box protein (PAX 8), placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), prostate specific antigen (PSA), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), cancer antigen 25 (CA25), leukocyte common antigen (LC), S-100 protein, and uroplakin III were all negative. The tumor marker profile was consistent with clear

  16. Memory's aging echo: age-related decline in neural reactivation of perceptual details during recollection.

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    McDonough, Ian M; Cervantes, Sasha N; Gray, Stephen J; Gallo, David A

    2014-09-01

    Episodic memory decline is a hallmark of normal cognitive aging. Here, we report the first event-related fMRI study to directly investigate age differences in the neural reactivation of qualitatively rich perceptual details during recollection. Younger and older adults studied pictures of complex scenes at different presentation durations along with descriptive verbal labels, and these labels subsequently were used during fMRI scanning to cue picture recollections of varying perceptual detail. As expected from prior behavioral work, the two age groups subjectively rated their recollections as containing similar amounts of perceptual detail, despite objectively measured recollection impairment in older adults. In both age groups, comparisons of retrieval trials that varied in recollected detail revealed robust activity in brain regions previously linked to recollection, including hippocampus and both medial and lateral regions of the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex. Critically, this analysis also revealed recollection-related activity in visual processing regions that were active in an independent picture-perception task, and these regions showed age-related reductions in activity during recollection that cannot be attributed to age differences in response criteria. These fMRI findings provide new evidence that aging reduces the absolute quantity of perceptual details that are reactivated from memory, and they help to explain why aging reduces the reliability of subjective memory judgments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Earliest Recollections and Birth Order: Two Adlerian Exercises.

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    Parrott, Les

    1992-01-01

    Presents two exercises designed to demonstrate the influence of two Adlerian principles on personality. Includes exercises dealing with birth order and earliest recollection. Concludes that the exercises actively demonstrate major concepts for counseling courses in Adlerian psychotherapy. Reports that students rated both exercises highly, with…

  18. Primary clear cell carcinoma of parotid gland: Case report and review of literature.

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    Rodríguez, Marta Saldaña; Reija, Maria Fe García; Rodilla, Irene González

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is a rare low-grade carcinoma that represents only 1% to 2% of all salivary glands tumors. The finding of a clear cell tumor in a parotid gland involves the necessity of differential diagnosis between primary clear cell parotid tumors and metastases, mainly from kidney. The biological behavior is not very aggressive and development, which is very slow, is usually asymptomatic and indeed, the tumor often reaches considerable dimensions before being diagnosed. The treatment of choice is the surgical excision. There are rare cases of local recurrence and distant metastases. The aim of this article is to report a primary CCC in the parotid gland that microscopically closely resembled a metastatic CCC of renal origin, making microscopic differentiation difficult.

  19. Aristotle on Memory and Recollection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian

    Twentieth-century scholarship on Aristotle's De Memoria et Reminiscentia was dominated by the view that Aristotle's theories of memory and recollection are basically very similar to ours. By means of a new critical edition of the Greek text, an essay on Aristotle's own theories and an essay...... on these theories as they were received in the Latin West, the present book offers material that challenges the opinio communis. The result is a new interpretation of Aristotle's De Memoria et Reminiscentia and its relevance to the concerns of 21st-century philosophers, both regarding the concepts of memory...

  20. Effect of study context on item recollection.

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    Skinner, Erin I; Fernandes, Myra A

    2010-07-01

    We examined how visual context information provided during encoding, and unrelated to the target word, affected later recollection for words presented alone using a remember-know paradigm. Experiments 1A and 1B showed that participants had better overall memory-specifically, recollection-for words studied with pictures of intact faces than for words studied with pictures of scrambled or inverted faces. Experiment 2 replicated these results and showed that recollection was higher for words studied with pictures of faces than when no image accompanied the study word. In Experiment 3 participants showed equivalent memory for words studied with unique faces as for those studied with a repeatedly presented face. Results suggest that recollection benefits when visual context information high in meaningful content accompanies study words and that this benefit is not related to the uniqueness of the context. We suggest that participants use elaborative processes to integrate item and meaningful contexts into ensemble information, improving subsequent item recollection.

  1. Primary clear cell ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas: A case report and clinicopathologic literature review

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    Yashpal Modi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a very rare, interesting case of a carcinoma of the pancreas with predominantly abundant clear cell morphology. According to the WHO classification, primary clear cell carcinoma of the pancreas is classified as a rare "miscellaneous" carcinoma. The tumor was observed in the distal body and tail of the pancreas of a 74-year-old woman. The histopathology of tumor cells showed well-defined cell membranes, clear cytoplasm, and prominent cell boundaries. Immunohistochemical (IHC staining showed positive reactions to antibodies against vimentin, cytokeratin 7 (CK-7, mucicarmine (MUC-1, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS, periodic acid-Schiff with diastase (PASD, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, and Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9. On the other hand, IHC staining was negative for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, cytokeratin 20 (CK-20, HMB45, chromogranin, and synaptophysin. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with a primary solid-type pancreatic clear cell carcinoma with hepatic metastasis. Herein, we report this rare case and include a review of the current literature of this tumor.

  2. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the ulterine cervix in a 15 year old girl: A case report

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    Choi, Seung Joon; Kim, Jee Eun; KIm, Hyung Sik; Choi, Hye Young

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is rare in the pediatric population. In cases of cervical cancer, adenocarcinoma is predominantly reported. Clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCAC) of the uterine cervix is a very rare tumor and accounts for only 4% of all adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix. Risk factors and pathogenesis of this disease are not exactly revealed. The intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) and associated non-steroidal estrogen during pregnancy before 18 weeks is the only known risk factor. This study reports the imaging finding of primary uterine cervical tumor in a 15-year-old girl, who was finally diagnosed with CCAC, with no maternal history of DES exposure in utero.

  3. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the ulterine cervix in a 15 year old girl: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Joon; Kim, Jee Eun; KIm, Hyung Sik; Choi, Hye Young [Dept. of Radiology, Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Cervical cancer is rare in the pediatric population. In cases of cervical cancer, adenocarcinoma is predominantly reported. Clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCAC) of the uterine cervix is a very rare tumor and accounts for only 4% of all adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix. Risk factors and pathogenesis of this disease are not exactly revealed. The intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) and associated non-steroidal estrogen during pregnancy before 18 weeks is the only known risk factor. This study reports the imaging finding of primary uterine cervical tumor in a 15-year-old girl, who was finally diagnosed with CCAC, with no maternal history of DES exposure in utero.

  4. The combined use of corticotomy and clear aligners: A case report.

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    Cassetta, Michele; Altieri, Federica; Barbato, Ersilia

    2016-09-01

    To describe an orthodontic treatment that combines an esthetic approach (clear aligners) with surgery (alveolar corticotomy). A patient with moderate dental crowding and Class I skeletal and molar relationships was selected. Orthodontic records of the patient were taken. Periodontal indexes, oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), and treatment time were evaluated. After we reflected a full-thickness flap beyond the teeth apices, the cortical bone was exposed on the buccal aspect and a modified corticotomy procedure was performed. Interproximal corticotomy cuts were extended through the entire thickness of the cortical layer, just barely penetrating into medullary bone. Orthodontic force was applied on the teeth immediately after surgery. Total treatment time was 2 months. Periodontal indexes were improved after correction of crowding. A deterioration of OHRQoL was limited to 3 days following surgery. This case report may encourage the use, limited to selected cases, of corticotomy associated with clear aligners to treat moderate crowding.

  5. Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma--a case report with unusual in situ malignant changes.

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    Al-Irhayim, B

    1984-05-01

    Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma is a rare tumour, the histogenesis of which has been much debated in the past. However, it is now considered a tumour of sweat gland origin. Presented herewith is a report of a case with unusual histological features of in situ malignant changes within sweat glands. These changes very closely simulate lobular cancerisation of the breast. On reviewing the English literature on the histopathology of sweat gland tumours, we have not found similar histological findings. These histological findings provide supportive evidence of the sweat gland origin of these tumours.

  6. A clear cell adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder with hepatoid differentiation: case report and review of literature

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    Zhang C

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chengsheng Zhang,1,2 Wei Zhang,1,2 Dianbin Mu,1 Xuetao Shi,1 Lei Zhao1,2 1Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Shandong Cancer Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, Shandong Academy of Medical Science, 2School of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: An 80-year-old male was referred to our department for a gallbladder mass. He denied any history of alcohol consumption or cholecystitis and smoking. Hepatitis B surface antigen test and antihepatitis C antibody test were found to be negative. Serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen were elevated (CA19-9 was 59.92 U/mL and carcinoembryonic antigen was 12.64 ng/mL, whereas alpha-fetoprotein was below the normal limit (2.46 ng/mL. Computed tomography scan revealed a solid mass with measurements of 4.6×5.6×7.1 cm, which nearly filled the whole gallbladder space. Radical cholecystectomy, including segments IV B and V of the liver and lymphadenectomy, was performed. The neoplasm in gallbladder was completely resected, and the patient obtained a negative margin. Histological and immunohistochemical profile suggested a clear cell adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder with hepatoid differentiation. After reviewing the literature, we reported that this case is the first identified case of cell adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder with extensive hepatoid differentiation. However, clinical features of clear cell adenocarcinoma with hepatoid differentiation remain unclear due to the extremely rare incidence. There was no indication of adjuvant chemotherapy and no literature has been reported on the application of chemotherapy. This case showed a promising clinical outcome after curative resection, which indicated that surgical treatment could be potentially considered for suitable patients. Keywords: gallbladder, clear cell adenocarcinoma, hepatoid differentiation 

  7. Lynch Syndrome-Related Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix: A Case Report

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    Nakamura, Kohei; Nakayama, Kentaro; Minamoto, Toshiko; Ishibashi, Tomoka; Ohnishi, Kaori; Yamashita, Hitomi; Ono, Ruriko; Sasamori, Hiroki; Razia, Sultana; Hossain, Mohammad Mahmud; Kamrunnahar, Shanta; Ishikawa, Masako; Ishikawa, Noriyoshi; Kyo, Satoru

    2018-01-01

    Lynch syndrome, a hereditary cancer syndrome, occurs because of germline mutations in at least one of four DNA mismatch repair genes (MutL Homolog 1 (MLH1), MutS Homolog 2 (MSH2), MutS Homolog 6 (MSH6), and PMS1 Homolog 2 (PMS2)). The disorder is associated with colorectal, endometrial, and other epithelial malignancies, but not cervical cancer. We report a woman with Lynch syndrome with synchronous cervical cancer. This is the first report of Lynch syndrome-related clear cell carcinoma of the cervix, which indicates the possibility of an association between cervical cancer and Lynch syndrome. Suitable genetic tests are required to determine whether common genetics can account for synchronous or subsequent malignancies in Lynch syndrome patients and their families. Such knowledge will also enhance our understanding of the genetic mechanisms governing the development of apparently unrelated cancers. PMID:29587389

  8. Lynch Syndrome-Related Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix: A Case Report

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    Kohei Nakamura

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lynch syndrome, a hereditary cancer syndrome, occurs because of germline mutations in at least one of four DNA mismatch repair genes (MutL Homolog 1 (MLH1, MutS Homolog 2 (MSH2, MutS Homolog 6 (MSH6, and PMS1 Homolog 2 (PMS2. The disorder is associated with colorectal, endometrial, and other epithelial malignancies, but not cervical cancer. We report a woman with Lynch syndrome with synchronous cervical cancer. This is the first report of Lynch syndrome-related clear cell carcinoma of the cervix, which indicates the possibility of an association between cervical cancer and Lynch syndrome. Suitable genetic tests are required to determine whether common genetics can account for synchronous or subsequent malignancies in Lynch syndrome patients and their families. Such knowledge will also enhance our understanding of the genetic mechanisms governing the development of apparently unrelated cancers.

  9. Lynch Syndrome-Related Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kohei; Nakayama, Kentaro; Minamoto, Toshiko; Ishibashi, Tomoka; Ohnishi, Kaori; Yamashita, Hitomi; Ono, Ruriko; Sasamori, Hiroki; Razia, Sultana; Hossain, Mohammad Mahmud; Kamrunnahar, Shanta; Ishikawa, Masako; Ishikawa, Noriyoshi; Kyo, Satoru

    2018-03-25

    Lynch syndrome, a hereditary cancer syndrome, occurs because of germline mutations in at least one of four DNA mismatch repair genes (MutL Homolog 1 ( MLH1 ), MutS Homolog 2 ( MSH2 ), MutS Homolog 6 ( MSH6 ), and PMS1 Homolog 2 ( PMS2 )). The disorder is associated with colorectal, endometrial, and other epithelial malignancies, but not cervical cancer. We report a woman with Lynch syndrome with synchronous cervical cancer. This is the first report of Lynch syndrome-related clear cell carcinoma of the cervix, which indicates the possibility of an association between cervical cancer and Lynch syndrome. Suitable genetic tests are required to determine whether common genetics can account for synchronous or subsequent malignancies in Lynch syndrome patients and their families. Such knowledge will also enhance our understanding of the genetic mechanisms governing the development of apparently unrelated cancers.

  10. Adenoma clear cell carcinoma of prostatic utricle. Report of a case. Literature Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldi, S.; Castillo, L.; Rodrígue, R.

    2004-01-01

    The prostatic utricle (UP) is a rudimentary structure derived from the Müllerian ducts (paramesonephric), which gives rise to the female genital tract in its portion flow and Wollfianos products (mesonephric), which causes the male seminal tubes urogenital sinus and in the caudal segment. It is located in the central portion of the prostatic urethra. UP pathology is rare in the literature and only few isolated cases have been reported and rare reviews. UP neoplasms are extremely rare. The first report on the literature is the year 1967 in a man 66 years in which the diagnosis was incidental in a piece of prostatectomy. Objective: The aim of this paper is to review the literature on this rare condition from the report of a clinical case. Case report: Male patient, 15 years who presented with hematuria. the tomography showed right renal agenesis, hypertrophic left kidney and a solid mass retrovesical in prostate topography. The transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy remains informed embryonic kidney blastoma and immunohistochemical profile is specific to urothelial epithelium and glomerular (BPM CK7 strongly positive). It is involved, resecting the tumor whose pelvic pathology (AP) corresponded to clear cell adenocarcinoma UP. Pursuing a post-operative complications and remains without clinical tomographic control locoregional relapse was diagnosed 5 months after. Get chemotherapy type adriamycin-cisplatin with complete clinical response after the 2nd cycle of treatment and rapid lesion progression at the end of the 6th cycle. Was re hospitalized resecting one laterovesical mass right, leaving in situ a left laterovesical similar mass. the AP was similar to the original. Currently, the patient underwent a left nephrostomy is planned initiation of palliative chemotherapy of weekly Docetaxel type. Conclusions: Given the rarity of the disease, and little literature there is no data on evolution and sensitivity to treatment. In the case of this patient highlight the high

  11. The electrophysiological correlates of recent and remote recollection.

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    Roberts, J S; Tsivilis, D; Mayes, A R

    2013-09-01

    Research using event related potentials (ERPs) to explore recognition memory has linked late parietal old/new effects to the recollection of episodic information. In the vast majority of these studies, the retrieval phase immediately follows encoding and consequently, very little is known about the ERP correlates of long term recollection. This is despite the fact that in other areas of the memory literature there is considerable interest in consolidation theories and the way episodic memory changes over time. The present study explored the idea that consolidation and forgetting processes operating over a moderate retention interval can alter the ERP markers of recollection memory. A remember/know test probed memory for stimuli studied either 15 minutes (recent memory) or 1 week (remote memory) prior to the test phase. Results revealed an attenuated late parietal effect for remote compared to recent remember responses, a finding that remained significant even when these recognition judgments were matched for reaction time. Experiments 2a and 2b identified characteristic differences between recent and remote recognition at the behavioural level. The 1 week delay produced an overall decline in recognition confidence and a dramatic loss of episodic detail. These behavioural changes are thought to underlie the ERP effects reported in the first experiment. The results highlight that although the neural basis of memory may exhibit significant changes as the length of the retention interval increases, it is important to consider the extent to which this is a direct effect of time or an indirect effect due to changes in memory quality, such as the amount of detail that can be recollected. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The sensorimotor contributions to implicit memory, familiarity, and recollection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolinski, Sascha

    2012-05-01

    The sensorimotor contributions to memory for prior occurrence were investigated. Previous research has shown that both implicit memory and familiarity draw on gains in stimulus-related processing fluency for old, compared with novel, stimuli, but recollection does not. Recently, it has been demonstrated that processing fluency itself resides in stimulus-specific motor simulations or reenactment (e.g., covert pronouncing simulations for words as stimuli). Combining these lines of evidence, it was predicted that stimulus-specific motor interference preventing simulations should impair both implicit memory and familiarity but leave recollection unaffected. This was tested for words as verbal stimuli associated to pronouncing simulations in the oral muscle system (but also for tunes as vocal stimuli and their associated vocal system, Experiment 2). It was found that oral (e.g., chewing gum), compared with manual (kneading a ball), motor interference prevented mere exposure effects (Experiments 1-2), substantially reduced repetition priming in word fragment completion (Experiment 3), reduced the familiarity estimates in a remember-know task (Experiment 5) and in receiver-operating characteristics (Experiment 6), and completely neutralized familiarity measured by self-reports (Experiment 4) and skin conductance responses (Experiment 7), while leaving recollection and free recall unaffected (across Experiments 1-7). This pattern establishes a rare memory dissociation in healthy participants, that is, explicit without implicit memory or recognizing without feeling familiar. Implications for embodied memory and neuropsychology are discussed.

  13. Veterinary Students' Recollection Methods for Surgical Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebaek, Rikke; Tanggaard, Lene; Berendt, Mette

    2016-01-01

    When veterinary students face their first live animal surgeries, their level of anxiety is generally high and this can affect their ability to recall the procedure they are about to undertake. Multimodal teaching methods have previously been shown to enhance learning and facilitate recall; however......, student preferences for recollection methods when translating theory into practice have not been documented. The aim of this study was to investigate veterinary students' experience with recollection of a surgical procedure they were about to perform after using multiple methods for preparation. From...... a group of 171 veterinary students enrolled in a basic surgery course, 26 students were randomly selected to participate in semi-structured interviews. Results showed that 58% of the students used a visual, dynamic method of recollection, mentally visualizing the video they had watched as part...

  14. Clear-cell chondrosarcoma of the maxilla Report of a case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootweg, P.J.

    Clear-cell chondrosarcoma is a variant of chondrosarcoma which is characterized by a typical histomorphology and a very slow rate of growth. A case is presented in which the tumor was located in the maxilla.

  15. Clear-cell variant urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Tezval

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell variants of transitional cell carcinomas (TCC of the bladder are extremely rare tumors. Only 6 cases have been reported until now. We report of a 67 year old man who presented with fast growing tumor disease. While initial diagnosis showed localized bladder tumor, final histopathology revealed pT4, G3, L1 urothelial carcinoma with clear cell differentiation. No more than 14 weeks after initial diagnosis the patient died from multi-organ failure after unsuccessful salvage laparotomy which showed massive tumor burden within the pelvis and peritoneal carcinosis. This case demonstrated an extremely fast tumor growth. Therefore, patients with clear cell urothelial carcinoma should be treated vigorously and without time delay. We present a case of clear cell variant of TCC which exhibited an extremely aggressive behavior. To our knowledge this is the fifth report of this rare disease.

  16. Recollection and Familiarity in Recognition Memory: Evidence from ROC Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, Andrew; Raymond, Frances; Dunn, John

    2006-01-01

    Does recognition memory rely on discrete recollection, continuous evidence, or both? Is continuous evidence sensitive to only the recency and duration of study (familiarity), or is it also sensitive to details of the study episode? Dual process theories assume recognition is based on recollection and familiarity, with only recollection providing…

  17. Sexual experiences in childhood: young adults' recollections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, IngBeth; Svedin, Carl-Göran

    2002-06-01

    Childhood sexuality and children's sexual experiences have become increasingly important to study because our knowledge on the impact of sexually abusive experiences on children's developing sexuality has increased. The main aim of this paper was to study aspects of young adults' recollections of their sexual experiences before the age of 13, solitary and shared, mutual as well as coercive. Anonymous questionnaires were answered by 269 final year, senior high-school students, mean age 18.6 years; 82.9% of the students reported solitary sexual experiences and 82.5% had mutual experiences together with another child. Most of the children had their experiences together with a same-age friend. Girls had more same-sex experiences than boys did. Thirteen percent reported coercive experiences where they had been tricked, bribed, threatened, or physically forced into participation. Some children, 8.2%, had coerced another child into participation in sexual activities. The majority thought of their childhood experiences as normal. There were also 6.3% of the respondents who had had inappropriate sexual experiences with someone at least 5 years older, the majority being girls. Gender differences were evident in several respects: girls were more often coerced, they felt more guilt, and they had far less experience of masturbation, whereas boys were somewhat more active in explorative activities on their own as well as with peers. Some kind of coercive sexual experiences appears to be part of growing up for quite a few children, although in general the years before puberty seem to be years of frequent mutual sexual exploration and experimentation.

  18. Process dissociation of familiarity and recollection in children: response deadline affects recollection but not familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Laura; Wimmer, Marina C; Hollins, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    According to dual-process theories, recollection (slow and associated with contextual details) and familiarity (fast and automatic) are two independent processes underlying recognition memory. An adapted version of the process dissociation paradigm was used to measure recognition memory in 5-, 7-, and 11-year-olds and adults. In Experiment 1, it was found that 5-year-olds already recollect details of items (i.e., number). Recollection increased particularly between 5 and 7 years. Familiarity differed between 5 years and adulthood. In Experiment 2, under limited response time during retrieval, recollection was eliminated in 5-year-olds and reduced across all ages, whereas familiarity was left unaffected. Together, these findings are consistent with dual-process theories of recognition memory and provide support for two processes underlying recognition memory from a developmental perspective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A case report of the clear cell variant of gallbladder carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Ravi; Cave, Christo; Sarran, Kevin; Bascombe, Nigel; Dan, Dilip; Greaves, Wesley; Warner, Wayne A

    2017-01-01

    Clear cell gallbladder carcinoma accounts for less than 1% of all gallbladder malignancies and demonstrates its unique histopathological characteristics in patients with no prior medical illness or familial predisposition. Here we present a case of a 56-year-old female, with no prior medical conditions presented with a 2-month history of upper abdominal pain. Routine hematological and biochemical tests were unremarkable. An abdominal ultrasound revealed the presence of a gallbladder calculi, and a fundic mass while magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed a 8.0cm×3.5cm gallbladder mass. Computed tomography imaging excluded any distant haematogenous metastases. An open cholecystectomy with lymphadenectomy was proceeded by staging laparoscopy. Upon pathologic investigation, the morphologic and immunophenotypic features supported a diagnosis of clear cell variant of gallbladder carcinoma. Pathological prognostications for primary clear cell gall bladder carcinomas are not well defined due to the rarity of cases and possible misidentification as secondary metastases. Foci of adenocarcinoma within the tumor along with immunohistochemical staining probes can be informative in consideration of differential diagnosis. In these cases, clinical case management should be personalized for increased survival with the possible incorporation of next generation sequencing approaches to guide therapeutic algorithms. We discuss this exceedingly rare case of the clear cell variant of gallbladder carcinoma in detail, highlighting some of the diagnostic, and clinical challenges. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. A case report of the clear cell variant of gallbladder carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Maharaj

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: In these cases, clinical case management should be personalized for increased survival with the possible incorporation of next generation sequencing approaches to guide therapeutic algorithms. We discuss this exceedingly rare case of the clear cell variant of gallbladder carcinoma in detail, highlighting some of the diagnostic, and clinical challenges.

  1. Early Recollections of First-Borns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakouri, M. Ebrahim; Hafner, James L.

    1984-01-01

    Compared the early recollections of 50 first-borns and 98 later-borns. The first-borns mentioned significantly more nonfamily members, illness/injury, hospital/doctor's office. Later-borns mentioned significantly more siblings than did first-borns. Findings were discussed in the context of Adler's personality theory. (JAC)

  2. Sleep Enhances Explicit Recollection in Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosopoulos, Spyridon; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Recognition memory is considered to be supported by two different memory processes, i.e., the explicit recollection of information about a previous event and an implicit process of recognition based on a contextual sense of familiarity. Both types of memory supposedly rely on distinct memory systems. Sleep is known to enhance the consolidation of…

  3. The effect of cue media on recollections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoven, van den E.A.W.H.; Eggen, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    External cognition concerns knowledge that is embedded in our everyday lives and environment. One type of knowledge is memories, recollections of events that occurred in the past. So how do we remember them? One way this can be done is through cuing and reconstructing. These cues can be internal, in

  4. Only "efficient" emotional stimuli affect the content of working memory during free-recollection from natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttafuoco, Arianna; Pedale, Tiziana; Buchanan, Tony W; Santangelo, Valerio

    2018-02-01

    Emotional events are thought to have privileged access to attention and memory, consuming resources needed to encode competing emotionally neutral stimuli. However, it is not clear whether this detrimental effect is automatic or depends on the successful maintenance of the specific emotional object within working memory. Here, participants viewed everyday scenes including an emotional object among other neutral objects followed by a free-recollection task. Results showed that emotional objects-irrespective of their perceptual saliency-were recollected more often than neutral objects. The probability of being recollected increased as a function of the arousal of the emotional objects, specifically for negative objects. Successful recollection of emotional objects (positive or negative) from a scene reduced the overall number of recollected neutral objects from the same scene. This indicates that only emotional stimuli that are efficient in grabbing (and then consuming) available attentional resources play a crucial role during the encoding of competing information, with a subsequent bias in the recollection of neutral representations.

  5. Clear cell carcinoma of female urethral diverticulum—A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ching Weng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary malignancies of female urethral diverticulum are rare. A well-documented female patient with primary clear cell carcinoma of the urethral diverticulum is presented here. A 65-year-old woman presented with frequency and voiding difficulty for 2 months. Physical examination showed a 4-cm mass protruding from anterior vaginal wall. Intravenous urography, magnetic resonance imaging, and cystoscopy showed a polypoid mass in urethral diverticulum. She then underwent anterior exenteration with ileal conduit diversion and urethrectomy. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of clear cell adenocarcinoma with bladder neck invasion. She had no disease recurrence at 2-year follow-up. Careful clinical examination and image studies are helpful in making the preoperative diagnosis for the rare disease. Early radical surgery can achieve better survival.

  6. The recollective qualities of adolescents' and adults' narratives about a long-ago tornado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J; Stark, Emily N; Ackil, Jennifer K; Larkina, Marina; Merrill, Natalie; Fivush, Robyn

    2017-03-01

    The recollective qualities of autobiographical memory are thought to develop over the course of the first two decades of life. We used a 9-year follow-up test of recall of a devastating tornado and of non-tornado-related events from before and after the storm, to compare the recollective qualities of adolescents' (n = 20, ages 11 years, 11 months to 20 years, 8 months) and adults' (n = 14) autobiographical memories. At the time of the tornado, half of the adolescents had been younger than age 6. Nine years after the event, all participants provided evidence that they recall the event of the tornado. Adults also had high levels of recall of the non-tornado-related events. Adolescents recalled proportionally fewer non-tornado-related events; adolescents younger than 6 at the time of the events recalled the fewest non-tornado-related events. Relative to adolescents, adults produced longer narratives. With narrative length controlled, there were few differences in the recollective qualities of adolescents' and adults' narrative reports, especially in the case of the tornado; the recollective qualities were stronger among adolescents older at the time of the events. Overall, participants in both age groups provided evidence of the qualities of recollection that are characteristic of autobiographical memory.

  7. Alpha-fetoprotein-producing ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma with fetal gut differentiation: a rare case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Wei-Ting; Liu, Chia-Hao; Lai, Chiung-Ru; Chen, Yi-Jen; Chuang, Chi-Mu; Wang, Peng-Hui

    2018-06-22

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a useful tumor marker for ovarian germ cell tumors, particularly yolk sac tumor (YST). It is valuable for both diagnosis and further follow-up. Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) rarely secretes AFP, especially for clear cell type and in the postmenopausal women. Based on the limited knowledge about AFP-producing clear cell type EOC, a case and literature review on this topic is extensively reviewed. We report a 55-year-old postmenopausal woman experienced vaginal spotting for one month, and serum level of AFP was 60,721 ng/ml initially. Histological examination was clear cell type EOC. Tumor cells revealed strong immunoreactivity for glypican-3 (GPC3) and AFP and weak for hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 beta (HNF-1 beta), but negative for CD30, making the diagnosis of AFP-producing clear cell type EOC with fetal gut differentiation in focal areas, FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) IIIc. Although the patient underwent an intensive treatment, including optimal debulking surgery and multi-agent chemotherapy, the patient died of disease. To provide a better understanding of clinical and molecular characteristics of the AFP-producing clear cell type EOC, we conducted a systematic literature review. A total of three papers described the AFP-producing clear cell type EOC are available. The overall survival rate of these cases, including the current case is 50%. Although immunohistochemical examination is not always needed in routine for the diagnosis of clear cell type EOC, to distinguish from other tumors, especially germ cell tumors, or to provide the better way to monitor therapeutic response or to evaluate the disease status, immunostaining, including GPC3, HNF-1 beta, CD30, cytokeratin 7 or 20, and AFP is taken into account. Due to rarity, the appropriate chemotherapy regimen and the biological behavior of AFP-producing clear cell type EOC are still unclear.

  8. Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma of the ear helix: report of primary ear helix adnexal carcinoma with regional lymph node metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Tae Hui; Kang, Shin Hyuk; Kim, Han Koo; Kim, Woo Seob; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2014-07-01

    Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma is a rare tumor of eccrine sweat gland origin that has a predilection for the head and neck. It has an indolent growth pattern and a higher incidence of regional and distant metastases. Metastasizing adnexal carcinomas are rare; thus, currently there is no uniform treatment guideline. We report a case of an 89-year-old female patient with clear cell hidradenocarcinoma manifesting in the right ear helix that metastasized to the right parotid gland who was treated by wide local excision and radiation therapy.

  9. Familiarity and recollection in heuristic decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwikert, Shane R; Curran, Tim

    2014-12-01

    Heuristics involve the ability to utilize memory to make quick judgments by exploiting fundamental cognitive abilities. In the current study we investigated the memory processes that contribute to the recognition heuristic and the fluency heuristic, which are both presumed to capitalize on the byproducts of memory to make quick decisions. In Experiment 1, we used a city-size comparison task while recording event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the potential contributions of familiarity and recollection to the 2 heuristics. ERPs were markedly different for recognition heuristic-based decisions and fluency heuristic-based decisions, suggesting a role for familiarity in the recognition heuristic and recollection in the fluency heuristic. In Experiment 2, we coupled the same city-size comparison task with measures of subjective preexperimental memory for each stimulus in the task. Although previous literature suggests the fluency heuristic relies on recognition speed alone, our results suggest differential contributions of recognition speed and recollected knowledge to these decisions, whereas the recognition heuristic relies on familiarity. Based on these results, we created a new theoretical framework that explains decisions attributed to both heuristics based on the underlying memory associated with the choice options. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Primary renal carcinoid tumor mimicking non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Lee Hi; Kim, See Hyung; Kim, Mi Jeong; Choe, Mi Sun [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Carcinoid tumors are neoplasms with neuroendocrine differentiation, and they are most commonly found in the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. Primary renal carcinoid tumor has rarely been reported. Here, we present a case of primary renal carcinoid tumor manifesting as a small but a gradually enhancing mass with calcification and a cystic component.

  11. Clear retainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyakorn Chaimongkol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A clear retainer is a removable retainer that is popular in the present day. Compared with conventional fixed and removable orthodontic retainers, it is a more esthetic, comfortable, and inexpensive appliance. Although several studies have been published about clear retainers, it could be difficult to interpret the results because of the variety of study designs, sample sizes, and research methods. This article is intended to compile the content from previous studies and discuss advantages, disadvantages, fabrication, insertion, and adjustment. Moreover, the effectiveness in maintaining dental position, occlusion, retention protocols, thickness, and survival rate of clear retainers is discussed.

  12. [Graphic synopsis of implementation of German guideline clearing reports in national disease management guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thole, Henning

    2011-01-01

    While methods for the production of guidelines (evidence analysis, assessment, adaptation) have been continually refined throughout the past years, there is a lack of instruments for the production of easily understandable synopses. Definition of a methodological approach to encompass synopses by Spidernet diagrams. Tables of synopses can be generated with distinct information to bring down the main results in one Spidernet diagram. This is possible for both the entire synopsis and parts of it. Guideline comparisons require detailed analyses on the one hand and easily understandable presentations of their results on the other. Guideline synopses can be substantially supported by graphic presentation of the results of synopsis. Graphic synopsis is also helpful in other cases; it may be used, for example, to summarise HTA reports, systematic reviews or guidelines. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  13. Correction of severe tooth rotations using clear aligners: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frongia, Gianluigi; Castroflorio, Tommaso

    2012-11-01

    The present adult patient case report shows the correction of a crossbite malocclusion and severe tooth rotations treated with the Invisalign system. A 27-year-old female with a dental crossbite (24, 34), severe rotations of two lower incisors (more than 40 degrees) and malalignment of the upper and lower arches is described. The Invisalign system was treatment planned to correct the malocclusion. The treatment goals of crossbite, rotation and malalignment correction were achieved after 12 months of active aligner therapy. The overbite improved (2.5 mm before treatment, 1 mm at the end); the dental crossbite, the crowding and the severe tooth rotations (with a mean of 2 degrees of improvement per aligner) were corrected. After treatment, the dental alignment was considered excellent. The presented case indicates that the Invisalign system can be a useful appliance to correct a dental malocclusion involving severe rotations.

  14. Clear cell carcinoma of the uterine corpus following irradiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix; A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwaoki, Yasuhisa; Katsube, Yasuhiro (Kure Kyosai Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)); Nanba, Koji

    1992-01-01

    A case of clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium following squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix is reported. The patient had had a previous cervical biopsy which revealed squamous cell carcinoma (large cell non-keratinizing type), classified clinically as a stage IIb lesion. She was treated with external pelvic irradiation delivering an estimated tumor dose of approximately 7,000 rads and intracavital radium application delivering 4,995 mg.hr.radiation when she was 51 years old. She complained of post-menopausal bleeding at age 66 and was diagnosed by endometrial cytology as having clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and omentectomy were performed. The clinical stage of the endometrial cancer was Ib. She is alive after 2 years with no evidence of disease. Endometrial cytology revealed several adenocarcinoma cells in small clusters. The shape of the nuclei was somewhat irregular, the chromatin pattern was fine granular, and single or multiple nucleoli were seen. The diameter of these nuclei ranged from 10 to 30 {mu}m. The cytoplasm was pale green or vacuolated. The volume of the cytoplasm varied from scanty to abundant. These findings suggested clear cell carcinoma. Histopathologically, an irregular shaped polypoid tumor, 3 x 1.5 cm in size, was located on the lower anterior wall of the uterine corpus. The tumor was a clear cell carcinoma showing a solid and papillary pattern. A hobnail pattern was not observed. The cytoplasm was clear and abundant, and PAS-positive granules digestible by diastase were seen. These 2 cancers had different pathological features and their immunohistochemical reactivities for CEA and keratin were also different. The patient was regarded as having a rare heterochronous double cancer consisting of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium. (author).

  15. The effect of focal cortical frontal and posterior lesions on recollection and familiarity in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenova, Vessela; Gao, Fuqiang; Black, Sandra E; Schwartz, Michael L; Kovacevic, Natasha; Alexander, Michael P; Levine, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Recognition memory can be subdivided into two processes: recollection (a contextually rich memory) and familiarity (a sense that an item is old). The brain network supporting recognition encompasses frontal, parietal and medial temporal regions. Which specific regions within the frontal lobe are critical for recollection vs. familiarity, however, are unknown; past studies of focal lesion patients have yielded conflicting results. We examined patients with focal lesions confined to medial polar (MP), right dorsal frontal (RDF), right frontotemporal (RFT), left dorsal frontal (LDF), temporal, and parietal regions and matched controls. A series of words and their humorous definitions were presented either auditorily or visually to all participants. Recall, recognition, and source memory were tested at 30 min and 24 h delay, along with "remember/know" judgments for recognized items. The MP, RDF, temporal and parietal groups were impaired on subjectively reported recollection; their intact recognition performance was supported by familiarity. None of the groups were impaired on cued recall, recognition familiarity or source memory. These findings suggest that the MP and RDF regions, along with parietal and temporal regions, are necessary for subjectively-reported recollection, while the LDF and right frontal ventral regions, as those affected in the RTF group, are not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. How to bet on a memory: developmental linkages between subjective recollection and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembacher, Emily; Ghetti, Simona

    2013-07-01

    The current study investigated the development of subjective recollection and its role in supporting decisions in 6- and 7-year-olds, 9- and 10-year-olds, and adults (N=78). Participants encoded items and details about them. Later, they were asked to recognize the items, recall the details, and report on subjective feelings of recollection and familiarity for test items. Critically, they were required to select a subset of trials to be evaluated for the possibility of a reward. All age groups were more likely to report subjective recollection when they accurately recalled details, demonstrating an ability to introspect on subtle differences in subjective memory states, although 6- and 7-year-olds could do so reliably only for color details. However, only 9- and 10-year-olds and adults were more likely to select trials that were associated with subjective recollection, suggesting that a connection between this subjective experience and decision making emerges later during middle childhood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Perceptual salience affects the contents of working memory during free-recollection of objects from natural scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana ePedale

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in the study of cognition is to understand which are the factors determining internal representation of the external world. Previous literature has started to highlight the impact of low-level sensory features (indexed by saliency-maps in driving attention selection, hence increasing the probability for objects presented in complex and natural scenes to be successfully encoded into working memory(WM and then correctly remembered. Here we asked whether the probability of retrieving high-saliency objects modulates the overall contents of WM, by decreasing the probability of retrieving other, lower-saliency objects. We presented pictures of natural scenes for 4 secs. After a retention period of 8 secs, we asked participants to verbally report as many objects/details as possible of the previous scenes. We then computed how many times the objects located at either the peak of maximal or minimal saliency in the scene (as indexed by a saliency-map; Itti et al., 1998 were recollected by participants. Results showed that maximal-saliency objects were recollected more often and earlier in the stream of successfully reported items than minimal-saliency objects. This indicates that bottom-up sensory salience increases the recollection probability and facilitates the access to memory representation at retrieval, respectively. Moreover, recollection of the maximal- (but not the minimal- saliency objects predicted the overall amount of successfully recollected objects: The higher the probability of having successfully reported the most-salient object in the scene, the lower the amount of recollected objects. These findings highlight that bottom-up sensory saliency modulates the current contents of WM during recollection of objects from natural scenes, most likely by reducing available resources to encode and then retrieve other (lower saliency objects.

  18. Motivated Memories: Effects of Reward and Recollection in the Core Recollection Network and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elward, Rachael L.; Vilberg, Kaia L.; Rugg, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    fMRI was employed to assess whether the neural correlates of accurate source memory are modulated by the reward value of recollected information. Study items comprised pictures of objects, each paired with a depiction of 1 of 2 coins. The reward value of the coins ($2.00 vs. $0.02) was disclosed after study. At test, a source memory procedure was employed in which subjects discriminated between studied and unstudied objects and, for objects judged studied, indicated the identity of the coin paired with the object at study. Correct judgments earned a reward corresponding to the value of the coin, whereas incorrect judgments were penalized. No regions were identified where the magnitude of recollection effects was modulated by reward. Exclusive effects of source accuracy were evident in the hippocampus. Different striatal sub-regions demonstrated exclusive recollection effects, exclusive reward effects, and overlap between the 2 effects. The left angular gyrus and medial prefrontal cortex were additively responsive to source accuracy and the reward. The findings suggest that reward value and recollection success are conjointly but independently represented in at least 2 cortical regions and that striatal retrieval success effects cannot be accounted for in terms of a single construct, such as goal satisfaction. PMID:24872520

  19. Could Masked Conceptual Primes Increase Recollection? The Subtleties of Measuring Recollection and Familiarity in Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jason R.; Henson, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    We begin with a theoretical overview of the concepts of recollection and familiarity, focusing, in the spirit of this special issue, on the important contributions made by Andrew Mayes. In particular, we discuss the issue of when the generation of semantically-related information in response to a retrieval cue might be experienced as recollection…

  20. A C.L.E.A.R. Approach to Report Writing: A Framework for Improving the Efficacy of Psychoeducational Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastoras, Sarah M.; Climie, Emma A.; McCrimmon, Adam W.; Schwean, Vicki L.

    2011-01-01

    Psychoeducational reports are the primary means for a school psychologist to communicate the results of an assessment. Although reports should be written in the most efficient and reader-friendly manner, this is not always the case. Additionally, problems in report writing have remained relatively consistent for several decades, despite…

  1. An intraventricular clear cell meningioma revealed by an inflammatory syndrome in a male adult: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassereau, J; Lavigne, C; Michalak-Provost, S; Ghali, A; Dubas, F; Fournier, H D

    2008-07-01

    Intraventricular meningiomas are infrequent intracranial tumors. Clinical symptoms are mainly due to an increased intracranial pressure or a direct pressure on the surrounding brain structures. Inflammatory syndrome was described in some patients with chordoid meningiomas. Here we report a case of right intraventricular clear cell meningioma in a 50-year-old man who presented with fever, headache, and inflammatory syndrome. Clinical and biological normalization was rapidly obtained after tumor removal. Immunohistochemical examination showed tumor cells and lymphocytes positivity for the pyrogenic cytokine interleukin-6, with a same intensity. To our knowledge, this is the first case described in the literature concerning an adult man with an intraventricular clear cell meningioma associated with a systemic inflammatory syndrome.

  2. Two Mechanisms of Constructive Recollection: Perceptual Recombination and Conceptual Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Manoj K.; Bluestone, Maximilian R.; Gallo, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Recollection is constructive and prone to distortion, but the mechanisms through which recollections can become embellished with rich yet illusory details are still debated. According to the conceptual fluency hypothesis, abstract semantic or conceptual activation increases the familiarity of a nonstudied event, causing one to falsely attribute…

  3. Imprint cytology of clear cell sarcoma-like tumor of the gastrointestinal tract in the small intestine: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takashi; Ichihara, Shin; Gotoda, Hiroko; Muraoka, Shunji; Kubo, Terufumi; Sugita, Shintaro; Hasegawa, Tadashi

    2017-12-01

    Clear cell sarcoma-like tumor of the gastrointestinal tract (CCSLGT) is an extremely rare malignant neoplasm in the digestive tract. Its cytomorphologic features have never previously been reported. Here, we describe a case of CCSLGT, including its cytologic examination findings. A 47-year-old woman presented with a mass in the small intestine, which was resected and sent for imprint cytology. Imprint smears revealed tumor cells with light eosinophilic or clear cytoplasm in a necrotic background. Many of the tumor cells were arranged in a perivascular growth with a pseudopapillary formation, and there were some non-neoplastic osteoclast-like giant cells. Histological examination revealed solid nests and a pseudopapillary pattern of the tumor cells with clear or pale eosinophilic cytoplasm and large nuclei with small nucleoli. Immunohistochemistry showed positive for vimentin, S-100, and SOX-10, and negative for SMA, c-KIT, cytokeratin, HMB-45, and MelanA. The EWSR1 gene split signal was detected by reverse transcriptase fluorescence in situ hybridization, and EWSR1-CREB1 gene fusion was indicated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. From these findings, we diagnosed the tumor as CCSLGT. To best of our knowledge, this is the first description of the imprint cytology features of CCSLGT. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Raymond and instantons: Some recollections and the use of ADHM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korthals Altes, Chris P.

    2016-01-01

    After the discovery of the BRST identities in 1974 Raymond spent some two years mostly on instantons. In those years we had a small group at the Centre Physique Théorique in Marseille discussing the physics and mathematics of instantons. The upshot of our discussions can be found in a set of lectures given by Raymond in Erice in 1977 and a year later in a Physics Reports volume. I present some recollections of that period; mostly how we were influenced by the twistor approach. I discuss the Atiyah–Drinfeld–Hitchin–Manin (ADHM) method to obtain instantons (“calorons”) in thermal QCD following earlier work. The building blocks are a prepotential and a gauge invariant propagator. Then I will give surprisingly simple results in terms of these building blocks for the one loop vacuum response to a change in caloron parameters and some physical consequences for the effective action.

  5. "Remember" source memory ROCs indicate recollection is a continuous process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Scott D

    2010-01-01

    The dual process model assumes memory is based on recollection (retrieval with specific detail) or familiarity (retrieval without specific detail). A current debate is whether recollection is a threshold process or, like familiarity, is a continuous process. In the present study two continuous models and two threshold models of recollection were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. These models included the continuous signal detection unequal variance model and the threshold dual process model. In the study phase of three experiments, objects were presented to the right or left of fixation. At test, participants made either remember-know responses or item confidence responses followed by source memory (spatial location) confidence ratings. Recollection-based ROCs were generated from source memory confidence ratings associated with "remember" responses (in Experiments 1-2) or the highest item confidence responses (in Experiment 3). Neither threshold model adequately fit any of the recollection-based ROCs. By contrast, one or both of the continuous models adequately fit all of the recollection-based ROCs. The present results indicate recollection and familiarity are both continuous processes.

  6. The Everyday Moral Judge - Autobiographical Recollections of Moral Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, André; Tscharaktschiew, Nadine; Schindler, Rose; Schulz, Katrin; Rudolph, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Moral emotions are typically elicited in everyday social interactions and regulate social behavior. Previous research in the field of attribution theory identified ought (the moral standard of a given situation or intended goal), goal-attainment (a goal can be attained vs. not attained) and effort (high vs. low effort expenditure) as cognitive antecedents of moral emotions. In contrast to earlier studies, mainly relying on thought experiments, we investigated autobiographical recollections of N = 312 participants by means of an online study. We analyzed a diverse range of moral emotions, i.e., admiration, anger, contempt, indignation, pride, respect, schadenfreude, and sympathy, by using a mixed-method approach. Qualitative and quantitative methods clearly corroborate the important role of ought, goal-attainment, and effort as eliciting conditions of moral emotions. Furthermore, we built categorical systems based on our participants' descriptions of real-life situations, allowing for more fine-grained distinctions between seemingly similar moral emotions. We thus identify additional prerequisites explaining more subtle differences between moral emotion clusters as they emerge from our analyses (i.e., cluster 1: admiration, pride, and respect; cluster 2: anger, contempt, and indignation; cluster 3: schadenfreude and sympathy). Results are discussed in the light of attributional theories of moral emotions, and implications for future research are derived.

  7. The Everyday Moral Judge – Autobiographical Recollections of Moral Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscharaktschiew, Nadine; Schindler, Rose; Schulz, Katrin; Rudolph, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Moral emotions are typically elicited in everyday social interactions and regulate social behavior. Previous research in the field of attribution theory identified ought (the moral standard of a given situation or intended goal), goal-attainment (a goal can be attained vs. not attained) and effort (high vs. low effort expenditure) as cognitive antecedents of moral emotions. In contrast to earlier studies, mainly relying on thought experiments, we investigated autobiographical recollections of N = 312 participants by means of an online study. We analyzed a diverse range of moral emotions, i.e., admiration, anger, contempt, indignation, pride, respect, schadenfreude, and sympathy, by using a mixed-method approach. Qualitative and quantitative methods clearly corroborate the important role of ought, goal-attainment, and effort as eliciting conditions of moral emotions. Furthermore, we built categorical systems based on our participants’ descriptions of real-life situations, allowing for more fine-grained distinctions between seemingly similar moral emotions. We thus identify additional prerequisites explaining more subtle differences between moral emotion clusters as they emerge from our analyses (i.e., cluster 1: admiration, pride, and respect; cluster 2: anger, contempt, and indignation; cluster 3: schadenfreude and sympathy). Results are discussed in the light of attributional theories of moral emotions, and implications for future research are derived. PMID:27977699

  8. The Everyday Moral Judge - Autobiographical Recollections of Moral Emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Körner

    Full Text Available Moral emotions are typically elicited in everyday social interactions and regulate social behavior. Previous research in the field of attribution theory identified ought (the moral standard of a given situation or intended goal, goal-attainment (a goal can be attained vs. not attained and effort (high vs. low effort expenditure as cognitive antecedents of moral emotions. In contrast to earlier studies, mainly relying on thought experiments, we investigated autobiographical recollections of N = 312 participants by means of an online study. We analyzed a diverse range of moral emotions, i.e., admiration, anger, contempt, indignation, pride, respect, schadenfreude, and sympathy, by using a mixed-method approach. Qualitative and quantitative methods clearly corroborate the important role of ought, goal-attainment, and effort as eliciting conditions of moral emotions. Furthermore, we built categorical systems based on our participants' descriptions of real-life situations, allowing for more fine-grained distinctions between seemingly similar moral emotions. We thus identify additional prerequisites explaining more subtle differences between moral emotion clusters as they emerge from our analyses (i.e., cluster 1: admiration, pride, and respect; cluster 2: anger, contempt, and indignation; cluster 3: schadenfreude and sympathy. Results are discussed in the light of attributional theories of moral emotions, and implications for future research are derived.

  9. The Neural Basis of Recollection Rejection: Increases in Hippocampal-Prefrontal Connectivity in the Absence of a Shared Recall-to-Reject and Target Recollection Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Caitlin R; Dennis, Nancy A

    2016-08-01

    Recollection rejection or "recall-to-reject" is a mechanism that has been posited to help maintain accurate memory by preventing the occurrence of false memories. Recollection rejection occurs when the presentation of a new item during recognition triggers recall of an associated target, a mismatch in features between the new and old items is registered, and the lure is correctly rejected. Critically, this characterization of recollection rejection involves a recall signal that is conceptually similar to recollection as elicited by a target. However, previous neuroimaging studies have not evaluated the extent to which recollection rejection and target recollection rely on a common neural signal but have instead focused on recollection rejection as a postretrieval monitoring process. This study utilized a false memory paradigm in conjunction with an adapted remember-know-new response paradigm that separated "new" responses based on recollection rejection from those that were based on a lack of familiarity with the item. This procedure allowed for parallel recollection rejection and target recollection contrasts to be computed. Results revealed that, contrary to predictions from theoretical and behavioral literature, there was virtually no evidence of a common retrieval mechanism supporting recollection rejection and target recollection. Instead of the typical target recollection network, recollection rejection recruited a network of lateral prefrontal and bilateral parietal regions that is consistent with the retrieval monitoring network identified in previous neuroimaging studies of recollection rejection. However, a functional connectivity analysis revealed a component of the frontoparietal rejection network that showed increased coupling with the right hippocampus during recollection rejection responses. As such, we demonstrate a possible link between PFC monitoring network and basic retrieval mechanisms within the hippocampus that was not revealed with

  10. False recollection of emotional pictures in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, David A; Foster, Katherine T; Wong, Jessica T; Bennett, David A

    2010-10-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) can reduce the effects of emotional content on memory for studied pictures, but less is known about false memory. In healthy adults, emotionally arousing pictures can be more susceptible to false memory effects than neutral pictures, potentially because emotional pictures share conceptual similarities that cause memory confusions. We investigated these effects in AD patients and healthy controls. Participants studied pictures and their verbal labels, and then picture recollection was tested using verbal labels as retrieval cues. Some of the test labels had been associated with a picture at study, whereas other had not. On this picture recollection test, we found that both AD patients and controls incorrectly endorsed some of the test labels that had not been studied with pictures. These errors were associated with medium to high levels of confidence, indicating some degree of false recollection. Critically, these false recollection judgments were greater for emotional compared to neutral items, especially for positively valenced items, in both AD patients and controls. Dysfunction of the amygdala and hippocampus in early AD may impair recollection, but AD did not disrupt the effect of emotion on false recollection judgments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Levels of processing influences both recollection and familiarity: evidence from a modified remember-know paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Heather; Reingold, Eyal M

    2012-03-01

    A modified Remember/Know (RK) paradigm was used to investigate reported subjective awareness during retrieval. Levels of processing (shallow vs. deep) was manipulated at study. Word pairs (old/new or new/new) were presented during test trials, and participants were instructed to respond "remember" if they recollected one of the two words, "know" if the word was familiar in the absence of recollection, or "new" if they judged both words to be new. Participants were then required to indicate which of the 2 words was old (2AFC recognition). With the standard RK proportions, deeper processing at study increased remember proportions and decreased know proportions, but this dissociation was not shown with the 2AFC proportion correct measure which instead demonstrated robust LOP effects for both remember and know trials, suggesting that the know proportion measure severely distorts the nature of LOP effects on familiarity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigating the relationship between implicit and explicit memory: Evidence that masked repetition priming speeds the onset of recollection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joanne L; Donaldson, David I

    2016-10-01

    Memory theories assume that unconscious processes influence conscious remembering, but the exact nature of the relationship between implicit and explicit memory remains an open question. Within the context of episodic recognition tests research typical shows that priming impacts behavioral and neural indices of familiarity. By this account, implicit memory leads to enhanced fluency of processing, which is then attributed to 'oldness' in the context of recognition judgments. Recently, however, behavioral and neuroimaging evidence has emerged to suggest that priming can also influence recollection, suggesting that the rate of recollection increases following priming. Here, we examine the relationship between priming and recollection, using Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to assess changes in the timecourse of processing. Participants studied a series of words, and episodic memory was assessed using a standard item recognition test, but masked repetition priming preceded half of the test cues. Results confirmed that implicit memory was engaged: priming produced robust facilitation of recognition Reaction Times (RTs), with larger effects for studied than unstudied words. Mapping onto the RT data, ERPs recorded during recognition testing over centro-parietal electrodes revealed N400-like priming effects (250-500ms) that were larger in magnitude for studied than unstudied words. More importantly, priming also had a clear impact on explicit memory, as measured by recollection-related left-parietal old/new effects. While old/new effects for unprimed trials were present during the typical 500-800ms latency interval, the old/new effects seen for primed trials were equivalent in magnitude and topography, but onset ~300ms earlier. ERPs reveal that repetition priming speeds the onset of recollection, providing a novel demonstration that unconscious memory processes can have a measureable, functional, influence on conscious remembering. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published

  13. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Field Activities Conducted on Clear and Pete King Creeks, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gass, Carrie; Olson, Jim M. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)

    2004-11-01

    In 2001 the Idaho Fisheries Resource Office continued as a cooperator on the Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project on Pete King and Clear creeks. Data relating to supplementation treatment releases, juvenile sampling, juvenile PIT tagging, brood stock spawning and rearing, spawning ground surveys, and snorkel surveys were used to evaluate project data points and augment past data. Due to low adult spring Chinook returns to Kooskia National Fish Hatchery (KNFH) in brood year 1999 there was no smolt supplementation treatment release into Clear Creek in 2001. A 17,014 spring Chinook parr supplementation treatment (containing 1000 PIT tags) was released into Pete King Creek on July 24, 2001. On Clear Creek, there were 412 naturally produced spring Chinook parr PIT tagged and released. Using juvenile collection methods, Idaho Fisheries Resource Office staff PIT tagged and released 320 naturally produced spring Chinook pre-smolts on Clear Creek, and 16 natural pre-smolts on Pete King Creek, for minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam. There were no PIT tag detections of brood year 1999 smolts from Clear or Pete King creeks. A total of 2261 adult spring Chinook were collected at KNFH. Forty-three females were used for supplementation brood stock, and 45 supplementation (ventral fin-clip), and 45 natural (unmarked) adults were released upstream of KNFH to spawn naturally. Spatial and temporal distribution of 37 adults released above the KNFH weir was determined through the use of radio telemetry. On Clear Creek, a total of 166 redds (8.2 redds/km) were observed and data was collected from 195 carcasses. Seventeen completed redds (2.1 redds/km) were found, and data was collected data from six carcasses on Pete King Creek.

  14. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Field Activities Conducted on Clear and Pete King Creeks, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretz, Justin K.; Olson, Jill M. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)

    2003-03-01

    In 2002 the Idaho Fisheries Resource Office continued working as a cooperator on the Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project on Pete King and Clear creeks. Data relating to supplementation treatment releases, juvenile sampling, juvenile PIT tagging, broodstock spawning and rearing, spawning ground surveys, and snorkel surveys were used to evaluate the project data points and augment past data. Supplementation treatments included the release of 51,329 left ventral-clipped smolts into Clear Creek (750 were PIT tagged), and 12,000 unmarked coded-wire tagged parr into Pete King Creek (998 were PIT tagged). Using juvenile collection methods, Idaho Fisheries Resource Office staff PIT tagged and released 579 naturally produced spring chinook juveniles in Clear Creek, and 54 on Pete King Creek, for minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam. For Clear Creek, minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam of hatchery produced supplementation and naturally produced PIT tagged smolts, were 36.0%, and 53.1%, respectively. For Pete King Creek, minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam, of hatchery produced supplementation smolts and naturally produced smolts PIT tagged as parr and presmolts, were 18.8%, and 8.3%, respectively. Adults collected for broodstock in 2002 represented the final adult broodstock group collected for the ISS project. Twenty-six ventral clipped, and 28 natural adult spring chinook were transported above the weir. Monitoring and evaluation of spawning success was continued on Clear and Pete King creeks. A total of 69 redds were counted and 79 carcasses were recovered on Clear Creek. Two redds were observed and no carcasses were collected on Pete King Creek.

  15. A single-trace dual-process model of episodic memory: a novel computational account of familiarity and recollection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Andrea; Donaldson, David I; van Rossum, Mark C W

    2010-02-01

    Dual-process theories of episodic memory state that retrieval is contingent on two independent processes: familiarity (providing a sense of oldness) and recollection (recovering events and their context). A variety of studies have reported distinct neural signatures for familiarity and recollection, supporting dual-process theory. One outstanding question is whether these signatures reflect the activation of distinct memory traces or the operation of different retrieval mechanisms on a single memory trace. We present a computational model that uses a single neuronal network to store memory traces, but two distinct and independent retrieval processes access the memory. The model is capable of performing familiarity and recollection-based discrimination between old and new patterns, demonstrating that dual-process models need not to rely on multiple independent memory traces, but can use a single trace. Importantly, our putative familiarity and recollection processes exhibit distinct characteristics analogous to those found in empirical data; they diverge in capacity and sensitivity to sparse and correlated patterns, exhibit distinct ROC curves, and account for performance on both item and associative recognition tests. The demonstration that a single-trace, dual-process model can account for a range of empirical findings highlights the importance of distinguishing between neuronal processes and the neuronal representations on which they operate.

  16. Evidence for holistic episodic recollection via hippocampal pattern completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Aidan J; Bisby, James A; Bush, Daniel; Lin, Wen-Jing; Burgess, Neil

    2015-07-02

    Recollection is thought to be the hallmark of episodic memory. Here we provide evidence that the hippocampus binds together the diverse elements forming an event, allowing holistic recollection via pattern completion of all elements. Participants learn complex 'events' from multiple overlapping pairs of elements, and are tested on all pairwise associations. At encoding, element 'types' (locations, people and objects/animals) produce activation in distinct neocortical regions, while hippocampal activity predicts memory performance for all within-event pairs. When retrieving a pairwise association, neocortical activity corresponding to all event elements is reinstated, including those incidental to the task. Participant's degree of incidental reinstatement correlates with their hippocampal activity. Our results suggest that event elements, represented in distinct neocortical regions, are bound into coherent 'event engrams' in the hippocampus that enable episodic recollection--the re-experiencing or holistic retrieval of all aspects of an event--via a process of hippocampal pattern completion and neocortical reinstatement.

  17. Levels of Processing and the Cue-Dependent Nature of Recollection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Picklesimer, Milton

    2012-01-01

    Dual-process models differentiate between two bases of memory, recollection and familiarity. It is routinely claimed that deeper, semantic encoding enhances recollection relative to shallow, non-semantic encoding, and that recollection is largely a product of semantic, elaborative rehearsal. The present experiments show that this is not always the…

  18. Event-Related Potential Evidence that Automatic Recollection Can Be Voluntarily Avoided

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Zara M.; de Fockert, Jan; Richardson-Klavehn, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Voluntary control processes can be recruited to facilitate recollection in situations where a retrieval cue fails to automatically bring to mind a desired episodic memory. We investigated whether voluntary control processes can also stop recollection of unwanted memories that would otherwise have been automatically recollected. Participants were…

  19. Spousal Recollections of Early Signs of Primary Progressive Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzebon, Margaret; Douglas, Jacinta; Ames, David

    2018-01-01

    Background: Although primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by progressive loss of language and communication skills, knowledge about the earliest emerging signs announcing the onset of this condition is limited. Aims: To explore spousal recollections regarding the earliest signs of PPA and to compare the nature of the earliest…

  20. Myth and Archetype in Recollections of Things to Come

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Anderson

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Elena Garro, "the great writer will be the one who presents the Mexican as a universal being." In her novel Recollections of Things to Come she achieves this goal primarily through an incessant infusion of mythic and archetypal motifs, elements that constitute the cornerstone of this study.

  1. Assessing the Dissociability of Recollection and Familiarity in Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratte, Michael S.; Rouder, Jeffrey N.

    2012-01-01

    Recognition memory is often modeled as constituting 2 separate processes, recollection and familiarity, rather than as constituting a single process mediated by a generic latent strength. One way of stating evidence for the more complex 2-process model is to show dissociations with select manipulations, in which one manipulation affects…

  2. Discomfort and factual recollection in intensive care unit patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Leur, JP; van der Schans, CP; Loef, BG; Deelman, BG; Geertzen, JHB; Zwaveling, JH

    2004-01-01

    Introduction A stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), although potentially life-saving, may cause considerable discomfort to patients. However, retrospective assessment of discomfort is difficult because recollection of stressful events may be impaired by sedation and severe illness during the ICU

  3. Using Storytelling to Increase Interest and Recollection in Finance Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lonnie; Harris, Renard

    2011-01-01

    The use of storytelling allows lecturers to engage students in a dynamic and enthusiastic way while encouraging students to develop a higher order of thinking and recollection. Storytelling allows the lecturer to show their interest in the material and in the students. Lectures can utilize the art of storytelling to communicate expertise and…

  4. Continuous theta burst stimulation of angular gyrus reduces subjective recollection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Yazar

    Full Text Available The contribution of lateral parietal regions such as the angular gyrus to human episodic memory has been the subject of much debate following widespread observations of left parietal activity in healthy volunteers during functional neuroimaging studies of memory retrieval. Patients with lateral parietal lesions are not amnesic, but recent evidence indicates that their memory abilities may not be entirely preserved. Whereas recollection appears intact when objective measures such as source accuracy are used, patients often exhibit reduced subjective confidence in their accurate recollections. When asked to recall autobiographical memories, they may produce spontaneous narratives that lack richness and specificity, but can remember specific details when prompted. Two distinct theoretical accounts have been proposed to explain these results: that the patients have a deficit in the bottom-up capturing of attention by retrieval output, or that they have an impairment in the subjective experience of recollection. The present study aimed to differentiate between these accounts using continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS in healthy participants to disrupt function of specific left parietal subregions, including angular gyrus. Inconsistent with predictions of the attentional theory, angular gyrus cTBS did not result in greater impairment of free recall than cued recall. Supporting predictions of the subjective recollection account, temporary disruption of angular gyrus was associated with highly accurate source recollection accuracy but a selective reduction in participants' rated source confidence. The findings are consistent with a role for angular gyrus in the integration of memory features into a conscious representation that enables the subjective experience of remembering.

  5. Familiarity and recollection vs representational models of medial temporal lobe structures: A single-case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacot, Emilie; Vautier, Stéphane; Kőhler, Stefan; Pariente, Jérémie; Martin, Chris B; Puel, Michèle; Lotterie, Jean-Albert; Barbeau, Emmanuel J

    2017-09-01

    Although it is known that medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures support declarative memory, the fact these structures have different architectonics and circuitry suggests they may also play different functional roles. Selective lesions of MTL structures offer an opportunity to understand these roles. We report, in this study, on JMG, a patient who presents highly unusual lesions that completely affected all MTL structures except for the right hippocampus and parts of neighbouring medial parahippocampal cortex. We first demonstrate that JMG shows preserved recall for visual material on 5 experimental tasks. This finding suggests that his right hippocampus is functional, even though it appears largely disconnected from most of its MTL afferents. In contrast, JMG performed very poorly, as compared to control subjects, on 7 tasks of visual recognition memory for single items. Although he sometimes performed above chance, neither familiarity nor recollection appeared fully preserved. These results indicate that extrahippocampal structures, damaged bilaterally in JMG, perform critical operations for item recognition; and that the hippocampus cannot take over that role, including recollection, when these structures are largely damaged. Finally, in a set of 3 recognition memory tasks with scenes as stimuli, JMG performed at the level of control participants and obtained normal indices of familiarity and recollection. Overall, our findings suggest that the right hippocampus and remnants of parahippocampal cortex can support recognition memory for scenes in the absence of preserved item-recognition memory. The patterns of dissociations, which we report in the present study, provide support for a representational account of the functional organization of MTL structures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Let's Be Clear(er) about Substitution A Reporting Framework to Account for Product Displacement in Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadenbo, Carl; Hellweg, Stefanie; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2017-01-01

    for the systematic reporting of information and assumptions expected to contribute to the substitution potential in order to make substitution modeling and the results thereof more transparent and interpretable. We propose a reporting framework that can also support the systematic estimation of substitution...... application. The proposed framework enables well-motivated substitution potentials to be accounted for, regardless of the chosen approach, and improves the reproducibility of comparative LCA studies of resource recovery....

  7. Aging, working memory capacity and the proactive control of recollection: An event-related potential study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Jessica; Affleck-Brodie, Caitlin; Wiegand, Ronny

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of working memory capacity (WMC) in the control of recollection in young and older adults. We used electroencephalographic event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of age and of individual differences in WMC on the ability to prioritize recollection according to current goals. Targets in a recognition exclusion task were words encoded using two alternative decisions. The left parietal ERP old/new effect was used as an electrophysiological index of recollection, and the selectivity of recollection measured in terms of the difference in its magnitude according to whether recognized items were targets or non-targets. Young adults with higher WMC showed greater recollection selectivity than those with lower WMC, while older adults showed nonselective recollection which did not vary with WMC. The data suggest that aging impairs the ability to engage cognitive control effectively to prioritize what will be recollected. PMID:28727792

  8. Aging, working memory capacity and the proactive control of recollection: An event-related potential study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Keating

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the role of working memory capacity (WMC in the control of recollection in young and older adults. We used electroencephalographic event-related potentials (ERPs to examine the effects of age and of individual differences in WMC on the ability to prioritize recollection according to current goals. Targets in a recognition exclusion task were words encoded using two alternative decisions. The left parietal ERP old/new effect was used as an electrophysiological index of recollection, and the selectivity of recollection measured in terms of the difference in its magnitude according to whether recognized items were targets or non-targets. Young adults with higher WMC showed greater recollection selectivity than those with lower WMC, while older adults showed nonselective recollection which did not vary with WMC. The data suggest that aging impairs the ability to engage cognitive control effectively to prioritize what will be recollected.

  9. Perceptual effects on remembering: recollective processes in picture recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, S

    1996-03-01

    In 3 experiments, the effects of perceptual manipulations on recollective experience were tested. In Experiment 1, a picture-superiority effect was obtained for overall recognition and Remember judgements in a picture recognition task. In Experiment 2, size changes of pictorial stimuli across study and test reduced recognition memory and Remember judgements. In Experiment 3, deleterious effects of changes in left-right orientation of pictorial stimuli across study and test were obtained for Remember judgements. An alternate framework that emphasizes a distinctiveness-fluency processing distinction is proposed to account for these findings because they cannot easily be accommodated within the existing account of differences in conceptual and perceptual processing for the 2 categories of recollective experience: Remembering and Knowing, respectively (J. M. Gardiner, 1988; S. Rajaram, 1993).

  10. Creating a recollection-based memory through drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wammes, Jeffrey D; Meade, Melissa E; Fernandes, Myra A

    2018-05-01

    Drawing a picture of to-be-remembered information substantially boosts memory performance in free-recall tasks. In the current work, we sought to test the notion that drawing confers its benefit to memory performance by creating a detailed recollection of the encoding context. In Experiments 1 and 2, we demonstrated that for both pictures and words, items that were drawn by the participant at encoding were better recognized in a later test than were words that were written out. Moreover, participants' source memory (in this experiment, correct identification of whether the word was drawn or written) was superior for items drawn relative to written at encoding. In Experiments 3A and 3B, we used a remember-know paradigm to demonstrate again that drawn words were better recognized than written words, and further showed that this effect was driven by a greater proportion of recollection-, rather than familiarity-based responses. Lastly, in Experiment 4 we implemented a response deadline procedure, and showed that when recognition responses were speeded, thereby reducing participants' capacity for recollection, the benefit of drawing was substantially smaller. Taken together, our findings converge on the idea that drawing improves memory as a result of providing vivid contextual information which can be later called upon to aid retrieval. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. The effect of aging in recollective experience: the processing speed and executive functioning hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaiska, Aurélia; Clarys, David; Jarry, Caroline; Taconnat, Laurence; Tapia, Géraldine; Vanneste, Sandrine; Isingrini, Michel

    2007-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of aging on consciousness in recognition memory, using the Remember/Know/Guess procedure (Gardiner, J. M., & Richarson-Klavehn, A. (2000). Remembering and Knowing. In E. Tulving & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Memory. Oxford University Press.). In recognition memory, older participants report fewer occasions on which recognition is accompanied by recollection of the original encoding context. Two main hypotheses were tested: the speed mediation hypothesis (Salthouse, T. A. (1996). The processing-speed theory of adult age differences in cognition. Psychological Review, 3, 403-428) and the executive-aging hypothesis (West, R. L. (1996). An application of prefrontal cortex function theory to cognitive aging. Psychological Bulletin, 120, 272-292). A group of young and a group of older adults took a recognition test in which they classified their responses according to Gardiner, J. M., & Richarson-Klavehn, A. (2000). Remembering and Knowing. In E. Tulving & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Memory. Oxford University Press. remember-know-guess paradigm. Subsequently, participants completed processing speed and executive function tests. The results showed that among the older participants, R responses decreased, but K responses did not. Moreover, a hierarchical regression analysis supported the view that the effect of age in recollection experience is determined by frontal lobe integrity and not by diminution of processing speed.

  12. Elevated False Recollection of Emotional Pictures in Younger and Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo, David A.; Foster, Katherine T.; Johnson, Elizabeth L.

    2009-01-01

    Current theories predict opposing effects of emotionally arousing information on false memory. If emotion enhances recollection, then false recollection might be lower for emotional compared to neutral pictures. However, if emotion enhances conceptual relatedness, then false recollection might increase for nonstudied but emotionally related pictures. We contrasted these two factors in younger and older adults, using the International Affective Pictures set. Although both age groups used recol...

  13. Proactive effects of memory in young and older adults: The role of change recollection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlheim, Christopher N.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related deficits in episodic memory are sometimes attributed to older adults being more susceptible to proactive interference. These deficits have been explained by impaired abilities to inhibit competing information and to recollect target information. In the present article, I propose that a change recollection deficit also contributes to age differences in proactive interference. Change recollection occurs when individuals can remember how information changed across episodes, and this counteracts proactive interference by preserving the temporal order of information. Three experiments were conducted to determine whether older adults are less likely to counteract proactive interference by recollecting change. Paired-associate learning paradigms with two lists of word pairs included pairs that repeated across lists, pairs that only appeared in List 2 (control items), and pairs with cues that repeated and responses that changed across lists. Young and older adults’ abilities to detect changed pairs in List 2 and to later recollect those changes at test were measured, along with cued recall of the List 2 responses and confidence in recall performance. Change recollection produced proactive facilitation in the recall of changed pairs, whereas the failure to recollect change resulted in proactive interference. Confidence judgments were sensitive to these effects. The critical finding was that older adults recollected change less than did young adults, and this partially explained older adults’ greater susceptibility to proactive interference. These findings have theoretical implications, showing that a change recollection deficit contributes to age-related deficits in episodic memory. PMID:24710672

  14. Donkeys and Dragons: Recollections of Schoolteachers' Nicknames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, W. Ray

    2002-01-01

    Explores characteristics of using nicknames for teachers as recalled by a sample of university students (n=103) who completed a questionnaire. Reports that most nicknames expressed contempt or dislike, attempted to get even, and drew upon physical characteristics of the person. Includes references. (CMK)

  15. Influences of menstrual cycle position and sex hormone levels on spontaneous intrusive recollections following emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferree, Nikole K; Kamat, Rujvi; Cahill, Larry

    2011-12-01

    Spontaneous intrusive recollections (SIRs) are known to follow emotional events in clinical and non-clinical populations. Previous work in our lab has found that women report more SIRs than men after exposure to emotional films, and that this effect is driven entirely by women in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. To replicate and extend this finding, participants viewed emotional films, provided saliva samples for sex hormone concentration analysis, and estimated SIR frequency following film viewing. Women in the luteal phase reported significantly more SIRs than did women in the follicular phase, and SIR frequency significantly correlated with salivary progesterone levels. The results are consistent with an emerging pattern in the literature suggesting that menstrual cycle position of female participants can potently influence findings in numerous cognitive domains. The potential implications of these results for disorders characterized by intrusions, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Infancy and youth of neutrino physics: some recollections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontecorvo, B.

    1982-01-01

    The lecture on the history of neutrino physics is given. It is a collection of a few short, stories. Two of these, about Pauli and Fermi. A story about Ma orana work on Majorana fermions, which is following, has been covered much less extensively. There follow a few recollections, related to the experimental and theoretical work of the author in proposing and developing the Cl-A method of neutrino detection, in establishing the notion of weak processes and in proposing a new type of weak interaction investigations - high energy neutrino experiments

  17. Anatomic pathology in Cuba before 1959: a personal recollection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesa, René J

    2016-04-01

    Reminiscing when reaching life's twilight is a human condition and hopefully leads to an objective self-evaluation of the past years. I have just done that with this recollection and now I can conclude that, in spite of the outcome of my professional life in Cuba, I remain convinced that one should not complete a journey just because it was started, that everything we learn in life will be sued in due time, and that we should always pursue our dreams because we become our best in the process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Large Hadron Collider, a personal recollection

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, L

    2014-01-01

    The construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been a massive endeavor spanning almost 30 years from conception to commissioning. Building the machine with the highest possible energy (7 TeV) in the existing LEP tunnel of 27 km circumference and with a tunnel diameter of only 3.8m has required considerable innovation. The first was the development of an idea first proposed by Bob Palmer at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1978, where the two rings are integrated into a single magnetic structure. This compact 2-in-1 structure was essential for the LHC due to both the limited space available in the existing Large Electron-Positron collider tunnel and the cost. The second innovation was the bold move to use superfluid helium cooling on a massive scale, which was imposed by the need to achieve a high (8.3 T) magnetic field using an affordable Nb-Ti superconductor. In this article, no attempt is made to give a comprehensive review of the machine design. This can be found in the LHC Design Report {[}1], w...

  19. Effects of Handedness and Saccadic Bilateral Eye Movements on Components of Autobiographical Recollection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil

    2010-01-01

    The effects of handedness and saccadic bilateral eye movements on autobiographical recollection were investigated. Recall of autobiographical memories was cued by the use of neutral and emotional words. Autobiographical recollection was assessed by the autobiographical memory questionnaire. Experiment 1 found that mixed-handed (vs. right handed)…

  20. Improving Operations Management Concept Recollection via the Zarco Experiential Learning Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, Tony; Kros, John; Watson, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the effect of Zarco, an operations management "mock factory" experiential learning activity, on student recollection of operations management concepts. Using a number of single-factor and multiple-factor analyses of variance, the authors compared the recollection of students treated with the Zarco activity…

  1. Interview and recollection-based research with child disaster survivors: Participation-related changes in emotion and perceptions of participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrick, Erin P.; O’Connor, Bridget M.; Vernberg, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Research suggests that some types of trauma research can be conducted safely with children ages 10 and older. The aim of this project was to learn more about potential risks or benefits of conducting research with younger children or with child disaster survivors, specifically about research that includes children providing trauma recollections. Method Fifty 8- to 12-year-old children who experienced a devastating tornado participated in an in-person interview that included both individual and joint (mother-child) recollections of their tornado experiences one year following exposure. These 50 children also rated three emotions at three timepoints and rated their perceptions (e.g., benefit and regret) of research post-participation. Children (N = 28) also participated in phone surveys three months later to assess persistent participation-related emotions and perceptions. Results Child reported emotions worsened from pre- to during participation; however, reports of emotions returned to pre-participation levels post-participation and remained so at the 3-month follow-up. Sixty-four percent of children reported at least some participation benefit and no participation regret immediately post-participation, as did 89.3% at the 3-month follow-up. Four percent of children reported some participation regret (no benefit) post-participation, and 0% three months later. No children requested to stop participating, and none required post-research connection with crisis services. Posttraumatic stress symptom severity, tornado exposure, and age were largely unrelated to child-reported emotions and perceptions of research. Conclusions Results indicate that carefully planned and executed disaster-related research that includes children providing recollections research can be conducted with preadolescents with little risk and some benefit. PMID:26390107

  2. Recollection is a continuous process: implications for dual-process theories of recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickes, Laura; Wais, Peter E; Wixted, John T

    2009-04-01

    Dual-process theory, which holds that recognition decisions can be based on recollection or familiarity, has long seemed incompatible with signal detection theory, which holds that recognition decisions are based on a singular, continuous memory-strength variable. Formal dual-process models typically regard familiarity as a continuous process (i.e., familiarity comes in degrees), but they construe recollection as a categorical process (i.e., recollection either occurs or does not occur). A continuous process is characterized by a graded relationship between confidence and accuracy, whereas a categorical process is characterized by a binary relationship such that high confidence is associated with high accuracy but all lower degrees of confidence are associated with chance accuracy. Using a source-memory procedure, we found that the relationship between confidence and source-recollection accuracy was graded. Because recollection, like familiarity, is a continuous process, dual-process theory is more compatible with signal detection theory than previously thought.

  3. Formula recollection through a WORLDLY recognized mnemonic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunicht, Shannon

    2009-10-01

    Physics may be made fun, and encourage further learning through ease of recollection of complicated formulas; allthewhile increasing a student's confortability with their algebraic skills. Examples will be shown how ANY complicated formula will be made into a memorable acronym using this author's mnemonic technique, i.e. allowing each vowel to represent a mathematical operation: ``a'' multiplication implying ``@''; ``o''-division implying ``over''; ``i''-subtraction to imply ``minus''; ``u''-addition to imply ``plus''; and ``e'' implying ``equals''. Most constants and variables are indeed consonants; ``c'' = ``speed of light'' & ``z'' = ``altitude''. With this mnemonic technique ANY formula may be algebraically manipulated into a word, or series of words for ease of recollection. Additional letters may be added to enhance the intelligibility of such a letter combination, but these additional letters need be consonants ONLY. This mnemonic technique was developed as a compensatory memory method when taking physics at Texas A&M University following a severe head injury (19 days unconsciousness!) suffered by this author.

  4. Eye movements during the recollection of text information reflect content rather than the text itself

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traub, Franziska; Johansson, Roger; Holmqvist, Kenneth

    Several studies have reported that spontaneous eye movements occur when visuospatial information is recalled from memory. Such gazes closely reflect the content and spatial relations from the original scene layout (e.g., Johansson et al., 2012). However, when someone has originally read a scene....... Recollection was performed orally while gazing at a blank screen. Results demonstrate that participant’s gaze patterns during recall more closely reflect the spatial layout of the scene than the physical locations of the text. Memory data provide evidence that mental models representing either the situation...... description, the memory of the physical layout of the text itself might compete with the memory of the spatial arrangement of the described scene. The present study was designed to address this fundamental issue by having participants read scene descriptions that where manipulated to be either congruent...

  5. The combined use of computer-guided, minimally invasive, flapless corticotomy and clear aligners as a novel approach to moderate crowding: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassetta, Michele; Altieri, Federica; Pandolfi, Stefano; Giansanti, Matteo

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this case report was to describe an innovative orthodontic treatment method that combined surgical and orthodontic techniques. The novel method was used to achieve a positive result in a case of moderate crowding by employing a computer-guided piezocision procedure followed by the use of clear aligners. A 23-year-old woman had a malocclusion with moderate crowding. Her periodontal indices, oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), and treatment time were evaluated. The treatment included interproximal corticotomy cuts extending through the entire thickness of the cortical layer, without a full-thickness flap reflection. This was achieved with a three-dimensionally printed surgical guide using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing. Orthodontic force was applied to the teeth immediately after surgery by using clear appliances for better control of tooth movement. The total treatment time was 8 months. The periodontal indices improved after crowding correction, but the oral health impact profile showed a slight deterioration of OHRQoL during the 3 days following surgery. At the 2-year retention follow-up, the stability of treatment was excellent. The reduction in surgical time and patient discomfort, increased periodontal safety and patient acceptability, and accurate control of orthodontic movement without the risk of losing anchorage may encourage the use of this combined technique in appropriate cases.

  6. Age-related reduction of the confidence-accuracy relationship in episodic memory: effects of recollection quality and retrieval monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jessica T; Cramer, Stefanie J; Gallo, David A

    2012-12-01

    We investigated age-related reductions in episodic metamemory accuracy. Participants studied pictures and words in different colors and then took forced-choice recollection tests. These tests required recollection of the earlier presentation color, holding familiarity of the response options constant. Metamemory accuracy was assessed for each participant by comparing recollection test accuracy with corresponding confidence judgments. We found that recollection test accuracy was greater in younger than older adults and also for pictures than font color. Metamemory accuracy tracked each of these recollection differences, as well as individual differences in recollection test accuracy within each age group, suggesting that recollection ability affects metamemory accuracy. Critically, the age-related impairment in metamemory accuracy persisted even when the groups were matched on recollection test accuracy, suggesting that metamemory declines were not entirely due to differences in recollection frequency or quantity, but that differences in recollection quality and/or monitoring also played a role. We also found that age-related impairments in recollection and metamemory accuracy were equivalent for pictures and font colors. This result contrasted with previous false recognition findings, which predicted that older adults would be differentially impaired when monitoring memory for less distinctive memories. These and other results suggest that age-related reductions in metamemory accuracy are not entirely attributable to false recognition effects, but also depend heavily on deficient recollection and/or monitoring of specific details associated with studied stimuli. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Not so close but still extremely loud: recollection of the World Trade Center terror attack and previous hurricanes moderates the association between exposure to hurricane Sandy and posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palgi, Yuval; Shrira, Amit; Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Palgi, Sharon; Goodwin, Robin; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2014-05-01

    The present study examined whether recollections of the World Trade Center (WTC) terror attack and previous hurricanes moderated the relationship between exposure to Hurricane Sandy and related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. An online sample of 1000 participants from affected areas completed self-report questionnaires a month after Hurricane Sandy hit the East Coast of the United States. Participants reported their exposure to Hurricane Sandy, their PTSD symptoms, and recollections of the WTC terror attack and previous hurricanes elicited due to Hurricane Sandy. Exposure to Hurricane Sandy was related to PTSD symptoms among those with high level of recollections of the WTC terror attack and past hurricanes, but not among those with low level of recollections. The aftermath of exposure to Hurricane Sandy is related not only to exposure, but also to its interaction with recollections of past traumas. These findings have theoretical and practical implications for practitioners and health policy makers in evaluating and interpreting the impact of past memories on future natural disasters. This may help in intervention plans of social and psychological services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tobacco Company Efforts to Influence the Food and Drug Administration-Commissioned Institute of Medicine Report Clearing the Smoke: An Analysis of Documents Released through Litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Crystal E.; Kyriss, Thomas; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Spurred by the creation of potential modified risk tobacco products, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) commissioned the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to assess the science base for tobacco “harm reduction,” leading to the 2001 IOM report Clearing the Smoke. The objective of this study was to determine how the tobacco industry organized to try to influence the IOM committee that prepared the report. Methods and Findings We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents in the University of California, San Francisco Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, and IOM public access files. (A limitation of this method includes the fact that the tobacco companies have withheld some possibly relevant documents.) Tobacco companies considered the IOM report to have high-stakes regulatory implications. They developed and implemented strategies with consulting and legal firms to access the IOM proceedings. When the IOM study staff invited the companies to provide information on exposure and disease markers, clinical trial design for safety and efficacy, and implications for initiation and cessation, tobacco company lawyers, consultants, and in-house regulatory staff shaped presentations from company scientists. Although the available evidence does not permit drawing cause-and-effect conclusions, and the IOM may have come to the same conclusions without the influence of the tobacco industry, the companies were pleased with the final report, particularly the recommendations for a tiered claims system (with separate tiers for exposure and risk, which they believed would ease the process of qualifying for a claim) and license to sell products comparable to existing conventional cigarettes (“substantial equivalence”) without prior regulatory approval. Some principles from the IOM report, including elements of the substantial equivalence recommendation, appear in the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Conclusions Tobacco companies

  9. CLEAR test facility

    CERN Multimedia

    Ordan, Julien Marius

    2017-01-01

    A new user facility for accelerator R&D, the CERN Linear Electron Accelerator for Research (CLEAR), started operation in August 2017. CLEAR evolved from the former CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) used by the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). The new facility is able to host and test a broad range of ideas in the accelerator field.

  10. Variation in the standard deviation of the lure rating distribution: Implications for estimates of recollection probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopkins, Stephen; Varner, Kaitlin; Hoyer, Darin

    2017-10-01

    In word recognition semantic priming of test words increased the false-alarm rate and the mean of confidence ratings to lures. Such priming also increased the standard deviation of confidence ratings to lures and the slope of the z-ROC function, suggesting that the priming increased the standard deviation of the lure evidence distribution. The Unequal Variance Signal Detection (UVSD) model interpreted the priming as increasing the standard deviation of the lure evidence distribution. Without additional parameters the Dual Process Signal Detection (DPSD) model could only accommodate the results by fitting the data for related and unrelated primes separately, interpreting the priming, implausibly, as decreasing the probability of target recollection (DPSD). With an additional parameter, for the probability of false (lure) recollection the model could fit the data for related and unrelated primes together, interpreting the priming as increasing the probability of false recollection. These results suggest that DPSD estimates of target recollection probability will decrease with increases in the lure confidence/evidence standard deviation unless a parameter is included for false recollection. Unfortunately the size of a given lure confidence/evidence standard deviation relative to other possible lure confidence/evidence standard deviations is often unspecified by context. Hence the model often has no way of estimating false recollection probability and thereby correcting its estimates of target recollection probability.

  11. Remembering “The Contract”: Recollections of Bahamians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson, Tracey L.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Between 1943 and 1965 an estimated 30,000 Bahamian men and women migrated temporarily to the United States on short-term contracts to work in the agricultural sector. The programme, known as the British West Indies Labor Program, was created to fill labour shortages caused when Americans left the farms to work in more profitable war industries or to serve in the armed forces during World War II. In the Bahamas the programme was sometimes referred to as “The Contract” because each worker signed a contractual agreement to work in the United States. Drawing upon oral histories collected in the early 1990s, this paper uses the recollections of former Contract workers to explore the personal, economic and social ramifications of their experiences working on the Contract.

  12. Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin, An Autobiography and Other Recollections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramundanis, Katherine

    Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin became acclaimed in her lifetime as the greatest woman astronomer of all time. Her own story of her professional life, work and scientific achievements is augmented by the personal recollections of her daughter, Katherine Haramundanis, as well as a scientific appreciation by Jesse Greenstein, a historical essay by Peggy Kidwell and, in this new edition, an introduction by Virginia Trimble. Payne-Gaposchkin's overwhelming love for astronomy was her personal guiding light, and her attitude and approach have lessons for all. She received many prestigious awards for her outstanding contributions to science and in 1956 became the first woman to be advanced to the rank of Professor at Harvard University, as well as being the first woman departmental chair. This book will interest both astronomers and those studying the advancement of the position and status of women in society.

  13. Sleep-related hippocampo-cortical interplay during emotional memory recollection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Sterpenich

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Emotional events are usually better remembered than neutral ones. This effect is mediated in part by a modulation of the hippocampus by the amygdala. Sleep plays a role in the consolidation of declarative memory. We examined the impact of sleep and lack of sleep on the consolidation of emotional (negative and positive memories at the macroscopic systems level. Using functional MRI (fMRI, we compared the neural correlates of successful recollection by humans of emotional and neutral stimuli, 72 h after encoding, with or without total sleep deprivation during the first post-encoding night. In contrast to recollection of neutral and positive stimuli, which was deteriorated by sleep deprivation, similar recollection levels were achieved for negative stimuli in both groups. Successful recollection of emotional stimuli elicited larger responses in the hippocampus and various cortical areas, including the medial prefrontal cortex, in the sleep group than in the sleep deprived group. This effect was consistent across subjects for negative items but depended linearly on individual memory performance for positive items. In addition, the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex were functionally more connected during recollection of either negative or positive than neutral items, and more so in sleeping than in sleep-deprived subjects. In the sleep-deprived group, recollection of negative items elicited larger responses in the amygdala and an occipital area than in the sleep group. In contrast, no such difference in brain responses between groups was associated with recollection of positive stimuli. The results suggest that the emotional significance of memories influences their sleep-dependent systems-level consolidation. The recruitment of hippocampo-neocortical networks during recollection is enhanced after sleep and is hindered by sleep deprivation. After sleep deprivation, recollection of negative, potentially dangerous, memories recruits an alternate

  14. Diet - clear liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Group. Clear liquid diet. In: Morrison. Manual of Clinical Nutrition Management. Updated 2013. bscn2k15.weebly.com/uploads/1/2/9/2/12924787/manual_of_clinical_nutrition2013.pdf . Accessed August 20, 2016. Schattner MA, ...

  15. Memory for flip-flopping: detection and recollection of political contradictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Adam L; Wahlheim, Christopher N; Jacoby, Larry L

    2014-10-01

    During political campaigns, candidates often change their positions on controversial issues. Does changing positions create confusion and impair memory for a politician's current position? In 3 experiments, two political candidates held positions on controversial issues in two debates. Across the debates, their positions were repeated, changed, or held only in the second debate (control). Relative to the control condition, recall of the most recent position on issues was enhanced when change was detected and recollected, whereas recall was impaired when change was not recollected. Furthermore, examining the errors revealed that subjects were more likely to intrude a Debate 1 response than to recall a blend of the two positions, and that recollecting change decreased Debate 1 intrusions. We argue that detecting change produces a recursive representation that embeds the original position in memory along with the more recent position. Recollecting change then enhances memory for the politician's positions and their order of occurrence by accessing the recursive trace.

  16. Ideas for clear technical writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, B.P.

    1984-01-01

    The three greatest obstacles to clear technical-report writing are probably (1) imprecise words, (2) wordiness, and (3) poorly constructed sentences. Examples of category 1 include abstract words, jargon, and vogue words; of category 2, sentences containing impersonal construction superfluous words; and of category 3, sentences lacking parallel construction and proper order of related words and phrases. These examples and other writing-related subjects are discussed in the report, which contains a cross-referenced index and 24 references.

  17. Clear cell chondrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R.; David, R.; Cierney, G. III

    1985-01-01

    The clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic features of three cases of clear cell chondrosarcoma are described. On radiographs, this rather benign-appearing tumor resembles a chondroblastoma when it occurs at the end of a long bone, and may occasionally show a calcified matrix. However, it has distinctive tumor cells with a centrally placed vesicular nucleus surrounded by clear cytoplasm. The lesion has a low-grade malignancy and is amenable to en bloc surgical resection, which results in a much better prognosis than that of conventional chondrosarcoma.

  18. Impairment of recollection but not familiarity in a case of developmental amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Karen R.; Gardiner, John M.; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Baddeley, Alan D.; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2010-01-01

    In a re-examination of the recognition memory of Jon, a young adult with developmental amnesia due to perinatal hippocampal damage, we used a test procedure that provides estimates of the separate contributions to recognition of recollection and familiarity. Comparison between Jon and his controls revealed that, whereas he was unimpaired in the familiarity process, he showed abnormally low levels of recollection, supporting the view that the hippocampus mediates the latter process selectively. PMID:19090415

  19. Impairment of recollection but not familiarity in a case of developmental amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Karen R; Gardiner, John M; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Baddeley, Alan D; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2008-01-01

    In a re-examination of the recognition memory of Jon, a young adult with developmental amnesia due to perinatal hippocampal damage, we used a test procedure that provides estimates of the separate contributions to recognition of recollection and familiarity. Comparison between Jon and his controls revealed that, whereas he was unimpaired in the familiarity process, he showed abnormally low levels of recollection, supporting the view that the hippocampus mediates the latter process selectively.

  20. Listening for recollection: a multi-voxel pattern analysis of recognition memory retrieval strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel R Quamme

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of recognition memory indicate that subjects can strategically vary how much they rely on recollection of specific details vs. feelings of familiarity when making recognition judgments. One possible explanation of these results is that subjects can establish an internally-directed attentional state (listening for recollection that enhances retrieval of studied details; fluctuations in this attentional state over time should be associated with fluctuations in subjects' recognition behavior. In this study, we used multi-voxel pattern analysis of fMRI data to identify brain regions that are involved in listening for recollection. Specifically, we looked for brain regions that met the following criteria: 1 Distinct neural patterns should be present when subjects are instructed to rely on recollection vs. familiarity, and 2 fluctuations in these neural patterns should be related to recognition behavior in the manner predicted by dual-process theories of recognition: Specifically, the presence of the recollection pattern during the pre-stimulus interval (indicating that subjects are listening for recollection at that moment should be associated with a selective decrease in false alarms to related lures. We found that pre-stimulus activity in the right supramarginal gyrus met all of these criteria, suggesting that this region proactively establishes an internally-directed attentional state that fosters recollection. We also found other regions (e.g., left middle temporal gyrus where the pattern of neural activity was related to subjects’ responding to related lures after stimulus onset (but not before, suggesting that these regions implement processes that are engaged in a reactive fashion to boost recollection.

  1. Examining ERP correlates of recognition memory: Evidence of accurate source recognition without recollection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addante, Richard, J.; Ranganath, Charan; Yonelinas, Andrew, P.

    2012-01-01

    Recollection is typically associated with high recognition confidence and accurate source memory. However, subjects sometimes make accurate source memory judgments even for items that are not confidently recognized, and it is not known whether these responses are based on recollection or some other memory process. In the current study, we measured event related potentials (ERPs) while subjects made item and source memory confidence judgments in order to determine whether recollection supported accurate source recognition responses for items that were not confidently recognized. In line with previous studies, we found that recognition memory was associated with two ERP effects: an early on-setting FN400 effect, and a later parietal old-new effect [Late Positive Component (LPC)], which have been associated with familiarity and recollection, respectively. The FN400 increased gradually with item recognition confidence, whereas the LPC was only observed for highly confident recognition responses. The LPC was also related to source accuracy, but only for items that had received a high confidence item recognition response; accurate source judgments to items that were less confidently recognized did not exhibit the typical ERP correlate of recollection or familiarity, but rather showed a late, broadly distributed negative ERP difference. The results indicate that accurate source judgments of episodic context can occur even when recollection fails. PMID:22548808

  2. Snow-clearing operations

    CERN Multimedia

    EN Department

    2010-01-01

    To facilitate snow clearing operations, which commence at 4.30 in the morning, all drivers of CERN cars are kindly requested to park them together in groups. This will help us greatly assist us in our work. Thank-you for your help. Transport Group / EN-HE Tel. 72202

  3. The Khachaturyan theory of elastic inclusions: Recollections and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    In keeping with the assignment, this paper has two parts. The first is a personal recollection of my interactions with Professor Armen Khachaturyan since he first visited Berkeley in the 1970s. The second part is a review of the Khachaturyan formulation of the theory of elastic inclusions, with emphasis on results found since his classic monograph on the Theory of Structural Transformations in Solids [Wiley, New York, 1983]. The focus here is on the shapes and habits of coherent inclusions. The basic theory is presented, briefly, to exhibit Khachaturyan's results for the strain and energy within a coherent inclusion and show that the elastic energy is minimal for a thin-plate morphology with a definite habit. The preferred habit of the thin-plate inclusion is then discussed and computed for inclusions with dyadic strain (including the dislocation loop) and coherent inclusions with orthorhombic or simpler symmetry. This is followed by a discussion of the evolution of precipitate shape during coarsening, including the theory of the spontaneous splitting of coarsening precipitates and the development of octahedral or tetrahedral shapes.

  4. 'Imagined guilt' vs 'recollected guilt': implications for fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclatchie, Neil; Giner-Sorolla, Roger; Derbyshire, Stuart W G

    2016-05-01

    Guilt is thought to maintain social harmony by motivating reparation. This study compared two methodologies commonly used to identify the neural correlates of guilt. The first, imagined guilt, requires participants to read hypothetical scenarios and then imagine themselves as the protagonist. The second, recollected guilt, requires participants to reflect on times they personally experienced guilt. In the fMRI scanner, participants were presented with guilt/neutral memories and guilt/neutral hypothetical scenarios. Contrasts confirmed a priori predictions that guilt memories, relative to guilt scenarios, were associated with significantly greater activity in regions associated with affect [anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), Caudate, Insula, orbital frontal cortex (OFC)] and social cognition [temporal pole (TP), precuneus). Similarly, results indicated that guilt memories, relative to neutral memories, were also associated with greater activity in affective (ACC, amygdala, Insula, OFC) and social cognition (mPFC, TP, precuneus, temporo-parietal junction) regions. There were no significant differences between guilt hypothetical scenarios and neutral hypothetical scenarios in either affective or social cognition regions. The importance of distinguishing between different guilt inductions inside the scanner is discussed. We offer explanations of our results and discuss ideas for future research. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma:

    OpenAIRE

    Lamovec, Janez; Pohar-Marinšek, Živa

    2003-01-01

    A case of eccrine clear cell hidradenocarcinoma of sweat gland origin is presented, disclosing its clinical behavior and morphologic characteristics asevidenced by fine needle aspiration biopsy and tissue section histology. Thepatient was a 53-years old male who had a tumor on his fifth toe for 16 years. The tumor recurred 18 months after excision and metastasized widely 17 months following the amputation of the toe due to the recurrence. In spite of chemotherapy the patient died 37 months af...

  6. Total Quality Management in Higher Education: Clearing the Hurdles. A Survey on Strategies for Implementing Quality Management Practices in Higher Education. A GOAL/QPC Application Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Daniel

    Based on a survey of Quality Management (QM) practitioners at 21 colleges, this study presents the 10 most difficult implementation hurdles to QM in higher education and a set of hurdle-clearing strategies. The hurdles are: (1) lack of time to implement QM; (2) perception that QM is something for janitorial and housing staffs but not applicable to…

  7. Investigating the Functional Utility of the Left Parietal ERP Old/New Effect: Brain Activity Predicts within But Not between Participant Variance in Episodic Recollection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. MacLeod

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A success story within neuroimaging has been the discovery of distinct neural correlates of episodic retrieval, providing insight into the processes that support memory for past life events. Here we focus on one commonly reported neural correlate, the left parietal old/new effect, a positive going modulation seen in event-related potential (ERP data that is widely considered to index episodic recollection. Substantial evidence links changes in the size of the left parietal effect to changes in remembering, but the precise functional utility of the effect remains unclear. Here, using forced choice recognition of verbal stimuli, we present a novel population level test of the hypothesis that the magnitude of the left parietal effect correlates with memory performance. We recorded ERPs during old/new recognition, source accuracy and Remember/Know/Guess tasks in two large samples of healthy young adults, and successfully replicated existing within participant modulations of the magnitude of the left parietal effect with recollection. Critically, however, both datasets also show that across participants the magnitude of the left parietal effect does not correlate with behavioral measures of memory – including both subjective and objective estimates of recollection. We conclude that in these tasks, and across this healthy young adult population, the generators of the left parietal ERP effect do not index performance as expected. Taken together, these novel findings provide important constraints on the functional interpretation of the left parietal effect, suggesting that between group differences in the magnitude of old/new effects cannot always safely be used to infer differences in recollection.

  8. Juvenile Lost River and shortnose sucker year class strength, survival, and growth in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, and Clear Lake Reservoir, California—2016 Monitoring Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Summer M.; Ostberg, Carl O.; Hoy, Marshal S.

    2018-04-20

    Executive SummaryThe largest populations of federally endangered Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) exist in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, and Clear Lake Reservoir, California. Upper Klamath Lake populations are decreasing because adult mortality, which is relatively low, is not being balanced by recruitment of young adult suckers into known spawning aggregations. Most Upper Klamath Lake juvenile sucker mortality appears to occur within the first year of life. Annual production of juvenile suckers in Clear Lake Reservoir appears to be highly variable and may not occur at all in very dry years. However, juvenile sucker survival is much higher in Clear Lake, with non-trivial numbers of suckers surviving to join spawning aggregations. Long-term monitoring of juvenile sucker populations is needed to (1) determine if there are annual and species-specific differences in production, survival, and growth, (2) to identify the season (summer or winter) in which most mortality occurs, and (3) to help identify potential causes of high juvenile sucker mortality, particularly in Upper Klamath Lake.We initiated an annual juvenile sucker monitoring program in 2015 to track cohorts in 3 months (June, August, and September) annually in Upper Klamath Lake and Clear Lake Reservoir. We tracked annual variability in age-0 sucker apparent production, juvenile sucker apparent survival, and apparent growth. Using genetic markers, we were able to classify suckers as one of three taxa: shortnose or Klamath largescale suckers, Lost River, or suckers with genetic markers of both species (Intermediate Prob[LRS]). Using catch data, we generated taxa-specific indices of year class strength, August–September apparent survival, and overwinter apparent survival. We also examined prevalence and severity of afflictions such as parasites, wounds, and deformities.Indices of year class strength in Upper Klamath Lake were similar for shortnose suckers in 2015

  9. Recollections of Childhood Religious Identity and Behavior as a Function of Adult Religiousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, R. David; Maselko, Joanna; Meador, Keith G.

    2012-01-01

    People have a strong motivation to maintain a self-concept that is coherent and consistent over time. Religion is an central source of social identity for many people, but its importance is prone to dramatic change across the life course. To maintain a consistent perception of self, recollections of one’s own past religiousness may shift to better fit with the present. This study examined changes between early and middle adulthood in retrospective perceptions of religious behavior and identity in childhood. Data from a population-based birth cohort sample were matched with data from individuals who participated in at least two of three adult follow-up studies, at intervals of approximately 10 years. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association of final recollections of childhood behavior and identity with previous recollections and current religious characteristics. Consistent with the predictions of temporal self-appraisal theory, participants’ perception of their religious identity as children tended to change over time to match their adult religious identity. Recollections of childhood religious behavior were more stable than recollections of religious identity, and change was unrelated to adult behavior. These results have implications for studying religious characteristics using retrospective measures, regarding their accuracy and their independence from contemporary measures. PMID:22844186

  10. Recollection is a continuous process: Evidence from plurality memory receiver operating characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Scott D; Jeye, Brittany M; Dodson, Chad S

    2016-01-01

    Is recollection a continuous/graded process or a threshold/all-or-none process? Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis can answer this question as the continuous model and the threshold model predict curved and linear recollection ROCs, respectively. As memory for plurality, an item's previous singular or plural form, is assumed to rely on recollection, the nature of recollection can be investigated by evaluating plurality memory ROCs. The present study consisted of four experiments. During encoding, words (singular or plural) or objects (single/singular or duplicate/plural) were presented. During retrieval, old items with the same plurality or different plurality were presented. For each item, participants made a confidence rating ranging from "very sure old", which was correct for same plurality items, to "very sure new", which was correct for different plurality items. Each plurality memory ROC was the proportion of same versus different plurality items classified as "old" (i.e., hits versus false alarms). Chi-squared analysis revealed that all of the plurality memory ROCs were adequately fit by the continuous unequal variance model, whereas none of the ROCs were adequately fit by the two-high threshold model. These plurality memory ROC results indicate recollection is a continuous process, which complements previous source memory and associative memory ROC findings.

  11. Examining the causes of memory strength variability: recollection, attention failure, or encoding variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen, Joshua D; Aly, Mariam; Wang, Wei-Chun; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2013-11-01

    A prominent finding in recognition memory is that studied items are associated with more variability in memory strength than new items. Here, we test 3 competing theories for why this occurs-the encoding variability, attention failure, and recollection accounts. Distinguishing among these theories is critical because each provides a fundamentally different account of the processes underlying recognition memory. The encoding variability and attention failure accounts propose that old item variance will be unaffected by retrieval manipulations because the processes producing this effect are ascribed to encoding. The recollection account predicts that both encoding and retrieval manipulations that preferentially affect recollection will affect memory variability. These contrasting predictions were tested by examining the effect of response speeding (Experiment 1), dividing attention at retrieval (Experiment 2), context reinstatement (Experiment 3), and increased test delay (Experiment 4) on recognition performance. The results of all 4 experiments confirm the predictions of the recollection account and are inconsistent with the encoding variability account. The evidence supporting the attention failure account is mixed, with 2 of the 4 experiments confirming the account and 2 disconfirming the account. These results indicate that encoding variability and attention failure are insufficient accounts of memory variance and provide support for the recollection account. Several alternative theoretical accounts of the results are also considered. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Signatures of memory: brain coactivations during retrieval distinguish correct from incorrect recollection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avi Mendelsohn

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Are specific distributed coactivations in the brain during memory retrieval a signature of retrieval outcome? Here we show that this is indeed the case. Widespread brain networks were reported to be involved in the retrieval of long-term episodic memories. Although functional coactivation among particular regions occurs during episodic memory retrieval, it is unknown to what extent it contributes to the accuracy and confidence of recollection. In this study we set out to explore this question. Participants saw a narrative documentary movie. A week later they underwent an fMRI scan during which they either accepted or rejected factual or fictitious verbal statements concerning the movie. Correct vs. incorrect responses to factual statements were more common and were provided with higher confidence than those made to fictitious statements. Whereas activity in the retrieval network correlated mostly with confidence, coactivations primarily correlated with memory accuracy. Specifically, coactivations of left medial temporal lobe regions with temporal and parietal cortices were greater during correct responses to factual statements, but did not differ between responses to fictitious statements. We propose that network coactivations play a role in recovering memory traces that are relevant to online retrieval cues, culminating in distinct retrieval outcomes.

  13. Process dissociation analyses of memory changes in healthy aging, preclinical, and very mild Alzheimer disease: Evidence for isolated recollection deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Peter R; Balota, David A; Maddox, Geoffrey B; Duchek, Janet M; Aschenbrenner, Andrew J; Fagan, Anne M; Benzinger, Tammie L S; Morris, John C

    2017-10-01

    Recollection and familiarity are independent processes that contribute to memory performance. Recollection is dependent on attentional control, which has been shown to be disrupted in early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD), whereas familiarity is independent of attention. The present longitudinal study examines the sensitivity of recollection estimates based on Jacoby's (1991) process dissociation procedure to AD-related biomarkers in a large sample of well-characterized cognitively normal middle-aged and older adults (N = 519) and the extent to which recollection discriminates these individuals from individuals with very mild symptomatic AD (N = 64). Participants studied word pairs (e.g., knee bone), then completed a primed, explicit, cued fragment-completion memory task (e.g., knee b_n_). Primes were either congruent with the correct response (e.g., bone), incongruent (e.g., bend), or neutral (e.g., &). This design allowed for the estimation of independent contributions of recollection and familiarity processes, using the process dissociation procedure. Recollection, but not familiarity, was impaired in healthy aging and in very mild AD. Recollection discriminated cognitively normal individuals from the earliest detectable stage of symptomatic AD above and beyond standard psychometric tests. In cognitively normal individuals, baseline CSF measures indicative of AD pathology were related to lower initial recollection and less practice-related improvement in recollection over time. Finally, presence of amyloid plaques, as imaged by PIB-PET, was also related to less improvement in recollection over time. These findings suggest that attention-demanding memory processes, such as recollection, may be particularly sensitive to both symptomatic and preclinical AD pathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Are affective events richly recollected or simply familiar? The experience and process of recognizing feelings past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, K N

    2000-06-01

    The author used the remember/know paradigm and the dual process recognition model of A. P. Yonelinas, N. E. A. Kroll, I. Dobbins, M. Lazzara, and R. T. Knight (1998) to study the states of awareness accompanying recognition of affective images and the processes of recollection and familiarity that may underlie them. Results from all experiments showed that (a) negative stimuli tended to be remembered, whereas positive stimuli tended to be known; (b) recollection, but not familiarity, was boosted for negative or highly arousing and, to a lesser extent, positive stimuli; and (c) across experiments, variations in depth of encoding did not influence these patterns. These data suggest that greater recollection for affective events leads them to be more richly experienced in memory, and they are consistent with the idea that the states of remembering and knowing are experientially exclusive, whereas the processes underlying them are functionally independent.

  15. Recollection of Emotional Memories in Schizophrenia: Autonoetic awareness and specificity deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Neumann

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory impairments seem to play a crucial role in schizophrenia. Most of the studies that have demonstrated such a deficit have used neutral material, leaving the recollection of emotional memories in schizophrenia unexplored. An overview is presented of a series of studies investigating the influence of emotion on episodic and autobiographical memory in schizophrenia. These experiments share a common experimental approach in which states of awareness accompanying recollection are considered. Results show that schizophrenia impairs conscious recollection in episodic and autobiographical memory tasks using emotional material. Schizophrenia is also associated with a reduction of the specificity with which autobiographical memories are recalled. An hypothesis in terms of a fundamental executive deficit underlying these impairments is proposed.

  16. Differential effects of stress-induced cortisol responses on recollection and familiarity-based recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Andrew M; Ritchey, Maureen; Ranganath, Charan; Yonelinas, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Stress-induced changes in cortisol can impact memory in various ways. However, the precise relationship between cortisol and recognition memory is still poorly understood. For instance, there is reason to believe that stress could differentially affect recollection-based memory, which depends on the hippocampus, and familiarity-based recognition, which can be supported by neocortical areas alone. Accordingly, in the current study we examined the effects of stress-related changes in cortisol on the processes underlying recognition memory. Stress was induced with a cold-pressor test after incidental encoding of emotional and neutral pictures, and recollection and familiarity-based recognition memory were measured one day later. The relationship between stress-induced cortisol responses and recollection was non-monotonic, such that subjects with moderate stress-related increases in cortisol had the highest levels of recollection. In contrast, stress-related cortisol responses were linearly related to increases in familiarity. In addition, measures of cortisol taken at the onset of the experiment showed that individuals with higher levels of pre-learning cortisol had lower levels of both recollection and familiarity. The results are consistent with the proposition that hippocampal-dependent memory processes such as recollection function optimally under moderate levels of stress, whereas more cortically-based processes such as familiarity are enhanced even with higher levels of stress. These results indicate that whether post-encoding stress improves or disrupts recognition memory depends on the specific memory process examined as well as the magnitude of the stress-induced cortisol response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Compatibility of the Relationship of Early Recollections and Life Style with Parent Schemas Obtained through Adlerian Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canel, Azize Nilgün

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the Adlerian Interview Form has been used as a semi-structured, in-depth interview method to identify the experiences of six participants regarding Adler's concepts of early recollections and life style. Subsequent to transcribing the obtained information, recollections to be included in the analysis were subjected to the criterion…

  18. Semantic Memory Recognition Is Supported by Intrinsic Recollection-Like Processes: "The Butcher on the Bus" Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waidergoren, Shani; Segalowicz, Judith; Gilboa, Asaf

    2012-01-01

    Dual-process models suggest that recognition memory is independently supported by recollection and familiarity. Current theories attribute recollection solely to hippocampally mediated episodic memory (EM), and familiarity to both episodic and semantic memory (SM) supported by medial temporal lobe cortex (MTLC) and prefrontal cortex. We tested…

  19. Development and Initial Evaluation of the ClearSpeak Style for Automated Speaking of Algebra. Research Report No. RR-16-23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Lois; Brownstein, Beth; Soiffer, Neil; Hansen, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The work described in this report is the first phase of a project to provide easy-to-use tools for authoring and rendering secondary-school algebra-level math expressions in synthesized speech that is useful for students with blindness or low vision. This report describes the initial development, software implementation, and evaluation of the…

  20. Development and Initial Evaluation of the ClearSpeak Style for Automated Speaking of Algebra. Research Report. ETS RR-16-23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Lois; Brownstein, Beth; Soiffer, Neil; Hansen, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The work described in this report is the first phase of a project to provide easy-to-use tools for authoring and rendering secondary-school algebra-level math expressions in synthesized speech that is useful for students with blindness or low vision. This report describes the initial development, software implementation, and evaluation of the…

  1. The Cult of 'Krazy Kat': Memory and Recollection in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Humphrey

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available George Herriman’s comic strip 'Krazy Kat' has been discussed in mythic terms for more than half a century. This article argues that much of this ‘mythology’ has not been founded on the material itself, but rather on memories and recollections of readers and critics. Using Walter Benjamin’s notions of cult value and exhibition value, this article investigates the historical circumstances that shaped the most prominent of these recollections to show how writers like Gilbert Seldes and E. E. Cummings shaped the myth of 'Krazy Kat' to create an ‘aura’ of genius around a work that was largely inaccessible to most readers.

  2. Reporting Quality of Search Methods in Systematic Reviews of HIV Behavioral Interventions (2000–2010): Are the Searches Clearly Explained, Systematic and Reproducible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Mary M.; DeLuca, Julia B.; Crepaz, Nicole; Lyles, Cynthia M.

    2018-01-01

    Systematic reviews are an essential tool for researchers, prevention providers and policy makers who want to remain current with the evidence in the field. Systematic review must adhere to strict standards, as the results can provide a more objective appraisal of evidence for making scientific decisions than traditional narrative reviews. An integral component of a systematic review is the development and execution of a comprehensive systematic search to collect available and relevant information. A number of reporting guidelines have been developed to ensure quality publications of systematic reviews. These guidelines provide the essential elements to include in the review process and report in the final publication for complete transparency. We identified the common elements of reporting guidelines and examined the reporting quality of search methods in HIV behavioral intervention literature. Consistent with the findings from previous evaluations of reporting search methods of systematic reviews in other fields, our review shows a lack of full and transparent reporting within systematic reviews even though a plethora of guidelines exist. This review underscores the need for promoting the completeness of and adherence to transparent systematic search reporting within systematic reviews. PMID:26052651

  3. 77 FR 21277 - Customer Clearing Documentation, Timing of Acceptance for Clearing, and Clearing Member Risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ..., 23, 37, et al. Customer Clearing Documentation, Timing of Acceptance for Clearing, and Clearing..., 38, and 39 RIN 3038-0092, -0094 Customer Clearing Documentation, Timing of Acceptance for Clearing... implement new statutory provisions enacted by Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer...

  4. Primary clear cell sarcoma of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.H.; Gu, M.J.; Kim, M.J.; Bae, Y.K.; Choi, W.H.; Shin, D.S.; Cho, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma is a rare soft tissue sarcoma of young adults with melanocytic differentiation. It occurs predominantly in the soft tissue of extremities, typically involving tendons and aponeuroses. Primary clear cell sarcoma of bone is extremely rare. We report a case of primary clear cell sarcoma of the right first metatarsal in a 48-year-old woman and provide a literature review of the entity. (orig.)

  5. Well-kept secret. Despite a lack of clearly defined standards, hospitals are under increasing pressure to publicly report charity-care figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaklevic, Mary Chris

    2004-06-21

    Because hospitals have wildly divergent policies on reporting how much charity care they deliver, some fear the standards are so lax that they won't be able to defend their tax exemptions in court. Charity-care data are "all over the map," says Susan Sherry, left, deputy director of Community Catalyst.

  6. Some-or-None Recollection: Evidence from Item and Source Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyper, Serge V.; Zhang, Yaofei X.; Howard, Marc W.

    2010-01-01

    Dual-process theory hypothesizes that recognition memory depends on 2 distinguishable memory signals. Recollection reflects conscious recovery of detailed information about the learning episode. Familiarity reflects a memory signal that is not accompanied by a vivid conscious experience but nonetheless enables participants to distinguish recently…

  7. Meanings of Good Nonresidential Fathering: The Recollections of Young Adults with a Childhood Experience of Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wages, Alan, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the meanings of good nonresidential fathering from the recollections of young adults with a childhood experience of divorce. An additional purpose was to identify barriers and contributions to good nonresidential fathering from the viewpoint of young adults. A phenomenological perspective was used to…

  8. "What-Where-Which" Episodic Retrieval Requires Conscious Recollection and Is Promoted by Semantic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saive, Anne-Lise; Royet, Jean-Pierre; Garcia, Samuel; Thévenet, Marc; Plailly, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Episodic memory is defined as the conscious retrieval of specific past events. Whether accurate episodic retrieval requires a recollective experience or if a feeling of knowing is sufficient remains unresolved. We recently devised an ecological approach to investigate the controlled cued-retrieval of episodes composed of unnamable odors (What) located spatially (Where) within a visual context (Which context). By combining the Remember/Know procedure with our laboratory-ecological approach in an original way, the present study demonstrated that the accurate odor-evoked retrieval of complex and multimodal episodes overwhelmingly required conscious recollection. A feeling of knowing, even when associated with a high level of confidence, was not sufficient to generate accurate episodic retrieval. Interestingly, we demonstrated that the recollection of accurate episodic memories was promoted by odor retrieval-cue familiarity and describability. In conclusion, our study suggested that semantic knowledge about retrieval-cues increased the recollection which is the state of awareness required for the accurate retrieval of complex episodic memories. PMID:26630170

  9. Examining the Causes of Memory Strength Variability: Recollection, Attention Failure, or Encoding Variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen, Joshua D.; Aly, Mariam; Wang, Wei-Chun; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    A prominent finding in recognition memory is that studied items are associated with more variability in memory strength than new items. Here, we test 3 competing theories for why this occurs--the "encoding variability," "attention failure", and "recollection" accounts. Distinguishing among these theories is critical…

  10. Context-dependent impairment of recollection in list-method directed forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Pasek, Tomasz; Zawadzka, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    In list-method directed forgetting, people's ability to forget one of the sets of learned material is examined. Research shows that memory for to-be-forgotten items is impaired when assessed by a recall test and by recognition tests reliant on recollective processes. Retrieval inhibition and context-change mechanisms have been proposed to account for the directed forgetting effects and both of them account for the results obtained with recognition tests. However, the context change account makes a specific prediction that recollection is impaired by directed forgetting only if it makes use of contextual associations. In the present study, directed forgetting was examined with two types of recollection-based tasks making use of different types of associations, namely a list discrimination task utilising contextual associations and an associative recognition task utilising interitem associations. Consistent with the context change account, the costs of directed forgetting were observed in a list discrimination task and were not observed in an associative recognition task. The results indicate that impairment in recollection due to directed forgetting is not general and provide converging evidence to support the context-change account.

  11. Immigrant-Background Australians' Recollections of Justice, Injustice and Agency in Stories about Starting School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, Tuija A.; Perry, Bob

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the recollections of justice, injustice and agency in the autobiographical narratives of a group of Australian immigrants who shared their experiences of starting school. The data consists of 24 autobiographical narrative interviews with participants who started school either overseas and then in Australia, or in…

  12. Individual differences in forced-choice recognition memory: partitioning contributions of recollection and familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migo, Ellen M; Quamme, Joel R; Holmes, Selina; Bendell, Andrew; Norman, Kenneth A; Mayes, Andrew R; Montaldi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    In forced-choice recognition memory, two different testing formats are possible under conditions of high target-foil similarity: Each target can be presented alongside foils similar to itself (forced-choice corresponding; FCC), or alongside foils similar to other targets (forced-choice noncorresponding; FCNC). Recent behavioural and neuropsychological studies suggest that FCC performance can be supported by familiarity whereas FCNC performance is supported primarily by recollection. In this paper, we corroborate this finding from an individual differences perspective. A group of older adults were given a test of FCC and FCNC recognition for object pictures, as well as standardized tests of recall, recognition, and IQ. Recall measures were found to predict FCNC, but not FCC performance, consistent with a critical role for recollection in FCNC only. After the common influence of recall was removed, standardized tests of recognition predicted FCC, but not FCNC performance. This is consistent with a contribution of only familiarity in FCC. Simulations show that a two-process model, where familiarity and recollection make separate contributions to recognition, is 10 times more likely to give these results than a single-process model. This evidence highlights the importance of recognition memory test design when examining the involvement of recollection and familiarity.

  13. "What-Where-Which" Episodic Retrieval Requires Conscious Recollection and Is Promoted by Semantic Knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lise Saive

    Full Text Available Episodic memory is defined as the conscious retrieval of specific past events. Whether accurate episodic retrieval requires a recollective experience or if a feeling of knowing is sufficient remains unresolved. We recently devised an ecological approach to investigate the controlled cued-retrieval of episodes composed of unnamable odors (What located spatially (Where within a visual context (Which context. By combining the Remember/Know procedure with our laboratory-ecological approach in an original way, the present study demonstrated that the accurate odor-evoked retrieval of complex and multimodal episodes overwhelmingly required conscious recollection. A feeling of knowing, even when associated with a high level of confidence, was not sufficient to generate accurate episodic retrieval. Interestingly, we demonstrated that the recollection of accurate episodic memories was promoted by odor retrieval-cue familiarity and describability. In conclusion, our study suggested that semantic knowledge about retrieval-cues increased the recollection which is the state of awareness required for the accurate retrieval of complex episodic memories.

  14. "What-Where-Which" Episodic Retrieval Requires Conscious Recollection and Is Promoted by Semantic Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saive, Anne-Lise; Royet, Jean-Pierre; Garcia, Samuel; Thévenet, Marc; Plailly, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Episodic memory is defined as the conscious retrieval of specific past events. Whether accurate episodic retrieval requires a recollective experience or if a feeling of knowing is sufficient remains unresolved. We recently devised an ecological approach to investigate the controlled cued-retrieval of episodes composed of unnamable odors (What) located spatially (Where) within a visual context (Which context). By combining the Remember/Know procedure with our laboratory-ecological approach in an original way, the present study demonstrated that the accurate odor-evoked retrieval of complex and multimodal episodes overwhelmingly required conscious recollection. A feeling of knowing, even when associated with a high level of confidence, was not sufficient to generate accurate episodic retrieval. Interestingly, we demonstrated that the recollection of accurate episodic memories was promoted by odor retrieval-cue familiarity and describability. In conclusion, our study suggested that semantic knowledge about retrieval-cues increased the recollection which is the state of awareness required for the accurate retrieval of complex episodic memories.

  15. Control of recollection by slow gamma dominating mid-frequency gamma in hippocampus CA1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Dino; Radwan, Basma; Sparks, Fraser T.; Talbot, Zoe Nicole

    2018-01-01

    Behavior is used to assess memory and cognitive deficits in animals like Fmr1-null mice that model Fragile X Syndrome, but behavior is a proxy for unknown neural events that define cognitive variables like recollection. We identified an electrophysiological signature of recollection in mouse dorsal Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) hippocampus. During a shocked-place avoidance task, slow gamma (SG) (30–50 Hz) dominates mid-frequency gamma (MG) (70–90 Hz) oscillations 2–3 s before successful avoidance, but not failures. Wild-type (WT) but not Fmr1-null mice rapidly adapt to relocating the shock; concurrently, SG/MG maxima (SGdom) decrease in WT but not in cognitively inflexible Fmr1-null mice. During SGdom, putative pyramidal cell ensembles represent distant locations; during place avoidance, these are avoided places. During shock relocation, WT ensembles represent distant locations near the currently correct shock zone, but Fmr1-null ensembles represent the formerly correct zone. These findings indicate that recollection occurs when CA1 SG dominates MG and that accurate recollection of inappropriate memories explains Fmr1-null cognitive inflexibility. PMID:29346381

  16. An ontology-based question system for a virtual coach assisting in trauma recollection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielman, M.; Meggelen, M. van; Neerincx, M.A.; Brinkman, W.P.

    2015-01-01

    Internet-based guided self-therapy systems provide a novel method for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder patients to follow therapy at home with the assistance of a virtual coach. One of the main challenges for such a coach is assisting patients with recollecting their traumatic memories, a vital part

  17. Recognition Errors Suggest Fast Familiarity and Slow Recollection in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    One influential model of recognition posits two underlying memory processes: recollection, which is detailed but relatively slow, and familiarity, which is quick but lacks detail. Most of the evidence for this dual-process model in nonhumans has come from analyses of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves in rats, but whether ROC analyses…

  18. An inventory of student recollections of their past misconceptions as a tool for improved classroom astronomy instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favia, Andrej

    My Ph.D. research is about examining the persistence of 215 common misconceptions in astronomy. Each misconception is based on an often commonly-held incorrect belief by college students taking introductory astronomy. At the University of Maine, the course is taught in alternating semesters by Prof. Neil F. Comins and Prof. David J. Batuski. In this dissertation, I examine the persistence of common astronomy misconceptions by the administration of a retrospective survey. The survey is a new instrument in that it permits the student to indicate either endorsement or rejection of each misconception at various stages in the student's life. I analyze data from a total of 639 students over six semesters. I compare the survey data to the results of exams taken by the students and additional instruments that assess students' misconceptions prior to instruction. I show that the consistency of the students' recollection of their own misconceptions is on par with the consistency of responses between prelims and the final exam. I also find that students who report higher increased childhood interest in astronomy are more likely to have accurate recalls of their own past recollections. I then discuss the use of principal components analysis as a technique for describing the extent to which misconceptions are correlated with each other. The analysis yields logical groupings of subtopics from which to teach. I then present a brief overview of item response theory, the methodology of which calculates relative difficulties of the items. My analysis reveals orders to teach the associated topics in ways that are most effective at dispelling misconceptions during instruction. I also find that the best order to teach the associated concepts is often different for high school and college level courses.

  19. Laryngeal Sensation Before and After Clearing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Gerlach, Terri Treman; Sutton, Lori Ellen; Dawson, Amy Elizabeth; Nietert, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Purpose People frequently present to voice clinics with complaints of irritating laryngeal sensations. Clinicians attempt to reduce the irritating sensations and their common sequela, coughing and throat clearing, by advocating for techniques that remove the irritation with less harm to the vocal fold tissue. Despite the prevalence of patients with these complaints, it is not known if the less harmful techniques recommended by clinicians are effective at clearing irritating laryngeal sensations or that irritating laryngeal sensations are, in fact, more frequent in people with voice disorders than people without voice disorders. Method Assessments of participant reported laryngeal sensation, pre- and post- clearing task, were obtained from 22 people with and 24 people without a voice disorder. Six clearing tasks were used to preliminarily evaluate the differing effects of tasks believed to be deleterious and ameliorative. Results People with and without voice disorders reported pre-clear laryngeal sensation at a similar rate. Post-clear sensation was less likely to be completely or partially removed in people with voice disorders than in the non-voice disordered group. Hard throat clear and swallow with water were the most effective techniques at removing laryngeal sensation. Conclusions The findings provide initial evidence for some of the clinical practices common to treating patients with voice disorders and chronic clearing such as advocating for swallowing a sip of water as a replacement behavior instead of coughing or throat clearing. However, the findings raise questions about other practices such as associating irritating laryngeal sensation with a voice disorder. PMID:22717491

  20. Retrieval orientation and the control of recollection: an fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcom, Alexa M.; Rugg, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    The present study used event-related fMRI to examine the impact of the adoption of different retrieval orientations on the neural correlates of recollection. In each of two study-test blocks, subjects encoded a mixed list of words and pictures, and then performed a recognition memory task with words as the test items. In one block, the requirement was to respond positively to test items corresponding to studied words, and to reject both new items and items corresponding to the studied pictures. In the other block, positive responses were made to test items corresponding to pictures, and items corresponding to words were classified along with the new items. Based on previous event-related potential (ERP) findings, we predicted that in the word task, recollection-related effects would be found for target information only. This prediction was fulfilled. In both tasks, targets elicited the characteristic pattern of recollection-related activity. By contrast, non-targets elicited this pattern in the picture task, but not in the word task. Importantly, the left angular gyrus was among the regions demonstrating this dissociation of non-target recollection effects according to retrieval orientation. The findings for the angular gyrus parallel prior findings for the `left-parietal' ERP old/new effect, and add to the evidence that the effect reflects recollection-related neural activity originating in left ventral parietal cortex. Thus, the results converge with the previous ERP findings to suggest that the processing of retrieval cues can be constrained to prevent the retrieval of goal-irrelevant information. PMID:23110678

  1. Are lung imaging reporting and data system categories clear to radiologists? A survey of the Korean Society of Thoracic Radiology members on ten difficult -to classify scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dae Hee; Ahn, Myeong Im [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Jin Mo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chong, Se Min [Dept. of Radiology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    To evaluate possible variability in chest radiologists' interpretations of the Lung Imaging Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS) on difficult-to-classify scenarios. Ten scenarios of difficult-to-classify imaginary lung nodules were prepared as an online survey that targeted Korean Society of Thoracic Radiology members. In each question, a description was provided of the size, consistency, and interval change (new or growing) of a lung nodule observed using annual repeat computed tomography, and the respondent was instructed to choose one answer from five choices: category 2, 3, 4A, or 4B, or 'un-categorizable.' Consensus answers were established by members of the Korean Imaging Study Group for Lung Cancer. Of the 420 answers from 42 respondents (excluding multiple submissions), 310 (73.8%) agreed with the consensus answers; eleven (26.2%) respondents agreed with the consensus answers to six or fewer questions. Assigning the imaginary nodules to categories higher than the consensus answer was more frequent (16.0%) than assigning them to lower categories (5.5%), and the agreement rate was below 50% for two scenarios. When given difficult-to-classify scenarios, chest radiologists showed large variability in their interpretations of the Lung-RADS categories, with high frequencies of disagreement in some specific scenarios.

  2. Clearing and vegetation management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Clearing and continued management of incompatible plant species is critical to maintaining safe and reliable transmission and distribution lines at British Columbia Hydro. As part of a general review of policies regarding rights-of-way, the clearing of BC Hydro rights-of-way was studied by a task team in order to formulate a set of recommended policies and procedures to guide employees in all rights-of-way decisions, and to provide clear direction for resolution of all rights-of-way issues in a cost-effective manner. Issues reviewed were: clearing standards and line security standardization for transmission circuits; clearing rights for removal of trees or management of vegetation beyond the statutory right-of-way; clearing and vegetation management procedures; tree replacement; arboricultural techniques; periodic reviewing of clearing practices; compensation for tree removal; herbicide use; and heritage and wildlife trees. Justification for the recommendation is provided along with alternate options and costs of compliance

  3. The Effects of Cognitive Appraisal and Emotion on Consumer Behavior: The Critical Role of Recollection in the Luxury Cruise Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Joo, Eunkyung; Shin, Hyejin; Kim, Insin; Choi, Jinsung; Jang, Junhwa; Hyun, Sunghyup

    2016-01-01

    Abstract de la ponencia [EN] The purposes of this study were: (1) to integrate the cognitive appraisal theory and script theory; (2) to examine the bonding character of recollection; and (3) to assess the relationships between consumers ‘appraisals, positive/negative emotions, recollection, storytelling and repurchase intention. A review of previous studies revealed 14 theoretical hypotheses. The proposed hypotheses were tested utilizing data collected from 300 luxury cru...

  4. CLEARING OF ELECTRON CLOUD IN SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WANG, L.; LEE, Y.Y.; RAPRIA, D.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we describe a mechanism using the clearing electrodes to remove the electron cloud in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring, where strong multipacting could happen at median clearing fields. A similar phenomenon was reported in an experimental study at Los Alamos laboratory's Proton Synchrotron Ring (PSR). We also investigated the effectiveness of the solenoid's clearing mechanism in the SNS, which differs from the short bunch case, such as in B-factories. The titanium nitride (TiN) coating of the chamber walls was applied to reduce the secondary electron yield (SEY)

  5. Primary clear cell sarcoma of rib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hersekli, Murat Ali; Ozkoc, Gurkan; Akpinar, Sercan; Ozalay, Metin; Tandogan, Reha N.; Bircan, Sema; Tuncer, Ilhan

    2005-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (malignant melanoma of soft tissues) is a very rare soft tissue neoplasm. It generally arises in tendons and aponeuroses. Although metastasis of malignant melanoma to bone is not uncommon, primary clear cell sarcoma of bone is an extremely rare neoplasm. To our knowledge five cases have been reported in the English literature. We present a case of primary clear cell sarcoma of bone in a 28-year-old woman arising in the left ninth rib. We treated the patient with total excision of the mass and postoperative radiotherapy. The patient is alive and well without local recurrence or distant metastasis at 33 months after surgery. (orig.)

  6. Do you remember proposing marriage to the Pepsi machine? False recollections from a campus walk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamon, John G; Philbin, Morgan M; Harrison, Liza G

    2006-10-01

    During a campus walk, participants were given familiar or bizarre action statements (e.g., "Check the Pepsi machine for change" vs. "Propose marriage to the Pepsi machine") with instructions either to perform the actions or imagine performing the actions (Group 1) or to watch the experimenter perform the actions or imagine the experimenter performing the actions (Group 2). One day later, some actions were repeated, along with new actions, on a second walk. Two weeks later, the participants took a recognition test for actions presented during the first walk, and they specified whether a recognized action was imagined or performed. Imagining themselves or the experimenter performing familiar or bizarre actions just once led to false recollections of performance for both types of actions. This study extends previous research on imagination inflation by demonstrating that these false performance recollections can occur in a natural, real-life setting following just one imagining.

  7. Levels-of-processing effects on recollection and familiarity during transient global amnesia and after recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Patrizia; Schwarz, Michael; Daum, Irene

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the pattern of recollection and familiarity deficits and the modulation of recognition memory performance by the depth of encoding (deep vs. shallow) in transient global amnesia (TGA). Ten patients with TGA and 11 control subjects were assessed during the acute stage and after recovery 7 to 19 days later. Both recollection and familiarity were impaired in the acute stage and showed significant, albeit not complete, recovery by the time of the postacute assessment. The patients did, however, show a significant levels-of-processing effect, which was significantly reduced in acute TGA, but not at follow-up. The significant levels-of-processing effect during acute TGA might be linked to recruitment of the prefrontal cortex. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  8. Latent constructs of the autobiographical memory questionnaire: a recollection-belief model of autobiographical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Joseph M; Broadbridge, Carissa L

    2013-01-01

    Many researchers employ single-item scales of subjective experiences such as imagery and confidence to assess autobiographical memory. We tested the hypothesis that four latent constructs, recollection, belief, impact, and rehearsal, account for the variance in commonly used scales across four different types of autobiographical memory: earliest childhood memory, cue word memory of personal experience, highly vivid memory, and most stressful memory. Participants rated each memory on scales hypothesised to be indicators of one of four latent constructs. Multi-group confirmatory factor analyses and structural analyses confirmed the similarity of the latent constructs of recollection, belief, impact, and rehearsal, as well as the similarity of the structural relationships among those constructs across memory type. The observed pattern of mean differences between the varieties of autobiographical experiences was consistent with prior research and theory in the study of autobiographical memory.

  9. The Effect of Ageing on the Relationship between Subjective and Objective Recollection after Differential Encoding Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    The provision of environmental support is known to have differential effects on recognition memory in younger and older adults. Age-related differences within recognition memory were explored by investigating recollection and familiarity, and looking at their relationship with associative recognition memory. Additionally, environmental support, manipulated by different encoding conditions, was investigated by looking at its effect on this relationship, by comparing recognition memory for item...

  10. Individual differences in forced-choice recognition memory:Partitioning contributions of recollection and familiarity

    OpenAIRE

    Migo, Ellen M.; Quamme, Joel R.; Holmes, Selina; Bendell, Andrew; Norman, Kenneth A.; Mayes, Andrew R.; Montaldi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    In forced-choice recognition memory, two different testing formats are possible under conditions of high target-foil similarity: Each target can be presented alongside foils similar to itself (forced-choice corresponding; FCC), or alongside foils similar to other targets (forced-choice noncorresponding; FCNC). Recent behavioural and neuropsychological studies suggest that FCC performance can be supported by familiarity whereas FCNC performance is supported primarily by recollection. In this p...

  11. Media Language, Clear or Obscure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Bjarne le Fevre; Ejstrup, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract— Be clear, not obscure. One of the four maxims for optimal communication is that it is essential to develop proficiency in being concise and clear. The question is whether this is really a good idea in all contexts. There is some evidence to the contrary. Undoubtedly, we have many contexts...

  12. The effect of glucose administration on the recollection and familiarity components of recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sünram-Lea, Sandra I; Dewhurst, Stephen A; Foster, Jonathan K

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that glucose administration facilitates long-term memory performance. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effect of glucose administration on different components of long-term recognition memory. Fifty-six healthy young individuals received (a) a drink containing 25 g of glucose or (b) an inert placebo drink. Recollection and familiarity components of recognition memory were measured using the 'remember-know' paradigm. The results revealed that glucose administration led to significantly increased proportion of recognition responses based on recollection, but had no effect on the proportion of recognition responses made through participants' detection of stimulus familiarity. Consequently, the data suggest that glucose administration appears to facilitate recognition memory that is accompanied by recollection of contextual details and episodic richness. The findings also suggest that memory tasks that result in high levels of hippocampal activity may be more likely to be enhanced by glucose administration than tasks that are less reliant on medial temporal lobe structures.

  13. The relationship between recollection, knowledge transfer, and student attitudes towards chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeleye, Oluwatobi Omobonike

    Certain foundational concepts, including acid-base theory, chemical bonding and intermolecular forces (IMFs), appear throughout the undergraduate chemistry curriculum. The level of understanding of these foundational concepts influences the ability of students to recognize the relationships between sub-disciplines in chemistry. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between student attitudes towards chemistry and their abilities to recollect and transfer knowledge of IMFs, a foundational concept, to their daily lives as well as to other classes. Data were collected using surveys, interviews and classroom observations, and analyzed using qualitative methods. The data show that while most students were able to function at lower levels of thinking by providing a definition of IMFs, majority were unable to function at higher levels of thinking as evidenced by their inability to apply their knowledge of IMFs to their daily lives and other classes. The results of this study suggest a positive relationship between students' abilities to recollect knowledge and their abilities to transfer that knowledge. The results also suggest positive relationships between recollection abilities of students and their attitudes towards chemistry as well as their transfer abilities and attitudes towards chemistry. Recommendations from this study include modifications of pedagogical techniques in ways that facilitate higher-level thinking and emphasize how chemistry applies not only to daily life, but also to other courses.

  14. Improving everyday memory performance after acquired brain injury: An RCT on recollection and working memory training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Kim Merle; Mödden, Claudia; Eling, Paul; Hildebrandt, Helmut

    2018-04-26

    To show the effectiveness of a combined recognition and working memory training on everyday memory performance in patients suffering from organic memory disorders. In this double-blind, randomized controlled Study 36 patients with organic memory impairments, mainly attributable to stroke, were assigned to either the experimental or the active control group. In the experimental group a working memory training was combined with a recollection training based on the repetition-lag procedure. Patients in the active control group received the memory therapy usually provided in the rehabilitation center. Both groups received nine hours of therapy. Prior (T0) and subsequent (T1) to the therapy, patients were evaluated on an everyday memory test (EMT) as well as on a neuropsychological test battery. Based on factor analysis of the neuropsychological test scores at T0 we calculated composite scores for working memory, verbal learning and word fluency. After treatment, the intervention group showed a significantly greater improvement for WM performance compared with the active control group. More importantly, performance on the EMT also improved significantly in patients receiving the recollection and working memory training compared with patients with standard memory training. Our results show that combining working memory and recollection training significantly improves performance on everyday memory tasks, demonstrating far transfer effects. The present study argues in favor of a process-based approach for treating memory impairments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Prefrontal activity and diagnostic monitoring of memory retrieval: FMRI of the criterial recollection task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, David A; Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Schacter, Daniel L

    2006-01-01

    According to the distinctiveness heuristic, subjects rely more on detailed recollections (and less on familiarity) when memory is tested for pictures relative to words, leading to reduced false recognition. If so, then neural regions that have been implicated in effortful postretrieval monitoring (e.g., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) might be recruited less heavily when trying to remember pictures. We tested this prediction with the criterial recollection task. Subjects studied black words, paired with either the same word in red font or a corresponding colored picture. Red words were repeated at study to equate recognition hits for red words and pictures. During fMRI scanning, alternating red word memory tests and picture memory tests were given, using only white words as test stimuli (say "yes" only if you recollect a corresponding red word or picture, respectively). These tests were designed so that subjects had to rely on memory for the criterial information. Replicating prior behavioral work, we found enhanced rejection of lures on the picture test compared to the red word test, indicating that subjects had used a distinctiveness heuristic. Critically, dorsolateral prefrontal activity was reduced when rejecting familiar lures on the picture test, relative to the red word test. These findings indicate that reducing false recognition via the distinctiveness heuristic is not heavily dependent on frontally mediated postretrieval monitoring processes.

  16. Effects of modality on the neural correlates of encoding processes supporting recollection and familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Lauren J.; Rugg, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that the neural correlates of successful encoding (“subsequent memory effects”) partially overlap with neural regions selectively engaged by the on-line demands of the study task. The primary goal of the present experiment was to determine whether this overlap is associated solely with encoding processes supporting later recollection, or whether overlapping subsequent memory and study condition effects are also evident when later memory is familiarity-based. Subjects (N = 17) underwent fMRI scanning while studying a series of visually and auditorily presented words. Memory for the words was subsequently tested with a modified Remember/Know procedure. Auditorily selective subsequent familiarity effects were evident in bilateral temporal regions that also responded preferentially to auditory items. Although other interpretations are possible, these findings suggest that overlap between study condition-selective subsequent memory effects and regions selectively sensitive to study demands is not uniquely associated with later recollection. In addition, modality-independent subsequent memory effects were identified in several cortical regions. In every case, the effects were greatest for later recollected items, and smaller for items later recognized on the basis of familiarity. The implications of this quantitative dissociation for dual-process models of recognition memory are discussed. PMID:21852431

  17. Clear aligners in orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, T

    2017-03-01

    Since the introduction of the Tooth Positioner (TP Orthodontics) in 1944, removable appliances analogous to clear aligners have been employed for mild to moderate orthodontic tooth movements. Clear aligner therapy has been a part of orthodontic practice for decades, but has, particularly since the introduction of Invisalign appliances (Align Technology) in 1998, become an increasingly common addition to the orthodontic armamentarium. An internet search reveals at least 27 different clear aligner products currently on offer for orthodontic treatment. The present paper will highlight the increasing popularity of clear aligner appliances, as well as the clinical scope and the limitations of aligner therapy in general. Further, the paper will outline the differences between the various types of clear aligner products currently available. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  18. Intelligibility of clear speech: effect of instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jennifer; Tjaden, Kris

    2013-10-01

    The authors investigated how clear speech instructions influence sentence intelligibility. Twelve speakers produced sentences in habitual, clear, hearing impaired, and overenunciate conditions. Stimuli were amplitude normalized and mixed with multitalker babble for orthographic transcription by 40 listeners. The main analysis investigated percentage-correct intelligibility scores as a function of the 4 conditions and speaker sex. Additional analyses included listener response variability, individual speaker trends, and an alternate intelligibility measure: proportion of content words correct. Relative to the habitual condition, the overenunciate condition was associated with the greatest intelligibility benefit, followed by the hearing impaired and clear conditions. Ten speakers followed this trend. The results indicated different patterns of clear speech benefit for male and female speakers. Greater listener variability was observed for speakers with inherently low habitual intelligibility compared to speakers with inherently high habitual intelligibility. Stable proportions of content words were observed across conditions. Clear speech instructions affected the magnitude of the intelligibility benefit. The instruction to overenunciate may be most effective in clear speech training programs. The findings may help explain the range of clear speech intelligibility benefit previously reported. Listener variability analyses suggested the importance of obtaining multiple listener judgments of intelligibility, especially for speakers with inherently low habitual intelligibility.

  19. Déjà vu experiences in healthy subjects are unrelated to laboratory tests of recollection and familiarity for word stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Robert O'Connor

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuropsychological and neuroscientific research suggests that people who experience more déjà vu display characteristic patterns in normal recognition memory. We conducted a large individual differences study (n = 206 to test these predictions using recollection and familiarity parameters recovered from a standard memory task. Participants reported déjà vu frequency and a number of its correlates, and completed a recognition memory task analogous to a Remember-Know procedure. The individual difference measures replicated an established correlation between déjà vu frequency and frequency of travel, and recognition performance showed well-established word frequency and accuracy effects. Contrary to predictions, no relationships were found between déjà vu frequency and recollection or familiarity memory parameters from the recognition test. We suggest that déjà vu in the healthy population reflects a mismatch between errant memory signalling and memory monitoring processes not easily characterised by standard recognition memory task performance.

  20. 77 FR 37803 - Customer Clearing Documentation, Timing of Acceptance for Clearing, and Clearing Member Risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ..., 202-418-6703, [email protected] , Division of Clearing and Risk, and Camden Nunery, Economist, 202-418-5723, Office of the Chief Economist, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, Three Lafayette Centre, 1155...

  1. Encoding-related brain activity dissociates between the recollective processes underlying successful recall and recognition: a subsequent-memory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Talya; Maril, Anat; Goshen-Gottstein, Yonatan

    2012-07-01

    The subsequent-memory (SM) paradigm uncovers brain mechanisms that are associated with mnemonic activity during encoding by measuring participants' neural activity during encoding and classifying the encoding trials according to performance in the subsequent retrieval phase. The majority of these studies have converged on the notion that the mechanism supporting recognition is mediated by familiarity and recollection. The process of recollection is often assumed to be a recall-like process, implying that the active search for the memory trace is similar, if not identical, for recall and recognition. Here we challenge this assumption and hypothesize - based on previous findings obtained in our lab - that the recollective processes underlying recall and recognition might show dissociative patterns of encoding-related brain activity. To this end, our design controlled for familiarity, thereby focusing on contextual, recollective processes. We found evidence for dissociative neurocognitive encoding mechanisms supporting subsequent-recall and subsequent-recognition. Specifically, the contrast of subsequent-recognition versus subsequent-recall revealed activation in the Parahippocampal cortex (PHc) and the posterior hippocampus--regions associated with contextual processing. Implications of our findings and their relation to current cognitive models of recollection are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Relations between emotion and conscious recollection of true and false autobiographical memories: an investigation using lorazepam as a pharmacological tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernot-Marino, Elodie; Danion, Jean-Marie; Hedelin, Guy

    2004-08-01

    Conscious recollection for autobiographical memory is the subjective experience of reliving a personal event mentally. Its frequency is strongly influenced by the emotion experienced at the time of the event. We addressed the issue of whether conscious recollection for autobiographical memories is also influenced by the emotion experienced at the time of retrieval. We used lorazepam, a benzodiazepine, as a pharmacological tool to modulate this emotional experience. Autobiographical memories were recorded in eight healthy volunteers using a diary study methodology. Each day, four entries were made by each subject: two true events, one altered event and one false event. For each event, the subjects were asked to rate emotional variables at encoding and at retrieval. Two months later, there were two sessions of recognition tests during which the subjects received orally an acute administration of either lorazepam (0.038 mg/kg) or placebo using a cross-over design. Subjective states of awareness were assessed using the Remember/Know/Guess procedure. Compared to placebo, lorazepam increased levels of conscious recollection, as assessed by Remember responses, for both true and false memories and induced an overestimation of the personal significance and emotional intensity of past events. Structural equation modelling showed that this overestimation was causal in the increased frequency of conscious recollection. Our results provide experimental evidence that the frequency of conscious recollection for both true and false autobiographical memories is influenced by the emotion experienced at the time of retrieval.

  3. Students’ Digital Photography Behaviors during a Multiday Environmental Science Field Trip and Their Recollections of Photographed Science Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor R. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking photographs to document the experiences of an educational field trip is becoming a common activity for teachers and students alike. Considering the regular creation of photographic artifacts, our goal in this paper is to explore students’ picture taking behavior and their recollections of science content associated with their photographs. In this study, we partnered with a class of fifth-grade students in the United States and provided each student with a digital camera to document their experiences during an environmental science field trip at a national park. We report the frequency of photography behaviors according to which activities were most often documented by the students and specifically that students tended to document more of their experiences when they were in outdoor, natural spaces rather than inside of visitor centers or museums. Also, through an analysis of students’ comments about the science content captured in their photographs we observe that students’ comments about photographs of the outdoors tended to show greater depth and complexity than those that were taken in indoor, museum-like spaces.

  4. Resting-state functional connectivity of ventral parietal regions associated with attention reorienting and episodic recollection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander M Daselaar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In functional neuroimaging studies, ventral parietal cortex (VPC is recruited by very different cognitive tasks. Explaining the contributions VPC to these tasks has become a topic of intense study and lively debate. Perception studies frequently find VPC activations during tasks involving attention-reorienting, and memory studies frequently find them during tasks involving episodic recollection. According to the Attention to Memory (AtoM model, both phenomena can be explained by the same VPC function: bottom-up attention. Yet, a recent functional MRI (fMRI meta-analysis suggested that attention-reorienting activations are more frequent in anterior VPC, whereas recollection activations are more frequent in posterior VPC. Also, there is evidence that anterior and posterior VPC regions have different functional connectivity patterns. To investigate these issues, we conducted a resting-state functional connectivity analysis using as seeds the center-of-mass of attention-reorienting and recollection activations in the meta-analysis, which were located in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG, around the temporo-parietal junction—TPJ and in the angular gyrus (AG, respectively. The SMG seed showed stronger connectivity with ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC and occipito-temporal cortex, whereas the AG seed showed stronger connectivity with the hippocampus and default network regions. To investigate whether these connectivity differences were graded or sharp, VLPFC and hippocampal connectivity was measured in VPC regions traversing through the SMG and AG seeds. The results showed a graded pattern: VLPFC connectivity gradually decreases from SMG to AG, whereas hippocampal connectivity gradually increases from SMG to AG. Importantly, both gradients showed an abrupt break when extended beyond VPC borders. This finding suggests that functional differences between SMG and AG are more subtle than previously thought. These connectivity differences can be

  5. Remediating childhood recollection: facilitating intermedial theatre based on lived-experience, recollection and remediation of digital video

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a critically informed report examining ways in which nondirective pedagogy can be an effective learning agency for Level 5 and 6 undergraduate performance makers. I draw on two case studies to illustrate different themes for student devised intermedial practice – one, Gardens Of Eden, is a response to a Bible Class the other, Together Again is a re-framing and remediation of family videos with live performer. The examples given are developed through a nondirective pedagogica...

  6. Formula Recollection through a WORLDLY recognized mnemonic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunicht, Shannon

    2010-03-01

    This discovery directly resulted from this author's head injury- (19 days unconsciousness). Beginning with some essential Brain Facts to explain how this remarkable discovery was devised: Right hemisphere => Spatial/musical Left hemisphere => Language/Logic This authors education: 2 ea BA degrees (language requirement) and a hole in the head (right hemisphere) may be spied on attendance verify such. The damaged right hemisphere accentuates this author's left hemisphere coupled with 2ea BA degrees that require a language ('83 BA a/Spanish & '94 BA w/Latin). Physical survival may be attributed to US Army RANGER training who Never say die! 10-82, 11-82, & 13 83 Recovery came having to learn EVERYTHING all over again, as I was reported having displayed upon awakening from the extended unconsciousness (19 days). Studies were difficult without a memory, but simple because I had always been forced to learn EVERYTHING MYSELF by mother who was a kindergarten teacher! The residual deficit continues to plague this author: Out of Sight is truly Out of mind! Even for a student whose memory is NOT disabled, memory is difficult. The ``nut's & bolts'' of this presentation are essentially having each Vowel represent a Mathematical operation. A: multiplication => @ O: division => Over I: sUbraction => mInus U: addition => plUs E => => => Equals Most constants and variables are indeed consonants, e.g. c = speed of light z = altitude

  7. Disgust enhances the recollection of negative emotional images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla J Croucher

    Full Text Available Memory is typically better for emotional relative to neutral images, an effect generally considered to be mediated by arousal. However, this explanation cannot explain the full pattern of findings in the literature. Two experiments are reported that investigate the differential effects of categorical affective states upon emotional memory and the contributions of stimulus dimensions other than pleasantness and arousal to any memory advantage. In Experiment 1, disgusting images were better remembered than equally unpleasant frightening ones, despite the disgusting images being less arousing. In Experiment 2, regression analyses identified affective impact--a factor shown previously to influence the allocation of visual attention and amygdala response to negative emotional images--as the strongest predictor of remembering. These findings raise significant issues that the arousal account of emotional memory cannot readily address. The term impact refers to an undifferentiated emotional response to a stimulus, without requiring detailed consideration of specific dimensions of image content. We argue that ratings of impact relate to how the self is affected. The present data call for further consideration of the theoretical specifications of the mechanisms that lead to enhanced memory for emotional stimuli and their neural substrates.

  8. The art of thinking clearly

    CERN Document Server

    Dobelli, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    The Art of Thinking Clearly by world-class thinker and entrepreneur Rolf Dobelli is an eye-opening look at human psychology and reasoning — essential reading for anyone who wants to avoid “cognitive errors” and make better choices in all aspects of their lives. Have you ever: Invested time in something that, with hindsight, just wasn’t worth it? Or continued doing something you knew was bad for you? These are examples of cognitive biases, simple errors we all make in our day-to-day thinking. But by knowing what they are and how to spot them, we can avoid them and make better decisions. Simple, clear, and always surprising, this indispensable book will change the way you think and transform your decision-making—work, at home, every day. It reveals, in 99 short chapters, the most common errors of judgment, and how to avoid them.

  9. Typography and color: effects of salience and fluency on conscious recollective experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, Thomas; Wippich, Werner

    2004-12-01

    Within one experiment the central assumptions of the distinctiveness/fluency account of recollective experience were tested and contrasted with predictions of processing theory. To manipulate perceptual salience, the typography of words was varied. Effects of conceptual salience were induced by a variation of word color. In the study phase participants generated different word or object images according to presented words. To manipulate perceptual and conceptual fluency one test group underwent a priming procedure in the test phase, consisting of a recognition test, whereby some primes were identical to the target words typographically or by color and others were not. Additionally, all participants were asked to make judgments of recollective experience (remember, know, guess) after the old/new decisions. The results of the data analyses confirm the distinctiveness/fluency account. Words written in an unusual typography or color were judged significantly more often as "remembered" than normal words. The priming procedure uncovered some effects of fluency on reaction times: old/new decisions took less time if prime and target words were perceptually or conceptually identical.

  10. Recollection of episodic memory within the medial temporal lobe: behavioural dissociations from other types of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Alexander; Eacott, Madeline J

    2010-12-31

    In recent years there has been significant debate about whether there is a single medial temporal lobe memory system or dissociable systems for episodic and other types of declarative memory. In addition there has been a similar debate over the dissociability of recollection and familiarity based processes in recognition memory. Here we present evidence from recent work using episodic memory tasks in animals that allows us to explore these issues in more depth. We review studies that demonstrate triple dissociations within the medial temporal lobe, with only the hippocampal system being necessary for episodic memory. Similarly we review behavioural evidence for a dissociation in a task of episodic memory in rats where animals with lesions of the fornix are only impaired at recollection of the episodic memory, not recognition within the same trial. This work, then, supports recent models of dissociable neural systems within the medial temporal lobe but also raises questions for future investigation about the interactions of these medial temporal lobe memory systems with other structures. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. On failed intersubjectivity: Recollections of loneliness experiences in offspring of Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Hadas

    2008-07-01

    Intergenerational consequences of extensive trauma experienced by parents for the loneliness experienced by their children were explored in 52 adults (26 men and 26 women) who grew up in Holocaust survivor families. These adults, children of mothers who had survived Nazi concentration camps, were recruited from a random nonclinical Israeli sample. A narrative analysis of their recollected accounts of loneliness in childhood and adolescence yielded 4 major categories of loneliness experiences in the context of growing up in Holocaust survivor families: (a) echoes of parental intrusive traumatic memories; (b) echoes of parental numbing and detachment; (c) perceived parents' caregiving style; and (d) social comparison with other families, in particular the lack of grandparents. The echoes of the parental trauma in the recollected loneliness accounts are conceptualized as representing a sense of failed intersubjectivity in these interpersonal processes. The experiences of not being understood by others, not understanding others, and the lack of shared understanding involved in failed intersubjectivity are discussed and related to the importance of opening lines of communication between survivors and their descendents. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  12. African American Women's Recollected Experiences of Adherence to Breast Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiney, Sue P; Hilfinger Messias, DeAnne K; Felder, Tisha M; Phelps, Kenneth W; Quinn, Jada C

    2017-03-01

    To explore African American women's recollected experiences of breast cancer treatment.
. Qualitative description and narrative analysis.
. South Carolina Oncology Associates, an outpatient oncology clinic serving rural and urban populations.
. 16 African American women with breast cancer previously enrolled in the control arm (n = 93) of a completed randomized, controlled trial. 
. Feminist narrative analysis of in-depth individual interviews.
. The authors identified three themes within the African American breast cancer survivors' recollected experiences of treatment adherence. Although little evidence was presented of shared decision making with providers, patients were committed to completing the prescribed therapies. The narratives highlighted the value of in-depth examination of patients' perspectives, particularly among minority and underserved groups. With the exception of voicing personal choice of surgical treatment, the women trusted providers' recommendations with a resolve to "just do it." Although trust may enhance treatment adherence, it may also reflect power differentials based on gender, race, education, and culture.
. Nurses should listen to patients describe their experience with cancer treatment and compare the themes from this study with their patients' story. This comparison will help nurses support patients through various aspect of diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor with clear cell changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Mohanty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT has a limited biological profile and been an attention-grabbing tumor for a century for its origin. Though described earlier, it was widely accepted after Harbitz from Norway reported about this uncommon benign tumor in 1915. There has been a long debate as whether this tumor is a hamartoma or a neoplasm. Here, we present a case of AOT in a 20-year-old female with details of clinical, radiological and histological features along with clear cell changes, signifying AOT to be more aggressive in nature than assessed from earlier literature. Thus, we did an extensive search of PubMed literature on AOT with all its histopathological features associated until date to find the report of clear cell changes yet.

  14. Clearing the smoke around medical marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, M A

    2011-12-01

    The hazy world of "medical marijuana" continues to cry out for clear data on which to base medical decision making and rational policy design. In this issue of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Abrams and colleagues report that vaporized cannabis does not meaningfully affect opioid plasma levels and may even augment the efficacy of oxycodone and morphine in patients with chronic non-cancer pain. This Commentary considers the implications of this work for clinical practice and further research initiatives.

  15. Clear aligners for orthodontic treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, Hanieh; Graham, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    PubMed/Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical trials (CENTRAL), Web of Knowledge, SCOPUS, Google Scholar and LILACS databases. Clinical prospective and retrospective studies of orthodontic treatment with clear aligners on patients over the age of 15 that included clear descriptions of the materials and applied technique were included. Selection was undertaken independently by two reviewers. Two reviewers extracted data independently with study quality being assessed using the grading system described by the Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU). A narrative summary of the findings was presented. Eleven studies involving a total of 480 patients were included consisting of two randomised controlled trials, five prospective studies and four retrospective studies. Six studies were considered to be of moderate quality, the remainder of limited quality. Most of the studies presented with methodological problems: small sample size, bias and confounding variables, lack of method error analysis, blinding in measurements, and deficient or missing statistical methods. The quality level of the studies was not sufficient to draw any evidence-based conclusions.

  16. Young adults' recollections of parental bonds--does satisfaction with partner relationships mediate the longitudinal association with mental disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeek, Geertjan; Vollebergh, Wilma; Meeus, Wim; de Graaf, Ron; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2004-09-01

    Recollections of cold and overprotective behaviors from parents have been hypothesized to lead to the presence of mental disorders in young adulthood through their detrimental effects on individuals' satisfaction in later partner relationships. Previous studies have not explicitly tested, however, whether partner relationship satisfaction mediates the longitudinal relationship from parental bonds to DSM-III-R disorders in young adults. We examined: (1) whether recollections of parental bonds in the first 16 years of life were related to the prevalence of DSM-III-R mental disorders in young adulthood, and (2) whether young adults' satisfaction with current partner relationships mediated these links. Data were used from 1,581 Dutch young adults aged 18-34 years, who were interviewed in three waves (1996, 1997, and 1999) of a nationwide epidemiological study. Structural Equation Models demonstrated that recollections of caring, non-intrusive parenting behaviors were significantly, negatively associated with the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders (but not substance disorders) in young adulthood. The satisfaction with current partner relationships did not mediate these negative associations. Results replicate and extend earlier findings from the National Comorbidity Survey (Enns et al. 2002), demonstrating that mental disorders are directly related to people's recollections of parental care and overprotection. Low-quality parental bonds were only related to internalizing types of psychopathology, however, and were of a modest strength. Results may indicate that there is relatively little cross-relationship continuity in the experience of intimacy between relationships with parents and with partners.

  17. The Development of Father-Child Attachment: Associations between Adult Attachment Representations, Recollections of Childhood Experiences and Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland-Piazza, Laura; Hazen, Nancy; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Boyd-Soisson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The association between fathers' adult attachment representations and their recollections of childhood experiences with their caregiving quality with their eight-month-old infants and with father-infant attachment classification was examined in a longitudinal study of 117 fathers and their infants. Sensitive caregiving was related to…

  18. Key features of human episodic recollection in the cross-episode retrieval of rat hippocampus representations of space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Kelemen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurophysiological studies focus on memory retrieval as a reproduction of what was experienced and have established that neural discharge is replayed to express memory. However, cognitive psychology has established that recollection is not a verbatim replay of stored information. Recollection is constructive, the product of memory retrieval cues, the information stored in memory, and the subject's state of mind. We discovered key features of constructive recollection embedded in the rat CA1 ensemble discharge during an active avoidance task. Rats learned two task variants, one with the arena stable, the other with it rotating; each variant defined a distinct behavioral episode. During the rotating episode, the ensemble discharge of CA1 principal neurons was dynamically organized to concurrently represent space in two distinct codes. The code for spatial reference frame switched rapidly between representing the rat's current location in either the stationary spatial frame of the room or the rotating frame of the arena. The code for task variant switched less frequently between a representation of the current rotating episode and the stable episode from the rat's past. The characteristics and interplay of these two hippocampal codes revealed three key properties of constructive recollection. (1 Although the ensemble representations of the stable and rotating episodes were distinct, ensemble discharge during rotation occasionally resembled the stable condition, demonstrating cross-episode retrieval of the representation of the remote, stable episode. (2 This cross-episode retrieval at the level of the code for task variant was more likely when the rotating arena was about to match its orientation in the stable episode. (3 The likelihood of cross-episode retrieval was influenced by preretrieval information that was signaled at the level of the code for spatial reference frame. Thus key features of episodic recollection manifest in rat hippocampal

  19. Affective valence influences participant's susceptibility to false memories and illusory recollection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehon, Hedwige; Larøi, Frank; Van der Linden, Martial

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the influence of emotional valence on the production of DRM false memories (Roediger & McDermott, 1995). Participants were presented with neutral, positive, or negative DRM lists for a later recognition (Experiment 1) or recall (Experiment 2) test. In both experiments, confidence and recollective experience (i.e., "Remember-Know" judgments; Tulving, 1985) were also assessed. Results consistently showed that, compared with neutral lists, affective lists induced more false recognition and recall of nonpresented critical lures. Moreover, although confidence ratings did not differ between the false remembering from the different kinds of lists, "Remember" responses were more often associated with negative than positive and neutral false remembering of the critical lures. In contrast, positive false remembering of the critical lures was more often associated with "Know" responses. These results are discussed in light of the Paradoxical Negative Emotion (PNE) hypothesis (Porter, Taylor, & ten Bricke, 2008). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Recollection and unitization in associating actors with extrinsic and intrinsic motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Alan W; Earles, Julie L; Berger, Johanna D

    2015-04-01

    Four experiments provide evidence for a distinction between 2 different kinds of motion representations. Extrinsic motions involve the path of an object with respect to an external frame of reference. Intrinsic motions involve the relative motions of the parts of an object. This research suggests that intrinsic motions are represented conjointly with information about the identities of the actors who perform them, whereas extrinsic motions are represented separately from identity information. Experiment 1 demonstrated that participants remembered which actor had performed a particular intrinsic motion better than they remembered which actor had performed a particular extrinsic motion. Experiment 2 replicated this effect with incidental encoding of actor information, suggesting that encoding intrinsic motions leads one to automatically encode identity information. The results of Experiments 3 and 4 were fit by Yonelinas's (1999) source-memory model to quantify the contributions of familiarity and recollection to memory for the actors who carried out the intrinsic and extrinsic motions. Successful performance with extrinsic motion items in Experiment 3 required participants to remember in which scene contexts an actor had appeared, whereas successful performance in Experiment 4 required participants to remember the exact path taken by an actor in each scene. In both experiments, discrimination of old and new combinations of actors and extrinsic motions relied strongly on recollection, suggesting independent but associated representations of actors and extrinsic motions. In contrast, participants discriminated old and new combinations of actors and intrinsic motions primarily on the basis of familiarity, suggesting unitized representations of actors and intrinsic motions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Elements of person knowledge: Episodic recollection helps us to identify people but not to recognize their faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Graham; Donaldson, David I

    2016-12-01

    Faces automatically draw attention, allowing rapid assessments of personality and likely behaviour. How we respond to people is, however, highly dependent on whether we know who they are. According to face processing models person knowledge comes from an extended neural system that includes structures linked to episodic memory. Here we use scalp recorded brain signals to demonstrate the specific role of episodic memory processes during face processing. In two experiments we recorded Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) while participants made identify, familiar or unknown responses to famous faces. ERPs revealed neural signals previously associated with episodic recollection for identify but not familiar faces. These findings provide novel evidence suggesting that recollection is central to face processing, providing one source of person knowledge that can be used to moderate the initial impressions gleaned from the core neural system that supports face recognition. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The integration of familiarity and recollection information in short-term recognition: modeling speed-accuracy trade-off functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göthe, Katrin; Oberauer, Klaus

    2008-05-01

    Dual process models postulate familiarity and recollection as the basis of the recognition process. We investigated the time-course of integration of the two information sources to one recognition judgment in a working memory task. We tested 24 subjects with a response signal variant of the modified Sternberg recognition task (Oberauer, 2001) to isolate the time course of three different probe types indicating different combinations of familiarity and source information. We compared two mathematical models implementing different ways of integrating familiarity and recollection. Within each model, we tested three assumptions about the nature of the familiarity signal, with familiarity having (a) only positive values, indicating similarity of the probe with the memory list, (b) only negative values, indicating novelty, or (c) both positive and negative values. Both models provided good fits to the data. A model combining the outputs of both processes additively (Integration Model) gave an overall better fit to the data than a model based on a continuous familiarity signal and a probabilistic all-or-none recollection process (Dominance Model).

  3. fMRI evidence for the role of recollection in suppressing misattribution errors: the illusory truth effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason P; Dodson, Chad S; Schacter, Daniel L

    2005-05-01

    Misattribution refers to the act of attributing a memory or idea to an incorrect source, such as successfully remembering a bit of information but linking it to an inappropriate person or time [Jacoby, L. L., Kelley, C., Brown, J., & Jasechko, J. (1989). Becoming famous overnight: Limits on the ability to avoid unconscious influences of the past. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 326-338; Schacter, D. L. (1999). The seven sins of memory: Insights from psychology and cognitive neuroscience. American Psychologist, 54, 182-203; Schacter, D. L. (2001). The seven sins of memory: How the mind forgets and remembers. Boston: Houghton Mifflin]. Cognitive studies have suggested that misattribution errors may occur in the absence of recollection for the details of an initial encounter with a stimulus, but little is known about the neural basis of this memory phenomenon. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the hypothesized role of recollection in counteracting the illusory truth effect, a misattribution error whereby perceivers systematically overrate the truth of previously presented information. Imaging was conducted during the encoding and subsequent judgment of unfamiliar statements that were presented as true or false. Event-related fMRI analyses were conditionalized as a function of subsequent performance. Results demonstrated that encoding activation in regions previously associated with successful recollection--including the hippocampus and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC)--correlated with the successful avoidance of misattribution errors, providing initial neuroimaging support for earlier cognitive accounts of misattribution.

  4. How to Successfully Build a Clear Label Paradigm : Ingredient Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaz, J.

    2016-01-01

    Careful labeling and consumer education may make the difference for the future success of individual ingredients and the products that rely on them. The second of a two-part report on a clear label strategy.

  5. Bilateral clear cell sarcoma of the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zekri, W.; Yehia, D.; Alfaar, A.S.; Elshafie, M.M.; Younes, A.A.; Zaghloul, M.S.; El-Kinaai, N.; Taha, H.; Refaat, A.; Zekri, W.; Elshafie, M.M.; Zaghloul, M.S.; Taha, H.; Refaat, A.; Younes, A.A.; Alfaar, A.S.; Yehia, D.

    2015-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) accounts for 2-5% of all pediatric renal malignancies, and is known for its propensity to metastasize to bone and other sites. We are reporting two cases with bilateral CCSK that were diagnosed at our institution. One patient initially presented with bilateral renal masses, as well as pulmonary, hepatic and bone metastasis; while other present only with bilateral masses with no evident distant metastasis. Both patients received aggressive neo-adjuvant chemotherapy to decrease tumor size. One patient completed his designated treatment and initially showed complete remission (CR); eventually suffering from relapse. The other patient’s tumor progressed during the course of chemotherapy. Both cases manifested brain dissemination at the time of relapse or progression. This emphasizes the importance of staging stratification in CCSK. This also illustrates CCSK’s ability to metastasize to bone and other sites including the brain (a primary relapse site in our cases)

  6. Precision of synesthetic color matching resembles that for recollected colors rather than physical colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Derek H; Wegener, Signy V; Brown, Francesca; Mattingley, Jason B

    2012-10-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is an atypical condition in which individuals experience sensations of color when reading printed graphemes such as letters and digits. For some grapheme-color synesthetes, seeing a printed grapheme triggers a sensation of color, but hearing the name of a grapheme does not. This dissociation allowed us to compare the precision with which synesthetes are able to match their color experiences triggered by visible graphemes, with the precision of their matches for recalled colors based on the same graphemes spoken aloud. In six synesthetes, color matching for printed graphemes was equally variable relative to recalled experiences. In a control experiment, synesthetes and age-matched controls either matched the color of a circular patch while it was visible on a screen, or they judged its color from memory after it had disappeared. Both synesthetes and controls were more variable when matching from memory, and the variance of synesthetes' recalled color judgments matched that associated with their synesthetic judgments for visible graphemes in the first experiment. Results suggest that synesthetic experiences of color triggered by achromatic graphemes are analogous to recollections of color.

  7. Effect of post-encoding emotion on recollection and familiarity for pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Ren, Yanju

    2017-07-01

    Although prior studies have examined the effect of post-encoding emotional arousal on recognition memory for words, it is unknown whether the enhancement effect observed on words generalizes to pictures. Furthermore, prior studies using words have showed that the effect of emotional arousal can be modulated by stimuli valence and delay in emotion induction, but it is unclear whether such modulation can extend to pictures and whether other factors such as encoding method (incidental vs. intentional encoding) can be modulatory. Five experiments were conducted to answer these questions. In Experiment 1, participants encoded a list of neutral and negative pictures and then watched a 3-min neutral or negative video. The delayed test showed that negative arousal impaired recollection regardless of picture valence but had no effect on familiarity. Experiment 2 replicated the above findings. Experiment 3 was similar to Experiment 1 except that participants watched a 3-min neutral, negative, or positive video and conducted free recall before the recognition test. Unlike the prior two experiments, the impairment effect of negative arousal disappeared. Experiment 4, where the free recall task was eliminated, replicated the results from Experiment 3. Experiment 5 replicated Experiments 1 and 2 and further showed that the impairment effects of negative arousal could be modulated by delay in emotion induction but not by encoding method or stimuli valence. Taken together, the current study suggests that the enhancement effect observed on words may not generalize to pictures.

  8. A Hamiltonian driven quantum-like model for overdistribution in episodic memory recollection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekaert, Jan B.; Busemeyer, Jerome R.

    2017-06-01

    While people famously forget genuine memories over time, they also tend to mistakenly over-recall equivalent memories concerning a given event. The memory phenomenon is known by the name of episodic overdistribution and occurs both in memories of disjunctions and partitions of mutually exclusive events and has been tested, modeled and documented in the literature. The total classical probability of recalling exclusive sub-events most often exceeds the probability of recalling the composed event, i.e. a subadditive total. We present a Hamiltonian driven propagation for the Quantum Episodic Memory model developed by Brainerd (et al., 2015) for the episodic memory overdistribution in the experimental immediate item false memory paradigm (Brainerd and Reyna, 2008, 2010, 2015). Following the Hamiltonian method of Busemeyer and Bruza (2012) our model adds time-evolution of the perceived memory state through the stages of the experimental process based on psychologically interpretable parameters - γ_c for recollection capability of cues, κ_p for bias or description-dependence by probes and β for the average gist component in the memory state at start. With seven parameters the Hamiltonian model shows good accuracy of predictions both in the EOD-disjunction and in the EOD-subadditivity paradigm. We noticed either an outspoken preponderance of the gist over verbatim trace, or the opposite, in the initial memory state when β is real. Only for complex β a mix of both traces is present in the initial state for the EOD-subadditivity paradigm.

  9. Linking University Students’ Willingness to Learn to Their Recollections of Motivation at Secondary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Gorges

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the role of recollected school-based motivation on university students’ willingness to use new learning opportunities. Following Eccles’ expectancy-value theory, willingness to learn was conceptualized as task value, which has been found to predict task choice in previous empirical studies. Based on three motivational theories, we suggest two broad motivational dimensions for an economic description of motivational orientations, inward and outward, that should differentially predict the formation of task value. German university students (N = 1580 were asked about their task value for receiving their instructions in English as a foreign language at university and, retrospectively, their motivation in English language class at secondary school. Principal components analysis and confirmatory factor analyses of motivational variables yielded a two-factor solution supporting the differentiation between inward and outward motivational orientation. Inward motivational orientation at school was positively linked to students’ task value in adulthood, even if the individual’s self-concept of ability was controlled. The effects of outward motivation were rather small and tended to be counterproductive. Our findings suggest a complex interplay between past and present motivation and self-concept of ability underlying one’s willingness to learn and to participate in education.

  10. ‘Imagined guilt’ vs ‘recollected guilt’: implications for fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclatchie, Neil; Giner-Sorolla, Roger; Derbyshire, Stuart W. G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Guilt is thought to maintain social harmony by motivating reparation. This study compared two methodologies commonly used to identify the neural correlates of guilt. The first, imagined guilt, requires participants to read hypothetical scenarios and then imagine themselves as the protagonist. The second, recollected guilt, requires participants to reflect on times they personally experienced guilt. In the fMRI scanner, participants were presented with guilt/neutral memories and guilt/neutral hypothetical scenarios. Contrasts confirmed a priori predictions that guilt memories, relative to guilt scenarios, were associated with significantly greater activity in regions associated with affect [anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), Caudate, Insula, orbital frontal cortex (OFC)] and social cognition [temporal pole (TP), precuneus). Similarly, results indicated that guilt memories, relative to neutral memories, were also associated with greater activity in affective (ACC, amygdala, Insula, OFC) and social cognition (mPFC, TP, precuneus, temporo-parietal junction) regions. There were no significant differences between guilt hypothetical scenarios and neutral hypothetical scenarios in either affective or social cognition regions. The importance of distinguishing between different guilt inductions inside the scanner is discussed. We offer explanations of our results and discuss ideas for future research. PMID:26746179

  11. 76 FR 45724 - Clearing Member Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... proposed rules address risk management for cleared trades by futures commission merchants, swap dealers... Commission has proposed extensive regulations addressing open access and risk management at the derivatives..., 2011) (Risk Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations). These proposed regulations...

  12. Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Mark P.; Anderson, Lawrence G.; Post, Gordon L.

    2018-01-16

    Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings are applied to substrates. The electrically conductive clear coating includes to clear layer having a resinous binder with ultrafine non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide particles dispersed therein. The clear coating may be rapidly cured by subjecting the coating to infrared radiation that heats the tungsten oxide particles and surrounding resinous binder. Localized heating increases the temperature of the coating to thereby thermally cure the coating, while avoiding unwanted heating of the underlying substrate.

  13. Literature and Cinema from "Adaptation" to Re-creation: Coping with the Complexity of Human Recollection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Testa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Early 20th-century avant-gardes put a premium on the notion of "originality" and so created a cultural context in which "adaptation" -- in particular, lit-to cinema adaptation -- later came to be construed by film theory as a kind of derivative, inferior notion. This article offers the proof, based on work on the little-known original Russian sources, that none other than Èizenshtein opined differently, so much so that he preferred to argue instead for the use of the term "re-creation"; and that later semiotic theory, especially thanks to Iurii Lotman, provides us with the tools to develop the "re-creation" concept fully. In the process of re-creation, which is always a process of cultural re-contextualization, the original literary complexity lost in the transmutation must be made up in specific cinematic ways, in order to offer a final re-created artefact worthy of recollection by human society. In times of an overburdened human ability to remember historic sufferings, re-created artefacts that lose information vis-a-vis the original will be quite justly forgotten. On this basis, the article concludes with an elaboration on contemporary Italian cinema -- especially some commercially successful noirs -- drawn from literature (or rather, books of fiction and pinpoints the nature of one of that type of cinema's recurrent shortcomings. The essential defect of such films is identified in their inability to make up by cinematic means for the loss of complexity which they endure in the transition from one medium to another. This is all the more true when, as in the case of the noirs examined here, complexity is already scant in the original books in the first place.

  14. Clear sky solar insolation data for Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, P.; Baig, A.; Mufti, A.

    1990-09-01

    Monthly average values of both integrated and instantaneous clear sky solar radiation components for Islamabad territory have been presented and discussed. The components include total, direct normal, direct horizontal, global and diffuse radiations, sun hours, number of clear days and temperature for solar energy applications. Beam irradiance values are used to get clear sky (maximum) sun hours by ab-initio. The need for replacing the conventional sunshine recorder is discussed. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig, 2 tabs

  15. On the functional significance of retrieval mode: Task switching disrupts the recollection of conceptual stimulus information from episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küper, Kristina

    2018-01-01

    Episodic memory retrieval is assumed to be associated with the tonic cognitive state of retrieval mode. Despite extensive research into the neurophysiological correlates of retrieval mode, as of yet, relatively little is known about its functional significance. The present event-related potential (ERP) study was aimed at examining the impact of retrieval mode on the specificity of memory content retrieved in the course of familiarity and recollection processes. In two experiments, participants performed a recognition memory inclusion task in which they had to distinguish identically repeated and re-colored versions of study items from new items. In Experiment 1, participants had to alternate between the episodic memory task and a semantic task requiring a natural/artificial decision. In Experiment 2, the two tasks were instead performed in separate blocks. ERPs locked to the preparatory cues in the test phases indicated that participants did not establish retrieval mode on switch trials in Experiment 1. In the absence of retrieval mode, neither type of studied item elicited ERP correlates of familiarity-based retrieval (FN400). Recollection-related late positive complex (LPC) old/new effects emerged only for identically repeated but not for conceptually identical but perceptually changed versions of study items. With blocked retrieval in Experiment 2, both types of old items instead elicited equivalent FN400 and LPC old/new effects. The LPC data indicate that retrieval mode may play an important role in the successful recollection of conceptual stimulus information. The FN400 results additionally suggest that task switching may have a detrimental effect on familiarity-based memory retrieval. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The problem of clear air turbulence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Due to rapid improvements in on-board instrumentation and atmospheric observation systems, in most cases, aircraft are able to steer clear of regions of adverse weather. However, they still encounter unexpected bumpy flight conditions in regions away from storms and clouds. This is the phenomenon of clear air ...

  17. Internalization, Clearing and Settlement, and Liquidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; van Achter, M.; Wuyts, G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We study the relation between liquidity in financial markets and post-trading fees (i.e. clearing and settlement fees). The clearing and settlement agent (CSD) faces different marginal costs for different types of transactions. Costs are lower for an internalized transaction, i.e. when

  18. SNOW CLEARING SERVICE WINTER 2001-2002

    CERN Multimedia

    ST-HM Group; Tel. 72202

    2001-01-01

    As usual at this time of the year, the snowing clearing service, which comes under the control of the Transport Group (ST-HM), is preparing for the start of snow-clearing operations (timetable, stand-by service, personnel responsible for driving vehicles and machines, preparation of useful and necessary equipment, work instructions, etc.) in collaboration with the Cleaning Service (ST-TFM) and the Fire Brigade (TIS-FB). The main difficulty for the snow-clearing service is the car parks, which cannot be properly cleared because of the presence of CERN and private vehicles parked there overnight in different parts of the parking areas. The ST-HM Transport Group would therefore like to invite you to park vehicles together in order to facilitate the access of the snow ploughs, thus allowing the car parks to be cleared more efficiently before the personnel arrives for work in the mornings.

  19. Two cases of seborrheic keratosis with basal clear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan, Takashi; Fukumoto, Takaya; Kimura, Tetsunori

    2017-03-01

    Seborrheic keratosis with basal clear cells (SKBCC) is an extremely rare histopathological variant of seborrheic keratosis that has histological similarities to melanoma in situ. We herein report two cases of SKBCC and provide the first description of the dermoscopic features of this condition, in addition to the histopathological findings. Both of the two lesions showed typical histological architectures of seborrheic keratosis with rows or focal clusters of monomorphic clear cells with abundant pale cytoplasm and small round nucleus in the basal layer. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that most clear cells were positive for high molecular weight cytokeratin (34βE12) in a peripheral pattern but were negative tor Melan-A. Dermoscopy revealed typical features of ordinary seborrheic keratosis, while unfortunately did not reflect the presence of basal clear cells. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  20. Overlap between the neural correlates of cued recall and source memory: evidence for a generic recollection network?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Hiroki R; Vilberg, Kaia L; Rugg, Michael D

    2012-05-01

    Recall of a studied item and retrieval of its encoding context (source memory) both depend on recollection of qualitative information about the study episode. This study investigated whether recall and source memory engage overlapping neural regions. Participants (n = 18) studied a series of words, which were presented either to the left or right of fixation. fMRI data were collected during a subsequent test phase in which three-letter word-stems were presented, two thirds of which could be completed by a study item. Instructions were to use each stem as a cue to recall a studied word and, when recall was successful, to indicate the word's study location. When recall failed, the stem was to be completed with the first word to come to mind. Relative to stems for which recall failed, word-stems eliciting successful recall were associated with enhanced activity in a variety of cortical regions, including bilateral parietal, posterior midline, and parahippocampal cortex. Activity in these regions was enhanced when recall was accompanied by successful rather than unsuccessful source retrieval. It is proposed that the regions form part of a "recollection network" in which activity is graded according to the amount of information retrieved about a study episode.

  1. High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory conducted the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project in the mid 1960s with the intention of better understanding air...

  2. Clear aligners generations and orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Joe; Al-Awadhi, Ebrahim A

    2016-03-01

    Clear aligner technology has evolved over the last 15 years, with these appliances continually being modified to increase the range of tooth movements that they can achieve. However, there is very little clinical research available to show how these appliances achieve their results. This article describes the different generations of clear aligners that are available and highlights their use. However, until more clinical research becomes available, aligners cannot be routinely prescribed as an effective alternative to fixed labial appliances.

  3. Open bite treatment using clear aligners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Maria Paola; Oliverio, Teresa; Silvestre, Ivana; Lombardo, Luca; Siciliani, Giuseppe

    2013-09-01

    A 35-year-old female patient with dentoalveolar open bite of 4 mm, molar Class I malocclusion, centered midlines, moderate crowding, and labial inclination of the lower incisor was treated with clear aligners to reduce protrusion and close the anterior open bite. The result showed that clear aligners were an effective method with which to correct this malocclusion. The treatment was complete after 18 months. The patient was satisfied with her new appearance and function.

  4. Skin optical clearing potential of disaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Shi, Rui; Ma, Ning; Tuchina, Daria K.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Zhu, Dan

    2016-08-01

    Skin optical clearing can significantly enhance the ability of biomedical optical imaging. Some alcohols and sugars have been selected to be optical clearing agents (OCAs). In this work, we paid attention to the optical clearing potential of disaccharides. Sucrose and maltose were chosen as typical disaccharides to compare with fructose, an excellent monosaccharide-OCA, by using molecular dynamics simulation and an ex vivo experiment. The experimental results indicated that the optical clearing efficacy of skin increases linearly with the concentration for each OCA. Both the theoretical predication and experimental results revealed that the two disaccharides exerted a better optical clearing potential than fructose at the same concentration, and sucrose is optimal. Since maltose has an extremely low saturation concentration, the other two OCAs with saturation concentrations were treated topically on rat skin in vivo, and optical coherence tomography imaging was applied to monitor the optical clearing process. The results demonstrated that sucrose could cause a more significant increase in imaging depth and signal intensity than fructose.

  5. CO2 efflux from cleared mangrove peat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Lovelock

    Full Text Available CO(2 emissions from cleared mangrove areas may be substantial, increasing the costs of continued losses of these ecosystems, particularly in mangroves that have highly organic soils.We measured CO(2 efflux from mangrove soils that had been cleared for up to 20 years on the islands of Twin Cays, Belize. We also disturbed these cleared peat soils to assess what disturbance of soils after clearing may have on CO(2 efflux. CO(2 efflux from soils declines from time of clearing from ∼10,600 tonnes km(-2 year(-1 in the first year to 3000 tonnes km(2 year(-1 after 20 years since clearing. Disturbing peat leads to short term increases in CO(2 efflux (27 umol m(-2 s(-1, but this had returned to baseline levels within 2 days.Deforesting mangroves that grow on peat soils results in CO(2 emissions that are comparable to rates estimated for peat collapse in other tropical ecosystems. Preventing deforestation presents an opportunity for countries to benefit from carbon payments for preservation of threatened carbon stocks.

  6. 77 FR 66196 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    ... Accounting Principles (``GAAP''). Canadian clearing members that use Form 1 report the same, and in some... Organizations; Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change Relating to Financial... financial reporting by Canadian clearing members to reflect the Investment Industry Regulatory Organization...

  7. 17 CFR 39.4 - Procedures for implementing derivatives clearing organization rules and clearing new products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for implementing derivatives clearing organization rules and clearing new products. 39.4 Section 39.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES CLEARING ORGANIZATIONS § 39.4 Procedures for...

  8. 76 FR 47529 - Customer Clearing Documentation and Timing of Acceptance for Clearing; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 1, 23, and 39 RIN 3038-AD51 Customer Clearing Documentation and Timing of Acceptance for Clearing; Correction AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission... published in the Federal Register of August 1, 2011, regarding Customer Clearing Documentation and Timing of...

  9. Clear Plaque Mutants of Lactococcal Phage TP901-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kot, Witold; Kilstrup, Mogens; Vogensen, Finn K.

    2016-01-01

    We report a method for obtaining turbid plaques of the lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1 and its derivative TP901-BC1034. We have further used the method to isolate clear plaque mutants of this phage. Analysis of 8 such mutants that were unable to lysogenize the host included whole genome...

  10. Metastatic clear-cell hidradenocarcinoma of the vulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messing, M J; Richardson, M S; Smith, M T; King, L; Gallup, D G

    1993-02-01

    Clear-cell hidradenocarcinoma is a malignant tumor of sweat gland origin. It is most often found on the trunk, head, and extremities. This case report describes a rare occurrence of this tumor on the vulva of a young woman. The discovery of metastatic disease reflects the potentially aggressive nature of this tumor.

  11. Evaluation of Clear Sky Models for Satellite-Based Irradiance Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gotseff, Peter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report describes an intercomparison of three popular broadband clear sky solar irradiance model results with measured data, as well as satellite-based model clear sky results compared to measured clear sky data. The authors conclude that one of the popular clear sky models (the Bird clear sky model developed by Richard Bird and Roland Hulstrom) could serve as a more accurate replacement for current satellite-model clear sky estimations. Additionally, the analysis of the model results with respect to model input parameters indicates that rather than climatological, annual, or monthly mean input data, higher-time-resolution input parameters improve the general clear sky model performance.

  12. Making the case that episodic recollection is attributable to operations occurring at retrieval rather than to content stored in a dedicated subsystem of long-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stanley B.

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory often is conceptualized as a uniquely human system of long-term memory that makes available knowledge accompanied by the temporal and spatial context in which that knowledge was acquired. Retrieval from episodic memory entails a form of first–person subjectivity called autonoetic consciousness that provides a sense that a recollection was something that took place in the experiencer's personal past. In this paper I expand on this definition of episodic memory. Specifically, I suggest that (1) the core features assumed unique to episodic memory are shared by semantic memory, (2) episodic memory cannot be fully understood unless one appreciates that episodic recollection requires the coordinated function of a number of distinct, yet interacting, “enabling” systems. Although these systems—ownership, self, subjective temporality, and agency—are not traditionally viewed as memorial in nature, each is necessary for episodic recollection and jointly they may be sufficient, and (3) the type of subjective awareness provided by episodic recollection (autonoetic) is relational rather than intrinsic—i.e., it can be lost in certain patient populations, thus rendering episodic memory content indistinguishable from the content of semantic long-term memory. PMID:23378832

  13. Making the Case that Episodic Recollection is Attributable to Operations Occurring at Retrieval rather than to Content Stored in a Dedicated Subsystem of Long-Term Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan eKlein

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory often is conceptualized as a uniquely human system of long-term memory that makes available knowledge accompanied by the temporal and spatial context in which that knowledge was acquired. Retrieval from episodic memory entails a form of first–person subjectivity called autonoetic consciousness that provides a sense that a recollection was something that took place in the experiencer’s personal past. In this paper I expand on this definition of episodic memory. Specifically, I suggest that (a the core features assumed unique to episodic memory are shared by semantic memory, (b episodic memory cannot be fully understood unless one appreciates that episodic recollection requires the coordinated function of a number of distinct, yet interacting, enabling systems. Although these systems – ownership, self, subjective temporality, and agency – are not traditionally viewed as memorial in nature, each is necessary for episodic recollection and jointly they may be sufficient, and (c the type of subjective awareness provided by episodic recollection (autonoetic is relational rather than intrinsic – i.e., it can be lost in certain patient populations, thus rendering episodic memory content indistinguishable from the content of semantic long-term memory.

  14. The Desecration of "the Most Holy Temple of All the World" in the "Holy Land" : Early Jewish and Early Christian Recollections of Antiochus’ "Abomination of Desolation"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooten, G.H.; van Ruiten, J.T.A.G.M.; de Vos, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    George H. van Kooten, “The Desecration of ‘the Most Holy Temple of All the World’ in the ‘Holy Land’: Early Jewish and Early Christian Recollections of Antiochus’ ‘Abomination of Desolation,’” in The Land of Israel in Bible, History, and Theology: Studies in Honour of Ed Noort (ed. Jacques van

  15. Clear-air lidar dark band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolamo, Paolo Di; Scoccione, Andrea; Cacciani, Marco; Summa, Donato; Schween, Jan H.

    2018-04-01

    This paper illustrates measurements carried out by the Raman lidar BASIL in the frame of HOPE, revealing the presence of a clear-air dark band phenomenon (i.e. the appearance of a minimum in lidar backscatter echoes) in the upper portion of the convective boundary layer. The phenomenon is clearly distinguishable in the lidar backscatter echoes at 1064 nm. This phenomenon is attributed to the presence of lignite aerosol particles advected from the surrounding open pit mines in the vicinity of the measuring site.

  16. How clear is transparent? Reporting expert reasoning in legal cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjerps, M.J.; Berger, C.E.H.

    2012-01-01

    Experts providing evidence in legal cases are universally recommended to be transparent, particularly in their reasoning, so that legal practitioners can critically check whether the conclusions are adequately supported by the results. However, when exploring the practical meaning of this

  17. 17 CFR 16.00 - Clearing member reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... separately for futures by commodity and by future, and, for options, by underlying futures contract for options on futures contracts or by underlying physical for options on physicals, and by put, by call, by... quantity of purchases of futures for commodities or for derivatives positions and the quantity of sales of...

  18. Clearing and settlement of exchange traded derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    John McPartland

    2009-01-01

    Derivatives are a class of financial instruments that derive their value from some underlying commodity, security, index, or other asset. Futures and options are common forms of derivatives. This article explains how clearing and settlement systems for exchange traded derivatives work.

  19. A CLEAR Plan for School Crisis Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Anthony; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Although many school formulas for crisis management are well coordinated internally, many are also shortsighted in recognizing when a school crisis falls simultaneously into law enforcement's domain. An Illinois high school has devised CLEAR, a crisis management plan delineating cognizance of personnel, the linkages they establish, accountability…

  20. Clear Liquor Scrubbing with Anhydrite Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargrove, O. W.; Carey, T. R.; Lowell, P. S.; Meserole, F. B.; Rhudy, R. G.; Feeley, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this project to develop an advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process that has decreased capital and operating costs, higher SO 2 removal efficiency, and better by-product solids quality than existing, commercially available technology. A clear liquor process (which uses a scrubbing liquid with no solids) will be used to accomplish this objective rather than a slurry liquor process (which contains solids). This clear liquor scrubbing (CLS) project is focused on three research areas: (1) Development of a clear liquor scrubbing process that uses a clear solution to remove SO 2 from flue gas and can be operated under inhibited-oxidation conditions; (2) Development of an anhydrite process that converts precipitated calcium sulfite to anhydrous calcium sulfate (anhydrite); and (3) Development of an alkali/humidification process to remove HCl from flue gas upstream of the FGD system. The anhydrite process also can be retrofit into existing FGD systems to produce a valuable by-product as an alternative to gypsum. This fits well into another of FETC's PRDA objectives of developing an advanced byproduct recovery subsystem capable of transforming SO 2 into a useable byproduct or high-volume valuable commodities of interest. This paper describes the proposed processes, outlines the test approach, and preliminary Phase I test results

  1. Roadmap-Based Level Clearing of Buildings

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel; Amato, Nancy M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe a roadmap-based approach for a multi-agent search strategy to clear a building or multi-story environment. This approach utilizes an encoding of the environment in the form of a graph (roadmap) that is used to encode

  2. Post-event spontaneous intrusive recollections and strength of memory for emotional events in men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferree, Nikole K.; Cahill, Larry

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous intrusive recollections (SIRs) follow traumatic events in clinical and non-clinical populations. To determine whether any relationship exists between SIRs and enhanced memory for emotional events, participants viewed emotional or neutral films, had their memory for the films tested two days later, and estimated the number of SIRs they experienced for each film. SIR frequency related positively to memory strength, an effect more pronounced in the emotional condition. These findings represent the first demonstration of a relationship between SIRs occurring after an emotional experience and subsequent memory strength for that experience. The results are consistent with the possibility that emotional arousal leads both to elevated SIR frequency and better memory, and that the covert rehearsal associated with SIRs enhances memory for emotional relative to neutral stimuli. Additional evidence of menstrual cycle influences on SIR incidence in female participants appears to merit consideration in future work. PMID:19131257

  3. Pointing towards visuospatial patterns in short-term memory: differential effects on familiarity- and recollection-based judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia; Spataro, Pietro; Marques, Valeria R S; Longobardi, Emiddia

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have indicated that pointing toward to-be-remembered visuospatial patterns enhances short-term memory (STM) when the presentation of pointing and no-pointing trials is mixed (Chum et al., 2007; Dodd & Shumborski, 2009; Rossi-Arnaud et al., 2012). By contrast, when presentation is blocked, pointing has inhibitory effects on memory (Dodd & Shumborski, 2009; Rossi-Arnaud et al., 2012). In the present study, we demonstrated that pointing has different effects on short-term recollection- and familiarity-based judgments, depending on the length of the visuospatial patterns (5- vs. 7-item arrays) and the interval between the encoding and test phases (2 vs. 5 s). More specifically, pointing decreased the accuracy of recollection-based judgments for 5-item arrays, but not for 7-item arrays (this negative effect did not interact with interval length). In contrast, pointing facilitated familiarity-based judgments when the interval between the study and test phases was 5 s, but not when it was 2 s (this positive effect did not interact with pattern length). We proposed that the negative effects might be accounted for by the simultaneous recruitment of attention resources in the planning and execution of pointing movements. As a consequence, executive resources are diverted from the primary memory task, resulting in a less efficient use of attention-demanding retrieval strategies, like chunking. By contrast, the positive effects on familiarity judgments might reflect the unitization of the to-be-remembered items into a single shape. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. The self-reference effect on episodic memory recollection in young and older adults and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalanne, Jennifer; Rozenberg, Johanna; Grolleau, Pauline; Piolino, Pascale

    2013-12-01

    The Self-reference effect (SRE) on long-term episodic memory and autonoetic consciousness has been investigated in young adults, scarcely in older adults, but never in Alzheimer's patients. Is the functional influence of Selfreference still present when the individual's memory and identity are impaired? We investigated this issue in 60 young subjects, 41 elderly subjects, and 28 patients with Alzheimer's disease, by using 1) an incidental learning task of personality traits in three encoding conditions, inducing variable degrees of depth of processing and personal involvement, 2) a 2- minute retention interval free recall task, and 3) a 20-minute delayed recognition task, combined with a remember-know paradigm. Each recorded score was corrected for errors (intrusions in free recall, false alarms in recognition, and false source memory in remember responses). Compared with alternative encodings, the Self-reference significantly enhanced performance on the free recall task in the young group, and on the recognition task both in the young and older groups but not in the Alzheimer group. The most important finding in the Alzheimer group is that the Self-reference led the most often to a subjective sense of remembering (especially for the positive words) with the retrieval of the correct encoding source. This Self-reference recollection effect in patients was related to independent subjective measures of a positive and definite sense of Self (measured by the Tennessee Self Concept Scale), and to memory complaints in daily life. In conclusion, these results demonstrated the power and robustness of the Self-reference effect on recollection in long-term episodic memory in Alzheimer's disease, albeit the retrieval is considerably reduced. These results should open new perspectives for the development of rehabilitation programs for memory deficits.

  5. Perceived gender in clear and conversational speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booz, Jaime A.

    Although many studies have examined acoustic and sociolinguistic differences between male and female speech, the relationship between talker speaking style and perceived gender has not yet been explored. The present study attempts to determine whether clear speech, a style adopted by talkers who perceive some barrier to effective communication, shifts perceptions of femininity for male and female talkers. Much of our understanding of gender perception in voice and speech is based on sustained vowels or single words, eliminating temporal, prosodic, and articulatory cues available in more naturalistic, connected speech. Thus, clear and conversational sentence stimuli, selected from the 41 talkers of the Ferguson Clear Speech Database (Ferguson, 2004) were presented to 17 normal-hearing listeners, aged 18 to 30. They rated the talkers' gender using a visual analog scale with "masculine" and "feminine" endpoints. This response method was chosen to account for within-category shifts of gender perception by allowing nonbinary responses. Mixed-effects regression analysis of listener responses revealed a small but significant effect of speaking style, and this effect was larger for male talkers than female talkers. Because of the high degree of talker variability observed for talker gender, acoustic analyses of these sentences were undertaken to determine the relationship between acoustic changes in clear and conversational speech and perceived femininity. Results of these analyses showed that mean fundamental frequency (fo) and f o standard deviation were significantly correlated to perceived gender for both male and female talkers, and vowel space was significantly correlated only for male talkers. Speaking rate and breathiness measures (CPPS) were not significantly related for either group. Outcomes of this study indicate that adopting a clear speaking style is correlated with increases in perceived femininity. Although the increase was small, some changes associated

  6. Cellulose Degradation by Cellulose-Clearing and Non-Cellulose-Clearing Brown-Rot Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Highley, Terry L.

    1980-01-01

    Cellulose degradation by four cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungi in the Coniophoraceae—Coniophora prasinoides, C. puteana, Leucogyrophana arizonica, and L. olivascens—is compared with that of a non-cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungus, Poria placenta. The cellulose- and the non-cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungi apparently employ similar mechanisms to depolymerize cellulose; most likely a nonenzymatic mechanism is involved.

  7. CLEARING MAGNET DESIGN FOR APS-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abliz, M.; Grimmer, J.; Jaski, Y.; Westferro, F.; Ramanathan, M.

    2017-06-25

    The Advanced Photon Source is in the process of developing an upgrade (APS-U) of the storage ring. The upgrade will be converting the current double bend achromat (DBA) lattice to a multi-bend achromat (MBA) lattice. In addition, the storage ring will be operated at 6 GeV and 200 mA with regular swap-out injection to keep the stored beam current constant [1]. The swap-out injection will take place with beamline shutters open. For radiation safety to ensure that no electrons can exit the storage ring, a passive method of protecting the beamline and containing the electrons inside the storage ring is proposed. A clearing magnet will be located in all beamline front ends inside the storage ring tunnel. This article will discuss the features and design of the clearing magnet scheme for APS-U.

  8. Roadmap-Based Level Clearing of Buildings

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe a roadmap-based approach for a multi-agent search strategy to clear a building or multi-story environment. This approach utilizes an encoding of the environment in the form of a graph (roadmap) that is used to encode feasible paths through the environment. The roadmap is partitioned into regions, e.g., one per level, and we design region-based search strategies to cover and clear the environment. We can provide certain guarantees within this roadmap-based framework on coverage and the number of agents needed. Our approach can handle complex and realistic environments where many approaches are restricted to simple 2D environments. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Internet compromise clears way for WSIS agreement

    CERN Multimedia

    Ermert, M

    2003-01-01

    A working group under the leadership of United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan himself will try to resolve the deep differences on the question of Internet governance, officials said here. The group, whose exact membership wasn't immediately clear, is to propose a solution to the controversial issue that has given negotiators at the World Summit of the Information Society (WSIS) a headache (1/2 page).

  10. Orthodontic Tooth Movement with Clear Aligners

    OpenAIRE

    Drake, Carl T.; McGorray, Susan P.; Dolce, Calogero; Nair, Madhu; Wheeler, Timothy T.

    2012-01-01

    Clear aligners provide a convenient model to measure orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). We examined the role of in vivo aligner material fatigue and subject-specific factors in tooth movement. Fifteen subjects seeking orthodontic treatment at the University of Florida were enrolled. Results were compared with data previously collected from 37 subjects enrolled in a similar protocol. Subjects were followed prospectively for eight weeks. An upper central incisor was programmed to move 0.5 mm. ev...

  11. A clinical case treated with clear aligners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Fernando César; Jóias, Renata Pilli; Cepera, Fernanda; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Sanders, Derek

    2011-01-01

    There are a wide variety of techniques, prescriptions and materials that can be used to correct malocclusions. Esthetic and discrete appliances have gained popularity in recent years and there seems to be a continual search for new materials that can provide similar orthodontic results. This article will describe the relevant aspects of clear aligners and present clinical cases to document some of the applications of Invisalign.

  12. Imaging of ovarian clear cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Toshihiko; Sawano, Seishi; Yamada, Keiko [Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the appearance of ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma (OCCA) on MR, CT, US. In 39 cases with OCCA, the imaging characteristics of OCCA were evaluated morphologically and classified into three groups, that was, monomural nodule type, multi-mural nodule type and predominantly solid type. Forty-three percent of the patients had endometriosis. Contrast material-enhanced MRI was the most useful method for diagnosis of OCCA. (author)

  13. Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Fault Clearing at Low State of Charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, C.

    1997-01-01

    Fault clearing currents were achieved and maintained at discharge rates from C/2 to C/3 at high and low states of charge. The fault clearing plateau voltage is strong function of: discharge current, and voltage-prior-to-the-fault-clearing-event and a weak function of state of charge. Voltage performance, for the range of conditions reported, is summarized.

  14. Primary clear cell sarcoma of bone: a unique site of origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelczer, R.K.; Wenger, D.E.; Wold, L.E.

    1999-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma is a rare soft tissue neoplasm, accounting for less than 1% of soft tissue sarcomas. We are presenting a case of a clear cell sarcoma of bone which, to our knowledge, is the only report of a primary clear cell sarcoma of bone. (orig.)

  15. 77 FR 12896 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Midwest Clearing Corporation; Order Cancelling Clearing Agency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-66458; File No. 600-9] Self-Regulatory Organizations; Midwest Clearing Corporation; Order Cancelling Clearing Agency Registration February 24, 2012. I... Act provides that in the event any self- regulatory organization is no longer in existence or has...

  16. A case of clear cell sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Jacob; Ibrahim, Rami Mossad

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare tumour of the soft tissue often misdiagnosed, as it shares characteristics with malignant melanoma (MM). Previously, CCS has been characterised, as malignant melanoma of the soft tissue, contemporary immunohistochemical techniques, however, have made...... this designation obsolete. The true incidence remains unknown, but CCS is believed to represent less than one percent of all sarcomas. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 22-year-old patient presented with a mass sized 2.6×2.7×2.7cm of the left gluteal region, pain, and malaise. Initially, the symptoms were interpreted...

  17. Greenhouse problem in the Amazon jungle clearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, E.J.; Margulis, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the contribution of Amazon jungle clearing to the greenhouse problem and makes an assessment of long-run prospects. The introductory sections pose the problem from both international and Brazilian perspectives. The next section describes major features of the Amazonia ecosystems and presents methods and evidence on deforestation and on its impact on carbon dioxide emissions. Based upon cross-section information for a sample of municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon, the following section estimates elasticities of deforestation in relation to major economic factors- government policies included- and uses them to make projections for the future pace of deforestation. The last section discusses policy alternatives to slow down forest conversion

  18. Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma developing in pacemaker pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Cesar V

    2008-11-01

    An octagenerian woman developed clear cell hidradenocarcinoma, a rare neoplasm of eccrine sweat gland origin, 4 years following pacemaker implantation in her right lateral chest. The tumor immunohistochemically mimicked a metastatic lobular breast carcinoma, for example, strongly positive estrogen, weakly positive progesterone, and weakly reactive mammoglobin. A complete surgical excision of the tumor was complemented with ipsilateral dissection of involved adjacent axillary lymph nodes. Recommended irradiation was refused by the patient. Retrospective 3-year mammogram review, 2-year postsurgery follow-up, and complete postmortem evaluation failed to prove a primary breast malignancy or other metastatic lesion elsewhere.

  19. Orthodontic tooth movement with clear aligners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Carl T; McGorray, Susan P; Dolce, Calogero; Nair, Madhu; Wheeler, Timothy T

    2012-01-01

    Clear aligners provide a convenient model to measure orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). We examined the role of in vivo aligner material fatigue and subject-specific factors in tooth movement. Fifteen subjects seeking orthodontic treatment at the University of Florida were enrolled. Results were compared with data previously collected from 37 subjects enrolled in a similar protocol. Subjects were followed prospectively for eight weeks. An upper central incisor was programmed to move 0.5 mm. every two weeks using clear aligners. A duplicate aligner was provided for the second week of each cycle. Weekly polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impressions were taken, and digital models were fabricated to measure OTM. Initial and final cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were obtained to characterize OTM. Results were compared to data from a similar protocol, where subjects received a new aligner biweekly. No significant difference was found in the amount of OTM between the two groups, with mean total OTM of 1.11 mm. (standard deviation (SD) 0.30) and 1.07 mm. (SD 0.33) for the weekly aligner and biweekly control groups, respectively (P = 0.72). Over eight weeks, in two-week intervals, material fatigue does not play a significant role in the rate or amount of tooth movement.

  20. Cerebellar clear cell ependymoma in a 10 year old girl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thinzar Aye Nyein; Moon, Ah Rim; Hwang, Sun Chul; Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, A Leum; Chang, Kee Hyun; Kim, Hee Kyung; Chin, Su Sie [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Sang [Soonchunhyang University Gumi Hospital, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Clear cell ependymoma (CCE) is a histological rare variant (1–5%) of ependymoma, which is distinguished from other histological subtypes by the presence of fusiform cells arrayed radially around small blood vessels. These alleged perivascular pseudorosettes are significant characteristic features of ependymomas. About 95% of infratentorial ependymomas are found in the fourth ventricle and the remainder occurs as cerebellopontine angle lesions. In previous reports, the cerebellum is found to be a rare location for ependymoma. In this study we report one case of CCE originating from the cerebellar hemisphere, showing unusual morphology on 3T MRI.

  1. The effects of healthy aging, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease on recollection, familiarity and false recognition, estimated by an associative process-dissociation recognition procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarque, Alfonso; Meléndez, Juan C; Sales, Alicia; Mayordomo, Teresa; Satorres, Encar; Escudero, Joaquín; Algarabel, Salvador

    2016-10-01

    Given the uneven experimental results in the literature regarding whether or not familiarity declines with healthy aging and cognitive impairment, we compare four samples (healthy young people, healthy older people, older people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment - aMCI -, and older people with Alzheimer's disease - AD -) on an associative recognition task, which, following the logic of the process-dissociation procedure, allowed us to obtain corrected estimates of recollection, familiarity and false recognition. The results show that familiarity does not decline with healthy aging, but it does with cognitive impairment, whereas false recognition increases with healthy aging, but declines significantly with cognitive impairment. These results support the idea that the deficits detected in recollection, familiarity, or false recognition in older people could be used as early prodromal markers of cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optical clearing of vaginal tissues in cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Hung; Hardy, Luke A.; Peters, Michael G.; Bastawros, Dina A.; Myers, Erinn M.; Kennelly, Michael J.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2018-02-01

    A nonsurgical laser procedure is being developed for treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Previous studies in porcine vaginal tissues, ex vivo, as well as computer simulations, showed the feasibility of using near-infrared laser energy delivered through a transvaginal contact cooling probe to thermally remodel endopelvic fascia, while preserving the vaginal wall from thermal damage. This study explores optical properties of vaginal tissue in cadavers as an intermediate step towards future pre-clinical and clinical studies. Optical clearing of tissue using glycerol resulted in a 15-17% increase in optical transmission after 11 min at room temperature (and a calculated 32.5% increase at body temperature). Subsurface thermal lesions were created using power of 4.6 - 6.4 W, 5.2-mm spot, and 30 s irradiation time, resulting in partial preservation of vaginal wall to 0.8 - 1.1 mm depth.

  3. EBM, HTA, and CER: clearing the confusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, Bryan R; Drummond, Michael; Jönsson, Bengt; Neumann, Peter J; Schwartz, J Sanford; Siebert, Uwe; Sullivan, Sean D

    2010-06-01

    The terms evidence-based medicine (EBM), health technology assessment (HTA), comparative effectiveness research (CER), and other related terms lack clarity and so could lead to miscommunication, confusion, and poor decision making. The objective of this article is to clarify their definitions and the relationships among key terms and concepts. This article used the relevant methods and policy literature as well as the websites of organizations engaged in evidence-based activities to develop a framework to explain the relationships among the terms EBM, HTA, and CER. This article proposes an organizing framework and presents a graphic demonstrating the differences and relationships among these terms and concepts. More specific terminology and concepts are necessary for an informed and clear public policy debate. They are even more important to inform decision making at all levels and to engender more accountability by the organizations and individuals responsible for these decisions.

  4. 77 FR 58194 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ....S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. Canadian clearing members that use Form 1 report the... Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Financial... technical ``housekeeping'' changes to OCC's By-Laws and Rules relating to financial reporting by Canadian...

  5. The PLUTO experiment at DORIS (DESY) and the discovery of the gluon (A recollection)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stella, Bruno R. [Rome-3 Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy); Meyer, Hans-Juergen

    2010-08-15

    With the aim of determining the contribution of the PLUTO experiment at the DORIS e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring to the discovery of the gluon, as members of this former collaboration we have reconsidered all the scientific material produced by PLUTO in 1978 and the first half of 1979. It is clear that the experiment demonstrated the main decay of the Y(9.46 GeV) resonance to be mediated by 3 gluons, by providing evidence for the agreement of this hypothesis with average values and differential distributions of all possible experimental variables and by excluding all other possible alternative models. Moreover PLUTO measured in June 1979 the matrix element of the 3-gluon decay to be quantitatively as expected by QCD (even after hadronization) and, having checked the possibility to correctly trace the gluons' directions, demonstrated the spin 1 nature of the gluon by excluding spin 0 and spin 1/2. The hadronization of the gluon like a quark jet, hypothesized in the 3-gluon jet Monte Carlo simulation, was compatible with the topological data at this energy and was shown to be an approximation at 10% level for the multiplicity ({approx} < p {sub vertical} {sub stroke} {sub vertical} {sub stroke} {sub >}{sup -1}); the right expected gluon fragmentation was needed for the inclusive distributions; this was the first experimental study of (identified) gluon jets. In the following measurements at the PETRA storage ring, these results were confirmed by PLUTO and by three contemporaneous experiments by evidencing at higher energies the gluon radiation (''bremsstrahlung''), the softer one, by jet broadening, and the hard one, by the emission of (now clearly visible) gluon jets by quarks. The gluon's spin 1 particle nature was also confirmed. The PLUTO results on Y decays had been confirmed both by contemporaneous experiments at DORIS (partially) and later (also partially) were confirmed by more sophisticated detectors. (orig.)

  6. The PLUTO experiment at DORIS (DESY) and the discovery of the gluon (A recollection)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stella, Bruno R.; Meyer, Hans-Juergen

    2010-08-01

    With the aim of determining the contribution of the PLUTO experiment at the DORIS e + e - storage ring to the discovery of the gluon, as members of this former collaboration we have reconsidered all the scientific material produced by PLUTO in 1978 and the first half of 1979. It is clear that the experiment demonstrated the main decay of the Y(9.46 GeV) resonance to be mediated by 3 gluons, by providing evidence for the agreement of this hypothesis with average values and differential distributions of all possible experimental variables and by excluding all other possible alternative models. Moreover PLUTO measured in June 1979 the matrix element of the 3-gluon decay to be quantitatively as expected by QCD (even after hadronization) and, having checked the possibility to correctly trace the gluons' directions, demonstrated the spin 1 nature of the gluon by excluding spin 0 and spin 1/2. The hadronization of the gluon like a quark jet, hypothesized in the 3-gluon jet Monte Carlo simulation, was compatible with the topological data at this energy and was shown to be an approximation at 10% level for the multiplicity (∼ vertical stroke vertical stroke > -1 ); the right expected gluon fragmentation was needed for the inclusive distributions; this was the first experimental study of (identified) gluon jets. In the following measurements at the PETRA storage ring, these results were confirmed by PLUTO and by three contemporaneous experiments by evidencing at higher energies the gluon radiation (''bremsstrahlung''), the softer one, by jet broadening, and the hard one, by the emission of (now clearly visible) gluon jets by quarks. The gluon's spin 1 particle nature was also confirmed. The PLUTO results on Y decays had been confirmed both by contemporaneous experiments at DORIS (partially) and later (also partially) were confirmed by more sophisticated detectors. (orig.)

  7. Nuclear threat. A clear and present danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Nakagome, Yoshihiro

    2005-01-01

    It was disappointed at the discussion in the review conference of the NPT held in 2005. The fact may be caused by the estrangement between the international urgent issues related to the non-proliferation and the effectiveness of archaic measures through the NPT. However, it should not be recognized that the international obligation and worth of NPT has been gone. The NPT referred the typical international situation under the cold war era. Although several permanent issues of the nuclear non-proliferation exist in current discussions, the activities relevant to the NPT may not be effect against newly unstable situations after the September 11th of 2001. Urgent challenges to be taken are that we must strictly analyze the interventions between 'the clear and present danger' of our world and the nuclear herms, and must take appropriate actions toward them without influences from previous international situations that might be subsisted in current international treaties and agreements. This paper identified the features of nuclear threats based on the four categories and examined the possibilities of nuclear terrorism from previous facts with the inductive inference. The results identified the possibility of nuclear facility attack and of radioactive materials theft by the Polico-Religious Groups and others are stood out. The authors would suggest the important of urgent recognition to establish the certain security system against nuclear terrorism. (author)

  8. Setting clear expectations for safety basis development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MORENO, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    DOE-RL has set clear expectations for a cost-effective approach for achieving compliance with the Nuclear Safety Management requirements (10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Rule) which will ensure long-term benefit to Hanford. To facilitate implementation of these expectations, tools were developed to streamline and standardize safety analysis and safety document development resulting in a shorter and more predictable DOE approval cycle. A Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) was issued to standardized methodologies for development of safety analyses. A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet (RADIDOSE) was issued for the evaluation of radiological consequences for accident scenarios often postulated for Hanford. A standard Site Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) detailing the safety management programs was issued for use as a means of compliance with a majority of 3009 Standard chapters. An in-process review was developed between DOE and the Contractor to facilitate DOE approval and provide early course correction. As a result of setting expectations and providing safety analysis tools, the four Hanford Site waste management nuclear facilities were able to integrate into one Master Waste Management Documented Safety Analysis (WM-DSA)

  9. Clear Channel Assessment in Integrated Medical Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Complementary WLAN and WPAN technologies as well as other wireless technologies will play a fundamental role in the medical environments to support ubiquitous healthcare delivery. This paper investigates clear channel assessment (CCA and its impact on the coexistence of WLAN (IEEE 802.11 high rate direct sequence spread spectrum (HR/DSSS PHY and WPAN (IEEE 802.15.4b in the 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM band. We derived closed-form expressions of both energy-based CCA and feature-based CCA. We qualified unequal sensing abilities between them and termed this inequality asymmetric CCA, which is different from the traditional “hidden node” or “exposed node” issues in the homogeneous network. The energy-based CCA was considered in the considered integrated medical environment because the 2.4 GHz ISM band is too crowded to apply feature-based CCA. The WPAN is oversensitive to the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals and the WLAN is insensitive to the 802.15.4b signals. Choosing an optimal CCA threshold requires some prior knowledge of the underlying signals. In the integrated medical environment we considered here, energy-based CCA can effectively avoid possible packet collisions when they are close within the “heterogeneous exclusive CCA range” (HECR. However, when they are separated beyond the HECR, WPAN can still sense the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals, but WLAN loses its sense to the 802.15.4b signals. The asymmetric CCA leads to WPAN traffic in a position secondary to WLAN traffic.

  10. Clear Channel Assessment in Integrated Medical Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hara Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complementary WLAN and WPAN technologies as well as other wireless technologies will play a fundamental role in the medical environments to support ubiquitous healthcare delivery. This paper investigates clear channel assessment (CCA and its impact on the coexistence of WLAN (IEEE 802.11 high rate direct sequence spread spectrum (HR/DSSS PHY and WPAN (IEEE 802.15.4b in the 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM band. We derived closed-form expressions of both energy-based CCA and feature-based CCA. We qualified unequal sensing abilities between them and termed this inequality asymmetric CCA, which is different from the traditional "hidden node" or "exposed node" issues in the homogeneous network. The energy-based CCA was considered in the considered integrated medical environment because the 2.4 GHz ISM band is too crowded to apply feature-based CCA. The WPAN is oversensitive to the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals and the WLAN is insensitive to the 802.15.4b signals. Choosing an optimal CCA threshold requires some prior knowledge of the underlying signals. In the integrated medical environment we considered here, energy-based CCA can effectively avoid possible packet collisions when they are close within the "heterogeneous exclusive CCA range" (HECR. However, when they are separated beyond the HECR, WPAN can still sense the 802.11 HR/DSSS signals, but WLAN loses its sense to the 802.15.4b signals. The asymmetric CCA leads to WPAN traffic in a position secondary to WLAN traffic.

  11. Viscous optical clearing agent for in vivo optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zijian; Jing, Lijia; Wu, Ning; lv, Pengyu; Jiang, Xiaoyun; Ren, Qiushi; Li, Changhui

    2014-07-01

    By allowing more photons to reach deeper tissue, the optical clearing agent (OCA) has gained increasing attention in various optical imaging modalities. However, commonly used OCAs have high fluidity, limiting their applications in in vivo studies with oblique, uneven, or moving surfaces. In this work, we reported an OCA with high viscosity. We measured the properties of this viscous OCA, and tested its successful performances in the imaging of a living animal's skin with two optical imaging modalities: photoacoustic microscopy and optical coherence tomography. Our results demonstrated that the viscous OCA has a great potential in the study of different turbid tissues using various optical imaging modalities.

  12. MODIS Collection 6 Clear Sky Restoral (CSR): Filtering Cloud Mast 'Not Clear' Pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Kerry G.; Platnick, Steven Edward; Wind, Galina; Riedi, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Correctly identifying cloudy pixels appropriate for the MOD06 cloud optical and microphysical property retrievals is accomplished in large part using results from the MOD35 1km cloud mask tests (note there are also two 250m subpixel cloud mask tests that can convert the 1km cloudy designations to clear sky). However, because MOD35 is by design clear sky conservative (i.e., it identifies "not clear" pixels), certain situations exist in which pixels identified by MOD35 as "cloudy" are nevertheless likely to be poor retrieval candidates. For instance, near the edge of clouds or within broken cloud fields, a given 1km MODIS field of view (FOV) may in fact only be partially cloudy. This can be problematic for the MOD06 retrievals because in these cases the assumptions of a completely overcast homogenous cloudy FOV and 1-dimensional plane-parallel radiative transfer no longer hold, and subsequent retrievals will be of low confidence. Furthermore, some pixels may be identified by MOD35 as "cloudy" for reasons other than the presence of clouds, such as scenes with thick smoke or lofted dust, and should therefore not be retrieved as clouds. With such situations in mind, a Clear Sky Restoral (CSR) algorithm was introduced in C5 that attempts to identify pixels expected to be poor retrieval candidates. Table 1 provides SDS locations for CSR and partly cloudy (PCL) pixels.

  13. 76 FR 45730 - Customer Clearing Documentation and Timing of Acceptance for Clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... proposing regulations to facilitate customer access to clearing and to bolster risk management through... and execution of customer transactions on a DCM or SEF on terms that have a reasonable relationship to... a reasonable relationship to the best terms available by prohibiting restrictions in customer...

  14. Surgically induced astigmatism after phacoemulsification by temporal clear corneal and superior clear corneal approach: a comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikose AS

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Archana Sunil Nikose, Dhrubojyoti Saha, Pradnya Mukesh Laddha, Mayuri Patil Department of Ophthalmology, N.K.P. Salve Institute and LMH, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India Introduction: Cataract surgery has undergone various advances since it was evolved from ancient couching to the modern phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Surgically induced astigmatism (SIA remains one of the most common complications. The introduction of sutureless clear corneal incision has gained increasing popularity worldwide because it offers several advantages over the traditional sutured limbal incision and scleral tunnel. A clear corneal incision has the benefit of being bloodless and having an easy approach, but SIA is still a concern.Purpose: In this study, we evaluated the SIA in clear corneal incisions with temporal approach and superior approach phacoemulsification. Comparisons between the two incisions were done using keratometric readings of preoperative and postoperative refractive status.Methodology: It was a hospital-based prospective interventional comparative randomized control trial of 261 patients conducted in a rural-based tertiary care center from September 2012 to August 2014. The visual acuity and detailed anterior segment and posterior segment examinations were done and the cataract was graded according to Lens Opacification Classification System II. Patients were divided for phacoemulsification into two groups, group A and group B, who underwent temporal and superior clear corneal approach, respectively. The patients were followed up on day 1, 7, 30, and 90 postoperatively. The parameters recorded were uncorrected visual acuity, best-corrected visual acuity, slit lamp examination, and keratometry. The mean difference of SIA between 30th and 90th day was statistically evaluated using paired t-test, and all the analyses were performed using SPSS 18.0 (SPSS Inc. software.Results: The mean postoperative SIA in group A was 0.998 D on the 30th day, which

  15. Medical Marijuana: Clearing Away the Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Igor; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Gouaux, Ben; Wilsey, Barth

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding of the mode of action of tetrahydrocannabinol and related cannabinoid in-gredients of marijuana, plus the accumulating anecdotal reports on potential medical benefits have spurred increasing re-search into possible medicinal uses of cannabis. Recent clinical trials with smoked and vaporized marijuana, as well as other botanical extracts indicate the likelihood that the cannabinoids can be useful in the management of neuropathic pain, spasticity due to multiple...

  16. The devil is in the detail: children's recollection of details about their prior experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Deryn; Hayne, Harlene

    2013-01-01

    Adults sometimes report highly specific details of childhood events, including the weather, what they or others were wearing, as well as information about what they or others said or were thinking at the time. When these details are reported in the course of research they shape our theories of memory development; when they are reported in a criminal trial they influence jurors' evaluation of guilt or innocence. The key question is whether these details were encoded at the time the event took place or have been added after the fact. We addressed this question prospectively by examining the memory accounts of children. In Experiment 1 we coded the reports of 5- to 6-year-olds and 9- to 10-year-olds who had experienced a unique event. We found that spontaneous mentions of these specific details were exceedingly rare. In Experiment 2 we questioned additional children about a similar event using specific questions to extract those details. We found that 9- to 10-year-olds were able to accurately answer, while 5- to 6-year-olds had considerable difficulty. Moreover, when the younger children did respond they provided generic, forensically inadequate, information. These data have important implications for the courtroom and for current theories of memory development and childhood amnesia.

  17. The Clearing House on Operating Experience Feedback (CH-OEF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanarro Colodron, J.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The Clearing House on Operating Experience Feedback (CH-OEF) is an online information system that contains three technical databases available only to registered users: 1) Operating Experience Feedback (OEF) records, containing information about events occurred at Nuclear Power Plants; 2) Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) records, containing technical details about NPPs; 3) Documents about operating experience, such as the Topical Operating Experience Reports (TOERs) and the quarterly reports on nuclear power plant events. The main objective of the information system is to develop communication, cooperation and sharing of operating experience amongst the national nuclear regulatory authorities participating in EU Clearinghouse network. The CH-OEF is essential for the preparation and dissemination of the quarterly reports on NPP events. These reports are published every three months and are intended to be complementary to other international reporting systems, containing mainly recent information publicly available. Only events that are considered to be likely to have lessons applicable to EU NPPs or with a real or potential impact on nuclear safety are addressed in the reports. The CH-OEF is a fundamental tool for their preparation, providing specific features for a more efficient sharing of information as well as for facilitating the related discussion and decision making. (author

  18. Quantitative Assessment of Hyaline Cartilage Elasticity During Optical Clearing Using Optical Coherence Elastography

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-Hao Liu; Manmohan Singh; Jiasong Li; Zhaolong Han; Chen Wu; Shang Wang; Rita Idugboe; Raksha Raghunathan; Emil N. Sobol; Valery V. Tuchin; Michael Twa; Kirill V. Larin

    2015-01-01

    Tissue optical clearing is an emerging technique for dynamically modifying tissue optical properties to increase imaging depth, which is useful in applications such as imaging and functional diagnostics of many diseases. For example, optical clearing of cartilage allowed imaging of subchondral bone that is used to assess orthopedic diseases. However, the effect of the clearing processes on tissue elastic properties has not been investigated yet. In this study we report the first use of phase-...

  19. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Urethra: Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urethra (CCAU is extremely rare and a number of clinicians may be unfamiliar with its diagnosis and biological behaviour. Aims. To review the literature on CCAU. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results/Literature Review. (i CCAU occurs in adults and in women in the great majority of cases. (ii It has a particular association with urethral diverticulum, which has been present in 56% of the patients; is indistinguishable from clear cell adenocarcinoma of the female genital tract but is not associated with endometriosis; and probably does not arise by malignant transformation of nephrogenic adenoma. (iii It is usually, readily distinguished from nephrogenic adenoma because of greater cytological a-typicality and mitotic activity and does not stain for prostate-specific antigen or prostatic acid phosphatase. (iv It has been treated by anterior exenteration in women and cystoprostatectomy in men and at times by radiotherapy; chemotherapy has rarely been given. (v CCAU is aggressive with low 5-year survival rates. (vi There is no consensus opinion of treatment options that would improve the prognosis. Conclusions. Few cases of CCAU have been reported. Urologists, gynaecologists, pathologists, and oncologists should report cases of CCAU they encounter and enter them into a multicentric trial to determine the best treatment options that would improve the prognosis.

  20. Medical marijuana: clearing away the smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Igor; Atkinson, J Hampton; Gouaux, Ben; Wilsey, Barth

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding of the mode of action of tetrahydrocannabinol and related cannabinoid in-gredients of marijuana, plus the accumulating anecdotal reports on potential medical benefits have spurred increasing re-search into possible medicinal uses of cannabis. Recent clinical trials with smoked and vaporized marijuana, as well as other botanical extracts indicate the likelihood that the cannabinoids can be useful in the management of neuropathic pain, spasticity due to multiple sclerosis, and possibly other indications. As with all medications, benefits and risks need to be weighed in recommending cannabis to patients. We present an algorithm that may be useful to physicians in determining whether cannabis might be recommended as a treatment in jurisdictions where such use is permitted.

  1. Medical Marijuana: Clearing Away the Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Igor; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Gouaux, Ben; Wilsey, Barth

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding of the mode of action of tetrahydrocannabinol and related cannabinoid in-gredients of marijuana, plus the accumulating anecdotal reports on potential medical benefits have spurred increasing re-search into possible medicinal uses of cannabis. Recent clinical trials with smoked and vaporized marijuana, as well as other botanical extracts indicate the likelihood that the cannabinoids can be useful in the management of neuropathic pain, spasticity due to multiple sclerosis, and possibly other indications. As with all medications, benefits and risks need to be weighed in recommending cannabis to patients. We present an algorithm that may be useful to physicians in determining whether cannabis might be recommended as a treatment in jurisdictions where such use is permitted. PMID:22629287

  2. clearScience: Infrastructure for Communicating Data-Intensive Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, Brian M; Burdick, David; Kellen, Michael; Huang, Erich S

    2013-01-01

    Progress in biomedical research requires effective scientific communication to one's peers and to the public. Current research routinely encompasses large datasets and complex analytic processes, and the constraints of traditional journal formats limit useful transmission of these elements. We are constructing a framework through which authors can not only provide the narrative of what was done, but the primary and derivative data, the source code, the compute environment, and web-accessible virtual machines. This infrastructure allows authors to "hand their machine"- prepopulated with libraries, data, and code-to those interested in reviewing or building off of their work. This project, "clearScience," seeks to provide an integrated system that accommodates the ad hoc nature of discovery in the data-intensive sciences and seamless transitions from working to reporting. We demonstrate that rather than merely describing the science being reported, one can deliver the science itself.

  3. Recollections of pressure to eat during childhood, but not picky eating, predict young adult eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jordan M; Galloway, Amy T; Webb, Rose Mary; Martz, Denise M; Farrow, Claire V

    2016-02-01

    Picky eating is a childhood behavior that vexes many parents and is a symptom in the newer diagnosis of Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in adults. Pressure to eat, a parental controlling feeding practice aimed at encouraging a child to eat more, is associated with picky eating and a number of other childhood eating concerns. Low intuitive eating, an insensitivity to internal hunger and satiety cues, is also associated with a number of problem eating behaviors in adulthood. Whether picky eating and pressure to eat are predictive of young adult eating behavior is relatively unstudied. Current adult intuitive eating and disordered eating behaviors were self-reported by 170 college students, along with childhood picky eating and pressure through retrospective self- and parent reports. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that childhood parental pressure to eat, but not picky eating, predicted intuitive eating and disordered eating symptoms in college students. These findings suggest that parental pressure in childhood is associated with problematic eating patterns in young adulthood. Additional research is needed to understand the extent to which parental pressure is a reaction to or perhaps compounds the development of problematic eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Experiencing patient death in clinical practice: nurses' recollections of their earliest memorable patient death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Natalie Elizabeth; Kent, Bridie; Owens, R Glynn

    2015-03-01

    Death and dying are inevitable life encounters, but a nurse's first experience with patient death may pose considerable cognitive, emotional and clinical challenges. This paper reports the findings of the second phase of a study; the first has been reported elsewhere. This phase explored the earliest memorable patient death experiences of New Zealand registered nurses. A purposeful, self-selected sub-sample of a larger study of New Zealand registered nurses, took part in individual face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was utilised to seek to understand participants' experiences. Thematic analysis was undertaken to identify emerging themes, with participants' own words used as theme headings, where their phrases provided succinct or powerful descriptors. A diverse participant group of twenty, currently practising, New Zealand registered nurses provided rich and detailed descriptions of their earliest memorable experience with patient death. Participants from a variety of training backgrounds described patient deaths, which occurred in a range of settings - some only a few months prior, others - more than thirty years ago. Seven emergent themes, and features of more positive, or negative experiences were identified: Event Significance; Emotional Challenges; Sharing the Experience; Learning; Feeling Unprepared, Responses to Death and Finding Benefits. For participants in this study, there was considerable evidence that their earliest memorable patient death was a significant event. Furthermore, although most participants' experiences were characterised by emphatic or poignant description, there was most often a balance of challenges and rewards. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 76 FR 49511 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The National Securities Clearing Corporation; Order Granting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... distribute hard copy Important Notices, clearing reports, and other informational documents to NSCC members... policy with regard to ESS and other NSCC services, provides, among other things, that money-only... requires, among other things, that the rules of a clearing agency be designed to promote the prompt and...

  6. Identifying fly puparia by clearing technique: application to forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Ngern-Klun, Radchadawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Sukontason, Kom

    2007-10-01

    In forensic investigations, immature stages of the fly (egg, larva, or puparia) can be used as entomological evidence at death scenes, not only to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI), analyze toxic substances, and to determine the manner of death but also to indicate the movement of a corpse in homicide cases. Of these immature stages, puparia represent the longest developmental time, which makes them of useful. However, in order for forensic entomologists to use puparia effectively, it is crucial that they are able to accurately identify the species of fly found in a corpse. Typically, these puparia are similar in general appearance, being coarctate and light brown to dark brown in color, which makes identification difficult. In this study, we report on the clearing technique used to pale the integument of fly puparia, thereby allowing observation of the anterior end (second to fourth segments) and the profile of the posterior spiracle, which are important clues for identification. We used puparia of the blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.), as the model species in this experiment. With placement in a 20% potassium hydroxide solution daily and mounting on a clearing medium (Permount(R), New Jersey), the profile of the posterior spiracle could be clearly examined under a light microscope beginning on the fifth day after pupation, and the number of papillae in the anterior spiracle could be counted easily starting from the ninth day. Comparison of morphological features of C. megacephala puparia with those of other blowflies (Chrysomya nigripes [Aubertin], Chrysomya rufifacies [Macquart], Chrysomya villeneuvi [Patton], Lucilia cuprina [Wiedemann], and Hemipyrellia ligurriens [Wiedemann]) and a housefly (Musca domestica L.) revealed that the anterior ends and the profiles of the posterior spiracles had markedly distinguishing characteristics. Morphometric analysis of the length and width of puparia, along with the length of the gaps between the posterior spiracles

  7. Reasons for Divorce and Recollections of Premarital Intervention: Implications for Improving Relationship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Shelby B.; Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.; Allen, Elizabeth S.; Markman, Howard J.

    2014-01-01

    The study presents findings from interviews of 52 divorced individuals who received the Prevention and Relationship Enhancement Program (PREP) while engaged to be married. Using both quantitative and qualitative methods, the study sought to understand participant reasons for divorce (including identification of the “final straw”) in order to understand if the program covered these topics effectively. Participants also provided suggestions based on their premarital education experiences so as to improve future relationship education efforts. The most commonly reported major contributors to divorce were lack of commitment, infidelity, and conflict/arguing. The most common “final straw” reasons were infidelity, domestic violence, and substance use. More participants blamed their partners than blamed themselves for the divorce. Recommendations from participants for the improvement of premarital education included receiving relationship education before making a commitment to marry (when it would be easier to break-up), having support for implementing skills outside of the educational setting, and increasing content about the stages of typical marital development. These results provide new insights into the timing and content of premarital and relationship education. PMID:24818068

  8. Reasons for Divorce and Recollections of Premarital Intervention: Implications for Improving Relationship Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Shelby B; Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M; Allen, Elizabeth S; Markman, Howard J

    2013-06-01

    The study presents findings from interviews of 52 divorced individuals who received the Prevention and Relationship Enhancement Program (PREP) while engaged to be married. Using both quantitative and qualitative methods, the study sought to understand participant reasons for divorce (including identification of the "final straw") in order to understand if the program covered these topics effectively. Participants also provided suggestions based on their premarital education experiences so as to improve future relationship education efforts. The most commonly reported major contributors to divorce were lack of commitment, infidelity, and conflict/arguing. The most common "final straw" reasons were infidelity, domestic violence, and substance use. More participants blamed their partners than blamed themselves for the divorce. Recommendations from participants for the improvement of premarital education included receiving relationship education before making a commitment to marry (when it would be easier to break-up), having support for implementing skills outside of the educational setting, and increasing content about the stages of typical marital development. These results provide new insights into the timing and content of premarital and relationship education.

  9. Clear cell chondrosarcoma mimicking chondroblastoma in a skeletally immature patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, Christopher P.; Nelson, Scott D.; Seeger, Leanne L.; Eckardt, Jeffrey J.

    2002-01-01

    We report the case of a clear cell chondrosarcoma (CCCS) occurring in the femoral head of a 14-year-old skeletally immature boy. Radiographic examination revealed a well-defined, osteolytic lesion in the epiphysis of the femoral head. Given the patient's age and the radiographic appearance of the lesion, chondroblastoma was high on the differential diagnosis. A frozen section was performed at the time of open biopsy was felt to be consistent with either chondroblastoma or CCCS. CCCS in a skeletally immature patient was felt to be unlikely, so curettage and bone grafting was performed. Final pathology review, however, confirmed the diagnosis of CCCS. The patient was taken back to surgery 4 weeks later for a wide resection and hemiarthroplasty. (orig.)

  10. Clear cell chondrosarcoma mimicking chondroblastoma in a skeletally immature patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, Christopher P. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Madigan Army Medical Center, Ft. Lewis, WA (United States); Nelson, Scott D. [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine, CA (United States); Seeger, Leanne L. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, CA (United States); Eckardt, Jeffrey J. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine, CA (United States)

    2002-06-01

    We report the case of a clear cell chondrosarcoma (CCCS) occurring in the femoral head of a 14-year-old skeletally immature boy. Radiographic examination revealed a well-defined, osteolytic lesion in the epiphysis of the femoral head. Given the patient's age and the radiographic appearance of the lesion, chondroblastoma was high on the differential diagnosis. A frozen section was performed at the time of open biopsy was felt to be consistent with either chondroblastoma or CCCS. CCCS in a skeletally immature patient was felt to be unlikely, so curettage and bone grafting was performed. Final pathology review, however, confirmed the diagnosis of CCCS. The patient was taken back to surgery 4 weeks later for a wide resection and hemiarthroplasty. (orig.)

  11. Automated clearing system and the banking sector performance: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Automated clearing system and the banking sector performance: the Nigerian experience. ... Abstract. This study investigated the impact of automated clearing system on the Nigerian banking system. ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  12. Dragnet: A Case Study of the CLEAR System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Musa, Samuel; Keegan, Matt; Kyser, Giles

    2007-01-01

    ...). The quickest way to describe CLEAR is to mention a quote from Ron Huberman, assistant deputy superintendent, Office of Information and Strategic Services at CPD "CLEAR automates everything we do in...

  13. Propofol and midazolam inhibit conscious memory processes very soon after encoding: an event-related potential study of familiarity and recollection in volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselis, Robert A; Pryor, Kane O; Reinsel, Ruth A; Li, Yuelin; Mehta, Meghana; Johnson, Ray

    2009-02-01

    Intravenous drugs active via gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors to produce memory impairment during conscious sedation. Memory function was assessed using event-related potentials (ERPs) while drug was present. The continuous recognition task measured recognition of photographs from working (6 s) and long-term (27 s) memory while ERPs were recorded from Cz (familiarity recognition) and Pz electrodes (recollection recognition). Volunteer participants received sequential doses of one of placebo (n = 11), 0.45 and 0.9 microg/ml propofol (n = 10), 20 and 40 ng/ml midazolam (n = 12), 1.5 and 3 microg/ml thiopental (n = 11), or 0.25 and 0.4 ng/ml dexmedetomidine (n = 11). End-of-day yes/no recognition 225 min after the end of drug infusion tested memory retention of pictures encoded on the continuous recognition tasks. Active drugs increased reaction times and impaired memory on the continuous recognition task equally, except for a greater effect of midazolam (P memory for familiarity (P = 0.03) and possibly for recollection processes (P = 0.12). Propofol shifted ERP amplitudes to smaller voltages (P memory but not working memory. ERP measures of memory revealed different pathways to end-of-day memory loss as early as 27 s after encoding.

  14. Comparison of seven optical clearing methods for mouse brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Peng; Zhu, Jingtan; Yu, Tingting; Zhu, Dan

    2018-02-01

    Recently, a variety of tissue optical clearing techniques have been developed to reduce light scattering for imaging deeper and three-dimensional reconstruction of tissue structures. Combined with optical imaging techniques and diverse labeling methods, these clearing methods have significantly promoted the development of neuroscience. However, most of the protocols were proposed aiming for specific tissue type. Though there are some comparison results, the clearing methods covered are limited and the evaluation indices are lack of uniformity, which made it difficult to select a best-fit protocol for clearing in practical applications. Hence, it is necessary to systematically assess and compare these clearing methods. In this work, we evaluated the performance of seven typical clearing methods, including 3DISCO, uDISCO, SeeDB, ScaleS, ClearT2, CUBIC and PACT, on mouse brain samples. First, we compared the clearing capability on both brain slices and whole-brains by observing brain transparency. Further, we evaluated the fluorescence preservation and the increase of imaging depth. The results showed that 3DISCO, uDISCO and PACT posed excellent clearing capability on mouse brains, ScaleS and SeeDB rendered moderate transparency, while ClearT2 was the worst. Among those methods, ScaleS was the best on fluorescence preservation, and PACT achieved the highest increase of imaging depth. This study is expected to provide important reference for users in choosing most suitable brain optical clearing method.

  15. Toyen: Recollections of antiquity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bydžovská, Lenka

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 13, - (2009), s. 61-71 ISSN 1212-5865. [Zeit-Brücken: Art Déco, Kubismus, Neoklassizismus und die Antike. Praha, 10.04.2008-13.04.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : surrealism * antiquity * collage Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  16. 17 CFR 39.7 - Fraud in connection with the clearing of transactions on a derivatives clearing organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud in connection with the clearing of transactions on a derivatives clearing organization. 39.7 Section 39.7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES CLEARING ORGANIZATIONS § 39.7 Fraud in connection...

  17. Spontaneous regression of epithelial downgrowth from clear corneal phacoemulsification wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M. Jaber

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of spontaneous regression of optical coherence tomography (OCT and confocal microscopy-supported epithelial downgrowth associated with clear corneal phacoemulsification wound. Observations: A 66-year-old Caucasian male presented two years after phacoemulsification in the left eye with an enlarging cornea endothelial lesion in that eye. His early post-operative course had been complicated by corneal edema and iris transillumination defects. The patient presented to our clinic with a large geographic sheet of epithelial downgrowth and iris synechiae to the temporal clear corneal wound. His vision was correctable to 20/25 in his left eye. Anterior segment OCT showed a hyperreflective layer on the posterior cornea with an abrupt transition that corresponded to the clinical transition zone of the epithelial downgrowth. Confocal microscopy showed polygonal cells with hyperreflective nuclei suggestive of epithelial cells in the area of the lesion with a transition to a normal endothelial cell mosaic. Given the lack of glaucoma or inflammation and the relatively good vision, the plan was made to closely monitor for progression with the anticipation that he may require aggressive surgery. Over course of subsequent follow-up visits at three, seven and ten months; the endothelial lesion receded significantly. Confocal imaging in the area of the previously affected cornea showed essentially normal morphology with anan endothelial cell count of 1664 cells/mm2. Conclusions and importance: Epithelial downgrowth may spontaneously regress. Though the mechanism is yet understood, contact inhibition of movement may play a role. Despite this finding, epithelial downgrowth is typically a devastating process requiring aggressive treatment. Keywords: Epithelial downgrowth, Spontaneous regression, Confocal microscopy, Contact inhibition of movement

  18. Global ballast water management and the "same location" concept: a clear term or a clear issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Matej; Gollasch, Stephan; Pavliha, Marko

    2013-03-01

    The United Nations recognized the transfer of harmful organisms and pathogens across natural barriers as one of the four greatest pressures to the world's oceans and seas, causing global environmental changes, while also posing a threat to human health, property, and resources. Ballast water transferred by vessels was recognized as a prominent vector of such species and was regulated by the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ship's Ballast Water and Sediments (2004). Permanent exceptions from ballast water management requirements may apply when the uptake and discharge of ballast water occur at the "same location." However, the "same location" concept may be interpreted differently, e.g., a port basin, a port, an anchorage, or a larger area even with more ports inside. Considering that the Convention is nearing the beginning of enforcement, national authorities all around the world will soon be exposed to applications for exceptions. Here we consider possible effects of different interpretations of the "same location" concept. We have considered different possible extensions of the same location through environmental, shipping, and legal aspects. The extension of such areas, and the inclusion of more ports, may compromise the Convention's main purpose. We recommend that "same location" mean the smallest practicable unit, i.e., the same harbor, mooring, or anchorage. An entire smaller port, possibly also including the anchorage, could be considered as same location. For larger ports with a gradient of environmental conditions, "same location" should mean a terminal or a port basin. We further recommend that IMO consider the preparation of a guidance document to include concepts, criteria, and processes outlining how to identify "same location," which limits should be clearly identified.

  19. Optimized optical clearing method for imaging central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tingting; Qi, Yisong; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2015-03-01

    The development of various optical clearing methods provides a great potential for imaging entire central nervous system by combining with multiple-labelling and microscopic imaging techniques. These methods had made certain clearing contributions with respective weaknesses, including tissue deformation, fluorescence quenching, execution complexity and antibody penetration limitation that makes immunostaining of tissue blocks difficult. The passive clarity technique (PACT) bypasses those problems and clears the samples with simple implementation, excellent transparency with fine fluorescence retention, but the passive tissue clearing method needs too long time. In this study, we not only accelerate the clearing speed of brain blocks but also preserve GFP fluorescence well by screening an optimal clearing temperature. The selection of proper temperature will make PACT more applicable, which evidently broaden the application range of this method.

  20. Long-term stability of the Clear-PEM detector modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Pedro; Bruyndonckx, Peter; Carrico, Bruno; Ferreira, Miguel; Luyten, Joan; Moura, Rui; Ortigao, Catarina; Rodrigues, Pedro; Silva, Jose C. da; Trindade, Andreia; Varela, Joao

    2007-01-01

    Experimental evaluation of the imaging system Clear-PEM for positron emission mammography, under development within the framework of the crystal clear collaboration at CERN, is presented in terms of its long-term stability. The detector modules and experimental setup are described. Time evolution results of signal yield, energy resolution, depth-of-interaction and inter-channel crosstalk for a reference detector module are reported

  1. Periodontal and restorative considerations with clear aligner treatment to establish a more favorable restorative environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Robert L

    2009-06-01

    Although standard fixed appliances are better suited to control difficult tooth movement in three planes of space, clear aligner orthodontic treatment may be requested by patients because of the superior esthetics compared with conventional fixed appliances when clear aligners can be considered. Several clinical trials have shown improved periodontal status during orthodontic treatment with clear aligners while fixed appliances have almost always been associated with increased inflammation and mild periodontal breakdown despite preventive measures performed during treatment. There have been no reports of decalcification and only one reported case of root resorption with clear aligners, whereas with fixed appliances, numerous incidents of both decalcification and root resorption have been reported. In addition, studies have also shown significantly less pain from soft-tissue injuries and muscle soreness from parafunctional habits with computer-aided clear aligners. Restorative advantages include improved esthetics and comfort during treatment for better case acceptance and the ability to bleach teeth throughout treatment. Improving tooth alignment with orthodontic treatment with fixed or clear appliances increases the clinician's potential capability to perform more conservative restorative procedures, requiring less tooth structure removal and less endodontic involvement because of better tooth positions. In those cases in which clear aligner appliances may be appropriate, less damage may occur to existing porcelain restorations than might transpire from bonding of fixed appliances and their removal, as well as potentially reduced tooth wear during treatment. This article presents three case reports that demonstrate the periodontal and restorative aspects of treatment using the computer-aided clear appliances, which have either eliminated the need for certain restorative procedures or created a better periodontal and tooth position environment for performing these

  2. The Clearing : Heidegger’s Lichtung and the big scrub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garbutt, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Clearings make settlement possible. Whether on a small scale using an axe and other hand implements to make way for a dwelling and a garden, or on a large scale with a chain strung between two D9 bulldozers in preparation for a major agribusiness development, the process of clearing creates spaces for installing something new. This paper uses the idea of (the clearing, as practice, process, outcome and metaphor, to examine the installation of the locals in a settler society. Using Lismore on the far-north coast of New South Wales, Australia, as a case example, the particular work of clearing that is discussed here is a practice that enables a form of colonisation and settlement that distances itself from its history of migration. This is a history of settler locals who were 'always here', and a colonial form of clearing clears the land and the mind of troubling pasts and of troubling presences. For the locals within a place, then, clearing manages and simplifies a complex set of social and material relations, histories and identities.Using Anthony Appiah's concept the 'space clearing gesture', the paper concludes with a reflection on the space in which the idea of "the clearing" and this paper appears. Do places, in this instance rural places, provide a type of clearing in which certain ideas might appear that may not appear elsewhere? If situatedness matters then the diversity of places where thinking is done is important for our ecology of thought, and in connection with this, perhaps what 'rural cultural studies' does is clear a particular type of space for thinking.

  3. The Clearing: Heidegger’s Lichtung and The Big Scrub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Clearings make settlement possible. Whether on a small scale using an axe and other hand implements to make way for a dwelling and a garden, or on a large scale with a chain strung between two D9 bulldozers in preparation for a major agribusiness development, the process of clearing creates spaces for installing something new. This paper uses the idea of (the clearing, as practice, process, outcome and metaphor, to examine the installation of the locals in a settler society. Using Lismore on the far-north coast of New South Wales, Australia, as a case example, the particular work of clearing that is discussed here is a practice that enables a form of colonisation and settlement that distances itself from its history of migration. This is a history of settler locals who were 'always here', and a colonial form of clearing clears the land and the mind of troubling pasts and of troubling presences. For the locals within a place, then, clearing manages and simplifies a complex set of social and material relations, histories and identities. Using Anthony Appiah's concept the 'space clearing gesture', the paper concludes with a reflection on the space in which the idea of "the clearing" and this paper appears. Do places, in this instance rural places, provide a type of clearing in which certain ideas might appear that may not appear elsewhere? If situatedness matters then the diversity of places where thinking is done is important for our ecology of thought, and in connection with this, perhaps what 'rural cultural studies' does is clear a particular type of space for thinking.

  4. MR imaging of clear cell carcinoma of the ovary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Yujiro; Kojima, Kaoru; Ohtomo, Kuni; Yoshikawa, Wataru; Fuwa, Sokun; Araki, Tsutomu

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging findings are reported for 12 pathologically proven lesions of clear cell carcinoma (CCC) of the ovary in 11 women (mean age 50 years). T1- and T2-weighted MR images were obtained in all patients, and gadolinium-enhanced MR images were obtained in 9. The mean diameter of the tumors was 13 cm. Seven patients presented with stage-I tumors. All 12 lesions consisted of cystic masses with solid protrusions occurring in 10 and solid masses in 2. The cysts were unilocular in 9 lesions and multilocular in 1. In four lesions, the cysts displayed with high intensity on T1-weighted images. Round solid protrusions were identified in 8 lesions. In 5 lesions, the number of protrusions was only a few. The solid portions of 5 masses had slightly high-intensity regions on T1-weighted images. The number of patients with ascites was three. Magnetic resonance imaging of CCC usually shows a unilocular large cyst with solid protrusions, which are often round and few in number. Such MR imaging findings suggest malignant tumor but are not specific. (orig.)

  5. Adverse childhood experiences: towards a clear conceptual meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmakis, Karen A; Chandler, Genevieve E

    2014-07-01

    To report an analysis of the concept of adverse childhood experiences. Adverse childhood experiences have been associated with negative physical and psychological health outcomes, but this phenomenon lacks the clear, consistent meaning necessary for use in nursing research, theory development and practice. Concept clarification. The literature search was not limited a priori by date and included publications with abstracts in English from PubMed, CINAHL, PsychINFO and Social Abstracts. The search retrieved 128 articles published from 1970-2013. The search term 'adverse childhood experiences' was used, with similar terms permitted. A snowball approach was used to expand the search to relevant literature. The articles were read and analysed following Norris's five steps for concept clarification to refine, elucidate and operationally define the concept and the context in which it occurred. Adverse childhood experiences were defined operationally as childhood events, varying in severity and often chronic, occurring in a child's family or social environment that cause harm or distress, thereby disrupting the child's physical or psychological health and development. This concept clarification should raise awareness and understanding of the diverse nature and shared characteristics of adverse childhood experiences that are believed to influence the health of individuals as they age. This clarified concept will help expand research on health consequences of adverse childhood experiences and interventions to improve health. We recommend promoting a model of primary care that pays attention to the social and familial influences on the health of individuals worldwide. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. 75 FR 77576 - General Regulations and Derivatives Clearing Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... Derivatives Clearing Organizations AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed... derivatives clearing organization (DCO) Core Principles A (Compliance), H (Rule Enforcement), N (Antitrust... commission merchant (FCM) that is also registered as a securities broker-dealer (FCM/BD), and make certain...

  7. Work-in-process clearing in supply chain operations planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selcuk, B.; Fransoo, J.C.; Kok, de A.G.

    2008-01-01

    In this study we provide insights into the effectiveness of the clearing function concept in a hierarchical planning context. The clearing function is a mathematical representation of the relation between the Work-In-Process (WIP) and the throughput of a production process. We use it in a

  8. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Operational Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Bradish, Martin A.; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Lewis, Michael J.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    This Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Operational Concept document was developed as a first step in developing the Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) System Architecture (NASA/TM-2011-216956). The CLEAR operational concept defines how the system will be used by the Constellation Program and what needs it meets. The document creates scenarios for major elements of the CLEAR architecture. These scenarios are generic enough to apply to near-Earth, Moon, and Mars missions. The CLEAR operational concept involves basic assumptions about the overall program architecture and interactions with the CLEAR system architecture. The assumptions include spacecraft and operational constraints for near-Earth orbit, Moon, and Mars missions. This document addresses an incremental development strategy where capabilities evolve over time, but it is structured to prevent obsolescence. The approach minimizes flight hardware by exploiting Internet-like telecommunications that enables CLEAR capabilities to remain on Earth and to be uplinked as needed. To minimize crew time and operational cost, CLEAR exploits offline development and validation to support online teleoperations. Operational concept scenarios are developed for diagnostics, repair, and functional test operations. Many of the supporting functions defined in these operational scenarios are further defined as technologies in NASA/TM-2011-216956.

  9. The Nordic power market: Are there alternatives to expensive clearing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerdrum, Per Kaare; Poulsson, Christian

    2003-01-01

    The Enron scandal of 2002 has set focus on counter party risk in the Nordic power market and is an important cause of increased clearing of bilateral financial power contracts. The article discusses whether expensive clearing is always the best tool for dealing with counter party risk

  10. The problem of clear air turbulence: Changing perspectives in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    observation systems, in most cases, aircraft are able to steer clear of regions of adverse ... that weather is a predominant cause of aviation accidents, accounting for ... clear air turbulence, wind shear and wake-vortex effects. Here .... ters a region of turbulence, the pilot informs the ground control about the location and extent.

  11. The Effectiveness of Clear Speech as a Masker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandruccio, Lauren; Van Engen, Kristin; Dhar, Sumitrajit; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: It is established that speaking clearly is an effective means of enhancing intelligibility. Because any signal-processing scheme modeled after known acoustic-phonetic features of clear speech will likely affect both target and competing speech, it is important to understand how speech recognition is affected when a competing speech signal…

  12. A New Type of distributed Enamel based Clearing Electrode

    CERN Document Server

    Kroyer, T; Caspers, Friedhelm; Hellmond, P; Métral, E; Wendel, J C; Zimmermann, F

    2007-01-01

    Clearing electrodes can be used for electron cloud (EC) suppression in high intensity particle accelerators. In this paper the use of low and highly resistive layers on a dielectric substrate are examined. The beam coupling impedance of such a structure is evaluated. Furthermore the clearing efficiency as well as technological issues are discussed.

  13. ClearPEM: prototype PET device dedicated to breast imaging

    CERN Multimedia

    Joao Varela

    2009-01-01

    Clinical trials have begun in Portugal on a new breast imaging system (ClearPEM) using positron emission tomography (PET). The system, developed by a Portuguese consortium in collaboration with CERN and laboratories participating in the Crystal Clear collaboration, will detect even the smallest tumours and thus help avoid unnecessary biopsies.

  14. Clear exterior finishes : finding the balance between aesthetics and durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Daniel; Marc S. Hirsch; Ken McClelland; Alan S. Ross; R. Sam Williams

    2004-01-01

    Consumers can easily be confused by the abundance of choices to make when selecting a clear wood finish. There are many types of clear finishes with different characteristics and product claims. This article is designed to help consumers sort out the different finishes and effectively choose which product would be best for their purpose. First, we cover the causes and...

  15. A simple formula for determining globally clear skies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, C.N.; George, A.T.; Mace, G.G. [Penn State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Surface measurements to serve as {open_quotes}ground truth{close_quotes} are of primary importance in the development of retrieval algorithms using satellite measurements to predict surface irradiance. The most basic algorithms of this type deal with clear sky (i.e., cloudless) top-to-surface shortwave (SW) transfer, serving as a necessary prerequisite towards treating both clear and cloudy conditions. Recently, atmosphere SW cloud forcing to infer the possibility of excess atmospheric absorption (compared with model results) in cloudy atmospheres. The surface component of this ratio relies on inferring the expected clear sky SW irradiance to determine the effects of clouds on the SW energy budget. Solar renewable energy applications make use of clear and cloud fraction climatologies to assess solar radiation resources. All of the above depend to some extent on the identification of globally clear sky conditions and the attendant measurements of downwelling SW irradiance.

  16. A study of metalized electrode self-clearing in electroactive polymer (EAP) based actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Saad; Ounaies, Zoubeida

    2016-04-01

    Electroactive polymer (EAP) based technologies have shown promise in areas such as artificial muscles, actuator, aerospace, medical and soft robotics. Still challenges remain such as low induced forces and defects-driven electrical breakdown, which impede the practical implementation of this technology. Multilayered or stacked configuration can address the low induced force issue whereas self-clearing can be a technique to improve breakdown limit of EAP based actuators. Self-clearing refers to the partial local breakdown of dielectric medium due to the presence of impurities, which in turn results in the evaporation of some of the metalized electrode. After this evaporation, the impurity is cleared and any current path would be safely cut off, which means the actuator continues to perform. It is a widely studied concept in the capacitor community, while it has not been studied much for EAP technologies. In this paper we report a systematic approach to precondition a silver-metalized electroactive polymer (EAP), more specifically P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) terpolymer, using self-clearing concept. First, we show improvement in the dielectric breakdown strength of EAP based unimorph actuators after pre-clearing the impurities using low electric field (lower than dielectric breakdown of the terpolymer). Inspired by this improvement, we used Weibull statistics to systematically estimate the self-clearing/ preconditioning field needed to clear the defects. Then electrical breakdown experiments are conducted with and without preconditioning the samples to investigate its effect on the breakdown strength of the sample.

  17. 78 FR 54507 - Clearing Agency; the Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... risk arising from the potential need to liquidate a particular clearing member's margin collateral, OCC... by improving OCC's risk management process related to deposits as margin collateral of concentrated... and Policy so that OCC has discretion to disapprove as margin collateral for a particular clearing...

  18. Chemical clearing and dehydration of GFP expressing mouse brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Becker

    Full Text Available Generally, chemical tissue clearing is performed by a solution consisting of two parts benzyl benzoate and one part benzyl alcohol. However, prolonged exposure to this mixture markedly reduces the fluorescence of GFP expressing specimens, so that one has to compromise between clearing quality and fluorescence preservation. This can be a severe drawback when working with specimens exhibiting low GFP expression rates. Thus, we screened for a substitute and found that dibenzyl ether (phenylmethoxymethylbenzene, CAS 103-50-4 can be applied as a more GFP-friendly clearing medium. Clearing with dibenzyl ether provides improved tissue transparency and strikingly improved fluorescence intensity in GFP expressing mouse brains and other samples as mouse spinal cords, or embryos. Chemical clearing, staining, and embedding of biological samples mostly requires careful foregoing tissue dehydration. The commonly applied tissue dehydration medium is ethanol, which also can markedly impair GFP fluorescence. Screening for a substitute also for ethanol we found that tetrahydrofuran (CAS 109-99-9 is a more GFP-friendly dehydration medium than ethanol, providing better tissue transparency obtained by successive clearing. Combined, tetrahydrofuran and dibenzyl ether allow dehydration and chemical clearing of even delicate samples for UM, confocal microscopy, and other microscopy techniques.

  19. Chemical clearing and dehydration of GFP expressing mouse brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Klaus; Jährling, Nina; Saghafi, Saiedeh; Weiler, Reto; Dodt, Hans-Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Generally, chemical tissue clearing is performed by a solution consisting of two parts benzyl benzoate and one part benzyl alcohol. However, prolonged exposure to this mixture markedly reduces the fluorescence of GFP expressing specimens, so that one has to compromise between clearing quality and fluorescence preservation. This can be a severe drawback when working with specimens exhibiting low GFP expression rates. Thus, we screened for a substitute and found that dibenzyl ether (phenylmethoxymethylbenzene, CAS 103-50-4) can be applied as a more GFP-friendly clearing medium. Clearing with dibenzyl ether provides improved tissue transparency and strikingly improved fluorescence intensity in GFP expressing mouse brains and other samples as mouse spinal cords, or embryos. Chemical clearing, staining, and embedding of biological samples mostly requires careful foregoing tissue dehydration. The commonly applied tissue dehydration medium is ethanol, which also can markedly impair GFP fluorescence. Screening for a substitute also for ethanol we found that tetrahydrofuran (CAS 109-99-9) is a more GFP-friendly dehydration medium than ethanol, providing better tissue transparency obtained by successive clearing. Combined, tetrahydrofuran and dibenzyl ether allow dehydration and chemical clearing of even delicate samples for UM, confocal microscopy, and other microscopy techniques.

  20. Controling the scattering of Intralipid by using optical clearing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xiang; Luo Qingming; Zhu Dan; Tuchin, Valery V

    2009-01-01

    Optical clearing agents (OCAs) with high refractive indices and hyperosmolarity can enhance the penetration of light in tissues by reducing scattering in tissues. However, the mechanism of tissue optical clearing is not much clear for the complex interaction between tissues and OCAs. In this work, Intralipid was mixed with different concentrations of OCAs, i.e. dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), glycerol, 1,4-butanediol, 1,2-propanediol, poly-ethylene glycol 200 (PEG200) and poly-ethylene glycol 400 (PEG400). Except for PEG200 and PEG400 that make aggregation of particles, the others kept the mixture uniform. The reduced scattering coefficients of uniform mixtures were predicted with Mie theory and measured by a commercially available spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere. The results show that all of the OCAs used enhance the optical clearing effect of Intralipid. If OCAs do not change the structure of Intralipid, Mie theory prediction matches well with the measurements. And the higher the refractive index of OCA, the smaller the reduced scattering coefficient. A simple formula deduced can quantitatively predict the optical clearing effect caused by OCAs. This work is helpful for clarifying the mechanism of tissue optical clearing, which will make the effect of optical clearing of tissue predictable and controllable.

  1. Clear-PEM, a dedicated PET camera for mammography

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary results suggest that Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) can offer a noninvasive method for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Metabolic images from PEM contain unique information not available from conventional morphologic imaging techniques and aid in expeditiously establishing the diagnosis of cancer. A dedicated machine seems to offer better perspectives in terms of position resolution and sensitivity. This paper describes the concept of Clear-PEM, the system presently developed by the Crystal Clear Collaboration at CERN for an evaluation of this approach. This device is based on new crystals introduced by the Crystal Clear as well as on modern data acquisition techniques developed for the large experiments in high energy physics experiments.

  2. 3D confocal imaging in CUBIC-cleared mouse heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehrhoff, I.; Bocancea, D.; Vaquero, J.; Vaquero, J.J.; Lorrio, M.T.; Ripoll, J.; Desco, M.; Gomez-Gaviro, M.V.

    2016-07-01

    Acquiring high resolution 3D images of the heart enables the ability to study heart diseases more in detail. Here, the CUBIC (clear, unobstructed brain imaging cocktails and computational analysis) clearing protocol was adapted for thick mouse heart sections to increase the penetration depth of the confocal microscope lasers into the tissue. The adapted CUBIC clearing of the heart lets the antibody penetrate deeper into the tissue by a factor of five. The here shown protocol enables deep 3D highresolution image acquisition in the heart. This allows a much more accurate assessment of the cellular and structural changes that underlie heart diseases. (Author)

  3. 3D confocal imaging in CUBIC-cleared mouse heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehrhoff, I.; Bocancea, D.; Vaquero, J.; Vaquero, J.J.; Lorrio, M.T.; Ripoll, J.; Desco, M.; Gomez-Gaviro, M.V.

    2016-01-01

    Acquiring high resolution 3D images of the heart enables the ability to study heart diseases more in detail. Here, the CUBIC (clear, unobstructed brain imaging cocktails and computational analysis) clearing protocol was adapted for thick mouse heart sections to increase the penetration depth of the confocal microscope lasers into the tissue. The adapted CUBIC clearing of the heart lets the antibody penetrate deeper into the tissue by a factor of five. The here shown protocol enables deep 3D highresolution image acquisition in the heart. This allows a much more accurate assessment of the cellular and structural changes that underlie heart diseases. (Author)

  4. The Psychohistory of Climate Change: A Clear and Present Danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kenneth Alan

    2016-01-01

    The inability of contemporary society to transition from fossil fuels to green energy was engineered by the oil industry, which has worked for decades to stifle the emergence of ecological awareness. Climate change presents a clear and present danger to our society. The present dilemma is the result of the psychopathic corporate system, that pillages the earth for profit (extractivism), evades the real costs of production (externalizing costs), and pursues only self-interest (the best interests of the corporation). The well-being of the environment is thereby sacrificed for profit and our collective future is jeopardized. The corporate practice of creative destruction has gained such Thanatos-like momentum that it threatens the earth in its obsession with profit. Conservatives, under the sway of the unreality principle, dismiss climate change and block efforts to solve climate issues. For them, science is wish fulfillment based on denial. Their willingness to endanger the world results from their authoritarian upbringing. The corporal punishment they endured as children left a residue of rage—the impulse to destroy life—that underlies corporate rationality’s assault on the environment. Fearing death, they inflict death in a perverse ritual to feel alive. Compensating for the narcissistic wounds of childhood through the formation of a grandiose self, they are identified with the omnipotent parent, and alternate between suicidal impulse and escape via godlike technology. Conservative attacks on women highlight the residual wounds of relatedness to their dragon mothers, just as their relatedness to the environment involves a restaging of their encounters with their breast and toilet mothers. Solving environmental problems, however, will require more than overcoming conservative intransigence. The concept of ecological debt accentuates the importance of consumer choice for the environment. The United Nations Human Development Report 2015 regarding CO2 emissions

  5. 19 CFR 4.60 - Vessels required to clear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contiguous country otherwise than by sea. (c) Vessels which will merely transit the Panama Canal without... of clearance and related papers shall be surrendered. (e) No vessel shall be cleared for the high...

  6. Clear cell HCC: an imitator of hepatic adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incedayi, M.; Sivrioglu, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: A 60-year old male patient was complaining of a postprandial heartburn and of abdominal distension. Physical examination was normal except for nodular, painless hepatomegaly. Ultrasonographic examination of the liver showed diffuse increased echogenicity and coarse echotexture. A large mixed echogenic mass is seen in the right hepatic lobe. Computerized tomography showed heterogeneously hypodense mass lesions with fatty change on non-contrast scans and enhance heterogeneously on both arterial phase and venous phase postcontrast scans. Following true-cut biopsy, it was ascertained to be a clear cell HCC. Clear cell HCC may include large fatty areas and this is often misdiagnosed to be an adenoma. Clear cell HCC is characterized by high female prevalence, high rate of association with liver cirrhosis and has no significant difference in prognosis compared with non-clear cell HCC

  7. Reconstruction of Clear-PEM data with STIR

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, M V; Rodrigues, P; Trindade, A; Oliveira, N; Correia, M; Cordeiro, H; Ferreira, N C; Varela, J; Almeida, P

    2006-01-01

    The Clear-PEM scanner is a device based on planar detectors that is currently under development within the Crystal Clear Collaboration, at CERN. The basis for 3D image reconstruction in Clear-PEM is the software for tomographic image reconstruction (STIR). STIR is an open source object-oriented library that efficiently deals with the 3D positron emission tomography data sets. This library was originally designed for the traditional cylindrical scanners. In order to make its use compatible with planar scanner data, new functionalities were introduced into the library's framework. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations of the Clear-PEM scanner acquisitions were used as input for image reconstruction with the 3D OSEM algorithm available in STIR. The results presented indicate that dual plate PEM data can be accurately reconstructed using the enhanced STIR framework.

  8. Verminderen antibioticagebruik in de vleeskuikensector : CLEAR Helpdeskvraag 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourens, A.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Rebel, J.M.J.; Harn, van J.; Veldkamp, T.; Stockhofe, N.; Melchior, M.B.; Emous, van R.A.; Kense, M.

    2011-01-01

    Questions from participants and advisors in the CLEAR project with regard to reduction of the use of antibiotics in the broiler sector are answered. Advice and suggestions for further research are given.

  9. Bridge pressure flow scour for clear water conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    The equilibrium scour at a bridge caused by pressure flow with critical approach velocity in clear-water simulation conditions was studied both analytically and experimentally. The flume experiments revealed that (1) the measured equilibrium scour pr...

  10. An Investigation of Loop Seal Clearings in ATLAS SBLOCA Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeonsik; Cho, Seok; Kang, Kyoungho; Park, Hyunsik; Min, Kyeongho; Choi, Namhyeon; Park, Jonggook; Kim, Bokdeuk; Choi, Kiyong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    In most of the SBLOCA cases, the pressure of the upper-head region will increase mainly owing to the accumulated steam and water inventory in the upper-plenum. This build-up pressure acts as a suppression force to the core water level, and resultantly the core water level will decrease possibly up to and/or below the top of the active core region. Simultaneously, the downcomer water level will increase owing to the evacuated water inventory from the lower part of the core region. This unbalanced hydro-static pressure between the core and downcomer region acts as a potential pushing force to the reactor coolant pump (RCP) side intermediate leg. The potential pushing force will be increased with time to overcome the hydro-static head in the upflow intermediate leg. The unbalanced hydro-static pressure can finally be dissolved with the occurrence of the loop seal clearing. A minimum core collapsed water level, located below the elevation of the loop seal bottom leg in the ATLAS tests, is taken at this time. Since the loop seal bottom leg is located below the core top for typical PWR plants such as an APR1400, the water level depression may uncover the core upper regions until the core water level recovers with the progress of the clearing of the loop seal upflow leg. At this moment, the core temperature may increase to a peak cladding temperature (PCT) owing to an excessive core uncovery by the minimum core collapsed water level. Therefore, the loop seal clearing phenomenon is very important with respect to the PCT occurrence, which is one of the most important parameters to insure the safety of the reactor system. The loop seal clearing behavior seems to be closely related to the break location and break size. Usually, a loop seal in the break loop is cleared first, and the number of loop seal clearings is dependent on the break size. The larger the break size, the more the loop seals that are cleared. An investigation of LSC in the SBLOCA for DVI line and CL breaks

  11. Geophysical study of the Clear Lake region, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    Results of geophysical studies in the Clear Lake region of California, north of San Francisco, have revealed a prominent, nearly circular negative gravity anomaly with an amplitude of more than 25 milligals (mgal) and an areal extent of approximately 250 square miles and, in addition, a number of smaller positive and negative anomalies. The major negative gravity anomaly is closely associated with the Clear Lake volcanic field and with an area characterized by hot springs and geothermal fields. However, the anomaly cannot be explained by mapped surface geologic features of the area. Aeromagnetic data in the Clear Lake region show no apparent correlation with the major negative gravity anomaly; the local magnetic field is affected principally by serpentine. An electrical resistivity low marks the central part of the gravity minimum, and a concentration of earthquake epicenters characterizes the Clear Lake volcanic field area. The primary cause of the major negative gravity anomaly is believed to be a hot intrusive mass, possibly a magma chamber, that may underlie the Clear Lake volcanic field and vicinity. This mass may serve as a source of heat for the geothermal phenomena in the area. Other smaller gravity anomalies in the Clear Lake region are apparently caused by near-surface geologic features, including relatively dense units of the Franciscan Formation and less dense Cenozoic sedimentary and volcanic rock units.

  12. Coastal sediment elevation change following anthropogenic mangrove clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Heather L.; Granek, Elise F.

    2015-11-01

    Coastal mangrove forests along tropical shorelines serve as an important interface between land and sea. They provide a physical buffer protecting the coastline from erosion and act as sediment "traps" catching terrestrial sediment, thus preventing smothering of subtidal coral reefs. Coastal development that removes mangrove habitat may impact adjacent nearshore coral reefs through sedimentation and nutrient loading. We examined differences in sediment elevation change between patches of open-coast intact and anthropogenically cleared red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) on the east side of Turneffe Atoll, Belize, to quantify changes following mangrove clearing. Samples were collected over a 24 month period at five study sites, each containing paired intact (+mangrove) and cleared (-mangrove) plots. Five sediment elevation pins were deployed in each plot: behind areas cleared of mangroves (-mangrove) and behind adjacent intact mangroves (+mangrove). Sediment elevation increased at intact mangrove sites (M = +3.83 mm, SE = 0.95) whereas cleared mangrove areas suffered elevation loss (M = -7.30 mm, SE = 3.38). Mangroves inshore of partial or continuous gaps in the adjacent fringing reefs had higher rates of elevation loss (M = -15.05 mm) than mangroves inshore of continuous fringing reefs (M = -1.90 mm). Our findings provide information on potential effects of mangrove clearing and the role of offshore habitat characteristics on coastal sediment trapping and maintenance of sediment elevation by mangroves. With implications for coastline capacity to adjust to sea level rise, these findings are relevant to management of coastal fringing mangrove forests across the Caribbean.

  13. Clear-Sky Narrowband Albedo Datasets Derived from Modis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Minnis, P.; Sun-Mack, S.; Arduini, R. F.; Hong, G.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing of clouds requires an accurate estimate of the clear-sky radiances for a given scene to detect clouds and aerosols and to retrieve their microphysical properties. Knowing the spatial and angular variability of clear-sky albedo is essential for predicting the clear-sky radiance at solar wavelengths. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Project uses the near-infrared (NIR; 1.24, 1.6 or 2.13 μm) and visible (VIS; 0.63 μm) channels available on the Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS) to help identify clouds and retrieve their properties. Generally, clear-sky albedo for a given surface type is determined for conditions when the vegetation is either thriving or dormant and free of snow. The clear-sky albedos are derived using a radiative transfer parameterization of the impact of the atmosphere, including aerosols, on the observed reflectances. This paper presents the method of generating monthly clear-sky overhead albedo maps for both snow-free and snow-covered surfaces of these channels using one year of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) CERES products. Maps of 1.24 and 1.6 μm are being used as the background to help retrieve cloud properties (e.g., effective particle size, optical depth) in CERES cloud retrievals in both snow-free and snow-covered conditions.

  14. Clearing of ventilating emissions in low temperature environment of plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansurov, R. Sh; Rafalskaya, T. A.

    2017-11-01

    The method of high-temperature processing of streams of the ventilating air which is a subject clearing from organic pollutions is developed. Data about its efficiency, including on a number of economic parameters are obtained. Results of work are recommended for use, first of all, by development clearing plasma-thermal reactors (CPTR) for clearing air, especially from toxic substances, and also for large technological clearing installations, containing organic ventilating emissions (OVE). It is created experimental CPTR. Laws of the expiration of a plasma jet in stream of OVE limited by cylindrical walls, water-cooled channel are experimentally investigated. Dependences of a trajectory and long-range the plasma jet blown radially in stream of OVE are received. Heat exchange of stream of OVE with walls of CPTR after blowing a plasma jet is experimentally investigated; dependences of distribution of temperatures on length of a reactor and a thermal stream in a wall of channel of CPTR are received. Are investigated chemical compound of OVE after plasma-thermal clearing, some experimental data by formation of oxides of nitrogen and mono-oxide of carbon during clearing are received.

  15. A large, switchable optical clearing skull window for cerebrovascular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Feng, Wei; Zhao, Yanjie; Yu, Tingting; Li, Pengcheng; Xu, Tonghui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Rationale: Intravital optical imaging is a significant method for investigating cerebrovascular structure and function. However, its imaging contrast and depth are limited by the turbid skull. Tissue optical clearing has a great potential for solving this problem. Our goal was to develop a transparent skull window, without performing a craniotomy, for use in assessing cerebrovascular structure and function. Methods: Skull optical clearing agents were topically applied to the skulls of mice to create a transparent window within 15 min. The clearing efficacy, repeatability, and safety of the skull window were then investigated. Results: Imaging through the optical clearing skull window enhanced both the contrast and the depth of intravital imaging. The skull window could be used on 2-8-month-old mice and could be expanded from regional to bi-hemispheric. In addition, the window could be repeatedly established without inducing observable inflammation and metabolic toxicity. Conclusion: We successfully developed an easy-to-handle, large, switchable, and safe optical clearing skull window. Combined with various optical imaging techniques, cerebrovascular structure and function can be observed through this optical clearing skull window. Thus, it has the potential for use in basic research on the physiopathologic processes of cortical vessels. PMID:29774069

  16. Primary peritoneal clear cell carcinoma versus ovarian carcinoma versus malignant transformation of endometriosis: a vexing issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insabato, Luigi; Natella, Valentina; Somma, Anna; Persico, Marcello; Camera, Luigi; Losito, Nunzia Simona; Masone, Stefania

    2015-05-01

    Peritoneum is a site for both primary and secondary tumors. Primary peritoneal tumors are fairly rare. The most common primary tumors of the peritoneum are malignant mesothelioma and serous papillary adenocarcinoma. Clear cell carcinoma of the peritoneum is extremely rare and often misdiagnosed as mesothelioma, serous carcinoma, or metastatic adenocarcinoma, so it represents a diagnostic challenge for both clinicians and pathologists. Up to date, to the best of our knowledge, only 11 cases of primary peritoneal clear cell carcinoma have been reported in the English literature. Distinguishing this tumor of the peritoneum versus ovarian carcinoma can be problematic. Herein, we report a rare case of primary peritoneal clear cell carcinoma occurring in a 49-year-old woman, along with a review of the literature. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Changes in biotic and abiotic processes following mangrove clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granek, Elise; Ruttenberg, Benjamin I.

    2008-12-01

    Mangrove forests, important tropical coastal habitats, are in decline worldwide primarily due to removal by humans. Changes to mangrove systems can alter ecosystem properties through direct effects on abiotic factors such as temperature, light and nutrient supply or through changes in biotic factors such as primary productivity or species composition. Despite the importance of mangroves as transitional habitats between land and sea, little research has examined changes that occur when they are cleared. We examined changes in a number of biotic and abiotic factors following the anthropogenic removal of red mangroves ( Rhizophora mangle) in the Panamanian Caribbean, including algal biomass, algal diversity, algal grazing rates, light penetration, temperature, sedimentation rates and sediment organic content. In this first study examining multiple ecosystem-level effects of mangrove disturbance, we found that areas cleared of mangroves had higher algal biomass and richness than intact mangrove areas. This increase in algal biomass and richness was likely due to changes in abiotic factors (e.g. light intensity, temperature), but not biotic factors (fish herbivory). Additionally the algal and cyanobacterial genera dominating mangrove-cleared areas were rare in intact mangroves and included a number of genera that compete with coral for space on reefs. Interestingly, sedimentation rates did not differ between intact and cleared areas, but the sediments that accumulated in intact mangroves had higher organic content. These findings are the first to demonstrate that anthropogenic clearing of mangroves changes multiple biotic and abiotic processes in mangrove forests and that some of these changes may influence adjacent habitats such as coral reefs and seagrass beds. Additional research is needed to further explore the community and ecosystem-level effects of mangrove clearing and their influence on adjacent habitats, but it is clear that mangrove conservation is an

  18. Establishment of a clean chemistry laboratory at JAERI. Clean laboratory for environmental analysis and research (CLEAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzawa, Yukiko; Magara, Masaaki; Watanabe, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; and others

    2003-02-01

    The JAERI has established a facility with a cleanroom: the Clean Laboratory for Environmental Analysis and Research (CLEAR). This report is an overview of the design, construction and performance evaluation of the CLEAR in the initial stage of the laboratory operation in June 2001. The CLEAR is a facility to be used for analyses of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials in environmental samples for the safeguards, for the CTBT verification and for researches on environmental sciences. One of the special features of the CLEAR is that it meets double requirements of a cleanroom and for handling of nuclear materials. As another feature of the CLEAR, much attention was paid to the construction materials of the cleanroom for trace analysis of metal elements using considerable amounts of corrosive acids. The air conditioning and purification system, specially designed experimental equipment to provide clean work surfaces, utilities and safety systems are also demonstrated. The potential contamination from the completed cleanroom atmosphere during the analytical procedure was evaluated. It can be concluded that the CLEAR has provided a suitable condition for reliable analysis of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials and other heavy elements in environmental samples. (author)

  19. On the impact of self-clearing on electroactive polymer (EAP) actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Saad; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Lanagan, Michael T.

    2017-10-01

    Electroactive polymer (EAP)-based actuators have large potential for a wide array of applications; however, their practical implementation is still a challenge because of the requirement of high driving voltage, which most often leads to premature defect-driven electrical breakdown. Polymer-based capacitors have the ability to clear defects with partial electrical breakdown and subsequent removal of a localized electrode section near the defect. In this study, this process, which is known as self-clearing, is adopted for EAP technologies. We report a methodical approach to self-clear an EAP, more specifically P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) terpolymer, to delay premature defect-driven electrical breakdown of the terpolymer actuators at high operating electric fields. Breakdown results show that electrical breakdown strength is improved up to 18% in comparison to a control sample after self-clearing. Furthermore, the electromechanical performance in terms of blocked force and free displacement of P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) terpolymer-based bending actuators are examined after self-clearing and precleared samples show improved blocked force, free displacement and maximum sustainable electric field compared to control samples. The study demonstrates that controlled self-clearing of EAPs improves the breakdown limit and reliability of the EAP actuators for practical applications without impeding their electromechanical performance.

  20. Clearing the Cosmic Fog - The Most Distant Galaxy Ever Measured

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    A European team of astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) has measured the distance to the most remote galaxy so far. By carefully analysing the very faint glow of the galaxy they have found that they are seeing it when the Universe was only about 600 million years old (a redshift of 8.6). These are the first confirmed observations of a galaxy whose light is clearing the opaque hydrogen fog that filled the cosmos at this early time. The results were presented at an online press conference with the scientists on 19 October 2010, and will appear in the 21 October issue of the journal Nature. "Using the ESO Very Large Telescope we have confirmed that a galaxy spotted earlier using Hubble is the most remote object identified so far in the Universe" [1], says Matt Lehnert (Observatoire de Paris) who is lead author of the paper reporting the results. "The power of the VLT and its SINFONI spectrograph allows us to actually measure the distance to this very faint galaxy and we find that we are seeing it when the Universe was less than 600 million years old." Studying these first galaxies is extremely difficult. By the time that their initially brilliant light gets to Earth they appear very faint and small. Furthermore, this dim light falls mostly in the infrared part of the spectrum because its wavelength has been stretched by the expansion of the Universe - an effect known as redshift. To make matters worse, at this early time, less than a billion years after the Big Bang, the Universe was not fully transparent and much of it was filled with a hydrogen fog that absorbed the fierce ultraviolet light from young galaxies. The period when the fog was still being cleared by this ultraviolet light is known as the era of reionisation [2]. Despite these challenges the new Wide Field Camera 3 on the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope discovered several robust candidate objects in 2009 [3] that were thought to be galaxies shining in the era of reionisation. Confirming the

  1. Metastatic clear cell eccrine hidradenocarcinoma of the vulva: survival after primary surgical resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, L S; Bitterman, P; Clarke-Pearson, D L

    1996-05-01

    A case of clear cell eccrine hidradenocarcinoma of the vulva metastatic to regional lymph nodes with long survival after surgical resection is presented. Like the only other case reported to date, this suggests that surgical therapy alone may be adequate, even when metastasis is present.

  2. Enhancing facial features by using clear facial features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofoo, Fanar Fareed Hanna

    2017-09-01

    The similarity of features between individuals of same ethnicity motivated the idea of this project. The idea of this project is to extract features of clear facial image and impose them on blurred facial image of same ethnic origin as an approach to enhance a blurred facial image. A database of clear images containing 30 individuals equally divided to five different ethnicities which were Arab, African, Chines, European and Indian. Software was built to perform pre-processing on images in order to align the features of clear and blurred images. And the idea was to extract features of clear facial image or template built from clear facial images using wavelet transformation to impose them on blurred image by using reverse wavelet. The results of this approach did not come well as all the features did not align together as in most cases the eyes were aligned but the nose or mouth were not aligned. Then we decided in the next approach to deal with features separately but in the result in some cases a blocky effect was present on features due to not having close matching features. In general the available small database did not help to achieve the goal results, because of the number of available individuals. The color information and features similarity could be more investigated to achieve better results by having larger database as well as improving the process of enhancement by the availability of closer matches in each ethnicity.

  3. Radiographic Severity of Rheumatoid Arthritis in African-Americans: Results from the CLEAR Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, S. Louis; Causey, Zenoria L.; Burgos, Paula I.; Huynh, B. Quynh N.; Hughes, Laura B.; Danila, Maria I.; van Everdingen, Amalia; Ledbetter, Stephanie; Conn, Doyt L.; Tamhane, Ashutosh; Westfall, Andrew O.; Jonas, Beth L.; Callahan, Leigh F.; Smith, Edwin A.; Brasington, Richard; Moreland, Larry W.; Alarcón, Graciela S.; van der Heijde, Désirée M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe radiographic changes in African-Americans with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from the CLEAR (Consortium for the Longitudinal Evaluation of African-Americans with Early Rheumatoid Arthritis) Registry, a multicenter observational study. Methods Self-declared African-American patients, were enrolled in CLEAR I, a longitudinal cohort of early RA (disease duration <2 years) from 2000 to 2005; or in CLEAR II, a cross-sectional cohort (any disease duration), from 2006 to the present. Demographic and clinical data were obtained, and sets of hand/wrist and foot radiographs were scored using the modified Sharp/van der Heijde scoring system. Results A total of 357 and 418 patients, respectively, have been enrolled into CLEAR I and CLEAR II. We report here an interim analysis of radiographic severity in these patients. For the CLEAR I cohort, 294 patients had a mean radiographic score of 2.89 at the baseline visit; 32.0% showed either erosions (25.9%) or joint space narrowing (JSN) (19.4%). At the 36-month visit the mean score was 5.65; 44.2% had erosions, 41.5% JSN and 55.4% had either. Among those patients without radiographic damage at baseline, 18.9% had progressed at the 36-month visit, compared to 57.1% of those with baseline damage (p<0.0001). For the CLEAR II cohort, 167 patients with RA of any duration, 65.3% exhibited joint erosions, 65.3% JSN and 74.8% exhibited either. The mean radiographic score was 33.42. Conclusion This is the largest radiographic study of African American RA patients. Damage occurs early in the disease and is associated with radiographic progression at 3 years of disease duration. The CLEAR Registry will provide a valuable resource for future analyses of genetic, clinical, and environmental factors associated with radiographic severity of RA in African-Americans. PMID:20461784

  4. A stochastic framework for clearing of reactive power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjady, N.; Rabiee, A.; Shayanfar, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new stochastic framework for clearing of day-ahead reactive power market. The uncertainty of generating units in the form of system contingencies are considered in the reactive power market-clearing procedure by the stochastic model in two steps. The Monte-Carlo Simulation (MCS) is first used to generate random scenarios. Then, in the second step, the stochastic market-clearing procedure is implemented as a series of deterministic optimization problems (scenarios) including non-contingent scenario and different post-contingency states. In each of these deterministic optimization problems, the objective function is total payment function (TPF) of generators which refers to the payment paid to the generators for their reactive power compensation. The effectiveness of the proposed model is examined based on the IEEE 24-bus Reliability Test System (IEEE 24-bus RTS). (author)

  5. Multiobjective clearing of reactive power market in deregulated power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiee, A.; Shayanfar, H.; Amjady, N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a day-ahead reactive power market which is cleared in the form of multiobjective context. Total payment function (TPF) of generators, representing the payment paid to the generators for their reactive power compensation, is considered as the main objective function of reactive power market. Besides that, voltage security margin, overload index, and also voltage drop index are the other objective functions of the optimal power flow (OPF) problem to clear the reactive power market. A Multiobjective Mathematical Programming (MMP) formulation is implemented to solve the problem of reactive power market clearing using a fuzzy approach to choose the best compromise solution according to the specific preference among various non-dominated (pareto optimal) solutions. The effectiveness of the proposed method is examined based on the IEEE 24-bus reliability test system (IEEE 24-bus RTS). (author)

  6. One Clear Image? Challenging Simplicity in Place Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling

    2011-01-01

    Unique selling points! Simplicity sells! One clear identity! One clear image! These are some of the place branding mantras of today. In this paper, this “simplicity trend” is critically examined and challenged by raising the question whether clear images and simplicity are truly the only options...... in destination branding. After a short introduction and discussion of the underlying assumptions of destination branding strategy, an illustrative case is used to demonstrate how tourism stakeholders create several different “versions” of the tourist destination through a multiplicity of discursive, performative...... and socio-material practices at the tourist destination. Based on these findings, place marketers are encouraged to embrace and benefit from the multiple destination rather than seeking to reduce its multiplicity. It is argued that diversity branding might actually be deployed, strategically, in order...

  7. Effects of Mixing on Hopper Sedimentation in Clearing Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Saremi, Sina

    2015-01-01

    , and a common perception of turbulence (or at least of mixing) is that it delays sedimentation. Existing measurements of sedimentation rates in a closed-flume experiment, engineered to provide input to a hopper sedimentation model, revealed that turbulence in a clearing mixture is not necessarily associated......Hopper sedimentation is the result of precipitation of typically fine sediment from a homogenous, high-concentration mixture, which is not completely deficient of turbulence. If hopper sedimentation or loading is accomplished through a single-inflow system, or if the irregularity of the inflow...... concentrations is pronounced or simply terminated, then the hopper mixture will clear. Whereas turbulent mixing is redundant, when the mixture is homogeneous, it may take an active role when the mixture is clearing. The role of turbulence on hopper sedimentation has been the focus of several studies...

  8. Stiffness of RBC optical confinement affected by optical clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, Oleg V.; Fedosov, Ivan V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2017-03-01

    In vivo optical trapping is a novel applied direction of an optical manipulation, which enables one to noninvasive measurement of mechanical properties of cells and tissues in living animals directly. But an application area of this direction is limited because strong scattering of many biological tissues. An optical clearing enables one to decrease the scattering and therefore increase a depth of light penetration, decrease a distortion of light beam, improve a resolution in imaging applications. Now novel methods had appeared for a measurement an optical clearing degree at a cellular level. But these methods aren't applicable in vivo. In this paper we present novel measurement method of estimate of the optical clearing, which are based on a measurement of optical trap stiffness. Our method may be applicable in vivo.

  9. Electron clearing and dimensional tolerance for the ISA chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    In the straight sections of the ISA ring, the clearing of the low energy electrons produced by the beam-gas collisions will take place by longitudinal motion. Thus, an electron of low energy, which is prevented from escaping transversely by the attractive field of the beam, will receive successive kicks by the circulating protons and thereby acquire sufficient energy to travel longitudinally toward the clearing electrodes. However, a discontinuity or step in the chamber diameter, which occurs within an axial distance equal to a few diameters, gives rise to a potential difference along the chamber axis. An estimate of the magnitude of the diameter discontinuity that can be tolerated without a clearing electrode is given

  10. Functional imaging in bulk tissue specimens using optical emission tomography: fluorescence preservation during optical clearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakhalkar, H S; Dewhirst, M; Oliver, T; Cao, Y; Oldham, M

    2007-01-01

    Optical emission computed tomography (optical-ECT) is a technique for imaging the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of fluorescent probes in biological tissue specimens with high contrast and spatial resolution. In optical-ECT, functional information can be imaged by (i) systemic application of functional labels (e.g. fluorophore labelled proteins) and/or (ii) endogenous expression of fluorescent reporter proteins (e.g. red fluorescent protein (RFP), green fluorescent protein (GFP)) in vivo. An essential prerequisite for optical-ECT is optical clearing, a procedure where tissue specimens are made transparent to light by sequential perfusion with fixing, dehydrating and clearing agents. In this study, we investigate clearing protocols involving a selection of common fixing (4% buffered paraformaldehyde (PFA), methanol and ethanol), dehydrating (methanol and ethanol) and clearing agents (methyl salicylate and benzyl-alcohol-benzyl-benzoate (BABB)) in order to determine a 'fluorescence friendly' clearing procedure. Cell culture experiments were employed to optimize the sequence of chemical treatments that best preserve fluorescence. Texas red (TxRed), fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), RFP and GFP were tested as fluorophores and fluorescent reporter proteins of interest. Fluorescent and control cells were imaged on a microscope using a DSred2 and FITC filter set. The most promising clearing protocols of cell culture experiments were applied to whole xenograft tumour specimens, to test their effectiveness in large unsectioned samples. Fluorescence of TxRed/FITC fluorophores was not found to be significantly affected by any of the test clearing protocols. RFP and GFP fluorescence, however, was found to be significantly greater when cell fixation was in ethanol. Fixation in either PFA or methanol resulted in diminished fluorescence. After ethanol fixation, the RFP and GFP fluorescence proved remarkably robust to subsequent exposure to either methyl salicylate or BABB

  11. Functional imaging in bulk tissue specimens using optical emission tomography: fluorescence preservation during optical clearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakhalkar, H S [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Dewhirst, M [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Oliver, T [Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Cao, Y [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Oldham, M [Department of Radiation Oncology Physics, and Biomedical Engineering, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)

    2007-04-21

    Optical emission computed tomography (optical-ECT) is a technique for imaging the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of fluorescent probes in biological tissue specimens with high contrast and spatial resolution. In optical-ECT, functional information can be imaged by (i) systemic application of functional labels (e.g. fluorophore labelled proteins) and/or (ii) endogenous expression of fluorescent reporter proteins (e.g. red fluorescent protein (RFP), green fluorescent protein (GFP)) in vivo. An essential prerequisite for optical-ECT is optical clearing, a procedure where tissue specimens are made transparent to light by sequential perfusion with fixing, dehydrating and clearing agents. In this study, we investigate clearing protocols involving a selection of common fixing (4% buffered paraformaldehyde (PFA), methanol and ethanol), dehydrating (methanol and ethanol) and clearing agents (methyl salicylate and benzyl-alcohol-benzyl-benzoate (BABB)) in order to determine a 'fluorescence friendly' clearing procedure. Cell culture experiments were employed to optimize the sequence of chemical treatments that best preserve fluorescence. Texas red (TxRed), fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), RFP and GFP were tested as fluorophores and fluorescent reporter proteins of interest. Fluorescent and control cells were imaged on a microscope using a DSred2 and FITC filter set. The most promising clearing protocols of cell culture experiments were applied to whole xenograft tumour specimens, to test their effectiveness in large unsectioned samples. Fluorescence of TxRed/FITC fluorophores was not found to be significantly affected by any of the test clearing protocols. RFP and GFP fluorescence, however, was found to be significantly greater when cell fixation was in ethanol. Fixation in either PFA or methanol resulted in diminished fluorescence. After ethanol fixation, the RFP and GFP fluorescence proved remarkably robust to subsequent exposure to either methyl salicylate

  12. Tropospheric haze and colors of the clear daytime sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond L

    2015-02-01

    To casual observers, haze's visible effects on clear daytime skies may seem mundane: significant scattering by tropospheric aerosols visibly (1) reduces the luminance contrast of distant objects and (2) desaturates sky blueness. However, few published measurements of hazy-sky spectra and chromaticities exist to compare with these naked-eye observations. Hyperspectral imaging along sky meridians of clear and hazy skies at one inland and two coastal sites shows that they have characteristic colorimetric signatures of scattering and absorption by haze aerosols. In addition, a simple spectral transfer function and a second-order scattering model of skylight reveal the net spectral and colorimetric effects of haze.

  13. Skin optical clearing for improvement of laser tattoo removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkatov, A. N.; Genina, E. A.; Tuchin, V. V.; Altshuler, G. B.

    2009-06-01

    The possibility of improvement of laser tattoo removal due to the optical clearing of human skin is investigated. It is shown experimentally that previously perforation of skin stratum corneum allows increasing tattoo image contrast at topical administration of immersion agent in contrast with non-perforated skin. Computer Monte Carlo simulation shows that at the optical clearing of upper skin layers the tattoo image contrast and the photon fraction absorbed in the tattoo area at the depths of 0.5 or 1.0 mm increase, that allows significant decreasing of the power of laser radiation used at laser thermolysis.

  14. Technique of Hurdle Clearing in 400 Meters Hurdles (Study Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Jakoubek, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Title: Technique of Hurdle Clearing in 400 Meters Hurdles (Study Review) Authors: Jiří Jakoubek Supervisor: PhDr. Aleš Kaplan, Ph.D. Aims: The aim of this thesis is to describe technique of hurdle clearing in 400 meters hurdle race using study review and to examine this technique at particular athlete during training and racing sessions in 400 meters hurdles race. Methods: Technique was compared and examined at young athlete. Two kinograms were used for analysis, one from training and one fro...

  15. Technique of Hurdle Clearing in 400 Meters Hurdles

    OpenAIRE

    Jakoubek, Jiří

    2018-01-01

    Title: Technique of Hurdle Clearing in 400 Meters Hurdles Authors: Jiří Jakoubek Supervisor: PhDr. Aleš Kaplan, Ph.D. Aims: The aim of this thesis is to describe technique of hurdle clearing in 400 meters hurdle race using study review and to examine this technique at particular athlete during training and racing sessions in 400 meters hurdles race. Methods: Technique was compared and examined at young athlete. Two kinograms were used for analysis, one from training and one from racing sessio...

  16. Efficiency of ocular UV protection by clear lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifai, Katharina; Hornauer, Matthias; Buechinger, Ramona; Schoen, Roland; Barraza-Bernal, Maria; Habtegiorgis, Selam; Glasenapp, Carsten; Wahl, Siegfried; Mappes, Timo

    2018-04-01

    Ocular UV doses accumulate all-day, not only during periods of direct sun exposure. The UV protection efficiency of three clear lenses was evaluated experimentally, validated by simulation, and compared to non-UV protection: a first spectacle lens with a tailored UV absorber, a second spectacle lens, minimizing UV back reflections, as well as a third spectacle lens, combining both. A tailored UV-absorber efficiently reduced overall UV irradiance to 7 %, whereas reduction of back-reflections still left UV irradiance at 42 %. Thus, clear lenses with a tailored UV absorber efficiently protect the eye from UV, supplementing sun glasses wear to an all-day protection scenario.

  17. Quantitative assessment of hyaline cartilage elasticity during optical clearing using optical coherence elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chih-Hao; Singh, Manmohan; Li, Jiasong; Han, Zhaolong; Wu, Chen; Wang, Shang; Idugboe, Rita; Raghunathan, Raksha; Zakharov, Valery P.; Sobol, Emil N.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Twa, Michael; Larin, Kirill V.

    2015-03-01

    We report the first study on using optical coherence elastography (OCE) to quantitatively monitor the elasticity change of the hyaline cartilage during the optical clearing administrated by glucose solution. The measurement of the elasticity is verified using uniaxial compression test, demonstrating the feasibility of using OCE to quantify the Young's modulus of the cartilage tissue. As the results, we found that the stiffness of the hyaline cartilage increases during the optical clearing of the tissue. This study might be potentially useful for the early detection of osteoarthritis disease.

  18. Ultrasound guided electrochemotherapy for the treatment of a clear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ultrasound guided biopsy yielded a diagnosis of clear cell thymoma upon histopathology. After complete staging procedures, the owner elected to treat the cat with electrochemotherapy (ECT) using systemic bleomycin. Two sessions of ultrasound guided ECT were performed at two week intervals with trains of biphasic ...

  19. Clear Speech Variants: An Acoustic Study in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jennifer; Tjaden, Kris

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated how different variants of clear speech affect segmental and suprasegmental acoustic measures of speech in speakers with Parkinson's disease and a healthy control group. Method: A total of 14 participants with Parkinson's disease and 14 control participants served as speakers. Each speaker produced 18 different…

  20. 78 FR 50259 - Derivatives Clearing Organizations and International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... managerial resources, as determined by the Commission, to discharge each responsibility of the [DCO].'' \\27... wide range of potential stress scenarios, which include, but are not limited to, the default of the... clearing members through margin requirements and other risk control mechanisms, to ensure that the DCO's...

  1. Performance and quality control of Clear-PEM detector modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Pedro; Carrico, Bruno; Ferreira, Miguel; Moura, Rui; Ortigao, Catarina; Rodrigues, Pedro; Da Silva, Jose C.; Trindade, Andreia; Varela, Joao

    2007-01-01

    Clear-PEM is a dedicated PET scanner for breast and axilla cancer diagnosis, under development within the framework of the Crystal Clear Collaboration at CERN, aiming at the detection of tumors down to 2 mm in diameter. The camera consists of two planar detector heads with active dimensions 16.0x14.5 cm 2 . Each head has 96 Clear-PEM detector modules consisting of 32 LYSO:Ce pixels with dimensions 2x2x20 mm 3 packed in a 4x8 BaSO 4 reflector matrix compressed between two Hamamatsu S8550 APD arrays in a double-readout configuration for Depth-of-Interaction (DoI) determination. The modules are individually measured and characterized before being grouped into Supermodules (comprised of 24 modules). Measured properties include photo-peak position, relative gain dispersion, energy resolution, cross-talk and DoI resolution. Optical inspection of matrices was also performed with the aid of a microscope, to search for pixel misalignments and matrix defects. Modules' performance was thoroughly evaluated with a 511 keV collimated beam to exactly determine DoI resolution. In addition, a fast quality control (QC) procedure using flood irradiations from a 137 Cs source was applied systematically. The overall performance of the 24 detector modules complies with the design goals of the Clear-PEM detector, showing energy resolution around 15%, DoI resolution of about 2 mm and gain dispersion among pixels of 15%

  2. Does gently clearing the nasal passage affect odor identification?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell G. Spring

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying scents in a wine’s bouquet is considered one of the most important steps in the process of wine tasting. An individual’s ability to successfully do this is dependent on the sense of smell; thus, altering the nasal microenvironment could have a powerful effect on the wine tasting experience. In the present study, we examined olfactory performance in healthy participants who cleared their nasal cavity before odorant presentations. Fifty undergraduate participants were assessed with a standardized test of olfaction requiring the recognition of a battery of odors. Half of these participants cleared mucus from their nasal cavities (by gently blowing their noses prior to the assessment. No difference was found in performance between those who cleared their nasal passages and those who did not. Further, data were not different than known population data from the test. These data suggest that gently clearing the nasal cavity before presentation of odorants bears no effect on the ability to perceive those odor qualities.

  3. Seeing Clearly (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-08

    If you’re not seeing the world as clearly as you used to, you might be among the millions of people suffering from vision impairment. In this podcast, Dr. John Crews discusses ways to take care of your eyes.  Created: 5/8/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 5/8/2014.

  4. 75 FR 78185 - Information Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... Principles J, K, L and M. This is based on the Commission's view that rigorous information management... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 1, 21, and 39 RIN 3038-AC98 Information Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission...

  5. Navigation by light polarization in clear and turbid waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Amit; Sabbah, Shai; Erlick, Carynelisa; Shashar, Nadav

    2011-01-01

    Certain terrestrial animals use sky polarization for navigation. Certain aquatic species have also been shown to orient according to a polarization stimulus, but the correlation between underwater polarization and Sun position and hence the ability to use underwater polarization as a compass for navigation is still under debate. To examine this issue, we use theoretical equations for per cent polarization and electric vector (e-vector) orientation that account for the position of the Sun, refraction at the air–water interface and Rayleigh single scattering. The polarization patterns predicted by these theoretical equations are compared with measurements conducted in clear and semi-turbid coastal sea waters at 2 m and 5 m depth over sea floors of 6 m and 28 m depth. We find that the per cent polarization is correlated with the Sun's elevation only in clear waters. We furthermore find that the maximum value of the e-vector orientation angle equals the angle of refraction only in clear waters, in the horizontal viewing direction, over the deeper sea floor. We conclude that navigation by use of underwater polarization is possible under restricted conditions, i.e. in clear waters, primarily near the horizontal viewing direction, and in locations where the sea floor has limited effects on the light's polarization. PMID:21282170

  6. Seeing Clearly (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    If you’re not seeing the world as clearly as you used to, you might be among the millions of people suffering from vision impairment. In this podcast, Dr. John Crews discusses ways to take care of your eyes.

  7. 75 FR 63113 - Financial Resources Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ...\\ For example, the positions of each clearing member would be margined separately and would be stress... of debt, externally forced revisions of its operations, or similar actions.\\13\\ \\13\\ See American Institute of Certified Public Accountants Auditing Standards Board Statement of Auditing Standards No. 59...

  8. Advances and perspectives in tissue clearing using CLARITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reveles Jensen, Kristian; Berg, Rune W.

    2017-01-01

    CLARITY is a tissue clearing method, which enables immunostaining and imaging of large volumes for 3D-reconstruction. The method was initially time-consuming, expensive and relied on electrophoresis to remove lipids to make the tissue transparent. Since then several improvements and simplifications...

  9. A case of clear cell sarcoma-A rare malignancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Jacob; Ibrahim, Rami Mossad

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare tumour of the soft tissue often misdiagnosed, as it shares characteristics with malignant melanoma (MM). Previously, CCS has been characterised, as malignant melanoma of the soft tissue, contemporary immunohistochemical techniques, however, have made...

  10. Origin of clear cell carcinoma: nature or nurture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolin, David L; Dinulescu, Daniela M; Crum, Christopher P

    2018-02-01

    A rare but serious complication of endometriosis is the development of carcinoma, and clear cell and endometrioid carcinomas of the ovary are the two most common malignancies which arise from endometriosis. They are distinct diseases, characterized by unique morphologies, immunohistochemical profiles, and responses to treatment. However, both arise in endometriosis and can share common mutations. The overlapping mutational profiles of clear cell and endometrioid carcinomas suggest that their varied histologies may be due to a different cell of origin which gives rise to each type of cancer. Cochrane and colleagues address this question in a recent article in this journal. They show that a marker of ovarian clear cell carcinoma, cystathionine gamma lyase, is expressed in ciliated cells. Similarly, they show that markers of secretory cells (estrogen receptor and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1) are expressed in ovarian endometrioid carcinoma. Taken together, they suggest that endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas arise from cells related to secretory and ciliated cells, respectively. We discuss Cochrane et al's work in the context of other efforts to determine the cell of origin of gynecological malignancies, with an emphasis on recent developments and challenges unique to the area. These limitations complicate our interpretation of tumor differentiation; does it reflect nature imposed by a specific cell of origin or nurture, by either mutation(s) or environment? Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Impact of Prosopis (mesquite) invasion and clearing on vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We evaluated the impact of Prosopis invasion and clearing on vegetation species composition and diversity (alien and indigenous species richness and cover) in Nama-Karoo rangeland on two sheep farms in the Beaufort ... Keywords: invasive plants – exotic, Nama-Karoo, plant community ecology, rehabilitation, semi-arid ...

  12. Marketing Strategies of United Kingdom Universities during Clearing and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogaji, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The clearing system in the UK enables students without a university place after exam results have been announced to find suitable vacancies, as it is important for universities to fill their vacancies as any shortfall loses them a lot of money. The purpose of this paper is to examine marketing strategies adopted by UK universities on…

  13. 76 FR 3697 - Risk Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Part II Commodity Futures Trading Commission 17 CFR Part 39 Risk Management Requirements for... RIN 3038-AC98 Risk Management Requirements for Derivatives Clearing Organizations AGENCY: Commodity... (Participant and Product Eligibility), D (Risk Management), E (Settlement Procedures), F (Treatment of Funds...

  14. Electron clearing and dimensional tolerance for the ISA chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    In the straight sections of the ISA ring, the clearing of the low energy electrons produced by the beam-gas collisions will take place by longitudinal motion. Thus, an electron of low energy, which is prevented from escaping transversely by the attractive field of the beam, will receive successive kicks by the circulating protons and thereby acquire sufficient energy to travel longitudinally toward the clearing electrodes. However, a discontinuity or step in the chamber diameter, which occurs within an axial distance equal to a few diameters, gives rise to a potential difference along the chamber axis. In the case of a section of chambers which has a larger diameter, that is, a small cavity, the two steps result in a longitudinal potential well, or attractive region. It is then necessary that the electrons be given additional energy in order to overcome this longitudinal trapping potential. The ISA design envisions the placement of clearing electrodes at the location of significant chamber discontinuities, particularly in the experimental insertions. An estimate of the magnitude of the diameter discontinuity that can be tolerated without a clearing electrode is given

  15. Treatment results and prognostic factors of clear cell ovarian carcinomas and ovarian carcinomas with clear cell component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Ahmedova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important prognostic factors for clear cell carcinoma (CCC are clinical and morphological signs and clinical stage of the disease. Analyses of 5-year survival in patients with I stage of CCC is 69 %, in II stage – 55 %, in III stage – 14 % and in IV stage – 4 % patients. We analyzed distant results of treatment of 71 patients with CCC and of 25 patients with mixed malignant ovaries neoplasm with obligatory clear cell component taking into consideration main clinical and morphological sings of disease. On the base of performed reseal we revealed that morphological structure of the tumors and stage of the disease exerted heist influence on the exponent of survival of the patients with clear CCC ovaries neoplasm. Besides, there is a correlation between exponent of patients’ survival and radicalized of surgery, character of tumor growth, differentiation degree, cell anaplasia and mitotic activity of tumor cells.

  16. Deaf children's use of clear visual cues in mindreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jian; Su, Yanjie

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies show that typically developing 4-year old children can understand other people's false beliefs but that deaf children of hearing families have difficulty in understanding false beliefs until the age of approximately 13. Because false beliefs are implicit mental states that are not expressed through clear visual cues in standard false belief tasks, the present study examines the hypothesis that the deaf children's developmental delay in understanding false beliefs may reflect their difficulty in understanding a spectrum of mental states that are not expressed through clear visual cues. Nine- to 13-year-old deaf children of hearing families and 4-6-year-old typically developing children completed false belief tasks and emotion recognition tasks under different cue conditions. The results indicated that after controlling for the effect of the children's language abilities, the deaf children inferred other people's false beliefs as accurately as the typically developing children when other people's false beliefs were clearly expressed through their eye-gaze direction. However, the deaf children performed worse than the typically developing children when asked to infer false beliefs with ambiguous or no eye-gaze cues. Moreover, the deaf children were capable of recognizing other people's emotions that were clearly conveyed by their facial or body expressions. The results suggest that although theory-based or simulation-based mental state understanding is typical of hearing children's theory of mind mechanism, for deaf children of hearing families, clear cue-based mental state understanding may be their specific theory of mind mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Combined use of miniscrews and clear appliances for the treatment of bialveolar protrusion without conventional brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Nak-Chun; Park, Young-Chel; Jo, Yong-Min; Lee, Kee-Joon

    2009-05-01

    The increasing demand for esthetic orthodontic treatment has led to the development of tooth-colored and even "invisible" appliances. Although sequential removable clear aligners have several advantages over conventional bracket systems, they have some limitations in extraction treatment. This case report presents the esthetic extraction treatment of a patient with bialveolar protrusion; conventional brackets were not used. The treatment was completed in 2 steps. The first step involved segmental retraction of the anterior teeth by using miniscrews and an anterior lingual splint with a clear lever arm. The second step involved alignment and finishing by using sequential removable clear aligners. The patient's esthetic demands were fulfilled successfully during treatment, and satisfactory facial profile and occlusion were achieved after treatment.

  18. Using low-frequency ultrasound to improve the optical clearing of porcine skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Huiqing; Guo, Zhouyi; Wei, Huajiang; Zhang, Zude; Zeng, Changchun; Zhai, Juan; He, Yonghong

    2008-12-01

    The glycerol used as an enhancer for tissue optical clearing technique has been researched. However, using it and a physical way of ultrasound enhance optical clearing of tissue reported a few. We researched that the ultrasound whether can improve the optical clearing of dealt with 80% glycerol tissue. The fresh porcine skins divided into four groups. The first group was not dealt with by ultrasound and 80% glycerol, the second group was dealt with by only ultrasound, the third group was dealt with by 80% glycerol and no by ultrasound, and the fourth group was dealt with by both 80% glycerol and ultrasound. And we measured changes in optical scattering of the porcine skins under treatment with OCT. From the OCT images show that the fourth group changed very faster than the other's during the 0~15 min. And it can be clearly seen that there is a significant improvement in the light penetration depth and imaging contrast in a shorter time. It is possible that the low-frequency ultrasound can make disordering of the stratum corneum lipids of the porcine skin (because the cavitation has happened), and improve the speed of 80% glycerol through the stratum corneum of skin. These results proved that using 80% glycerol with the ultrasound can better improve the optical clearing of tissue.

  19. Tropospheric haze and colors of the clear twilight sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond L; Mollner, Duncan C

    2017-07-01

    At the earth's surface, clear-sky colors during civil twilights depend on the combined spectral effects of molecular scattering, extinction by tropospheric aerosols, and absorption by ozone. Molecular scattering alone cannot produce the most vivid twilight colors near the solar horizon, for which aerosol scattering and absorption are also required. However, less well known are haze aerosols' effects on twilight sky colors at larger scattering angles, including near the antisolar horizon. To analyze this range of colors, we compare 3D Monte Carlo simulations of skylight spectra with hyperspectral measurements of clear twilight skies over a wide range of aerosol optical depths. Our combined measurements and simulations indicate that (a) the purest antisolar twilight colors would occur in a purely molecular, multiple-scattering atmosphere, whereas (b) the most vivid solar-sky colors require at least some turbidity. Taken together, these results suggest that multiple scattering plays an important role in determining the redness of the antitwilight arch.

  20. Vent clearing analysis of a Mark III pressure suppression containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, R.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of the vent clearing transient in a Mark III pressure suppression containment after a hypothetical LOCA is carried out. A two-dimensional numerical model solving the transient fluid dynamic equations is used. The geometry of the pressure suppression pool is represented and the pressure and velocity fields in the pool are obtained from the moment the LOCA occurs until the first vent in the drywell wall clears. The results are compared to those obtained with the one-diemensional model used for containment design, with special interest on two-dimensional effects. Some conclusions concerning the effect of the water discharged into the suppression pool through the vents on submerged structures are obtained. Future improvements to the model are suggested. (orig.)

  1. Temporal variation of clear-water scour at compound Abutments

    OpenAIRE

    Aminuddin Ab. Ghani; Reza Mohammadpour

    2016-01-01

    Most of actual abutments in rivers are built on foundation, while there is limited number of study available on the effects of the foundation on the local scour. In this study, temporal variation of local scour around compound abutment was investigated experimentally under clear-water conditions. The results showed that a suitable level of foundation is able to decrease the scour depth and increase scour time during the flood events. The trend of temporal scour depth at compound pier and abut...

  2. Clear turbulence forecasting - Towards a union of art and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The development of clear air turbulence (CAT) forecasting over the last several decades is reviewed in the context of empirical and theoretical research into the nature of nonconvective turbulence in the free atmosphere, particularly at jet stream levels. Various qualitative CAT forecasting techniques are examined, and prospects for an effective quantitative index to aid aviation meteorologists in jet stream level turbulence monitoring and forecasting are examined. Finally, the use of on-board sensors for short-term warning is discussed.

  3. Experimental characterization of the Clear-PEM scanner spectrometric performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugalho, R; Carrico, B; Ferreira, C S; Frade, M; Ferreira, M; Moura, R; Ortigao, C; Pinheiro, J F; Rodrigues, P; Rolo, I; Silva, J C; Trindade, A; Varela, J [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas (LIP), Av. Elias Garcia 14-1, 1000-149 Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: frade@lip.pt

    2009-10-15

    In the framework of the Clear-PEM project for the construction of a high-resolution and high-specificity scanner for breast cancer imaging, a Positron Emission Mammography tomograph has been developed and installed at the Instituto Portugues de Oncologia do Porto hospital. The Clear-PEM scanner is mainly composed by two planar detector heads attached to a robotic arm, trigger/data acquisition electronics system and computing servers. The detector heads hold crystal matrices built from 2 x 2 x 20 mm{sup 3} LYSO:Ce crystals readout by Hamamatsu S8550 APD arrays. The APDs are optically coupled to both ends of the 6144 crystals in order to extract the DOI information for each detected event. Each one of 12288 APD's pixels is read and controlled by Application Specific Integrated Circuits water-cooled by an external cooling unit. The Clear-PEM frontend boards innovative design results in a unprecedented integration of the crystal matrices, APDs and ASICs, making Clear-PEM the PET scanner with the highest number of APD pixels ever integrated so far. In this paper, the scanner's main technical characteristics, calibration strategies and the first spectrometric performance evaluation in a clinical environment are presented. The first commissioning results show 99.7% active channels, which, after calibration, have inter-pixel and absolute gain distributions with dispersions of, respectively, 12.2% and 15.3%, demonstrating that despite the large number of channels, the system is uniform. The mean energy resolution at 511 keV is of 15.9%, with a 8.8% dispersion, and the mean C{sub DOI}{sup -1} is 5.9%/mm, with a 7.8% dispersion. The coincidence time resolution, at 511 keV, for a energy window between 400 and 600 keV, is 5.2 ns FWHM.

  4. 3D on-chip microscopy of optically cleared tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yibo; Shin, Yoonjung; Sung, Kevin; Yang, Sam; Chen, Harrison; Wang, Hongda; Teng, Da; Rivenson, Yair; Kulkarni, Rajan P.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2018-02-01

    Traditional pathology relies on tissue biopsy, micro-sectioning, immunohistochemistry and microscopic imaging, which are relatively expensive and labor-intensive, and therefore are less accessible in resource-limited areas. Low-cost tissue clearing techniques, such as the simplified CLARITY method (SCM), are promising to potentially reduce the cost of disease diagnosis by providing 3D imaging and phenotyping of thicker tissue samples with simpler preparation steps. However, the mainstream imaging approach for cleared tissue, fluorescence microscopy, suffers from high-cost, photobleaching and signal fading. As an alternative approach to fluorescence, here we demonstrate 3D imaging of SCMcleared tissue using on-chip holography, which is based on pixel-super-resolution and multi-height phase recovery algorithms to digitally compute the sample's amplitude and phase images at various z-slices/depths through the sample. The tissue clearing procedures and the lens-free imaging system were jointly optimized to find the best illumination wavelength, tissue thickness, staining solution pH, and the number of hologram heights to maximize the imaged tissue volume, minimize the amount of acquired data, while maintaining a high contrast-to-noise ratio for the imaged cells. After this optimization, we achieved 3D imaging of a 200-μm thick cleared mouse brain tissue over a field-of-view of based microscope (20× 0.75NA). Moreover, the lens-free microscope achieves an order-of-magnitude better data efficiency compared to its lens-based counterparts for volumetric imaging of samples. The presented low-cost and high-throughput lens-free tissue imaging technique enabled by CLARITY can be used in various biomedical applications in low-resource-settings.

  5. Autophagy and bacterial clearance: a not so clear picture

    OpenAIRE

    Mostowy, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy, an intracellular degradation process highly conserved from yeast to humans, is viewed as an important defence mechanism to clear intracellular bacteria. However, recent work has shown that autophagy may have different roles during different bacterial infections that restrict bacterial replication (antibacterial autophagy), act in cell autonomous signalling (non-bacterial autophagy) or support bacterial replication (pro-bacterial autophagy). This review will focus on newfound intera...

  6. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Bradish, Martin A.; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Lewis, Michael J.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    This document captures the system architecture for a Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) capability needed for electronics maintenance and repair of the Constellation Program (CxP). CLEAR is intended to improve flight system supportability and reduce the mass of spares required to maintain the electronics of human rated spacecraft on long duration missions. By necessity it allows the crew to make repairs that would otherwise be performed by Earth based repair depots. Because of practical knowledge and skill limitations of small spaceflight crews they must be augmented by Earth based support crews and automated repair equipment. This system architecture covers the complete system from ground-user to flight hardware and flight crew and defines an Earth segment and a Space segment. The Earth Segment involves database management, operational planning, and remote equipment programming and validation processes. The Space Segment involves the automated diagnostic, test and repair equipment required for a complete repair process. This document defines three major subsystems including, tele-operations that links the flight hardware to ground support, highly reconfigurable diagnostics and test instruments, and a CLEAR Repair Apparatus that automates the physical repair process.

  7. Clear-sky narrowband albedos derived from VIRS and MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun-Mack, Sunny; Minnis, Patrick; Chen, Yan; Arduini, Robert F.

    2004-02-01

    The Clouds and Earth"s Radiant Energy System (CERES) project is using multispectral imagers, the Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on the tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra, operating since spring 2000, and Aqua, operating since summer 2002, to provide cloud and clear-sky properties at various wavelengths. This paper presents the preliminary results of an analysis of the CERES clear-sky reflectances to derive a set top-of-atmosphere clear sky albedo for 0.65, 0.86, 1.6, 2.13 μm, for all major surface types using the combined MODIS and VIRS datasets. The variability of snow albedo with surface type is examined using MODIS data. Snow albedo was found to depend on the vertical structure of the vegetation. At visible wavelengths, it is least for forested areas and greatest for smooth desert and tundra surfaces. At 1.6 and 2.1-μm, the snow albedos are relatively insensitive to the underlying surface because snow decreases the reflectance. Additional analyses using all of the MODIS results will provide albedo models that should be valuable for many remote sensing, simulation and radiation budget studies.

  8. A giant benign clear cell hidradenoma on the anterior trunk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Gulsen Tukenmez; Atis, Guldehan; Altunay, Ilknur Kivanç; Sakiz, Damlanur

    2011-10-05

    Clear cell hidradenoma (CCH) is an uncommon variant of benign cutaneous adnexal tumors. These tumors are clinically asymptomatic, solitary dermal nodules. They occur most frequently on the scalp, face abdomen and extremities. Growth is slow and malignant change is rare. 45-year-old woman presented with a nodule which had begun 4 years ago as a small nodular asymptomatic lesion and had a central ulceration and a minimal hemorrhagic discharge on her anterior abdomen wall. On dermatologic examination there was a 6.5×5×4 cm non-tender, soft reddish purple nodule, with lobular appearance and ulceration. In the laboratory investigations, all hematologic and biochemical tests were normal. A computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated a cystic tumor with lobulated contour with contrast enhancement. The lesion was excised totally. In histopathological examination, the tumor was composed of biphasic smaller dark polygonal cells and larger clear cells and coarse nuclear chromatine. There were duct like structures. Immunohistochemical investigation was done for the suspicion of malignancy. Cytoplasm of clear cells and of duct like structures showed PAS-positive and d-PAS resistant staining. There was a positive reaction to epithelial membrane antigen and carcinoembryonic antigen. The mitotic index in Ki 67 examination was low. All these findings confirmed the diagnosis of benign CCH.

  9. [Ground-clearing fires in the amazon and respiratory disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Karen dos Santos; de Castro, Hermano Albuquerque; Hacon, Sandra de Souza

    2012-06-01

    The intentional burning of forest biomass commonly known as "ground-clearing fires" is an age-old and widespread practice in the country and is seen as a major contributor to global emissions of greenhouse gases. However, global awareness of their potential impact is relatively recent. The occurrence of large ground-clearing fires in the Brazilian and international scenarios drew attention to the problem, but the measures taken to prevent and/or control the fires are still insufficient. In the Amazon region, with distinct geographical and environmental features from the rest of the country, with its historic process of land occupation, every year the ground-clearing fires expose larger portions of the population making them vulnerable to its effects. In this context, this non-systematic review presents the papers written over the past five years about the fires in the Brazilian Amazon and respiratory illness. The main objective is to provide information for managers and leaders on environmental issues about the problems related to biomass burning in the Amazon region.

  10. A case of severe encephalitis while on PD-1 immunotherapy for recurrent clear cell ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Burke

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent clear cell ovarian carcinoma is a difficult to treat condition and early trial data has suggested a possible role for immune checkpoint inhibitors. Nivolumab is an anti-PD-1 immunotherapy that has been used in this setting. While immune related toxicity of these agents has been well described, the occurrence of immune specific neurotoxicity is thought to be rare. We present a case of severe encephalitis while on PD-1 immunotherapy for a recurrent ovarian clear cell cancer and we believe this to be the first such reported case associated with the use of PD-1 inhibitor monotherapy. In this case, a 64-year-old woman with persistent clear cell ovarian cancer on Nivolumab presented with a severe fever of unknown origin and delirium; initial imaging and diagnostic work-up suggested a neurological etiology, but with no clear source. We concluded that this was a severe case of immune related encephalitis, thought to be brought about by the anti-PD-1 immunotherapy which responded well to systemic corticosteroids and plasmapheresis and the patient able to make a full recovery. We present a summary of the case and its management as well as a review of the literature on the previously reported neurotoxicity's of PD-1 inhibitors.

  11. Zinc supplementation in rats impairs hippocampal-dependent memory consolidation and dampens post-traumatic recollection of stressful event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contestabile, Antonio; Peña-Altamira, Emiliano; Virgili, Marco; Monti, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Zinc is a trace element important for synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Zinc deficiency, both during pregnancy and after birth, impairs cognitive performance and, in addition to memory deficits, also results in alterations of attention, activity, neuropsychological behavior and motor development. The effects of zinc supplementation on cognition, particularly in the adult, are less clear. We demonstrate here in adult rats, that 4 week-long zinc supplementation given by drinking water, and approximately doubling normal daily intake, strongly impairs consolidation of hippocampal-dependent memory, tested through contextual fear conditioning and inhibitory avoidance. Furthermore, the same treatment started after memory consolidation of training for the same behavioral tests, substantially dampens the recall of the stressful event occurred 4 weeks before. A molecular correlate of the amnesic effect of zinc supplementation is represented by a dysregulated function of GSK-3ß in the hippocampus, a kinase that participates in memory processes. The possible relevance of these data for humans, in particular regarding post-traumatic stress disorders, is discussed in view of future investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  12. Discharge, sediment, and water chemistry in Clear Creek, western Nevada, water years 2013–16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Jena M.; Riddle, Daniel J.; Paul, Angela P.

    2018-05-01

    Clear Creek is a small stream that drains the eastern Carson Range near Lake Tahoe, flows roughly parallel to the Highway 50 corridor, and discharges to the Carson River near Carson City, Nevada. Historical and ongoing development in the drainage basin is thought to be affecting Clear Creek and its sediment-transport characteristics. Previous studies from water years (WYs) 2004 to 2007 and from 2010 to 2012 evaluated discharge, selected water-quality parameters, and suspended-sediment concentrations, loads, and yields at three Clear Creek sampling sites. This report serves as a continuation of the data collection and analyses of the Clear Creek discharge regime and associated water-chemistry and sediment concentrations and loads during WYs 2013–16.Total annual sediment loads ranged from 870 to 5,300 tons during WYs 2004–07, from 320 to 1,770 tons during WYs 2010–12, and from 50 to 200 tons during WYs 2013–16. Ranges in annual loads during the three study periods were not significantly different; however, total loads were greater during 2004–07 than they were during 2013–16. Annual suspended-sediment loads in WYs 2013–16 showed no significant change since WYs 2010–12 at sites 1 (U.S. Geological Survey reference site 10310485; Clear Creek above Highway 50, near Spooner Summit, Nevada) or 2 (U.S. Geological Survey streamgage 10310500; Clear Creek above Highway 50, near Spooner Summit, Nevada), but significantly lower loads at site 3 (U.S. Geological Survey site 10310518; Clear Creek at Fuji Park, at Carson City, Nevada), supporting the theory of sediment deposition between sites 2 and 3 where the stream gradient becomes more gradual. Currently, a threshold discharge of about 3.3 cubic feet per second is required to mobilize streambed sediment (bedload) from site 2 in Clear Creek. Mean daily discharge was significantly lower in 2010–12 than in 2004–07 and also significantly lower in 2013–16 than in 2010–12. During this study, lower bedload, and

  13. Environmental Assessment, Glide Slope/Clear Zone Obstructions, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    the Integrated Cultural Resources Managemen t Plan. Historic resou rces determined to be eligible fo r listing on the National Register of Histo ric... Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other...and clear zones (CZs) at WPAr B in order to protect human hea lth and safety by providing adequate clearance for aircraft operations . The existing

  14. Temporal co-registration for TROPOMI cloud clearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Genkova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI is anticipated to provide high-quality and timely global atmospheric composition information through observations of atmospheric constituents such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, formaldehyde and aerosol properties. The methane and the aerosol retrievals require very precise cloud clearing, which is difficult to achieve at the TROPOMI spatial resolution (7 by 7 km and without thermal IR measurements. The TROPOMI carrier – the Sentinel 5 Precursor (S5P, does not include a cloud imager, thus it is planned to fly the S5P mission in a constellation with an instrument yielding an accurate cloud mask. The cloud imagery data will be provided by the US NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP mission, which will have the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS on board (Scalione, 2004. This paper investigates the temporal co-registration requirements for suitable time differences between the VIIRS measurements of clouds and the TROPOMI methane and aerosol measurements, so that the former could be used for cloud clearing. The temporal co-registration is studied using Meteosat Second Generation (MSG Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI data with 15 min temporal resolution (Veefkind, 2008b, and with data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite – 10 (GOES-10 having 1 min temporal resolution. The aim is to understand and assess the relation between the amount of allowed cloud contamination and the required time difference between the two satellites' overflights. Quantitative analysis shows that a time difference of approximately 5 min is sufficient (in most conditions to use the cloud information from the first instrument for cloud clearing in the retrievals using data from the second instrument. In recent years the A-train constellation demonstrated the benefit of flying satellites in formation. Therefore this study's findings will be

  15. Cognitive errors: thinking clearly when it could be child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskey, Antoinette L

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive errors have been studied in a broad array of fields, including medicine. The more that is understood about how the human mind processes complex information, the more it becomes clear that certain situations are particularly susceptible to less than optimal outcomes because of these errors. This article explores how some of the known cognitive errors may influence the diagnosis of child abuse, resulting in both false-negative and false-positive diagnoses. Suggested remedies for these errors are offered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis on the way of foreign exchange clearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yingying

    2014-01-01

    Constantly advancing market-led interest rate led to the financial institution traditional business profit margins shrinking. Finance companies which are financial institutions within the enterprise groups withstand greater impact than commercial banks. Therefore, the financial company's top priority is to expand the intermediary business, including settlement and sales, and to develop new profit growth point. This paper compares the existing domestic and foreign currency clearing modes and their efficiencies, combines with the company's business situation, and makes corresponding analysis of the prior preparations and considerations of conducting settlement and sales. (author)

  17. A Trading Agent for a Multi-Issue Clearing House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenham, John

    The potential size of the electronic business market offers great incentives to trading agents that can bargain, bid in auctions and trade in exchanges. Much of business negotiation is multi-issue. A generic 'information-based' agent is proposed for multi-issue negotiation. Successful negotiation depends on shrewd strategies driven by the right information. This agent has machinery to value information and to manage its integrity. A multi-issue, many-to-many clearing house, and an agent to trade in it, are proposed.

  18. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Pollack Golen, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers' sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants' intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cues) compared to conventional, clear bottles to feed their infants. We also tested the hypothesis that mothers' pressuring feeding style would moderate the effect of bottle type. Formula-feeding dyads (N = 25) visited our laboratory on two separate days. Mothers fed their infants from a clear bottle one day and an opaque, weighted bottle on the other; bottle-order was counterbalanced across the two days. Infant intake was assessed by weighing each bottle before and after the feeding. Maternal sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues was objectively assessed using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale. Mothers were significantly more responsive to infant cues when they used opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .04). There was also a trend for infants to consume significantly less formula when fed from opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .08). Mothers' pressuring feeding style moderated the effect of bottle type on maternal responsiveness to infant cues (p = .02) and infant intake (p = .03). Specifically, mothers who reported higher levels of pressuring feeding were significantly more responsive to their infants' cues (p = .02) and fed their infants significantly less formula when using opaque versus clear bottles (p = .01); no differences were seen for mothers who reported lower levels of pressuring feeding. This study highlights a simple, yet effective intervention for improving the bottle-feeding practices of mothers who have pressuring feeding styles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Remembering the Sea: Personal and Communal Recollections of Maritime Life in Jizan and the Farasan Islands, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Dionisius A.; Cooper, John P.; Semaan, Lucy; Zazzaro, Chiara; Carter, Robert

    2016-08-01

    People create narratives of their maritime past through the remembering and forgetting of seafaring experiences, and through the retention and disposal of maritime artefacts that function mnemonically to evoke or suppress those experiences. The sustenance and reproduction of the resulting narratives depends further on effective media of intergenerational transmission; otherwise, they are lost. Rapid socio-economic transformation across Saudi Arabia in the age of oil has disrupted longstanding seafaring economies in the Red Sea archipelago of the Farasan Islands, and the nearby mainland port of Jizan. Vestiges of wooden boatbuilding activity are few; long-distance dhow trade with South Asia, the Arabian-Persian Gulf and East Africa has ceased; and a once substantial pearling and nacre (mother of pearl) collection industry has dwindled to a tiny group of hobbyists: no youth dive today. This widespread withdrawal from seafaring activity among many people in these formerly maritime-oriented communities has diminished the salience of such activity in cultural memory, and has set in motion narrative creation processes, through which memories are filtered and selected, and objects preserved, discarded, or lost. This paper is a product of the encounter of the authors with keepers of maritime memories and objects in the Farasan Islands and Jizan. An older generation of men recall memories of their experiences as boat builders, captains, seafarers, pearl divers and fishermen. Their recounted memories are inscribed, and Arabic seafaring terms recorded. The extent of the retention of maritime material cultural items as memorials is also assessed, and the rôle of individual, communal and state actors in that retention is considered. Through this reflection, it becomes clear that the extra-biological memory and archive of the region's maritime past is sparse; that intergenerational transmission is failing; that the participation of state agencies in maritime heritage creation

  20. A Reflectance Model for Relatively Clear and Turbid Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Tiwari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurate modeling of spectral remote sensing reflectance (Rrs is of great interest for ocean colour studies in highly turbid and relatively clear waters. In this work a semianalytical model that simulates the spectral curves of remote sensing reflectance of these waters is developed based on the inherent optical properties (IOPs and f and Q factors. For accommodating differences in the optical properties of the water and accounting for their directional variations, IOPs and f and Q factors are derived as a function of phytoplankton pigments, suspended sediments and solar zenith angle. Results of this model are compared with in-situ bio-optical data collected at 83 stations encompassing highly turbid/relatively cleared waters of the South Sea of Korea. Measured and modeled remote sensing reflectances agree favorably in both magnitude and spectral shape, with considerably low errors (mean relative error MRE -0.0327; root mean square error RMSE 0.205, bias -0.0727 and slope 1.15 and correlation coefficient R2 0.74. These results suggest that the new model has the ability to reproduce measured reflectance values and has potentially profound implications for remote sensing of complex waters in this region.

  1. A new computational method for reactive power market clearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, T.; Elkasrawy, A.; Venkatesh, B.

    2009-01-01

    After deregulation of electricity markets, ancillary services such as reactive power supply are priced separately. However, unlike real power supply, procedures for costing and pricing reactive power supply are still evolving and spot markets for reactive power do not exist as of now. Further, traditional formulations proposed for clearing reactive power markets use a non-linear mixed integer programming formulation that are difficult to solve. This paper proposes a new reactive power supply market clearing scheme. Novelty of this formulation lies in the pricing scheme that rewards transformers for tap shifting while participating in this market. The proposed model is a non-linear mixed integer challenge. A significant portion of the manuscript is devoted towards the development of a new successive mixed integer linear programming (MILP) technique to solve this formulation. The successive MILP method is computationally robust and fast. The IEEE 6-bus and 300-bus systems are used to test the proposed method. These tests serve to demonstrate computational speed and rigor of the proposed method. (author)

  2. Optical clearing of tissues and blood using the immersion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuchin, Valery V

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to review recent results on the optical clearing of the naturally turbid biological tissues and blood using the optical immersion technique, which is well known in physical science and is applied for the reduction of light scattering and undesirable reflections in the optical system. Basic principles of the technique, its advantages, limitations and future are discussed. The refractive index matching concept for enhancement of in-depth light penetration into tissues and blood is presented on the basis of in vitro and in vivo studies using optical spectroscopy, polarization and coherence-domain techniques. The index matching of scatterers and ground matter by means of administration of clearing agents is under discussion. The optical properties of tissues with basic multiple scattering, which are transformed to a low scattering mode, are analysed. It is shown that light reflection, transmission, scattering and polarization can be effectively controlled. The possibilities of using the optical immersion method for diagnostic purposes based on contrasting of abnormalities, on in-depth profiling of tissue and blood and on monitoring of endogenous and exogenous matter diffusion within tissue are demonstrated

  3. A giant benign clear cell hidradenoma on the anterior trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damlanur Sakiz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell hidroadenoma (CCA is a uncommon variant of bening cutaneous adnexial tumors. These tumors are clinically asymptomatic, solitary dermal nodules. they occur most frequently on the scalp, face, abdomen and the extremities. Growth is slow and malignant change is rare. 45- year-old woman presented us with a nodule with a central ulceration and a minimal hemoragic discharge on her anterior abdomen wall which had begun 4 years ago as a small nodular asymptomatic lesion. On dermatological examination there was a 6.5x4x5 cm non-tender, soft reddish purple nodule with lobular appearence and ulceration. In the laboratory investigations, all the hematologic and biochemical tests were normal. A CT scan demonstrated a cyctic tumor with lobulated countour with contrast enhancement. The lesion excised totally. In histopathological examination the tumor was composed of biphasic  smaller dark polygonal cells and larger clera cells and coarse nuclear chromatine. There were duct like structures. Immunohistochemical investigation was done for the suspicion of malignancy. Cytoplasm of clear cells and duct like structures showed PAS positive and d-Pas resistant staining. There was a positive reactivity to epithelial membrane antigen and carcinoembrionic antigen. The mitotic index in Ki 67 examination was low. All these findings confirmed the diagnosis of bening CCA. 

  4. APLIKASI SIX SIGMA PADA PRODUK CLEAR FILE DI PERUSAHAAN STATIONARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Emilasari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of the Six Sigma methods is used in order to improve quality in manufacturing company that produce stationary product. DMAIC approach is utilized to analyze and improve 'Pocket Clear File' product since this product has more variability and defects. Quality improvement also monitor the process that influenced pocket defect in Bag Making, Kami-ire, Karidome, and Pocket after Karidome Inspections section. Determining of Six Sigma project is based in process and defect type in each section. FMEA also gave the recommendation for quality improvement we need to evaluate the final result of the improvement since some of them were not working properly. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Paper ini menggambarkan bagaimana aplikasi metode Six Sigma digunakan untuk melakukan perbaikan kualitas pada perusahaan manufaktur yang memproduksi produk stationary. Pendekatan DMAIC dipakai untuk menganalisa dan melakukan perbaikan produk 'Pocket Clear File' karena tingginya variabilitas dan cacat dibanding produk lain. Perbaikan kualitas juga memperhatikan proses yang mempengaruhi terjadinya cacat pocket pada section Bag Making, Kami-ire, Karidome, dan Pocket after Karidome Inspection. Penentuan proyek Six Sigma didasarkan atas proses dan jenis cacat pada setiap section. Pendekatan FMEA mampu memberi rekomendasi perbaikan kualitas. Evaluasi dari hasil perbaikan penting untuk dilakukan karena beberapa implementasi perbaikan kualitas tidak berjalan sesuai dengan rencana. kata kunci: six sigma, DMAIC, perusahaan stationary.

  5. Modeling and control simulation of the China CLEAR-IB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Shoujun; Wan, Jiashuang; Wang, Pengfei; Fang, Huawei; Sun, Changyi; Zhao, Fuyu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A model for the reactor for CLEAR-IB was developed. • A PI controller was designed to control the power. • A control strategy was adopted to control the water enthalpy of air cooler. • Dynamic simulation of the whole system was performed. - Abstract: To investigate the dynamic and control characteristics of the plant, a model for the main components of the reactor and the most relevant interactions among them is developed. The system comprises of the primary system with lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) as the coolant, the secondary circuit with steam water mixture as the coolant and the associated air cooling system for an effective rejection of thermal power to the environment as a final heat sink. A Proportional-Integral (PI) controller is designed to keep the power following the set value as quickly as possible. To keep outlet coolant of air coolers and inlet coolant of HXs being saturated water, a control strategy based on a simultaneous feed-forward and feedback scheme has been adopted. Based on the developed model and control strategy, dynamic simulation of the whole system in the cases of step changes of external source and load is performed. The simulation results show that the proposed model is accurate enough to describe the dynamic behaviors of the plant in spite of its simplicity. It has also been demonstrated that the developed controllers for the CLEAR-IB can provide superior reactor control capabilities due to the efficiency of the control strategy adopted

  6. Spectral and diurnal variations in clear sky planetary albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briegleb, B.; Ramanathan, V.

    1982-01-01

    Spectral and diurnal variations in the clear sky planetary albedo of the earth are calculated using a radiative transfer model to obtain January and July values for a 5 deg x 5 deg global grid. The model employs observed climatological values of temperatures, humidities, snow and sea-ice cover. The diurnal cycle of clear sky albedo is calculated in the following intervals: 0.2-0.5, 0.5-0.7, and 0.7-4 microns. Observed ozone distribution is specified as a function of latitude and season. The 0.2-0.5 micron spectral albedo is 10-20% higher than the total albedo for all latitudes because of Rayleigh scattering; the 0.5-0.7 micron albedo differs from the total albedo by 1-2% for most latitudes, while the 0.7-4 micron albedo is 5-10% lower than the total because of strong atmospheric absorption. Planetary albedo decreases from morning to local noon, with diurnal variations being particularly strong over water.

  7. Recuerdo, evocación, promesa. Contextos sentimentales del ajuar de camino = Recollection, Evocation, Promise. Sentimental Contexts of Travel Objects in the Modern Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Abad-Zardoya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn la Edad Moderna el viaje se consideraba poco más que un cúmulo de males necesarios para la consecución de un fin. Los objetos de camino cumplían funciones que iban más allá de cubrir una necesidad básica o de proporcionar pequeños lujos. Estrechamente vinculados a la identidad individual, algunos objetos funcionaron como soportes emocionales, imprescindibles para sobrellevar la rutina o sobreponerse a los momentos difíciles. A través de una selección de artículos de camino del siglo XVIII, rastreados en inventarios, testamentos y colecciones, se propone  una reflexión acerca de las expectativas que se depositaron en ellos, condensadas en tres ideas conductoras: recuerdo, evocación y promesa. AbstractTravel was considered along the Modern Age not much more than a cumulation of necessary evils which served to the consecution of a purpose. Travel equipment fulfilled therefore functions which went well beyond the coverage of basic needs or little luxuries. Some of these objects, closely linked to individual identities, functioned  as emotional supports, indispensable to bear daily routine or to overcome difficult moments. Through a selection of 18th –century  travel objects located in various  inventories, testaments and museum collections, I propose here a  general reflection on the different expectations which were deposited  on these objects using the  three key-concepts  recollection, evocation and promise.

  8. Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma Arising from Abdominal Wall Endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thouraya Achach

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a frequent benign disorder. Malignancy arising in extraovarian endometriosis is a rare event. A 49-year-old woman is presented with a large painful abdominal wall mass. She underwent a myomectomy, 20 years before, for uterus leiomyoma. Computed tomography suggested that this was a desmoid tumor and she underwent surgery. Histological examination showed a clear cell adenocarcinoma associated with endometriosis foci. Pelvic ultrasound, computed tomography, and endometrial curettage did not show any malignancy or endometriosis in the uterus and ovaries. Adjuvant chemotherapy was recommended, but the patient was lost to follow up. Six months later, she returned with a recurrence of the abdominal wall mass. She was given chemotherapy and then she was reoperated.

  9. What can be said can be said clearly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.

    1999-01-01

    The biggest problem in nuclear technology is not the technology itself but the public acceptance. Most people cannot evaluate the radiation risk themselves, so they must trust experts. But, laymen do not understand the jargon of radiation experts, whose language is full of technical terms, unfamiliar units, abbreviations and acronyms etc. After 26 years of experience in radiation protection and public information the author believes that the public has no possibility to leap over the broad communication gap. So, it is the experts who must do it. The author has discussed his communication strategy in his book The Core and the Apple Peel and implemented it in his book Radiation in Everyday Language. He stresses that nothing has been taught if nothing has been learned and claims that everything than can be said can be said clearly. (au)

  10. Proposal for a project agreement with ISTC - Crystal Clear Collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns a project agreement with the ISTC entitled "Development of the Detector Production Technology for a New Generation of Positron Emission Tomographs to be used in Medecine and Pharmacology" to be executed in co-operation with the Crystal Clear Collaboration. For the reasons set out in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a project agreement with ISTC for a total amount of 775 000 US dollars. The European Union party in ISTC will co-fund the project up to a total of 525 000 US dollars. CERN's contribution will not exceed 250 000 US dollars. At the present rate of exchange this is equivalent to approximately 430 000 Swiss francs

  11. Temporal variation of clear-water scour at compound Abutments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminuddin Ab. Ghani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of actual abutments in rivers are built on foundation, while there is limited number of study available on the effects of the foundation on the local scour. In this study, temporal variation of local scour around compound abutment was investigated experimentally under clear-water conditions. The results showed that a suitable level of foundation is able to decrease the scour depth and increase scour time during the flood events. The trend of temporal scour depth at compound pier and abutment is similar. The scour depth develops to top of foundation quickly, and then the foundation postpones the scour development (lag–time. Duration of lag–time depends on the foundation level, velocity ratio (U/Uc and foundation dimension. This study highlights that proper design of foundation level increases duration of scouring and provides enough time to treat bridge foundation after the flood events.

  12. UK is leading the way with clear strategy for nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraev, Kamen [NucNet, The Independent Global Nuclear News Agency, Brussels (Belgium)

    2018-01-15

    The UK is Europe's most prominent leader in nuclear development because of the government's clear strategy of supporting nuclear energy as part of its future energy mix, a senior official from US-based nuclear equipment manufacturer Westinghouse Electric Company said. Mr Kirst told that the UK government's decision to support the financing of new energy projects, including nuclear, by way of a contract for difference scheme was a breakthrough. Additionally potential for nuclear development in other EU member states is possible in Poland and the Czech Republic where also new nuclear capacities are possible. Potential exists also in non-EU countries like Turkey and the Ukraine.

  13. Characterisation of optically cleared paper by optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabritius, T; Alarousu, E; Prykaeri, T; Hast, J; Myllylae, Risto

    2006-01-01

    Due to the highly light scattering nature of paper, the imaging depth of optical methods such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) is limited. In this work, we study the effect of refractive index matching on improving the imaging depth of OCT in paper. To this end, four different refractive index matching liquids (ethanol, 1-pentanol, glycerol and benzyl alcohol) with a refraction index between 1.359 and 1.538 were used in experiments. Low coherent light transmission was studied in commercial copy paper sheets, and the results indicate that benzyl alcohol offers the best improvement in imaging depth, while also being sufficiently stable for the intended purpose. Constructed cross-sectional images demonstrate visually that the imaging depth of OCT is considerably improved by optical clearing. Both surfaces of paper sheets can be detected along with information about the sheet's inner structure. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  14. Estimation of clear sky hourly global solar radiation in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jumaily, Kais J.; Al-Zuhairi, Munya F.; Mahdi, Zahraa S. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2012-07-01

    The availability of hourly solar radiation data is very important for applications utilizing solar energy and for climate and environmental aspects. The aim of this work is to use a simple model for estimating hourly global solar radiation under clear sky condition in Iraq. Calculations were compared with measurements obtained from local station in Baghdad city and from Meteosat satellite data for different locations in Iraq. The statistical test methods of the mean bias error (MBE), root mean square error (RMSE) and t-test were used to evaluate the performance of the model. Results indicated that a fairly good agreement exists between calculated and measured values for all locations in Iraq. Since the model is independent of any meteorological variable, it would be of a practical use for rural areas where no meteorological data are available.

  15. UK is leading the way with clear strategy for nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraev, Kamen

    2018-01-01

    The UK is Europe's most prominent leader in nuclear development because of the government's clear strategy of supporting nuclear energy as part of its future energy mix, a senior official from US-based nuclear equipment manufacturer Westinghouse Electric Company said. Mr Kirst told that the UK government's decision to support the financing of new energy projects, including nuclear, by way of a contract for difference scheme was a breakthrough. Additionally potential for nuclear development in other EU member states is possible in Poland and the Czech Republic where also new nuclear capacities are possible. Potential exists also in non-EU countries like Turkey and the Ukraine.

  16. Demonstration of electron clearing effect by means of a clearing electrode in high-intensity positron ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suetsugu, Y.; Fukuma, H.; Wang, L.; Pivi, M.; Morishige, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Tsukamoto, M.; Tsuchiya, M.

    2009-01-01

    In the beam pipe of high-intensity positron/proton storage rings, undesired electron clouds may be first produced by photoelectrons and the ionization of residual gases; then the clouds increase by the secondary electron emission. In this study, a strip-line clearing electrode has been developed to mitigate the electron-cloud effect in high-intensity positron/proton storage rings. The electrode is composed of a thin tungsten layer with a thickness of 0.1 mm formed on a thin alumina ceramic layer with a thickness of 0.2 mm. The narrow alumina gap between the electrode and the beam pipe decreases the beam impedance and also enhances the heat transfer from the electrode to the beam pipe. A test model has been installed in the KEK B-factory (KEKB) positron ring, along with an electron monitor with a retarding grid. The electron density in a field free region decreased by one order of magnitude was observed on the application of ±500 V to the electrode at a beam current of 1.6 A with 1585 bunches. The reduction in the electron density was more drastic in a vertical magnetic field of 0.77 T, that is, the electron density decreased by several orders by applying +500 V to the electrode at the same beam current. This experiment is the first experiment demonstrating the principle of the clearing electrode that is used to mitigate the electron-cloud effect in a positron ring.

  17. Endogenous Market-Clearing Prices and Reference Point Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragicevic, Arnaud Z.

    When prices depend on the submitted bids, i.e. with endogenous market-clearing prices in repeated-round auction mechanisms, the assumption of independent private values that underlines the property of incentive-compatibility is to be brought into question; even if these mechanisms provide active involvement and market learning. In its orthodox view, adaptive bidding behavior imperils incentive-compatibility. We relax the assumption of private values' independence in the repeated-round auctions, when the market-clearing prices are made public at the end of each round. Instead of using game-theory learning models, we introduce a behavioral model that shows that bidders bid according to the anchoring-and-adjustment heuristic, which neither ignores the rationality and incentive-compatibility constraints, nor rejects the posted prices issued from others' bids. Bidders simply weight information at their disposal and adjust their discovered value using reference points encoded in the sequential price weighting function. Our model says that bidders and offerers are sincere boundedly rational utility maximizers. It lies between evolutionary dynamics and adaptive heuristics and we model the concept of inertia as high weighting of the anchor, which stands for truthful bidding and high regard to freshly discovered preferences. Adjustment means adaptive rule based on adaptation of the reference point in the direction of the posted price. It helps a bidder to maximize her expected payoff, which is after all the only purpose that matters to rationality. The two components simply suggest that sincere bidders are boundedly rational. Furthermore, by deviating from their anchor in the direction of the public signal, bidders operate in a correlated equilibrium. The correlation between bids comes from the commonly observed history of play and each bidder's actions are determined by the history. Bidders are sincere if they have limited memory and confine their reference point adaptation

  18. Time for Stability in Derivatives Markets – a New Look at Central Counterparty Clearing for Securities Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsten V. Koeppl

    2011-01-01

    The recent financial crisis has driven many plans for improving the stability and resilience of the global financial system. One concept, managing the risk of default in securities or financial derivatives markets through central counterparties, receives scrutiny in this report. The author examines the role centralized clearing parties could play in improving system resilience. These centralized clearing parties are institutions that interpose themselves between counterparties in financial tr...

  19. 17 CFR 17.00 - Information to be furnished by futures commission merchants, clearing members and foreign brokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... merchants, clearing members and foreign brokers. (a) Special accounts—reportable futures and options... quantity of exchanges of futures for commodities or for derivatives positions and the number of delivery... be used to report three types of data: long and short futures and options positions, futures delivery...

  20. Clear cell chondrosarcoma of the pelvis in a skeletally immature patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Motoi; Machinami, Rikuo; Goto, Takahiro; Kawano, Hirotaka; Yamamoto, Aiichiro

    1999-01-01

    We report on a case of clear cell chondrosarcoma (CCCS) of the left iliac bone in a 12-year-old skeletally immature boy. Radiographic examination revealed an aggressive osteolytic lesion with areas of mineralization. Fluid-fluid levels were seen on T2-weighted MR images. Laboratory data showed slight elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase. The biopsy specimen showed histological features of CCCS with some resemblance to osteosarcoma, such as prominent irregular osteoid formation among clear tumor cells. Surgical treatment was accomplished without pre- or post-operative chemotherapy. Because of the patient's age, elevated serum alkaline phosphatase, and histopathology with prominent osteoid production, this case could be confused with osteosarcoma. Although CCCS is an extremely rare bone tumor in children, it is important to be aware that it may arise in a skeletally immature patient. CCCS, unlike osteosarcoma, is not treated with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. (orig.)

  1. Mothers' Own Recollections Of Being Parented And Risk Of Offspring Depression 18 Years Later: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahedy, Liam; Heron, Jon; Stapinski, Lexine A; Pearson, Rebecca M; Evans, Jonathan; Joinson, Carol; Bowes, Lucy; Lewis, Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the relationship between maternal bonding and risk of offspring depression has been demonstrated, it is unclear whether this risk exists for subsequent generations. This study examines the association between maternal reports of her own mother's parenting and later risk of depression in offspring at age 18. Method This study is based on data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Mothers enrolled in the study, completed the Parental Bonding Instrument to provide an assessment of how they were parented by their own mothers up to the age of 16. Offspring depression was assessed at age of 18 using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised. The sample comprised 10,405 respondents who had completed the Parental Bonding Instrument during the antenatal period. Results were adjusted for grandmother's history of depression, maternal depression, and a range of socioeconomic variables. Results A one standard deviation increase in mothers’ perceived lack of care in their own childhood was associated with a 16% increase in the odds of offspring depression at age 18 (odds ratios = 1.16, 95% confidence intervals = [1.04, 1.30]). This effect remained following adjustment for potential confounders (odds ratios = 1.14, 95% confidence intervals = [1.02, 1.27]). There was no evidence for an association between overprotection and offspring depression. Conclusions This study is consistent with the hypothesis that sensitive caregiving is important to future risk of depression across generations. Preventative interventions could be aimed at promoting positive parenting practices, which may help to reduce the risk of depression in subsequent generations. PMID:24105778

  2. Mothers' own recollections of being parented and risk of offspring depression 18 years later: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahedy, Liam; Heron, Jon; Stapinski, Lexine A; Pearson, Rebecca M; Evans, Jonathan; Joinson, Carol; Bowes, Lucy; Lewis, Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Although the relationship between maternal bonding and risk of offspring depression has been demonstrated, it is unclear whether this risk exists for subsequent generations. This study examines the association between maternal reports of her own mother's parenting and later risk of depression in offspring at age 18. This study is based on data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Mothers enrolled in the study, completed the Parental Bonding Instrument to provide an assessment of how they were parented by their own mothers up to the age of 16. Offspring depression was assessed at age of 18 using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised. The sample comprised 10,405 respondents who had completed the Parental Bonding Instrument during the antenatal period. Results were adjusted for grandmother's history of depression, maternal depression, and a range of socioeconomic variables. A one standard deviation increase in mothers' perceived lack of care in their own childhood was associated with a 16% increase in the odds of offspring depression at age 18 (odds ratios = 1.16, 95% confidence intervals = [1.04, 1.30]). This effect remained following adjustment for potential confounders (odds ratios = 1.14, 95% confidence intervals = [1.02, 1.27]). There was no evidence for an association between overprotection and offspring depression. This study is consistent with the hypothesis that sensitive caregiving is important to future risk of depression across generations. Preventative interventions could be aimed at promoting positive parenting practices, which may help to reduce the risk of depression in subsequent generations. © 2013 The Authors. Depression and Anxiety published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Quantifying changes in the rates of forest clearing in Indonesia from 1990 to 2005 using remotely sensed data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Matthew C; Potapov, Peter V; Pittman, Kyle; Stehman, Stephen V; Arunarwati, Belinda; Stolle, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Timely and accurate data on forest change within Indonesia is required to provide government, private and civil society interests with the information needed to improve forest management. The forest clearing rate in Indonesia is among the highest reported by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), behind only Brazil in terms of forest area lost. While the rate of forest loss reported by FAO was constant from 1990 through 2005 (1.87 Mha yr -1 ), the political, economic, social and environmental drivers of forest clearing changed at the close of the last century. We employed a consistent methodology and data source to quantify forest clearing from 1990 to 2000 and from 2000 to 2005. Results show a dramatic reduction in clearing from a 1990s average of 1.78 Mha yr -1 to an average of 0.71 Mha yr -1 from 2000 to 2005. However, annual forest cover loss indicator maps reveal a near-monotonic increase in clearing from a low in 2000 to a high in 2005. Results illustrate a dramatic downturn in forest clearing at the turn of the century followed by a steady resurgence thereafter to levels estimated to exceed 1 Mha yr -1 by 2005. The lowlands of Sumatra and Kalimantan were the site of more than 70% of total forest clearing within Indonesia for both epochs; over 40% of the lowland forests of these island groups were cleared from 1990 to 2005. The method employed enables the derivation of internally consistent, national-scale changes in the rates of forest clearing, results that can inform carbon accounting programs such as the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD) initiative.

  4. Clear Creek Environmental Hydrologic Observatory: From Vision Toward Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, C.; Muste, M.; Kruger, A.

    2006-12-01

    The CyberEnviroNet research group at The University of Iowa includes around 25 scientists and engineers from Geography, Geoscience, Computer Science, and various Engineering Departments. The group leads diverse research and education projects involving "cyberinfrastructure" applied to water-resource and environmental concerns. Members of this group actively participate in the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) and the Collaborative Large-Scale Engineering Analysis Network for Environmental Research (CLEANER), ongoing NSF-supported activities and initiatives. Most activities are led by IIHR-Hydroscience & Engineering (IIHR) and the Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research (CGRER). An outcome of the CyberEnviroNet group activities is the emerging Clear Creek Environmental Hydrologic Observatory at the headwaters of Iowa's Clear Creek. It is envisioned that this process-based observatory will support the scientific investigation of relevant components of water cycle processes. Cyberinfrastructure is a complex concept that is difficult to narrowly define. However, this project will create a working example of cyberinfrastructure in the hydrologic and environmental sciences. It is a system that integrates a broad range of technologies and ideas: wired and wireless sensors, low power wireless communication, embedded microcontrollers, commodity cellular networks, the internet, unattended quality assurance, metadata, relational databases, machine-to-machine communication, interfaces to hydrologic and environmental models, feedback, and external inputs. The creation of this multi-faceted system raises important questions: 1. Will such a system benefit the testing of scientific hypotheses in the areas of "envirohydrology" and hydrology? 2. If the answer is "yes", do we know how to assemble, operate, manage, and make it cost effective? 3. If the answers are "yes", then does it make sense for the hydrologic and

  5. Childhood to adolescence: dust and gas clearing in protoplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joanna Margaret

    Disks are ubiquitous around young stars. Over time, disks dissipate, revealing planets that formed hidden by their natal dust. Since direct detection of young planets at small orbital radii is currently impossible, other tracers of planet formation must be found. One sign of disk evolution, potentially linked to planet formation, is the opening of a gap or inner hole in the disk. In this thesis, I have identified and characterized several cold disks with large inner gaps but retaining massive primordial outer disks. While cold disks are not common, with ~5% of disks showing signs of inner gaps, they provide proof that at least some disks evolve from the inside-out. These large gaps are equivalent to dust clearing from inside the Earth's orbit to Neptune's orbit or even the inner Kuiper belt. Unlike more evolved systems like our own, the central star is often still accreting and a large outer disk remains. I identified four cold disks in Spitzer 5-40 μm spectra and modeled these disks using a 2-D radiative transfer code to determine the gap properties. Outer gap radii of 20-45 AU were derived. However, spectrophotometric identification is indirect and model-dependent. To validate this interpretation, I observed three disks with a submillimeter interferometer and obtained the first direct images of the central holes. The images agree well with the gap sizes derived from the spectrophotometry. One system, LkH&alpha 330, has a very steep outer gap edge which seems more consistent with gravitational perturbation rather than gradual processes, such as grain growth and settling. Roughly 70% of cold disks show CO v=1&rarr 0 gas emission from the inner 1 AU and therefore are unlikely to have evolved due to photoevaporation. The derived rotation temperatures are significantly lower for the cold disks than disks without gaps. Unresolved (sub)millimeter photometry shows that cold disks have steeper colors, indicating that they are optically thin at these wavelengths, unlike

  6. Clearing the way for reducing emissions from tropical deforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skutsch, M.; Bird, N.; Trines, E.; Dutschke, M.; Frumhoff, P.; Jong, B.H.J. de; Laake, P. van; Masera, O.; Murdiyarso, D.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation account for about 25% of all anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions but cannot be credited under current climate change agreements. In the discussions around the architecture of the post-2012 climate regime, the possibility of including credits for reduced emissions from deforestation arises. The paper reviews two approaches for this, compensated reductions (CR) as proposed by Santilli et al. and the Joint Research Centre proposal that combine voluntary commitments by non-Annex I countries to reduce emissions from deforestation with carbon market financing. Both approaches have the clear advantages of simplicity and the possibility of fitting to an evolving greenhouse gas emission reduction regime. The authors consider the strengths and limitations of each proposal and build upon them to address several implementation challenges and options for improvement. Given the urgency of avoiding dangerous climate change, the timely development of technically sound, politically acceptable, cost-effective and practicable measures to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation is essential. These two approaches take us a step closer to this goal, but they need to be refined rapidly to enable this goal to be realised

  7. DAФNE Operation with Electron-Cloud-Clearing Electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Alesini, D; Gallo, A; Guiducci, S; Milardi, C; Stella, A; Zobov, Mikhail; De Santis, S; Demma, Theo; Raimondi, P

    2013-01-01

    The effects of an electron cloud (e-cloud) on beam dynamics are one of the major factors limiting performances of high intensity positron, proton, and ion storage rings. In the electron-positron collider DAΦNE, namely, a horizontal beam instability due to the electron-cloud effect has been identified as one of the main limitations on the maximum stored positron beam current and as a source of beam quality deterioration. During the last machine shutdown in order to mitigate such instability, special electrodes have been inserted in all dipole and wiggler magnets of the positron ring. It has been the first installation all over the world of this type since long metallic electrodes have been installed in all arcs of the collider positron ring and are currently used during the machine operation in collision. This has allowed a number of unprecedented measurements (e-cloud instabilities growth rate, transverse beam size variation, tune shifts along the bunch train) where the e-cloud contribution is clearly eviden...

  8. Evaluating Multiple Object Tracking Performance: The CLEAR MOT Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardin Keni

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Simultaneous tracking of multiple persons in real-world environments is an active research field and several approaches have been proposed, based on a variety of features and algorithms. Recently, there has been a growing interest in organizing systematic evaluations to compare the various techniques. Unfortunately, the lack of common metrics for measuring the performance of multiple object trackers still makes it hard to compare their results. In this work, we introduce two intuitive and general metrics to allow for objective comparison of tracker characteristics, focusing on their precision in estimating object locations, their accuracy in recognizing object configurations and their ability to consistently label objects over time. These metrics have been extensively used in two large-scale international evaluations, the 2006 and 2007 CLEAR evaluations, to measure and compare the performance of multiple object trackers for a wide variety of tracking tasks. Selected performance results are presented and the advantages and drawbacks of the presented metrics are discussed based on the experience gained during the evaluations.

  9. Clearing the way for reducing emissions from tropical deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skutsch, M. [Department of Technology and Sustainable Development, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Bird, N. [Joanneum Research, Elizabethstrasse 5/1, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Trines, E. [Gramserweg 2, 3711 AW Austerlitz (Netherlands); Dutschke, M. [Biocarbon, Badstrasse 41, 77652 Offenburg (Germany); Frumhoff, P. [Union of Concerned Scientists, 2 Brattle Square, Cambridge, MA 02238-9105 (United States); De Jong, B.H.J. [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Unidad Villahermosa, Carr. Vhsa-Reforma Km. 15.5, C.P. 86280, Ra Guineo 2da Secc, Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico); Van Laak, P. [ITC, Department of Natural Resources, P.O. Box 6, 7500 AA Enschede (Netherlands); Masera, O. [Centro de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas, UNAMAP 27-3 Xangari 58089, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Murdiyarso, D. [Center for International Forestry Research, Jl. CIFOR, Situ Gede Sindangbarang, Bogor 16680 (Indonesia)

    2007-06-15

    Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation account for about 25% of all anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions but cannot be credited under current climate change agreements. In the discussions around the architecture of the post-2012 climate regime, the possibility of including credits for reduced emissions from deforestation arises. The paper reviews two approaches for this, compensated reductions (CR) as proposed by Santilli et al. and the Joint Research Centre proposal that combine voluntary commitments by non-Annex I countries to reduce emissions from deforestation with carbon market financing. Both approaches have the clear advantages of simplicity and the possibility of fitting to an evolving greenhouse gas emission reduction regime. The authors consider the strengths and limitations of each proposal and build upon them to address several implementation challenges and options for improvement. Given the urgency of avoiding dangerous climate change, the timely development of technically sound, politically acceptable, cost-effective and practicable measures to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation is essential. These two approaches take us a step closer to this goal, but they need to be refined rapidly to enable this goal to be realised.

  10. Consumer perception of astringency in clear acidic whey protein beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Jessica L; Drake, MaryAnne

    2010-01-01

    Acidic whey protein beverages are a growing component of the functional food and beverage market. These beverages are also astringent, but astringency is an expected and desirable attribute of many beverages (red wine, tea, coffee) and may not necessarily be a negative attribute of acidic whey protein beverages. The goal of this study was to define the consumer perception of astringency in clear acidic whey protein beverages. Six focus groups (n=49) were held to gain understanding of consumer knowledge of astringency. Consumers were presented with beverages and asked to map them based on astringent mouthfeel and liking. Orthonasal thresholds for whey protein isolate (WPI) in water and flavored model beverages were determined using a 7-series ascending forced choice method. Mouthfeel/basic taste thresholds were determined for WPI in water. Acceptance tests on model beverages were conducted using consumers (n=120) with and without wearing nose clips. Consumers in focus groups were able to identify astringency in beverages. Astringency intensity was not directly related to dislike. The orthonasal threshold for WPI in water was lower (P astringent mouthfeel and that both flavor and astringency should be the focus of ongoing studies to improve the palatability of these products. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Clear and compelling evidence: the Polish tribunal on abortion rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Françoise; Nowicka, Wanda

    2002-05-01

    On 25 July 2001 the Polish Federation for Women and Family Planning organised a Tribunal on Abortion Rights in Warsaw, to publicize the negative consequences of the criminalization of abortion in Poland. A panel of Polish and foreign experts heard the testimonials of seven Polish women's experiences under the 1993 "Anti-Abortion Act". Only two of the seven women were able to tell their stories in person. One died in 2001, at the age of 21, of an unsafe abortion. One is legally blind after having carried her last pregnancy to term. One is in prison for infanticide, which in all likelihood was committed by her boyfriend. National and foreign journalists were in attendance, as well as observers from all walks of life--writers, students, mothers, activists, feminists, husbands. The evidence was clear and compelling. Restrictive abortion laws make abortion unsafe by pushing it underground, endanger women's health, create a climate where even those services that are allowed by law-become unavailable, and contravene standards set by international human rights law. The restrictive abortion law in Poland has not increased the number of births; it has only caused women and their families suffering. The Tribunal brought the issue of abortion into the media prior to an election campaign and galvanised Polish and other Eastern European women's groups to become more active in defence of abortion rights.

  12. Activities of RAHP and problems to be cleared towards commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, S.; Tsuchie, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Research Association of HTGR Plant (RAHP) is the sole research association on HTGR Plants in industrial sector of Japan since its establishment in 1985. Activities in these years were to analyze world R and D trends, to set-up fundamental development strategies, and to incorporate the study results into actions towards commercialization of HTGR. RAHP is now mainly investigating fuel cycle aspects and development programs of small modular reactors, such as US-Russian GT-MHR and South African PBMR. Conclusions obtained through the activities so far are: (a) From view points of effective use of energies and reduction of environmental impacts in global scale, development of nuclear power is essential, and that of HTGR is desirable in particular, because of its very highly inherent safety and feasibility of high temperature heat utilizations. The role of HTGR is inter-complementary with those of LWR and FBR. (b) Future subjects and problems to be cleared towards commercializing HTGR are: (1) safety, technical and economical demonstrations, including inherent safety, fuel integrity as key of the safety, gas turbine cycle, high temperature system performances, etc.; (2) acceptance of safety design concept, and preparation for its evaluation and licensing. (c) Construction of demonstration plant(s) as a total system, through effective international cooperation, such as internationally common or sharing development on basic machinery systems between GT-MHR and PBMR Programs, becomes most significant. (author)

  13. High Turbidity Solis Clear Sky Model: Development and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Ineichen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Solis clear sky model is a spectral scheme based on radiative transfer calculations and the Lambert–Beer relation. Its broadband version is a simplified fast analytical version; it is limited to broadband aerosol optical depths lower than 0.45, which is a weakness when applied in countries with very high turbidity such as China or India. In order to extend the use of the original simplified version of the model for high turbidity values, we developed a new version of the broadband Solis model based on radiative transfer calculations, valid for turbidity values up to 7, for the three components, global, beam, and diffuse, and for the four aerosol types defined by Shettle and Fenn. A validation of low turbidity data acquired in Geneva shows slightly better results than the previous version. On data acquired at sites presenting higher turbidity data, the bias stays within ±4% for the beam and the global irradiances, and the standard deviation around 5% for clean and stable condition data and around 12% for questionable data and variable sky conditions.

  14. Periodontal health during clear aligners treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Gabriele; Parrini, Simone; Castroflorio, Tommaso; Deregibus, Andrea; Debernardi, Cesare L

    2015-10-01

    Clear aligner treatment (CAT) has been cited as a safe and comfortable orthodontic procedure for adult patients. However, the available evidence is scarce. To perform a systematic review of the existing literature in order to assess periodontal health during CAT. Pubmed, Pubmed Central, National Library of Medicine's Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical trials, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Google Scholar, and LILACS were searched from January 1945 to September 2014 to identify all peer-reviewed papers potentially relevant to the review. After duplicate selection and extraction procedures, the risk of bias was assessed according to the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination criteria, and a 3-point grading system, as described by the Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU), was used to rate the methodological quality of the selected papers. A PICOS table was used for data extraction. Five relevant articles were selected from the 1247 identified articles. The level of evidence was moderate for all the studies. A significant improvement of the periodontal health indexes was revealed, in particular when CAT was compared to fixed appliances. No periodontal CAT adverse effects were observed in the selected studies. Periodontal health indexes were significantly improved during CAT. The results of this review should be interpreted with some caution because of the number, quality, and heterogeneity of the included studies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma of the mandible: a treatment strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina FERREIRA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma (CCOC is a rare odontogenic tumor of the jaws, histologically characterized by the presence of agglomerates of cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm. The patient, a 62-year-old Caucasian woman, presented an intraosseous lesion in the mandibular symphysis. A clinical examination revealed a discrete volumetric increase with a hard consistency, palpable to extraoral and intraoral examinations. Imaging studies revealed an extensive radiolucent area, without defined limits, extending from the region of the right second premolar to the left canine. Incisional biopsy analysis indicated a diagnosis of CCOC. The treatment proposed was segmental resection of the mandible with a safety margin. After six months without recurrence, definitive mandibular reconstruction was performed using an iliac crest graft, followed by rehabilitation with implant-supported denture after five months. After three years of post-resection follow-up, the patient has shown no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. She continues to be under follow-up. To conclude, CCOC must be considered a malignant tumor with aggressive behavior. Previous studies have shown that resection with free margins is a treatment with a lower rate of recurrence. Nevertheless, long-term follow-up is necessary for such patients.

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of clear cell hidradenocarcinoma of the scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Kai; Xiao, Qungen; Büchele, Fabian; Zhang, Suojun; Jiang, Wei; Lei, Ting

    2012-12-01

    Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma (CCH) is an exceedingly rare and highly malignant tumor of the eccrine sweat glands. Its treatment is extremely difficult due to the characteristically aggressive clinical course including repeated local recurrence and uncontrollable distal metastasis coming along with a very poor prognosis. Most published case studies recommend a wide surgical excision followed by adjuvant conservative therapy, which is generally considered to be the standard treatment. Two cases of nodular CCH of the scalp either presenting as a singular primary lesion or at an already metastatic stage were analyzed retrospectively. Wide local excision of the tumor couldn't prevent the primary carcinoma from recurring and metastasizing. Both cases received various therapies but the results were unsatisfactory. Although most authors have recommended that early wide surgical excision of the tumor is a feasible therapeutic measurement, our results raise doubts on the efficacy of this treatment strategy. As alternative approaches (i.e. chemotherapy, radiotherapy) are similarly controversial, further studies and a wide exchange of clinical experiences are crucial.

  17. A history of the people of Bikini following nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands: with recollections and views of elders of Bikini Atoll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedenthal, J

    1997-07-01

    population. For the community and their leaders, grappling with these technical decisions has created a life of strife, debate and conflict-and an uncertain future. Now, a radiological cleanup of Bikini is expected to begin sometime within 1997. The objective of this paper, with the support of the views and the recollections of elder Bikinians, is to recount the history and discuss issues facing the first displaced people of the nuclear age.

  18. Clear as MUD: Generating, Validating and Applying IoT Behaviorial Profiles (Technical Report)

    OpenAIRE

    Hamza, Ayyoob; Ranathunga, Dinesha; Gharakheili, H. Habibi; Roughan, Matthew; Sivaraman, Vijay

    2018-01-01

    IoT devices are increasingly being implicated in cyber-attacks, driving community concern about the risks they pose to critical infrastructure, corporations, and citizens. In order to reduce this risk, the IETF is pushing IoT vendors to develop formal specifications of the intended purpose of their IoT devices, in the form of a Manufacturer Usage Description (MUD), so that their network behavior in any operating environment can be locked down and verified rigorously. This paper aims to assist...

  19. Targeting U. S. Technologies: A Trend Analysis of Cleared Industry Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    conducted a scientic analysis that traced a particular disease outbreak to one specic London well, and demonstrated that cholera befell only those...Islands Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Curacao Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico

  20. A clear focus and a strong portfolio of growth opportunities: annual report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The year 1999 was an important one in the life of BC Gas, in that in 1999 BC Gas received approval to proceed with projects which, when completed will increase the Company's assets by one-third. Accordingly, during the year BC Gas finalized approval and commenced construction of the Southern Crossing Pipeline, a 316 km transmission pipeline that will provide access to alternative sources of natural gas for BC customers, and finalized approval to construct and operate the Corridor Pipeline system. When this project is completed, a 439 km pipeline will transport bitumen from Fort McMurray to Edmonton. The company also acquired two water supply and service companies, thereby broadening the Company's capabilities and scope of its multi-businesses and monetized its interest in the 66 MW power plant at Williams Lake, BC. Plans for 2000 center around expanding the base businesses, build a suite of multi-utility businesses and strengthening retail opportunities for customers. In 1999, the Company had gross revenues of $ 1.046 billion ($ 925 million in 1998); net earnings of $81.2 million ($ 71.2 million in 1998) or $, 2.12 per share ($. 1.85 in 1998), for a return on equity of 12.2 per cent (12.1 per cent in 1998). Complete financial statement and supporting documentation is included along with details of the various operations

  1. Freedom of Speech: A Clear and Present Need to Teach. ERIC Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boileau, Don M.

    1983-01-01

    Presents annotations of 21 documents in the ERIC system on the following subjects: (1) theory of freedom of speech; (2) theorists; (3) research on freedom of speech; (4) broadcasting and freedom of speech; and (5) international questions of freedom of speech. (PD)

  2. Project report about the motives of the future law project 'security and nuclear clearness'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    This project aims to prevent the hazards in relation with nuclear activities for man and his environment, as well to reinforce information on risks associated to these activities and on measures taken to avoid them. (N.C.)

  3. DISCRIMINATING BETWEEN CLOUDY, HAZY, AND CLEAR SKY EXOPLANETS USING REFRACTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Amit K.; Meadows, Victoria S.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method to distinguish between cloudy, hazy, and clear sky (free of clouds and hazes) exoplanet atmospheres that could be applicable to upcoming large aperture space- and ground-based telescopes such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). These facilities will be powerful tools for characterizing transiting exoplanets, but only after a considerable amount of telescope time is devoted to a single planet. A technique that could provide a relatively rapid means of identifying haze-free targets (which may be more valuable targets for characterization) could potentially increase the science return for these telescopes. Our proposed method utilizes broadband observations of refracted light in the out-of-transit spectrum. Light refracted through an exoplanet atmosphere can lead to an increase of flux prior to ingress and subsequent to egress. Because this light is transmitted at pressures greater than those for typical cloud and haze layers, the detection of refracted light could indicate a cloud- or haze-free atmosphere. A detection of refracted light could be accomplished in <10 hr for Jovian exoplanets with JWST and <5 hr for super-Earths/mini-Neptunes with E-ELT. We find that this technique is most effective for planets with equilibrium temperatures between 200 and 500 K, which may include potentially habitable planets. A detection of refracted light for a potentially habitable planet would strongly suggest the planet was free of a global cloud or haze layer, and therefore a promising candidate for follow-up observations

  4. Night sky luminance under clear sky conditions: Theory vs. experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Sky glow is caused by both natural phenomena and factors of anthropogenic origin, and of the latter ground-based light sources are the most important contributors for they emit the spatially linked spectral radiant intensity distribution of artificial light sources, which are further modulated by local atmospheric optics and perceived as the diffuse light of a night sky. In other words, sky glow is closely related to a city's shape and pattern of luminaire distribution, in practical effect an almost arbitrary deployment of random orientation of heterogeneous electrical light sources. Thus the luminance gradation function measured in a suburban zone or near the edges of a city is linked to the City Pattern or vice versa. It is shown that clear sky luminance/radiance data recorded in an urban area can be used to retrieve the bulk luminous/radiant intensity distribution if some a-priori information on atmospheric aerosols is available. For instance, the single scattering albedo of aerosol particles is required under low turbidity conditions, as demonstrated on a targeted experiment in the city of Frýdek-Mistek. One of the main advantages of the retrieval method presented in this paper is that the single scattering approximation is satisfactorily accurate in characterizing the light field near the ground because the dominant contribution to the sky glow has originated from beams propagated along short optical paths. - Highlights: • Urban sky glow is interpreted in terms of city emission function. • Luminance function in a suburban zone is linked to the City Pattern. • Single scattering approximation is applicable in modeling urban sky glow. • Information on aerosols represents valuable inputs to the retrieval procedure. • Sky glow patterns vary with light source distribution and spectral emission

  5. DISCRIMINATING BETWEEN CLOUDY, HAZY, AND CLEAR SKY EXOPLANETS USING REFRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Amit K.; Meadows, Victoria S. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    We propose a method to distinguish between cloudy, hazy, and clear sky (free of clouds and hazes) exoplanet atmospheres that could be applicable to upcoming large aperture space- and ground-based telescopes such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). These facilities will be powerful tools for characterizing transiting exoplanets, but only after a considerable amount of telescope time is devoted to a single planet. A technique that could provide a relatively rapid means of identifying haze-free targets (which may be more valuable targets for characterization) could potentially increase the science return for these telescopes. Our proposed method utilizes broadband observations of refracted light in the out-of-transit spectrum. Light refracted through an exoplanet atmosphere can lead to an increase of flux prior to ingress and subsequent to egress. Because this light is transmitted at pressures greater than those for typical cloud and haze layers, the detection of refracted light could indicate a cloud- or haze-free atmosphere. A detection of refracted light could be accomplished in <10 hr for Jovian exoplanets with JWST and <5 hr for super-Earths/mini-Neptunes with E-ELT. We find that this technique is most effective for planets with equilibrium temperatures between 200 and 500 K, which may include potentially habitable planets. A detection of refracted light for a potentially habitable planet would strongly suggest the planet was free of a global cloud or haze layer, and therefore a promising candidate for follow-up observations.

  6. Effect of mechanical optical clearing on near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelson, Christopher R; Vogt, William C; King-Casas, Brooks; LaConte, Stephen M; Rylander, Christopher G

    2015-08-01

    Near-infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is a broadly utilized technology with many emerging applications including clinical diagnostics, sports medicine, and functional neuroimaging, to name a few. For functional brain imaging NIR light is delivered at multiple wavelengths through the scalp and skull to the brain to enable spatial oximetry measurements. Dynamic changes in brain oxygenation are highly correlated with neural stimulation, activation, and function. Unfortunately, NIRS is currently limited by its low spatial resolution, shallow penetration depth, and, perhaps most importantly, signal corruption due to light interactions with superficial non-target tissues such as scalp and skull. In response to these issues, we have combined the non-invasive and rapidly reversible method of mechanical tissue optical clearing (MOC) with a commercially available NIRS system. MOC utilizes a compressive loading force on tissue, causing the lateral displacement of blood and water, while simultaneously thinning the tissue. A MOC-NIRS Breath Hold Test displayed a ∼3.5-fold decrease in the time-averaged standard deviation between channels, consequentially promoting greater channel agreement. A Skin Pinch Test was implemented to negate brain and muscle activity from affecting the recorded signal. These results displayed a 2.5-3.0 fold increase in raw signal amplitude. Existing NIRS instrumentation has been further integrated within a custom helmet device to provide a uniform force distribution across the NIRS sensor array. These results showed a gradual decrease in time-averaged standard deviation among channels with an increase in applied pressure. Through these experiments, and the development of the MOC-NIRS helmet device, MOC appears to provide enhancement of NIRS technology beyond its current limitations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Characteristics of Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    Full Text Available To probe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI features of ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC.This study retrospectively collected MRI data for 21 pathology-confirmed OCCCs from 19 female patients. The MRI findings were analyzed to determine the tumor size, shape/edge, shape and number of protrusions within the cyst, cystic or necrotic components, signal intensity (SI and enhancement features.The age of the 19 patients ranged from 28 to 63 years (mean age: 53 years. Unilateral tumors were found in 17 patients (17/19, 89%; the average size of all tumors was 10.8 cm. The tumors on MRI were classified into two categories: (a "cystic adnexal mass with solid protrusions" in 12 (57% and (b "solid adnexal mass with cystic areas or necrosis" in 9 (43%. For group a, high to very high SI was observed for most tumors (10/12, 83% on T1-weighted images (T1WIs, and very high SI was observed on T2-weighted images (T2WIs for all 12 tumors. Most solid protrusions were irregular and few in number and exhibited heterogeneous intermediate SI on T1WIs and T2WIs and prolonged enhanced SI in the contrast study. All 9 OCCCs in group b were predominantly solid masses with unequally sized necrotic or cystic areas in which some cysts were located at the periphery of the tumor (4/9, 44%. The solid components in all 9 tumors showed iso- or slightly high SI on T1WIs, heterogeneous iso-high SI on T2WIs and heterogeneous prolonged enhancement. According to FIGO classification, 14 tumors (14/19, 74% were stages I-II, and 5 (5/19, 26% were stages III-IV.On MRI, OCCCs present as large unilateral multilocular or unilocular cystic masses with irregular intermediate SI solid protrusions or predominantly solid masses with cysts or necrosis at an early FIGO stage.

  8. Variables affecting orthodontic tooth movement with clear aligners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisari, Justin R; McGorray, Susan P; Nair, Madhu; Wheeler, Timothy T

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we examined the impacts of age, sex, root length, bone levels, and bone quality on orthodontic tooth movement. Clear aligners were programmed to move 1 central incisor 1 mm over the course of 8 weeks. Thirty subjects, ages 19 to 64, were enrolled, and measurements were made on digital models (percentage of tooth movement goal achieved). Morphometric features and bone quality were assessed with cone-beam computed tomography. Data from this study were combined with data from 2 similar studies to increase the power for some analyses. The mean percentage of tooth movement goal achieved was 57% overall. Linear regression modeling indicated a cubic relationship between age and tooth movement, with a decreasing rate of movement from ages 18 to 35 years, a slightly increasing rate from ages 35 to 50, and a decreasing rate from ages 50 to 70. The final decreasing trend was not apparent for women. As would be expected, the correlation was significant between the percentage of the goal achieved and the cone-beam computed tomography superimposed linear measures of tooth movement. A significant negative correlation was found between tooth movement and the measurement apex to the center of rotation, but bone quality, as measured by fractal dimension, was not correlated with movement. The relationship between age and tooth movement is complex and might differ for male and female patients. Limited correlations with cone-beam computed tomography morphology and rate of tooth movement were detected. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Magnetogram Forecast: An All-Clear Space Weather Forecasting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, Nasser; Falconer, David

    2015-01-01

    Solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the drivers of severe space weather. Forecasting the probability of their occurrence is critical in improving space weather forecasts. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) currently uses the McIntosh active region category system, in which each active region on the disk is assigned to one of 60 categories, and uses the historical flare rates of that category to make an initial forecast that can then be adjusted by the NOAA forecaster. Flares and CMEs are caused by the sudden release of energy from the coronal magnetic field by magnetic reconnection. It is believed that the rate of flare and CME occurrence in an active region is correlated with the free energy of an active region. While the free energy cannot be measured directly with present observations, proxies of the free energy can instead be used to characterize the relative free energy of an active region. The Magnetogram Forecast (MAG4) (output is available at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center) was conceived and designed to be a databased, all-clear forecasting system to support the operational goals of NASA's Space Radiation Analysis Group. The MAG4 system automatically downloads nearreal- time line-of-sight Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) magnetograms on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite, identifies active regions on the solar disk, measures a free-energy proxy, and then applies forecasting curves to convert the free-energy proxy into predicted event rates for X-class flares, M- and X-class flares, CMEs, fast CMEs, and solar energetic particle events (SPEs). The forecast curves themselves are derived from a sample of 40,000 magnetograms from 1,300 active region samples, observed by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Michelson Doppler Imager. Figure 1 is an example of MAG4 visual output

  10. NOAA AVHRR Clear-Sky Products over Oceans (ACSPO): Sea Surface Temperature, Clear Sky Radiances, and Aerosol Optical Depth for the Global Ocean, 2011 - present (NCEI Accession 0072979)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AVHRR Clear-Sky Processor over Oceans, jointly developed between NESDIS STAR and OSDPD, produces AVHRR clear-sky products over oceans. ACSPO generates output...

  11. Clinical Relevance of Gene Copy Number Variation in Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouhaud, François-Xavier; Blanchard, France; Sesboue, Richard; Flaman, Jean-Michel; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Pfister, Christian; Di Fiore, Frédéric

    2018-02-23

    Gene copy number variations (CNVs) have been reported to be frequent in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), with potential prognostic value for some. However, their clinical utility, especially to guide treatment of metastatic disease remains to be established. Our objectives were to assess CNVs on a panel of selected genes and determine their clinical relevance in patients who underwent treatment of metastatic RCC. The genetic assessment was performed on frozen tissue samples of clear cell metastatic RCC using quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction of short fluorescent fragment method to detect CNVs on a panel of 14 genes of interest. The comparison of the electropherogram obtained from both tumor and normal renal adjacent tissue allowed for CNV identification. The clinical, biologic, and survival characteristics were assessed for their associations with the most frequent CNVs. Fifty patients with clear cell metastatic RCC were included. The CNV rate was 21.4%. The loss of CDKN2A and PLG was associated with a higher tumor stage (P relevance, especially those located on CDKN2A, PLG, and ALDOB, in a homogeneous cohort of patients with clear cell metastatic RCC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chronic lymphocytic lymphoma and concomitant renal cell carcinoma (Clear Cell Type: Review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Uz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present report, a 73 years-old male patient who developed clear cell type renal cell carcinoma (RCC 5 years after the diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL and plausible explanations for this association were discussed by the authors. The incidence of CLL and RCC occurring in the same patient is higher than that expected in the general population. Various explicative hypotheses of this concurrence include treatment-related development of a second malignancy, immunomodulatory mechanisms, viral aetiology, cytokine (interleukin 6 release from a tumor, and common genetic mutations. Further investigations are warranted.

  13. Spectral model for clear sky atmospheric longwave radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengying; Liao, Zhouyi; Coimbra, Carlos F. M.

    2018-04-01

    An efficient spectrally resolved radiative model is used to calculate surface downwelling longwave (DLW) radiation (0 ∼ 2500 cm-1) under clear sky (cloud free) conditions at the ground level. The wavenumber spectral resolution of the model is 0.01 cm-1 and the atmosphere is represented by 18 non-uniform plane-parallel layers with pressure in each layer determined on a pressure-based coordinate system. The model utilizes the most up-to-date (2016) HITRAN molecular spectral data for 7 atmospheric gases: H2O, CO2, O3, CH4, N2O, O2 and N2. The MT_CKD model is used to calculate water vapor and CO2 continuum absorption coefficients. Longwave absorption and scattering coefficients for aerosols are modeled using Mie theory. For the non-scattering atmosphere (aerosol free), the surface DLW agrees within 2.91% with mean values from the InterComparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (ICRCCM) program, with spectral deviations below 0.035 W cm m-2. For a scattering atmosphere with typical aerosol loading, the DLW calculated by the proposed model agrees within 3.08% relative error when compared to measured values at 7 climatologically diverse SURFRAD stations. This relative error is smaller than a calibrated parametric model regressed from data for those same 7 stations, and within the uncertainty (+/- 5 W m-2) of pyrgeometers commonly used for meteorological and climatological applications. The DLW increases by 1.86 ∼ 6.57 W m-2 when compared with aerosol-free conditions, and this increment decreases with increased water vapor content due to overlap with water vapor bands. As expected, the water vapor content at the layers closest to the surface contributes the most to the surface DLW, especially in the spectral region 0 ∼ 700 cm-1. Additional water vapor content (mostly from the lowest 1 km of the atmosphere) contributes to the spectral range of 400 ∼ 650 cm-1. Low altitude aerosols ( ∼ 3.46 km or less) contribute to the surface value of DLW mostly in the

  14. My recollections as a physicist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Yung-su

    1997-03-01

    This presentation is a talk presented by the author at a Physics Symposium of the 50th anniversary of the Taiwan University, in December 1996. The author describes how he became a physicist, and then presents a brief outline of his professional career, most of which has centered at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. He was involved in the discovery of the {tau} lepton, and in studies of CP violation through decay of the {tau}, in addition to studies of semileptonic decay of t, B, D, K, and {pi}.

  15. Julian Schwinger — Personal Recollections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul C.

    We're gathered here today to salute Julian Schwinger, a towering figure of the golden age of physics — and a kind and gentle human being. Even at our best universities, people with Julian's talent and his passion for discovery and perfection are rare — so rare that neither they nor the rest of us know how to take best advantage of their genius. The failure to find a happier solution to this dilemma in recent years has concerned many of us. It should not becloud the fact that over their lifetimes, few physicists, if any, have surmounted this impedance mismatch more effectively than Julian, conveying not only knowledge but lofty values and aspirations directly and indirectly to thousands of physicists…

  16. Olympic dam expansion - a clear future for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.

    2008-01-01

    After BHP Billiton's acquisition of Olympic Dam in northern South Australia in 2005, an important early decision was to undertake a major drilling campaign to better define the resource. Between 2005 and 2007, the drilling almost doubled the resource. BHP Billiton's 2007 annual report indicated the Olympic Dam mineral resource estimate is 7.855 B dry metric tonnes at metal grades of 0.86% Copper, 0.29 kg per tonne Uranium Oxide, 0.3 g/t Gold and 1.6 g/t Silver.

  17. Stony Brook's Graduate Courses in Clear, Vivid, Conversational Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, E.

    2011-12-01

    Graduate students in the sciences at Stony Brook University are taking for-credit courses to learn to communicate more effectively about science with people outside their disciplines, including public officials, the press, students, potential funders and employers, colleagues in other fields, and the general public. Five Communicating Science courses are offered; two more will be added in January, 2012. The courses are offered by the School of Journalism and developed by the Center for Communicating Science (CCS). This interdisciplinary center was founded in 2009, with the participation of Alan Alda, the actor, writer, director and longtime advocate for science, who is a Visiting Professor at Stony Brook. At the core of the program are three 1-credit (14-hour) modules that rely on experiential learning, repeated practice and immediate, interactive feedback. In Distilling Your Message, students practice speaking clearly, vividly and conversationally about their work at different levels of complexity and formality to different audiences, using storytelling techniques where appropriate. In Writing for the Public, they extend these skills into writing. In Improvisation for Scientists, the most unconventional of the courses, students play improvisational theater games to help themselves connect more directly, personally and responsively with their audiences. In their first two semesters, the courses are expected to serve about 90 students, taking a total of about 180 credits. Most of the courses have filled quickly, mixing master's and doctoral students from more than a dozen fields, including marine and atmospheric sciences. Three to six credits of Communicating Science courses are required for students in two programs, an MA in Marine Conservation and Policy and an Advanced Certificate in Health Communications. The content and methods of the courses are based largely on lessons learned from evaluations of all-day workshops that CCS has conducted for more than 250

  18. Writing Research Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessler, Daniel I; Shafer, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Clear writing makes manuscripts easier to understand. Clear writing enhances research reports, increasing clinical adoption and scientific impact. We discuss styles and organization to help junior investigators present their findings and avoid common errors.

  19. A survey of clearing techniques for 3D imaging of tissues with special reference to connective tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaripour, Adriano; Lagerweij, Tonny; Scharfbillig, Christina; Jadczak, Anna Elisabeth; Willershausen, Brita; Van Noorden, Cornelis J F

    2016-08-01

    For 3-dimensional (3D) imaging of a tissue, 3 methodological steps are essential and their successful application depends on specific characteristics of the type of tissue. The steps are 1° clearing of the opaque tissue to render it transparent for microscopy, 2° fluorescence labeling of the tissues and 3° 3D imaging. In the past decades, new methodologies were introduced for the clearing steps with their specific advantages and disadvantages. Most clearing techniques have been applied to the central nervous system and other organs that contain relatively low amounts of connective tissue including extracellular matrix. However, tissues that contain large amounts of extracellular matrix such as dermis in skin or gingiva are difficult to clear. The present survey lists methodologies that are available for clearing of tissues for 3D imaging. We report here that the BABB method using a mixture of benzyl alcohol and benzyl benzoate and iDISCO using dibenzylether (DBE) are the most successful methods for clearing connective tissue-rich gingiva and dermis of skin for 3D histochemistry and imaging of fluorescence using light-sheet microscopy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  20. 17 CFR 240.17a-6 - Right of national securities exchange, national securities association, registered clearing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right of national securities exchange, national securities association, registered clearing agency or the Municipal Securities... and Reports of Certain Stabilizing Activities § 240.17a-6 Right of national securities exchange...

  1. 76 FR 20063 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving a Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... that has a clearing relationship with an OCC clearing member participating in the Market Loan Program... and guarantees the return of the loaned stock to the lending clearing member and the return of the... the clearing member's options account at OCC and, to the extent that they offset the risk of options...

  2. Measuring the effects of topically applied skin optical clearing agents and modeling the effects and consequences for laser therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkruysse, Wim; Khan, Misbah; Choi, Bernard; Svaasand, Lars O.; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2005-04-01

    Human skin prepared with an optical clearing agent manifests reduced scattering as a result of de-hydration and refractive index matching. This has potentially large effects for laser therapies of several skin lesions such as port wine stain, hair removal and tattoo removal. With most topically applied clearing agents the clearing effect is limited because they penetrate poorly through the intact superficial skin layer (stratum corneum). Agent application modi other than topical are impractical and have limited the success of optical clearing in laser dermatology. In recent reports, however, a mixture of lipofylic and hydrofylic agents was shown to successfully penetrate through the intact stratum corneum layer which has raised new interest in this field. Immediately after application, the optical clearing effect is superficial and, as the agent diffuses through the skin, reduced scattering is manifested in deeper skin layers. For practical purposes as well as to maximize therapeutic success, it is important to quantify the reduced scattering as well as the trans-cutaneous transport dynamics of the agent. We determined the time and tissue depth resolved effects of optically cleared skin by inserting a microscopic reflector array in the skin. Depth dependent light intensity was measured by quantifying the signal of the reflector array with optical coherence tomography. A 1-dimensional mass diffusion model was used to estimate a trans-cutaneous transport diffusion constant for the clearing agent mixture. The results are used in Monte Carlo modeling to determine the optimal time of laser treatment after topical application of the optical clearing agent.

  3. Simulated Pitot tube designed to detect blockage by ice, volcanic dust, sand, insects and to clear it: phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David A.

    2014-05-01

    A simulated coaxial Pitot tube has been developed using fibre optic sensors combined with actuators to monitor and maintain its correct operation under different environmental conditions. Experiments are reported showing that the dynamic and static tubes can be cleared of ice. It is also demonstrated that the dynamic tube can be cleared of dust and sand which is not the case for the static tube in the coaxial configuration. An approach is proposed to overcome this problem involving a conventional configuration where the static tube is operated independently orthogonal to the dynamic tube with a second set of sensors and actuators.

  4. Final Radiological Assessment of External Exposure for CLEAR-Line Americium Recovery Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Adam C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Belooussova, Olga N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hetrick, Lucas Duane [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-11-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently planning to implement an americium recovery program. The americium, ordinarily isotopically pure 241Am, would be extracted from existing Pu materials, converted to an oxide and shipped to support fabrication of americium oxide-beryllium neutron sources. These operations would occur in the currently proposed Chloride Extraction and Actinide Recovery (CLEAR) line of glove boxes. This glove box line would be collocated with the currently-operational Experimental Chloride Extraction Line (EXCEL). The focus of this document is to provide an in-depth assessment of the currently planned radiation protection measures and to determine whether or not further design work is required to satisfy design-goal and ALARA requirements. Further, this document presents a history of americium recovery operations in the Department of Energy and high-level descriptions of the CLEAR line operations to provide a basis of comparison. Under the working assumptions adopted by this study, it was found that the evaluated design appears to mitigate doses to a level that satisfies the ALARA-in-design requirements of 10 CFR 835 as implemented by the Los Alamos National Laboratory procedure P121. The analyses indicate that extremity doses would also meet design requirements. Dose-rate calculations were performed using the radiation transport code MCNP5 and doses were estimated using a time-motion study developed in consort with the subject matter expert. A copy of this report and all supporting documentation are located on the Radiological Engineering server at Y:\\Rad Engineering\\2013 PROJECTS\\TA-55 Clear Line.

  5. Some recollections on acousto-optics research at the University of Gdańsk in the light of international cooperation and of the history of Spring Schools on Acousto-Optics and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiek, Piotr; Sliwiński, Antoni

    2009-03-01

    Some historical features of international cooperation that have been a background for originating the idea to organize since 1980 special international meetings named Spring Schools on Acousto-Optics and Applications and for continuing the events until now are presented. Thanks to the establishment of the Spring Schools, the group of acousto-opticians at the Gdańsk University have had the opportunity to exchange scientific experience and continue mutual cooperation in research with several acousto-optic centers and to publish a number of common papers. A few examples from these achievements and some historical facts illustrating research activity in the field of acousto-optics during past 30 years are recollected.

  6. Piloted "Well Clear" Performance Evaluation of Detect-and-Avoid Systems with Suggestive Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Eric R.; Santiago, Confesor; Watza, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of four prototype unmanned aircraft detect-and-avoid (DAA) display configurations, each with different informational elements driven by alerting and guidance algorithms. Sixteen unmanned aircraft pilots flew each combination of the display configurations, with half being given zero DAA surveillance sensor uncertainty and the other half experiencing errors that were comparable, and in some cases slightly better than, errors that were measured in DAA system flight tests. The displays that showed intruder alert information in altitude and heading bands had significantly fewer losses of well clear compared with alternative displays that lacked that information. This difference was significant from a statistical and practical perspective: those losses that did occur lasted for shorter periods and did not penetrate as far into the geometric "separation cylinder" as those in the non-banded displays. A modest level of DAA surveillance sensor uncertainty did not affect the proportion of losses of well clear or their severity. It is recommended that DAA traffic displays implement a band-type display in order to improve the safety of UAS operations in the National Airspace System. Finally, this report provides pilot response time distributions for responding to DAA alerts.

  7. Clear air boundary layer spaced antenna wind measurement with the Multiple Antenna Profiler (MAPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Cohn

    Full Text Available Spaced antenna (SA wind measurement techniques are applied to Multiple Antenna Profiler (MAPR data to evaluate its performance in clear air conditions. MAPR is a multiple antenna 915 MHz wind profiler developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR and described in Cohn et al. (1997, designed to make high resolution wind measurements. Previous reported measurements with MAPR were restricted to precipitation because of low signal to noise (SNR and signal to ground-clutter (SCR ratios. By using a standard pulse-coding technique and upgrading the profiler control software, increases in average power and SNR were achieved, making routine measurements in clear air possible. Comparison of winds measured by MAPR and by a sonic anemometer on a nearby 300 m tower show correlation coefficients in the range of R2 = 0.75 – 0.80, and an average absolute error of ~ 1.4 m s - 1 . This compares favorably with the agreement typically found in wind profiler comparisons. We also consider the use of the parameter ah , which is related to the value of the cross-correlation function at its zero crossing. This parameter is a data quality indicator and possibly a key component in a ground clutter removal technique.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meteorology; instruments and techniques – Radio science (remote sensing

  8. Study to paraphrase nuclear technical terms with clear and brief explanations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shobu, Nobuhiro; Takashita, Hirofumi; Horikoshi, Hidehiko; Osawa, Yukiko

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the review work to paraphrase nuclear technical terms with clear and brief explanations. Explanation with nuclear technical terms was not very acceptable to the public in a variety of contexts. The objective of this study is not to paraphrase with the expert's ideas but to paraphrase from the public point of view. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (hereafter abbreviated as 'JAEA') has conducted a survey on public attitudes toward fifty-nine nuclear technical terms by using an online questionnaire. Most of them were frequently used in the brochures of Nuclear fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories of JAEA. The survey clarified the public awareness and comprehension of each term. Thirty-two terms, which was subject to paraphrase on a priority basis, were selected from fifty-nine nuclear technical terms based on our importance rating. At the work to paraphrase thirty-two terms, emphasis was placed more on clearness and briefness than on scientific/technical accuracy. They are reviewed through focus group interviews. This study brought results on recognizable style and thirty-two well-polished paraphrases. (author)

  9. Pediatric evaluation of the ClearVoice™ speech enhancement algorithm in everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Noël-Petroff

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ClearVoice™ enables Advanced Bionics cochlear implant users to improve their speech understanding in difficult listening environments, without compromising performance in quiet situations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the benefits of ClearVoice in children. Children between six and fourteen years of age randomly tested two modalities of ClearVoice for one month each. The baseline program, HiRes 120™, and both ClearVoice programs were evaluated with a sentence test in quiet and noise. Parents and teachers completed a questionnaire related to everyday noisy situations. The switchover to ClearVoice was uneventful for both modalities. Adjustments to thresholds and comfort levels were required. Seven out of the nine children preferred a ClearVoice program. No impact of ClearVoice on performance in quiet was observed and both modalities of ClearVoice improved speech understanding in noise compared to the baseline program, significantly with ClearVoice high. Positive outcomes were obtained from the questionnaires and discussions with parents and children. This study showed that children benefited from using ClearVoice in their daily life. There was a clear trend towards improved speech understanding in noise with ClearVoice, without affecting performance in quiet; therefore ClearVoice can be used by children all day, without having to change programs.

  10. Metastatic clear cell carcinoma of the kidney: therapeutic role of bevacizumab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukowski, Ronald M

    2010-01-01

    The biology and pathogenesis of clear cell carcinoma of the kidney has been extensively investgated, and the role of von Hipple-Landau gene inactivation and tumor associated angiogenesis is now recognized. Development of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors and phase 3 clinical trials utilizing this class of agents has produced a new treatment paradigm for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). One of the active regimens identified is the combination of bevacizumab and interferon-α. Recently published reports provided evidence of the clinical and biologic activity of this therapy. The current manuscript reviews the background and rationale for the activity of bevacizumab in RCC, and results from recent clinical trials with this agent alone or in combination with targeted agents or cytokines. The role of this therapy in contrast to other targeted agents is reviewed, and the potential utility as well as questions raised by recent studies are discussed

  11. Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Foamy Histiocyte-Like Appearance: A Deceptively Clear Cell Carcinoma Appearing Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuji Noro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC shows many pathological features, and it varies architecturally and cytologically. There have been many reports and discussions of the morphological features of HCC. A 63-year-old man was found to have a solitary tumor in liver segment 7 that was diagnosed as HCC. A partial resection of liver segment 7 was performed. Microscopically, the tumor lesion showed a moderately differentiated HCC. There was also a lesion with foamy histiocyte-like cells corresponding to the white lesion in the face of the cut tumor. Immunohistochemical staining showed that they were negative for CD68, S-100, vimentin, and HMB-45. The cytoplasm itself was negative on periodic acid Schiff (PAS and Sudan staining. Without immunohistological analysis, it is difficult to distinguish this HCC variant from clear cell carcinoma or metastases of renal cell carcinoma. It is important to recognize this type as a specific cytological variant of HCC that requires confirmation by immunohistochemistry. This report describes the case of a patient with a morphologically distinctive pattern of HCC with prominent cell cytoplasm that had a foamy histiocyte-like appearance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this HCC variant.

  12. Clear & Simple

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... age, sex, marital status, educational level, occupation, income, religion, race, ethnicity, language, geographic location, lifestyle, health-related ... Information Frequently Asked Questions Web Policies and Notices Freedom of Information Act No Fear Act Office of ...

  13. Perception of foreign-accented clear speech by younger and older English listeners

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chi-Nin

    2009-01-01

    Naturally produced English clear speech has been shown to be more intelligible than English conversational speech. However, little is known about the extent of the clear speech effects in the production of nonnative English, and perception of foreign-accented English by younger and older listeners. The present study examined whether Cantonese speakers would employ the same strategies as those used by native English speakers in producing clear speech in their second language. Also, the clear s...

  14. 78 FR 21046 - Amendment to Rule Filing Requirements for Dually-Registered Clearing Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... clearing operations of a Registered Clearing Agency and are not linked to securities clearing operations...: (A) does not adversely affect the safeguarding of securities or funds in the custody or control of...)(ii) to designate proposed rule changes concerning the agency's security futures operations as taking...

  15. 76 FR 37162 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... of OCC's Internal Cross-Margining Program To Include the Ability of a Pair of Affiliated Clearing... change is to expand OCC's internal cross- margining program to permit a pair of affiliated clearing... program for affiliated clearing members until after such time that the CFTC has issued an order or amended...

  16. 77 FR 69668 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Advance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ....\\4\\ This includes the potential use of the clearing fund as a source of liquidity should it ever be... fund in order to provide a source of liquidity in the event of a default by a clearing member or one of... address the risk that the assets in the clearing fund might at any time be insufficient to enable OCC to...

  17. 77 FR 75466 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ....\\8\\ This includes the potential use of the clearing fund as a source of liquidity should it ever be... reduce the risk that the assets in the clearing fund might at any time be insufficient to enable OCC to... Determining the Minimum Clearing Fund Size To Include Consideration of the Amount Necessary To Draw on Secured...

  18. 77 FR 66900 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... of the clearing fund as a source of liquidity should it ever be the case that OCC is unable to obtain... address the risk that the assets in the clearing fund might at any time be insufficient to enable OCC to... for Determining the Minimum Clearing Fund Size To Include Consideration of the Amount Necessary To...

  19. 77 FR 30032 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... the One-Pot Cross- Margining Program With New York Portfolio Clearing, LLC to Certain ``Market... a Set of Market Professional Cross-Margining Accounts would be required to enter into Clearing... FICC and NYPC will not permit Clearing Members to enter into Market Professional Agreements until all...

  20. 78 FR 75528 - Federal Government Participation in the Automated Clearing House

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... Participation in the Automated Clearing House AGENCY: Bureau of the Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice of... Service (Service) is proposing to amend its regulation governing the use of the Automated Clearing House... Automated Clearing House, Electronic funds transfer, Financial institutions, Fraud, and Incorporation by...

  1. 78 FR 18382 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Stock Loan/Hedge Program in a manner that protects the clearing system against risk through the same or... the By- Laws To Facilitate the Use of the Stock Loan/Hedge Program by Canadian Clearing Members March... the Stock Loan/Hedge Program by Canadian Clearing Members. II. Self-Regulatory Organization's...

  2. 77 FR 10591 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; National Securities Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... required to make deposits to the Clearing Fund with the amount of each Member's required deposit being fixed by NSCC in accordance with Procedure XV. The Clearing Fund Formula includes an Excess Capital Premium (``Premium''), which may be added to a Members deposit requirement when a Member's Clearing Fund...

  3. 78 FR 62846 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; National Securities Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Proposed Rule Change, as Previously Modified by Amendment Nos. 1 and 2, To Institute Supplemental Liquidity Deposits to Its Clearing Fund Designed To Increase Liquidity Resources To Meet Its Liquidity Needs October...'') to provide for supplemental liquidity deposits to its Clearing Fund (the ``NSCC Clearing Fund'') to...

  4. 78 FR 32292 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; National Securities Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ..., To Institute Supplemental Liquidity Deposits to Its Clearing Fund Designed To Increase Liquidity Resources To Meet Its Liquidity Needs May 22, 2013. On March 21, 2013, National Securities Clearing... liquidity deposits to NSCC's Clearing Fund, in order to increase NSCC's liquidity resources to meet its...

  5. Tissue clearing for confocal imaging of native and bio-artificial skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroix, L; Van Muylder, V; Desender, L; Sampaolesi, M; Thorrez, L

    2015-01-01

    Novel clearing techniques have revolutionized three-dimensional confocal imaging of the brain without the need for physical tissue sectioning. We evaluated three clearing methods, ScaleA2, Clear(T2), and 3DISCO for visualizing native and tissue engineered muscle by confocal microscopy. We found that Clear(T2) treatment improved the depth of visualization of immunohistochemical staining slightly, but did not improve depth of visualization of endogenous green fluorescent protein (GFP). ScaleA2 preserved endogenous GFP signal better and permitted significantly deeper GFP imaging, but it was incompatible with tropomyosin immunohistochemical staining. 3DISCO treatment preserved both endogenous GFP and immunohistochemical staining, and permitted significantly deeper imaging. Clearing time for the 3DISCO procedure is short compared to ScaleA2 and Clear(T2). We suggest that 3DISCO is the preferable clearing method for native and tissue engineered skeletal muscle tissue.

  6. Clear speech and lexical competition in younger and older adult listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Engen, Kristin J

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated whether clear speech reduces the cognitive demands of lexical competition by crossing speaking style with lexical difficulty. Younger and older adults identified more words in clear versus conversational speech and more easy words than hard words. An initial analysis suggested that the effect of lexical difficulty was reduced in clear speech, but more detailed analyses within each age group showed this interaction was significant only for older adults. The results also showed that both groups improved over the course of the task and that clear speech was particularly helpful for individuals with poorer hearing: for younger adults, clear speech eliminated hearing-related differences that affected performance on conversational speech. For older adults, clear speech was generally more helpful to listeners with poorer hearing. These results suggest that clear speech affords perceptual benefits to all listeners and, for older adults, mitigates the cognitive challenge associated with identifying words with many phonological neighbors.

  7. HMB-45 negative clear cell perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusiol, Teresa; Morichetti, Doriana; Zorzi, Maria Grazia; Dario, Surace

    2012-01-01

    The first case of cutaneous clear cell perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) with negative HMB-45 marker is presented. The tumor was a nodule 3x2 cm in size, located on the right foot in a 60-year-old man. The lesion consisted of large irregularly shaped cells with clear cytoplasm, negative for S-100 protein, HMB-45, Melan-A, pancytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen and CAM5.2. Multifocal positivity for desmin, microphthalmia transcription factor and tyrosinase was found. The diagnosis of cutaneous PEComa of clear cell type was made. Clear cell change is a very unusual finding in PEComa and may pose problems in diagnostic differentiation from other clear cell cutaneous lesions that may be excluded with immunohistochemistry. In our case, the HMB-45 negativity may be explained by extensive clear cell change. Additional studies are necessary to accept the clear cell cutaneous HMB-45 negative PEComa as a new variant of perivascular epithelioid cell tumor.

  8. Clear cell carcinoma of the uterine corpus following irradiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaoki, Yasuhisa; Katsube, Yasuhiro; Nanba, Koji.

    1992-01-01

    A case of clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium following squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix is reported. The patient had had a previous cervical biopsy which revealed squamous cell carcinoma (large cell non-keratinizing type), classified clinically as a stage IIb lesion. She was treated with external pelvic irradiation delivering an estimated tumor dose of approximately 7,000 rads and intracavital radium application delivering 4,995 mg.hr.radiation when she was 51 years old. She complained of post-menopausal bleeding at age 66 and was diagnosed by endometrial cytology as having clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and omentectomy were performed. The clinical stage of the endometrial cancer was Ib. She is alive after 2 years with no evidence of disease. Endometrial cytology revealed several adenocarcinoma cells in small clusters. The shape of the nuclei was somewhat irregular, the chromatin pattern was fine granular, and single or multiple nucleoli were seen. The diameter of these nuclei ranged from 10 to 30 μm. The cytoplasm was pale green or vacuolated. The volume of the cytoplasm varied from scanty to abundant. These findings suggested clear cell carcinoma. Histopathologically, an irregular shaped polypoid tumor, 3 x 1.5 cm in size, was located on the lower anterior wall of the uterine corpus. The tumor was a clear cell carcinoma showing a solid and papillary pattern. A hobnail pattern was not observed. The cytoplasm was clear and abundant, and PAS-positive granules digestible by diastase were seen. These 2 cancers had different pathological features and their immunohistochemical reactivities for CEA and keratin were also different. The patient was regarded as having a rare heterochronous double cancer consisting of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium. (author)

  9. Effects of land clearing techniques and tillage systems on runoff and soil erosion in a tropical rain forest in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehigiator, O A; Anyata, B U

    2011-11-01

    This work reports runoff and soil loss from each of 14 sub-watersheds in a secondary rain forest in south-western Nigeria. The impact of methods of land clearing and post-clearing management on runoff and soil erosion under the secondary forest is evaluated. These data were acquired eighteen years after the deforestation of primary vegetation during the ' West bank' project of the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA). These data are presented separately for each season; however, statistical analyses for replicates were not conducted due to differences in their past management. Soil erosion was affected by land clearing and tillage methods. The maximum soil erosion was observed on sub-watersheds that were mechanically cleared with tree-pusher/root-rake attachments and tilled conventionally. A high rate of erosion was observed even when graded-channel terraces were constructed to minimize soil erosion. In general there was much less soil erosion on manually cleared than on mechanically cleared sub-watersheds (2.5 t ha(-1) yr(-1) versus 13.8 t ha(-1) yr(-1)) and from the application of no-tillage methods than from conventionally plowed areas (6.5 t ha(-1) yr(-1) versus 12.1 t ha(-1) yr(-1)). The data indicate that tillage methods and appropriate management of soils and crops play an important role in soil and water conservation and in decreasing the rate of decline of soil quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A continuum from clear to cloudy hot-Jupiter exoplanets without primordial water depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, David K; Fortney, Jonathan J; Nikolov, Nikolay; Wakeford, Hannah R; Kataria, Tiffany; Evans, Thomas M; Aigrain, Suzanne; Ballester, Gilda E; Burrows, Adam S; Deming, Drake; Désert, Jean-Michel; Gibson, Neale P; Henry, Gregory W; Huitson, Catherine M; Knutson, Heather A; des Etangs, Alain Lecavelier; Pont, Frederic; Showman, Adam P; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred; Williamson, Michael H; Wilson, Paul A

    2016-01-07

    Thousands of transiting exoplanets have been discovered, but spectral analysis of their atmospheres has so far been dominated by a small number of exoplanets and data spanning relatively narrow wavelength ranges (such as 1.1-1.7 micrometres). Recent studies show that some hot-Jupiter exoplanets have much weaker water absorption features in their near-infrared spectra than predicted. The low amplitude of water signatures could be explained by very low water abundances, which may be a sign that water was depleted in the protoplanetary disk at the planet's formation location, but it is unclear whether this level of depletion can actually occur. Alternatively, these weak signals could be the result of obscuration by clouds or hazes, as found in some optical spectra. Here we report results from a comparative study of ten hot Jupiters covering the wavelength range 0.3-5 micrometres, which allows us to resolve both the optical scattering and infrared molecular absorption spectroscopically. Our results reveal a diverse group of hot Jupiters that exhibit a continuum from clear to cloudy atmospheres. We find that the difference between the planetary radius measured at optical and infrared wavelengths is an effective metric for distinguishing different atmosphere types. The difference correlates with the spectral strength of water, so that strong water absorption lines are seen in clear-atmosphere planets and the weakest features are associated with clouds and hazes. This result strongly suggests that primordial water depletion during formation is unlikely and that clouds and hazes are the cause of weaker spectral signatures.

  11. Clearly delineated lesion in a case of Wallenberg's syndrome by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumiya, Noriya; Yamaguchi, Takenori; Miyashita, Takeshi; Kozuka, Takahiro

    1985-01-01

    Diagnosis of Wallenberg's syndrome has been made by typical neurological symptoms and signs which are compatible with those of lesion in the lateral aspect of medulla oblongata. Although X-ray CT is an extraordinary useful measure for detecting lesions in the central nervous system, brainstem lesion is difficult to be evaluated by it because of varieties of artifact. A recent advance in techniques of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) made it possible to produce fairly good images of infratentorial structure without artifact. But, there are no reports on patients with Wallenberg's syndrome whose lesion was clearly delineated by MRI. A 44 year-old man with a history of hypertension was referred to our hospital because of vertigo, pain on the right side of the face, disturbance of swallowing and hiccup 22 days after onset. On admission, neurological examination revealed right Horner's sign, decreased gag reflex and cerebellar ataxia on the right side, and dissociated sensory impairment on the right side of the face and left extremities. Clinical diagnosis of Wallenberg's syndrome was made, but X-ray CT showed no definite lesion in the infratentorial structure. Cerebral angiography revealed occlusion of the right vertebral artery without reflux of contrast media from the left vertebral artery. Then, there was no visualization of the right posterior inferior cerebellar artery. MRI using Magnetom (0.35 Tesla of static magnetic field produced by superconducting magnet) clearly delineated low intensity area in the right lateral aspect of the medulla oblongata. This is the first case of Wallenberg's syndrome whose anatomical lesion was demonstrated by MRI. (author)

  12. Clear progress in nuclear safety worldwide: Convention on nuclear safety concludes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    It has been concluded that a significant progress has been observed in a number of key areas, such as strengthened legislation, regulatory independence, the availability of financial resources, enhanced emergency preparedness and safety improvements at nuclear power plants built to earlier standards. The objective of the Convention is to achieve and maintain a high level of nuclear safety worldwide. During the two week Review Meeting, parties engaged in a 'peer review' process in which the National Reports from individual States were collectively examined and discussed, with written replies provided to all the questions raised. Clear improvement was noted in the quality of the National Reports, the number of questions and the openness and quality of discussion and answers. The Contracting Parties praised the IAEA's various safety review missions and services, which they use widely to help enhance the effectiveness of their national safety arrangements. Forty-six contracting parties participated at the Review Meeting with over 400 delegates attending, including many heads and senior officers from regulatory bodies and experts from industry. To date, the Convention has been signed by sixty-five States and ratified by fifty-four, representing 428 of the 448 nuclear power reactors worldwide

  13. Detection and clearing of trapped ions in the high current Cornell photoinjector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Full

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We have recently performed experiments to test the effectiveness of three ion-clearing strategies in the Cornell high intensity photoinjector: DC clearing electrodes, bunch gaps, and beam shaking. The photoinjector reaches a new regime of linac beam parameters where high continuous wave beam currents lead to ion trapping. Therefore ion mitigation strategies must be evaluated for this machine and other similar future high current linacs. We have developed several techniques to directly measure the residual trapped ions. Our two primary indicators of successful clearing are the amount of ion current removed by a DC clearing electrode, and the absence of bremsstrahlung radiation generated by beam-ion interactions. Measurements were taken for an electron beam with an energy of 5 MeV and continuous wave beam currents in the range of 1–20 mA. Several theoretical models have been developed to explain our data. Using them, we are able to estimate the clearing electrode voltage required for maximum ion clearing, the creation and clearing rates of the ions while employing bunch gaps, and the sinusoidal shaking frequency necessary for clearing via beam shaking. In all cases, we achieve a maximum ion clearing of at least 70% or higher, and in some cases our data is consistent with full ion clearing.

  14. Mineral content as a basis for food selection by western lowland gorillas in a forest clearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliocca, Florence; Gautier-Hion, Annie

    2002-06-01

    The forests in northwest Republic of Congo contain a number of herbaceous swamp clearings that provide foraging sites for lowland gorillas (G.g. gorilla). A 10-month study at the Maya Nord clearing (Parc National d'Odzala) showed that feeding activities occupied 72% of the time visiting gorillas spent on the clearing. They fed on four plant species: Enydra fluctuans (Asteraceae), Cyperus sp., Pycreus mundtii, and Rhynchospora corymbosa (Cyperaceae) among the 45 species recorded on the clearing. These clearing food species have higher mineral contents (especially Na and Ca) than the dominant Marantaceae species (Haumania liebrechtsiana) that constituted a staple food plant for gorillas in this forest. They also have higher potassium contents and contain less lignin than non-eaten clearing items/species. Finally, the most actively searched for clearing food (Enydra fluctuans) was characterized by the highest amount of Na and Ca. These results suggest that the mineral content (especially in Na, Ca, and/or K) could determine the feeding selectivity of gorillas at the clearing. They also tend to confirm that the amount of fiber plays a deterrent role in food selectivity, as has been found by many authors. The high density of gorillas in that region could result from the combination of the large areas of Marantaceae forests that provide abundant though monotonous food, and the number of clearings that provide sufficient mineral supplies. Clearings should thus be considered as key habitats for the conservation of gorillas. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Radiation Attenuation and Stability of ClearView Radiation Shielding TM-A Transparent Liquid High Radiation Shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Jayeesh

    2018-04-01

    Radiation exposure is a limiting factor to work in sensitive environments seen in nuclear power and test reactors, medical isotope production facilities, spent fuel handling, etc. The established choice for high radiation shielding is lead (Pb), which is toxic, heavy, and abidance by RoHS. Concrete, leaded (Pb) bricks are used as construction materials in nuclear facilities, vaults, and hot cells for radioisotope production. Existing transparent shielding such as leaded glass provides minimal shielding attenuation in radiotherapy procedures, which in some cases is not sufficient. To make working in radioactive environments more practicable while resolving the lead (Pb) issue, a transparent, lightweight, liquid, and lead-free high radiation shield-ClearView Radiation Shielding-(Radium Incorporated, 463 Dinwiddie Ave, Waynesboro, VA). was developed. This paper presents the motivation for developing ClearView, characterization of certain aspects of its use and performance, and its specific attenuation testing. Gamma attenuation testing was done using a 1.11 × 10 Bq Co source and ANSI/HPS-N 13.11 standard. Transparency with increasing thickness, time stability of liquid state, measurements of physical properties, and performance in freezing temperatures are reported. This paper also presents a comparison of ClearView with existing radiation shields. Excerpts from LaSalle nuclear power plant are included, giving additional validation. Results demonstrated and strengthened the expected performance of ClearView as a radiation shield. Due to the proprietary nature of the work, some information is withheld.

  16. Some models for electric power price clearing in liberalized market area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chogelja, Goran; Pavlov, Risto

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents some of the basic models for electrical energy price clearing in liberalized market area and competition on level of consumption and level of production. As an example the Amsterdam power exchange APX (spot market) is given and some of another types of markets and methodology for pricing are presented. In detal 'clearing pricing mechanism in day athead market' from the Amsterdam power exchange is presented as well as the methodology for market balancing and financial clearing. (Original)

  17. ''Blue clearing'' on Mars in connection with dust clouds in August and September 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokof'eva, V.V.; Chuprakova, T.A.; Dzyamko, S.S.; Bryzgalova, T.V.

    1975-01-01

    Photometric processing of Mars TV pictures obtained in ultraviolet, blue, green and red spectrum regions reveals the connection of the ''blue clearing'' effect with the appearance of dust clouds above the light regions of the planet. The obtained data confirm the hypothesis about the dust nature of blue clearings: the illusion of blue clearings is produced as a result of increasing brightness of thse Mars light regions, when dust clouds apr above them

  18. Persistent Autobiographical Amnesia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Repetto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 47-year-old man who referred to the Emergency Department for sudden global amnesia and left mild motor impairment in the setting of increased arterial blood pressure. The acute episode resolved within 24 hours. Despite general recovery and the apparent transitory nature of the event, a persistent selective impairment in recollecting events from some specific topics of his personal life became apparent. Complete neuropsychological tests one week after the acute onset and 2 months later demonstrated a clear retrograde memory deficit contrasting with the preservation of anterograde memory and learning abilities. One year later, the autobiographic memory deficit was unmodified, except for what had been re-learnt. Brain MRI was normal while H20 brain PET scans demonstrated hypometabolism in the right globus pallidus and putamen after 2 weeks from onset, which was no longer present one year later. The absence of a clear pathomechanism underlying focal amnesia lead us to consider this case as an example of functional retrograde amnesia.

  19. Comparison of Microclimate Simulated weather data to ASHRAE Clear Sky Model and Measured Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhandari, Mahabir S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-01

    In anticipation of emerging global urbanization and its impact on microclimate, a need exists to better understand and quantify microclimate effects on building energy use. Satisfaction of this need will require coordinated research of microclimate impacts on and from “human systems.” The Urban Microclimate and Energy Tool (Urban-MET) project seeks to address this need by quantifying and analyzing the relationships among climatic conditions, urban morphology, land cover, and energy use; and using these relationships to inform energy-efficient urban development and planning. Initial research will focus on analysis of measured and modeled energy efficiency of various building types in selected urban areas and temporal variations in energy use for different urban morphologies under different microclimatic conditions. In this report, we analyze the differences between microclimate weather data sets for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory campus produced by ENVI-met and Weather Research Forecast (WRF) models, the ASHRAE clear sky which defines the maximum amounts of solar radiation that can be expected, and measured data from a weather station on campus. Errors with climate variables and their impact on building energy consumption will be shown for the microclimate simulations to help prioritize future improvement for use in microclimate simulation impacts to energy use of buildings.

  20. Recurrent internal tandem duplications of BCOR in clear cell sarcoma of the kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Angshumoy; Kumar, Vijetha; Zorman, Barry; Fang, Erica; Haines, Katherine M.; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Hampton, Oliver A.; White, Simon; Bavle, Abhishek A.; Patel, Nimesh R.; Eldin, Karen W.; John Hicks, M.; Rakheja, Dinesh; Leavey, Patrick J.; Skapek, Stephen X.; Amatruda, James F.; Nuchtern, Jed G.; Chintagumpala, Murali M.; Wheeler, David A.; Plon, Sharon E.; Sumazin, Pavel; Parsons, D. Williams

    2015-01-01

    The X-linked BCL-6 co-repressor (BCOR) gene encodes a key constituent of a variant polycomb repressive complex (PRC) that is mutated or translocated in human cancers. Here we report on the identification of somatic internal tandem duplications (ITDs) clustering in the C terminus of BCOR in 23 of 27 (85%) pediatric clear cell sarcomas of the kidney (CCSK) from two independent cohorts. We profile CCSK tumours using a combination of whole-exome, transcriptome and targeted sequencing. Identical ITD mutations are found in primary and relapsed tumour pairs but not in adjacent normal kidney or blood. Mutant BCOR transcripts and proteins are markedly upregulated in ITD-positive tumours. Transcriptome analysis of ITD-positive CCSKs reveals enrichment for PRC2-regulated genes and similarity to undifferentiated sarcomas harbouring BCOR–CCNB3 fusions. The discovery of recurrent BCOR ITDs defines a major oncogenic event in this childhood sarcoma with significant implications for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to this tumour. PMID:26573325