WorldWideScience

Sample records for reported childhood sexual

  1. Clinical Characteristics of Adults Reporting Repressed, Recovered, or Continuous Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Richard J.; Perlman, Carol A.; Ristuccia, Carel S.; Clancy, Susan A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors assessed women and men who either reported continuous memories of their childhood sexual abuse (CSA, n = 92), reported recovering memories of CSA (n = 38), reported believing they harbored repressed memories of CSA (n = 42), or reported never having been sexually abused (n = 36). Men and women were indistinguishable on all clinical and…

  2. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  3. Sexual revictimization in a clinical sample of women reporting childhood sexual abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Marianne; Kristensen, Ellids

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent sexual abuse (CSA) increases the risk for adult sexual assault (ASA), and psychological vulnerability as well as aspects of CSA and upbringing might influence the risk. AIMS: The aims of this study were to investigate whether women who reported both CSA and ASA: 1...

  4. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    AAS Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide 2014 One third of sexual assault victims were under the age of 12. 1 1 Lifetime prevalence of childhood sexual abuse in the U.S. is approximately 10% and also ...

  5. Childhood sexual abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Evrim Aktepe

    1993-01-01

    Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually tow...

  6. An Exploratory Qualitative Study of the Self-Reported Impact of Female-Perpetrated Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Rebecca; Mellor, David

    2011-01-01

    The limited findings on the impact of female-perpetrated sexual abuse of children are often contradictory, particularly in relation to males. In this exploratory qualitative study, a sample of nine men and five women who reported that they had been sexually abused by women in their childhood were recruited from the general community. They…

  7. Prevalence and correlates of sleep paralysis in adults reporting childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Murray P; Mulligan, Ashlee D; Carleton, R Nicholas; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2008-12-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) occurs when rapid eye movement (REM) activity and concomitant paralysis of the skeletal muscles persist as an individual awakens and becomes conscious of his/her surroundings. SP is often accompanied by frightening hallucinations that some researchers suggest may be confounded with memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA; [McNally, R. J., & Clancy, S. A. (2005). Sleep paralysis in adults reporting repressed, recovered, or continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 19, 595-602]). The purpose of this study was to evaluate relationships between CSA and SP. Based on self-report, participants (n=263) were categorized into three CSA groups: confirmed, unconfirmed, or no history of CSA. Relative to participants reporting no CSA history, those reporting CSA reported more frequent and more distressing episodes of SP. Post hoc analyses revealed that participants with clinically significant post-traumatic symptoms (irrespective of CSA history) also reported more frequent and more distressing episodes of SP. Significant correlations were found among SP indices and measures of post-traumatic symptoms, depression, dissociation, and absorption. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  8. Cognitive function is preserved in older adults with a reported history of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Joanne; Kamiya, Yumiko; Robertson, Ian H; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-12-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with mood and cognitive deficits in children and young adults. Evidence suggests that the effects of early-life adversity persist throughout adulthood; however, the impact of CSA on cognition in older adults is largely unknown. This study investigated cognitive function in older adults with a reported history of CSA. Data are from a population-based study (The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing) of 6,912 adults aged 50 years and older. Participants answered questions about CSA as part of a stressful life events questionnaire. Global cognition, executive function, memory (both objective and self-rated), attention, and processing speed were measured via a comprehensive battery of tests. Anxiety and depression, other childhood adversity, health behaviours, chronic disease, and medication use were also assessed. Of the total sample, 6.5% reported CSA. These individuals were more likely to have experienced other forms of childhood adversity and to exhibit poor mental health compared to those who reported no history of CSA. Multivariate regression analyses revealed, however, that CSA was associated with better global cognition, memory, executive function, and processing speed, despite poorer psychological health in this group. Future studies should aim to investigate possible reasons for this finding.

  9. Reality monitoring in adults reporting repressed, recovered, or continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Richard J; Clancy, Susan A; Barrett, Heidi M; Parker, Holly A

    2005-02-01

    People who report either repressed or recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may have deficits in reality monitoring--the process whereby one discriminates memories of percepts from memories of images. Using signal detection methods, the authors found that adults reporting either repressed or recovered memories of CSA were less able to discriminate between words they had seen from words they had imagined seeing than were adults reporting either never having forgotten their CSA or adults reporting no history of CSA. Relative deficits in the ability to discriminate percepts from images (i.e., low d') were apparent on only some tests. The groups did not differ in their criterion--response bias--for affirming having seen versus imagined stimuli. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Risky sexual behavior in adolescent survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosky, James L; Foster, Rebecca H; Li, Zhenghong; Peasant, Courtney; Howell, Carrie R; Mertens, Ann C; Robison, Leslie L; Ness, Kirsten K

    2014-08-01

    To identify correlates of risky sexual behavior among adolescents surviving childhood cancer. The Child Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition (CHIP-AE) was completed by 307 survivors of childhood cancer aged 15-20 years (M age at diagnosis 1.53 years; range 0-3.76). Univariate analyses were performed using χ² and Fisher's Exact tests, and multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risky sexual behaviors. Diagnosis of central nervous system cancer (OR = .13, 95% CI: .02-.96, p sexual intercourse. Good psychological health (scores ≥-1.5 SD on the CHIP-AE Emotional Discomfort scale) associated with decreased risk of early intercourse (OR = .19, CI: .05-.77, p = .02), whereas high parental education (≥ college degree) associated with decreased risk of multiple lifetime sexual partners (OR = .25, CI: .09-.72, p = .01). Increased time from diagnosis (OR = .27, CI: .10-.78, p = .02) and psychological health (OR = .09, CI: .02-.36, p sexual behavior in adolescents surviving childhood cancer is associated with cancer type, time since diagnosis, psychological health, alcohol use, and peer influences. Consideration of these factors may provide direction for future interventions designed to reduce adolescent sexual risk-taking.

  11. Forgetting of trauma cues in adults reporting continuous or recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Richard J; Ristuccia, Carel S; Perlman, Carol A

    2005-04-01

    According to betrayal trauma theory, adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) who were molested by their caretakers (e.g., a father) are especially likely to dissociate ("repress") their memories of abuse. Testing college students, some reporting CSA, DePrince and Freyd (2004) found that those scoring high on a dissociation questionnaire exhibited memory deficits for trauma words when they viewed these words under divided-attention conditions. Replicating DePrince and Freyd's procedure, we tested for memory deficits for trauma words relative to neutral words in adults reporting either continuous or recovered memories of CSA versus adults denying a history of CSA. A memory deficit for trauma words under divided attention was expected in the recovered-memory group. Results were inconsistent with this prediction, as all three groups exhibited better recall of trauma words than neutral words, irrespective of encoding conditions.

  12. Sleep paralysis in adults reporting repressed, recovered, or continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Richard J; Clancy, Susan A

    2005-01-01

    Sleep paralysis typically occurs as individuals awaken from rapid eye movement sleep before motor paralysis wanes. Many episodes are accompanied by tactile and visual hallucinations, often of threatening intruders in the bedroom. Pendergrast [Victims of Memory: Incest Accusations and Shattered Lives, HarperCollins, London, 1996] proposed that individuals who report repressed or recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may misinterpret episodes of sleep paralysis as reemerging fragments of dissociated ("repressed") memories of CSA. To investigate this issue, we administered a sleep paralysis questionnaire to people reporting either repressed (n = 18), recovered (n = 14), or continuous (n = 36) memories of CSA, or to a control group reporting no history of CSA (n = 16). The prevalence of sleep paralysis was: repressed memory group (44%), recovered memory group (43%), continuous memory group (47%), and control group (13%). Among the six individuals in the recovered memory group who had experienced sleep paralysis, one interpreted it as related to sexual abuse (i.e., a rate of 17%). All other participants who had reported sleep paralysis embraced other interpretations (e.g., saw a ghost). Dissociation and depressive symptoms were more common among those who had experienced sleep paralysis than among those who denied having experienced it.

  13. Childhood attachment, childhood sexual abuse, and onset of masturbation among adult sexual offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallbone, Stephen W; McCabe, Billee-Anne

    2003-01-01

    Written autobiographies of 48 incarcerated adult male sexual offenders (22 rapists, 13 intrafamilial child molesters, and 13 extrafamilial child molesters) were used to generate retrospective self-report measures of their childhood maternal and paternal attachment, childhood sexual abuse experiences, and onset of masturbation. Contrary to expectation, the offenders as a combined group more often reported secure than they did insecure childhood maternal and paternal attachment. There were no differences between the three offender subgroups with respect to maternal attachment; however the rapists and the intrafamilial child molesters were more likely to report insecure paternal attachment than were the extrafamilial child molesters. There were no differences between these offender subgroups in the frequency with which childhood sexual abuse was reported. However, offenders with insecure paternal attachment were more likely to report having been sexually abused than were those with secure paternal attachment. Sexually abused offenders in turn reported earlier onset of masturbation than did those who were not sexually abused. These results are consistent with contemporary attachment models linking insecure childhood attachment to childhood sexual abuse, and with traditional conditioning models linking childhood sexual abuse, early masturbation, and sexual offending.

  14. Brief Report: Attitudes about Responding to Survey Questions Concerning Childhood Sexual Abuse by Hispanic Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Frederick A.; Salinas, Nancy I.; Perez, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    In no studies have research participants been asked how they feel about answering questions concerning childhood sexual abuse. We have performed searches from two different search engines again and have found nothing published which specifically addresses this question in the way we have. A questionnaire about childhood sexual abuse was…

  15. Signs of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical and emotional pain. It has long-term effects on the child. And it is a crime. Recognizing childhood sexual ... living with stepparents.Lives in a rural or low-income area.Has been a ... and children with intellectual disabilities face a higher risk. Remember, ...

  16. Counselor Meaning-Making: Working with Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviani, Anna Michele

    2011-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent but taboo topic in society. Conservatively 80,000 new cases are reported each year with many more either unreported or unsubstantiated within the legal system. Survivors of childhood sexual abuse often times seek counseling assistance to manage the variety of short-and long-term emotional issues that may arise…

  17. Women's self-esteem: a community study of women who report and do not report childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romans, S; Martin, J; Mullen, P

    1996-12-01

    The determinants of self-esteem have been little studied in non-clinic samples. It has been suggested recently that child sexual abuse (CSA) may be a major determinant of low self-esteem in adulthood. The psychosocial circumstances associated with low self-esteem in two random samples of women, one reporting CSA, the other not, were compared, with particular emphasis on characteristics of family of origin. A two-phase (postal-then-interview) random community study assessed self-esteem and related variables. Psychosocial variables predicting low self-esteem were the same in the two groups. They included being a follower or a loner, having an overcontrolling mother, being poorly qualified, giving a history of depressive disorder and displaying current psychiatric disorder. In addition, the subject's CSA status led to low self-esteem but only when it was of the most intrusive type. The CSA women had substantially lower mean total self-esteem score. However, not all aspects of self-esteem were diminished equally; 12/30 items differed between the two groups, and two of the five generated self-esteem factors, which we named Pessimism and Fatalism, which differed between the control group and the whole CSA group. There were no differences for Likeability and Determination. Predictors of low self-esteem for women include childhood temperament, a poor relationship with the mother, low qualification attainment, psychiatric morbidity, both previous and current, and, only when it is the most intrusive, CSA.

  18. Sexual experiences in childhood: young adults' recollections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, IngBeth; Svedin, Carl-Göran

    2002-06-01

    Childhood sexuality and children's sexual experiences have become increasingly important to study because our knowledge on the impact of sexually abusive experiences on children's developing sexuality has increased. The main aim of this paper was to study aspects of young adults' recollections of their sexual experiences before the age of 13, solitary and shared, mutual as well as coercive. Anonymous questionnaires were answered by 269 final year, senior high-school students, mean age 18.6 years; 82.9% of the students reported solitary sexual experiences and 82.5% had mutual experiences together with another child. Most of the children had their experiences together with a same-age friend. Girls had more same-sex experiences than boys did. Thirteen percent reported coercive experiences where they had been tricked, bribed, threatened, or physically forced into participation. Some children, 8.2%, had coerced another child into participation in sexual activities. The majority thought of their childhood experiences as normal. There were also 6.3% of the respondents who had had inappropriate sexual experiences with someone at least 5 years older, the majority being girls. Gender differences were evident in several respects: girls were more often coerced, they felt more guilt, and they had far less experience of masturbation, whereas boys were somewhat more active in explorative activities on their own as well as with peers. Some kind of coercive sexual experiences appears to be part of growing up for quite a few children, although in general the years before puberty seem to be years of frequent mutual sexual exploration and experimentation.

  19. Sexual Function in Women with a History of Intrafamilial Childhood Sexual Abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht

    2011-01-01

    analysis were applied. Of the women, 63% were unsatisfied with their current sexual life, 39% felt uncomfortable with physical endearments and 71% were unsatisfied with their body. Only 82% had an active sexual life and, of these, 73% reported at least one sexual problem, 48% orgasmic problems and 45......% dyspareunia. The occurrence of sexual problems was significantly correlated to childhood physical violence, current psychological distress, flashbacks in sexual situations and discomfort with physical endearment. The prevalence of sexual pain disorders were also positively correlated to “no adult support......This study investigated sexual function in women with a history of severe intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and the correlation between sexual problems and the severity of CSA, adult support during childhood and current psychiatric symptoms. The sample consisted of 158 women who...

  20. Childhood and Adult Sexual Abuse, Rumination on Sadness, and Dysphoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Michael; Mendelson, Morris; Giannopoulos, Constantina; Csank, Patricia A. R.; Holm, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The study addressed the hypothesis that adults reporting sexual abuse are more likely to exhibit a general tendency to ruminate on sadness. The relations between reported abuse, rumination on sadness, and dysphoria were also examined. Method: Undergraduate students (101 women and 100 men) reported on childhood and adult sexual abuse and…

  1. Child Sexual Abuse and Women's Sexual Health: The Contribution of CSA Severity and Exposure to Multiple Forms of Childhood Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…

  2. Child Sexual Abuse and Women's Sexual Health: The Contribution of CSA Severity and Exposure to Multiple Forms of Childhood Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…

  3. The Relationship between a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Gender Role Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jo Ann; Norton, G. Ron; De Luca, Rayleen V.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and gender role attitudes. Female university students rated themselves and their parents on gender role attitudes and history of childhood sexual abuse. Traditional participant gender role attitude and social isolation were associated with reporting being sexually abused as a…

  4. The Relationship between a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Gender Role Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jo Ann; Norton, G. Ron; De Luca, Rayleen V.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and gender role attitudes. Female university students rated themselves and their parents on gender role attitudes and history of childhood sexual abuse. Traditional participant gender role attitude and social isolation were associated with reporting being sexually abused as a…

  5. Sexual Functioning in Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrack, Brad J.; Foley, Sallie; Wittmann, Daniela; Leonard, Marcia

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies of sexuality or sexual behavior in childhood cancer survivors tend to examine relationships or achievement of developmental milestones but not physiological response to cancer or treatment. The purpose of this study is to (1) identify prevalence and risk factors for sexual dysfunction in childhood cancer survivors, and (2) examine the extent to which sexual dysfunction may be associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and psychosocial outcomes. Methods Five hundred ninety-nine survivors age 18-39 years completed standardized measures of sexual functioning, HRQOL, psychological distress and life satisfaction. Descriptive statistics assessed prevalence of sexual symptoms. Bivariate analyses identified correlates of sexual symptoms and examined associations between symptoms and HRQOL/psychosocial outcomes. Results Most survivors appear to be doing well, although 52% of female survivors and 32% of male survivors reported at least “a little of a problem” in one or more areas of sexual functioning. Mean symptom score for females was more than twice that of males. Sexual symptoms were associated with reporting health problems. Significant associations between sexual functioning and HRQOL outcomes were observed, with gender differences in strengths of association suggesting that males find sexual symptoms more distressing than do females. Conclusions While most survivors appear to be doing well in this important life domain, some young adult survivors report sexual concerns. While female survivors may report more sexual symptoms than male survivors, males may experience more distress associated with sexual difficulties. Better specified measures of sexual function, behavior and outcomes are needed for this young adult population. PMID:19862693

  6. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Attachments in Childhood and Adulthood, and Coercive Sexual Behaviors in Community Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Calvin M; Murad, Zuwaina; Humbert, Bianca

    2017-04-01

    Associations between self-reported coercive sexual behavior against adult females, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and child-parent attachment styles, as well as attachment with adult romantic partners, were examined among 176 adult community males. Attachment style with each parent and with romantic partners was also investigated as a potential moderator. Using hierarchical multiple regression analysis, avoidant attachment with mothers in childhood (and also with fathers, in a second model) accounted for a significant amount of the variance in coercive sexual behavior controlling for scores on anxious ambivalent and disorganized/disoriented attachment scales, as predicted. Similarly, in a third model, avoidance attachment in adulthood was a significant predictor of coercive sexual behavior controlling for scores on the anxiety attachment in adulthood scale. These main effects for avoidant and avoidance attachment were not statistically significant when CSA and control variables (other types of childhood adversity, aggression, antisociality, and response bias) were added in each of the models. But the interaction between scales for CSA and avoidance attachment in adulthood was significant, demonstrating incremental validity in a final step, consistent with a hypothesized moderating function for attachment in adulthood. The correlation between CSA and coercive sexual behavior was .60 for those with the highest third of avoidance attachment scores (i.e., the most insecurely attached on this scale), .24 for those with scores in the middle range on the scale, and .01 for those with the lowest third of avoidance attachment scores (i.e., the most securely attached). Implications for study design and theory were discussed.

  7. PREVENTION AND OUTCOMES FOR VICTIMS OF CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Salazar, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18–34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues. PMID:25635897

  8. Feasibility of brief intensive exposure therapy for PTSD patients with childhood sexual abuse: a brief clinical report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte Hendriks

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the strong empirical support for the effectiveness of exposure-based treatments in ameliorating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, improvement of treatment is wanted given relatively high dropout rates and challenges of treating patients with high comorbidity and treatment-interfering stressors. The purpose of the current paper is to introduce an intensive exposure treatment program, illustrated by four case descriptions of PTSD patients, who suffered multiple (sexual traumas in childhood, had high levels of comorbidity and psychosocial stressors, and failed to improve during “regular” trauma-focused treatment programs. The program consisted of psychoeducation, prolonged imaginal exposure, exposure in vivo, exposure by drawings combined with narrative reconstructing, and writing assignments about central trauma-related cognitions. The treatment included 5 working days with individual sessions (in total 30 h of treatment provided by a team of four therapists. The PTSD symptoms of all patients decreased substantially and the effect sizes were large (Cohen's d resp. 1.5 [pre–post], 2.4 [pre-FU1 month], and 2.3 [pre-FU3 months]. Also, none of the patients showed symptom worsening or dropped out. The evaluation of these four pilot cases suggests that it is possible to intensify exposure treatment, even for multiple traumatized PTSD patients with high comorbidity. We concluded that the first results of this new, intensive exposure program for PTSD patients with childhood sexual abuse are promising.

  9. Traumatic childhood sexual events and secondary sexual health complaints in neurotic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobański, Jerzy A

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Assessment of the association between self-reported sexual complaints and recalled childhood sexual adversities in a sample of psychotherapy patients.Material and methods. Coexistence of memories concerning traumatic events and minor sexual adversities and the currently present symptoms were analyzed on the basis of KO”0” Symptom Checklist andLife Inventory completed prior to treatment in the day hospital for neurotic disorders. Questionnaires from 3929 psychotherapy patients were analyzed. Logistic regression analyses were performed on biographical and symptom items. Odds ratios for men and women were determined separately.Results. Associations between sexual adverse events, and current sexual health complaints, as estimated by OR coefficients, showed to be statistically significant. In the subgroups of patients who reported two categories of sexual adversities e.g. were both punished for masturbation and were not educated about sex, the risk of sexual complaints was further increased.Discussion. Both self-reported traumatic sexual events and sexual problems are quite common in the patient population and are strongly associated. Our study has replicated other’s findings in a large sample of outpatients suffering from neurotic disorders.Conclusions. Deficits in sex education, the trauma of incest, punishment for sexual play or masturbation, or too early or unwanted sexual initiation, are important risk factors of sexual symptoms accompanying neurotic syndromes. Results strongly suggest that studies focusing on the effects of sexual traumatic events should take into consideration the co-occurrence of multiple adversities.

  10. Healing from Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S.; Roller, Cynthia; Knapik, Gregory; Ross, Ratchneewan; Stidham, Andrea Warner

    2011-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent social and health care problem. The processes by which individuals heal from childhood sexual abuse are not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model to describe how adults heal from childhood sexual abuse. Community recruitment for an ongoing broader project on sexual…

  11. Healing from Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S.; Roller, Cynthia; Knapik, Gregory; Ross, Ratchneewan; Stidham, Andrea Warner

    2011-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent social and health care problem. The processes by which individuals heal from childhood sexual abuse are not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model to describe how adults heal from childhood sexual abuse. Community recruitment for an ongoing broader project on sexual…

  12. Childhood sexual history of 20 male pedophiles vs. 24 male healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa J; McGeoch, Pamela G; Gans, Sniezyna Watras; Nikiforov, Konstantin; Cullen, Ken; Galynker, Igor I

    2002-11-01

    Despite the widespread incidence of childhood sexual abuse, there is insufficient investigation into the childhood sexual history of perpetrators. In addition, there is little published on the specific similarities between childhood and adult sexual histories. The present study investigates the incidence of childhood sexual abuse in a carefully characterized sample of male pedophiles compared with a demographically similar control group. Concordance between and cognitive distortions about characteristics of childhood abuse and pedophilic behavior are also studied. Twenty men with pedophilia, heterosexual type were compared with 24 demographically similar, healthy male control subjects on a questionnaire specifically designed to assess childhood sexual history in pedophiles. Sixty percent of pedophiles compared with 4% of control subjects reported adult sexual advances as a child. Seventy-five percent of pedophiles and 22% of control subjects reported a first sexual encounter before age 14 years. About 60% concordance was found between acts experienced as a child and perpetrated as an adult. Finally, numerous inconsistencies throughout the questionnaire add preliminary support for the role of cognitive distortions with regard to childhood and adult sexual history. The present findings replicate the elevated rate of childhood sexual abuse found among pedophiles and are consistent with the notion of a causative relationship between early childhood abuse and later pedophilic behavior.

  13. Childhood Sexual Violence and Consistent, Effective Contraception Use among Young, Sexually Active Urban Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah B. Nelson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Unintended pregnancy (UP is a significant public health problem. The consistent use of effective contraception is the primary method to prevent UP. We examined the role of childhood sexual and physical violence and current interpersonal violence on the risk of unintended pregnancy among young, urban, sexually active women. In particular, we were interested in examining the role of childhood violence and interpersonal violence while recognizing the psychological correlates of experiencing violence (i.e., high depressive symptoms and low self-esteem and consistent use of contraception. For this assessment, 315 sexually active women living in Philadelphia PA were recruited from family planning clinics in 2013. A self-administered, computer-assisted interview was used to collect data on method of contraception use in the past month, consistency of use, experiences with violence, levels of depressive symptoms, self-esteem and sexual self-efficacy, substance use and health services utilization. Fifty percent of young sexually active women reported inconsistent or no contraception use in the past month. Inconsistent users were significantly more likely to report at least one prior episode of childhood sexual violence and were significantly less likely to have received a prescription for contraception from a health care provider. Inconsistent contraception users also reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms and significantly lower levels of self-esteem. The relation between childhood sexual violence and UP remained unchanged in the multivariate models adjusting for self-esteem or depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the long-term consequences of childhood sexual violence, independent of current depressive symptoms and low self-esteem, on consistent use of contraception.

  14. Childhood Sexual Abuse Severity Reconsidered: A Factor Structure of CSA Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, T. Lorraine; Riggs, Matt; Robinson, Jill L.

    2011-01-01

    To address the lack of empirically grounded measures of childhood sexual abuse severity, a survey of self-report items was developed following a thorough review of the childhood sexual abuse literature. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted using data collected from a convenience sample of college students that included 275 females and…

  15. Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates the Association between Sexual Functioning and Sexual Distress in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Kyle R.; Hughan, Corey P.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the degree to which a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) moderates the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Method: Women with (n = 105, M age = 33.71, 66.1% Caucasian) and without (n = 71, M age = 32.63, 74.7% Caucasian) a history of CSA taking part in a larger clinical trial completed…

  16. Prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among Malaysian paramedical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, H S; Yiing, W W; Nurani, H N

    1996-06-01

    There has been increasing awareness that sexual abuse of children is a problem in Malaysia. Existing data is based on notification of cases. Population based studies are required to plan services for sexually abused children. This study utilized trainee paramedical staff as a community population to determine the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was given to student nurses and trainee medical assistants at the Ipoh School of Nursing and Hospital Bahagia Medical Assistant Training School. Questionnaires were distributed directly to all students in a classroom setting and retrieved after a 30-minute interval. Information collected included questions on personal experiences of sexual abuse. Sexual abuse was defined as rape, sodomy, molestation, or exhibitionism occurring to a child less than 18 years of age. Six hundred and sixteen students participated in the study; 6.8% of the students admitted to having been sexually abused in their childhood, 2.1% of males and 8.3% of females. Of those abused, 69% reported sexual abuse involving physical contact, 9.5% of whom experienced sexual intercourse. The age at first abuse was < 10 years in 38.1% of the cases; 59.5% were repeatedly abused and 33.3% had more than one abuser. Of the abusers, 71.4% were known to the respondent, 14.2% of whom were brothers, 24.5% relatives, and 24.5% a family friend. Further, 28.9% of all students knew of an individual who had been sexually abused as a child. While this population may not be entirely reflective of the community, this study does provide an indication of the prevalence of sexual abuse in Malaysian children. The prevalence figures in this study are lower than those reported in industrialized countries and this may reflect local sociocultural limitations in reporting abuse.

  17. Sexual Risk-Taking among High-Risk Urban Women with and without Histories of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Mediating Effects of Contextual Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosack, Katie E.; Randolph, Mary E.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Abbott, Maryann; Smith, Ellen; Weeks, Margaret R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms of risk for urban women at high risk for HIV with and without childhood sexual abuse histories. Childhood sexual abuse survivors reported more unprotected intercourse and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association of STI locus of control with frequency of unprotected sex was fully mediated by…

  18. Normal male childhood and adolescent sexual interactions: implications for sexual orientation of the individual with intersex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter A; Houk, Christopher P

    2005-03-01

    Data provided by 24 adult men, 20 heterosexual and four homosexual, concerning parental, religious, geographic and explicit sexual innuendos, comments and childhood experiences are presented and discussed in an attempt to consider some of the multiple factors impacting the development of sexual orientation. All of the study subjects were normally developed males and were presumed to have been exposed to normal male levels of androgens prenatally. Since the experiences and perceptions reported are conditioned by a unique social environment that has been superimposed on a normal male typical prenatal CNS differentiation, the experiences of these men suggest that affirmation of masculinity, and openness in the realm of social and sexual interaction, may enhance the formation of a heterosexual orientation. Conversely, sexually explicit feedback with critical implications occurred commonly among the homosexual men, which they interpreted as implying an insufficient masculinity. Both innate factors and social influences impact sexual orientation; in some instances males appear to have been homosexual from early childhood onward, while in other cases there appears to have been some degree of conditioning and choice in sexual orientation. Regarding the intersexed male, this suggests that social interactions, particularly those provided by parents, have a major influence on the development of sexual orientation in the child, while all persons involved in these children's lives and particularly those who nurture must be prepared for any sexual orientation that develops.

  19. Childhood sexual abuse: sources of trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, C B

    1993-01-01

    Many American women who were sexually abused as children seek mental health services to help them heal from their abuse. An appreciation of the varied sources of trauma that may stem from a sexual abuse experience may guide clinicians in facilitating a meaningful discussion with survivors of the ways in which their childhood development and their current lives have been influenced by their sexual abuse. Therefore, the goal of this study was to provide a beginning delineation of possible sources of trauma in the abuse situation, based on the retrospective reflections of women who have survived abuse. One hundred and eighty-six survivors were asked to identify the most traumatic aspects of their abuse experience. A content analysis was performed on their written responses, and the following eight categories, reflecting different sources of trauma, were identified: abandonment, powerlessness, violence, betrayal, guilt and shame, loss of self, loss of childhood, and impact on sexual adjustment. Possible treatment implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  20. Childhood Sexual Trauma and Subsequent Parenting Beliefs and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvara, B.J.; Mills-Koonce, R.; Appleyard Carmody, K.; Cox, M

    2016-01-01

    Using propensity-matched controls, the present study examines the long-term adjustment of women reporting Childhood Sexual Trauma (CST) at or before the age of 14 in terms of parenting efficacy and parenting behavior. Data for these analyses were obtained from mother reports and from observational protocols from a longitudinal study of low-income, rural families. The novel use of propensity-matched controls to create a control group matched on family of origin variables provides evidence that, when women with CST are compared with the matched comparison women, females who experienced CST show poorer functioning across multiple domains of parenting (sensitivity, harsh intrusiveness, boundary dissolution), but not in parenting efficacy. Follow up moderation analyses suggest that the potential effects of trauma on parenting behaviors are not attenuated by protective factors such as higher income, higher education, or stable adult relationships. Implications for interventions with childhood sexual trauma histories and directions for future study are proposed. PMID:25680655

  1. The Relationship of Childhood Sexual Abuse to Teenage Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Reinholtz, Cindy; Angelini, Patricia Jo

    1997-01-01

    Examined the sexual history of 2,003 young women to determine whether childhood sexual abuse contributed to a greater risk for teenage pregnancy. Results indicate that sexual abuse alone was not related to the incidence of teenage pregnancy, but sexual precocity was related to much higher incidences of teenage pregnancy. (RJM)

  2. The Relationship of Childhood Sexual Abuse to Teenage Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Reinholtz, Cindy; Angelini, Patricia Jo

    1997-01-01

    Examined the sexual history of 2,003 young women to determine whether childhood sexual abuse contributed to a greater risk for teenage pregnancy. Results indicate that sexual abuse alone was not related to the incidence of teenage pregnancy, but sexual precocity was related to much higher incidences of teenage pregnancy. (RJM)

  3. Neuroticism as a risk factor for child abuse in victims of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boillat, Coralie; Schwab, Nathalie; Stutz, Matthias; Pflueger, Marlon O; Graf, Marc; Rosburg, Timm

    2017-06-01

    Findings on the relationship of experienced sexual abuse and abuse behavior in adulthood are ambiguous. However, associations between experienced abuse and neuroticism as well as between neuroticism and active child abuse have been reported repeatedly. In our study, we compared pedosexual child abusers with consumers of internet child pornography and control subjects with adult-sexual preference with regard to traumatic childhood experience (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, CTQ), personality traits (NEO - Personality Inventory - Revised, NEO-PI-R), and sexual abnormalities (Multiphasic Sex Inventory, MSI). In an initial analysis, sexual abuse experienced in childhood was not directly linked to sexual abuse behavior in adulthood. However, this relationship was mediated by neuroticism. In a second step, the CTQ scales were conflated and, using a structural equation model, direct links between the overall level of abuse experienced in childhood (generally high CTQ levels) and sexual abuse behavior in adulthood revealed again the mediation by neurotic personality. We conclude that the overall level of abuse experienced in childhood in general, and less sexual abuse experience in particular, modulates the tendency for child sexual abuse behavior in adulthood. Data suggest that, depending on the resilience of an individual, abuse experience during childhood increases the likelihood of developing neurotic personality traits in later life, which are in turn considered to increase the risk of child sexual abuse in child sex offenders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Age at Initiation of Injection Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ompad, Danielle C.; Ikeda, Robin M.; Shah, Nina; Fuller, Crystal M.; Bailey, Susan; Morse, Edward; Kerndt, Peter; Maslow, Carey; Wu, Yingfeng; Vlahov, David; Garfein, Richard; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relation between childhood sexual abuse and injection drug use initiation among young adult injection drug users. Methods. We used mixed effect linear models to compare age at first injection among 2143 young injection drug users by first sexual abuse age categories. Results. The participants were predominantly male (63.3%) and White (52.8%). Mean age and age at first injection were 23.7 and 19.6 years, respectively; 307 participants (14.3%) reported childhood sexual abuse. After adjustment for gender, race/ethnicity, noninjection drug use before first injection drug use, and recruitment site, childhood sexual abuse was independently associated with younger age at first injection. Conclusions. Childhood sexual abuse was associated with earlier initiation of injection drug use. These data emphasize the need to integrate substance abuse prevention with postvictimization services for children and adolescents. PMID:15798133

  5. Childhood vulvovaginitis: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsiu-Yuan; Wan, Chuan; Tseng, Ching-Chang

    2006-01-01

    Vaginal discharge in young prepubertal girls is a common problem in clinical practice. No specific infective pathogen is identified in most of the children. The reported common microbes include group A beta-hemolytic streptococci, Haemophilus influenzae and some Gram-negative bacilli. Sexually transmitted pathogens such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis are important causes of vulvovaginitis in children suffering from sexual abuse. We report two cases of prepubertal vulvovaginitis presenting with profuse purulent vaginal discharge, and H. influenzae and N. gonorrhoeae identified respectively. Both girls denied any sexual exposure and there was no evidence of sexual abuse. They responded well to antibiotic treatment, and no symptoms recurred in the following months. We would like to emphasize the defined etiology of childhood vulvovaginitis and appropriate treatment, in addition to gynecological evaluation for evidence of sexual abuse.

  6. Childhood Sexual Victimization, Educational Attainment, and the Returns to Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robst, John

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies show that survivors of childhood sexual abuse suffer as adults from depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol and drug abuse, and other mental illnesses. As such, the effect of experiencing traumatic events during childhood including sexual abuse can have lasting implications. The purpose of this paper is to examine…

  7. Childhood Sexual Victimization, Educational Attainment, and the Returns to Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robst, John

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies show that survivors of childhood sexual abuse suffer as adults from depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol and drug abuse, and other mental illnesses. As such, the effect of experiencing traumatic events during childhood including sexual abuse can have lasting implications. The purpose of this paper is to examine…

  8. Does sexual abuse in childhood cause pedophilia: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, K; Watson, R; Dickey, R

    1990-12-01

    The reliability of the notion that pedophilia is caused by sexual abuse in childhood was explored by examining retrospective self-reports of 344 males. Included in the study were 77 heterosexual pedophiles, 54 homosexual pedophiles, 51 nonpedophilic sex offenders against children, 36 sex offenders against physically mature females, 75 heterosexual paid volunteers who erotically preferred mature females, and 51 homosexual clients who preferred mature males. For each sex offender the differential diagnosis of an erotic preference for minors vs. a preference for physically mature partners was made by means of the phallometric test of erotic gender and age preferences. The analysis of self-reports confirmed that the proportion of pedophiles who report having been sexually abused in childhood by mature persons is larger than that of men who were not charged for or accused of a sex offense against a child though the difference is relatively small (28.6 vs. 13.9 and 10.7% for the heterosexual pedophiles and the two groups of gynephiles, respectively, and 25.9 vs. 11.8% for the homosexual pedophiles and androphiles, respectively). Further analysis demonstrated, however, that pedophiles who admitted having an erotic interest in children significantly more often claimed that they had been sexually abused as children than pedophiles who did not admit having such feelings. This interdependence renders the reliability of these self-reports questionable.

  9. Parental interpretations of “childhood innocence”: implications for early sexuality education

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Purpose:- \\ud Despite general recognition of the benefits of talking openly about sexuality with children, parents encounter and/or create barriers to such communication. One of the key barriers is a desire to protect childhood innocence. This study explores parental interpretations of childhood innocence and the influence this has on their reported practices relating to sexuality-relevant communication with young children.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach:- \\ud One hundred and ten UK paren...

  10. SEXUAL ABUSE IN CHILDHOOD AND ADULT DRUG ADDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Perez del Río

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews several studies on the relationship between having been sexually abused in childhood (CSA and adult drug addiction. In this approach to the subject, seventeen studies and three books that relate the two variables are discussed. It is concluded that there is proof of higher incidence of sexual abuse during childhood among women with addiction problems, and the importance of approaching sexuality and affectiveness in the evaluation of treatment of drug addiction patients is stressed.

  11. Prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual People: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yin; Zheng, Yong

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals, we conducted a meta-analysis that compiled the results of 65 articles across 9 countries. The results revealed no significant difference in the prevalence of child sexual abuse between homosexual and bisexual people for both sexes. The prevalence of child sexual abuse among female sexual minorities was significantly higher than that among male sexual minorities. The lowest prevalence was found in South America, followed by Asia. The definition of child sexual abuse, dimension used to measure sexual orientation, year of data collection, and the mean age of participants at the time of assessment influenced the estimated prevalence of child sexual abuse. We conclude that many variables influence the reported prevalence of child sexual abuse among sexual minorities.

  12. Sexual assault in childhood: risk HIV and AIDS behaviours in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwandure, C

    2007-11-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that sexual assault in childhood is a risk factor in HIV and AIDS prevention and control in adulthood. It comprised 40 participants who were survivors of child sexual abuse and 40 participants who were not sexually abused. The sample had 20 sexually abused men, 20 non sexually abused men, 20 sexually abused women and 20 non sexually abused women. The group that had men and women who had a history of sexual assault reported higher HIV and AIDS risk behaviours than the non-abused comparison group. The survivors of sexual assault also had higher levels of post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, suicide ideation and external locus of control. They reported low self-esteem. This unhealthy psychological functioning was found to be a risk factor in HIV and AIDS prevention and control. Implications for future research are discussed.

  13. Experiences of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Visually Impaired Adults in Norway: Prevalence and Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvam, Marit Hoem

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among visually impaired children and sighted children in Norway. Visually impaired women and men aged 18-65 who lost their sight before age 18 reported sexual abuse with contact before age 18 more often than did the sighted group, and the abuse of the visually impaired children was more…

  14. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Attachment, and Trauma Symptoms in College Females: The Moderating Role of Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspelmeier, Jeffery E.; Elliott, Ann N.; Smith, Christopher H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study tests a model linking attachment, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and adult psychological functioning. It expands on previous work by assessing the degree to which attachment security moderates the relationship between a history of child sexual abuse and trauma-related symptoms in college females. Method: Self-reports of…

  15. The Clinical Correlates of Reported Childhood Sexual Abuse: An Association between Age at Trauma Onset and Severity of Depression and PTSD in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoedl, Aline Ferri; Costa, Mariana Cadrobbi Pupo; Mari, Jair J.; Mello, Marcelo Feijo; Tyrka, Audrey R.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Price, Lawrence H.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the age of self-reported sexual abuse occurrence and the development of post-traumatic stress disorder and/or depressive symptoms in adulthood. Subjects were evaluated for the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder and/or depressive symptoms as well as for a self-reported history of sexual abuse…

  16. Gender variance in childhood and sexual orientation in adulthood: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensma, Thomas D; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2013-11-01

    Several retrospective and prospective studies have reported on the association between childhood gender variance and sexual orientation and gender discomfort in adulthood. In most of the retrospective studies, samples were drawn from the general population. The samples in the prospective studies consisted of clinically referred children. In understanding the extent to which the association applies for the general population, prospective studies using random samples are needed. This prospective study examined the association between childhood gender variance, and sexual orientation and gender discomfort in adulthood in the general population. In 1983, we measured childhood gender variance, in 406 boys and 473 girls. In 2007, sexual orientation and gender discomfort were assessed. Childhood gender variance was measured with two items from the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18. Sexual orientation was measured for four parameters of sexual orientation (attraction, fantasy, behavior, and identity). Gender discomfort was assessed by four questions (unhappiness and/or uncertainty about one's gender, wish or desire to be of the other gender, and consideration of living in the role of the other gender). For both men and women, the presence of childhood gender variance was associated with homosexuality for all four parameters of sexual orientation, but not with bisexuality. The report of adulthood homosexuality was 8 to 15 times higher for participants with a history of gender variance (10.2% to 12.2%), compared to participants without a history of gender variance (1.2% to 1.7%). The presence of childhood gender variance was not significantly associated with gender discomfort in adulthood. This study clearly showed a significant association between childhood gender variance and a homosexual sexual orientation in adulthood in the general population. In contrast to the findings in clinically referred gender-variant children, the presence of a homosexual sexual orientation in

  17. Does Maltreatment in Childhood Affect Sexual Orientation in Adulthood?

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Andrea L; Glymour, M. Maria; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies find a positive association between physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and witnessing violence in childhood and same-sex sexuality in adulthood, but studies directly assessing the association between these diverse types of maltreatment and sexuality cannot disentangle the causal direction because the sequencing of maltreatment and emerging sexuality is difficult to ascertain. Nascent same-sex orientation may increase risk of maltreatment; alternatively, maltreatment m...

  18. Amelioration of sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues in an adult survivor of childhood sexual abuse: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jane E; Wilson, Keith M

    2008-12-01

    Although sexual dysfunction of childhood sexual abuse survivors has received considerable attention, other sexual difficulties experienced by survivors of CSA, such as sexual fantasies to cues of sexual abuse, have received less attention. In this A-B design case study, a young adult female survivor of childhood sexual abuse presented for treatment at a Midwest rape crisis center. After successful treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, she complained of unwanted sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues and concomitant guilt and shame. Following baseline data collection, treatment consisted of self-applied aversion therapy to unwanted sexual arousal to sexual abuse cues. Decrease in sexual arousal to these cues was concurrent with the introduction of treatment. A concomitant decrease in guilt and shame occurred while self-ratings of control increased.

  19. Sexual Function in Women with a History of Intrafamilial Childhood Sexual Abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht

    2011-01-01

    % dyspareunia. The occurrence of sexual problems was significantly correlated to childhood physical violence, current psychological distress, flashbacks in sexual situations and discomfort with physical endearment. The prevalence of sexual pain disorders were also positively correlated to “no adult support......This study investigated sexual function in women with a history of severe intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and the correlation between sexual problems and the severity of CSA, adult support during childhood and current psychiatric symptoms. The sample consisted of 158 women who...... subsequently began specialized group psychotherapy for CSA sequellae. Clinical interview and questionnaires (Present Sexual Function, Sexual and Body Satisfaction, Symptom Check List 90-R) were used for data collection in a cross sectional study design. Non-parametric analysis, linear and logistic regression...

  20. A Meta-Analysis of Disparities in Childhood Sexual Abuse, Parental Physical Abuse, and Peer Victimization Among Sexual Minority and Sexual Nonminority Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshal, Michael P.; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Wei, Chongyi; Wong, Carolyn F.; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Stall, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the likelihood of childhood sexual abuse (under age 18), parental physical abuse, and peer victimization based on sexual orientation. Methods. We conducted a meta-analysis of adolescent school-based studies that compared the likelihood of childhood abuse among sexual minorities vs sexual nonminorities. Results. Sexual minority individuals were on average 3.8, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.4 times more likely to experience sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, or assault at school or to miss school through fear, respectively. Moderation analysis showed that disparities between sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals were larger for (1) males than females for sexual abuse, (2) females than males for assault at school, and (3) bisexual than gay and lesbian for both parental physical abuse and missing school through fear. Disparities did not change between the 1990s and the 2000s. Conclusions. The higher rates of abuse experienced by sexual minority youths may be one of the driving mechanisms underlying higher rates of mental health problems, substance use, risky sexual behavior, and HIV reported by sexual minority adults. PMID:21680921

  1. A comparison of sexual victimization in the childhoods of pedophiles and hebephiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, D M; Bradford, J M; Curry, S

    1993-03-01

    The association between perpetration of sexual abuse and the offender's own victimization as a child has been well documented in the literature. Various researchers have examined this relationship by assessing the exclusiveness of the sexual abuser's behavior, the gender of his victims and the gender of his own childhood abuser. This study was designed to assess the differences between pedophiles and hebephiles in features of their own childhood victimization. Subjects were 135 pedophiles and 43 hebephiles who admitted to their offences. A total of 42% of pedophiles and 44% of hebephiles reported being sexually victimized in their own childhoods. Pedophiles reported being molested at a younger age than hebephiles. Both groups appear to chose their age specific victims in accordance with the age of their own experience of sexual victimization. Although the cause of child molestation remains undetermined these results support social learning and modeling theories.

  2. Multifaceted Glance on Childhood Sexual Abuse and Incest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An experience of domestic violence can lead to permanent physical, mental, and psychological harms, whether the child is a direct victim or a witness. Although having no standard definition, it is generally agreed that childhood sexual abuse and incest are underreported. The majority of sexual abuse happens in childhood, with incest being the most common form. Incest is a sexual activity or assault between family members or close relatives and can be defined as the sexual abuse of the child, as well. On the other hand, pedophilic disorder is defined as having recurrent, intense sexual urges or behaviors involving sexual activity with a preadolescent child, over a period of at least 6 months. In this article, clinical, social, and legal effects from the sexual abuse of results are investigated. Results of our research will be hopefully helpful in informing social policy and guiding mental health practice.

  3. Most Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancers Enjoy Good Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163439.html Most Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancers Enjoy Good Sexual ... toxic treatments were tied to later issues, but most rated sex lives as positive To use the ...

  4. Perceptions of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: Development and Initial Validation of a New Scale to Measure Stereotypes of Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…

  5. Perceptions of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: Development and Initial Validation of a New Scale to Measure Stereotypes of Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…

  6. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Relationship Satisfaction, and Sexual Risk Taking in a Community Sample of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Maria; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol; Livingston, Jennifer A.

    2005-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been proposed to influence both women's adult sexual risk behaviors and the quality of their intimate relationships. Among a household sample of women (n = 732), good fit was obtained for a model in which CSA predicted Wave 1 male partner sexual risk and aggression characteristics, resulting in lower relationship…

  7. Parental Interpretations of "Childhood Innocence": Implications for Early Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Laura; Stone, Nicole; Ingham, Roger; Bengry-Howell, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite general recognition of the benefits of talking openly about sexuality with children, parents encounter and/or create barriers to such communication. One of the key barriers is a desire to protect childhood innocence. The purpose of this paper is to explore parental interpretations of childhood innocence and the influence this has…

  8. Role of Body Esteem in the Sexual Excitation and Inhibition Responses of Women With and Without a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilimnik, Chelsea D; Meston, Cindy M

    2016-11-01

    Women's sexuality is influenced by their perceptions of their bodies. Negative body appraisals have been implicated in the development and maintenance of sexual concerns in women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The sexuality of these women is often expressed in extremes of approach and avoidant sexual tendencies, which have been related to the sexual inhibition and sexual excitation pathways of the dual control model. To test the influence of body esteem on the sexual excitation and inhibition responses of women with and without a history of CSA. One hundred thirty-nine women with CSA and 83 non-abused women reported on their abuse history, depressive symptomology, sexual response, and affective appraisals of their body. Validated self-report measurements of sexual excitation and inhibition responses (Sexual Excitation/Sexual Inhibition Inventory for Women) and body esteem (Body Esteem Scale) were administered. Body esteem was significantly associated with sexual inhibition responses of women regardless of CSA history status but was significantly related only to the sexual excitation responses of women with a CSA history. Perceived sexual attractiveness was a unique predictor of sexual excitation in women with a history of CSA. Women with a history of CSA have lower body esteem than non-abused women, particularly in self-perceived sexual attractiveness, and these perceptions appear to influence their sexual responses by acting on the sexual excitation and inhibition response pathways. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of childhood sexual histories in subjects with pedophilia or opiate addiction and healthy controls: is childhood sexual abuse a risk factor for addictions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa J; Forman, Howard; Steinfeld, Matthew; Fradkin, Yuli; Frenda, Steven; Galynker, Igor

    2010-11-01

    Given the recent interest in the concept of sexual addictions, it is instructive to study subjects with pedophilia alongside chemically addicted individuals and non-addicted controls in order to help identify which factors may determine the objects of people's respective addictions, as well as any factors that may predispose people to developing an addictive disorder. In this study, we considered whether childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a specific risk factor for pedophilia as opposed to other types of addictive disorders by comparing the childhood sexual histories of 48 pedophilic sex offenders, 25 subjects with opiate addiction in remission, and 61 healthy controls. CSA was assessed with The Sexual History Questionnaire and the Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Compared with both opiate addicted subjects and healthy controls, subjects with pedophilia were more likely to report experiencing adult sexual advances when they were children and a first sexual contact by age 13 with a partner at least 5 years older. Although both subjects with pedophilia and those with opiate addiction first had sex at a younger age than healthy controls, opiate addicted subjects, compared with healthy controls, reported neither increased reception of sexual advances as children nor increased rates of first sexual contact before age 13 with a partner at least 5 years older. Further, subjects with pedophilia but not those with opiate addiction scored significantly higher than healthy controls on the CTQ. Sexual abuse in childhood may be a specific risk factor for sexual addictions such as pedophilia but may not be a specific risk factor for chemical addictions.

  10. Reactions to research participation in victims of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Christina; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2013-10-01

    We examined whether adults with a documented or self-reported history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) report more emotional reactions and negative responses to research participation and whether psychiatric symptoms play a moderating role in their reactions. Using a prospective cohort design, individuals with documented histories of CSA and non-abused matched controls were followed up and interviewed in adulthood (n = 460). Reactions to research participation were measured with a brief questionnaire. Concurrent symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTSD were assessed via standardized measures. Results showed that those with a history of CSA, documented or self-reported, experienced similar reactions compared to controls. Psychiatric symptoms predicted stronger emotional reactions and more negative responses, but also greater personal benefit, regardless of CSA history.

  11. Does maltreatment in childhood affect sexual orientation in adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrea L; Glymour, M Maria; Koenen, Karestan C

    2013-02-01

    Epidemiological studies find a positive association between physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and witnessing violence in childhood and same-sex sexuality in adulthood, but studies directly assessing the association between these diverse types of maltreatment and sexuality cannot disentangle the causal direction because the sequencing of maltreatment and emerging sexuality is difficult to ascertain. Nascent same-sex orientation may increase risk of maltreatment; alternatively, maltreatment may shape sexual orientation. Our study used instrumental variable models based on family characteristics that predict maltreatment but are not plausibly influenced by sexual orientation (e.g., having a stepparent) as natural experiments to investigate whether maltreatment might increase the likelihood of same-sex sexuality in a nationally representative sample (n = 34,653). In instrumental variable models, history of sexual abuse predicted increased prevalence of same-sex attraction by 2.0 percentage points [95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-2.5], any same-sex partners by 1.4 percentage points (95 % CI = 1.0-1.9), and same-sex identity by 0.7 percentage points (95 % CI = 0.4-0.9). Effects of sexual abuse on men's sexual orientation were substantially larger than on women's. Effects of non-sexual maltreatment were significant only for men and women's sexual identity and women's same-sex partners. While point estimates suggest much of the association between maltreatment and sexual orientation may be due to the effects of maltreatment on sexual orientation, confidence intervals were wide. Our results suggest that causal relationships driving the association between sexual orientation and childhood abuse may be bidirectional, may differ by type of abuse, and may differ by sex. Better understanding of this potentially complex causal structure is critical to developing targeted strategies to reduce sexual orientation disparities in exposure to abuse.

  12. Does Maltreatment in Childhood Affect Sexual Orientation in Adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Glymour, M. Maria; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies find a positive association between physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and witnessing violence in childhood and same-sex sexuality in adulthood, but studies directly assessing the association between these diverse types of maltreatment and sexuality cannot disentangle the causal direction because the sequencing of maltreatment and emerging sexuality is difficult to ascertain. Nascent same-sex orientation may increase risk of maltreatment; alternatively, maltreatment may shape sexual orientation. Our study used instrumental variable models based on family characteristics that predict maltreatment but are not plausibly influenced by sexual orientation (e.g., having a stepparent) as natural experiments to investigate whether maltreatment might increase the likelihood of same-sex sexuality in a nationally representative sample (n = 34,653). In instrumental variable models, history of sexual abuse predicted increased prevalence of same-sex attraction by 2.0 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4, 2.5), any same-sex partners by 1.4 percentage points (95% CI = 1.0, 1.9), and same-sex identity by 0.7 percentage points (95% CI = 0.4, 0.9). Effects of sexual abuse on men’s sexual orientation were substantially larger than on women’s. Effects of non-sexual maltreatment were significant only for men and women’s sexual identity and women’s same-sex partners. While point estimates suggest much of the association between maltreatment and sexual orientation may be due to the effects of maltreatment on sexual orientation, confidence intervals were wide. Our results suggest that causal relationships driving the association between sexual orientation and childhood abuse may be bidirectional, may differ by type of abuse, and may differ by sex. Better understanding of this potentially complex causal structure is critical to developing targeted strategies to reduce sexual orientation disparities in exposure to abuse. PMID:22976519

  13. Predicting the child-rearing practices of mothers sexually abused in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, A M

    2001-03-01

    Although empirical investigations have established a relationship between childhood sexual abuse and numerous long-term consequences, surprisingly little research has addressed the possible effects of childhood victimization on the later child-rearing practices of adult survivors. The present study examined hypothesized predictors of three parenting styles among adult survivors of sexual abuse as compared with adult children of alcoholic parents. Forty-five clinical outpatients completed a questionnaire battery assessing experiences of childhood abuse, current economic and social resources, and parenting attitudes and practices. The child-rearing practices of participants were compared with those reported by a community sample of 717 mothers. Additional analyses examined the extent to which sexual abuse and its adult sequelae predicted the parenting behaviors reported by the present sample. Both sexual abuse survivors and children of alcoholics reported significantly higher rates of permissive parenting practices than mothers in the community sample. Multiple regression analyses further revealed unique relationships between sexual abuse and parenting, over and above the variance explained by physical abuse, current socioeconomic status, and the experience of growing up in an alcoholic home. Mothers' sexual abuse severity, social support satisfaction, and dysfunctional parenting attitudes moderated several of these relationships. The present findings suggest that sexual abuse and its adult sequelae may have negative consequences for the parenting practices of survivors, particularly for survivors' ability to provide their children with appropriate structure, consistent discipline, and clear behavioral expectations. Implications for the psychosocial development of survivors' children are discussed.

  14. Childhood gender-typed behavior and adolescent sexual orientation: A longitudinal population-based study.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Gu; Kung, Karson TF; Hines, Melissa Marie

    2017-01-01

    Lesbian and gay individuals have been reported to show more interest in other-sex, and/or less interest in same-sex, toys, playmates, and activities in childhood than heterosexual counterparts. Yet, most of the relevant evidence comes from retrospective studies or from prospective studies of clinically-referred, extremely gender nonconforming children. In addition, findings are mixed regarding the relationship between childhood gender-typed behavior and the later sexual orientation spectrum f...

  15. Effects of Childhood Sexual Abuse on the Psychosocial Functioning of Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strean, Herbert S.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews research on effects of childhood sexual abuse in adulthood. Describes individualizing assessment of adults who have been abused and aspects of treatment illustrated by case studies. Concludes social workers need to expand definition of childhood sexual abuse. (ABL)

  16. Emotions and Suicidal Ideation among Depressed Women with Childhood Sexual Abuse Histories

    OpenAIRE

    You, Sungeun; Talbot, Nancy L.; He, Hua; Conner, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    Depressed women with sexual abuse histories have a heightened risk of suicidal ideation (SI), which may be only in part attributable to psychiatric symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotions and SI were studied among 106 women with histories of childhood sexual abuse enrolled in treatment trials for major depression. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 10, 24, and 36 weeks. Sadness, guilt, and shame-proneness were associated with self-reported and observer-r...

  17. Psychogenic Amnesia for Childhood Sexual Abuse and Risk for Sexual Revictimisation in Both Adolescence and Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    This study was an investigation of the additional risk conferred by the experience of psychogenic amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the likelihood of becoming a victim of sexual assault in later life. A total of 210 community respondents completed a retrospective web-based trauma survey. The majority of respondents were…

  18. Associations among Childhood Sexual Abuse, Language Use, and Adult Sexual Functioning and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. Methods: We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language…

  19. Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Predictor of Adult Female Sexual Dysfunction: A Study of Couples Seeking Sex Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B.; Durlak, Joseph A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of 359 married women who sought sex therapy with their spouses found a connection between adult female sexual dysfunction and childhood sexual abuse. Abuse involving sexual penetration was specifically associated with adult sexual dysfunction. Future research on additional variables that contribute to sexual dysfunction is urged. (CR)

  20. Childhood and Adolescent Sexuality, Islam, and Problematics of Sex Education: A Call for Re-Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaie, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a critical examination of the problematics of childhood and adolescent sexuality and sex education in an Islamic context. By exploring conceptions of (pre-marital) sexuality, childhood, and maturity/adulthood, it is suggested that: (i) "childhood" and "sexuality" do not coexist harmoniously in Islamic…

  1. Childhood and Adolescent Sexuality, Islam, and Problematics of Sex Education: A Call for Re-Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaie, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a critical examination of the problematics of childhood and adolescent sexuality and sex education in an Islamic context. By exploring conceptions of (pre-marital) sexuality, childhood, and maturity/adulthood, it is suggested that: (i) "childhood" and "sexuality" do not coexist harmoniously in Islamic…

  2. Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Narrative Analyses of Types, Experiences, and Processes of Remembering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, M. Sue

    2007-01-01

    The study explored types of memory for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in a clinical sample of 30 women and identified factors that led some women (n = 24) to report recovered memories. Questionnaires produced three types of memory: always (n = 6), recovered (n = 14), both (n = 10); however, analysis of narrative data also revealed the use of…

  3. Three Types of Memory for Childhood Sexual Abuse: Relationships to Characteristics of Abuse and Psychological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, M. Sue

    2008-01-01

    Data from a clinical sample (N = 88) reporting childhood sexual abuse was compared by types of memory, abuse characteristics, and psychological symptoms. Three types of memory were identified from a questionnaire ("Always" n = 27 [31%], "Recovered" n = 41 [46%], and "Both" n = 20 [23%]). When compared with narrative…

  4. Three Types of Memory for Childhood Sexual Abuse: Relationships to Characteristics of Abuse and Psychological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, M. Sue

    2008-01-01

    Data from a clinical sample (N = 88) reporting childhood sexual abuse was compared by types of memory, abuse characteristics, and psychological symptoms. Three types of memory were identified from a questionnaire ("Always" n = 27 [31%], "Recovered" n = 41 [46%], and "Both" n = 20 [23%]). When compared with narrative…

  5. Childhood experiences of incarcerated male child sexual abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Linda H

    2010-10-01

    While numerous efforts have been made to understand the impact of child sexual abuse, little has been done to examine the childhood experiences of those who abuse children. Child sexual abusers have been studied from quantitative perspectives using behavioral checklists, parental-bonding surveys, and sexual history questionnaires. The purpose of this study was to explore incarcerated child sexual abusers' recollections of their childhood experiences using the descriptive existential lens of phenomenology. Eight incarcerated male child sexual abusers described their childhood from existential perspectives of lived space, lived other, lived body, and lived time via face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Analysis was accomplished through the qualitative, descriptive method of Max van Manen. Rich descriptions of the participants' insights into their daily childhood life experiences that shaped their self-concepts and contributed to their adult behaviors were gathered. Four major themes were identified: (1) failure to root, (2) what you see is what you learn, (3) stupid is as stupid does, and (4) life's moments. Data from this study suggest that the experiences of childhood significantly contribute to an adult self-concept that can be distorted by the lack of a secure home space, maladaptive relationships, internalization of inappropriate behavior, and a lack of significant family development. This study explores the psychosocial and behavioral consequences of early childhood experiences. The findings support the need for family and psychological mental health nurse practitioners to be more aware of early home environments; improve their assessment of children's developing self-concept and the potential for abusive relationships.

  6. Childhood sexual abuse moderates the relationship between sexual functioning and eating disorder psychopathology in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: a 1-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Giovanni; Lo Sauro, Carolina; Lelli, Lorenzo; Godini, Lucia; Vignozzi, Linda; Rellini, Alessandra H; Faravelli, Carlo; Maggi, Mario; Ricca, Valdo

    2013-09-01

    Sexual dysfunctions that affect all aspects of sexuality are common in patients with eating disorders. However, only few studies have provided longitudinal information on sexual functioning in patients with eating disorders. To evaluate the longitudinal course of sexual functioning, and how changes in psychopathology and history of childhood abuse interact with sexual functioning in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). A total of 27 patients with AN and 31 with BN were assessed at baseline and at 1-year follow-up after a standard individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Subjects were studied by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV, Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberg's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Symptom Checklist-90, and Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. After treatment, both patients with AN and BN showed a significant improvement in the FSFI total score (P < 0.01 for both AN and BN) and all FSFI subscales, without significant between groups differences. Patients reporting childhood sexual abuse did not show a significant improvement in sexual functioning (β = 0.05; P = 0.58). Reduction in eating disorder severity was directly associated with FSFI improvement, but only in those subjects with no history of sexual abuse (β = 0.28; P = 0.01). Eating disorder-specific psychopathology could be considered as a specific maintaining factor for sexual dysfunction in eating disorders subjects. Subjects reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse represent a subpopulation of patients with a profound uneasiness, involving body perception, as well as sexual functioning, which appeared not to be adequately challenged during standard CBT intervention. The results, though original, should be considered as preliminary, given the relatively small sample size

  7. Neurodevelopmental Biology Associated with Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bellis, Michael D.; Spratt, Eve G.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment appears to be the single most preventable cause of mental illness and behavioral dysfunction in the United States. Few published studies examine the developmental and the psychobiological consequences of sexual abuse. There are multiple mechanisms through which sexual abuse can cause post-traumatic stress disorder, activate…

  8. The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jacqueline C.; Bewell, Carmen; Blackmore, Elizabeth; Woodside, D. Blake

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on clinical characteristics and premature termination of treatment in anorexia nervosa (AN). Method: The participants were 77 consecutive patients with AN admitted to an inpatient eating disorders unit. The patients were assessed in terms of eating disorder…

  9. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adult Psychiatric Morbidity, and Criminal Outcomes in Women Assessed by Medium Secure Forensic Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Mairead; Whitworth, Helen

    2013-01-01

    There is little literature on childhood sexual abuse in women seen by forensic services. A cohort of 225 cases of women seen by forensic services in a medium secure unit in the UK were examined, and childhood sexual abuse and non-childhood sexual abuse cases were compared. Over half the sample had a history of childhood sexual abuse, and 5.6% of…

  10. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adult Psychiatric Morbidity, and Criminal Outcomes in Women Assessed by Medium Secure Forensic Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Mairead; Whitworth, Helen

    2013-01-01

    There is little literature on childhood sexual abuse in women seen by forensic services. A cohort of 225 cases of women seen by forensic services in a medium secure unit in the UK were examined, and childhood sexual abuse and non-childhood sexual abuse cases were compared. Over half the sample had a history of childhood sexual abuse, and 5.6% of…

  11. Clinical note: childhood neurotic disorders with a sexual content need not imply child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, N; Fitzpatrick, C; Fitzgerald, E

    1991-07-01

    Two cases are described of childhood obsessional states in which the content of the symptomatology led parents and professionals to suspect child sexual abuse. Following assessment it was felt, on the balance of probabilities, unlikely that child sexual abuse had occurred in either case. Both children had previously engaged in "sex play" with peers. Maternal attitudes to sexuality were felt to have influenced their daughters' views about sexual behaviour and to have contributed to the children's guilt feelings. Response to appropriate treatment was rapid and has been sustained in the short-term. The importance of avoiding lengthy and possibly damaging assessment procedures in such cases is discussed.

  12. Psychiatric symptoms and same-sex sexual attraction and behavior in light of childhood gender atypical behavior and parental relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanko, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka; Witting, Katarina; Varjonen, Markus; Jern, Patrik; Johansson, Ada; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Kenneth Sandnabba, N

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relation between the level of current symptoms of depression and anxiety and recalled childhood gender atypical behavior (GAB), and quality of relationships with parents among men and women who reported same-sex sexual attraction or engaged in same-sex sexual behavior and men and women who did not. Matched pairs, 79 men (n = 158) and 148 women (n = 296), with equal levels of GAB were created of Finnish participants with either same-sex sexual attraction or behavior and participants without. The measures used were retrospective questionnaires. Ratings of maternal and paternal over-control and coldness differed as a function of same-sex sexual attraction or behavior. Childhood GAB was correlated with negative ratings of parental relationships. Both same-sex sexual attraction or behavior and a history of childhood GAB affected the reported levels of current depression and anxiety. Only gender typical participants with no same-sex sexual attraction or behavior reported significantly lower levels of symptoms. The findings suggest that childhood GAB is related to later distress both among hetero- and homosexual individuals. The elevated level of psychological distress among homosexual individuals, reported in several studies, might--to some extent--be caused by their generally higher levels of childhood GAB as opposed to a homosexual orientation per se.

  13. Aspects of Sexuality in Adolescents and Adults Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Lucrecia Cabral; Gillberg, Carina I; Cederlund, Mats; Hagberg, Bibbi; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2016-09-01

    The literature concerning sexuality in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is limited regarding inappropriate sexual behaviours and paraphilias and its relation to age, verbal ability, symptom severity, intellectual ability, or adaptive functioning. A cohort of 184 adolescents and young adults (ages 15-39 years) with ASD diagnosed in childhood, including both low and high functioning individuals, was examined. The large majority were found to have a sexual interest and showed interest towards the opposite sex. Inappropriate sexual behaviours and paraphilias were reported for about a fourth of the individuals. No relationships were found between inappropriate sexual behaviours and any of the background variables listed above. However, associations were found between paraphilias and ASD symptom severity, intellectual ability, and adaptive functioning.

  14. Childhood and adolescent sexual behaviors predict adult sexual orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith W. Beard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anonymous retrospective data were provided by 3,443 adult participants via computer-assisted self-interview. This was the first study focused on determinants of adult sexual orientation to adjust for the effects of same-sex sibling incest. Five measures of adult sexual orientations (ASOs provided evidence consistent with the theory that ASOs result from early sex-specific romantic attachment, conditioning caused by early sexual experiences with partners, and other experiences, such as early masturbation using human images, acting synergistically with critical period learning, and sexual imprinting. Early same-sex crushes were the most powerful predictor of ASOs, and they also increased the likelihood of engaging in early same-sex partnered and masturbation behaviors. Incestuous experiences with same-sex siblings affected the ASOs of the incest participants. And, lesbian, gay, and bisexual participants tended to have an earlier onset of puberty than heterosexual controls within sexes. However, statistical analyses showed that the incest and puberty effects were mathematically explained by the participant’s early sexual experiences with partners and other experiences such as masturbation using human images. Early same-sex crushes were predicted by nuclear family variables implying that same-sex crushes were more likely when the opposite-sex parent modeled an unsatisfactory heterosexual romantic partner.

  15. Sexual abuse in childhood and the mentally disordered female offender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Matthew

    2010-10-01

    This study examines the role that a history of child sexual abuse played in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders in a sample of 321 female offenders incarcerated in a maximum-security prison for women. The results show that a history of child sexual abuse increases the likelihood that an inmate would receive mental health treatment. Psychotropic medication is frequently prescribed in response to adjustment problems associated with childhood sexual abuse. White women who exhibit adjustment problems associated with a history of child sexual abuse are especially likely to be diagnosed as mentally disordered at admission and to be sent to the mental health unit for treatment. In the absence of a diagnosed mental disorder at admission, women who receive psychotropic medication to help them adjust to prison life are likely to be diagnosed with a mental disorder later on.

  16. Childhood Gender-Typed Behavior and Adolescent Sexual Orientation: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gu; Kung, Karson T F; Hines, Melissa

    2017-02-20

    Lesbian and gay individuals have been reported to show more interest in other-sex, and/or less interest in same-sex, toys, playmates, and activities in childhood than heterosexual counterparts. Yet, most of the relevant evidence comes from retrospective studies or from prospective studies of clinically referred, extremely gender nonconforming children. In addition, findings are mixed regarding the relation between childhood gender-typed behavior and the later sexual orientation spectrum from exclusively heterosexual to exclusively lesbian/gay. The current study drew a sample (2,428 girls and 2,169 boys) from a population-based longitudinal study, and found that the levels of gender-typed behavior at ages 3.5 and 4.75 years, although less so at age 2.5 years, significantly and consistently predicted adolescents' sexual orientation at age 15 years, both when sexual orientation was conceptualized as 2 groups or as a spectrum. In addition, within-individual change in gender-typed behavior during the preschool years significantly related to adolescent sexual orientation, especially in boys. These results suggest that the factors contributing to the link between childhood gender-typed behavior and sexual orientation emerge during early development. Some of those factors are likely to be nonsocial, because nonheterosexual individuals appear to diverge from gender norms regardless of social encouragement to conform to gender roles. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Prenatal endocrine influences on sexual orientation and on sexually differentiated childhood behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Both sexual orientation and sex-typical childhood behaviors, such as toy, playmate and activity preferences, show substantial sex differences, as well as substantial variability within each sex. In other species, behaviors that show sex differences are typically influenced by exposure to gonadal steroids, particularly testosterone and its metabolites, during early development (prenatally or neonatally). This article reviews the evidence regarding prenatal influences of gonadal steroids on human sexual orientation, as well as sex-typed childhood behaviors that predict subsequent sexual orientation. The evidence supports a role for prenatal testosterone exposure in the development of sex-typed interests in childhood, as well as in sexual orientation in later life, at least for some individuals. It appears, however, that other factors, in addition to hormones, play an important role in determining sexual orientation. These factors have not been well-characterized, but possibilities include direct genetic effects, and effects of maternal factors during pregnancy. Although a role for hormones during early development has been established, it also appears that there may be multiple pathways to a given sexual orientation outcome and some of these pathways may not involve hormones. PMID:21333673

  18. Shame and Guilt in Men Exposed to Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Qualitative Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorahy, Martin J.; Clearwater, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of shame and guilt in adult males sexually abused as children. Seven participants attending a service for male sexual abuse completed measures of shame, guilt, dissociation, and childhood trauma history and subsequently participated in a focus group. All participants experienced childhood sexual abuse in the…

  19. Child Maltreatment and Women’s Adult Sexual Risk Behavior: Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Unique Risk Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated (a) whether childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was uniquely associated with adult sexual risk behavior, after controlling for other types of childhood maltreatment, and (b) whether there were additive or interactive effects of different types of maltreatment on adult sexual risk behavior. Participants were 414 women (M age = 28 years) attending a publicly-funded STD clinic. All women completed a computerized survey assessing childhood maltreatment (sexual, physical, psychological abuse, and neglect) and sexual risk behavior. Analyses showed that sexual abuse, physical abuse, psychological abuse, and neglect were associated with adult sexual risk behavior. Multivariate analyses that controlled for all other forms of child maltreatment showed that only CSA was uniquely associated with adult sexual risk behavior (i.e., percentage of episodes of unprotected sex in the past 3 months and number of lifetime partners). We found little support for an additive or an interactive model of the effects of different types of childhood maltreatment on adult sexual risk behavior; CSA alone was the best predictor of adult sexual risk behavior. Sexual risk reduction interventions are needed for women who were sexually abused as children. Continued research on the effects of multi-type maltreatment on adult sexual risk behavior is needed. PMID:20930181

  20. Childhood sexual violence in Zimbabwe: evidence for the epidemic against girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Lauren; Mungate, Taizivei; Chigiji, Handrick; Salama, Peter; Nolan, Anthony; Sammon, Elayn; Muwoni, Leon

    2015-08-01

    Sexual abuse during childhood is a public health and human rights concern throughout the world, including Sub-Saharan Africa. In 2011, Zimbabwe initiated national prevalence data collection on violence against children to inform government policy and programs. We interviewed 567 females and 589 males, aged 18-24 years following standardized and previously tested survey methods from the region. Of females 32.5%, and of males 8.9%, reported experiencing sexual violence before age 18. Most female (62.7%) and male (47.9%) victims of sexual violence experienced more than one incident of sexual violence prior to age 18 years. Three in four females (77.7%) and one in four males (26.7%) of those who experienced sexual violence reported that the first incident was perpetrated by a boyfriend or girlfriend. Few victims received professional help (2.7% of females and 2.4% of males who had reported experiencing sexual violence). Violence against girls is at epidemic levels in Zimbabwe. Most sexual violence against girls occurs within the context of peer relationships. Child victims who seek potentially life-saving support tend not to receive it. This study is evidence of a national public health and child rights emergency in the country and a case for increased, longer-term investment by the government and its development partners in policy reform for enhancing adolescent girls' empowerment and protection.

  1. Mental health, childhood abuse and HIV sexual risk behaviour among university students in Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Tiembre, Issaka

    2013-06-11

    Little focus has been paid to the role of poor mental health and childhood abuse among young people with regard to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviour and HIV prevention in Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the association between mental health, childhood abuse and HIV sexual risk behaviour among a sample of university students in Ivory Coast. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with undergraduate students that were recruited randomly from classes at the Félix Houphouët Boigny University of Cocody. The sample included 824 university students (50% men and 50% women), with a mean age of 23.7 years (SD = 2.7). Of the 824 university students who completed the survey, 17.6% reported depression, 10.8% screened positive for post-traumatic stress disorder, 8.3% reported at least monthly heavy episodic drinking, 13.5% reported childhood physical abuse and 4.7% sexual abuse, 33.9% had two or more sexual partners in the past 12 months, 66.3% had inconsistent condom use, 23.6% had alcohol use in the context of sex and 16.7% had a history of a sexually transmitted infection In multivariable analysis among men, lack of religiousness and alcohol use in the context of sex were associated with HIV risk behaviour, and among women, poorer family background, experience of sexual and physical partner violence, alcohol use in the context of sex and depression were associated with HIV risk behaviour. Poor mental health (depression) including alcohol use and partner violence was found to be associated with HIV risk behaviour. Coordinated mental health and sexual and reproductive health services to meet the needs of university students would be desirable.

  2. The prevention of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David

    2009-01-01

    David Finkelhor examines initiatives to prevent child sexual abuse, which have focused on two primary strategies--offender management and school-based educational programs. Recent major offender managment initiatives have included registering sex offenders, notifying communities about their presence, conducting background employment checks, controlling where offenders can live, and imposing longer prison sentences. Although these initiatives win approval from both the public and policy makers, little evidence exists that they are effective in preventing sexual abuse. Moreover, these initiatives, cautions Finkelhor, are based on an overly stereotyped characterization of sexual abusers as pedophiles, guileful strangers who prey on children in public and other easy-access environments and who are at high risk to re-offend once caught. In reality the population is much more diverse. Most sexual abusers are not strangers or pedophiles; many (about a third) are themselves juveniles. Many have relatively low risks for re-offending once caught. Perhaps the most serious shortcoming to offender management as a prevention strategy, Finkelhor argues, is that only a small percentage of new offenders have a prior sex offense record that would have involved them in the management system. He recommends using law enforcement resources to catch more undetected offenders and concentrating intensive management efforts on those at highest risk to re-offend. Finkelhor explains that school-based educational programs teach children such skills as how to identify dangerous situations, refuse an abuser's approach, break off an interaction, and summon help. The programs also aim to promote disclosure, reduce self-blame, and mobilize bystanders. Considerable evaluation research exists about these programs, suggesting that they achieve certain of their goals. Research shows, for example, that young people can and do acquire the concepts. The programs may promote disclosure and help children

  3. [Childhood sexual traumatic events and sexual life and relationship of a patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobański, Jerzy A; Klasa, Katarzyna; Müldner-Nieckowski, Łukasz; Dembińska, Edyta; Krzysztof, Rutkowski; Mielimaka, Michał; Smiatek-Mazgaj, Bogna

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of links between traumatic events of sexual nature recollected from the past and patients' later functioning in sexual life and relationships. Comorbidity of memories of traumatic sexual events from childhood and adolescence in patients with the features of their current partner relationships was analysed on the basis of Live Inventory completed by 2,582 women and 1,347 men, undergoing treatment between the years 1980-2002, before they were admitted to a day ward of neurotic disorder department. The existence of numerous significant links was observed e.g. the information regarding incest or incest attempt experience was related with a significant risk ofa sexual life assessment as completely dissatisfying in women (OR = 2.71) and almost completely dissatisfying in men (OR = 2.38). Sexual initiation by rape was related with women's more frequent incidence of getting married as a result of social pressure (OR = 3.77) and a feeling of hatred towards a partner (OR = 5.41). Men and women who considered themselves completely sexually uneducated (before the age of 18) assessed their sexual life as completely dissatisfying (OR = 2.48 and OR = 2.07), which was similar to men who would get punished for masturbation or sexual plays by their guardians (OR=2.68). Traumatic events and circumstances relating to sexuality, indicated in the questionnaire interview, turned out to be connected with the risk of dysfunctions in a sexual life and relationship. The traumas included, among others, rape during initiation, early initiation, incest, but also unfavourable circumstances of less traumatic nature such as a lack of sexual education, punishment for masturbation, "mostly undesired initiation". Their likely effects were rooted in relationship dysfunctions: reasons for their formation, power division, instability, problems with resolving conflicts and, most of all, sexual life dysfunctions. The results were obtained on the basis of simple questionnaire questions

  4. Impact of Remembering Childhood Sexual Abuse on Addiction Recovery for Young Adult Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Christina R.; Brooks-Livingston, Angela

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the impact of childhood sexual abuse on young adult lesbians' sexual identity and their recovery from chemical dependency. The authors recommend that counselors assess for sexual orientation (past and present), sexual abuse, and possible dual diagnosis. Implications for counselors are discussed.

  5. Further Understanding the Systemic Effects of Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Comparison of Two Groups of Clinical Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Briana S.; Wampler, Karen S.

    2002-01-01

    Study compared female childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors and their male partners with a group of couples reporting no CSA. Both female CSA survivors and their partners reported higher symptoms of stress, suggesting support for the theory of secondary traumatic stress. Relationship impairment results did not support the hypothesis that CSA…

  6. Childhood sexual abuse of women in Greenland and its developmental correlates among their children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baviskar, Siddhartha; Christensen, Else

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The objective was to study the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among the mothers of children in Greenland and its association with the psychosocial adjustment of their children. Study design. The study was based on a 2007–2008 survey of a national sample of children...... in Greenland designed by researchers at SFI – The Danish National Centre for Social Research in collaboration with the Greenlandic Home Rule. The survey was conducted via telephone interviews with the children’s mothers. Methods. The relationship between the mothers’ childhood sexual abuse and their children......’s psychosocial adjustment was examined using OLS regression. Each mother’s CSA was measured by a direct question and the child’s psychosocial adjustment was measured by the total difficulties score on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results. Thirty-six percent of the mothers reported having been...

  7. Long-term correlates of childhood abuse among adults with severe mental illness: adult victimization, substance abuse, and HIV sexual risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Christina S; Kershaw, Trace S; Hansen, Nathan B; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2009-04-01

    The prevalence of childhood sexual and physical abuse among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) is disproportionately high. Adults with SMI also engage in high rates of HIV risk behaviors. This study examined the association between childhood abuse and adult victimization, substance abuse, and lifetime HIV sexual risk in a sample of 152 adults with SMI receiving community mental health services. Structured interviews assessed psychiatric, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Seventy percent reported childhood physical and/or sexual abuse, and 32% reported both types of abuse. Participants with childhood abuse were more likely to report adult victimization and greater HIV risk. A structural equation model found that childhood abuse was directly and indirectly associated with HIV risk through drug abuse and adult vicitimization. Integrated treatment approaches that address interpersonal violence and substance abuse may be necessary for HIV risk reduction in this population.

  8. Mothers who were sexually abused during childhood are more likely to have a child victim of sexual violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Wearick-Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA seems to be higher among victims of sexual abuse. In this sense, experiences related to sexual violence can perpetuate within the family context itself in various ways. Here, we investigate the association between being exposed to CSA and having a child victim of sexual abuse. Method: We used a sample with 123 mothers, who were divided into 2 groups: one consisting of 41 mothers of sexually abused children and another consisting of 82 mothers of non-sexually abused children. History of exposure to CSA was evaluated by means of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire - Short Form (CTQ and we used a logistic regression model to estimate the prediction values regarding having or not a child exposed to sexual violence. Results: Mothers of sexually abused children had significantly higher scores on CTQ, especially on the sexual abuse subscale (SA. According to our logistic regression model, higher scores on the CTQ significantly predicted the status of being a mother of children exposed to sexual violence in our sample (Wald = 7.074; p = 0.008; Exp(B = 1.681. Years of formal education reduced the likelihood of having a child victim of sexual violence (Wald = 18.994; p = 0.001; Exp(B = 0.497. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the importance of a possible intergenerational effect of sexual abuse. Family intervention and prevention against childhood maltreatment should take this issue in account.

  9. Examining the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder: Does Social Support Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzy, Meredith B.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder is a prominent issue in the etiological research on borderline personality disorder. This study further explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and the development of borderline personality features while evaluating the moderating role of a primary…

  10. Examining the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder: Does Social Support Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzy, Meredith B.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder is a prominent issue in the etiological research on borderline personality disorder. This study further explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and the development of borderline personality features while evaluating the moderating role of a primary…

  11. The relationship between childhood sexual/physical abuse and sexual dysfunction in patients with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Atilla; Meriç, Ceren; Sağbilge, Ezgi; Kenar, Jülide; Yayla, Sinan; Özer, Ömer Akil; Karamustafalioğlu, Oğuz

    2016-01-01

    Childhood traumatic events are known as developmental factors for various psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of childhood sexual and physical abuse (CSA/CPA), and co-morbid depression on sexual functions in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Data obtained from 113 SAD patients was analysed. Childhood traumatic experiences were evaluated using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale was used for the evaluation of the sexual functions. The data from interviews performed with SCID-I were used for determination of Axis I diagnosis. The Beck Anxiety Scale, Beck Depression Scale and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale were administered to each patient. History of childhood physical abuse (CPA) was present in 45.1% of the SAD patients, and 14.2% had a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Depression co-diagnosis was present in 30.1% of SAD patients and 36.3% had sexual dysfunction. History of CSA and depression co-diagnosis were determined as two strong predictors in SAD patients (odds ratio (OR) for CSA, 7.83; 95% CI, 1.97-31.11; p = 0.003 and OR for depression, 3.66; 95% CI, 1.47-9.13; p = 0.005). CSA and depression should be considered and questioned as an important factor for SAD patients who suffer from sexual dysfunction.

  12. Utilizing the salutogenic paradigm to investigate well-being among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse and other adversities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Shanta R; Rishi, Shobhana

    2017-02-26

    The long-term negative consequences of adverse childhood experiences are well documented. However, less is known about salutogenesis (well-being) among adult survivors of childhood adversity. The 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data were analyzed to assess the contribution of four health promoting factors (physical activity, smoking abstinence, educational level, social-emotional support) with positive health-related quality of life (HRQoL), among adults who retrospectively reported childhood abuse or exposure to other childhood toxic stressors (n=12,032) and separately for adults who reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Outcomes examined included positive self-rated health (good/very good/excellent); mentally unhealthy days (MUDS) and physically unhealthy days (PUDS) in the past 30 days. After controlling for demographic characteristics and existing health conditions, physical activity (pwell-being.

  13. Pathways from childhood abuse and neglect to HIV-risk sexual behavior in middle adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Helen W; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-04-01

    This study examines the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and sexual risk behavior in middle adulthood and whether psychosocial factors (risky romantic relationships, affective symptoms, drug and alcohol use, and delinquent and criminal behavior) mediate this relationship. Children with documented cases of physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect (ages 0-11) processed during 1967-1971 were matched with nonmaltreated children and followed into middle adulthood (approximate age 41). Mediators were assessed in young adulthood (approximate age 29) through in-person interviews between 1989 and 1995 and official arrest records through 1994 (N = 1,196). Past year HIV-risk sexual behavior was assessed via self-reports during 2003-2004 (N = 800). Logistic regression was used to examine differences in sexual risk behavior between the abuse and neglect and control groups, and latent variable structural equation modeling was used to test mediator models. Child abuse and neglect was associated with increased likelihood of risky sexual behavior in middle adulthood, odds ratio = 2.84, 95% CI [1.74, 4.64], p ≤ .001, and this relationship was mediated by risky romantic relationships in young adulthood. Results of this study draw attention to the potential long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect for physical health, in particular sexual risk, and point to romantic relationships as an important focus of intervention and prevention efforts. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. [Childhood sexual behavior as an indicator of sexual abuse: professionals' criteria and biases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Ortega, Eva; Orgaz Baz, Begoña; López Sánchez, Félix

    2012-01-01

    Some sexual behaviors are related to child sexual abuse experiences, but none unequivocally. Therefore, professionals might use non-empirical-based criteria and be biased when detecting and reporting victims. To check this hypothesis, we presented 974 Spanish and Latin American professionals from different fields (Psychology, Education, Health, Social Services, Justice, and Police Force) with hypothetical situations of child sexual behavior (varying the sex, age and behavior) by using an experimental vignette method based on Factorial Survey. Participants were asked to indicate whether such behaviors are a sign of abuse and whether they would report them. We also measured demographic, academic, professional and attitude factors. According to the analysis, professionals' suspicion of abuse is more affected by personal factors, whereas their reporting intention depends more on situational factors. The main criterion adopted is the type of sexual behavior, with professionals being more likely to suspect and report in response to aggressive sexual behavior and precocious sexual knowledge. Professionals' attitudes to sexuality seem to generate biases, as those who are erotophobic are more likely to suspect abuse. None of the sexual behaviors was seen as evidence of abuse.

  15. Childhood sexual traumatic events and sexual life and relationship of a patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobański, Jerzy A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The assessment of links between traumatic events of sexual nature recollected from the past and patients’ later functioning in sexual life and relationships. Materials and methods: Comorbidity of memories of traumatic sexual events from childhood and adolescence in patients with the features of their current partner relationships was analysed on the basis of Live Inventory completed by 2,582 women and 1,347 men, undergoing treatment between the years 1980-2002, before they were admitted to a day ward of neurotic disorder department. Results: The existence of numerous significant links was observed e.g. the information regarding incest or incest attempt experience was related with a significant risk of a sexual life assessment as completely dissatisfying in women (OR=2.71 and almost completely dissatisfying in men (OR=2.38. Sexual initiation by rape was related with women’s more frequent incidence of getting married as a result of social pressure (OR=3.77 and a feeling of hatred towards a partner (OR=5.41. Men and women who considered themselves completely sexually uneducated (before the age of 18 assessed their sexual life as completely dissatisfying (OR=2.48 and OR=2.07, which was similar to men who would get punished for masturbation or sexual plays by their guardians (OR=2.68. Conclusions: Traumatic events and circumstances relating to sexuality, indicated in the questionnaire interview, turned out to be connected with the risk of dysfunctions in a sexual life and relationship. The traumas included, among others, rape during initiation, early initiation, incest, but also unfavourable circumstances of less traumatic nature such as a lack of sexual education, punishment for masturbation, “mostly undesired initiation”. Their likely effects were rooted in relationship dysfunctions: reasons for their formation, power division, instability, problems with resolving conflicts and, most of all, sexual life dysfunctions. The results were

  16. Stifled Voices: Barriers to Help-Seeking Behavior for South African Childhood Sexual Assault Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly; Bryant-Davis, Thema; Tillman, Shaquita; Marks, Alison

    2010-01-01

    In South Africa, females under the age of 18 comprise approximately 40% of the rapes and other forms of sexual assault that occur. However, South African girls face multiple barriers to seeking help in the aftermath of sexual assault. This literature review provides an overview of childhood sexual assault in South African girls and addresses…

  17. Stifled Voices: Barriers to Help-Seeking Behavior for South African Childhood Sexual Assault Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly; Bryant-Davis, Thema; Tillman, Shaquita; Marks, Alison

    2010-01-01

    In South Africa, females under the age of 18 comprise approximately 40% of the rapes and other forms of sexual assault that occur. However, South African girls face multiple barriers to seeking help in the aftermath of sexual assault. This literature review provides an overview of childhood sexual assault in South African girls and addresses…

  18. The Prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Unwanted Sexual Contact among Boys and Girls Living in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Elya E.; Romaniuk, Helena; Olsson, Craig A.; Jayasinghe, Yasmin; Carlin, John B.; Patton, George C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with both short- and long-term adverse mental and physical health consequences, yet there remains considerable controversy about the prevalence of CSA in the general population. There is also little prospective data on unwanted sexual contact (USC) collected during adolescence. Methods: Data…

  19. History of child sexual abuse and adult sexual fantasies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, S R

    1991-01-01

    The study investigated the hypothesis that women with a history of childhood sexual abuse would report different sexual fantasies from women with no childhood sexual abuse. Women with a history of abuse had more force in their fantasies, had more sexually explicit fantasies, began having sexual fantasies at a younger age, and had more fantasies with the theme of being under someone's control. Women with a history of childhood physical abuse did not have a similar pattern. It was suggested that the sexual fantasies may reflect the sexualizing effect of childhood sexual experiences and that fantasies of the abusive experience may become intrusive.

  20. Cumulative Childhood Trauma and Adult Sexual Satisfaction: Mediation by Affect Dysregulation and Sexual Anxiety in Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigras, Noémie; Daspe, Marie-Ève; Godbout, Natacha; Briere, John; Sabourin, Stéphane

    2017-05-19

    Childhood cumulative trauma (CCT) refers to an amalgam of childhood maltreatment experiences that can lead to a range of symptoms and problems in adulthood. The current study examined an integrative model of CCT for its relevance to psychosexual adjustment in adult survivors. A total of 620 participants aged 18 years and over completed a questionnaire assessing early life experiences, affect dysregulation, sexual anxiety, and sexual satisfaction. Path analyses confirmed the hypothesis that CCT is associated with affect dysregulation and sexual anxiety that, in turn, predict lower levels of sexual satisfaction. The validity of this mediational model was demonstrated for different operationalizations of CCT. The results suggested that sex therapists, who are likely to encounter CCT survivors in their practice, should consider targeting affect dysregulation in their efforts to decrease sexual anxiety and increase sexual satisfaction.

  1. Trauma Symptoms, Sexual Behaviors, and Substance Abuse: Correlates of Childhood Sexual Abuse and HIV Risks among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Benotsch, Eric; Cage, Marjorie; Rompa, David

    2004-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is associated with high-risk sexual behavior in men who have sex with men. This study examined psychological and behavioral correlates of HIV risk behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse in a sample of men who have sex with men. Men attending a large gay pride event (N = 647) completed anonymous surveys that assessed…

  2. Mediators of the relation between childhood sexual abuse and women's sexual risk behavior: a comparison of two theoretical frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E; Carey, Michael P; Coury-Doniger, Patricia

    2012-12-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood, but little research has investigated processes that might mediate this relation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether constructs suggested by the traumagenic dynamics (TD) model (a theory of the effects of CSA) or constructs suggested by the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model (a theory of the antecedents of sexual risk behavior) better mediated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Participants were 481 women attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic (66% African American) who completed a computerized survey as well as behavioral simulations assessing condom application and sexual assertiveness skills. Forty-five percent of the sample met criteria for CSA and CSA was associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. In multiple mediator models, the TD constructs mediated the relation between CSA and the number of sexual partners whereas the IMB constructs mediated the relation between CSA and unprotected sex. In addition, the TD constructs better mediated the relation between CSA and the number of sexual partners; the TD and IMB constructs did not differ in their ability to mediate the relation between CSA and unprotected sex. Sexual risk reduction interventions for women who were sexually abused should target not only the constructs from health behavior models (e.g., motivation and skills to reduce sexual risk), but also constructs that are specific to sexual abuse (e.g., traumatic sexualization and guilt).

  3. Overcoming sequelae of childhood sexual abuse with stress management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D R; Vidal, B; Wilson, W A; Salyer, S L

    2012-09-01

    The immense stress associated with experiencing and surviving childhood sexual abuse directly influences coping, immune function and overall health. Lifelong overuse of maladaptive coping strategies results in impaired adjustment to stress. The purpose of this research was to re-examine if stress management education would be effective in improving coping skills for this population. Two 4-week series of stress management workshops were completed by 32 adult survivors who completed the ways of coping questionnaire before and after the training. Four categories of coping showed significant change. Stress management education is an effective and cost-efficient approach that gives adult survivors an empowering set of tools for their healing journey. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  4. Childhood maltreatment and difficulties in emotion regulation: associations with sexual and relationship satisfaction among young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Vujanovic, Anka A; Gilbert, Myani; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relations among childhood maltreatment, difficulties in emotion regulation, and sexual and relationship satisfaction among young adult women reporting current involvement in committed, romantic relationships. A sample of 192 women (ages 18-25) completed self-report questionnaires as part of an Internet-based survey. It was hypothesized that severity of childhood maltreatment and difficulties in emotion regulation would each independently and negatively predict (a) sexual satisfaction, (b) relationship intimacy, and (c) expression of affection within the context of the relationship. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that greater emotion regulation difficulties would moderate the effects of childhood maltreatment on these sexual and relationship variables (i.e., sexual satisfaction, relationship intimacy, and expression of affection). Findings suggest that difficulties in emotion regulation demonstrated an incremental effect with regard to sexual satisfaction, but not with intimacy and affection expression. In contrast to predictions, no significant interactive effects were documented. Clinical implications and future directions related to this line of inquiry are discussed.

  5. Gender Policing During Childhood and the Psychological Well-Being of Young Adult Sexual Minority Men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, José A; Connochie, Daniel; Jadwin-Cakmak, Laura; Meanley, Steven

    2017-05-01

    Hegemonic masculinities (i.e., sets of socially accepted masculine behaviors and beliefs within a given time and culture) may affect the well-being of sexual minority men, yet quantitative relationships between these masculinities and well-being remain largely unexplored. Using data from a national cross-sectional survey of young sexual minority men ( N = 1,484; ages 18-24 years), the current study examined the relationship between parental gender policing during childhood and adolescence and subsequent substance use and psychological distress. Over one third of the sample (37.8%) reported their parent(s) or the person(s) who raised them had policed their gender, including the use of disciplinary actions. Using multivariable regression, this study examined the relationship between parental gender policing and psychological well-being and substance use, after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and current student status. Gender policing during childhood and adolescence was associated with recent substance use behaviors and psychological distress in multivariable models. A linear association between substance use behaviors and psychological distress and the number of disciplinary actions experienced during childhood and adolescence was also observed. Parents' attempts to police their sons' gender expression were associated with markers of distress among young sexual minority men. The relationship between parental gender policing during childhood and adolescence and distress among young sexual minority men are discussed.

  6. An exploratory evaluation of the contribution of personality and childhood sexual victimization to the development of sexually abusive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, David L

    2008-03-01

    Scores on the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) were collected from two samples of incarcerated delinquent males: 74 adjudicated sexual abusers and 53 nonsexual abusers. In comparison to non-sexually abusive youths, a larger percentage of the sexually abusive youths indicated a history of childhood sexual victimization. The scores were then entered into a logistic regression to assess the contribution of personality characteristics to a social learning "victim-to-victimizer" etiological model. After controlling for time in treatment, the model correctly classified 76.6% of the youths. The variables that contributed significantly to the social learning model were the CTQ Sexual Abuse and Physical Neglect scales and the Submissive and Forceful scales on the MACI. Research and treatment implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Childhood trauma, sexual functions, psychiatric comorbidity and sociodemographic data in obsessive-compulsive disorders with sexual obsessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Göksan Yavuz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We compared the childhood trauma, the severityof sexual functions, comorbidity of axis I psychiatricdisorder, the types and severity of obsessive-compulsivedisorder (OCD and sociodemographic data of patientswith or without sexual obsession in OCD.Methods: Eighty patients of OCD were recruited fromincluding consecutive admissions to an outpatient clinic.Primary OCD patients assessed each subject using theStructured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders(SCID-I. OCD symptoms and symptoms severity was assessedby the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale(YBOCS. Traumas were assessed by the ChildhoodTrauma Experiences Questionnaire. Sexual functions severitywas assessed by the Arizona Sexual ExperienceScale (ASEX. Current depressive and anxiety symptomsscore were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton RatingScale for Depression (HAM-D and the Hamilton AnxietyScale (HAM-A.Results: The frequency of sexual obsession was 15%in our clinical populations diagnosed with OCD. Historyof emotional abuse and incest were associated with asignificantly higher rate of OCD with sexual obsessions.Religious, aggressive, hoarding obsessions and hoardingcompulsions were associated with a significantly higherrate of OCD with sexual obsessions. Comorbidity of Somatoformdisorder was associated with a significantlyhigher rate of OCD with sexual obsessions. Subjects whohave OCD with sexual obsessions did not significantly differfrom those without sexual obsessions on any ASEX scores, Y-BOCS scores, HAM-D, HAM-A and demographicfeatures.Conclusion: Sexual obsessions were related to religious,aggressive, hoarding obsessions and hoarding compulsions,the emotional abuse, incest and a comorbidy ofsomatoform disorder.Key words: sexual obsessions, childhood trauma, comorbidity

  8. Transdiagnostic psychopathology mediates the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latack, Jessica A; Rodriguez-Seijas, Craig; Stohl, Malka; Blanco, Carlos; Hasin, Deborah S; Eaton, Nicholas R

    2015-10-01

    Exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with elevated rates of mental disorders, sexual risk behavior, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in adulthood. Mental disorders themselves are associated with an increased risk for HIV/AIDs and STIs as well, and thus may mediate the association between CSA and HIV/AIDS and other STIs. The links among CSA, disorders, and STIs are unclear, however. The current study tested the hypothesis that the association of CSA with STIs is mediated by adult transdiagnostic psychopathology. We examined the potential mediating role of transdiagnostic psychopathology factors-internalizing (INT) and externalizing (EXT)-in the association between CSA and receiving a past-year diagnosis of HIV, AIDS, or another STI in a large, national probability sample of adults (N=34,653). Using indirect effects modeling, we found that 54.4% of the association between CSA and subsequent HIV/AIDS/STI diagnosis operated through transdiagnostic psychopathology. The proposed mediation model was supported, indicating that individuals reporting CSA had higher estimated levels of latent general liabilities for INT and EXT disorders, and it was largely these liabilities that accounted for the link between CSA and heightened risk of adult HIV, AIDS, and STI diagnoses.

  9. Childhood trauma, country report (Thailand).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junnanond, C; Ruangkanchanasetr, S; Chunharas, A

    1993-10-01

    In Thailand, each year approximately 15,000 people die from accidents, a figure exceeded only by cardiovascular diseases. Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) is the principal cause of death and injuries in children of all ages except preschool group. In 1988 there were 554,452 cases of injuries out of which 10,031 died from MVA. In Bangkok alone MVA accounts for an average of 300 childhood and teenage death and 1,900 cases of injuries each year. Falls, burns and poisonings are relatively high in children less than 4 years old while MVA and injuries from sharp and blunt objects of both accidental and non-accidental cases increase with age and become the two leading causes of injury in older children. The sex ratio (F:M) in preschool ages are 1:1.4 and 1:2 in preteen. Poisonings, though less common, are considered to be very important because of their severity. Drugs, hydrocarbon, insecticides, lead and corrosive substances are leading agents. As for injuries caused by animals, 150 cases of rabies were reported each year while around 5,000 cases of snake bites were found in 1987 and 20 per cent of the victims were children. The study from Ramathibodi Hospital revealed that the majority of accidents (65-72%) occur at home and 20 per cent in the street in children younger than 12 years. Peak incidence were found between 5-9 pm. During weekend and holidays the incidence is higher. Ninety-five per cent of the accidents reported were mild cases, 15 per cent moderate, 3 per cent severe and less than 1 per cent caused death.

  10. Contextualizing the effects of childhood sexual abuse on adult self- and social functioning: an attachment theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, J H; Boudewyn, A C

    1999-11-01

    This retrospective survey study explored the hypothesis that multiple maltreatment and loss experiences in early childhood would interfere with the formation of secure attachments, creating (1) an increased vulnerability to childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and (2) adult problems in self- and social functioning. Data were collected from 687 undergraduates on an urban, commuter campus. They were analyzed by means of between group (individuals with and without CSA histories) and within group (individuals with CSA histories) path analytic models. The number of maltreatment and loss experiences encountered in early childhood predicted greater CSA frequency in childhood and increased maltreatment in adulthood in the form of more frequent reports of sexual, physical, and emotional abuse. Childhood maltreatment and loss experiences also predicted poor adult self-functioning in the form of higher levels of depression and lower levels of self-esteem. Self-blame in response to CSA and maltreatment in adult relationships also predicted poorer adult self- and social functioning for individuals with CSA histories. Findings support both direct and mediational effects of childhood maltreatment and loss experiences on adult self- and social functioning and are consistent with predictions derived from attachment theory.

  11. Which behavioral, emotional and school problems in middle-childhood predict early sexual behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Alison; Waylen, Andrea; Sayal, Kapil; Heron, Jon; Henderson, Marion; Wight, Daniel; Macleod, John

    2014-04-01

    Mental health and school adjustment problems are thought to distinguish early sexual behavior from normative timing (16-18 years), but little is known about how early sexual behavior originates from these problems in middle-childhood. Existing studies do not allow for co-occurring problems, differences in onset and persistence, and there is no information on middle-childhood school adjustment in relationship to early sexual activity. This study examined associations between several middle-childhood problems and early sexual behavior, using a subsample (N = 4,739, 53 % female, 98 % white, mean age 15 years 6 months) from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Adolescents provided information at age 15 on early sexual behavior (oral sex and/or intercourse) and sexual risk-taking, and at age 13 on prior risk involvement (sexual behavior, antisocial behavior and substance use). Information on hyperactivity/inattention, conduct problems, depressive symptoms, peer relationship problems, school dislike and school performance was collected in middle-childhood at Time 1 (6-8 years) and Time 2 (10-11 years). In agreement with previous research, conduct problems predicted early sexual behavior, although this was found only for persistent early problems. In addition, Time 2 school dislike predicted early sexual behavior, while peer relationship problems were protective. Persistent early school dislike further characterized higher-risk groups (early sexual behavior preceded by age 13 risk, or accompanied by higher sexual risk-taking). The study establishes middle-childhood school dislike as a novel risk factor for early sexual behavior and higher-risk groups, and the importance of persistent conduct problems. Implications for the identification of children at risk and targeted intervention are discussed, as well as suggestions for further research.

  12. Risk for Suicidal Thoughts and Behavior after Childhood Sexual Abuse in Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Saaniya; Nelson, Elliot C.; Lynskey, Michael T.; McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have found an elevated risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA); however, the degree to which risk is mediated by depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women and men remains unclear. We examined these issues in data from a family study of childhood maltreatment (N…

  13. Competing Meanings of Childhood and the Social Construction of Child Sexual Abuse in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasura, Dominic; Jones, Adele D.; Hafner, James A. H.; Maharaj, Priya E.; Nathaniel-DeCaires, Karene; Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the dynamic interplay between competing meanings of childhood and the social construction of sexual abuse in the Caribbean. Drawing on qualitative data from a study undertaken in six Caribbean countries, the article suggests that Caribbean childhoods are neither wholly global nor local but hybrid creations of the region's…

  14. Childhood Behavior Problems Linked to Sexual Risk Taking in Young Adulthood: A Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramrakha, Sandhya; Bell, Melanie L.; Paul, Charlotte; Dickson, Nigel; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study whether behavioral and emotional problems during childhood predicted early sexual debut, risky sex at age 21 years, and sexually transmitted infections up to age 21 years. Some possible mediational pathways were also explored. Method: Participants were enrolled in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (n =…

  15. Emotions and Suicidal Ideation among Depressed Women with Childhood Sexual Abuse Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Sungeun; Talbot, Nancy L.; He, Hua; Conner, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    Depressed women with sexual abuse histories have a heightened risk of suicidal ideation (SI), which may be only in part attributable to psychiatric symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotions and SI were studied among 106 women with histories of childhood sexual abuse enrolled in treatment trials for major depression.…

  16. Charting New Territories: Re-Assembling Childhood Sexuality in the Early Years Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, Mindy

    2013-01-01

    Since the moral panic discourse is shutting down discussions about how children are making meaning of gender and sexuality, this paper argues that a new logic is needed for understanding childhood sexuality. A postdevelopmental logic is created by working with Deleuze and Guattari's ["Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizoprhenia."…

  17. Relational Challenges and Recovery Processes in Male Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia-Keating, Maryam; Sorsoli, Lynn; Grossman, Frances K.

    2010-01-01

    Male survivors of childhood sexual abuse face challenges resolving sexual victimization experiences with the ideals of masculinity, often experiencing intimacy problems, emotional discomfort, alienation, and anger. Little attention has been paid to how male survivors learn to develop long-term connections, disclose emotions in relationship…

  18. Charting New Territories: Re-Assembling Childhood Sexuality in the Early Years Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, Mindy

    2013-01-01

    Since the moral panic discourse is shutting down discussions about how children are making meaning of gender and sexuality, this paper argues that a new logic is needed for understanding childhood sexuality. A postdevelopmental logic is created by working with Deleuze and Guattari's ["Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizoprhenia."…

  19. Aspects of Sexuality in Adolescents and Adults Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Lucrecia Cabral; Gillberg, Carina I.; Cederlund, Mats; Hagberg, Bibbi; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The literature concerning sexuality in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is limited regarding inappropriate sexual behaviours and paraphilias and its relation to age, verbal ability, symptom severity, intellectual ability, or adaptive functioning. A cohort of 184 adolescents and young adults (ages 15-39 years) with ASD diagnosed in childhood,…

  20. Pathways from Childhood Abuse to Prospective Revictimization: Depression, Sex to Reduce Negative Affect, and Forecasted Sexual Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Miron, Lynsey R.; Orcutt, Holly K.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that adverse events in childhood, such as childhood physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, confer risk for later sexual assault. Psychological distress, coping strategies, and sexual behavior may help explain the path from childhood abuse to revictimization. The present study explored how the use of sex to regulate negative affect (SRNA) operates independently, and in combination with other psychosocial factors to increase college women’s (N = 541) risk of experiencing prosp...

  1. Childhood sexual abuse of women in Greenland and its developmental correlates among their children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baviskar, Siddhartha; Christensen, Else

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The objective was to study the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among the mothers of children in Greenland and its association with the psychosocial adjustment of their children. Study design. The study was based on a 2007–2008 survey of a national sample of children...... in Greenland designed by researchers at SFI – The Danish National Centre for Social Research in collaboration with the Greenlandic Home Rule. The survey was conducted via telephone interviews with the children’s mothers. Methods. The relationship between the mothers’ childhood sexual abuse and their children...... sexually abused as children. The psychosocial adjustment of the children in the sample overall was good, with few children scoring on the upper end of the scale, indicating maladjustment. A strong inverse relationship between the mothers’ childhood sexual abuse and the children’s adjustment was found after...

  2. Elevated risk of posttraumatic stress in sexual minority youths: mediation by childhood abuse and gender nonconformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrea L; Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L; Koenen, Karestan C; Austin, S Bryn

    2012-08-01

    We examined whether lifetime risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was elevated in sexual minority versus heterosexual youths, whether childhood abuse accounted for disparities in PTSD, and whether childhood gender nonconformity explained sexual-orientation disparities in abuse and subsequent PTSD. We used data from a population-based study (n=9369, mean age=22.7 years) to estimate risk ratios for PTSD. We calculated the percentage of PTSD disparities by sexual orientation accounted for by childhood abuse and gender nonconformity, and the percentage of abuse disparities by sexual orientation accounted for by gender nonconformity. Sexual minorities had between 1.6 and 3.9 times greater risk of probable PTSD than heterosexuals. Child abuse victimization disparities accounted for one third to one half of PTSD disparities by sexual orientation. Higher prevalence of gender nonconformity before age 11 years partly accounted for higher prevalence of abuse exposure before age 11 years and PTSD by early adulthood in sexual minorities (range=5.2%-33.2%). Clinicians, teachers, and others who work with youths should consider abuse prevention and treatment measures for gender-nonconforming children and sexual minority youths.

  3. Finnish women and men who self-report no sexual attraction in the past 12 months: prevalence, relationship status, and sexual behavior history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, Jannike; Jern, Patrick; Sandnabba, N Kenneth; Santtila, Pekka

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of not reporting sexual attraction in the past year and its associations with factors related to partner relations as well as sexuality-related characteristics in a population-based sample of Finnish twins. The present study was based on a total of 3,540 participants (1,304 men and 2,236 women) aged 33-43 years. A total of 19 men and 73 women reported complete absence of sexual interest in women or men during the past year. Older age was associated with absence of sexual interest in the past year in women, but not men. Individuals who reported absence of sexual interest in the past year were more likely than individuals who reported sexual interest to be single, but those who were in a relationship did not express more dissatisfaction with their relationships. Individuals who reported absence of sexual interest in the past year had had fewer sexual partners and reported less experience of sexual behavior in childhood. Women who reported no sexual interest in the past year, but who were nevertheless sexually active, reported higher frequencies of sexual dysfunctions than matched controls. No significant differences regarding the tendency to fake orgasm were found between the sexually active individuals who reported absence of sexual interest in the past year and the group of matched controls. The present study suggests that absence of sexual interest may be a lifelong phenomenon which does not necessarily affect relationship satisfaction, but is associated with variation in sexual behaviors.

  4. Heterosexual male perpetrators of childhood sexual abuse: a preliminary neuropsychiatric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa J; Nikiforov, Konstantin; Gans, Sniezyna; Poznansky, Olga; McGeoch, Pamela; Weaver, Carrie; King, Enid Gertmanian; Cullen, Ken; Galynker, Igor

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents data from a series of preliminary neuropsychiatric studies, including neuropsychological, personality, sexual history, plethysmographic and neuroimaging investigations, on a sample of 22 male, heterosexual, nonexclusive pedophiles and 24 demographically similar healthy controls. A psychobiological model of pedophilia is proposed, positing that early childhood sexual abuse leads to neurodevelopmental abnormalities in the temporal regions mediating sexual arousal and erotic discrimination and the frontal regions mediating the cognitive aspects of sexual desire and behavioral inhibition. In this way, pedophiles develop deviant pedophilic arousal. Subsequently, if there is comorbid personality pathology, specifically sociopathy and cognitive distortions, there will be failure to inhibit pedophilic behavior.

  5. History of childhood sexual abuse and unsafe anal intercourse in a 6-city study of HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welles, Seth L; Baker, A Cornelius; Miner, Michael H; Brennan, David J; Jacoby, Scott; Rosser, B R Simon

    2009-06-01

    We assessed rates of childhood sexual abuse and its demographic and mental health correlates among HIV-positive men who reported unsafe anal intercourse with other men in the past year. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 593 HIV-positive men who have sex with men enrolled in the Positive Connections intervention. Childhood sexual abuse was reported by 47% of participants; 32% reported frequency as often or sometimes. Men reporting abuse were more likely to be Latino (odds ratio [OR] = 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6, 4.2; P abused, more frequent abuse was associated with more sexual contacts (for each, rate ratio [RR] = 1.3; P abused. History of childhood sexual abuse is highly prevalent among HIV-positive men who engage in risky sexual behavior with other men and appears to be more common among men of color. Our findings suggest that abuse is associated with a significantly increased risk of sexually transmitted infections.

  6. The impact of childhood gender expression on childhood sexual abuse and psychopathology among young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Marco A; Kuhns, Lisa M; Kwon, Soyang; Mustanski, Brian; Garofalo, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Young men who have sex with men (MSM) are a risk group highly vulnerable to HIV infection and psychiatric symptoms are direct predictors of sexual risk behavior in MSM. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with psychiatric symptomology in adolescence, and MSM are disproportionately impacted by CSA compared to heterosexuals. Some evidence suggests that childhood gender nonconformity, a natural variation of human gender expression, is more common in MSM than heterosexual males and places MSM at greater risk for CSA. This study examined whether or not childhood gender expression moderated the association between incidents of unwanted, early sexual experiences occurring before age 13 (ESE) and current psychiatric symptomology in a community-based sample of 449 young MSM aged 16-20. Analyses revealed significant bivariate associations between ESE and psychological symptoms, and significant multivariable associations between ESE, gender nonconformity and psychiatric outcomes. Young MSM with childhood gender nonconformity may be disproportionately victimized by CSA thereby increasing their likelihood of developing psychiatric symptoms in adolescence. Early intervention addressing these factors may help reduce lifetime negative sequelae.

  7. Childhood Maltreatment and Sexual Risk Taking: The Mediating Role of Alexithymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Austin M; Simons, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment is a significant predictor of sexual risk taking. The nature of this relationship is not fully understood; however, emotion dysregulation may play an important role. We tested the role of difficulty identifying and describing feelings (i.e., alexithymia) on the relationship between childhood maltreatment and sexual risk taking. Specifically, we hypothesized two mechanisms, one in which alexithymia is related to sexual risk taking via negative urgency and alcohol use and a second one in which alexithymia is related to sexual risk taking via neediness. The participants for this study were 425 sexually active college undergraduates (303 females, 122 males) between the ages of 18 and 25 years. The results of a structural equation model indicated that alexithymia accounted for a significant part of the relationship between child maltreatment and sexual risk behavior. Moreover, the relationship between alexithymia and sexual risk taking was fully accounted for by two separate paths. First, negative urgency and subsequent alcohol use partially mediated the relationship, and the second effect was accounted for by needy interpersonal style. Adverse experiences during childhood can impair emotional functioning and contribute to behavioral and interpersonal dysregulation.

  8. Towards malecentric communication: sensitizing health professionals to the realities of male childhood sexual abuse survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teram, Eli; Stalker, Carol; Hovey, Angela; Schachter, Candice; Lasiuk, Gerri

    2006-06-01

    This article extends earlier reports of an ongoing qualitative inquiry on childhood sexual abuse survivors' experiences with health professionals. In this paper, we aim to enhance understanding of male survivors' experience. While male and female participants express similar anxieties and fears about their encounters with health professionals, there are gender-based differences related to the perceptions of victimhood and manhood; guilt and shame; homophobia; disclosure of abuse; and the expression of vulnerability. The implications of these differences for sensitive health care practice are analyzed within the context of gender relationships and the differential socialization of men. Malecentric communication is proposed as a method for addressing the specific experiences of male survivors in their encounters with health professionals.

  9. Relationships between childhood sexual abuse and substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Mazurczyk, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is thought to be a precursor to substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence. To inform adolescent prevention efforts, information is needed to explicate the nature of the relationships between CSA and these health risks. The aim of this study was to summarize the current literature on the associations between a history of CSA and substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence. We conducted a systematic literature search and an integrative review. Current evidence implicates CSA as a robust precursor to the use of a wide variety of substances and multiple sexual risk behaviors during adolescence. Screening for CSA in adolescents at risk and incorporating strategies that enhance CSA recovery in adolescent prevention programs are warranted. Future research that includes longitudinal designs, uses multiple methods of assessment, and identifies pathways between CSA and adolescent health risks is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Sexual Functioning of Adult Women Molested as Children: A Review of Empirical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Julie Lynn

    This paper reviews the research literature from 1978 to 1991 that addresses long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse on adult women's sexual functioning. Frequently reported long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse are noted, including both sexual dissatisfaction and sexual dysfunction. In terms of sexual dysfunction, it is noted that adult…

  11. Psychosexual Characteristics of Women Reporting Sexual Aggression Against Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2016-09-01

    Sexual aggression as committed by women has been the target of little empirical research and is still regarded as a myth by many people. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychosexual profile of young and educated women reporting sexual aggression against men. This is a cross-sectional study; a total of 260 female college students answered to an online survey. Among them, 93 (35.8%) reported having committed some form of sexual aggression against men: 46.2% of sexually aggressive women fell into the category of sexual coercion, 34.1% fell into the category of sexual abuse, and 19.8% reported having used physical force. Findings revealed that sexually aggressive women reported significantly higher levels of sociosexuality, sexual fantasies of dominance and submission, sexual compulsivity, sexual excitation, and sexual inhibition due to the threat of sexual performance failure. Data are expected to affect prevention strategies for a relevant yet understudied social concern.

  12. Reported sexual violence among women and children seen at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reported sexual violence among women and children seen at the gynaecological emergency unit of a rural tertiary health facility, northwest Nigeria. ... by intimate partner or strangers, unwanted sexual advances, and sexual abuse occurs, ...

  13. Contextualizing the Effects of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Adult Self and Social Functioning: An Attachment Theory Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Joan H.; Boudewyn, Arne C.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 687 undergraduates found the number of maltreatment and loss experiences in early childhood predicted greater child sexual abuse frequency in childhood and increased maltreatment in adulthood. Childhood maltreatment and loss experiences also predicted higher levels of depression and lower levels of self-esteem. (Author/CR)

  14. Sex Disparities in Adverse Childhood Experiences and HIV/STIs: Mediation of Psychopathology and Sexual Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J; Masho, Saba W; Perera, Robert A; Mezuk, Briana; Pugsley, River A; Cohen, Steven A

    2016-09-29

    HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are important public health challenges in the US. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including abuse (emotional, physical or sexual), witnessing violence among household members, may have an effect on sexual behaviors, which increase the risk of HIV/STIs. The aim of this study was to examine the sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression (MD), substance use disorders (SUDs), early sexual debut, and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration as mediators in the association between ACEs and HIV/STIs. Data were obtained from Wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the role of PTSD, MD, SUDs, early sexual debut, and IPV perpetration as mediators in the relationships between ACEs and HIV/STIs. Differences and similarities existed in the mediational roles of psychopathology and sexual behaviors. For example, among men, MD fully mediated physical/psychological abuse (β = 0.0002; p = 0.012) and sexual abuse (β = 0.0002; p = 0.006), and HIV/STIs while among women, MD fully mediated physical/psychological abuse (β = 0.0005; p childhood events among men and women and consider the sex differences in the roles of psychopathology and sexual behaviors.

  15. The psychological measurement of childhood sexual development in Western societies: methodological challenges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, H. de; Rademakers, J.

    2011-01-01

    Children can display sexual behavior or have sexual experiences. Different psychological research methods are available for studying these kinds of behaviors and feelings, such as interviewing or observing children (direct methods), asking adolescents or adults to retrospectively report their childh

  16. Childhood masturbation simulating epileptic seizures: A report of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Childhood masturbation simulating epileptic seizures: A report of two cases ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... Background: Childhood masturbation (self-gratification) may mimic epileptic seizures, and is ...

  17. Hostility and childhood sexual abuse as predictors of suicidal behaviour in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Liliana; Portella, Maria J; Vállez, Mónica; Gutiérrez, Fernando; Martín-Blanco, Ana; Martín-Santos, Rocío; Subirà, Susana

    2013-12-30

    Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct and has been previously associated with suicidal behaviour in borderline personality disorder (BPD). This study examined the associations between suicidal behaviour and impulsivity-related personality traits, as well as history of childhood sexual abuse, in 76 patients diagnosed with BPD using both the Structured Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III (DSM-III) Axis-II diagnoses and the self-personality questionnaire. Impulsivity-related traits were measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI) and the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R). We found that hostility and childhood sexual abuse, but not impulsivity or other temperament traits, significantly predicted the presence, number and severity of previous suicide attempts. Hostility traits and childhood sexual abuse showed an impact on suicide attempts in BPD. Our results support previous findings indicating that high levels of hostility and having suffered sexual abuse during childhood lead to an increased risk for suicidal behaviour in BPD.

  18. Pathways from Childhood Abuse and Neglect to HIV-Risk Sexual Behavior in Middle Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and sexual risk behavior in middle adulthood and whether psychosocial factors (risky romantic relationships, affective symptoms, drug and alcohol use, and delinquent and criminal behavior) mediate this relationship. Method: Children with documented cases of…

  19. Child Sexual Abuse in Early-Childhood Care and Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Freda

    2014-01-01

    When the author was adviser to the Australian Minister for Education for writing the national Safe Schools Framework (2003), meetings were held with early-childhood care and education administrators from all state, Catholic and independent sectors. Their unexpected message was that educators were facing new problems, those of child sexual abuse in…

  20. The Link between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Myocardial Infarction in a Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bejan, Raluca; Hunter, John T.; Grundland, Tamara; Brennenstuhl, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and myocardial infarction in men and women, while controlling for social determinants (i.e., socioeconomic status, social support, mental health) and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., age, race, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes…

  1. Pathways from Childhood Abuse and Neglect to HIV-Risk Sexual Behavior in Middle Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and sexual risk behavior in middle adulthood and whether psychosocial factors (risky romantic relationships, affective symptoms, drug and alcohol use, and delinquent and criminal behavior) mediate this relationship. Method: Children with documented cases of…

  2. Relationships with Mothers and Peers Moderate the Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the current study was to assess whether relationships with mothers and peers moderate the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and anxiety disorders. That is, positive and supportive experiences were expected to minimize the effects of CSA whereas nonsupportive experiences were expected to magnify them.…

  3. Child Sexual Abuse in Early-Childhood Care and Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Freda

    2014-01-01

    When the author was adviser to the Australian Minister for Education for writing the national Safe Schools Framework (2003), meetings were held with early-childhood care and education administrators from all state, Catholic and independent sectors. Their unexpected message was that educators were facing new problems, those of child sexual abuse in…

  4. Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on College Student Development: A Seven-Vectors Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    The application of theory in this article expanded on Chickering and Reisser's ([Chickering, A. W., 1993]) 7-vectors framework by considering the effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the normal experience of student development in higher education. The article includes an overview of the prevalence and effects of CSA and a case study of a…

  5. Experience of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Abortion in Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the associations between the experience of sexual abuse in childhood (CSA) and the number of abortions in adolescence and early adulthood. Method: A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1,265 New Zealand children (630 females). Measures included…

  6. Reliability and comparability of psychosis patients' retrospective reports of childhood abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Helen L; Craig, Thomas K; Fearon, Paul; Morgan, Kevin; Dazzan, Paola; Lappin, Julia; Hutchinson, Gerard; Doody, Gillian A; Jones, Peter B; McGuffin, Peter; Murray, Robin M; Leff, Julian; Morgan, Craig

    2011-05-01

    An increasing number of studies are demonstrating an association between childhood abuse and psychosis. However, the majority of these rely on retrospective self-reports in adulthood that may be unduly influenced by current psychopathology. We therefore set out to explore the reliability and comparability of first-presentation psychosis patients' reports of childhood abuse. Psychosis case subjects were drawn from the Aetiology and Ethnicity of Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses (ÆSOP) epidemiological study and completed the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire to elicit abusive experiences that occurred prior to 16 years of age. High levels of concurrent validity were demonstrated with the Parental Bonding Instrument (antipathy: r(s)=0.350-0.737, P<.001; neglect: r(s)=0.688-0.715, P<.001), and good convergent validity was shown with clinical case notes (sexual abuse: κ=0.526, P<.001; physical abuse: κ=0.394, P<.001). Psychosis patients' reports were also reasonably stable over a 7-year period (sexual abuse: κ=0.590, P<.01; physical abuse: κ=0.634, P<.001; antipathy: κ=0.492, P<.01; neglect: κ=0.432, P<.05). Additionally, their reports of childhood abuse were not associated with current severity of psychotic symptoms (sexual abuse: U=1768.5, P=.998; physical abuse: U=2167.5, P=.815; antipathy: U=2216.5, P=.988; neglect: U=1906.0, P=.835) or depressed mood (sexual abuse: χ(2)=0.634, P=.277; physical abuse: χ(2)=0.159, P=.419; antipathy: χ(2)=0.868, P=.229; neglect: χ(2)=0.639, P=.274). These findings provide justification for the use in future studies of retrospective reports of childhood abuse obtained from individuals with psychotic disorders.

  7. Loss of Innocence: Albert Moll, Sigmund Freud and the Invention of Childhood Sexuality Around 1900

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerteig, Lutz D.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses how, prior to the work of Sigmund Freud, an understanding of infant and childhood sexuality emerged during the nineteenth century. Key contributors to the debate were Albert Moll, Max Dessoir and others, as fin-de-siècle artists and writers celebrated a sexualised image of the child. By the beginning of the twentieth century, most paediatricians, sexologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, psychoanalysts and pedagogues agreed that sexuality formed part of a child’s ‘normal’ development. This paper argues that the main disagreements in discourses about childhood sexuality related to different interpretations of children’s sexual experiences. On the one hand stood an explanation that argued for a homology between children’s and adults’ sexual experiences, on the other hand was an understanding that suggested that adults and children had distinct and different experiences. Whereas the homological interpretation was favoured by the majority of commentators, including Moll, Freud, and to some extent also by C.G. Jung, the heterological interpretation was supported by a minority, including childhood psychologist Charlotte Bühler. PMID:23002291

  8. Loss of innocence: Albert Moll, Sigmund Freud and the invention of childhood sexuality around 1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerteig, Lutz D H

    2012-04-01

    This paper analyses how, prior to the work of Sigmund Freud, an understanding of infant and childhood sexuality emerged during the nineteenth century. Key contributors to the debate were Albert Moll, Max Dessoir and others, as fin-de-siècle artists and writers celebrated a sexualised image of the child. By the beginning of the twentieth century, most paediatricians, sexologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, psychoanalysts and pedagogues agreed that sexuality formed part of a child's 'normal' development. This paper argues that the main disagreements in discourses about childhood sexuality related to different interpretations of children's sexual experiences. On the one hand stood an explanation that argued for a homology between children's and adults' sexual experiences, on the other hand was an understanding that suggested that adults and children had distinct and different experiences. Whereas the homological interpretation was favoured by the majority of commentators, including Moll, Freud, and to some extent also by C.G. Jung, the heterological interpretation was supported by a minority, including childhood psychologist Charlotte Bühler.

  9. The Role of Narcissistic Vulnerability in Predicting Adult Posttraumatic Symptoms from Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachar, Eytan; Canetti, Laura; Hadar, Hilit; Baruch, Julia; Dor, Yehuda; Freedman, Sara

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine whether narcissistic vulnerability can aid in clarifying the debate regarding the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adulthood adjustment to traumatic events. 157 survivors (mean age = 31.1, SD = 10.9) of a traumatic event (war activities and road and work accidents) were assessed 1 week, 1, and 4 months following the event. Of the 157 participants, 15 reported experiencing CSA, and 26 reported experiencing childhood physical abuse (CPA). In the first-week assessment, patients were administered the Narcissistic Vulnerability Scale (NVS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In the follow-up assessments, subjects were interviewed on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Narcissistic vulnerability was found, both in 1- and 4-month follow-ups, to increase the likelihood of participants who experienced CSA to develop PTSD symptoms later in their adult life, when exposed to other additional trauma. Narcissistic vulnerability, in both follow-ups, did not increase the likelihood of participants who experienced CPA to develop PTSD symptoms later in their life when exposed to other additional trauma. The NVS predicted the development of PTSD symptoms in the whole sample, both in the 1- and 4-month follow-ups, above and beyond the prediction of the BDI. In other words, narcissistic vulnerability can add additional information above and beyond general negative emotionality. In conclusion, it is recommended to take into consideration the interplay between CSA and the individual's narcissistic vulnerability when assessing the long term effects of CSA such as acute or chronic PTSD.

  10. Impact of Traumatic Events on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Danish Survivors of Sexual Abuse in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Palic, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse can be extremely traumatic and lead to lifelong symptomatology. The present study examined the impact of several demographic, abuse, and psychosocial variables on posttraumatic stress disorder severity among a consecutive sample of treatment-seeking, adult child sexual abuse...... survivors (N = 480). The child sexual abuse sample was characterized by severe trauma exposure, insecure attachment, and significant traumatization, with an estimated 77% suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, more than twice the level of the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed risk...... factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in which the strongest predictors being additional traumas, negative affectivity, and somatization. The findings add to existing research confirming the stressful nature of child sexual abuse and the variables that contribute...

  11. Mediators of the Relation between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Women’s Sexual Risk Behavior: A Comparison of Two Theoretical Frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood, but little research has investigated processes that might mediate this relation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether constructs suggested by the traumagenic dynamics (TD) model (a theory of the effects of CSA) or constructs suggested by the Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills (IMB) model (a theory of the antecedents of sexual risk behavior) better mediated the relation between CSA and sexu...

  12. Repeat deliberate self-harm: a link with childhood sexual abuse?

    OpenAIRE

    Yeo, H M; Yeo, W. W.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify whether a past history of childhood sexual abuse is a risk factor for repeated Deliberate Self-Harm (DSH). The study was a 6-month prospective study of 178 patients responsible for 190 consecutive cases of DSH seen during a 3-month censoring period. Patients were identified by review of the in-patient and accident and emergency (A&E) records of all cases of DSH at the A&E department of a major teaching hospital. Patients with a history of childhood se...

  13. In the Name of ‘Childhood Innocence’: A Discursive Exploration of the Moral Panic Associated with Childhood and Sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Robinson

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article critically examines moral panic as a political strategy in maintaining the hegemony of the nuclear family, the sanctity of hetereosexual relationships and the heteronormative social order. It focuses on the moral panic associated with children and sexuality, particularly that which is manifested around non-heterosexual subjectivities. The discussion is based on media representations of the moral panic associated with the Play School saga, The Tillman Child Care Centre / Learn to Include booklets and the We’re Here resource. It explores the hegemonic discourses around childhood innocence, sexuality and the construction of the homosexual as ‘folk devil’ and shows how these discourses are mobilised by conservative politicians and moral entrepreneurs to strategically instigate a moral panic at critical points in time.

  14. The influence of childhood sexual abuse on adolescent outcomes: the roles of gender, poverty, and revictimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta Oshima, Karen M; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Seay, Kristen D

    2014-01-01

    Research on child sexual abuse has focused on adult revictimization and outcomes. This article examines the rate of child maltreatment revictimization among male and female children reported to child protective services for child sexual abuse and whether revictimization impacts outcomes. Using longitudinal administrative data, Cox regressions were used to examine relationships between initial report of child sexual abuse, maltreatment revictimization, and adolescent outcomes among children from poor and nonpoor families. Despite no significant differences in child sexual abuse rates between poor and nonpoor families, poor child sexual abuse victims were significantly more likely to have re-reports for maltreatment. Children with multiple reports were more likely to have negative outcomes. Interventions for child sexual abuse survivors should focus on preventing maltreatment recurrence generally and not ignore needs of male victims.

  15. Pathways from childhood abuse to prospective revictimization: depression, sex to reduce negative affect, and forecasted sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Lynsey R; Orcutt, Holly K

    2014-11-01

    Research suggests that adverse events in childhood, such as childhood physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, confer risk for later sexual assault. Psychological distress, coping strategies, and sexual behavior may help explain the path from childhood abuse to revictimization. The present study explored how the use of sex to regulate negative affect (SRNA) operates independently, and in combination with other psychosocial factors to increase college women's (N=541) risk of experiencing prospective adult sexual assault (ASA). Sequential multiple mediator models in Mplus were used to assess the effect of three different forms of childhood abuse on prospective ASA, both independently and while controlling for other forms of childhood abuse. The indirect effect of adolescent sexual assault (AdolSA), depressive symptoms, SRNA, and participants' response to a sex-related vignette was tested using bias-corrected bootstrapping. In the full path model, childhood emotional abuse and AdolSA predicted ASA, while childhood physical and sexual abuse were directly associated with AdolSA, but not ASA. Additionally, depressive symptoms and participants' estimate of their likely behavior in a sex-related vignette directly predicted prospective ASA. Results using bootstrapping revealed that a history of childhood abuse predicted prospective ASA via diverse direct and indirect paths, as well as through a similar multiple mediator path. Overall, findings suggest that a combination of affective, coping, and sexual expectancy factors contribute to risk for revictimization in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Future research directions and targets for risk-reduction programming are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical report--the evaluation of sexual behaviors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Nancy D

    2009-09-01

    Most children will engage in sexual behaviors at some time during childhood. These behaviors may be normal but can be confusing and concerning to parents or disruptive or intrusive to others. Knowledge of age-appropriate sexual behaviors that vary with situational and environmental factors can assist the clinician in differentiating normal sexual behaviors from sexual behavior problems. Most situations that involve sexual behaviors in young children do not require child protective services intervention; for behaviors that are age-appropriate and transient, the pediatrician may provide guidance in supervision and monitoring of the behavior. If the behavior is intrusive, hurtful, and/or age-inappropriate, a more comprehensive assessment is warranted. Some children with sexual behavior problems may reside or have resided in homes characterized by inconsistent parenting, violence, abuse, or neglect and may require more immediate intervention and referrals.

  17. Childhood Sexual Abuse: Long-Term Effects on Psychological and Sexual Functioning in a Nonclinical and Nonstudent Sample of Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Evan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Comparison of psychological and sexual functioning of 54 women sexually abused as children and 54 nonabused women found no differences in self-esteem, but abused women reported more symptoms of distress and psychological symptoms previously associated with sexual abuse. No differences in self-reported sexual satisfaction or dysfunction were found.…

  18. Attachment and coercive sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallbone, S W; Dadds, M R

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between childhood attachment and coercive sexual behavior. One hundred sixty-two male undergraduate students completed self-report measures of childhood maternal attachment, childhood paternal attachment, adult attachment, antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. As predicted, insecure childhood attachment, especially insecure paternal attachment, was associated with antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. Moreover, childhood attachment independently predicted coercive sexual behavior after antisociality and aggression were statistically controlled. The hypothesis that paternal avoidant attachment would predict coercive sexual behavior independently of its relationship with aggression and antisociality was also supported. Posthoc analysis indicated that maternal anxious attachment was associated with antisociality and that paternal avoidant attachment was associated with both antisociality and coercive sexual behavior. These results are consistent with criminological and psychological research linking adverse early family experiences with offending and lend support to an attachment-theoretical framework for understanding offending behavior in general and sexual offending behavior in particular.

  19. Comprehensive Sexuality Education: A pending matter in Early Childhood Education in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This paper stresses the need to incorporate Comprehensive Sexuality Education(CSE) during the Early Childhood and Preschool school stages in Mexico. Adetailed analysis of the content of strategies, courses of action and policies forearly education was made for both, the local and Latin-American level. Findingsindicate that there remains a need for CSE for 0 to 6-year-old Mexican children.The inclusion of a human rights and a sociocultural perspective of genderedsexuality is strongly recommend...

  20. Body issues, sexual satisfaction, and relationship status satisfaction in long-term childhood cancer survivors and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Fults, Marci; Olshefski, Randal S.; Sanderman, Robbert; Tuinman, Marrit A.

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveResearch on body image and sexual satisfaction after adult onset cancer has shown significant and lasting impairments regarding survivors' sexuality and romantic relationships. However, knowledge about these topics and their associations in adult survivors of childhood cancer is largely lac

  1. A Population-Based Study of Childhood Sexual Contact in China: Prevalence and Long-Term Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ye; Parish, William L.; Laumann, Edward O.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This study provides national estimates of the prevalence of childhood sexual contact and its association with sexual well-being and psychological distress among adults in China. Method: A national stratified probability sample of 1,519 women and 1,475 men aged 20-64 years in urban China completed a computer-administered survey in…

  2. Childhood sexual experiences among substance-using non-gay identified Black men who have sex with men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Ellen; Downing, Martin J

    2013-09-01

    This study explored potential variations in childhood sexual abuse (CSA) by examining qualitative accounts of first sexual experiences among non-disclosing, non-gay identified Black men who have sex with men and women (MSMW). We analyzed data from semi-structured qualitative interviews with 33 MSMW who described first sexual experiences with male and female partners. Thematic analysis revealed four patterns of first sexual experiences including: unwanted sexual experiences with a male or female consistent with definitions of childhood sexual abuse; consensual sex with an older male or female; bodily exploration with another male or female child; and consensual sex with a peer-age female. Most of the experiences described by participants as consensual with an older male or female, however, met criteria for childhood sexual abuse found in the extant literature. Several men discussed childhood sexual experiences (CSE) relative to their experiences with alcohol, drugs, and same-sex behavior as adults. Findings suggest that the relationship between CSE and risk-taking behavior may be shaped by whether men perceive their experiences as abusive or consensual, and have implications for researchers, treatment providers and counselors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mediators of the Relation between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Women’s Sexual Risk Behavior: A Comparison of Two Theoretical Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood, but little research has investigated processes that might mediate this relation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether constructs suggested by the traumagenic dynamics (TD) model (a theory of the effects of CSA) or constructs suggested by the Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills (IMB) model (a theory of the antecedents of sexual risk behavior) better mediated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Participants were 481 women attending an STI clinic (66% African American) who completed a computerized survey as well as behavioral simulations assessing condom application and sexual assertiveness skills. Forty-five percent of the sample met criteria for CSA and CSA was associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. In multiple mediator models, the TD constructs mediated the relation between CSA and the number of sexual partners whereas the IMB constructs mediated the relation between CSA and unprotected sex. In addition, the TD constructs better mediated the relation between CSA and the number of sexual partners; the TD and IMB constructs did not differ in their ability to mediate the relation between CSA and unprotected sex. Sexual risk reduction interventions for women who were sexually abused should target not only the constructs from health behavior models (e.g., motivation and skills to reduce sexual risk), but also constructs that are specific to sexual abuse (e.g., traumatic sexualization and guilt). PMID:22282323

  4. Adult social outcomes of extremely low birth weight survivors of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, J I; Day, K L; Schmidt, L A; Saigal, S; Van Lieshout, R J

    2016-12-01

    Preterm birth and exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are early physiological and psychological adversities that have been linked to reduced social functioning across the lifespan. However, the joint effects of being born preterm and being exposed to CSA on adult social outcomes remains unclear. We sought to determine the impact of exposure to both preterm birth and CSA on adult social functioning in a group of 179 extremely low birth weight (ELBW; 2500 g) participants in the fourth decade of life. Social outcome data from a prospective, longitudinal, population-based Canadian birth cohort initiated between the years of 1977 and 1982 were examined. At age 29-36 years, ELBW survivors who experienced CSA reported poorer relationships with their partner, worse family functioning, greater loneliness, lower self-esteem and had higher rates of avoidant personality problems than those who had not experienced CSA. Birth weight status was also found to moderate associations between CSA and self-esteem (P=0.032), loneliness (P=0.021) and family functioning (P=0.060), such that the adverse effects of CSA were amplified in ELBW survivors. Exposure to CSA appears to augment the adult social risks associated with perinatal adversity. Individuals born preterm and exposed to CSA appear to be a group at particularly high risk for adverse social outcomes in adulthood.

  5. The childhood sexual abuse among youth in three Asian cities: Taipei, Shanghai, and Hanoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Zabin, Laurie S; Ahmed, Saifuddin

    2015-03-01

    The article describes the prevalence and risk factors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among youth in Hanoi, Shanghai, and Taipei. Data used in this study are from the Three-City Asian Study of Adolescents and Youth, 2006-2007. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression models were used. The self-reported lifetime prevalence of CSA was 5.2% in Taipei, 1.3% in Shanghai, and 0.5% in Hanoi. The overall prevalence was 2.2% for females and 1.7% for males. The average age of first CSA was 10.5 years. Household instability, migration before age 14, and low maternal warmth were found to be positively associated with CSA, whereas discussing problems with father and being close to mother were negatively associated with CSA, after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Our findings suggested the importance of prevention programs for preteen aged children, public education to raise awareness, and further prospective studies to identify various risk markers for CSA in Asia.

  6. Complexity of childhood sexual abuse: Predictors of current PTSD, mood disorders, substance use, and sexual risk behavior among adult men who have sex with men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroughs, Michael S.; Valentine, Sarah E.; Ironson, Gail H.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Safren, Steven A.; Taylor, S. Wade; Dale, Sannisha K.; Baker, Joshua S.; Wilner, Julianne G.; O'Cleirigh, Conall

    2016-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are the group most at risk for HIV and represent the majority of new infections in the United States. Rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among MSM have been estimated as high as 46%. CSA is associated with increased risk of HIV and greater likelihood of HIV sexual risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationships between CSA complexity indicators and mental health, substance use, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV sexual risk among MSM. MSM with CSA histories (n = 162) who were screened for an HIV-prevention efficacy trial completed comprehensive psychosocial assessments. Five indicators of complex CSA experiences were created: CSA by family member, CSA with penetration, CSA with physical injury, CSA with intense fear, and first CSA in adolescence. Adjusted regression models were used to identify relationships between CSA complexity and outcomes. Participants reporting CSA by family member were at 2.6 odds of current alcohol use disorder (OR: 2.64: CI 1.24 – 5.63), 2 times higher odds of substance use disorder (OR 2.1: CI 1.02 – 2.36), and 2.7 times higher odds of reporting an STI in the past year (OR 2.7: CI 1.04 – 7.1). CSA with penetration was associated with increased likelihood of current PTSD (OR 3.17: CI 1.56 – 6.43), recent HIV sexual risk behavior (OR 2.7: CI 1.16 – 6.36) and a greater number of casual sexual partners (p = .02). Both CSA with Physical Injury (OR 4.05: CI 1.9 – 8.7) and CSA with Intense Fear (OR 5.16: CI 2.5 – 10.7) were related to increased odds for current PTSD. First CSA in adolescence was related to increased odds of major depressive disorder. These findings suggest that CSA, with one or more complexities, creates patterns of vulnerabilities for MSM, including PTSD, substance use, and sexual risk taking and suggests the need for detailed assessment of CSA and the development of integrated HIV prevention programs that address mental health and substance

  7. History of Childhood Abuse, Drinking Motives, Alcohol Use, and Sexual Risk Behavior among STD clinic patients in St. Petersburg, Russia: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala, Nadia; Li, Fangyong; Shaboltas, Alla V.; Skochilov, Roman V.; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between level of childhood abuse (physical and emotional) and sexual risk behavior of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic patients in St. Petersburg, Russia was examined through path analyses. Mediating variables investigated were: Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), drinking motives (for social interaction, to enhance mood, to facilitate sexual encounters), intimate partner violence (IPV), anxiety, and depression symptoms. Results showed a significant indirect effect of childhood abuse on women’s sexual risk behavior: higher level of childhood abuse was associated with a greater likelihood of IPV, motivations to drink, leading to higher AUDIT scores and correlated to higher likelihood of having multiple, new or casual sexual partner(s). No significant effect was identified in paths to condom use. Among men, childhood abuse had no significant effect on sexual risk behavior. Reduction in alcohol-related sexual risk behavior may be achieved by addressing the effects of childhood abuse among female participants. PMID:25801476

  8. Family characteristics and long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Suchitra; Winter, David; Messer, David; Metcalfe, Chris

    2011-11-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study investigated the role of family variables in the development of psychological problems in childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, contributing to the debate between the 'abuse related' perspective, which assumes a direct causal link between abuse and later problems, and the 'family dysfunction' perspective, which assumes that these problems are caused by the dysfunctional nature of families in which abuse occurs. The two questions of central concern were: (1) whether maladaptive family dynamics and CSA were each associated with later adjustment; and (2) whether these associations acted independently of one another. DESIGN. A retrospective cohort study comparing sexually abused and non-abused participants matched one-to-one on demographic variables. METHODS. The 64 clinical participants were recruited by sending questionnaires to clients on a psychological therapy waiting list, and 44 students were recruited from questionnaires made available at University Health Centres. Participants completed measures of psychological and sexual adjustment, family functioning, and construing. Multiple linear regression models investigated overall and independent associations between abuse, family circumstances, and adjustment in adulthood. RESULTS. There was only weak evidence for the influence of CSA, independently of family environment, on later psychological distress and sexual adjustment, but strong evidence for the influence of aspects of family environment, independent of abuse, on later psychological distress, sexual adjustment, self-esteem, body image, and sexual attitude. CONCLUSIONS. The findings provide support for the 'family dysfunction' perspective on the long-term effects of CSA. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  9. A proposed support strategy for sexually abused boys in their middle childhood placed in a clinic school / Helga Steyn

    OpenAIRE

    Steyn, Helga

    2014-01-01

    Boys in their middle childhood placed in clinic schools experience severe emotional and behavioural problems. Most of these boys have been sexually abused. The trauma of this sexual abuse may contribute to their problem behaviour. If the learners can be effectively supported in addressing the trauma of the male child sexual abuse during their time at the clinic school, some of their emotional and behavioural problems may also be addressed. Without these emotional and behavioural problems they...

  10. ANALYSIS ON EARLY CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE AND THE IMPLICATIONS IN ISLAMIC EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhamwilda Erhamwilda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fulfillment of children's rights has been a concern of Indonesia stated in the ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and Act No. 23 of 2002 on Child Protection. However, violence against children is increasing each year. The most dominant violence emerged in recent years is sexual abuse committed against children aged 5 to 11 years, and the perpetrators of sexual abuse are close with the children. Concern about cases of sexual abuse in early childhood and their impact, should be followed by an effort to develop a variety of approaches and methods of sex education in accordance with religious and cultural values in which children live.   

  11. Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse. Long-term social and psychiatric aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids; Lau, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    The socio-demographics and psychiatric diagnoses in a clinical sample of women with a history of mainly intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are described. The women were referred to five psychiatric centres for incest group psychotherapy. Data were gathered using interviews and self......-administered questionnaires. Over a period of 2.5 years, 385 women with mean age of 33 years were referred with a history of CSA. Three hundred and forty of those had experienced intrafamilial CSA. The average age at first abuse was 6.8 years, and it lasted for a mean of 6 years. The women had been abused by a mean of 1.......5 perpetrators. A quarter of the women had been subjected to violence in connection with the sexual abuse. The likelihood of violence having occurred rose significantly if there was more than one perpetrator and/or if penetration had been part of the sexual abuse. Violence was less common if the perpetrator...

  12. Dissociative symptoms as a consequence of traumatic experiences: the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaon, Ariel; Kaplan, Zeev; Dwolatzky, Tzvi; Perry, Zvi; Witztum, Eliezer

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of dissociative symptoms and post-traumatic experiences in an ambulatory setting. The study was conducted in the ambulatory outpatient clinic of the Beersheva Mental Health Center. Over a period of six months new patients over 18 years of age were asked to participate in this survey. Patients completed questionnaires including the Dissociative experience Scale, trauma History Questionnaire, impact of event Scale, and Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale. A total of 505 patients were enrolled in the study, and 456 completed questionnaires were analyzed. of these, 442 (97%) participants reported at least one traumatic event during their lifetime. the traumatic events were experienced as meaningful and severe at the time of occurrence. the effects of sexual and childhood emotional abuse remained very intense throughout the victim's life and were viewed as powerful, significant experiences. on the other hand, traumatic experiences such as natural disasters and battle trauma were associated with longterm effects of relatively low intensity. The presence of undiagnosed posttraumatic stress disorder (PtSD) among patients in outpatient mental health clinics suggests that screening and diagnostic procedures for this condition be more carefully defined. our most important finding is the large impact of childhood trauma, especially sexual abuse, on later life. thus the prevention, early detection and treatment of child abuse in preventing long term psychopathology must be emphasized.

  13. Response Bias on Self-Report Measures of Sexual Fantasies Among Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Kindra; Boulas, Jenna; Huss, Matthew T; Scalora, Mario J

    2017-02-01

    The impact of sexual fantasies in future risk and treatment response among sexual offenders has long been known. However, as we develop objective self-report measures of sexual fantasies, response bias is becoming an increasing concern. In examining a sample of institutionalized sex offenders, the present study suggests that offenders' responses on these measures are prone to response bias, the bias does not negate their associations with other self-report measures of sexual deviance, and relationship of their sexual fantasies does not appear to relate to actual behavioral indications. Clinical and research implications for these findings are discussed.

  14. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: results from a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J; Masho, Saba W; Perera, Robert A; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A

    2015-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression models were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: Results from a nationally representative sample☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J.; Masho, Saba W.; Perera, Robert A.; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression model were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. PMID:25804435

  16. Childhood sexual abuse and multiple dimensions of self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthi, Meera; Servaty-Seib, Heather L; Elliott, Ann N

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and self-concept in a nonclinical sample of female college students. Participants with a history of CSA had lower scores than participants without a history of CSA on four domains of self-concept: familial, affect, competence, and physical. History of CSA was not associated with lower self-concept in the social and academic domains. The primary conclusions to be drawn from this study are that CSA may be differentially associated with various domains of self-concept, and thus multidimensional assessment of self-concept can yield useful information that cannot be gathered from global measures which yield a single composite score.

  17. Transgender transitioning and change of self-reported sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Matthias K; Fuss, Johannes; Höhne, Nina; Stalla, Günter K; Sievers, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Sexual orientation is usually considered to be determined in early life and stable in the course of adulthood. In contrast, some transgender individuals report a change in sexual orientation. A common reason for this phenomenon is not known. We included 115 transsexual persons (70 male-to-female "MtF" and 45 female-to-male "FtM") patients from our endocrine outpatient clinic, who completed a questionnaire, retrospectively evaluating the history of their gender transition phase. The questionnaire focused on sexual orientation and recalled time points of changes in sexual orientation in the context of transition. Participants were further asked to provide a personal concept for a potential change in sexual orientation. In total, 32.9% (n = 23) MtF reported a change in sexual orientation in contrast to 22.2% (n = 10) FtM transsexual persons (p = 0.132). Out of these patients, 39.1% (MtF) and 60% (FtM) reported a change in sexual orientation before having undergone any sex reassignment surgery. FtM that had initially been sexually oriented towards males ( = androphilic), were significantly more likely to report on a change in sexual orientation than gynephilic, analloerotic or bisexual FtM (p = 0.012). Similarly, gynephilic MtF reported a change in sexual orientation more frequently than androphilic, analloerotic or bisexual MtF transsexual persons (p =0.05). In line with earlier reports, we reveal that a change in self-reported sexual orientation is frequent and does not solely occur in the context of particular transition events. Transsexual persons that are attracted by individuals of the opposite biological sex are more likely to change sexual orientation. Qualitative reports suggest that the individual's biography, autogynephilic and autoandrophilic sexual arousal, confusion before and after transitioning, social and self-acceptance, as well as concept of sexual orientation itself may explain this phenomenon.

  18. Comparison of adolescents' reports of sexual behavior on a survey and sexual health history calendar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Colleen M; Lee, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Assessing sexual risk is critical for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention with adolescents. This article compares sexual risk reports from two self-administered instruments, a standard survey and a sexual health history calendar (SHHC), among racially diverse youth (n = 232) ages 14 to 21 seeking services at a public health clinic. Agreement between methods was assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) and Bland-Altman plots. Lin's CCC showed poor to moderate agreement between instruments on reports of sexual partners in the past 3 (0.47), 6 (0.55), and 12 (0.49) months. While individual sexual partner questions were refused a total of 179 times on the survey, youth reported having sexual partners during the same time period on the SHHC in most (77.1%) of these instances. Poor agreement was also found for condom use frequency (CCC = 0.17), with youth's frequency of condom use on the SHHC differing from that reported on the survey for more than half (55.6%) of the months they were sexually active. While lack of objective sexual behavior measures limits conclusions about the accuracy of reports, the ways in which youth's responses varied across instruments may offer insight into the complexity of adolescent sexual risk taking as well as have important implications for development of HIV/STI preventive interventions.

  19. Emotional support and adult depression in survivors of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musliner, Katherine L; Singer, Jonathan B

    2014-08-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the effects of emotional support from friends and parents at two time points (adolescence and adulthood) on adult depression in a nationally representative sample of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and examine whether the associations were moderated by the identity of the perpetrator (parent/caregiver vs. not). Data were taken from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study sample included 1,238 Add Health participants with a history of CSA and an equivalently sized comparison group of individuals with no history of CSA. Parental support was measured using four items from each wave that assessed the warmth of participants' relationships with their parents and their satisfaction with those relationships. Friend support in adolescence was measured using participants' perceptions of how much their friends cared about them and in adulthood using participants' self-reported number of close friends. Depression was measured using a 10-item subscale of the CES-D. Logistic regressions showed that support from friends and parents in adulthood were significantly associated with lower odds of adult depression in CSA survivors who reported non-parent/caregiver abuse. Among survivors of parent/caregiver abuse, emotional support was not significantly associated with adult depression regardless of when or by whom it was provided. In conclusion, emotional support in adulthood from friends and parents is associated with reduced odds of adult depression in CSA survivors, but only in cases where the abuse was perpetrated by someone other than a parent or caregiver.

  20. Disparities in adverse childhood experiences among sexual minority and heterosexual adults: results from a multi-state probability-based sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith P Andersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (e.g., physical, sexual and emotional abuse, neglect, exposure to domestic violence, parental discord, familial mental illness, incarceration and substance abuse constitute a major public health problem in the United States. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE scale is a standardized measure that captures multiple developmental risk factors beyond sexual, physical and emotional abuse. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority individuals may experience disproportionately higher prevalence of adverse childhood experiences. PURPOSE: To examine, using the ACE scale, prevalence of childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and childhood household dysfunction among sexual minority and heterosexual adults. METHODS: Analyses were conducted using a probability-based sample of data pooled from three U.S. states' Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS surveys (Maine, Washington, Wisconsin that administered the ACE scale and collected information on sexual identity (n = 22,071. RESULTS: Compared with heterosexual respondents, gay/lesbian and bisexual individuals experienced increased odds of six of eight and seven of eight adverse childhood experiences, respectively. Sexual minority persons had higher rates of adverse childhood experiences (IRR = 1.66 gay/lesbian; 1.58 bisexual compared to their heterosexual peers. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual minority individuals have increased exposure to multiple developmental risk factors beyond physical, sexual and emotional abuse. We recommend the use of the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale in future research examining health disparities among this minority population.

  1. Retrospective Reports of Childhood Trauma in Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucklidge, Julia J.; Brown, Deborah L.; Crawford, Susan; Kaplan, Bonnie J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although studies have documented higher prevalence of abuse in children with ADHD, no studies have investigated childhood reports of abuse in individuals identified with ADHD in adulthood. Method: Forty ADHD women, 17 ADHD males, 17 female controls, and 40 male controls complete the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and other measures of…

  2. Cranial fasciitis of childhood: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumon, Y; Sakaki, S; Sakoh, M; Nakano, K; Fukui, K; Kurihara, K

    1992-07-01

    Cranial fasciitis of childhood is very rare, only 17 cases having been reported in the literature. We report an additional case of this rare disease. The patient was a 5-year-old boy who complained of left exophthalmos and double vision. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large epidural mass in the left frontal region that had invaded into the underlying anterior skull base. The tumor showed homogeneous, low density with nonhomogeneous contrast enhancement on the CT scans, and low intensity on the T1-weighted and high intensity on the T2-weighted MRI images. A whitish-pink, elastic, hard tumor was revealed in the epidural space in the left anterior cranial fossa, which was totally excised with curettage of the affected anterior skull base. The origin of the tumor was suspected to be the fibrous connective tissue of the sphenofrontal suture. The histological diagnosis was that of cranial fasciitis. There was no evidence of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  3. Impact of childhood sexual abuse on the emotions and behaviours of adult men from three ethnic groups in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jennifer Shepard; Galvan, Frank H; Williams, John K; Prusinski, Missy; Zhang, Muyu; Wyatt, Gail E; Myers, Hector F

    2014-01-06

    Adult men of different ethnic backgrounds who experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may vary in their reports of the psychological and behavioural impact of CSA on their lives. Empirical studies rarely examine the impact of race/ethnicity or cultural context on the psychological and behavioural struggles of adult male CSA survivors. This study utilised qualitative content analysis to examine the reported CSA-related psychological and behavioural challenges of 150 US men, with equal numbers of Blacks, Latinos and non-Latino Whites. Interview data revealed some ethnic differences: Black men more frequently denied having present day adverse effects than other groups. However, Black men who did report negative consequences of CSA discussed difficulties with substance use and hyper-sexualised behaviour more often than other ethnicities. Latino men reported anger, anxiety, hyper-vigilance, flashbacks and communication problems more often than the other two groups. Black and Latino men also discussed guilt/shame issues and sexual identity concerns more often than Whites did. In contrast, White men more frequently discussed issues related to low self-esteem, loneliness and isolation. These findings suggest that ethnically diverse men may respond differently to CSA experiences and that considerations need to be taken into account when providing healthcare to men with CSA histories.

  4. Types and Characteristics of Childhood Sexual Abuse: How Do They Matter in HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Women in Methadone Treatment in New York City?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrom, Malitta; Winham, Katherine; Gilbert, Louisa

    2016-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is often considered an important distal factor in HIV sexual risk behaviors; however, there are limited and mixed findings regarding this relationship among women experiencing substance use problems. In addition, research with this population of women has yet to examine differences in observed CSA-HIV sexual risk behaviors relationships by CSA type and characteristics. This study examines relationships between CSA coding, type, and characteristics and HIV sexual risk behaviors with main intimate partners among a random sample of 390 women in methadone treatment in New York City who completed individual interviews with trained female interviewers. Findings from logistic regression analyses indicate that CSA predicts substance use with sexual activity, with variations by CSA coding, type, and characteristics; however, the role of CSA is more limited than expected. Having a main partner with HIV risk mediates some relationships between CSA and drinking four or more drinks prior to sex. Intimate partner violence is the most consistent predictor of sexual risk behaviors. Other salient factors include polysubstance use, depression, social support, recent incarceration, relationship characteristics, and HIV status. This study contributes to understanding of relationships between CSA and HIV sexual risk behaviors and key correlates associated with HIV sexual risk behaviors among women in methadone treatment. It also highlights the complexity of measuring CSA and its association with sexual risk behaviors and the importance of comprehensive approaches to HIV prevention that address psychological, relational, situational, and substance use experiences associated with sexual risk behaviors among this population.

  5. Role of sexual abuse in development of conversion disorder: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobot, V; Ivanovic-Kovacevic, S; Markovic, J; Misic-Pavkov, G; Novovic, Z

    2012-02-01

    Described case report speaks in favour of the relation between childhood sexual abuse with the development of conversion disorder. Following Salmonella poisoning, adolescent, at the age of 16, develops series of severe somatic symptoms. Results of diagnostic procedures excluded organic foundation of the symptoms; diagnosis of conversion disorder is established. Soon, patient's problems stop abruptly and spontaneously, and the aetiology of the mental disorder remains unexplained. Six years later, adolescent reveals for the first time data about the childhood sexual abuse during the forensic evaluation (within the court process related to the request for compensation for the complications which occurred following the Salmonella infection). During the forensic evaluation, we had insight into the previous medical history, while an interview, psychological and psychiatric exploration was conducted with the examinee. Data about the sexual abuse retrospectively explain the dynamics of the development of conversion disorder. The described case indicates that sexual abuse of children and adolescents frequently remains unrecognized, which has sequels for treatment and prevention of subsequent consequences for mental health. It is important to emphasize the significance of examining history of abuse during the diagnostic of certain mental disorders. Forensic implications of the case have not been discussed in details for the needs of this report.

  6. Peculiarities of sexual development and reproductive function in young women with childhood onset weight problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikvaidze, N; Kristesashvili, J; Gegechkori, M

    2014-10-01

    The risks of reproductive problems are higher in underweight and overweight or obese women, especially in case of rapid weight gain or loss. But evidence is inconsistent especially in relation to the effect of age of body weight changes. The aim of the study was detection of peculiarities of sexual development and reproductive function in underweight and overweight/obese females with childhood thinness or childhood obesity. 103 young females (48 - with low BMI, 55 - with high BMI) with different reproductive problems were examined prospectively. In all investigated patients full clinical examination was held, including body mass index (BMI), type of body fat distribution (waist-to-hip ratio), age of body weight changes, assessment of hirsutism, acne, stretch marks and hyperpigmentation, menstrual disturbances and fertility problems were recorded and gynecological ultrasound was performed. There was no difference established according to the age of menarche and types of menstrual disturbances between the groups of low BMI and high BMI females (p>.05). The correlation was established between the onset of menstrual disruption and progression of changes in body mass (R=.448, p=.005). Hirsutism, stretch marks and acantosis nigricans (hyperpigmentation) were exhibited significantly more frequently in the patients with high BMI (p.05). 74.5% of overweight and obese patients had upper body fat distribution (waist-to-hip ratio > 0.8), whilst underweight patients had mostly equal (66.7%) or lower body fat distribution (31.3%) (p=.000). Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and metabolic syndrome (MS) was the most frequent in overweight and obese patients, whilst non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) and ovarian dysfunction prevailed in the underweight females (p<.05). Infertility was mostly observed in patients with high BMI (p<.05). In conclusion, the peculiarities of sexual development and menstrual function in young females with childhood thinness and obesity

  7. Childhood serum sickness: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Y K; Shyur, S D; Wu, C Y; Wang, C Y

    2001-09-01

    Childhood serum sickness is a rare allergic disease that follows the administration of a foreign antigenic material, most commonly caused by injecting a protein or haptenic drug. The disease is a type III hypersensitivity reaction mediated by deposits of circulating immune complexes in small vessels, which leads to complement activation and subsequent inflammation. The clinical features are fever, cutaneous eruptions, lymphadenopathy, arthralgias, albuminuria, and nephritis. Serum sickness is an acute self-limited disease. We report a 3-year-old child who presented with fever and a rash; an invasive bacterial infection was strongly suspected. He was therefore given penicillin and gentamicin and responded well. At day 4 after admission, he developed a serum sickness reaction and showed symptoms of arthralgias, generalized edema, purpura, and gross hematuria. The white blood cell count was 12 190/mm3 with 7% eosinophils. Urinalysis revealed red blood cell above 100 per high power field, white blood cell 10 to 15 per high power field, and proteinuria. The antibiotics were discontinued and hydrocortisone (20 mg/kg/d), diphenhydramine HCl (4 mg/kg/d), aspirin (66 mg/kg/d) was administered, plus 1 dose of epinephrine (0.01 mL/kg) administered intramuscularly. On day 7, the 3rd day after withholding antibiotics, his condition dramatically improved. The clinical symptoms resolved progressively and his urinalysis returned to normal.

  8. An Epidemiologic Study of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Sleep Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Mackenzie J.; Aggen, Steven H.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; York, Timothy P.; Amstadter, Ananda B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is linked to negative consequences, including insomnia. Few studies have examined enduring effects of CSA on adult insomnia. Given the relationship between sleep and poor health, a better understanding of these effects has clinical implications. Method We used a representative sample of adult twins. Both men and women were assessed with a broad variable representative of CSA, while a subset of females (n=424) were given additional items that captured escalating physical contact and abuse characteristics. A sum score of past month insomnia symptoms was calculated from the shortened version of the SCL-90. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of CSA on insomnia symptoms, as well as the effects of physical contact and incident characteristics. Results Of the full sample (n=8184), 9.8% reported broad CSA. CSA significantly predicted insomnia symptoms in the female sample (n=1407) (OR=1.67, 95% CI=1.35–2.06, p<0.0001). The continuum of physical contact did not predict sleep. On a univariate level, more than one perpetrator and feeling forced/threatened increased risk for sleep problems, while having a male perpetrator (vs. female or multiple perpetrators) decreased risk. These associations did not hold at a multivariate level. In the mixed-sex sample (n=6777), we replicated our CSA finding (OR=1.65, 95% CI=1.34–2.03, p<0.0001) and found that female gender (OR=1.16, 95% CI=1.03–1.30, p=0.0125) was significant. However, the female gender*CSA interaction was not significant. Conclusion CSA predicts insomnia symptoms in adults 25–30 years post-abuse, but the small sample size for incident characteristics (n=424) resulted in limited conclusions about associated risk. PMID:26390111

  9. Genetic and environmental influences on female sexual orientation, childhood gender typicality and adult gender identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Burri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human sexual orientation is influenced by genetic and non-shared environmental factors as are two important psychological correlates--childhood gender typicality (CGT and adult gender identity (AGI. However, researchers have been unable to resolve the genetic and non-genetic components that contribute to the covariation between these traits, particularly in women. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we performed a multivariate genetic analysis in a large sample of British female twins (N = 4,426 who completed a questionnaire assessing sexual attraction, CGT and AGI. Univariate genetic models indicated modest genetic influences on sexual attraction (25%, AGI (11% and CGT (31%. For the multivariate analyses, a common pathway model best fitted the data. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This indicated that a single latent variable influenced by a genetic component and common non-shared environmental component explained the association between the three traits but there was substantial measurement error. These findings highlight common developmental factors affecting differences in sexual orientation.

  10. Sexual Fantasies, Gender, and Molestation History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, John; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A total of 314 university students completed a questionnaire examining reports of childhood sexual abuse history and extent and type of adult sexual fantasies. Multivariate main effects of gender and abuse history were found, as well as a multivariate interaction between these variables. Sexually abused subjects had more sexual fantasies in four…

  11. Parents' experiences of reporting child sexual abuse in urban Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisanga, Felix; Nyström, Lennarth; Hogan, Nora; Emmelin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    This article reports parental experiences of legally reporting child sexual abuse in Tanzania. Based on in-depth interviews, four types of sexual abuse incidents are portrayed. Each evokes different reactions from parents and the community. An incident characterized as the innocent child was associated with a determination to seek justice. The forced-sex youth elicited feelings of parental betrayal of their child. The consenting curious youth resulted in uncertainty of how to proceed, while the transactional-sex youth evoked a sense of parental powerlessness to control the child because of low economic status. Differentiating between types of sexual abuse incidents may increase awareness of the complexities of child sexual abuse reporting. Education on laws regulating sexual offenses and a functional national child protection system are needed to address child sexual abuse complexities and safeguard the rights of children in Tanzania.

  12. Making meaning of traumatic events: youths' strategies for processing childhood sexual abuse are associated with psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Valerie A; Feiring, Candice; Kobielski McElroy, Sarah

    2010-08-01

    The need to make meaning of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and often persists long after the abuse ends. Although believed to be essential for healthy recovery, there is a paucity of research on how youth process their CSA experiences. The current study identified individual differences in the ways youth process their CSA and examined associations with psychosocial adjustment. A sample of 108 youth with confirmed abuse histories enrolled in the study within 8 weeks of abuse discovery, when they were between 8 and 15 years old. Six years later, they participated in interviews about their CSA experiences, reactions, and perceived effects. Using a coding system developed for this study, youths' CSA narratives were reliably classified with one of three processing strategies: Constructive (13.9%), Absorbed (50%), or Avoidant (36.1%). Absorbed youth reported the highest levels of psychopathological symptoms, sexual problems, and abuse-specific stigmatization, whereas Constructive youth tended to report the fewest problems. Avoidant youth showed significantly more problems than Constructive youth in some but not all areas. Interventions that build healthy processing skills may promote positive recovery by providing tools for constructing adaptive meanings of the abuse, both in its immediate aftermath and over time.

  13. Couples therapy with childhood sexual abuse survivors (CSA) and their partners: establishing a context for witnessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Ron; Nadan, Yochay

    2013-09-01

    This article proposes a clinical practice for therapy with couples in which one partner suffered sexual abuse in childhood. Such couples often encounter unique difficulties with physical contact, intimacy, sexuality, communication, and trust, and their relationship dynamic may be marked by reenactments of past traumatic relational patterns. This clinical practice is founded on the assumption that establishing the witnessing lacking during the traumatic event in childhood can break the traumatic reenactments in adulthood, and spur recovery. The suggested practice may facilitate twofold witnessing: the couple's therapist witnesses the reenactments of the trauma in the couple's relationship; and the survivor's partner witnesses the trauma's effect on the survivor's personal life and relationship. Twofold witnessing can help break the cycle of traumatic reenactment and help the survivor integrate the events of her life into a more coherent, continuous narrative. The partner's presence also facilitates acknowledgement of what happened to the survivor, and helps the survivor elaborate on her stories of resistance, survival, and strength. Finally, each of the partners is able to appear more wholly and fully, and together to tell the preferred stories of their life as a couple, replete with the multiple relational patterns they wish to live, which may contradict the characteristics of the original trauma.

  14. 774名大学生性侵犯回顾性调查%Retrospective Survey on Sexual Abuse of 774 Cases of Undergraduates dur-ing Childhood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳婷; 向兵; 谭婷; 崔倩; 曹亚兰; 董潇杨; 陶希

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解大学生儿童期性侵犯的发生情况及相关的危险因素,获取大学生群体对儿童期性侵犯的认知与看法,为制定儿童预防性侵犯干预方案提供科学依据。方法现场调查采用整群随机抽样抽取武汉市某高校443名在校大学生,网络调查采用简单随机抽样抽取324名高校大学生,通过问卷调查形式对调查对象进行儿童期性侵犯回顾性调查。结果20.2%的学生报告18岁以前发生过性侵犯,多因素Logistic回归分析被调查学生儿童期性侵犯发生与否与被侵犯者的性别、与主要看护人的关系好坏、对性侵犯的认知情况(第一次获得相关信息的时间、对可能发生性侵犯地点的认知、与侵犯者的关系)有显著性关系。结论大学生儿童期性侵犯发生率较高,是多因素作用的结果,应根据大学生儿童期性侵犯的危险因素来预防儿童期性侵犯的发生。%Objective To know the occurrence condition and related risk factors of sexual abuse of undergraduates during childhood, obtain the undergraduate's awareness and viewpoint of sexual abuse during childhood and provide scientific ba-sis for making the children preventive violation intervention plans. Methods 443 cases of students in some college in Wuhan were extracted by the cluster random sampling method in the field survey, and 324 cases of college students were extracted by the simple random sampling method in the network survey, and the sexual abuse of the survey objects was ret-rospectively surveyed by the questionnaires. Results The report showed that the sexual abuse occurred to 20.2 percent of students before 18 years old, and the multi-factor regression analyzes there was an obvious correlation between whether the sexual abuse of the surveyed students occurred or not during childhood and gender, relationship with major caregivers and awareness conditions of sexual abuse (the time of firstly obtaining the

  15. Task Force Report on Care for Victims of Sexual Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    is defined, as any sort of sexual activity in which one person is involved against his or her will, with or without physical force. Of the almost 3...deployed environment, is not currently a consideration in force planning. For example, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners (SANE) exist in the active and...risks and actively engage in preventive measures xii DoD Care for Victims of Sexual Assault Task Force Report all responders treat victims with

  16. Brief Report: The Sexual and Physical Abuse Histories of Offenders with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, W.; Steptoe, L.; Haut, F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Some studies have found higher rates of childhood sexual abuse in sex offenders while others have failed to find such relationships. Method: This study reviews the sexual and physical abuse histories of 156 male sex offenders with intellectual disability (ID), 126 non-sexual male offenders with ID and 27 female offenders with ID.…

  17. Educator Sexual Abuse: Two Case Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Welner, Michael; Willis, Danny G.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual abuse by educators has become an increasingly noted type of sexual abuse, especially among adolescents, for two reasons. First, there is a potential for these cases to be silent and prolonged and second, when disclosed, the forensic implications usually include both criminal and/or civil sanctions. For forensic case evaluations,…

  18. Dissociative Experiences during Sexual Behavior among a Sample of Adults Living with HIV Infection and a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Nathan B.; Brown, Lauren J.; Tsatkin, Elizabeth; Zelgowski, Brittany; Nightingale, Vienna

    2012-01-01

    Little attention has been given to the occurrence of dissociative symptoms during sexual behavior in adults who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). For this study, 57 adults living with HIV infection who had experienced CSA and were entering a treatment study for traumatic stress completed study assessments and clinical interviews, including a 15-item scale of Dissociative Experiences during Sexual Behavior. Predictor variables included DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of PTSD and Dissociative Disorders, Rape by an Intimate Partner, Duration of CSA, Number of Perpetrators of CSA, and Current Sexual Satisfaction. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify significant associations between predictors and dissociation during sex. Mean differences by clinical diagnosis were also examined. Results indicated that PTSD, Dissociative Disorders, Rape by an Intimate Partner, Duration of CSA, and Number of Perpetrators of CSA were associated with increased dissociation during sexual behavior. Dissociation during sex likely increases vulnerability to sexual revictimization and risky sexual behavior. Standard behavioral prevention interventions may be ineffective for sexual situations when dissociation occurs, and prevention efforts should be integrated with mental health care for those who have experienced CSA. PMID:22545567

  19. Dissociative experiences during sexual behavior among a sample of adults living with HIV infection and a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Nathan B; Brown, Lauren J; Tsatkin, Elizabeth; Zelgowski, Brittany; Nightingale, Vienna

    2012-01-01

    Little attention has been given to the occurrence of dissociative symptoms during sexual behavior in adults who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). For this study, 57 adults living with HIV infection who had experienced CSA and were entering a treatment study for traumatic stress completed study assessments and clinical interviews, including a 15-item scale of dissociative experiences during sexual behavior. Predictor variables included Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative disorders, rape by an intimate partner, duration of CSA, number of perpetrators of CSA, and current sexual satisfaction. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify significant associations between predictors and dissociation during sex. Mean differences by clinical diagnosis were also examined. Results indicated that PTSD, dissociative disorders, rape by an intimate partner, duration of CSA, and number of perpetrators of CSA were associated with increased dissociation during sexual behavior. Dissociation during sex likely increases vulnerability to sexual revictimization and risky sexual behavior. Standard behavioral prevention interventions may be ineffective for sexual situations when dissociation occurs, and prevention efforts should be integrated with mental health care for those who have experienced CSA.

  20. A meta-analysis of the effects of psychotherapy with adults sexually abused in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Joanne E; Harvey, Shane T

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents the results of a meta-analysis of the treatment outcome studies of different types of psychotherapeutic approaches for adults sexually abused as children. There were 44 studies included comprising 59 treatment conditions, and most of the studies aimed to treat the psychological effects of childhood sexual abuse. Separate meta-analyses were conducted according to study design and outcome domain, in keeping with meta-analytic conventions. For most outcome domains, there was remarkable consistency in overall effect sizes across study design. Effect sizes were predominantly of moderate magnitude for post-traumatic stress disorder or trauma symptoms (g=0.72-0.77), internalizing symptoms (g=0.68-0.72), externalizing symptoms (g=0.41-0.53), self-esteem (g=0.56-0.58), and global functioning or symptoms (g=0.57-0.60). Studies measuring interpersonal functioning outcomes had inconsistent effect sizes across study design. Effects were largely maintained at follow-up, although relatively few studies provided follow-up data. A number of moderating variables were examined given the inherent heterogeneity of the studies. Moderator analysis revealed a variety of variables, particularly treatment characteristics, that were associated with better outcomes. However, different variables were identified for the diverse outcomes that were measured, emphasizing the importance of moderator analysis in looking beyond overall treatment effects to ascertain specific elements that confer additional benefit in therapy for the diverse psychological effects of child sexual abuse. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cumulative childhood trauma and psychological maladjustment of sexually abused children in Korea: mediating effects of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Oh, Kyung Ja

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the mediating effects of emotion regulation on the association between cumulative childhood trauma and behavior problems in sexually abused children in Korea, using structural equation modeling (SEM). Data were collected on 171 children (ages 6-13 years) referred to a public counseling center for sexual abuse in Seoul, Korea. Cumulative childhood traumas were defined on the basis of number of traumas (physical abuse, witnessing domestic violence, neglect, traumatic separation from parent, and sexual abuse) and the severity and duration of traumas. Children were evaluated by their parents on emotion regulation using the Emotion Regulation Checklist and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems using the Korean-Child Behavior Checklist. SEM analyses confirmed the complete mediation model, in which emotion dysregulation fully mediates the relationship between cumulative childhood traumas and internalizing/externalizing behavior problems. These findings indicate that emotion regulation is an important mechanism that can explain the negative effects of cumulative childhood traumas and that there is a need to focus on emotion regulation in sexually abused children exposed to cumulative trauma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonagh, Annmarie; Friedman, Matthew; McHugo, Gregory; Ford, Julian; Sengupta, Anjana; Mueser, Kim; Demment, Christine Carney; Fournier, Debra; Schnurr, Paula P.

    2005-01-01

    The authors conducted a randomized clinical trial of individual psychotherapy for women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood sexual abuse (n = 74), comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with a problem-solving therapy (present-centered therapy; PCT) and to a wait-list (WL). The authors hypothesized that CBT would be…

  3. Examining the Relationship between a Childhood History of Sexual Abuse and Later Dissociation, Breast-Feeding Practices, and Parenting Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Katherine Gail; Ryberg, Jacalyn Wickline; Becker, Heather

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare Mexican American adolescent mothers with and without childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories to examine the influence of CSA on dissociation, selection of infant feeding method, and intimate parenting anxiety. Participants are 78 English-speaking adolescents between 15 and 19 years of age and recruited from…

  4. Chronic Avoidance Helps Explain the Relationship between Severity of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Psychological Distress in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, M. Zachary; Rasmussen Hall, Mandra L.; Palm, Kathleen M.; Batten, Sonja V.; Follette, Victoria M.

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have found that chronic avoidance of unpleasant internal experiences (e.g., thoughts, emotions, memories) is a maladaptive means of affect regulation often adopted by women with a history of sexual victimization in childhood. The primary aim of this study was to replicate and extend previous findings suggesting that higher levels of…

  5. Childhood Gender-Typed Behavior and Adolescent Sexual Orientation: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gu; Kung, Karson T. F.; Hines, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Lesbian and gay individuals have been reported to show more interest in other-sex, and/or less interest in same-sex, toys, playmates, and activities in childhood than heterosexual counterparts. Yet, most of the relevant evidence comes from retrospective studies or from prospective studies of clinically referred, extremely gender nonconforming…

  6. Transgender transitioning and change of self-reported sexual orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias K Auer

    Full Text Available Sexual orientation is usually considered to be determined in early life and stable in the course of adulthood. In contrast, some transgender individuals report a change in sexual orientation. A common reason for this phenomenon is not known.We included 115 transsexual persons (70 male-to-female "MtF" and 45 female-to-male "FtM" patients from our endocrine outpatient clinic, who completed a questionnaire, retrospectively evaluating the history of their gender transition phase. The questionnaire focused on sexual orientation and recalled time points of changes in sexual orientation in the context of transition. Participants were further asked to provide a personal concept for a potential change in sexual orientation.In total, 32.9% (n = 23 MtF reported a change in sexual orientation in contrast to 22.2% (n = 10 FtM transsexual persons (p = 0.132. Out of these patients, 39.1% (MtF and 60% (FtM reported a change in sexual orientation before having undergone any sex reassignment surgery. FtM that had initially been sexually oriented towards males ( = androphilic, were significantly more likely to report on a change in sexual orientation than gynephilic, analloerotic or bisexual FtM (p = 0.012. Similarly, gynephilic MtF reported a change in sexual orientation more frequently than androphilic, analloerotic or bisexual MtF transsexual persons (p =0.05.In line with earlier reports, we reveal that a change in self-reported sexual orientation is frequent and does not solely occur in the context of particular transition events. Transsexual persons that are attracted by individuals of the opposite biological sex are more likely to change sexual orientation. Qualitative reports suggest that the individual's biography, autogynephilic and autoandrophilic sexual arousal, confusion before and after transitioning, social and self-acceptance, as well as concept of sexual orientation itself may explain this phenomenon.

  7. Childhood sexual abuse and the development of recurrent major depression in Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our prior study in Han Chinese women has shown that women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA are at increased risk for developing major depression (MD. Would this relationship be found in our whole data set? METHOD: Three levels of CSA (non-genital, genital, and intercourse were assessed by self-report in two groups of Han Chinese women: 6017 clinically ascertained with recurrent MD and 5983 matched controls. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs were calculated by logistic regression. RESULTS: We confirmed earlier results by replicating prior analyses in 3,950 new recurrent MD cases. There were no significant differences between the two data sets. Any form of CSA was significantly associated with recurrent MD (OR 4.06, 95% confidence interval (CI [3.19-5.24]. This association strengthened with increasing CSA severity: non-genital (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.58-3.15, genital (OR 5.24, 95% CI 3.52-8.15 and intercourse (OR 10.65, 95% CI 5.56-23.71. Among the depressed women, those with CSA had an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes. Recurrent MD patients those with CSA had an increased risk for dysthymia (OR 1.60, 95%CI 1.11-2.27 and phobia (OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.09-1.80. Any form of CSA was significantly associated with suicidal ideation or attempt (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.20-1.89 and feelings of worthlessness or guilt (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.02-2.02. Intercourse (OR 3.47, 95%CI 1.66-8.22, use of force and threats (OR 1.95, 95%CI 1.05-3.82 and how strongly the victims were affected at the time (OR 1.39, 95%CI 1.20-1.64 were significantly associated with recurrent MD. CONCLUSIONS: In Chinese women CSA is strongly associated with recurrent MD and this association increases with greater severity of CSA. Depressed women with CSA have some specific clinical traits. Some features of CSA were associated with greater likelihood of developing recurrent MD.

  8. Client disclosure and therapist response in psychotherapy with women with a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Barry A; Feldman, Sarah; Wright, A Jordan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of adult clients (N=98; M age=32) with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) of the costs and benefits of disclosure of this material. Significant benefits of disclosing included a sense of relief from sharing bottled-up emotions, and feeling more accepted and understood by one's therapist; significant negative consequences included feeling emotionally overwhelmed, and feeling uncomfortably vulnerable and exposed. Linear regressions indicated that CSA patients who generally disclose more have a greater tendency to experience both positive and negative effects of disclosure about abuse. In addition, a hierarchical regression analysis indicated that higher levels of symptomatology were predictive of higher levels of anxiety related to disclosure in therapy, suggesting that clinicians need to be cautious in encouraging disclosure about CSA with patients with severe pathology.

  9. Does Parenting Influence the Enduring Impact of Severe Childhood Sexual Abuse on Psychiatric Resilience in Adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Mackenzie J; Brown, Ruth C; Sheerin, Christina M; York, Timothy P; Myers, John M; Kendler, Kenneth S; Amstadter, Ananda B

    2017-05-09

    This study examined the effect of parenting on the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and psychiatric resilience in adulthood in a large female twin sample (n = 1423) assessed for severe CSA (i.e., attempted or completed intercourse before age 16). Severe CSA was associated with lower resilience to recent stressors in adulthood (defined as the difference between their internalizing symptoms and their predicted level of symptoms based on cumulative exposure to stressful life events). Subscales of the Parental Bonding Instrument were significantly associated with resilience. Specifically, parental warmth was associated with increased resilience while parental protectiveness was associated with decreased resilience. The interaction between severe CSA and parental authoritarianism was significant, such that individuals with CSA history and higher authoritarianism scores had lower resilience. Results suggest that CSA assessment remains important for therapeutic work in adulthood and that addressing parenting may be useful for interventions in children with a CSA history.

  10. Childhood sexual abuse characteristics, intimate partner violence exposure, and psychological distress among women in methadone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrom, Malitta; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa

    2012-10-01

    Traumatic experiences and their biopsychosocial sequelae present complex challenges in substance use treatment. For women with substance use problems, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), intimate partner violence exposure (IPV), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and overall psychological distress are often co-occurring concerns. To address gaps in knowledge and to strengthen practice regarding these critical issues in substance use treatment, we drew upon cross-sectional and longitudinal data from baseline and 12-month interviews with a random sample of 416 women in methadone treatment to examine relationships between CSA characteristics, particularly the presence of force and involvement of family, IPV, and mental health concerns. Although CSA involving force and family was not associated with IPV as hypothesized, it was associated with increased risk of PTSD and overall psychological distress. The multivariate findings underscore the psychological vulnerabilities associated with CSA involving force and family and suggest that drug use and financial circumstances may be important targets to reduce IPV risk.

  11. Sexual Risk Behaviors in the Adolescent Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder: Prospective Associations with Parents' Personality and Externalizing Behavior in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijjar, Rami; Ellenbogen, Mark A; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2016-10-01

    We recently reported that adolescent and young adult offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (OBD), relative to control offspring, were more likely to engage in sexual risk behaviors (SRBs). The present prospective study aimed to determine the contribution of parents' personality and offspring behaviour problems in middle childhood to offspring SRBs 10 years later. We hypothesized that offspring externalizing problems in childhood would mediate the relationship between parents' personality traits of neuroticism and agreeableness and adolescent SRBs. Furthermore, we expected these associations to be more robust among the OBD than controls. At baseline, 102 offspring (52 OBD and 50 controls) aged between 4 and 14 years were assessed along with their parents, who completed a self-report personality measure and child behavior rating. Behaviour ratings were also obtained from the children's teachers. Ten years later the offspring completed an interview assessing SRBs. Mediation analyses using bootstrapping revealed that, after controlling for age and presence of an affective disorder, externalizing behaviors served as a pathway through which high parental neuroticism, low parental agreeableness, and low parental extraversion were related to SRBs in offspring. Moderated mediation analyses revealed that the relationship between parental neuroticism and childhood externalizing problems was stronger for OBD than controls. These findings add to our previous results showing parents' personality contributes to intergenerational risk transfer through behavioral problems in middle childhood. These results carry implications for optimal timing of preventative interventions in the OBD.

  12. Androgen and psychosexual development: core gender identity, sexual orientation and recalled childhood gender role behavior in women and men with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa; Brook, Charles; Conway, Gerard S

    2004-02-01

    We assessed core gender identity, sexual orientation, and recalled childhood gender role behavior in 16 women and 9 men with CAH and in 15 unaffected female and 10 unaffected male relatives, all between the ages of 18 and 44 years. Women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) recalled significantly more male-typical play behavior as children than did unaffected women, whereas men with and without CAH did not differ. Women with CAH also reported significantly less satisfaction with the female sex of assignment and less heterosexual interest than did unaffected women. Again, men with CAH did not differ significantly from unaffected men in these respects. Our results for women with CAH are consistent with numerous prior reports indicating that girls with CAH show increased male-typical play behavior. They also support the hypotheses that these women show reduced heterosexual interest and reduced satisfaction with the female sex of assignment. Our results for males are consistent with most prior reports that boys with CAH do not show a general alteration in childhood play behavior. In addition, they provide initial evidence that core gender identity and sexual orientation are unaffected in men with CAH. Finally, among women with CAH, we found that recalled male-typical play in childhood correlated with reduced satisfaction with the female gender and reduced heterosexual interest in adulthood. Although prospective studies are needed, these results suggest that those girls with CAH who show the greatest alterations in childhood play behavior may be the most likely to develop a bisexual or homosexual orientation as adults and to be dissatisfied with the female sex of assignment.

  13. Childhood Facial Osteo Sarcoma: a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Farhangi, Hamid; Farzadnia, Mahdi; Alamdaran, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the eighth common cancer of childhood and its incidence is 4 cases in one million in children younger than 14. Facial OS incidence is estimated between 8 and 10% of OS cases. The main etiology of OS is unknown, but various predisposing factors are proposed such as radiation, radiotherapy, some benign bone diseases like Paget?s disease or fibrous dysplasia. There is a 5-year survival rate of 68% and it decreases with the increase of age. Positive history of radiotherapy is...

  14. Childhood Facial Osteosracoma: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid farhangih

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma (OS is the eighth common cancer of childhood and its incidence is 4 cases in one million in children younger than 14. Facial OS incidence is estimated between 8 and 10% of OS cases. The main etiology of OS is unknown, but various predisposing factors are proposed such as radiation, radiotherapy, some benign bone diseases like Paget’s disease or fibrous dysplasia. There is a 5-year survival rate of 68% and it decreases with the increase of age. Positive history of radiotherapy is the main predisposing factor for childhood OS. There is some evidence about the X-ray induced mutation in genomic DNA that leads to osteosarcoma. In the present paper we present a 19-month old girl with a mass located in the inferior margin of the left cheek and orbit. Our case is unique with regard to her young age and sex. Moreover, the tumor was located in an uncommon site and her disease was progressive and resistant.

  15. Making sense of children's sexual behavior in child care: An analysis of adult responses in special investigation reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Karin A

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates how adults respond to sexual behavior among children in child care. Culturally, childhood sexuality is variously understood as natural curiosity, a sign of sexual abuse, or a symptom of a sex-offender in the making. Given these competing cultural meanings, how are sexual-like behaviors by children managed by the adults who care for them? An analysis of qualitative data from Special Investigation Reports by childcare licensing consultants in the state of Michigan is used to examine how parents, child care providers, and child care licensing consultants manage and respond to sexual behavior between children in the context of child care. How sexual behavior is responded to depends primarily on who is doing the responding - parent, childcare provider, or state licensing consultant - rather than what type of behavior is being responded to. Parents respond to a wide range of behaviors between children as if they are incidents of sexual abuse. Childcare providers respond to many of those same incidents as misbehavior. Licensing consultants understand these incidents as violation of rules of supervision, but they were also the only group to ever ask if children's sexual behavior was potentially a sign of a child having been sexually abused in another setting. Providers and parents need more education about what kinds of sexual behavior to be concerned about and what kind to understand as common. More education that sexuality that is "rare" and persistent could be a sign of sexual abuse is needed by all parties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Individual and community-level socioeconomic position and its association with adolescents experience of childhood sexual abuse: a multilevel analysis of six countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Yahaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA is a substantial global health and human rights problem and consequently a growing concern in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the association between individual and community-level socioeconomic status (SES and the likelihood of reporting CSA. Methods: We applied multiple multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data for 6,351female adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18 years from six countries in sub-Saharan Africa, between 2006 and 2008. Results: About 70% of the reported cases of CSA were between 14 and 17 years. Zambia had the highest proportion of reported cases of CSA (5.8%. At the individual and community level, we found that there was no association between CSA and socioeconomic position. This study provides evidence that the likelihood of reporting CSA cut across all individual SES as well as all community socioeconomic strata. Conclusions: We found no evidence of socioeconomic differentials in adolescents’ experience of CSA, suggesting that adolescents from the six countries studied experienced CSA regardless of their individual- and community-level socioeconomic position. However, we found some evidence of geographical clustering, adolescents in the same community are subject to common contextual influences. Further studies are needed to explore possible effects of countries’ political, social, economic, legal, and cultural impact on childhood sexual abuse.

  17. Reported anxieties concerning intimate parenting in women sexually abused as children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, A R

    2000-03-01

    The study had two aims: (1) To investigate whether mothers with a history of contact child sexual abuse were anxious about the intimate aspects of parenting compared with a clinical comparison group. (2) To determine if there was any relationship between the mother's anxieties and the kind of parenting they recalled receiving themselves. Two groups of mothers in mental health out-patient care were interviewed; 34 women with a history of contact child sexual abuse and 29 women with no history of sexual abuse. They completed the Intimate Aspects of Parenting Questionnaire, The Parenting Stress Index (Short form) The Parental Bonding Instrument and The General Health Questionnaire-28. The index group also completed a sexual abuse history questionnaire. Mothers with a history of child sexual abuse were significantly more anxious about intimate aspects of parenting than the comparison group. They also reported significantly more overall stress as parents. The index group recalled that their own parents were significantly less caring and that their fathers more controlling than the comparison group. A low score on Father Care was significantly associated with concerns about intimate parenting, but not with total parenting stress. By contrast, a low score on Mother Care was significantly associated with higher stress experienced as a parent, but not as strongly with anxieties about intimate parenting. Mothers with a history of contact child sexual abuse who attend mental health services are often worried that their normal parenting behaviors may be inappropriate or seen as such by other people. These anxieties seem associated with their history of childhood sexual abuse.

  18. Psychological complaints reported by sexually abused children during criminal investigations: Istanbul example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğangün, Burak; Gönültaş, Burak M; Uzun-Oğuz, Esin; Oral, Gökhan; Öztürk, Meral

    2016-06-01

    The present study aims at describing the psychological complaints reported, as a part of the criminal investigation process, by the victims of sexual abuse as a part of the criminal investigation process, without attempting at reaching a medical diagnosis; and it discusses the relation of these reports with variables such as victim's gender, age and relation to the offender, type and duration of abuse, and parental marital status of the victim. Data is obtained from the statements of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) victims under the age of 15, as taken by Istanbul Juvenile Justice Department between the years 2009 and 2012. The sample consists of 175 cases with a total of 202 victim statements. Through the use of content analysis, the main and sub-categories of themes of the statements were determined. By means of the evaluation of the psychological condition of victims, we evaluated them in two categories: psychological complaints including self-harm and risk taking behaviors and psychological complaints with no self-harm and risk taking behaviors. The statistical analyses yield significant relations between the psychological complaints and children's parental marital status. Analysis of initial statements of sexual abuse victims is important as it may greatly contribute to professionals diagnosing and treating psychological complaints of these victims. It is essential that victims of sexual abuse should receive immediate psychological support starting with the criminal investigation process.

  19. Syndemics and gender affirmation: HIV sexual risk in female-to-male trans masculine adults reporting sexual contact with cisgender males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Pardee, Dana; Sevelius, Jae

    2016-10-01

    Female-to-male trans masculine adults who have sex with cisgender (non-transgender) males (TMSM) represent an understudied population in relation to HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk. This study examined the role of syndemic conditions and social gender affirmation processes (living full-time in one's identified gender) in potentiating sexual risk among TMSM adults in Massachusetts, US. Cross-sectional data were restricted to TMSM who reported lifetime sexual behaviour with a cisgender male (n = 173; mean age = 29.4, SD = 9.6; 18.5% people of colour; 93.1% non-heterosexual identity; 56.1% hormones/surgery). Sexual risk outcomes were: lifetime STI diagnoses, three or more sexual partners in the previous six months, and condomless anal/vaginal sex at last encounter with a cisgender male. Age- and survey mode-adjusted logistic regression models regressed sexual risk outcomes on the main effect of syndemics (six indicators summed: binge drinking, substance use, depression, anxiety, childhood abuse, intimate partner violence), followed by the interaction of syndemics and social gender affirmation. Syndemics were associated with increased odds of all sexual risk indicators (adjusted odds ratios [aORs] = 1.32-1.55; p Social gender affirmation moderated the association between syndemics and condomless anal/vaginal sex at last encounter with a cisgender male (p socially affirmed their gender (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.42-2.25; p socially gender affirmed as for cisgender MSM. Integration of syndemics and gender affirmation frameworks is recommended in interventions to address TMSM sexual risk. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Childhood sexual abuse, teenage pregnancy, and partnering with adult men: exploring the relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harner, Holly M

    2005-08-01

    Although the mechanism by which early victimization, specifically sexual abuse, increases the risk of adolescent pregnancy is unclear, a relationship between previous victimization and adolescent pregnancy has been demonstrated. While partnering with an older man may initially offer the means necessary to escape a neglectful or violent family of origin, this protection be accompanied by an imbalance of power and control. Both adolescent mothers partnered with adult men and adolescent mothers partnered with male peers reported sexual abuse perpetrated by family members, family friends, strangers, and peers. Policies developed to protect young people from victimization, including mandatory reporting and statutory rape laws, should be evaluated for their consistent application to all children, regardless of age, race, gender, or pregnancy status.

  1. Verbal abuse, like physical and sexual abuse, in childhood is associated with an earlier onset and more difficult course of bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Robert M.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Kupka, Ralph; McElroy, Susan L.; Frye, Mark A.; Rowe, Michael; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Grunze, Heinz; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E.; Nolen, Willem A.

    2015-01-01

    ObjectivesPhysical or sexual abuse in childhood is known to have an adverse effect on the course of bipolar disorder, but the impact of verbal abuse has not been well elucidated. MethodsWe examined the occurrence and frequency (never to frequently) of each type of abuse in childhood in 634 US adult

  2. Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy of Childhood; A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza SALEHIOMRAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Salehi Omran MR, Nooreddini H, Baghdadi F. Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy of Childhood; A Case Report. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Spring;7(2:51-54. AbstractAcute Necrotizing Encephalopathy of Childhood (ANEC is an atypical disease followed by respiratory or gastrointestinal infection, high fever, which is accompanied with rapid alteration of consciousness and seizures. This disease is seen nearly exclusively in East Asian infants and children who had previously a good health. Serial MRI examinations demonstrated symmetric lesions involving the thalami, brainstem, cerebellum, and white matter. This disease has a poor prognosis, often culminating in profound morbidity and mortality. A 22-month infant with ANEC hospitalized in Amirkola Children Hospital has been evaluated. References1. Mizuguchi M. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood: a novel form of acute encephalopathy prevalent in Japan and Taiwan. Brain Dev. 1997 Mar;19(2:81-92. Review.2. Wang HS, Huang SC. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood. Chang Gung Med J 2001 Jan;24(1:1-10.3. Campistol J, Gassió R, Pineda M, Fernandez-Alvarez E. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood (infantile bilateral  thalamic necrosis: two non-Japanese cases. Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Nov;40(11:771-4.4. Ito Y, Ichiyama T, Kimura H, Shibata M, Ishiwada N, Kuroki H, Furukawa S, Morishima T. Detection of influenza virus RNA by reverse transcription-PCR and proinflammatory cytokines in influenza-virus-associated encephalopathy. J Med Virol 1999 Aug;58(4:420-5.5. Sugaya N. Influenza-associated encephalopathy in Japan. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2002 Apr;13(2:79-84. Review.6. Skelton BW, Hollingshead MC, Sledd AT, Phillips CD, Castillo M. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood: typical findings in an atypical disease. Pediatr Radiol 2008 Jul; 38(7:810-3.7. Wong AM, Simon EM, Zimmerman RA, Wang HS, Toh CH, Ng SH. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood

  3. Efficacy of specialized group psychotherapy for survivors of childhood sexual abuse in reducing symptoms of PTSD and general psychiatric distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Henriette Kiilsholm; Kristensen, Ellids; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    Background and purpose: Several studies have found that women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to their victimization experiences. The current study evaluated the presence of PTSD symptoms and gene...... in trajectories for treatment planning will be discussed. The findings in the present study stress the importance of long-term follow-up studies in evidencebased reserch....

  4. Efficacy of specialized group psychotherapy for survivors of childhood sexual abuse in reducing symptoms of PTSD and general psychiatric distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Henriette Kiilsholm; Kristensen, Ellids; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Several studies have found that women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to their victimization experiences. The current study evaluated the presence of PTSD symptoms and gene...... in trajectories for treatment planning will be discussed. The findings in the present study stress the importance of long-term follow-up studies in evidencebased reserch....

  5. Suicide Risk Factors and Mediators between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide Ideation Among Male and Female Suicide Attempters

    OpenAIRE

    Spokas, Megan; Wenzel, Amy; Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Brown, Gregory K.; BECK, AARON T.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the manner in which childhood sexual abuse (CSA) history relates to risk factors for suicidal behavior among recent suicide attempters (n = 166). Men who recently attempted suicide and endorsed a CSA history had higher scores on measures of hopelessness and suicide ideation than men without a CSA history. Men with a CSA history were also more likely to have made multiple suicide attempts and meet diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline p...

  6. Efficacy of specialized group psychotherapy for survivors of childhood sexual abuse in reducing symptoms of PTSD and general psychiatric distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Henriette Kiilsholm; Kristensen, Ellids; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    Background and purpose: Several studies have found that women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to their victimization experiences. The current study evaluated the presence of PTSD symptoms and gene......Background and purpose: Several studies have found that women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to their victimization experiences. The current study evaluated the presence of PTSD symptoms...... and general psychiatric distress (GSI from SCL-90-R) five years after discharge among adult women suffering from sequelae from childhood sexual abuse. Materials and method: This 5-year follow-up study of a randomized controlled trial included 106 women: 52 assigned to analytic group psychotherapy and 54...... in trajectories for treatment planning will be discussed. The findings in the present study stress the importance of long-term follow-up studies in evidencebased reserch....

  7. Childhood sexual abuse and adult developmental outcomes: findings from a 30-year longitudinal study in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M; McLeod, Geraldine F H; Horwood, L John

    2013-09-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with many adverse medical, psychological, behavioral and socioeconomic outcomes in adulthood. This study aims to examine the linkages between CSA and a wide range of developmental outcomes over a protracted time period to age 30. Data from over 900 members of the New Zealand birth cohort the Christchurch Health and Development Study were examined. CSA prior to age 16 was assessed at ages 18 and 21 years, in addition to: mental health, psychological wellbeing, sexual risk-taking behaviors, physical health and socioeconomic outcomes to age 30. After statistical adjustment for confounding by 10 covariates spanning socio-demographic, family functioning and child factors, extent of exposure to CSA was associated with increased rates of (B, SE, p): major depression (0.426, 0.094, sexual abuse was also associated with decreased age of onset of sexual activity (-0.381, 0.091, sexual partners (0.175, 0.035, abuse. CSA adversely influences a number of adult developmental outcomes that span: mental disorders, psychological wellbeing, sexual risk-taking, physical health and socioeconomic wellbeing. While the individual effect sizes for CSA typically range from small to moderate, it is clear that accumulative adverse effects on adult developmental outcomes are substantial. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An evidence-based group coping intervention for women living with HIV and history of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Eve S; Kochman, Arlene; Hansen, Nathan B; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2011-01-01

    Women living with HIV/AIDS and a history of childhood sexual abuse often exhibit sexual trauma symptoms and elevated rates of HIV-risk behaviors. In this paper, we describe a coping skills group intervention that reduced traumatic stress and sexual-risk behavior in a recent randomized clinical trial. We focused on clinical issues that emerged among female participants receiving the intervention. Clinical observations showed that recognizing connections between trauma, psychological distress, and high risk behaviors was a new and powerful experience for many participants. Participants successfully applied psychoeducational material, expressing an increased sense of power and control over their relationships and behaviors as they developed more adaptive cognitive and behavioral skills. Women expressed high levels of satisfaction with the intervention. Recommendations for clinical practice are provided.

  9. Self-reported sexual desire in homosexual men and women predicts preferences for sexually dimorphic facial cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, Lisa L M; Singh, Kevin; Puts, David A; Jones, Benedict C; Burriss, Robert P

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies investigating the relationship between self-reported sexual desire and attraction to same- and opposite-sex individuals have found that homosexual men's sexual desire is positively correlated with their self-reported attraction to own-sex individuals only, while homosexual women's sexual desire is positively correlated with their self-reported attraction to both men and women. These data have been interpreted as evidence that sexual desire strengthens men's pre-existing (i.e., dominant) sexual behaviors and strengthens women's sexual behaviors in general. Here we show that homosexual men's (n = 106) scores on the Sexual Desire Inventory-2 (SDI-2) were positively correlated with their preferences for exaggerated sex-typical shape cues in own-sex, but not opposite-sex, faces. Contrary to the hypothesis that sexual desire strengthens women's preferences for sexual dimorphism generally, homosexual women's (n = 83) SDI-2 scores were positively correlated with their preferences for exaggerated sex-typical shape cues in opposite-sex faces only. Together with previous research in heterosexual subjects, our findings support the proposal that sexual desire increases the incidence of existing sexual behaviors in homosexual and heterosexual men, and increases the incidence of sexual responses more generally in heterosexual women, although not necessarily in homosexual women.

  10. Childhood sexual abuse and HIV-related risks among men who have sex with men in Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gregory; Magnus, Manya; Kuo, Irene; Rawls, Anthony; Peterson, James; Montanez, Luz; West-Ojo, Tiffany; Jia, Yujiang; Opoku, Jenevieve; Greenberg, Alan E

    2014-05-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been reported to be disproportionately higher among men who have sex with men (MSM) than among heterosexual men; it has also been found to be significantly positively associated with HIV status and HIV risk factors, including unprotected anal intercourse. The purpose of this study was to assess the correlates of CSA in a sample of community-recruited MSM, investigate race as a potential effect modifier, and describe the independent association between CSA and HIV infection in Washington, DC. A total of 500 MSM were recruited by venue-based sampling in 2008 as part of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance. More than one-half of MSM identified as White, while one-third identified as Black. CSA was reported by 17.5 % of the 451 MSM, with the first instance of abuse occurring at a median age of 8.3 (interquartile range = 5.0, 11.0). In multivariable analysis, HIV-positive men were significantly more likely to report a history of CSA compared to HIV-negative men after adjusting for intimate partner violence in the last 12 months, having been arrested in the last 12 months, and depressive symptoms. HIV-positive MSM had more than four times the odds of reporting CSA after controlling for other correlates (aOR = 4.19; 95 % CI 2.26, 7.75). Despite hypothesizing that race modified the effect of CSA on HIV infection we found this was not the case in this sample. More research is needed to investigate the potential pathway between a history of CSA and HIV infection, and how this contributes to driving the HIV epidemic among MSM in Washington, DC.

  11. Recovering from childhood sexual abuse: a theoretical framework for practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouliara, Z; Karatzias, T; Gullone, A

    2014-02-01

    Research on survivors' experiences of recovering from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been limited and focused on those with severe mental health difficulties. This study elicited experiences of recovery from CSA in male and female survivors who have/have not utilized mental health services. The tangible end-point was to propose a theoretical model of personally meaningful recovery. This is a qualitative study, which utilized semi-structured individual interviews following the critical incident technique. Transcripts were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to identify recurrent themes. A total 22 adult survivors of CSA. Main themes identified were: The Affected Self, Factors Hindering Recovery, Factors Enhancing Recovery, The Hurdles of Recovery and the Recovering Self. The affected self included: lack of boundary awareness and self-blame, over self-reliance, over-vigilance and guilt, shame, aloneness and social stigma. The recovering self was characterized by increasing confidence, assertiveness, ability to self-care and self-acceptance, and by embracing vulnerability. These findings have potentially major implications for clinical practice, service provision, policy development and professional training in this field. The importance of disclosure in the healing process seemed paramount and can have major implications for current service protocols.

  12. The role of childhood trauma, psychological problems, and coping in the development of deviant sexual fantasies in sexual offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniglio, Roberto

    2011-07-01

    To understand how and why most people entertain deviant sexual fantasies without really desiring to act on them whereas some people put them into practice, it is essential to better understand the origin, development, and functions of deviant sexual fantasy in sexual offenders. The present paper investigates three areas of the literature on sexual offenders, i.e. early traumatic experiences, psychological problems, in terms of psychiatric disorders and negative emotional states, and coping strategies, hypothesizing a possible path through which early traumatic experiences may lead to deviant sexual fantasies. There is indirect evidence that early traumatic experiences, especially child sexual abuse, may result in later psychiatric disorders or painful mental states, which, in turn, in the absence of more effective coping strategies, may lead to use of deviant sexual fantasies as a way of temporarily avoiding, interrupting, or reducing painful abuse-related mental states and psychiatric symptoms. Such a combination of psychiatric disorders, negative emotional states, lack of coping skills, and use of deviant sexual fantasies as a coping strategy needs to be addressed in the assessment and treatment of sexual offenders, because they may lead to disposition to offend in order to enact the fantasy as it is imagined.

  13. Psychiatric symptom typology in a sample of youth receiving substance abuse treatment services: associations with self-reported child maltreatment and sexual risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Tubman, Jonathan G; Jaccard, James

    2011-11-01

    Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to classify 394 adolescents undergoing substance use treatment, based on past year psychiatric symptoms. Relations between profile membership and (a) self-reported childhood maltreatment experiences and (b) current sexual risk behavior were examined. LPA generated three psychiatric symptom profiles: Low-, High- Alcohol-, and High- Internalizing Symptoms profiles. Analyses identified significant associations between profile membership and childhood sexual abuse and emotional neglect ratings, as well as co-occurring sex with substance use and unprotected intercourse. Profiles with elevated psychiatric symptom scores (e.g., internalizing problems, alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms) and more severe maltreatment histories reported higher scores for behavioral risk factors for HIV/STI exposure. Heterogeneity in psychiatric symptom patterns among youth receiving substance use treatment services, and prior histories of childhood maltreatment, have significant implications for the design and delivery of HIV/STI prevention programs to this population.

  14. Indian Childhood Cirrhosis: Case Report and Pediatric Diagnostic Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaivinder Yadav

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Indian childhood cirrhosis is a chronic liver disease usually seen in paediatric age group and is unique to the Indian subcontinent. The definitive causative factor for the disease is not found till now but excess copper ingestion has been associated with it.Case presentation: An Indian origin one and half year old premorbidly normal male child presented with history of gradual distension of abdomen for 6 months and jaundice, generalized body swelling, high colour urine for 20 days. There was no history of any bleeding or feature suggestive of hepatic encephalopathy. On physical examination child was icteric, pale and had anasarca, massive hepatosplenomegaly and ascites. The child was evaluated for various causes of hepatic failure in pediatric age group including infective, metabolic and autoimmune etiologies. Unfortunately the child succumbed to the illness. The post-mortem liver biopsy and copper estimation cleared the air, revealing Indian childhood cirrhosis as the underlying etiology.Conclusion: Though Indian childhood cirrhosis is a rare entity and reported less frequently in literature, the treating pediatrician should keep this as a differential in case of pediatric hepatic failure. The liver biopsy and hepatic copper estimation are the gold standard diagnostic tests for diagnosing Indian Childhood cirrhosis.

  15. Eosinophilic annular erythema in childhood - Case report*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarzúa, Alvaro; Giesen, Laura; Silva, Sergio; González, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic annular erythema is a rare, benign, recurrent disease, clinically characterized by persistent, annular, erythematous lesions, revealing histopathologically perivascular infiltrates with abundant eosinophils. This report describes an unusual case of eosinophilic annular erythema in a 3-year-old female, requiring sustained doses of hydroxychloroquine to be adequately controlled. PMID:27579748

  16. Childhood neuroblastoma masquerading as pheochromocytoma: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Moon SB

    2016-01-01

    Suk-Bae MoonDepartment of Surgery, Kangwon National University Hospital, Kangwon National School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, South KoreaAbstract: Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children. Mild hypertension is a frequent symptom, presumably an effect of catecholamines that tumors release. Reported herein is the rare occurrence of severe hypertension and subsequent heart failure attributable to adrenal gland neuroblastoma. A 3-year-old boy p...

  17. Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorders in middle-aged and older adults: evidence from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kee-Lee

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed (1) to assess the relationship of childhood sexual abuse and revictimization with 6 common mental disorders, alcohol and drug dependence, posttraumatic stress disorder, eating disorders, and suicidal behavior; (2) to test whether gender moderates the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric comorbidity; and (3) to assess the association of childhood sexual abuse with health care service use among middle-aged and older adults. The author conducted secondary analyses of data from a population-based, nationally representative sample of 3,493 community-dwelling adults aged 50 years and above who were interviewed in England in 2006 and 2007 as part of the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. The survey assessed childhood sexual abuse (sexual touching and sexual intercourse), sexual abuse revictimization (experiencing both childhood and adult sexual abuse), demographics, health care service use, 6 common mental disorders according to ICD-10 diagnostic criteria (depressive episode, mixed anxiety and depression, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder), eating disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol and drug dependence, and suicidal behavior. After weighting, the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse was 8.0%, and the prevalence of revictimization was 1.9%. Multivariate analyses revealed that childhood sexual abuse was significantly associated with mixed anxiety and depression (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.69; 95% CI, 1.09-2.63), generalized anxiety disorder (AOR = 1.78; 95% CI, 1.01-3.11), eating disorders (AOR = 2.04; 95% CI, 1.12-3.75), posttraumatic stress disorder (AOR = 2.45; 95% CI, 1.20-4.99), and suicidal ideation (AOR = 2.32; 95% CI, 1.27-4.27). Revictimization was significantly related to mixed anxiety and depression (AOR = 3.21; 95% CI, 1.63-6.32), generalized anxiety disorder (AOR = 2.60; 95% CI, 1.07-6.35), phobia (AOR = 4.07; 95% CI, 1.23-13.46), posttraumatic

  18. Childhood Morgagni hernia: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Nain Rattan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Morgagni diaphragmatic hernia is a rare congenital anomaly to be seen in the pediatric age group. We are reporting two cases of Morgagni hernia, which presented with non-specific symptoms and posed a diagnostic dilemma. One of the patients was 10 years old and associated with asplenia and Down’s syndrome; the second case presented as isolated Morgagni hernia in an 8 month baby. The diagnosis was confirmed with radiography and computed chest tomography. Both cases were managed successfully with surgical repair of the diaphragmatic defect through trans-abdominal approach.

  19. Attraction to sexual violence towards women, sexual abuse of children, and non-sexual criminal behavior: testing the specialist vs. generalist models in male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voller, Emily K; Long, Patricia J; Aosved, Allison C

    2009-04-01

    A sample of 492 college men anonymously completed an expanded version of the Sexual Experiences Survey, the revised Attraction to Sexual Aggression Scale, and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale Short Form to investigate the relations among perpetration of sexual violence (including rape and sexual assault), attraction to sexual violence, attraction to childhood sexual abuse, and attraction towards other crimes while controlling for the impact of social desirability. Analyses indicated that attractions towards sexual violence, general criminality, and childhood sexual abuse were all significantly interrelated. In addition, sexual assault perpetrators reported higher levels of all three types of attraction as compared to nonperpetrators whereas rape perpetrators reported higher levels of attraction to sexual aggression and criminality. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  20. Annual US Air Force Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Report, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This report evaluates the 1995 US Air Force (USAF) Sexually Transmitted Diseases ( STD ) Prevention and Control Program. The report analyzes data from...88 medical treatment facilities worldwide and compares 1995 data with that from 1992-94. The 1995 USAF active duty total STD incidence rate was 7.64...cases per 1,000 personnel. This rate represents a 18.9% decline from the 1994 reported STD incidence rate of 9.41 per 1,000 personnel. Among active

  1. The prevalence and impact of childhood sexual abuse on HIV-risk behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomori, Cecilia; McFall, Allison M; Srikrishnan, Aylur K; Mehta, Shruti H; Nimmagadda, Nymisha; Anand, Santhanam; Vasudevan, Canjeevaram K; Solomon, Suniti; Solomon, Sunil S; Celentano, David D

    2016-08-12

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a significant global public health problem, which is associated with negative psychosocial outcomes and high-risk sexual behaviors in adults. Men who have sex with men (MSM) often report higher prevalence of CSA history than the general population, and CSA may play a key role in MSM's greater vulnerability to HIV. This study examined the prevalence of CSA history and its impact on the number of recent HIV-related risk behaviors (unprotected anal intercourse, high number of male and female sexual partners, alcohol use, drug use, and sex work in prior 6 months) and lifetime risk behaviors and experiences (high number of lifetime male and female sexual partners, early sexual debut, injection drug use, sex work, and intimate partner violence) among 11,788 adult MSM recruited via respondent driven sampling across 12 sites in India, with additional insights from thematic analysis of qualitative research with 363 MSM from 15 sites. Nearly a quarter (22.4 %) of participants experienced CSA, with substantially higher prevalence of CSA in the South and among kothis (feminine sexual identity). Qualitative findings revealed that older, trusted men may target young and, especially, gender nonconforming boys, and perpetrators' social position facilitates nondisclosure. CSA may also initiate further same-sex encounters, including sex work. In multivariable analysis, MSM who experienced CSA had 21 % higher rate of recent (adjusted rate ratio [aRR = 1.21], 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-1.28), and 2.0 times higher lifetime (aRR = 2.04, 95 % CI: 1.75-2.38) HIV-related behaviors/experiences compared with those who did not. This large, mixed-methods study found high overall prevalence of CSA among MSM (22.4 %), with substantially higher prevalence among MSM residing in the South and among more feminine sexual identities. Qualitative findings highlighted boys' vulnerabilities to CSA, especially gender nonconformity, and CSA's role in

  2. [Giant paraovarian cyst in childhood - Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Janina P; Íñiguez, Rodrigo D

    2015-01-01

    Paraovarian cysts are very uncommon in children To present a case of giant paraovarian cyst case in a child and its management using a modified laparoscopic-assisted technique A 13-year-old patient with a 15 day-history of intermittent abdominal pain, located in the left hemiabdomen and associated with progressive increase in abdominal volume. Diagnostic imaging was inconclusive, describing a giant cystic formation that filled up the abdomen, but without specifying its origin. Laboratory tests and tumor markers were within normal range. Video-assisted transumbilical cystectomy, a modified laparoscopic procedure with diagnostic and therapeutic intent, was performed with a successful outcome. The histological study reported giant paraovarian cyst. Cytology results were negative for tumor cells. The patient remained asymptomatic during the postoperative follow-up. The video-assisted transumbilical cystectomy is a safe procedure and an excellent diagnostic and therapeutic alternative for the treatment of giant paraovarian cysts. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  3. Complexity of childhood sexual abuse: predictors of current post-traumatic stress disorder, mood disorders, substance use, and sexual risk behavior among adult men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroughs, Michael S; Valentine, Sarah E; Ironson, Gail H; Shipherd, Jillian C; Safren, Steven A; Taylor, S Wade; Dale, Sannisha K; Baker, Joshua S; Wilner, Julianne G; O'Cleirigh, Conall

    2015-10-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are the group most at risk for HIV and represent the majority of new infections in the United States. Rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among MSM have been estimated as high as 46 %. CSA is associated with increased risk of HIV and greater likelihood of HIV sexual risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationships between CSA complexity indicators and mental health, substance use, sexually transmitted infections, and HIV sexual risk among MSM. MSM with CSA histories (n = 162) who were screened for an HIV prevention efficacy trial completed comprehensive psychosocial assessments. Five indicators of complex CSA experiences were created: CSA by family member, CSA with penetration, CSA with physical injury, CSA with intense fear, and first CSA in adolescence. Adjusted regression models were used to identify relationships between CSA complexity and outcomes. Participants reporting CSA by family member were at 2.6 odds of current alcohol use disorder (OR 2.64: CI 1.24-5.63), two times higher odds of substance use disorder (OR 2.1: CI 1.02-2.36), and 2.7 times higher odds of reporting an STI in the past year (OR 2.7: CI 1.04-7.1). CSA with penetration was associated with increased likelihood of current PTSD (OR 3.17: CI 1.56-6.43), recent HIV sexual risk behavior (OR 2.7: CI 1.16-6.36), and a greater number of casual sexual partners (p = 0.02). Both CSA with Physical Injury (OR 4.05: CI 1.9-8.7) and CSA with Intense Fear (OR 5.16: CI 2.5-10.7) were related to increased odds for current PTSD. First CSA in adolescence was related to increased odds of major depressive disorder. These findings suggest that CSA, with one or more complexities, creates patterns of vulnerabilities for MSM, including post-traumatic stress disorder, substance use, and sexual risk taking, and suggests the need for detailed assessment of CSA and the development of integrated HIV prevention programs that address mental health and

  4. Sexual traumatic events and neurotic disorders picture – sexuality-related and sexuality-unrelated symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutkowski, Krzysztof

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There is an ample evidence of the impact of severe traumatic events, such as sexual abuse in childhood, on the formation of disorders - especially the non-psychotic ones: sexual, neurotic and personality. So far, an increase of the risk with the accumulation of traumatic factors has been indicated, but less attention has been paid to adverse events such as lack of sexual education, negative attitudes of the caregivers towards sexuality, etc. Aim. Assessment of the risk of such adverse events in childhood and adolescence, concerning the symptoms from the area of sexuality as well as other neurotic disorders areas.Method. The coexistence of the earlier life circumstances and currently present symptoms was examined on the basis of KO„0” Symptom Checklist and Life Inventory, completed prior to treatment in a day hospital for neurotic disordersResults. In the group of 2582 females and 1347 males, there was a significant prevalence of symptoms related to sexuality, as well as of other neurotic symptoms. Patients reported traumatic events of varying frequency (from a relatively rare incest, to much more frequent sense of lack of sex education. Regression analyses showed a significant relationship between the analyzed events and symptoms, for instance, lack of sexual satisfaction in adulthood co-occurred in women with punishing for childhood sexual plays or masturbation. The other analyzed symptoms – ‘non-sexual’, such as panic attacks, were not so clearly related to the burdensome circumstances.Conclusions. The presence of adverse life events concerning sexuality, not necessarily the most serious ones e.g. abuses, but such as inadequate sex education, child punishing for masturbation or sexual plays, unwanted sexual initiation, are associated with a higher occurrence of most of the analyzed symptoms in the sphere of sexuality. Weaker connection for other than sexual neurotic symptoms suggests that the impact of childhood sexual

  5. How Common is Men's Self-Reported Sexual Interest in Prepubescent Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombert, Beate; Schmidt, Alexander F; Banse, Rainer; Briken, Peer; Hoyer, Jürgen; Neutze, Janina; Osterheider, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Consistent evidence exists for sexual interest in children in nonclinical/nonforensic male populations. However, prevalences for community men's self-reported sexual interest in children have been based on indiscriminate definitions including postpubescent individuals, age-restricted samples, and/or small convenience samples. The present research assessed men's self-reported sexual interest in children (including child prostitution and child sex tourism) on the community level and examined the link between strictly defined sexual fantasies and behaviors involving prepubescent children. In an online survey of 8,718 German men, 4.1% reported sexual fantasies involving prepubescent children, 3.2% reported sexual offending against prepubescent children, and 0.1% reported a pedophilic sexual preference. Sexual fantasies involving prepubescent children were positively related to sexual offending against prepubescent children. Sexual interest in children was associated with subjectively perceived need for therapeutic help. In contrast to findings from forensic samples, men who reported child pornography use exclusively were identified as a subgroup differing from contact sexual offenders against prepubescent children and men who reported both child pornography use and contact sexual offenses against prepubescent children. The empirical link between child-related sexual fantasies and sexual victimization of prepubescent children and high levels of subjective distress from this inclination underscore the importance of evidence-based child sexual abuse prevention approaches in the community. Findings are discussed in terms of their relation to pedophilic disorder.

  6. Personal resurrection: female childhood sexual abuse survivors' experience of the Wellness-Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Sigrun; Halldorsdottir, Sigridur; Bender, Soley S; Agnarsdottir, Guðrun

    2016-03-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors deal with complex mental, physical and relationship problems in adulthood which negatively affects their well-being and health. The aim of the present paper was to present a description of the Wellness-Program for female CSA survivors, the participating women's evaluation of the different therapies in the program as well as a qualitative study on their experience of the program's effects on their life, health and well-being. The Wellness-Program lasted for 10 weeks with organised schedule 20 hours per week. A team of health professionals used a holistic approach and provided traditional and complementary individual and group therapy focusing on both mind and body. In-depth phenomenological interviews with ten women, 22-53 years old, were conducted 1 week before and 1 week after the program as well as 15 months later. Data collection and data analysis were guided by the Vancouver School of doing phenomenology. Prior to participating in the program, the women were unable to work or attend school, were on disability allowance, were socially isolated and had complex health problems. After the Wellness-Program, all the women, except one, were back to work, school or in further rehabilitation. Furthermore, the in-depth interviews showed that their health and well-being, personal life and relationship with partners, family and friends improved. They felt empowered, more in control and had developed increased trust towards others. Six themes were constructed from the in-depth interviews. They were: feeling totally lost, releasing experiences, developing trusting relationships, gaining control, experiencing positive changes in physical and mental health and, finally, feeling of empowerment. The overriding theme of the study was personal resurrection. The Wellness-Program contributed considerably to improved health and well-being of the women. However, further assessment of the program is recommended before making it available within

  7. Childhood Abuse, Chronic Pain, and Depression in the National Comorbidity Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen; Hernandez, Annya

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the effects of childhood sexual and physical abuse on reports of pain in men and women (N=1,727). Methods: Data from the National Comorbidity Survey, a nationally representative sample, were utilized. Childhood experiences of physical and sexual abuse were assessed, and pain reports in relation to current…

  8. An Exploration of Returning Veterans' Sexual Health Issues Using a Brief Self‐Report Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory R. Beaulieu, PhD

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Screening using an empirically validated self‐report instrument indicates that there is a high prevalence of reported sexual dysfunction among recently deployed veterans. Analyses indicated that there are specific characteristics associated with both overall self‐reported sexual dysfunction and specific subtypes of sexual dysfunction. Active assessment of specific aspects of sexual dysfunction concerns may allow providers to identify and implement more precise sexual functioning interventions. Beaulieu GR, Latini DM, Helmer DA, Powers‐James C, Houlette C, and Kauth MR. An exploration of returning veterans sexual health issues using a brief self‐report measure. Sex Med 2015;3:287–294.

  9. "Who can you tell?" Features of Arab culture that influence conceptualization and treatment of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haboush, Karen L; Alyan, Hala

    2013-01-01

    The literature on child sexual abuse reflects growing recognition of the manner in which culture impacts the conceptualization, experience, and treatment of such cases. Despite heightened visibility of Arab Americans within the United States, population due to recent media attention, little empirical research exists on the occurrence of child sexual abuse within this population. Arab culture is often characterized by an emphasis on collectivism and familial obligations, and such features may prove to either facilitate or impede assessment and treatment of child sexual abuse, depending on how they are manifested. In terms of reporting child sexual abuse, cultural values pertaining to shame and honor as well as the stigma attached to mental health problems may influence the response to abuse. As such, enhancing the cultural competence of the therapist is key to facilitating effective cultural practice. Empirical research is required to investigate and substantiate these concepts as they relate to child sexual abuse in Arab-American populations.

  10. Sexual behaviour and self-reported sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): comparison between White and Chinese American young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Wen-Hung; St Lawrence, Janet S

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the sexual behaviour and self-reported incidence of STDs of White and Chinese American young people in a nationally representative US sample. 10,419 White and 340 self-identified Chinese American young people in grade 7 through 12 were selected from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Prevalence of sex initiation, ever having casual sex partners, number of lifetime sex partners, age of first sexual intercourse, and history of self-reported STD diagnoses were compared between these two groups. Chinese American young people reported significantly lower rates of sexual intercourse than Whites. Among sexually active young people, Chinese Americans were also less likely to report non-regular sexual partners and to report having a lower number of such sexual partners in the past year. There was no difference in self-reported STDs between the two groups. Ever having been romantically involved, older age, not living in a two-parent household, having more relaxed attitudes about sex, and reported substance use were associated with a higher likelihood of sexual intercourse in both groups. Being native-born was not associated with patterns of sexual behaviour among Chinese Americans.

  11. Visão atual do abuso sexual na infância e adolescência Current view of sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luci Pfeiffer

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar os aspectos peculiares que envolvem o abuso sexual na infância e na adolescência, oferecendo subsídios para o diagnóstico e conduta corretos, salientando suas conseqüências a curto e longo prazo. FONTES DE DADOS: Revisão da literatura nacional e internacional através do MEDLINE e LILACS, utilizando como palavras-chave "abuso" e "violência sexual" (1988 a 2005, aliada à experiência clínica dos autores. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O abuso sexual tem um impacto muito grande na saúde física e mental da criança e do adolescente, deixando marcas em seu desenvolvimento, com danos que podem persistir por toda vida. Sua detecção precoce possibilita o tratamento e acompanhamento adequados, com a minimização das seqüelas. O envolvimento familiar deve ser levado em conta. Todas as distorções de relacionamento necessitam ser avaliadas e tratadas, para que se interrompa sua continuidade, que se dará no abuso intergeracional e na possibilidade de revitimização. A identificação da violência doméstica e dos sinais de alerta físicos e psicológicos para o abuso sexual fazem parte da avaliação. CONCLUSÕES: Todo pediatra precisa estar apto a decodificar os sinais e sintomas que a criança e o adolescente vítimas de abuso sexual trazem consigo. Necessita ser proficiente na escuta, no exame clínico e no tratamento. Deve estar capacitado para o manejo psicológico da situação de violência e ter conhecimento da legislação e meios de proteção legais e sociais existentes em sua comunidade, sempre necessários na assistência às vitimas de abuso sexual.OBJECTIVE: To review single aspects, which involve sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence, giving subsidies for accurate diagnosis and management, emphasizing the short and long-term consequences. SOURCES OF DATA: National and international literature review of the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, using abuse and sexual violence as keywords (1988 to 2005, in addition to

  12. The Role of Family Environment and Multiple Forms of Childhood Abuse in the Shaping of Sexual Function and Satisfaction in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seehuus, Martin; Clifton, Jessica; Rellini, Alessandra H

    2015-08-01

    Studies suggest that sexual self-schemas are an important cognitive mechanism in the sexual development of women with a history of childhood abuse. This literature is only beginning to explore how multiple forms of abuse (i.e., physical, emotional, and sexual), rather than sexual abuse alone, can influence the development of adult sexuality. Moreover, the extant literature has not carefully considered important factors other than the severity of the abuse that may relate to sexual self-schemas, including family environment and quality of romantic relationships. Findings from this cross-sectional study conducted on 417 heterosexual women (ages 18-25 years) suggest that family dynamics and different types of childhood abuse contribute both directly and indirectly to adult sexual function and satisfaction and that part of those effects were mediated by other factors such as sexual self-schemas and romantic relationship quality. These results, including an exploration of the direct and indirect effects, were discussed in terms of the pervasive effects of abuse on people's lives and the potential treatment targets that can be addressed when trying to reduce sexual problems in women with a history of abuse.

  13. Parenting in Females Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence and Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Anna E.; Cranston, Christopher C.; Shadlow, Joanna O.

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was…

  14. Parenting in Females Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence and Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Anna E.; Cranston, Christopher C.; Shadlow, Joanna O.

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was…

  15. Increased frequency of micronuclei in adults with a history of childhood sexual abuse: a discordant monozygotic twin study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P York

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA is a traumatic life event associated with an increased lifetime risk for psychopathology/morbidity. The long-term biological consequences of CSA-elicited stress on chromosomal stability in adults are unknown. The primary aim of this study was to determine if the rate of acquired chromosomal changes, measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay on stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes, differs in adult female monozygotic twins discordant for CSA. METHODS: Monozygotic twin pairs discordant for CSA were identified from a larger population-based sample of female adult twins for whom the experience of CSA was assessed by self-report (51 individuals including a reference sample. Micronuclei (MN contain chromatin from structurally normal or abnormal chromosomes that are excluded from the daughter nuclei during cell division and serve as a biomarker to assess acquired chromosomal instability. RESULTS: Female twins exposed to CSA exhibited a 1.63-fold average increase in their frequency of MN compared to their nonexposed genetically identical cotwins (Paired t-test, t₁₆ = 2.65, P = 0.017. No additional effects of familial factors were detected after controlling for the effect of CSA exposure. A significant interaction between CSA history and age was observed, suggesting that the biological effects of CSA on MN formation may be cumulative. CONCLUSIONS: These data support a direct link between CSA exposure and MN formation measured in adults that is not attributable to genetic or environmental factors shared by siblings. Further research is warranted to understand the biological basis for the observed increase in acquired chromosomal findings in people exposed to CSA and to determine if acquired somatic chromosomal abnormalities/somatic clonal mosaicism might mediate the adult pathology associated with CSA.

  16. Sudden losses and sudden gains during a DBT-PTSD treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder following childhood sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Krüger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure-based treatment approaches are first-line interventions for patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, the dissemination of exposure-based treatments for PTSD is challenging, as a large proportion of clinicians report being concerned about symptoms worsening as a result of this type of intervention and are therefore reluctant to offer it to patients with PTSD. However, there is only little empirical evidence to date on the pattern of symptom worsening during exposure-based treatment for PTSD. Objective: The goal of the present study was to explore the frequency of sudden losses and sudden gains in the course of an exposure-based treatment programme for female patients suffering from PTSD related to childhood sexual abuse who also show severe comorbidity. In addition, the relationship between sudden changes and treatment outcome was examined. Methods: Female participants (N=74 were randomised to either a 12-week residential DBT-PTSD programme or a treatment-as-usual wait list. The pattern of symptom change was assessed via weekly assessments using the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS. Sudden changes were computed as suggested by the literature on sudden gains. Results: During treatment, only one participant (3% experienced a sudden loss, whereas 25% of participants experienced sudden gains. In the waiting condition, 8% of the participants experienced sudden losses and 5% experienced sudden gains during the same time period. No symptom worsening was observed in response to exposure sessions. However, sudden gains occurred during exposure and non-exposure treatment weeks. Patients with sudden gains showed better treatment outcome in the post-treatment and follow-up assessments. Conclusions: Exposure-based treatment did not lead to PTSD symptom worsening in the study sample. Results show that sudden gains occur frequently during PTSD treatment and have a prognostic value for treatment outcome.

  17. Amygdala habituation to emotional faces in adolescents with internalizing disorders, adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related PTSD and healthy adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca G. van den Bulk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related post-traumatic stress disorder (CSA-related PTSD show a large overlap in symptomatology. In addition, brain research indicated hyper-responsiveness and sustained activation instead of habituation of amygdala activation to emotional faces in both groups. Little is known, however, about whether the same patterns of amygdala habituation are present in these two groups. The current study examined habituation patterns of amygdala activity to emotional faces (fearful, happy and neutral in adolescents with a DSM-IV depressive and/or anxiety disorder (N = 25, adolescents with CSA-related PTSD (N = 19 and healthy controls (N = 26. Behaviourally, the adolescents from the internalizing and CSA-related PTSD group reported more anxiety to fearful and neutral faces than adolescents from the control group and adolescents from the CSA-related PTSD group reacted slower compared to the internalizing group. At the whole brain level, there was a significant interaction between time and group within the left amygdala. Follow-up ROI analysis showed elevated initial activity in the amygdala and rapid habituation in the CSA-related PTSD group compared to the internalizing group. These findings suggest that habituation patterns of amygdala activation provide additional information on problems with emotional face processing. Furthermore, the results suggest there are differences in the underlying neurobiological mechanisms related to emotional face processing for adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with CSA-related PTSD. Possibly CSA-related PTSD is characterized by a stronger primary emotional response driven by the amygdala.

  18. Intrusions of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting childhood emotional maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Spinhoven

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available During childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM negative attitudes are provided to the child (e.g., “you are worthless”. These negative attitudes may result in emotion inhibition strategies in order to avoid thinking of memories of CEM, such as thought suppression. However, thought suppression may paradoxically enhance occurrences (i.e., intrusions of these memories, which may occur immediately or sometime after active suppression of these memories.Until now, studies that examined suppressive coping styles in individuals reporting CEM have utilized self-report questionnaires. Therefore, it is unclear what the consequences will be of emotion inhibition styles on the intrusion of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting CEM.Using a thought suppression task, this study aimed to investigate the experience of intrusions during suppression of, and when no longer instructed to actively suppress, positive and negative autobiographical memories in individuals reporting Low, Moderate, and Severe CEM compared to No Abuse (total N = 83.We found no group differences during active suppression of negative and positive autobiographical memories. However, when individuals reporting Severe CEM were no longer instructed to suppress thinking about the memory, individuals reporting No Abuse, Low CEM, or Moderate CEM reported fewer intrusions of both positive and negative autobiographical memories than individuals reporting Severe CEM. Finally, we found that intrusions of negative memories are strongly related with psychiatric distress.The present study results provide initial insights into the cognitive mechanisms that may underlie the consequences of childhood emotional maltreatment and suggests avenues for successful interventions.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online

  19. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Elbert, Thomas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator. Methods We investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity) and tonic (hair cortisol) regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43) with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized assessment of idiographic adverse and traumatic experiences and psychopathology, while measuring salivary cortisol and, heart rate and blood pressure. Results Comparing women with and without childhood sexual abuse revealed lower rates of responders and distinct levels of salivary cortisol to the interview in conjunction with a lower heart rate for the abused group. Childhood adversities, traumatic experiences, and depression contributed to higher hair cortisol levels. Conclusions Our finding of lower response rate and distinct salivary cortisol pattern in individuals with childhood sexual abuse compared to individuals without early sexual abuse supports the role of environmental programming for the HPA axis. Both, childhood adversities and traumatic stress emerge as crucial factors for long-term cortisol secretion. Lower or suppressed phasic cortisol responses to trauma-related stimuli may therefore be associated with higher tonic values. Thus, early exposure to adversities may result in a biological distinct phenotype in adult patients with stress-related disorders. PMID:26317554

  20. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Schalinski

    Full Text Available Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator.We investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity and tonic (hair cortisol regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43 with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized assessment of idiographic adverse and traumatic experiences and psychopathology, while measuring salivary cortisol and, heart rate and blood pressure.Comparing women with and without childhood sexual abuse revealed lower rates of responders and distinct levels of salivary cortisol to the interview in conjunction with a lower heart rate for the abused group. Childhood adversities, traumatic experiences, and depression contributed to higher hair cortisol levels.Our finding of lower response rate and distinct salivary cortisol pattern in individuals with childhood sexual abuse compared to individuals without early sexual abuse supports the role of environmental programming for the HPA axis. Both, childhood adversities and traumatic stress emerge as crucial factors for long-term cortisol secretion. Lower or suppressed phasic cortisol responses to trauma-related stimuli may therefore be associated with higher tonic values. Thus, early exposure to adversities may result in a biological distinct phenotype in adult patients with stress-related disorders.

  1. Sexual Assault: A Report on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Postexposure Prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F. Griffith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this report is to describe an urban county hospital human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection prevention protocol offering prophylactic combination antiretroviral medications to female victims of sexual assault. A retrospective chart review was conducted from June, 2007 through June, 2008 of 151 women who were prescribed antiretroviral prophylaxis by protocol. All women receiving HIV prophylaxis initially screened HIV seronegative. Of the 58 women who reported taking any HIV prophylaxis, 36 (62% were HIV screened at 12 and/or 24 weeks and none had HIV seroconverted. Although the initiation of an HIV post exposure prophylaxis protocol for sexual assault in a county hospital population is feasible, patient follow-up for counseling and HIV serostatus evaluation is an identified barrier

  2. The relentless past: The effect of chronic sexual abuse in childhood on fifty years of adolescent and adult development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarusso, Calvin A

    2009-01-01

    Four sisters, now in their late fifties and early sixties, were sexually abused during childhood over a four-year span by the same priest. Until recently they told no one about their experience and never received any psychological diagnostic evaluations or treatment. The author conducted detailed psychiatric evaluations of each of the four women while serving as the plaintiffs' expert witness during their lawsuits against the Catholic Church. The suits have been settled, and the women have given written permission to tell their stories. This unique clinical material provides a rare opportunity to describe and understand the ongoing, pervasive effects of untreated, chronic childhood sexual abuse on developmental processes over half a century. In each instance the women were describing the details of the abuse and the effects on their development for the first time. The severity of the pathology and the intense shame and anxiety associated with discussing their experiences after so many years raises questions about the choice of treatment and technique, particularly in regard to transference and countertransference issues.

  3. Childhood sexual trauma in women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickel, J Curtis; Tripp, Dean A; Pontari, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The impact of early lifetime trauma on symptom severity and quality of life of patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) has not been fully elucidated. We wanted to determine and compare the prevalence and impact of childhood traumatic events, with an emphasis on childhood...

  4. Predicting Risky Sexual Behavior: the Unique and Interactive Roles of Childhood Conduct Disorder Symptoms and Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah L; Zheng, Yao; McMahon, Robert J

    2016-11-04

    Conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and callous-unemotional (CU) traits have been shown to be uniquely associated with risky sexual behavior (RSB) in adolescence and early adulthood, yet their interactive role in predicting RSB remains largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the predictive value of CD symptoms and CU traits, as well as their interaction, on several RSB outcomes in adolescence and early adulthood. A total of 683 participants (41.7 % female, 47.4 % African American) were followed annually and self-reported age of first sexual intercourse, frequency of condom use, pregnancy, contraction of sexually transmitted infections, and engagement in sexual solicitation from grade 7 to 2-years post-high school. CD symptoms predicted age of first sexual intercourse, condom use, and sexual solicitation. CU traits predicted age of first sexual intercourse and pregnancy. Their interaction predicted a composite score of these RSBs such that CD symptoms positively predicted the composite score among those with high levels of CU traits but not among those with low levels of CU traits. The current findings provide information regarding the importance of both CD symptoms and CU traits in understanding adolescent and early adulthood RSB, as well as the benefits of examining multiple RSB outcomes during this developmental period. These findings have implications for the development and implementation of preventive efforts to target these risky behaviors among adolescents and young adults.

  5. Police Officer Schema of Sexual Assault Reports: Real Rape, Ambiguous Cases, and False Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venema, Rachel M

    2016-03-01

    While extensive research has studied sexual assault reporting behaviors and described negative experiences with the criminal justice system among victim-survivors, fewer studies have explored police officer attitudes, knowledge, and thought processes that may affect victims' perceptions of negative interactions and unsatisfactory outcomes within reported sexual assault cases. This study explores police officer understanding of the definition of sexual assault and characteristics that influence their perceptions and response. Ten police officers were interviewed within one police department in a midsized city in the Great Lakes region. The study uses a modified grounded theory approach. Findings suggest that officers employ distinct schema of reported sexual assaults. Case characteristics, perceived credibility of the victim, and types of evidence formed categorizations of false reports, ambiguous cases, and legitimate sexual assaults. Police officers describe the ways in which perceptions of the case may or may not influence the response and point to areas for improvement within police procedure. The study findings provide insight into recommendations for improved police interviewing and response to reported sexual assaults.

  6. Genital examination and exposure experienced as nosocomial sexual abuse in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, J; Lamacz, M

    1987-12-01

    Three pediatric cases of girls, one with idiopathic precocious puberty and two with a birth defect of the sex organs, exemplify the proposition that genital exposure and the physical examination of the genitals may be experienced subjectively as nosocomial sexual abuse. Negative sequelae persisted into adulthood. The dogma of the new victimology industry is that children never lie about sexual abuse. Consequently providers of pediatric and ephebiatric (pubertal and adolescent) sexual health care already are progressively at risk of being falsely accused of nosocomial (from the Greek nosokomeion, from nosos, disease, + komeion, to take care of: pertaining to or originating in a hospital, as nosocomial disease) sexual abuse.

  7. UNUSUAL SEXUAL DEVIATIONS IN A YOUNG MAN: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Dinesh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual deviance in human refers to abnormal sexual expression. Though it is very difficult to exactly say what is normal or abnormal in sexual relationships, some sexual behaviors are clearly documented as abnormal in our society. Paraphilias or perversions are sexual stimuli or acts that are deviations from normal sexual behaviors, but are necessary for some individual’s to experience arousal and orgasm. Here we discuss abnormal sexual deviations in a young married male who presented with just feelings of guilt and without any psychosocial dysfunctions because of his uncommon sexual perversions.

  8. Adult Sexual Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse Vary According to Relationship Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Sabourin, Stéphane; Briere, John; Lussier, Yvan; Runtz, Marsha

    2016-04-01

    This study tested a moderation model in which the association between child sexual abuse severity and negative sexual outcomes (i.e., sexual avoidance and compulsivity) differed as a function of relationships status (i.e., single, cohabiting, and married individuals). A sample of 1,033 adults completed self-report questionnaires online, and 21.5% reported childhood sexual abuse. Path analyses indicated that child sexual abuse severity was associated with higher sexual compulsivity in single individuals, both higher sexual avoidance and compulsivity in cohabiting individuals, and higher sexual avoidance in married individuals. The moderation model was invariant across men and women. These results suggest that the time course of negative sexual outcomes associated with child sexual abuse may follow distinct patterns of expression according to relationship status. © 2016 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  9. Idiopathic childhood occipital epilepsy of Gastaut: report of 12 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamoto, Hiroyuki; Nagao, Hideo; Fukuda, Mitsumasa; Watanabe, Shohei; Motoki, Takahiro; Ohmori, Hiromitsu; Ishii, Eiichi

    2011-03-01

    This study sought to present clinical and outcome data of patients with idiopathic childhood occipital epilepsy of Gastaut, to validate previously reported characteristics of this epilepsy. The study group was comprised of 12 affected children (three boys and nine girls), with a median age of onset at 10.3 years. Common ictal manifestations included elementary visual hallucinations (75.0%), blindness or blurring of vision (50.0%), headache (50.0%), and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures (58.3%). Interictal electroencephalography revealed occipital spike-wave paroxysms reactive to eye closure and opening in all patients, accompanied by spike-wave activity in the extra-occipital areas in four (33.3%), and by generalized spike-wave discharges in two (16.7%). One patient exhibited the onset of occipital lobe seizures 1 year after manifesting absence epilepsy. Seizure remission occurred in 81.8% of cases, in half of which medication was discontinued by late adolescence. This study confirmed the previously delineated electroclinical features of epilepsy syndrome, with additional aspects including the frequent association of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and atypical evolution from childhood absence epilepsy.

  10. Effect of criminal defendant's history of childhood sexual abuse and personality disorder diagnosis on juror decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ebony; Jacquin, Kristine

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated whether a defendant's history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and/or personality disorder (PD) diagnosis affected juror decision making in a child sexual abuse trial. The PDs in the study were borderline PD and antisocial PD. Participants were 385 college students, 121 men and 264 women, who read a summary of a mock criminal trial and then made various juror decisions. Trial summaries were prepared by the principal investigator and were all uniform in content, length and detail. For the trial, both the defendant's gender and victim's gender were specified. The defendant was male, and the alleged victim was female. When the verdict was assessed, the results yielded that when the defendant's CSA history was presented, juror guilt ratings were higher than when there was no history of CSA. Similarly, when the defendant had a PD diagnosis, there were higher guilt ratings than when there was no PD diagnosis. CSA history and PD diagnosis were significant predictors of guilt ratings, suggesting that jurors perceive defendants more negatively if they have either been sexually abused as a child or have borderline or antisocial PD.

  11. Childhood Abuse and Adolescent Sexual Re-Offending: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallie, Adana L.; Viljoen, Jodi L.; Mordell, Sarah; Spice, Andrew; Roesch, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Recent research indicates that adolescents who have sexually offended are more likely than other adolescents to have a history of sexual and physical abuse. However, it is unclear whether abuse predicts re-offending among these adolescents. To examine this relationship, a meta-analysis was conducted which included 29 effect sizes drawn from 11…

  12. Sigmund Freud's Discovery of the Etiological Significance of Childhood Sexual Traumas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Philip

    1997-01-01

    Reconstructs Freud's early treatment of Emma Eckstein so as to challenge assumptions that Freud's early writings have no place in the current discourse on child sexual abuse. Reveals how Freud first formulated the radical theory that his patients' psycho-neuroses were due to their having been sexually traumatized as children. (RJM)

  13. Sigmund Freud's Discovery of the Etiological Significance of Childhood Sexual Traumas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Philip

    1997-01-01

    Reconstructs Freud's early treatment of Emma Eckstein so as to challenge assumptions that Freud's early writings have no place in the current discourse on child sexual abuse. Reveals how Freud first formulated the radical theory that his patients' psycho-neuroses were due to their having been sexually traumatized as children. (RJM)

  14. The Influence of Survey Methodology in Estimating Prevalence Rates of Childhood Sexual Abuse Among Navy Recruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-15

    childhood abuse have been documented later in life, such as anxiety, depression, suicidal behavior, hypersexuality , low self-esteem, poor...functioning, and in particular, symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and acute stress disorder . The contains 10 clinical

  15. Legumes steam allergy in childhood: Update of the reported cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaliti, G; Pavone, P; Spataro, G; Giunta, L; Guglielmo, F; Falsaperla, R

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, the prevalence of allergic diseases has deeply increased, with a key role played by food allergies. Legumes seem to play a major role towards the overall increase in the scenario of food allergy, since they are an appreciated source, consumed worldwide, due to their high protein content, variable amounts of lipids and for the presence of vitamins. In literature there are numerous descriptions of adverse reactions after ingestion of uncooked and cooked legumes. Nevertheless, cases of allergic reactions induced by inhaling vapours from cooking legumes have rarely been described. Herein the authors report an update of the literature data on allergic reactions caused by legume steam inhalation, underlying the possible pathogenic mechanism of these atopic events and the knowledge of literature data in paediatric age. The importance of this review is the focus on the clinical aspects concerning legume vapour allergy, referring to literature data in childhood.

  16. Interaction between a functional MAOA locus and childhood sexual abuse predicts alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder in adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducci, F; Enoch, M-A; Hodgkinson, C; Xu, K; Catena, M; Robin, R W; Goldman, D

    2008-03-01

    Women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Among male subjects, a functional polymorphism (MAOA-LPR, monoamine oxidase A linked polymorphic region) in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) appears to moderate the effect of childhood maltreatment on antisocial behavior. Our aim was to test whether MAOA-LPR influences the impact of CSA on alcoholism and ASPD in a sample of 291 women, 50% of whom have experienced CSA; we also tested whether haplotypes covering the region where both MAOA and monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) genes are located predict risk of alcoholism and ASPD better than the MAOA-LPR locus alone. Participants included 168 alcoholics (39 with ASPD (antisocial alcoholics) and 123 controls (no alcoholics, no ASPD). Antisocial behavior was also modeled as a continuous trait: ASPD symptoms count. The MAOA-LPR low activity allele was associated with alcoholism (P=0.005), particularly antisocial alcoholism (P=0.00009), only among sexually abused subjects. Sexually abused women who were homozygous for the low activity allele had higher rates of alcoholism and ASPD, and more ASPD symptoms, than abused women homozygous for the high activity allele. Heterozygous women displayed an intermediate risk pattern. In contrast, there was no relationship between alcoholism/antisocial behavior and MAOA-LPR genotype among non-abused women. The MAOA-LPR low activity allele was found on three different haplotypes. The most abundant MAOA haplotype containing the MAOA-LPR low activity allele was found in excess among alcoholics (P=0.008) and antisocial alcoholics (P=0.001). Finally, a MAOB haplotype, which we termed haplotype C, was significantly associated with alcoholism (P=0.006), and to a lesser extent with antisocial alcoholism (P=0.03). In conclusions, MAOA seems to moderate the impact of childhood trauma on adult psychopathology in female subjects in the same way

  17. Childhood sexual abuse and its association with adult physical and mental health: results from a national cohort of young Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Jan; Lee, Adeline; Taft, Angela; Mazza, Danielle; Loxton, Deborah

    2015-07-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) occurs across the world, with a prevalence of 20% internationally. Our aim was to investigate the associations between CSA, CSA plus adult violence experiences, and selected self-reported physical and mental health in a community sample of women. Data from 7,700 women aged 28-33 years from the 1973-1978 cohort who completed Survey 4 of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) were analyzed. Questions about prior abuse experience such as child sexual abuse, IPV, adult physical and sexual assaults, andphysical and mental health. Women who experienced CSA were 1.4 times more likely to experience bodily pain (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.37, confidence interval [CI] = [1.19, 1.58]), 1.3 times more likely to have poorer general health (AOR = 1.33, CI = [1.15, 1.54]), and 1.4 times more likely to be depressed in the past 3 years (AOR = 1.44, CI = [1.22, 1.71]) compared with those without abuse.. Women who experienced both CSA and adult violence were 2.4 to 3.1 times more likely to experience poor general (AOR = 2.35, CI = [1.76, 3.14]) and mental health (AOR = 2.69, CI = [1.98, 3.64]), and suffer from depression (AOR = 2.84, CI = [2.13, 3.78]) and anxiety (AOR = 3.10, CI = [2.12, 4.53]) compared with women with no abuse. This study demonstrates the importance of CSA in pain and poorer long-term mental and physical health.. It emphasizes how prior CSA may amplify pain and poorer long-term mental and physical health among women who are again exposed to violence in adulthood.

  18. Childhood sexual abuse, selective attention for sexual cues and the effects of testosterone with or without Vardenafil on physiological sexual arousal in women with sexual dysfunction: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, F.; Bloemers, J.; van Ham, D.; El Yassem, W.; Kleiverda, G.; Everaerd, W.; Olivier, B.; Tuiten, A.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) may be associated with reduced central sensitivity for sexual cues. A single dose of testosterone might induce an increase in sensitivity for sexual stimuli, which in turn allows a PDE5 inhibitor to be effective in boosting the physiological sexual respo

  19. Childhood sexuality and rights in the context of HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia

    2007-01-01

    The primary objective in this study was to explore what HIV and AIDS mean to seven- and eight-year-old children in South Africa and how sexual and gender dynamics are embedded within these meanings. Against representations that associate young children with innocence, the paper argues for a more capacious view of young children as sexual and gendered agents with the ability to exercise their rights. In contrast to research that addresses children as relatively passive desexualised beings, focusing on their dependence on adults, their innocence and their need for protection, this paper examines how HIV and AIDS are constructed and negotiated by young people. It views children not simply in terms of their need for sexual rights but as potentially active participants in the negotiation of their rights. Viewing children's rights as highly contested, the notion that young children have sexual rights opens up possibilities for children (including those from marginalised groups) to talk about their concerns and pleasures, fears and hopes, as well as issues relating to sexual rights and resistances. By working creatively with teachers, it may be possible to broaden young children's knowledge of HIV and AIDS and sexuality within a more supportive environment.

  20. Resilience Moderates the Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Depressive Symptoms Among Women with and At-Risk for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Sannisha K.; Weber, Kathleen M.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Kelso, Gwendolyn A.; Cruise, Ruth C.; Brody, Leslie R.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) places women at risk for HIV infection and once infected, for poor mental health outcomes, including lower quality of life and depressive symptoms. Among HIV-positive and demographically matched HIV-negative women, we investigated whether resilience and HIV status moderated the relationships between CSA and health indices as well as the relationships among CSA, depressive symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Participants included 202 women (138 HIV+, 64 HIV−, 87% African American) from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) Chicago CORE Center site. Results indicated that in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, higher resilience significantly related to lower depressive symptoms and higher HRQOL. CSA related to higher depressive symptoms only for women scoring low in resilience. Interventions to promote resilience, especially in women with a CSA history, might minimize depressive symptoms and poor HRQOL among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. PMID:25085079

  1. Childhood autism in a 13 year old boy with oculocutaneous albinism: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakare Muideen O

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hypomelanotic skin disorders like tuberous sclerosis and hypomelanosis of Ito that present with multiple systemic manifestations have been reported in association with childhood autism. Oculocutaneous albinism is another hypomelanotic skin disorder that rarely presents with multiple systemic manifestations. It is infrequently reported in association with childhood autism when compared to tuberous sclerosis and hypomelanosis of Ito. Case presentation This article reports a case of co-morbid childhood autism and oculocutaneous albinism in a 13-year old boy from Nigeria in Sub-Saharan Africa. Conclusion The observation in this case report and in two previous reports which documented association between oculocutaneous albinism and childhood autism both in the affected individuals and families of individuals with childhood autism, raises the question of a possible genetic and clinical association between oculocutaneous albinism and childhood autism. More family and genetic studies into the relationship between oculocutaneous albinism and childhood autism is desirable. This may provide useful clues into the etiology, prevention and management of childhood autism as well as oculocutaneous albinism.

  2. Childhood sexual abuse experiences and its associated factors among adolescent female high school students in Arbaminch town, Gammo Goffa zone, Southern Ethiopia: a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekuria, Aleme; Nigussie, Aderajew; Abera, Muluemebet

    2015-08-18

    Childhood sexual abuse is a major social problem in Africa including Ethiopia. Moreover, little has been explored about the pattern of childhood sexual abuse in the context of high school students in Ethiopia in general and in Arbaminch town in particular. Thus, the present study aims to assess the prevalence and associated factors of childhood sexual abuse among adolescent female high school students in Arbaminch town. A school- based, cross-sectional study was conducted among adolescent female high school students in Arbaminch town from 3(rd) to 8(th) March 2014. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection were used. For the quantitative data, a simple random sampling technique was used to select 369 female students from grade ten of the six high schools. A pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data and then analysis was made using SPSS version 20 statistical packages. For the qualitative component, fourteen in-depth interviews were conducted and analysed based on the thematic areas. The prevalence of life time rape among adolescent female high school students in Arbaminch town was 11 %. The odds of experiencing life time rape was higher among students who lived alone (AOR = 4.30; 95 % CI: 1.81, 10.24) and among students who lived with their friends (AOR = 3.31; 95 % CI: 1.23, 8.89) than those lived with their parents. The chance of experiencing rape among students who have had no open discussions with their parents about sexuality and reproductive health was higher (AOR = 2.93; 95 % CI: 1.33, 6.45) than those who have had discussions. This study revealed high levels of childhood sexual abuse among the adolescent female high school students in Arbaminch town. Ever having a discussion about sexuality and reproductive health with parents, living arrangement of the student, and father's educational status had statistically significant association with childhood sexual abuse. Unwanted pregnancy and abortion

  3. Masculine norms, disclosure, and childhood adversities predict long-term mental distress among men with histories of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Scott D

    2014-02-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) can have a profound effect on the long-term mental health of boys/men. However, not all men with histories of CSA experience psychopathology. To improve prevention and intervention services, more research is needed to understand why some male survivors experience mental health problems and others do not. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to mental distress among a large, non-clinical sample of men with histories of CSA (N=487). Using a cross-sectional design with purposive sampling from three national survivor organizations, data were collected through an anonymous Internet-based survey. Multivariate analyses found that only one of the four CSA severity variables-use of physical force by the abuser-was related to mental distress. Additional factors that were related to mental distress included the number of other childhood adversities, years until disclosure, overall response to disclosure, and conformity to masculine norms. Overall, the final model predicted 36% of the variance in the number of mental health symptoms. Mental health practitioners should include masculine norms, disclosure history, and childhood adversities in assessments and intervention planning with male survivors. To more fully explicate risk factors for psychopathology in this population, future studies with probability samples of men that focus on mediational processes and use longitudinal designs are needed.

  4. Reported Childhood Trauma and Suicide Attempts in Schizophrenic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alec

    2005-01-01

    Childhood traumas are associated with suicidal behavior but this aspect has not been examined in relation to schizophrenia. In this study, 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had attempted suicide were compared with 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had never attempted suicide for their scores on the 34-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire…

  5. The prevalence of unwanted and unlawful sexual experiences reported by Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Bøving Larsen, Helmer

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To obtain current data about child sexual abuse in Denmark and to assess abused children's own perception of early sexual experiences, which are unlawful according to the Danish Penal Code. METHODS: Multimedia computer-based self-administered questionnaires (CASI) were completed by a national...... representative sample of 15-16-y-olds. Child sexual abuse was defined according to the penal code and measured by questions defining specific sexual activities, the relationship between the older person and the child, and the youth's own perception of the incident. RESULTS: Among 5829 respondents, 11% reported...... unlawful sexual experiences, 7% of boys and 16% of girls. Only 1% of boys and 4% of girls felt that they "definitely" or "maybe" had been sexually abused. CONCLUSION: A relatively high percentage of Danish adolescents have early, unlawful sexual experiences. However, young people's own perception of sexual...

  6. Parental Reports on Touch Screen Use in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristia, Alejandrina; Seidl, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Touch screens are increasingly prevalent, and anecdotal evidence suggests that young children are very drawn towards them. Yet there is little data regarding how young children use them. A brief online questionnaire queried over 450 French parents of infants between the ages of 5 and 40 months on their young child's use of touch-screen technology. Parents estimated frequency of use, and further completed several checklists. Results suggest that, among respondent families, the use of touch screens is widespread in early childhood, meaning that most children have some exposure to touch screens. Among child users, certain activities are more frequently reported to be liked than others, findings that we discuss in light of current concern for children's employment of time and the cognitive effects of passive media exposure. Additionally, these parental reports point to clear developmental trends for certain types of interactive gestures. These results contribute to the investigation of touch screen use on early development and suggest a number of considerations that should help improve the design of applications geared towards toddlers, particularly for scientific purposes.

  7. Parental Reports on Touch Screen Use in Early Childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandrina Cristia

    Full Text Available Touch screens are increasingly prevalent, and anecdotal evidence suggests that young children are very drawn towards them. Yet there is little data regarding how young children use them. A brief online questionnaire queried over 450 French parents of infants between the ages of 5 and 40 months on their young child's use of touch-screen technology. Parents estimated frequency of use, and further completed several checklists. Results suggest that, among respondent families, the use of touch screens is widespread in early childhood, meaning that most children have some exposure to touch screens. Among child users, certain activities are more frequently reported to be liked than others, findings that we discuss in light of current concern for children's employment of time and the cognitive effects of passive media exposure. Additionally, these parental reports point to clear developmental trends for certain types of interactive gestures. These results contribute to the investigation of touch screen use on early development and suggest a number of considerations that should help improve the design of applications geared towards toddlers, particularly for scientific purposes.

  8. Childhood sexual trauma in women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickel, J Curtis; Tripp, Dean A; Pontari, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The impact of early lifetime trauma on symptom severity and quality of life of patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) has not been fully elucidated. We wanted to determine and compare the prevalence and impact of childhood traumatic events, with an emphasis on childhoo...

  9. Police interviews of sexual assault reporters: do attitudes matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Karen; Seffrin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Sexual assault is underreported in the United States. Survivors are often reluctant to make police reports for various reasons; one is fear of revictimization by criminal justice professionals. Conversely, police officers often lack skills for interviewing crime victims. Posttraumatic stress reactions among victims can exacerbate the problem. Although some victims prefer female interviewers, it is not known whether they are more skilled. A sample of 429 police officers completed a written survey testing their rape myth acceptance and knowledge of how to interview rape reporters. A significant relationship between rape myth acceptance and interviewing skill was discovered. Although officer gender was related to interviewing skill, the effect was mediated by rape myth acceptance. Specific officer behaviors related to high rape myth acceptance were identified. Implications for selection of police to conduct victim interviews were discussed.

  10. Sexuality in early childhood: pediatric nurses' attitudes, knowledge, and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovich, D M

    2000-01-01

    This exploratory study assessed pediatric nurses' attitudes, knowledge, and patient care practices related to the sexuality of hospitalized preschool and early school-age children. Sexuality was defined as the sum of the physical, emotional, and psychologic attributes that are expressed in gender identity and behavior. For this study, a questionnaire containing 24 attitude, 20 knowledge, and 29 nursing practice Likert-scale items was used to survey 45 pediatric nurses in a southeastern tertiary care teaching hospital. Results indicated that, in general, the nurses surveyed had positive attitudes, sound knowledge, and appropriate practice with regard to the sexuality-related needs of their patients. However, there appeared to be some attitudinal biases and knowledge gaps that could adversely affect nursing practice. These findings were used to alter the content in pediatric nursing education at the study institution.

  11. Differential Effects of Women's Child Sexual Abuse and Subsequent Sexual Revictimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Gail Elizabeth; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined differential effects of sexual revictimization in community sample of 248 African-American and white women, ages 18 to 36. Findings suggest that unintended pregnancies and abortions were significantly associated with sexual revictimization. Women who reported more than one incident in both childhood and adulthood were also likely to have…

  12. Characteristics and Post-Decision Attitudes of Non-Reporting Sexual Violence Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceelen, Manon; Dorn, Tina; van Huis, Flora S; Reijnders, Udo J L

    2016-07-10

    Although the physical and psychological consequences of sexual violence can be severe, many victims do not report the violence to the police force. The current study examined the characteristics and the post-decisional attitude of the non-reporting sexual violence victims. In total, 287 victims of sexual violence completed an anonymous online questionnaire that assessed characteristics of the violence, whether or not the crime was reported, reasons for not reporting, and aspects that would have convinced non-reporters to report in retrospect. Eighty percent of the victims did not report the most recent sexual violence incident to the police (n = 229). Nevertheless, 65% of the non-reporting victims (n = 148) in retrospect would have reported to the police ("potential reporters"). Specific reasons for non-reporting and incident characteristics appear to relate to the post-decision attitude of non-reporting victims of sexual violence. "Lack of evidence" and "feelings of shame, guilt, and other emotions" appear to be more frequently mentioned by potential reporters as reasons for their decision to not report as compared with the definitive non-reporters. Likewise, being raped or sexually assaulted is predictive of potential reporting. Our findings are useful for policy makers to develop strategies to increase reporting rates of sexual violence victims.

  13. Undetected Scars? Self-Criticism, Attachment, and Romantic Relationships Among Otherwise Well-Functioning Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassri, Dana; Luyten, Patrick; Fonagy, Peter; Shahar, Golan

    2017-04-27

    Studies have consistently demonstrated the negative impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on intimate relationships. The majority of studies have focused on revictimization in at-risk or clinical samples, with very few addressing the impact of CSA on otherwise well-functioning adults and even fewer investigating the psychological mechanisms involved. To fill this gap, this study focuses on the effect of CSA on "normative" (nonviolent) romantic relationships in otherwise well-functioning young women, and the mediating role of personality dimension self-criticism and attachment in this regard. Specifically, we investigate whether self-criticism and attachment avoidance mediate the relationship between CSA and romantic relationship satisfaction, while also examining the potential reciprocal associations between these variables. The hypothesized mediation model was examined in a 2-wave, 6-month, cross-lagged longitudinal design, using structural equation modeling. Participants were 59 well-functioning (psychologically, socially, occupationally) young women drawn from an earlier study that purposefully oversampled for CSA survivors. For the purpose of the current study, data from women who had been either sexually abused by a familiar perpetrator (n = 30) or had no history of sexual trauma (n = 29) were included. Consistent with expectations, self-criticism mediated the association between CSA and romantic relationship satisfaction over time. In addition, a scarring effect of romantic relationship satisfaction on attachment avoidance was demonstrated. Findings suggest that CSA may lead to elevated levels of self-criticism, which in turn may be linked with reduced satisfaction in romantic relationships, setting in motion a vicious cycle involving relationship satisfaction and attachment avoidance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Psychometric Evaluation of the Teacher Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an instrument to measure teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and discusses the instrument's merit for research into reporting practice. Based on responses from 444 Australian teachers, the Teachers' Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse was evaluated using exploratory factor…

  15. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Psychometric Evaluation of the Teacher Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an instrument to measure teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and discusses the instrument's merit for research into reporting practice. Based on responses from 444 Australian teachers, the Teachers' Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse was evaluated using exploratory factor…

  16. Validity of Self-reported Sexual Behavior Among Adolescents: Where Do We Go from Here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiClemente, Ralph J

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Adolescents consuming alcohol and using drugs have markedly greater HIV/STI risk and are a priority population for intervention. Accurate measurement of sexual risk behavior is critical for understanding individual's risk for HIV/STI, transmission dynamics of HIV/STI, and evaluating the efficacy of interventions designed reduce HIV/STI risk. However, significant challenges to accurately measuring adolescents' self-reported sexual behavior are well-documented. Recent advances in microbiology, such as the use of less invasive specimen collection for DNA assays, can assist researchers in more accurately measuring adolescents' sexual risk behavior. However, the majority of studies of adolescents' sexual risk rely solely on self-reported behavior; therefore, methods to improve the validity of adolescents' self-reported sexual behavior are needed. In addition, integrating biologic measures to complement self-reported measures are recommended, when appropriate and feasible.

  17. Correlates and consequences of parent-teen incongruence in reports of teens' sexual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Everett, Bethany

    2010-07-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, factors associated with incongruence between parents' and adolescents' reports of teens' sexual experience were investigated, and the consequences of inaccurate parental knowledge for adolescents' subsequent sexual behaviors were explored. Most parents of virgins accurately reported teens' lack of experience, but most parents of teens who had had sex provided inaccurate reports. Binary logistic regression analyses showed that many adolescent-, parent-, and family-level factors predicted the accuracy of parents' reports. Parents' accurate knowledge of their teens' sexual experience was not found to be consistently beneficial for teens' subsequent sexual outcomes. Rather, parents' expectations about teens' sexual experience created a self-fulfilling prophecy, with teens' subsequent sexual outcomes conforming to parents' expectations. These findings suggest that research on parent-teen communication about sex needs to consider the expectations being expressed, as well as the information being exchanged.

  18. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Disordered Eating, Alexithymia, and General Distress: A Mediation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Anita R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2005-01-01

    Drawing from trauma-related theory (e.g., M. F. Schwartz & P. Gay, 1996), this article presents a model of associations among child sexual abuse (CSA), psychological distress, alexithymia, and disordered eating (DE). Structural equation modeling was used to test this conceptual model with a sample of female college students (N = 589). Results…

  19. From Victims to Survivors: Reclaimed Voices of Women Sexually Abused in Childhood by Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Juliann; Morse, Jill

    This book is a research-based resource for professionals treating women who are sexually abused by female perpetrators, mainly mothers and grandmothers. The book first focuses on the female perpetrator, defines the treatments that have proven successful, and provides an overview of the available literature. Also addressed are the myths and…

  20. Practical Ways Psychotherapy Can Support Physical Healthcare Experiences for Male Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, Angela; Stalker, Carol A.; Schachter, Candice L.; Teram, Eli; Lasiuk, Gerri

    2011-01-01

    Many survivors of child sexual abuse who engage in psychotherapy also experience physical health problems. This article summarizes the findings of a multiphased qualitative study about survivors' experiences in healthcare settings. The study informed the development of the "Handbook on Sensitive Practice for Health Care Practitioners: Lessons…

  1. Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) Students' Prior Sexual Abuse Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Michele T.; Black, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports findings of an exploratory study surveying 61 students about their prior child sexual abuse victimization. Bachelor of Social Work (BSW) students were surveyed at the beginning and end of a child abuse course and results indicated that 19.7 % of the students reported being sexually abused during childhood. Results also indicated…

  2. How common is males’ self-reported sexual interest in prepubescent children?

    OpenAIRE

    Dombert, Beate; Schmidt, Alexander F.; Banse, Rainer; Briken, Peer; Hoyer, Jürgen; Neutze, Janina; Osterheider, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Consistent evidence exists for sexual interest in children in non-clinical/non-forensic male populations. However, prevalences for community males’ self-reported sexual interest in children involving prepubescent children have been based on indiscriminate definitions including postpubescent individuals, age-restricted samples, and/or small convenience samples. The present research assessed males’ self-reported sexual interest in children (including child prostitution and child sex tourism) on...

  3. Family meal traditions. Comparing reported childhood food habits to current food habits among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if reported childhood food habits predict the food habits of students at present. Questions addressed are: does the memory of childhood family meals promote commensality among students? Does the memory of (grand)parents' cooking influence students' cooking? And, is there still a gender difference in passing on everyday cooking skills? Using a cross-sectional survey, 104 students were asked about their current eating and cooking habits, and their eating habits and the cooking behavior of their (grand)parents during their childhood. Results show that frequencies in reported childhood family meals predict frequencies of students' commensality at present. The effects appear for breakfast and dinner, and stay within the same meal: recalled childhood family breakfasts predict current breakfast commensality, recalled childhood family dinners predict current dinner commensality. In terms of recalled cookery of (grand)parents and the use of family recipes a matrilineal dominance can be observed. Mothers are most influential, and maternal grandmothers outscore paternal grandmothers. Yet, fathers' childhood cooking did not pass unnoticed either. They seem to influence male students' cookery. Overall, in a life-stage of transgression students appear to maintain recalled childhood food rituals. Suggestions are discussed to further validate these results.

  4. Sexual Abuse and Childhood Pregnancies an Analytical Evaluation of 111 Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Aydın

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Victims of abuse who fall pregnant are exposed to long-term and permanent effects, not just in terms of physical and mental health, but also in the social sphere, such as economic dependence. It should therefore be remembered that these adverse effects in victims of sexual abuse presenting in the acute period can be overcome through the administration of emergency contraception. In victims presenting after the acute period, however, the presence or otherwise of pregnancy must be investigated early, and pregnancies must be terminated under appropriate conditions if so desired. In addition, these children must be placed under monitoring for the rehabilitations of psychological pathologie.  Keywords: Child sexual abuse, Pregnancy, Psychological pathology.

  5. Expert testimony influences juror decisions in criminal trials involving recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Ayesha; Jacquin, Kristine M

    2013-01-01

    We examined the impact of expert witness orientation (researcher or clinical practitioner) and type of testimony (testimony for the prosecution, defense, both prosecution and defense, or no testimony) on mock jurors' decisions in a sexual abuse trial. Participants acted as mock jurors on a sexual abuse criminal trial based on recovered memory that included expert witness testimony. Results showed that expert witness testimony provided by a researcher did not impact mock jurors' guilt ratings any differently than the expert witness testimony provided by a clinical practitioner. However, type of testimony had a significant effect on jurors' guilt ratings such that jurors who read only defense or only prosecution testimony made decisions favoring the relevant side.

  6. Australian Undergraduate Primary School Student-Teachers' Responses to Child Sexual Abuse and Its Mandatory Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to understand how primary school teachers, as mandatory reporters of child sexual abuse, are responding to child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting, even though many teachers do not receive a compulsory course in Child Protection and its legal requirements in their pre-service university training. A cohort of 81 Australian…

  7. Body-Related Emotions in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Anne S; Feldmann, Robert E; Borgmann, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic experiences are associated with emotions such as anxiety, shame, guilt, disgust, and anger. For patients who have experienced child sexual abuse, these emotions might be triggered by perceptions of their own body. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of the association of the body to traumatic experiences and to discern the emotions linked to trauma-associated body areas. Ninety-seven female participants were assigned to four groups: post-traumatic stress disorder following child sexual abuse with co-occurring borderline personality disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder following child sexual abuse without co-occurring borderline personality disorder, borderline personality disorder without post-traumatic stress disorder, and healthy controls. Participants rated 26 body areas regarding their association with trauma and 7 emotions. Emotions were assessed by questionnaires. Results suggest that specific areas of the body are associated with trauma and linked to highly aversive emotions. In post-traumatic stress disorder patients, the areas associated with highly negative emotions were the pubic region and inner thighs. Thus, the patient's body may act as a trigger for traumatic memories.

  8. 'Negotiating the dance of disclosure': a grounded theory study of psychologists’ experiences of childhood sexual abuse disclosures from clients in adult mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Emma Margaret Helen

    2010-01-01

    Hearing disclosures of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a clinical reality for many therapists. Psychologists within mental health services are working increasingly with clients who have traumatic histories, including the presence of CSA. Recently there has been a drive towards improving services for adult survivors of CSA, with an emphasis on asking health and social care service-users about abuse. Recent research has demonstrated that the experience of talking about CSA in psy...

  9. The Feeling of Being Contaminated in Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Its Treatment via a Two-Session Program of Cognitive Restructuring and Imagery Modification: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kerstin; Steil, Regina

    2012-01-01

    Clinical experiences show that many survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) suffer from a distressing feeling of being contaminated (FBC) even years or decades after the last experience of sexual violence. So far, this symptom has been neglected in research. The aim of this article is to illustrate this symptom and the necessity of a specialized…

  10. Childhood trauma and compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Chang, Joy; Jewell, Bryan; Rock, Rachel

    2013-02-01

    Childhood trauma has been empirically associated with various types of self-regulatory difficulties in adulthood. However, according to the extant literature, no study has examined relationships between various types of childhood trauma and compulsive buying behavior in adulthood. Using a self-report survey methodology in a cross-sectional consecutive sample of 370 obstetrics/gynecology patients, we examined five types of childhood trauma before the age of 12 years (i.e. witnessing violence, physical neglect, emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse) in relationship to compulsive buying as assessed by the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS). All forms of trauma demonstrated statistically significant correlations with the CBS. Using a linear regression analysis, both witnessing violence and emotional abuse significantly contributed to CBS scores. Further analyses indicated that race did not moderate the relationship between childhood trauma and compulsive buying. Findings indicate that various forms of childhood trauma are correlated with compulsive buying behavior, particularly witnessing violence and emotional abuse.

  11. Department of Defense Annual Report on Sexual Assault in the Military: Fiscal Year 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-02

    and child abuse and neglect. Sexual abuse of spouses and intimate partners is a subset of domestic abuse . This year’s report is different from...investigators, judge advocates, paralegals, and victim witness assistance personnel to support victims of sexual assault, child abuse , and domestic violence...Appendix H: Summary of Changes to DoDI 6495.02 Appendix I: Domestic Abuse Related Sexual Assault Appendix J: Acronym List List of Enclosures Enclosure

  12. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukheris, Houda [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gilbert, Ethel S. [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stratton, Kayla L. [Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hammond, Sue [Department of Pathology, Ohio State University School of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Mertens, Ann C. [Department of Pediatrics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California (United States); Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L. [Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Neglia, Joseph P. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Inskip, Peter D., E-mail: inskippe@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies.

  13. Gender differences in self-reported drinking-induced disinhibition of sexual behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2008-01-01

    Sex and drinking go hand-in-hand in Western societies. Men also tend to report more sexual disinhibition under the influence of alcohol and drugs than women. At a vacation resort,we conducted a survey of young men and women regarding self-reported alcohol-related sexual disinhibition (ARSD), and we...... administered the Drinking-Induced Disinhibition Scale (DIDS). We made several comparisons of behavioral patterns using the ARSD scale of the DIDS for each gender: kissing or having sex vs. no sexual contact, or having sex versus kissing or no contact. In general, men reported more ARSD than women. Men who...... reported either kissing or having sex the night before reported significantly more ARSD than men not reporting either kissing or having sex. Women who had had sex the night before reported more ARSD than women who had either kissed or not reported any sexual contact on the night before, but women who had...

  14. Women convicted of a sexual offence, including child pornography production: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, S; Bertsch, I; Chudzik, L; Réveillère, Ch

    2014-03-01

    All available studies addressing the clinical and legal aspects of child pornography have systematically concerned male abusers. The social lens through which women are viewed tends to play down their responsibility in the sexual abuse of children. Unlike men, women rarely abuse children outside the close or family circle. Furthermore, they have frequently been abused themselves in their childhood. To our knowledge, no cases of women charged with sex-related offences, including child pornography, have been described in the literature. The psychopathological characteristics of female sexual abusers and of the two women in our cases tend to suggest that the deliberate downloading of child pornography images by women is unusual, as their deviant behaviour is not related to paedophile sexual arousal It is hypothesized that the act enables women perpetrators to satisfy the sexual urges of their spouse. Sexual abuse by women exists, but the nature of the abuse appears to be specific to the gender of the perpetrator. We present two cases of women charged with sexual offences concerning minors, including the production of child pornography material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Educating early childhood care and education providers to improve knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengwu; Lehman, Erik B.; Mincemoyer, Claudia; Verdiglione, Nicole; Levi, Benjamin H.

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood care and education providers (CCPs) work with over 7 million young children. These children are vulnerable to physical, sexual and emotional abuse, and neglect. However, CCPs make less than 1% of all reports of suspected child abuse and neglect that are made to child protective services. CCPs are therefore an untapped resource in the public health response to child maltreatment. However, their knowledge and attitudes about duties to report child maltreatment are poorly understood. Moreover, no rigorous research has tested whether their knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment can be improved. These gaps in knowledge are important because knowledge of the duty and positive attitudes towards it produce more effective reporting, and little evidence exists about how to enhance cognitive and affective attributes. Using the CONSORT approach, we report a single-blind test-retest randomized controlled trial evaluating iLook Out for Child Abuse, a customized online educational intervention for CCPs to increase knowledge and attitudes towards the reporting duty. 762 participants were randomized with results analyzed for 741 participants (372 in the intervention group; 369 in the control). Knowledge of the reporting duty increased in the intervention group from 13.54 to 16.19 out of 21 (2.65 increase, 95% CI: (2.37, 2.93); large effect size 0.95, p education for CCPs and other professions. Future research should also explore effects of education on reporting behavior. Trial registration: US National Institutes of Health NCT02225301 PMID:28542285

  16. Contrasting adolescent female and male sexual aggression: A self-report study on prevalence and predictors of sexual aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slotboom, A.-M.; Hendriks, J.; Verbruggen, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we investigated the prevalence of sexual aggression as reported by adolescent males and females in the Netherlands. Data were collected from a low-risk school-based sample (n=219; 119 adolescent females and 100 adolescent males), a medium-risk school-based sample (vocational training)

  17. Psychiatric comorbidity differences between women with history of childhood sexual abuse who are methadone-maintained former opiate addicts and non-addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peles, Einat; Adelson, Miriam; Seligman, Zivya; Bloch, Miki; Potik, David; Schreiber, Shaul

    2014-09-30

    Following our finding of high rates of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) among methadone maintained (MMT) former opiate addict women with a history of childhood sexual abuse, we compared 68 MMT sexually abused women to 48 women from a Sexual Abuse Treatment Center (SATC) without a history of opiate addiction, for clinical-OCD (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale), dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), complex-post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress - Non-Other Specify), sexual PTSD (the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale) and trauma events history (Life Event Inventory). MMT patients were treated for longer periods and were older and less educated. Clinical OCD was more prevalent among the MMT patients (66.2% vs. 30.4%, respectively), while complex-PTSD and high dissociation score (DES≥30) were more prevalent among the non-addicts (46.9% vs. 19.1%, and 57.1% vs. 11.8% respectively). The high rate of OCD among sexually abused MMT women was not found in women who are sexually abused non-addicts. As dissociation was rare among the MMT group, it may just be that the opioids (either as street-drugs or as MMT) serve as an external coping mechanism when the access to the internal one is not possible. Future study about OCD and dissociation before entry to MMT are needed.

  18. Asian American Women's Retrospective Reports of Their Sexual Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Janna L.

    2009-01-01

    This study used qualitative research methods to investigate the sexual socialization experiences of young Asian American women, a group often overlooked in psychological research on sexuality. Focus group interviews were conducted with 30 ethnically diverse young Asian American women to explore their perceptions and interpretations of the direct…

  19. First Impressions (Primeras Impresiones): Report of the Task Force on Early Childhood and Elementary Education [with] Executive Summary (Sintesis Ejecutiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    The Task Force on Early Childhood and Elementary Education, created by the Texas State Board of Education in January 1993, found that the current system of early childhood and elementary education is struggling to meet the challenges of childhood in today's Texas. This report summarizes the task force's call for schools to reconfigure themselves…

  20. A preliminary mapping of individual, relational, and social factors that impede disclosure of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin-Vézina, Delphine; De La Sablonnière-Griffin, Mireille; Palmer, Andrea M; Milne, Lise

    2015-05-01

    Uncovering the pathways to disclosures of child sexual abuse (CSA) and the factors influencing the willingness of victims to talk about the abuse is paramount to the development of powerful practice and policy initiatives. Framed as a long interview method utilizing a grounded theory approach to analyze data, the objective of the current study was to provide a preliminary mapping of the barriers to CSA disclosures through an ecological systemic lens, from a sample of 67 male and female CSA adult survivors, all of whom had recently received counselling services. The current project led to the identification of three broad categories of barriers that were each comprised of several subthemes, namely: Barriers from Within (internalized victim-blaming, mechanisms to protect oneself, and immature development at time of abuse); Barriers in Relation to Others (violence and dysfunction in the family, power dynamics, awareness of the impact of telling, and fragile social network); and Barriers in Relation to the Social World (labelling, taboo of sexuality, lack of services available, and culture or time period). This study points to the importance of using a broad ecological framework to understand the factors that inhibit disclosure of CSA, as barriers to disclosure do not constrain solely the victims. Results are discussed in light of their implications for research, prevention and intervention programs, and social policies and media campaigns, as the burden is on the larger community to create a climate of safety and transparency that makes the telling of CSA possible.

  1. Disparities in Social Health by Sexual Orientation and the Etiologic Role of Self-Reported Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, David Matthew; Molix, Lisa

    2016-08-01

    Some past work indicates that sexual minorities may experience impairments in social health, or the perceived and actual availability and quality of one's social relationships, relative to heterosexuals; however, research has been limited in many ways. Furthermore, it is important to investigate etiological factors that may be associated with these disparities, such as self-reported discrimination. The current work tested whether sexual minority adults in the United States reported less positive social health (i.e., loneliness, friendship strain, familial strain, and social capital) relative to heterosexuals and whether self-reported discrimination accounted for these disparities. Participants for the current study (N = 579) were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk, including 365 self-identified heterosexuals (105 women) and 214 sexual minorities (103 women). Consistent with hypotheses, sexual minorities reported impaired social health relative to heterosexuals, with divergent patterns emerging by sexual orientation subgroup (which were generally consistent across sexes). Additionally, self-reported discrimination accounted for disparities across three of four indicators of social health. These findings suggest that sexual minorities may face obstacles related to prejudice and discrimination that impair the functioning of their relationships and overall social health. Moreover, because social health is closely related to psychological and physical health, remediating disparities in social relationships may be necessary to address other health disparities based upon sexual orientation. Expanding upon these results, implications for efforts to build resilience among sexual minorities are discussed.

  2. Abuso físico y sexual durante la niñez y revictimización de las mujeres mexicanas durante la edad adulta Physical and sexual abuse during childhood and revictimization during adulthood in Mexican women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Rivera-Rivera

    2006-01-01

    una mayor probabilidad de sufrirla durante la edad adulta. El abuso físico y sexual durante la niñez debe prevenirse o, en su defecto, detectarse y tratarse.OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between physical and sexual abuse during childhood and violence during adulthood in a representative sample of female health care users in Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire was administered to 26 042 women over 14 years of age who sought medical consultation from public health care services between October 2002 and March 2003, in all 32 states in Mexico. Two models were constructed: a Multiple polytomic logistic regression models to explore the association between violent victimization by the partner during adulthood and violence during childhood. b Multiple logistic regression models to explore the association between experiencing rape during adulthood and violence during childhood. RESULTS: Among women studied, an association was found between experiencing physical violence during childhood and suffering physical and sexual violence from the male partner or experiencing rape, during adulthood. When physical violence during childhood occurred "almost always", it was more likely that the woman undergo physical and sexual violence (OR=3.1; 95%CI 2.6-3.7 and rape (OR=2.9; 95%CI 2.4-3.6, during her adult life. In addition, when violence during childhood was more frequent, the likelihood of experiencing violence during adulthood was greater. A positive association was found between physical and sexual abuse before 15 years of age (OR=2.8; 95%CI 2.2-3.5. Experiencing rape during adulthood was also associated with sexual abuse before 15 years of age (OR=11.8; 95%CI 10.2-13.7. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of Mexican women, both physical and sexual violence during childhood has negative results during adulthood, including a greater likelihood of revictimization by the male partner and rape. Physical and sexual abuse during childhood must be prevented or at least detected

  3. Sexual violence in women's lives. Findings from the Women's Safety Project, a community-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, M; Haskell, L

    1995-03-01

    This paper presents a community-based study, which aims to determine the interconnections between women's experiences of sexual abuse in childhood, sexual assault in adulthood, and physical assault in intimate relationships in Toronto, Canada. An in-depth face-to-face interview was conducted with 420 women who comprised the random sample of the women living in Toronto, Canada. Findings on the prevalence and effects of various forms of sexual abuse and violence revealed that 97.6% of the woman interviewed reported that they personally experienced some form of sexual violation. Sexual abuse in childhood (including incest), sexual assault, sexual harassment, and physical assault in intimate relationships were documented. Among the findings were that one-fourth of the women in the sample were physically assaulted by a male intimate, one-half of the women reported being raped or almost raped, and nearly half of the respondents reported experiencing some kind of sexual abuse before reaching age 16.

  4. Childhood sexual abuse, intimate partner violence during pregnancy, and posttraumatic stress symptoms following childbirth: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Aline Gaudard E Silva de; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo; Moraes, Claudia Leite; Howard, Louise Michele; Lobato, Gustavo

    2016-12-28

    The aim of the study was to explore the pathways by which childhood sexual abuse (CSA), psychological and physical intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy, and other covariates relate to each other and to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in the postpartum period. The sample comprised 456 women who gave birth at a maternity service for high-risk pregnancies in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, interviewed at 6-8 weeks after birth. A path analysis was carried out to explore the postulated pathways between exposures and outcome. Trauma History Questionnaire, Conflict Tactics Scales and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist were used to assess information about exposures of main interest and outcome. The link between CSA and PTSD symptoms was mediated by history of trauma, psychiatric history, psychological IPV, and fear of childbirth during pregnancy. Physical IPV was directly associated with postnatal PTSD symptoms, whereas psychological IPV connection seemed to be partially mediated by physical abuse and fear of childbirth during pregnancy. The role of CSA, IPV, and other psychosocial characteristics on the occurrence of PTSD symptoms following childbirth as well as the intricate network of these events should be acknowledged in clinic and intervention approaches.

  5. Desire to dissociate: implications for problematic drinking in college students with childhood or adolescent sexual abuse exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanecky, Alicia; McChargue, Dennis E; Bruggeman, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol use to replace inadequate dissociative capabilities, or chemical dissociation, has been linked to college students with childhood or adolescent sexual abuse (CASA). Insofar as CASA-exposed persons experience a restricted range of dissociative capabilities, what remains relatively unclear is whether some desire to achieve greater dissociative experiences. Nonclinical levels of dissociative tendencies have positively predicted alcohol-related blackouts in CASA-exposed students, and dissociation mediated the relations between CASA and intoxication frequency. Although alcohol (similar to dissociation) can reduce physiological and psychological responses to stress, alcohol consumption may be prompted by a desire to dissociate rather than inadequate dissociative tendencies alone. To investigate this interpretation of the chemical dissociation phenomenon, researchers examined the mediating potential of dissociative tendencies using the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II) as well as the desire to dissociate concept (ie, a modified version of the DES-II) on the relations between CASA exposure and problematic alcohol use in college students (N = 298). Results indicated that dissociation scores did not replicate previous mediation findings whereas desire to dissociate scores fully mediated CASA exposure and problematic alcohol use. Implications of the results are discussed including possible reasons why prior mediation results were not replicated as well as links to experiential avoidance.

  6. Adults' Memories of Childhood: True and False Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianjian; Ogle, Christin M.; Goodman, Gail S.

    2008-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors examined factors that, according to the source-monitoring framework, might influence false memory formation and true/false memory discernment. In Experiment 1, combined effects of warning and visualization on false childhood memory formation were examined, as were individual differences in true and false childhood…

  7. Report of CCI Early Childhood Think Tank on Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Care, Inc., 2008

    2008-01-01

    Child Care, Inc. (CCI) invited a group of early childhood experts to help reflect on what CCI had learned from other states about governance and to apply that knowledge to New York City. The goal was to foster more systemic thinking about how to move toward a more coherent early care and education system in New York City that would better meet the…

  8. PARAPHILLIA : A CASE REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, A.A.; Valdiya, P.S.; Chaudhury, S.

    2001-01-01

    A case of paraphilia presenting with multiple sexual deviations is reported. The disorder occurred against a background of disordered childhood and was later associated with alcohol abuse. PMID:21407845

  9. Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health By Mayo Clinic Staff Sexual health basics Sexuality is part of being human. Love, affection and intimacy all play a role in healthy relationships from childhood through old age. You often hear about the importance of physical health, mental health and spiritual health, ...

  10. Social relationships in sexually abused children: self-reports and teachers' evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard-Dallaire, Claudia; Hébert, Martine

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the social relationships of child victims of sexual abuse using both self-reports and teachers' ratings. Participants were 93 child victims of sexual abuse and a comparison group of 75 nonvictims. Teachers' assessments revealed that sexually abused children displayed greater social skill problems compared to same-age, nonabused peers and were more likely to display social difficulties nearing clinical levels. Analyses indicated that sexually abused children presented lower levels of interpersonal trust in people surrounding them yet a marginally higher level of trust in peers compared to nonabused children. Sense of loneliness and feeling different from peers did not differ between groups.

  11. Self-reported childhood trauma correlates with schizotypal measures in schizophrenia but not bipolar pedigrees

    OpenAIRE

    Schürhoff, Franck; Laguerre, Audrey; Fisher, Helen; Etain, Bruno; Méary, Alexandre; Soussy, Caroline; Szöke, Andreï; Leboyer, Marion

    2008-01-01

    International audience; BACKGROUND: Strong evidence supports the association between childhood trauma and psychotic disorders. In two different high-risk populations, we looked for a correlation between the magnitude of schizotypal dimensions and the importance of self-reported childhood trauma.MethodA sample of 138 unaffected first-degree relatives was recruited (67 relatives of schizophrenic probands and 71 relatives of bipolar probands). The relationship between schizotypal dimensions and ...

  12. Sexuality in Adolescent Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder : Self-reported Behaviours and Attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Wilhelmina; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-01-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15–18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compare

  13. Socio-Praxis Preferences in Teacher Preparation for Child Sexual Abuse and Its Mandatory Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Grimbeek, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, particularly child sexual abuse, is a pastoral care issue that deeply concerns all education professionals. The literature strongly supports specific training for pre-service teachers about child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting, although few studies identify how such training should be academically structured.…

  14. Socio-Praxis Preferences in Teacher Preparation for Child Sexual Abuse and Its Mandatory Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Grimbeek, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, particularly child sexual abuse, is a pastoral care issue that deeply concerns all education professionals. The literature strongly supports specific training for pre-service teachers about child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting, although few studies identify how such training should be academically structured.…

  15. Test-Retest Reliability of Self-Reported Sexual Health Measures among US Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerman, Petra; Berglas, Nancy F.; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Constantine, Norman A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although Hispanic adolescents in the USA are often the focus of sexual health interventions, their response to survey measures has rarely been assessed within evaluation studies. This study documents the test-retest reliability of a wide range of self-reported sexual health values, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours among Hispanic…

  16. Sexuality in Adolescent Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder : Self-reported Behaviours and Attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Wilhelmina; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-01-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15–18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were

  17. Exploring Differences in Youth and Parent Reports of Antisociality among Adolescent Sexual and Nonsexual Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilling, Tracey A.; Doiron, James M.; Seto, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent of, and explored several possible explanations for, the discrepancies found between adolescent and parent reports of conduct problems in adolescent sexual and nonsexual offenders. We found that adolescent sexual offenders scored lower on measures of conduct problems than did nonsexual offenders, whether on the basis…

  18. Sexuality in Adolescent Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Reported Behaviours and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-01-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15-18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group…

  19. Sexuality in adolescent boys with autism spectrum disorder : Self-reported behaviours and attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewinter, J.; Vermeiren, R.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.; Lobbestael, J.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15–18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were

  20. Long-term survivors of childhood Ewing sarcoma: report from the childhood cancer survivor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Jill P; Goodman, Pamela; Leisenring, Wendy; Ness, Kirsten K; Meyers, Paul A; Wolden, Suzanne L; Smith, Stephanie M; Stovall, Marilyn; Hammond, Sue; Robison, Leslie L; Oeffinger, Kevin C

    2010-08-18

    The survival of Ewing sarcoma (ES) patients has improved since the 1970s but is associated with considerable future health risks. The study population consisted of long-term (> or =5-year) survivors of childhood ES diagnosed before age 21 from 1970 to 1986. Cause-specific mortality was evaluated in eligible survivors (n = 568), and subsequent malignant neoplasms, chronic health conditions, infertility, and health status were evaluated in the subset participating in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (n = 403). Outcomes were compared with the US population and sibling control subjects (n = 3899). Logistic, Poisson, or Cox proportional hazards models, with adjustments for sex, age, race/ethnicity, and potential intrafamily correlation, were used. Statistical tests were two-sided. Cumulative mortality of ES survivors was 25.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 21.1 to 28.9) 25 years after diagnosis. The all-cause standardized mortality ratio was 13.3 (95% CI = 11.2 to 15.8) overall, 23.1 (95% CI = 17.6 to 29.7) for women, and 10.0 (95% CI = 7.9 to 12.5) for men. The nonrecurrence-progression non-external cause standardized mortality ratio (subsequent non-ES malignant neoplasms and cardiac and pulmonary causes potentially attributable to ES treatment) was 8.7 (95% CI = 6.2 to 12.0). Twenty-five years after ES diagnosis, cumulative incidence of subsequent malignant neoplasms, excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers, was 9.0% (95% CI = 5.8 to 12.2). Compared with siblings, survivors had an increased risk of severe, life-threatening, or disabling chronic health conditions (relative risk = 6.0, 95% CI = 4.1 to 9.0). Survivors had lower fertility rates (women: P = .005; men: P < .001) and higher rates of moderate to extreme adverse health status (P < .001). Long-term survivors of childhood ES exhibit excess mortality and morbidity.

  1. Gitelman syndrome manifesting in early childhood and leading to delayed puberty: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raza Farhan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Gitelman syndrome is an inherited autosomal recessive renal salt-wasting disorder. It presents with variable clinical symptoms including muscle weakness and fatigue, and the diagnosis is based on metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. It is usually diagnosed incidentally in early adulthood. There are rare cases of Gitelman syndrome presenting in early childhood; however, to the best of our knowledge it has not previously been associated with delayed puberty. Case presentation A 17-year-old South Asian man with recurrent episodes of generalized muscle weakness, fatigue and cramps from the age of two years was admitted for further workup. Before the age of 12 years, the episodes had been mild, but they then got progressively worse. Other symptoms include polyuria, polydipsia, nocturia, paresthesia and occasional watery diarrhea. He also had a history of short stature, poor weight gain and delayed developmental landmarks. His family history was unremarkable except for the consanguineous marriage of his parents. An examination revealed a thin and lean man with blood pressure of 95/60mmHg. His height and weight were below the third percentile and his sexual development was at Tanner Stage II. Laboratory work revealed serum sodium of 124mmol/L, potassium 2.4mmol/L, calcium 6.5mmol/L and magnesium of 1.2mg/dL. His testosterone level was low (0.85ng/mL, normal for his age 2.67 to 10.12ng/mL with normal levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. The sex hormone findings were attributed to delayed puberty. A 24-hour urinary analysis revealed decreased excretion of calcium (25.9mg/24 hours. Based on the findings of hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis without hypertension, severe hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria, a diagnosis of Gitelman syndrome was made. Treatment was started with oral supplementation of potassium, magnesium and calcium along with spironolactone and liberal salt intake

  2. Reductions in alcohol and cocaine use following a group coping intervention for HIV-positive adults with childhood sexual abuse histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Christina S; Drabkin, Anya S; Hansen, Nathan B; Wilson, Patrick A; Kochman, Arlene; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2010-11-01

    Few interventions exist to reduce alcohol and non-injection drug use among people living with HIV/AIDS. This study tested the effects of a coping group intervention for HIV-positive adults with childhood sexual abuse histories on alcohol, cocaine and marijuana use. Participants were assigned randomly to the experimental coping group or a time-matched comparison support group. Both interventions were delivered in a group format over 15 weekly 90-minute sessions. A diverse sample of 247 HIV-positive men and women with childhood sexual abuse were recruited from AIDS service organizations and community health centers in New York City. Substance use was assessed pre- and post-intervention and every 4 months during a 12-month follow-up period. Using an intent-to-treat analysis, longitudinal changes in substance use by condition were assessed using generalized estimating equations. At baseline, 42% of participants drank alcohol, 26% used cocaine and 26% used marijuana. Relative to participants in the support group, those in the coping group had greater reductions in quantity of alcohol use (Wald χ²(₄)=10.77, P = 0.029) and any cocaine use (Wald χ²(₄) = 9.81, P = 0.044) overtime. Many HIV patients, particularly those with childhood sexual abuse histories, continue to abuse substances. This group intervention that addressed coping with HIV and sexual trauma was effective in reducing alcohol and cocaine use, with effects sustained at 12-month follow-up. Integrating mental health treatment into HIV prevention may improve outcomes. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Alternative or Nontraditional Sexualities and Therapy: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprott, Richard A; Randall, Anna; Davison, Karen; Cannon, Neil; Witherspoon, Ryan G

    2017-08-01

    A traditionally marginalized subset of couples engage in consensual nonmonogamy (CNM: open marriage, polyamory, swinging, etc.) or alternative sexualities, such as kink or bondage/discipline, dominance/submission, and sadism/masochism. Nonmonogamous and sexually diverse individuals often experience discrimination or stigma in various domains of professional services, including mental healthcare. These cases require knowledge, skills, and awareness to provide culturally sensitive care, which is often called "kink aware therapy" or "poly-friendly therapy" within alternative sexuality communities. This article explores one application of a kink-focused and CNM-focused therapeutic framework for working with a couple who is exploring nontraditional sexualities. This case incorporates evidence-based clinical practice and identifies the limitations and significant gaps in the empirical research literature. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Reporting sexual offences involving child patients: What is the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-26

    May 26, 2014 ... engage in sexual conduct with children aged 12 - 15 years (hereinafter referred to ... Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act 92 of 1996,[2] which require ..... uploads/images/unpan005172.pdf (accessed 13 March 2014). 11.

  5. Writers and Their Maps: The Construction of a GAO Report on Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kelli Cargile

    2000-01-01

    Examines a 1994 General Accounting Office (GAO) report on sexual harassment at U.S. service academies to determine how power structures affected the report writers' rhetorical choices. Identifies what is valued and devalued in the report's contents. Describes Congress's reaction to the report and speculates on the report's impact on public…

  6. The Role of Alcohol Use during Sexual Situations in the Relationship between Sexual Revictimization and Women’s Intentions to Engage in Unprotected Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhill, Michele R.; Norris, Jeanette; Cue Davi, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated relationships among childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, and sexual risk taking. This study proposes that one mechanism through which the victimization-sexual risk taking relationship works is through an increased likelihood of drinking during sexual situations. Using path analysis, the current study explores this hypothesis in a sample of 230 women. The model illustrates that women with a history of child and adult sexual victimization reported greater intentions to engage in unprotected sex and that this relationship is in part accounted for by an increased likelihood of drinking in sexual situations. The results suggest that sexual risk reduction programs and sexual assault treatment programs should educate women about the alcohol-involved sexual risk taking that often follows sexual assault victimization. PMID:25069152

  7. [Eating disorders and sexual function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravvariti, V; Gonidakis, Fr

    2016-01-01

    groups of patients report more often than general population a lack of satisfaction from their sexual experiences. Other factors that are common to eating disorders and sexual dysfunction are personality traits, negative body-image, adverse childhood experiences, negative family climate and especially early traumatic experiences such as sexual abuse. Furthermore, comorbidity of eating disorders with depression may have a negative impact on the patient's sexual function. The treatment and improvement of sexual behavior is quite problematic when the patient is also suffering from an eating disorder. Eating Disorder patients are often very reluctant to discuss their sexual life with the therapist and to engage in any kind of therapeutic intervention. Comorbidity with a number of other disorders makes psychotherapy even more difficult for those patients. Furthermore, a considerable percentage of Anorexia Nervosa patients do not have any kind of sexual activity, at least until nutrition and weight are restored.

  8. Emotions and emotion regulation in survivors of childhood sexual abuse: the importance of “disgust” in traumatic stress and psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eimear Coyle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA has the potential to compromise socio-emotional development of the survivor resulting in increased vulnerability to difficulties regulating emotions. In turn, emotion regulation is thought to play a key part in a number of psychological disorders which CSA survivors are at increased risk of developing. A better understanding of the basic emotions experienced in this population and emotion regulation strategies will inform current treatment. Objective: This paper examines the relationships between type of emotions experienced, emotion regulation strategies, and psychological trauma symptoms in a sample of survivors of CSA. Method: A consecutive case series of CSA survivors (n=109 completed the Basic Emotions Scale (BES—Weekly, General, and Coping versions; the Regulation of Emotions Questionnaire; the Post-traumatic Stress Checklist—Civilian Version (PCL-C; and the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure. Results: Significantly higher levels of disgust than other levels of emotions were reported on the weekly version of the BES. In addition, significantly higher levels of disgust and lower levels of happiness were reported on the BES—General subscale. Regression analyses revealed that sadness, fear, disgust, and external dysfunctional coping strategies predicted global post-traumatic stress disorder and re-experiencing symptomatology measured by the PCL-C. Global distress, as measured by CORE, was predicted by the emotions of sadness, disgust, and low happiness, as well as dysfunctional regulatory strategies. In addition, preliminary exploratory factor analyses supported the structure of all three versions of the BES, with disgust explaining the largest percentage of variance, followed by happiness. Conclusions: The findings highlight the utility of profiling basic emotions in understanding the strong associations between emotional phenomena, particularly the emotion of disgust and

  9. Sexual Functions in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Patients: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergis LAPSEKİLİ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, even if the patient’s obsession content is not related to sexuality, may be a problem in the sexual lives of individuals. In this article, sexual function in obsessive compulsive disorder patients is discussed based on an OCD case. Case: Male 36 years old and female 32 years old couple. Man had complaints of lack of control of ejaculation and woman had complaints of lack of orgasm. Man was diagnosed with premature ejaculation and woman was diagnosed with aversion and anorgasmia according to DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Of Mental Disorders criteria. During therapy, the female patient was diagnosed with OCD as well. Loss of control was not acceptable to the patient. Thus she was avoiding from exhilarating stimuli. After cognitive restructuring of her evaluations about control, sex therapy was continued. At the end of the therapy the avoidance of the patient disappeared and anorgasmia was treated and ejeculation time of the male patient was 15 minutes. Conclusion: Sexual dysfunction is a common problem in patients with OCD. Patient may have avoidance that may adversely affect her sexuality. If a patient has avoidance about sexuality, the reason of this avoidance may or may not be the usual and expected thought content like avoidance of contamination. The evaluations of OCD patients about control may also adversely affect their sexuallity. The thought leading to avoidance behavior, may vary from patient to patient. However, to identify these thoughts with cognitive interventions and work with them will improve.the patient.

  10. Psychiatric illness presenting with a sexual complaint and management by psychotropic medications: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krychman, Michael; Carter, Jeanne; Amsterdam, Alison

    2008-01-01

    Sexual medicine healthcare professionals, who do not normally examine men and women with psychiatric disorders, need to be aware that those with psychiatric disorders can and do present with sexual medicine problems. In particular, psychiatric individuals may present with a variety of delusions including those that have sexual content or sexual implications. The rare disorder of reverse delusional misidentification syndrome may be encountered in schizophrenic patients and may be best managed by the combined team effort of a sexual medicine specialist and psychiatrist. To report a case study that reiterates the assessment and sexual medicine management of a female with sexual dysfunction who believed she was transforming into a male. Case report of a woman who attended an outpatient clinic in an academic medical center. A 60-year-old woman with a history of paranoid schizophrenia presented to a gynecologist for ovarian cancer screening. Evaluation revealed complaints that the patient's ovaries were testes that produced sperm and her clitoris was a penis capable of erection and ejaculation. Gynecological examination revealed only atrophic vaginitis. The patient was treated with local minimally absorbed vaginal estrogens and referred for psychological assessment and counseling. Psychotropic medication compliance was encouraged, weekly psychotherapy was continued, and delusional symptoms were minimized. Sexual medicine healthcare providers should be prepared to manage sex health concerns of men and women with psychiatric disorders, including delusional misidentification syndrome, in conjunction with a psychiatrist.

  11. Reported sexually transmitted infections in Swedish Internet-using men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M W; Daneback, K; Mansson, S-A; Berglund, T; Tikkanen, R

    2008-06-01

    Although the Internet has become a forum for making sexual contacts, and has been associated with increased sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission, we have little information of history of STIs in Internet-based samples. The Internet behaviours that are associated with STI acquisition are poorly understood. We analysed STI histories reported by 904 Swedish men and 931 Swedish women who responded to an Internet-based survey on sexual behaviour in 2002: 16.6% of men and 22.5% of women reported a lifetime history of STIs, with Chlamydia being the most common for both genders. 3% of men and 5% of women who reported an STI, indicated that they had had more than one. Sources of the STI, where known, were Internet-acquired partners in only 3% of cases. There were no differences between men and women with or without an STI history regarding the kind of online sexual activities they engaged in, how they found sexual material online, and the reasons they engage in sexual activities. These rates are similar to those reported in a national random study of sexuality in Sweden. Contrary to prior research, these results suggest no relationship between STI and specific Internet characteristics usage patterns. These data suggest that the Internet is not yet a major source of STIs in Swedish men and women. Given these STI histories, the Internet may be a useful medium to include in STI prevention efforts.

  12. Changes in Reported Sexual Orientation Following US States Recognition of Same-Sex Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Brittany M; Corliss, Heather L; Spiegelman, Donna; Williams, Kerry; Austin, S Bryn

    2016-12-01

    To compare changes in self-reported sexual orientation of women living in states with any recognition of same-sex relationships (e.g., hospital visitation, domestic partnerships) with those of women living in states without such recognition. We calculated the likelihood of women in the Nurses' Health Study II (n = 69 790) changing their reported sexual orientation between 1995 and 2009. We used data from the Nurses' Health Study II and found that living in a state with same-sex relationship recognition was associated with changing one's reported sexual orientation, particularly from heterosexual to sexual minority. Individuals who reported being heterosexual in 1995 were 30% more likely to report a minority orientation (i.e., bisexual or lesbian) in 2009 (risk ratio = 1.30; 95% confidence interval = 1.05, 1.61) if they lived in a state with any recognition of same-sex relationships compared with those who lived in a state without such recognition. Policies recognizing same-sex relationships may encourage women to report a sexual minority orientation. Future research is needed to clarify how other social and legal policies may affect sexual orientation self-reports.

  13. Discrepancy between information reported by the victims of sexual assaults and clinical forensic findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherer, Susanne; Hansen, Steen Holger; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: From the clinical forensic examination reports made at the Department of Forensic Medicine, the University of Copenhagen, in 2007 concerning rape, attempted rape and sexual assault (RAS), information about the assault, including both violence and the perpetrator's line of sexual...... by slight, blunt force. Information on line of sexual action was present in 148 cases. A total of 123 victims reported penetration: 94% vaginal, 16% anal and 20% oral. Three were exposed to anal penetration only. Eleven perpetrators used a condom. 50% of the cases with vaginal and/or anal penetration had...

  14. Predictors of Self-reported Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Homeless and Runaway Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Yoder, Kevin A.

    2000-01-01

    Path analysis was used to investigate factors associated with self-reported sexually transmitted diseases among 569 homeless and runaway adolescents in four Midwestern states. Youth were interviewed by outreach workers directly on the streets, in shelters, and in drop-in centers. Results indicated that family abuse was positively related to substance use, affiliation with friends who sold sex, and time on own. Early family abuse indirectly increased the likelihood of self-reported sexually tr...

  15. Urethral masturbation and sexual disinhibition in dementia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Michal; Berkman, Pinhas; Shapira, Adi; Gil, Israel; Abramovitz, Jancu

    2003-01-01

    Urethral masturbation and sexual disinhibition as manifestations of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are described in a 90-year-old patient who repeatedly self-inserted foreign bodies into his urethra. A diagnosis was made of late onset sexual disinhibition and hypersexuality in a patient with Dementia of the Alzheimer Type. Significant reduction of his sexual behavior was achieved with low doses of haloperidol. Similar symptoms are noted in Pick's disease, other fronto-temporal lesions, mania and following a seizure or treatment of Parkinson's disease, and have been described as Kluver-Busy-type. Clinicians should consider this diagnosis when investigating dysuria, cystitis, haematuria and urinary tract infections even in the very old.

  16. Risk and impact of pulmonary complications in survivors of childhood cancer: A report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Andrew C; Chen, Yan; Yasui, Yutaka; Ness, Kirsten K; Hagood, James S; Chow, Eric J; Stovall, Marilyn; Neglia, Joseph P; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Mertens, Ann C; Robison, Leslie L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Mulrooney, Daniel A

    2016-12-01

    Pulmonary complications after cancer therapy are varied. This study describes pulmonary outcomes among childhood cancer survivors and evaluates their impact on daily activities. The incidence of pulmonary outcomes (asthma, chronic cough, emphysema, lung fibrosis, oxygen need, and recurrent pneumonia) reported among 5-year cancer survivors (n = 14,316) and the incidence of death due to pulmonary causes among all eligible survivors (n = 20,690) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study were compared with those for sibling controls (n = 4027) with cumulative incidence, standardized mortality ratio (SMR), and piecewise exponential models. Logistic regression with random effects was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for activity limitations with pulmonary complications. By the age of 45 years, the cumulative incidence of any pulmonary condition was 29.6% (95% CI, 29.1%-30.0%) for cancer survivors and 26.5% (95% CI, 24.9%-28.0%) for siblings. Fewer survivors reported ever smoking (23.6% vs 36.4%, P cancer and can affect daily activities. Cancer 2016;122:3687-96. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  17. Infertility, infertility treatment, and achievement of pregnancy in female survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Sara E; Najita, Julie S; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S; Leisenring, Wendy M; Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita E; Sklar, Charles A; Robison, Leslie L; Diller, Lisa

    2013-08-01

    Previous studies have shown decreased pregnancy rates and early menopause in female cancer survivors; however, infertility rates and reproductive interventions have not been studied. We investigated infertility and time to pregnancy in female childhood cancer survivors, and analysed treatment characteristics associated with infertility and subsequent pregnancy. The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) is a cohort study including 5 year cancer survivors from 26 Canadian and US institutions who were younger than 21 years at the time of diagnosis between Jan 1, 1970, and Dec 31, 1986, and a sibling control group. We included women aged 18-39 years who had ever been sexually active. We gathered demographic, medical, and reproductive data via a baseline questionnaire, and quantified exposure to alkylating agents and radiation therapy. Self-reported infertility, medical treatment for infertility, time to first pregnancy in survivors and siblings, and the risk of infertility in survivors by demographic, disease, and treatment variables were analysed. 3531 survivors and 1366 female sibling controls who enrolled between Nov 3, 1992, and April 4, 2004, were included. Compared with their siblings, survivors had an increased risk (relative risk [RR] 1·48 [95% CI 1·23-1·78]; pinfertility (ie, >1 year of attempts at conception without success), which was most pronounced at early reproductive ages (RR 2·92 [95% CI 1·18-7·20], p=0·020, in participants ≤24 years; 1·61 [1·05-2·48], p=0·029, in those aged 25-29 years; and 1·37 [1·11-1·69], p=0·0035, in those aged 30-40 years). Despite being equally likely to seek treatment for infertility, survivors were less likely than were their siblings to be prescribed drugs for treatment of infertility (0·57 [95% CI 0·46-0·70], pinfertility. Although survivors had an increased time to pregnancy compared with their siblings (p=0·032), 292 (64%) of 455 participants with self-reported clinical infertility achieved a

  18. Brief report: The role of three dimensions of sexual well-being in adolescents' life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Hernández, Graciela; Vasilenko, Sara A; McPherson, Jenna L; Gutierrez, Estefania; Rodriguez, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    Guided by theoretical (Brooks-Gunn & Paikoff, 1997) and empirical work (Horne & Zimmer-Gembeck, 2005), this cross-sectional study examined whether sexual well-being (sexual self-acceptance, importance of mutual consent, importance of safe sex) was associated with life satisfaction among Mexican adolescents, and whether these associations were moderated by gender, age, and familism. Mexican adolescents (54% girls, 72% middle schoolers, 30% sexually active) completed surveys. Findings indicated that a greater belief in the importance of safe sex was associated with higher levels of life satisfaction. Greater sexual self-acceptance was associated with life satisfaction, and familism moderated this association. This association was stronger among adolescents who reported low familism. This study contributes to the understanding of sexual adolescent well-being and psychological adjustment in Mexico, an understudied cultural context. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Self Reported Childhood Difficulties, Adult Multimorbidity and Allostatic Load. A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Norwegian HUNT Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margret Olafia Tomasdottir

    Full Text Available Multimorbidity receives increasing scientific attention. So does the detrimental health impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACE. Aetiological pathways from ACE to complex disease burdens are under investigation. In this context, the concept of allostatic overload is relevant, denoting the link between chronic detrimental stress, widespread biological perturbations and disease development. This study aimed to explore associations between self-reported childhood quality, biological perturbations and multimorbidity in adulthood.We included 37 612 participants, 30-69 years, from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, HUNT3 (2006-8. Twenty one chronic diseases, twelve biological parameters associated with allostatic load and four behavioural factors were analysed. Participants were categorised according to the self-reported quality of their childhood, as reflected in one question, alternatives ranging from 'very good' to 'very difficult'. The association between childhood quality, behavioural patterns, allostatic load and multimorbidity was compared between groups.Overall, 85.4% of participants reported a 'good' or 'very good' childhood; 10.6% average, 3.3% 'difficult' and 0.8% 'very difficult'. Childhood difficulties were reported more often among women, smokers, individuals with sleep problems, less physical activity and lower education. In total, 44.8% of participants with a very good childhood had multimorbidity compared to 77.1% of those with a very difficult childhood (Odds ratio: 5.08; 95% CI: 3.63-7.11. Prevalences of individual diseases also differed significantly according to childhood quality; all but two (cancer and hypertension showed a significantly higher prevalence (p<0.05 as childhood was categorised as more difficult. Eight of the 12 allostatic parameters differed significantly between childhood groups.We found a general, graded association between self-reported childhood difficulties on the one hand and multimorbidity, individual

  20. Idiopathic giant cell myocarditis in childhood: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan, Sultan; Akçan, Ramazan; Heybet, Eyup Ruşen; Cavlak, Mehmet; Pehlivan, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Idiopathic giant cell myocarditis is a rare entity of unknown origin, which causes sudden death in more than half of the affected patients. It is rarely seen in childhood, and might result in death due to heart failure and ventricular arrhythmias. Idiopathic giant cell myocarditis is mostly diagnosed at autopsy incidentally. Here we present a rare case of childhood idiopathic giant cell myocarditis. A 10-year old boy found dead in his bed in the morning. Interview with family members revealed death the boy was in good health conditions apart from being overweight. At autopsy, external examination was completely normal. Internal examination revealed normal findings; the heart was 297g and macroscopically normal. No traces of any toxic agents detected in complete toxicological analyses. Areas characterized with granulomatous lesions, lymphocytes, histiocytes, and multinucleated giant cells were observed in myocardium at histopathological examination. No necrosis was observed in granulomatous areas. Tuberculosis was negative in the PCR assays. There were no signs indicative of fungal infection, and clinical status of the case was not compatible with the sarcoidosis. In this respect death was attributed to idiopathic giant cell myocarditis.

  1. Is Sexual Victimization Gender Specific? The Prevalence of Forced Sexual Activity Among Men and Women in Denmark, and Self-Reported Well-Being Among Survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundaram, Vanita; Laursen, Bjarne; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2008-01-01

    adolescents (N = 5,829) and adults (N = 3,932) and analyze differences in self-reported health outcomes between male and female victims and corresponding controls. Gender differences are found in the reported prevalence of sexual victimization. Significantly more females than males reported forced sexual......The present study investigates the prevalence of sexual victimization and correlations between sexual victimization and indicators of poor health in two representative samples of men and women in Denmark. Specifically, the authors explore the prevalence of self-reported victimization among...... experiences in both samples. Associations between sexual victimization and poor health outcomes are found for both genders. Comparable patterns of association for men and women are found on a number of variables, particularly those pertaining to risk behavior....

  2. Sibling Sexual Fantasies in Family Therapy: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordock, John B.

    1974-01-01

    Therapist describes work with a family troubled about the behavior of a preadolescent daughter. Through the session the group is able to discuss the sexual fantasies and child-play that have occurred, and each member is better able to open up to the others. Relationships improve. (CJ)

  3. Brief Report: Sexual Attraction and Relationships in Adolescents with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Tamara; Pang, Ken C.; Williams, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    Past research suggests more variation in sexual attraction in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) using clinical samples. This study utilised a population representative group of 14/15 year olds from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Ninety-four adolescents (73 males, 21 females) with ASD and 3454 (1685 males, 1675 females) without…

  4. Sexual Dysfunction among HIV Patients: Three Case Reports and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    programmes should be reviewed to ensure inclusion of sexual health. Afr J Reprod Health 2013 ... analysis of patients from the USA and Europe ... He was counselled and advised to disclose his sero-status to his ... She had not liked the ... commitment, a need to boost self-esteem, .... A meta-analysis of studies comparing.

  5. Reports of Parental Maltreatment during Childhood in a United States Population-Based Survey of Homosexual, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, Heather L.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined childhood maltreatment among 2917 heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual adults. Homosexual/bisexual men reported higher rates than heterosexual men of childhood emotional and physical maltreatment by their mothers and major physical maltreatment by their fathers. Homosexual/bisexual women reported higher rates of major physical…

  6. Childhood abuse related to nicotine, illicit and prescription drug use by women: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Cathy L; Vanhorn, Daniel R; Wilson, Josephine F; Martorano, Lisa M; Venema, Jana M; Kennedy, Sarah M

    2008-10-01

    A sample of 811 women ages 18 to 59 (M=26.0, SD=6.5) responded to an advertisement by telephone. Inquiries were made about childhood abuse status and adult use of alcohol, nicotine, and prescription and illicit drugs. Significant associations were noted for reported sexual, physical, and emotional childhood abuse with use of nicotine, marijuana, and antidepressants in adulthood. Reported childhood physical and emotional abuses were also significantly associated with use of cocaine and anxiolytics, and sexual abuse with antipsychotic use in adulthood. Only childhood emotional abuse was associated with the use of sleeping pills. Number of types of abuse was significantly related with use of nicotine, marijuana, cocaine, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and anxiolytics. Alcohol use was not related to any type of abuse. The long-term effects of childhood emotional abuse may be just as severe as physical or sexual abuse.

  7. 2015 QuickCompass of Sexual Assult-Related Responders: Statistical Methodology Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    AND RESPONSE-RELATED RESPONDERS: STATISTICAL METHODOLOGY REPORT Defense Research , Surveys, and Statistics Center Defense Manpower Data Center...2015 QuickCompass of Sexual Assault Prevention and Response- Related Responders Statistical Methodology Report Additional copies of this report...Defense Research , Surveys, and Statistics Center (RSSC) 4800 Mark Center Drive, Suite 04E25-01, Alexandria, VA 22350-4000 ii Acknowledgments

  8. Development of a comprehensive survey of sexuality issues including a self-report version of the International Spinal Cord Injury sexual function basic data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, P W; Currie, K E

    2016-08-01

    Questionnaire development, validation and completion. Develop comprehensive survey of sexuality issues including validated self-report versions of the International Spinal Cord Injury male sexual function and female sexual and reproductive function basic data sets (SR-iSCI-sexual function). People with spinal cord damage (SCD) living in the community, Australia from August 2013 to June 2014. An iterative process involving rehabilitation medicine clinicians, a nurse specialising in sexuality issues in SCD and people with SCD who developed a comprehensive survey that included the SR-iSCI-sexual function. Participants recruitment through spinal rehabilitation review clinic and community organisations that support people with SCD. Surveys completed by 154 people. Most were male (n=101, 65.6%). Respondents' median age was 50 years (interquartile range (IQR) 38-58), and they were a median of 10 years (IQR 4-20) after the onset of SCD. Sexual problems unrelated to SCD were reported by 12 (8%) respondents, and 114 (n=75.5%) reported sexual problems because of SCD. Orgasms were much less likely (χ(2)=13.1, P=0.006) to be normal in males (n=5, 5%) compared with females (n=11, 22%). Males had significantly worse (χ(2)=26.0, P=0.001) psychogenic genital functioning (normal n=9, 9%) than females (normal n=13, 26%) and worse (χ(2)=10.8, P=0.013) reflex genital functioning. Normal ejaculation was reported in only three (3%) men. Most (n=26, 52%) women reported reduced or absent menstruation pattern since SCD. The SR-iSCI-sexual function provides a useful tool for researchers and clinicians to collect information regarding patient-reported sexual functioning after SCD and to facilitate comparative studies.

  9. Cross-Cultural Considerations in Early Childhood Special Education. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Georgia Earnest; Watkins, Ruth; Eatman, Janet; Bennett, Tess; Zhang, Chun; Tarnow, Laura Hojnar; McCollum, Jeanette; Yates, Tweety; Ostrosky, Micki; Halle, James

    From 1996-2001, the Early Childhood Research Institute on Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) has worked to support practitioners in increasing their understanding and awareness of the impact of culture and language on their interactions with children and families. This report presents four articles outlining some of the key…

  10. Early Childhood Aggression Trajectories: Associations with Teacher-Reported Problem Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildeboer, Andrea; Thijssen, Sandra; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; van der Ende, Jan; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hofman, Albert; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2015-01-01

    High and stable levels of aggression and the presence of aggressive behaviour in multiple settings according to different informants are risk factors for later problems. However, these two factors have not been investigated in early childhood. The present study investigates trajectories of parent-reported child aggression from 1.5 up to 6 years of…

  11. Mt. Druitt Early Childhood Project. Third, Fourth, and Fifth Annual Reports to Bernard Van Leer Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macquarie Univ., North Ryde (Australia). School of Education.

    This series of the third, fourth, and fifth annual reports to the Bernard Van Leer Foundation on the Mt. Druitt Early Childhood Project of Macquarie University, Australia, describes the general activities, program developments, and research activities of the project for the period 1977-1979. The main objective of the project is to develop,…

  12. Congruence in reported frequency of parent-adolescent sexual health communication: A study from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atienzo, Erika E; Ortiz-Panozo, Eduardo; Campero, Lourdes

    2015-08-01

    Most studies on parent-adolescent sexual health communication come from developed countries and are based on either parents' or children's reports. In developing countries, there is little evidence about the agreement among reports of all parties involved in parent-adolescent sexual health communication. The objective of this study is to explore the congruence (agreement) between adolescents and their parents about how frequently they discuss on selected sexual health topics. A total of 1606 parent-adolescent dyads of adolescents attending the first year in public high schools and their parents, in Morelos, Mexico were sampled in this study. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that included the frequency of parent-adolescent communication about eight sexual health topics. An ordinal logistic threshold model was used to estimate intra-class correlation coefficients within parent-adolescent dyads (as a measure of congruence) and to test if thresholds were equal between parents and adolescents. Congruence in reported frequency of parent-adolescent sexual health communication ranged from 0.205 (menstruation) to 0.307 (condoms) for mother-adolescent dyads, and from 0.103 (ejaculation) to 0.380 (condoms) for father-adolescent dyads. The thresholds (i.e., the cutoff points that define the categories in the observed ordinal variable) differed between parents and adolescents for each of the sexual health topics explored (p<0.05 for father-adolescent dyads and p<0.001 for mother-adolescent dyads). Our findings suggest a low congruence between parents' and adolescents' reports on parent-adolescent sexual health communication. This might be due to interpretation of frequency and intensity of sexual health communication which differs between parents and adolescents.

  13. Factors associated with self-reported first sexual intercourse in Scottish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Teijlingen Edwin R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is continuing concern about high pregnancy rates and increasing numbers of sexually transmitted infections being detected in Scottish adolescents. Consistent evidence about factors associated with risky sexual behaviours, including early first sexual intercourse, may help to identify adolescents at risk and help improve interventions. This study aimed to provide detailed analysis of the evidence of the associations between individual factors and early sexual intercourse using cross-sectional questionnaire data from 4,379 Scottish adolescents who participated in a sexual health intervention evaluation. Findings Multivariate secondary analysis showed that aspects of family and school life such as decreasing parental monitoring (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.24–1.70 and decreasing enjoyment of school (OR 2.55, 95% CI 2.15–3.03 were associated with reporting previous sexual intercourse. Furthermore, females were more likely to report previous sexual intercourse than males (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.14–1.91. Several factors commonly used to inform sexual health intervention design, such as socioeconomic status, self-esteem and religion, were not independently associated. Conclusion These results contribute to the evidence base for the association of several factors with early initiation of sexual activity. The findings suggest that interventions aiming to delay first intercourse may need to consider targeting aspects of individuals' connection to their school and family. Furthermore, the results do not support the need to consider socio-economic background, religion or self-esteem of the individuals in intervention design.

  14. Reported maternal postpartum depression and risk of childhood psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Meghan J; Davis, Caroline; Al-Sahab, Ban; Tamim, Hala

    2013-07-01

    Childhood emotional and behavioural disorders are prevalent, can cause significant maladaptation and often persist into adulthood. Previous literature investigating the potential influence of postpartum depression (PPD) is inconsistent. The present study examined the association between PPD and childhood behavioural/emotional outcomes, while considering a number of potentially important factors. Data were analyzed prospectively from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth at two follow-up periods (ages 2-3, N = 1,452 and ages 4-5, N = 1,357). PPD was measured using the diagnostic criteria of the DSM-IV-TR. Four behavioural/emotional outcomes were analyzed at each follow-up. For both age groups, logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between PPD and each of the behavioural and emotional outcomes adjusting for child, obstetric, environmental and socio-demographic factors. PPD was associated with the Emotional Disorder-Anxiety among 2-3 year olds [OR = 2.38, 95 % CI 1.15, 4.91]. Among 2-3 year olds, hostile/ineffective parenting was associated with Hyperactivity-Inattention [OR = 1.88, 95 % CI 1.14, 3.11] and Physical Aggression-Opposition [OR = 2.95, 95 % CI 1.77, 4.92]. Among 4-5 year olds, hostile/ineffective parenting was associated with Hyperactivity-Inattention [OR = 2.34, 95 % CI 1.22, 4.47], Emotional Disorder-Anxiety [OR = 2.16, 95 % CI 1.00, 4.67], Physical Aggression-Conduct Disorder [OR = 1.96, 95 % CI 1.09, 3.53] and Indirect Aggression [OR = 1.87, 95 % CI 1.09, 3.21]. The findings of the present study do not suggest that PPD is independently associated with any enduring sequelae in the realm of child behavioural/emotional psychology, though the symptoms of PPD may be giving way to other important mediating factors such as parenting style.

  15. On the Relationship Between Automatic Attitudes and Self-Reported Sexual Assault in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Laura; Olson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Research and theory suggest rape supportive attitudes are important predictors of sexual assault; yet, to date, rape supportive attitudes have been assessed exclusively through self-report measures that are methodologically and theoretically limited. To address these limitations, the objectives of the current project were to: (1) develop a novel implicit rape attitude assessment that captures automatic attitudes about rape and does not rely on self-reports, and (2) examine the association between automatic rape attitudes and sexual assault perpetration. We predicted that automatic rape attitudes would be a significant unique predictor of sexual assault even when self-reported rape attitudes (i.e., rape myth acceptance and hostility toward women) were controlled. We tested the generalizability of this prediction in two independent samples: a sample of undergraduate college men (n = 75, M age = 19.3 years) and a sample of men from the community (n = 50, M age = 35.9 years). We found the novel implicit rape attitude assessment was significantly associated with the frequency of sexual assault perpetration in both samples and contributed unique variance in explaining sexual assault beyond rape myth acceptance and hostility toward women. We discuss the ways in which future research on automatic rape attitudes may significantly advance measurement and theory aimed at understanding and preventing sexual assault. PMID:22618119

  16. Retrospective Reports of Childhood Misfortune Are Associated With Positive and Negative Affect in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turiano, Nicholas A; Silva, Nicole M; McDonald, Courtney; Hill, Patrick L

    2017-01-01

    Childhood misfortune refers to nonnormative experiences individuals encounter at younger ages that affect development across the life span. This study examined whether retrospectively reported childhood misfortune was associated with negative and positive affect in adulthood. In addition, we explored whether perceived control beliefs would moderate these associations. We used archival data from 6,067 adults ( Mage = 46.86; range = 20-75) from the Midlife Development in the United States study. Higher levels of misfortune were associated with higher levels of negative affect and lower levels of positive affect in adulthood. However, control beliefs moderated this association such that the combination of higher perceived control and misfortune resulted in less of a decrease in positive affect and less of an increase in negative affect. Overall, early life events were associated with later life emotional health, and control beliefs were an important psychological resource that buffered the negative effects of childhood misfortune.

  17. Reported maltreatment in childhood in relation to the personality features of Norwegian adult psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, Gunilla Klensmeden; Holen, Are

    2007-01-01

    To explore long-term associations between maltreatment in childhood and personality features in adulthood, 160 consecutive adult psychiatric outpatients completed self-administered questionnaires. Maltreatment was defined as either child abuse or neglect exerted by parents or other adults, coldness and overprotection by parents, or bullying by peers. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to detect childhood abuse by parents or other adults, while dimensions of parental coldness and overprotection were captured by the Parental Bonding Instrument. Bullying by peers was measured by an inventory used in schools. Personality variables were covered by the 5-PFa related to the "Big Five," The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Locus of Control of Behavior. Reports of bullying by peers were linked to poor self-esteem and external locus of control. Child maltreatment by parents or other adults were linked to the Big Five personality dimensions; bullying by peers was not.

  18. Witnessing Domestic Abuse in Childhood as an Independent Risk Factor for Depressive Symptoms in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, David; Springer, Kristen W.; Greenfield, Emily A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study addresses the relationship between retrospective reports of witnessing domestic abuse in childhood and levels of depressive symptoms in young adulthood. We examine whether the association between having witnessed violence in childhood and depression is independent of having been the direct target of sexual and/or physical…

  19. [Sexual and reproductive health and the economic crisis in Spain. SESPAS report 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrañaga, Isabel; Martín, Unai; Bacigalupe, Amaia

    2014-06-01

    Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is protected by the public authorities to ensure that people enjoy a free, satisfying, and safe sexual life. Despite the approval of the National Sexual and Reproductive Health Strategy in 2011, the progress achieved may be jeopardized by recent proposals for legislative changes affecting this area (abortion Law and 16/2012 Law) and by the impact of the current economic crisis. This article aims to describe the current situation of sexual and reproductive health in the Spanish population and to identify the potential impact of the economic crisis. To this end, we used the following information sources: the National Sexual Health Survey, the DAPHNE surveys, births and fetal deaths statistics from the Spanish National Institute of Statistics, the Registry of Voluntary Pregnancy Interruptions, reports from the National Epidemiology Center, and the National AIDS Registry. Sexual health and the availability of information are rated as good by the Spanish population. Among young people, schools and health services have become less important as information sources and the internet has become more important. Since the beginning of the crisis, contraceptive use and fertility have declined and maternity has been delayed. The economic crisis seems to have affected some indicators of sexual and reproductive health. However, the potential effects on other indicators should continue to be monitored because insufficient time may have passed for accurate determination of the full effect of the crisis. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Sexual Abuse and Sexual Functioning in a Chronic Pelvic Pain Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Mary E.; Reddy, Diane M.

    2006-01-01

    Sexual abuse, particularly childhood sexual abuse, has been linked to chronic pelvic pain and to sexual dysfunction, though the sexual functioning of survivors of sexual abuse has not been studied in a chronic pain population. Sixty-three women with chronic pelvic pain completed measures of sexual function, sexual abuse, and pain. Using an index…

  1. Sexual Abuse and Sexual Functioning in a Chronic Pelvic Pain Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Mary E.; Reddy, Diane M.

    2006-01-01

    Sexual abuse, particularly childhood sexual abuse, has been linked to chronic pelvic pain and to sexual dysfunction, though the sexual functioning of survivors of sexual abuse has not been studied in a chronic pain population. Sixty-three women with chronic pelvic pain completed measures of sexual function, sexual abuse, and pain. Using an index…

  2. Tipos e consequências da violência sexual sofrida por estudantes do interior paulista na infância e/ou adolescência Types and consequences of sexual abuse occurred in childhood and/or adolescence among students of the countryside of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Silva Teixeira-Filho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Discutem-se os tipos de Violência Sexual (VS sofridos na infância e/ou adolescência e suas vicissitudes, nas trajetórias sexuais de 236 adolescentes, de ambos os sexos, cursando o Ensino Médio no interior do Oeste Paulista que declararam ter sofrido um ou mais tipos de violência sexual. Dentre esses tipos, destacamos a Violência Doméstica Sexual (VDS, aqui definida como intrafamiliar. Nesse caso, observamos que, dentre os 236 adolescentes com histórico de VDS, 94 (39.8% declararam ter pensado em suicídio e 39 (16.5% disseram ter tentado, sendo que 35 (89.7% deles se declararam heterossexuais (27 [77.1%] do sexo feminino e 4 não-heterossexuais (3 bissexuais e 1 "outro", sendo todos do sexo feminino. A maioria das vítimas finda por relatar o ocorrido aos amigos e responsáveis, mas pouco ou nada é feito, em termos de medidas protetivas a elas.This paper aims to discuss the types of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA occurred in childhood and/or adolescence and their consequences in a sample of 236 high school students of both sexes living in the countryside of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, who declared to have suffered one or more types of CSA. We observed that among the 234 adolescents with report of SV, 39 (16.5% declared to have attempted suicide, being 35 (89.7% of them auto declared heterosexual (27 [77.1%] female and 4 (19.0% non-heterosexual (3 bisexuals and 1 "other"; all female. Most of the victims reported the event to their friends and adults in charge, but little (or nothing was done in terms of protective measures to them.

  3. Sexual Victimization, Alcohol Intoxication, Sexual-Emotional Responding, and Sexual Risk in Heavy Episodic Drinking Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N. Tatiana; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Gilmore, Amanda K.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.; Otto, Jacqueline M.; Andrasik, Michele P.

    2013-01-01

    This study used an experimental paradigm to investigate the roles of sexual victimization history and alcohol intoxication in young women’s sexual-emotional responding and sexual risk taking. A nonclinical community sample of 436 young women, with both an instance of heavy episodic drinking and some HIV/STI risk exposure in the past year, completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) measures. A majority of them reported CSA and/or ASA, including rape and attempted rape. After random assignment to a high alcohol dose (.10%) or control condition, participants read and projected themselves into an eroticized scenario of a sexual encounter involving a new partner. As the story protagonist, each participant rated her positive mood and her sexual arousal, sensation, and desire, and then indicated her likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that ASA and alcohol were directly associated with heightened risk taking, and alcohol’s effects were partially mediated by positive mood and sexual desire. ASA was associated with attenuated sexual-emotional responding and resulted in diminished risk taking via this suppression. These are the first findings indicating that, compared to non-victimized counterparts, sexually victimized women respond differently in alcohol-involved sexual encounters in terms of sexual-emotional responding and risk-taking intentions. Implications include assessing victimization history and drinking among women seeking treatment for either concern, particularly women at risk for HIV, and alerting them to ways their histories and behavior may combine to exacerbate their sexual risks. PMID:23857517

  4. Missing data in substance abuse research? Researchers’ reporting practices of sexual orientation and gender identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacca, Cristina L.; Cochran, Bryan N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals are at higher risk for substance use and substance use disorders than heterosexual individuals and are more likely to seek substance use treatment, yet sexual orientation and gender identity are frequently not reported in the research literature. The purpose of this study was to identify if sexual orientation and gender identity are being reported in the recent substance use literature, and if this has changed over time. Method The PsycINFO and PubMed databases were searched for articles released in 2007 and 2012 using the term “substance abuse” and 200 articles were randomly selected from each time period and database. Articles were coded for the presence or absence of sexual orientation and gender identity information. Results Participants’ sexual orientation was reported in 3.0% and 4.9% of the 2007 and 2.3% and 6.5% of the 2012 sample, in PsycINFO and PubMed sample articles, respectively, while non-binary gender identity was reported in 0% and 1.0% of the 2007 sample and 2.3% and 1.9% of the 2012 PsycINFO and PubMed sample articles. There were no differences in rates of reporting over time. Conclusions Sexual orientation and gender identity are rarely reported in the substance abuse literature, and there has not been a change in reporting practices between 2007 and 2012. Recommendations for future investigators in reporting sexual orientation and gender identity are included. PMID:25496705

  5. Missing data in substance abuse research? Researchers' reporting practices of sexual orientation and gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flentje, Annesa; Bacca, Cristina L; Cochran, Bryan N

    2015-02-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals are at higher risk for substance use and substance use disorders than heterosexual individuals and are more likely to seek substance use treatment, yet sexual orientation and gender identity are frequently not reported in the research literature. The purpose of this study was to identify if sexual orientation and gender identity are being reported in the recent substance use literature, and if this has changed over time. The PsycINFO and PubMed databases were searched for articles released in 2007 and 2012 using the term "substance abuse" and 200 articles were randomly selected from each time period and database. Articles were coded for the presence or absence of sexual orientation and gender identity information. Participants' sexual orientation was reported in 3.0% and 4.9% of the 2007 and 2.3% and 6.5% of the 2012 sample, in PsycINFO and PubMed sample articles, respectively, while non-binary gender identity was reported in 0% and 1.0% of the 2007 sample and 2.3% and 1.9% of the 2012 PsycINFO and PubMed sample articles. There were no differences in rates of reporting over time. Sexual orientation and gender identity are rarely reported in the substance abuse literature, and there has not been a change in reporting practices between 2007 and 2012. Recommendations for future investigators in reporting sexual orientation and gender identity are included. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sexuality in adolescent boys with autism spectrum disorder: self-reported behaviours and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-03-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15-18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group of 90 boys. Results demonstrated substantial similarity between the groups in terms of sexual behaviours. The only significant difference was that boys with ASD reacted more tolerant towards homosexuality compared to the control group. Results reveal that sexuality is a normative part of adolescent development in high-functioning boys with ASD. Hence, attention should be given to this topic in education and mental health care.

  7. Is Internet Pornography Causing Sexual Dysfunctions? A Review with Clinical Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Brian Y.; Wilson, Gary; Berger, Jonathan; Christman, Matthew; Reina, Bryn; Bishop, Frank; Klam, Warren P.; Doan, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional factors that once explained men’s sexual difficulties appear insufficient to account for the sharp rise in erectile dysfunction, delayed ejaculation, decreased sexual satisfaction, and diminished libido during partnered sex in men under 40. This review (1) considers data from multiple domains, e.g., clinical, biological (addiction/urology), psychological (sexual conditioning), sociological; and (2) presents a series of clinical reports, all with the aim of proposing a possible direction for future research of this phenomenon. Alterations to the brain's motivational system are explored as a possible etiology underlying pornography-related sexual dysfunctions. This review also considers evidence that Internet pornography’s unique properties (limitless novelty, potential for easy escalation to more extreme material, video format, etc.) may be potent enough to condition sexual arousal to aspects of Internet pornography use that do not readily transition to real-life partners, such that sex with desired partners may not register as meeting expectations and arousal declines. Clinical reports suggest that terminating Internet pornography use is sometimes sufficient to reverse negative effects, underscoring the need for extensive investigation using methodologies that have subjects remove the variable of Internet pornography use. In the interim, a simple diagnostic protocol for assessing patients with porn-induced sexual dysfunction is put forth. PMID:27527226

  8. Is Internet Pornography Causing Sexual Dysfunctions? A Review with Clinical Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Brian Y; Wilson, Gary; Berger, Jonathan; Christman, Matthew; Reina, Bryn; Bishop, Frank; Klam, Warren P; Doan, Andrew P

    2016-08-05

    Traditional factors that once explained men's sexual difficulties appear insufficient to account for the sharp rise in erectile dysfunction, delayed ejaculation, decreased sexual satisfaction, and diminished libido during partnered sex in men under 40. This review (1) considers data from multiple domains, e.g., clinical, biological (addiction/urology), psychological (sexual conditioning), sociological; and (2) presents a series of clinical reports, all with the aim of proposing a possible direction for future research of this phenomenon. Alterations to the brain's motivational system are explored as a possible etiology underlying pornography-related sexual dysfunctions. This review also considers evidence that Internet pornography's unique properties (limitless novelty, potential for easy escalation to more extreme material, video format, etc.) may be potent enough to condition sexual arousal to aspects of Internet pornography use that do not readily transition to real-life partners, such that sex with desired partners may not register as meeting expectations and arousal declines. Clinical reports suggest that terminating Internet pornography use is sometimes sufficient to reverse negative effects, underscoring the need for extensive investigation using methodologies that have subjects remove the variable of Internet pornography use. In the interim, a simple diagnostic protocol for assessing patients with porn-induced sexual dysfunction is put forth.

  9. The Risk of Cataract among Survivors of Childhood and Adolescent Cancer: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodick, Gabriel; Sigurdson, Alice J; Kleinerman, Ruth A; Sklar, Charles A; Leisenring, Wendy; Mertens, Ann C; Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan A; Weathers, Rita E; Veiga, Lene H S; Robison, Leslie L; Inskip, Peter D

    2016-04-01

    With therapeutic successes and improved survival after a cancer diagnosis in childhood, increasing numbers of cancer survivors are at risk of subsequent treatment-related morbidities, including cataracts. While it is well known that the lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the human body, the risks associated with radiation doses less than 2 Gy are less understood, as are the long- and short-term cataract risks from exposure to ionizing radiation at a young age. In this study, we followed 13,902 five-year survivors of childhood cancer in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort an average of 21.4 years from the date of first cancer diagnosis. For patients receiving radiotherapy, lens dose (mean: 2.2 Gy; range: 0-66 Gy) was estimated based on radiotherapy records. We used unconditional multivariable logistic regression models to evaluate prevalence of self-reported cataract in relationship to cumulative radiation dose both at five years after the initial cancer diagnosis and at the end of follow-up. We modeled the radiation effect in terms of the excess odds ratio (EOR) per Gy. We also analyzed cataract incidence starting from five years after initial cancer diagnosis to the end of follow-up using Cox regression. A total of 483 (3.5%) cataract cases were identified, including 200 (1.4%) diagnosed during the first five years of follow-up. In a multivariable logistic regression model, cataract prevalence at the end of follow-up was positively associated with lens dose in a manner consistent with a linear dose-response relationship (EOR per Gy = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.65-1.20). The odds ratio for doses between 0.5 and 1.5 Gy was elevated significantly relative to doses <0.5 Gy (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.7). The results from this study indicate a strong association between ocular exposure to ionizing radiation and long-term risk of pre-senile cataract. The risk of cataract increased with increasing exposure, beginning at lens doses as low as 0.5 Gy. Our

  10. Police Interviews with Child Sexual Abuse Victims: Patterns of Reporting, Avoidance and Denial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leander, Lina

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated 27 sexually abused children's reports about abuse given in the context of police interviews. All abuse cases had been verified (with, e.g., photographs or video films), proving that abuse had occurred. Method: The interviews with the children were analyzed regarding amount and type of information reported,…

  11. The role of childhood traumatization in the development of borderline personality disorder in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Merza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: There is a growing body of evidence suggesting the role of childhood abuse in the etiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD. Studies found that complex traumatization related to BPD include emotional/physical/sexual abuse and neglect. This study examines self-reported experiences of childhood traumatization in Hungarian inpatients with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder and reveal which etiological factors are most strongly associated with the development of BPD. Methods: Traumatic childhood experiences of 80 borderline inpatients, 73 depressed inpatients and 51 healthy controls were assessed with the Traumatic Antecedents Questionnaire and the Sexual Abuse Scale of Early Trauma Inventory. Results: Adverse childhood experiences (neglect, emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, witnessing trauma were more prevalent among borderline patients than among depressed and healthy controls. Borderline patients reported severe sexual abuse, characterized by incest, penetration and repetitive abuse. Sexually abused borderline patients experienced more physical and emotional abuse than borderlines who were not sexually abused. The strongest predictors of borderline diagnosis were sexual abuse, intrafamilial physical abuse and neglect by the caretakers. Conclusions: Overall, our results suggest that a reported childhood history of abuse and neglect are both common and highly discriminating for borderline patients in Hungary as well.

  12. The "Wall of Fear": The Bridge between the Traumatic Event and Trauma Resolution Therapy for Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Sheri

    2005-01-01

    A multitude of published books and papers on child sexual abuse (CSA) describe symptoms, long-term effects, and therapy for survivors of abuse. However, the parallels between the nature of the sexual trauma event(s) as originally experienced by the victim and the therapeutic process into which the survivor later becomes engaged have not been…

  13. The Other Side of Rapport: Data Collection Mode and Interviewer Gender Effects on Sexual Health Reporting in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agula, Justina; Barrett, Jennifer B; Tobi, Hilde

    2015-09-01

    Accurate data on young people's sexual behaviour and sexual health practice is essential to inform effective interventions and policy. However, little empirical evidence exists to support methodological design decisions in projects assessing young people's sexual health, especially in African contexts. This short report uses original empirical data collected in Ghana in 2012 to assess the effects of data collection mode and interviewer gender on young people's reporting of sexual health and access to supportive sexual health resources. The findings indicate that the effect of data collection mode may vary by gender, and there is no indication of an interviewer gender effect for males in this study. Preliminary results suggest that building strong rapport with research participants in this context may lead to reduced sexual health data quality. These findings merit further investigation and have direct implications for the design of projects measuring sexual health and related variables in Ghana.

  14. Adolescent boys with autism spectrum disorder growing up: follow-up of self-reported sexual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewinter, J; Vermeiren, R; Vanwesenbeeck, I; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch

    2016-09-01

    Systematic research on sexual development in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remains scant, notwithstanding the often-suggested relation between ASD, atypical, and even sexually offensive behaviours. This study compared follow-up data related to lifetime sexual experience (LTSE) in a homogeneous group of adolescent boys with ASD (n = 30), aged 16-20, with a matched group of boys in the general population (n = 60). Most boys in the ASD and control groups reported masturbation and having experienced an orgasm. The proportion of boys with ASD that had no partnered sexual experience was larger than in the control group. This difference was mostly explained by significantly fewer boys with ASD, compared with controls, who reported experience with kissing and petting; no significant differences emerged relating to more intimate partnered sexual experiences. The results suggest the existence of a subgroup of boys who have not (yet) entered the arena of partnered sexual experiences-a finding in line with research in adult samples. There were no differences relating to sexual abuse or coercion. Exploration of the partnered experiences revealed a variety of types of partners, mostly of comparable age. Several boys with ASD had not anticipated their sexual debut. Although they felt ready for it, some boys reported regret afterward. The hypothesised sexual developmental trajectories are subject to further research, but the sexual experience in this sample and the assumed developmental differences indicate the need for early, attuned, and comprehensive sexuality-related education and communication.

  15. Predicting discordance between self-reports of sexual behavior and incident sexually transmitted infections with African American female adolescents: results from a 4-city study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer L; Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Salazar, Laura F; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Brown, Larry K; Romer, Daniel; Valois, Robert F; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-08-01

    This study examined correlates of the discordance between sexual behavior self-reports and Incident Sexually Transmitted Infections. African American adolescent females (N = 964) from four U.S. cities were recruited for an HIV/STI prevention trial. Self-reported sexual behaviors, demographics, and hypothesized psychosocial antecedents of sexual risk behavior were collected at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up assessments. Urine specimens were collected and tested for three prevalent STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas) at each assessment. Seventeen percent of participants with a laboratory-confirmed STI reported either lifetime abstinence or recent abstinence from vaginal sex (discordant self-report). Lower STI knowledge, belief that fewer peers were engaging in sex, and belief that more peers will wait until marriage to have sex were associated with discordant reports. Discordance between self-reported abstinence and incident STIs was marked among African American female adolescents. Lack of STI knowledge and sexual behavior peer norms may result in underreporting of sexual behaviors.

  16. Sexual Victimization and Subsequent Police Reporting by Gender Identity Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenderfer-Magruder, Lisa; Walls, N Eugene; Kattari, Shanna K; Whitfield, Darren L; Ramos, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Prevalence of sexual victimization among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) persons is frequently found to be higher than the prevalence reported by their heterosexual peers. Transgender individuals are often included solely as part of larger LGBTQ research samples, potentially obfuscating differences between sexual orientation and gender identity. In this study, the authors examined sexual assault/rape in a large convenience sample of LGBTQ adults (N = 1,124) by respondents' gender identity (cisgender, transgender) to determine whether differences exist in lifetime prevalence of sexual assault/rape and subsequent police reporting. Findings indicate transgender individuals report having experienced sexual assault/rape more than twice as frequently as cisgender LGBQ individuals. Authors found no statistically significant difference in reporting sexual violence to police. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  17. Freud on Sexual Trauma: An Historical Review of Seduction and Betrayal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, Elaine

    1986-01-01

    An historical review of the development and rejection of Freud's seduction theory. Freud's interpretation of seduction as real sexual acts gave way to his conclusion that his patients' reports derived from fantasy, though his view of the significance of childhood sexual trauma in the etiology of neurosis remained steady. Examines the relationship…

  18. Sexual Assault History and Suicidal Behavior in a National Sample of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Brecklin, Leanne R.

    2002-01-01

    A national sample of women (N=627) with histories of sexual assault in both childhood and adulthood reported significantly greater odds of lifetime suicide attempts. As predicted, younger age, stressful events, depression, and alcohol dependency were all associated with suicide ideation. Discusses role of sexual trauma and other psychological…

  19. Freud on Sexual Trauma: An Historical Review of Seduction and Betrayal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, Elaine

    1986-01-01

    An historical review of the development and rejection of Freud's seduction theory. Freud's interpretation of seduction as real sexual acts gave way to his conclusion that his patients' reports derived from fantasy, though his view of the significance of childhood sexual trauma in the etiology of neurosis remained steady. Examines the relationship…

  20. Factores del abuso sexual en la niñez y la adolescencia en estudiantes de Morelos, México Fatores de abuso sexual na infância e adolescência de estudantes de Morelos, México Factors for sexual abuse during childhood and adolescence in students of Morelos, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Chavez Ayala

    2009-06-01

    de estudantes do estado de Morelos, México, entre 2004 e 2005. Os participantes (n=1730 pertencem a uma coorte de 13.293 estudantes de 12 a 24 anos. Os dados foram coletados por meio de questionário formado por partes de escalas validadas. As variáveis analisadas foram: fatores sociodemográficos (sexo, zona de residência, nível socioeconômico; familiares (educação dos pais, vícios dos pai, violência entre pais; psicológicos individuais (autoestima- Inventario de Autoestima de Coopersmith, depressão, consumo de álcool; violência intrafamiliar (Escala de Strauss; e abuso sexual. As variáveis dependentes analisadas foram a intenção e o abuso sexual consumado. Os fatores associados foram analisados por meio de regressão logística múltipla, com odds ratios e respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança (IC 95%. RESULTADOS: Do total, 4,7% (n=80 dos alunos reportaram terem sofrido intenção de abuso e 2,9% foram vítimas de abuso sexual consumado. As mulheres relataram maior prevalência de intenção (6,1%. Foram abusados sexualmente 3,6% das mulheres e 1,9% dos homens. O principal agressor das mulheres foi o namorado e dos homens, uma pessoa desconhecida. A idade do abuso foi de 12,02 anos para mulheres e 11,71 para os homens. Os fatores associados ao abuso foi o maior consumo de álcool pelos pais (RM = 3.37; IC 95% 1.40;8.07; violência contra a mãe (OR=4.49; IC 95%1.54;13.10; ser mulher (OR= 2.47; IC 95%1.17;5.24; ser vítima de violência intrafamiliar alta (OR=3.58; IC 95%1.32;9.67. Autoestima alta foi um fator protetor (RM=0.27; IC 95% 0.09;0.75. CONCLUSÕES: A média de idade do abuso sexual foi de 12 anos em ambos os sexos, sendo mais freqüente entre as do sexo feminino. A maioria das vítimas não denuncia o abuso.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence. METHODS: Study conducted in a sample of students in the state of Morelos, Mexico, in 2004-2005. Participants (n=1730 were

  1. The Levels of Cortisol, Oxidative Stress, and DNA Damage in the Victims of Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek, Şeref; Kaplan, İbrahim; Uysal, Cem; Yüksel, Tuğba; Alaca, Rümeysa

    2016-01-01

    In this study we aimed to investigate serum cortisol, oxidative stress, and DNA damage in children who are sexual abuse victims. The study included 38 children who sustained child sexual abuse and 38 age- and gender-matched children who did not have a history of trauma. Cortisol levels reflecting the status of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, anti-oxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, natural anti-oxidant coenzyme Q, and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine as the indicator of DNA damage were analyzed in serum samples using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. Cortisol levels were significantly higher in the child sexual abuse group compared to the control group. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of oxidative stress and DNA damage. Cortisol and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels decreased as the time elapsed since the sexual abuse increased. Coenzyme Q level was lower in victims who sustained multiple assaults than in the victims of a single assault. Cortisol and superoxide dismutase levels were lower in the victims of familial sexual abuse. Decreases in cortisol and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels as time elapsed may be an adaptation to the toxic effects of high cortisol levels over a prolonged period of time. Child sexual abuse did not result in oxidative stress and DNA damage; however, some features of sexual abuse raised the level of oxidative stress.

  2. Household reporting of childhood respiratory health and air pollution in rural Alaska Native communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desirae N. Ware

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air pollution is an important contributor to respiratory disease in children. Objective: To examine associations between household reporting of childhood respiratory conditions and household characteristics related to air pollution in Alaska Native communities. Design: In-home surveys were administered in 2 rural regions of Alaska. The 12-month prevalence of respiratory conditions was summarized by region and age. Odds ratios (ORs were calculated to describe associations between respiratory health and household and air quality characteristics. Results: Household-reported respiratory health data were collected for 561 children in 328 households. In 1 region, 33.6% of children aged <5 years had a recent history of pneumonia and/or bronchitis. Children with these conditions were 2 times more likely to live in a wood-heated home, but these findings were imprecise. Resident concern with mould was associated with elevated prevalence of respiratory infections in children (ORs 1.6–2.5, while reported wheezing was associated with 1 or more smokers living in the household. Reported asthma in 1 region (7.6% was lower than national prevalence estimates. Conclusions: Findings suggest that there may be preventable exposures, including wood smoke and mould that affect childhood respiratory disease in these rural areas. Additional research is needed to quantify particulate matter 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter or less and mould exposures in these communities, and to objectively evaluate childhood respiratory health.

  3. Childhood inattention and hyperactivity symptoms self-reported by adults with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Pekka; Lindberg, Nina; Appelberg, Bjorn; Nieminen-von Wendt, Taina; von Wendt, Lennart; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja

    2006-01-01

    Increasing public awareness of the adult manifestations of developmental neuropsychiatric disorders, like Asperger syndrome and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), has provoked an increasing number of persons to seek assessment for the first time in adulthood. As these disorders have their origin in childhood, instruments for retrospective evaluation of childhood behavior are needed. In this preliminary study, 20 adults with Asperger syndrome filled in the Wender-Utah Rating Scale for ADHD to describe retrospectively their childhood behavior. Fourteen out of 20 adults with Asperger syndrome self-rated above the cut-off limit for ADHD. The median total score was also higher than that reported in normal populations in previous studies. When compared with 10 controls, patients with Asperger syndrome scored higher in almost all individual items. A high score on the Wender-Utah rating Scale for ADHD in this patient group might be a sign of true comorbidity with ADHD, an indication of overlapping features typical of both disorders, or a result of other psychiatric comorbidity originating already in childhood. Moreover, there are no data about the proper cut-off limit for ADHD in these subjects. Therefore, one should be cautious when applying this scale beyond its original context of comparison between adults with ADHD, unipolar depression and healthy controls.

  4. Preservice teachers' sources of information on mandatory reporting of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D G; Grimbeek, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Teachers in many countries are mandated by law, professional codes, or education authorities to report child abuse and neglect, including child sexual abuse. However, teachers may not receive adequate preparation for such sensitive interventions, as preservice teacher education degrees provide very few or no compulsory courses on child protection and crucially related, lifelong health and well-being issues. So, where do preservice teachers source their information regarding the mandatory reporting of such abuse? This research examines preservice teachers' professional university education for their sources of information about mandatory reporting and child sexual abuse. A sample cohort of 56 final 4th-year university bachelor of education (primary school) student teachers in Australia identified the sources they used regarding 10 important aspects of child protection. The results suggest that most did not learn about mandatory reporting or child sexual abuse, and others cited sparse and sporadic public media as their primary information source. These findings, building on previous evidence about inadequate or nonexistent preservice mandatory intervention courses in primary teacher education, may guide the design of appropriate training responses enhancing educational professionals' knowledge, competencies, skills, and efficacies as mandatory reporters of child sexual abuse.

  5. Early Prevention Toward Sexual Abuse on Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Paramastri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a worldwide problem. Although most studies on the longterm consequences of child sexual abuse have focused on women, sexual abuse of both boys and girls is common. Peer sexual abuse in schools was an often overlooked problem that contributes to a hostile school environment: one major study found that 85% of girls and 76% of boys reported experiencing some form of sexual abuse in school. 85% of child sexual abuse is committed by relatives, close family friend or an adult that the child knows and trusts. The childhood sexual abuse variables taken into account are commonly age of onset, duration, abuse forms and relationship between the child and the perpetrator. The objective of this study was to gather information or opinion about sexual abuse concept, methods and media of the elementary students, parents, teachers and experts. A qualitative study, involving one to one interviews, was conducted with 7 experts, focus group discussion with 40 elementary students, and with 40 parents in Yogyakarta district about child sexual abuse issues. Data were analysed according to Miles and Huberman’s data reduction, data display and conclusion verification process. These findings strongly indicate that boys and girls are vulnerable to this form of childhood sexual abuse ; the similarity in the likelihood for multiple behavioral, mental and social outcomes among men and women suggest the need to identify and treat all adults affected by child sexual abuse. Themes related to the child sexual abuse were: paperwork design, good facilitator, guidelines for students, parents and teachers. Students prefer media that can help them understand concept with komik paperwork as media for early prevention. Parents, teachers and experts prefer that this prevention program can run as soon. With careful paperwork design and evaluation of prevention program, the success of program implementation can be enhanced.

  6. Child sexual abuse and mandatory reporting intervention preservice content preferred by student teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D G; Grimbeek, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The importance of preservice university teacher training about child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting intervention is addressed in educational literature, although very little is known about student teachers' learning interests and preferences in this area. In this article, student teachers refer to students in university who are training to become teachers whose training includes teaching experiences in schools. This study examines the content about child sexual abuse and its intervention that student teachers believe they should learn. Results based on quantitative analyses show the relative importance of gender in determining responses to questions about university training and, to a lesser extent, the importance of a previous acquaintance with victims of sexual abuse, previous employment, and the length of the university course. Results based on qualitative data show that content knowledge preferred by elementary/primary and secondary school student teachers includes the teacher's role in mandatory reporting of child sexual abuse and signs, experiences, and responses to student disclosure. Student teachers prefer content examples of school professionals' responses and procedures after disclosure and prefer direct learning content from intervening school professionals. These outcomes could usefully guide teachers and educators who design intervention curricula on child sexual abuse for preservice teachers.

  7. Castleman's disease in childhood: report of three cases and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrieri Patrizia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Castleman's disease (CD is a rare, localized or generalized, lymphoproliferative disorder with a frequent mediastinal location, but possible in any lymph node or extra nodal site. It usually appears in young adults whilst it rarely occurs in childhood. There are only about 100 pediatric cases published, five of them in Italy. We report 3 cases of localized Castleman's disease, investigated in our Department in a 3 years period and reviewed the literature.

  8. Childhood Oral Lichen Planus: Report of Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sageena; John, Sheen Ann; Anandaraj, S; Issac, Jyoti Sumi; Harris, Anoop; Reshmi, J

    2015-05-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic mucocutaneous disease widely recognized in adults, but uncommon in children. The purpose of this paper is to report two cases of LP in children. The diagnosis was made based on clinical and histopathological findings. The treatment consisted of antifungal and multivitamin therapy. Regression of lesions was observed. The patients are still under follow-up. Although LP is uncommon in children, it is necessary to have adequate knowledge about this condition for proper diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Sleep paralysis and recovered memories of sexual abuse: comment on McNally and Clancy (2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrast, Mark

    2006-01-01

    McNally and Clancy [McNally, R. J., & Clancy, S. A. (2005). Sleep paralysis in adults reporting repressed, recovered, or continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 19, 595-602.] conducted a study on sleep paralysis among adults reporting either repressed, recovered, or continuous memories of sexual abuse. I suggest that the study be replicated with a larger number of recovered memory subjects (those who believe that they have recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse) who experienced sleep paralysis, using more neutral wording in order to identify the phenomenon of sleep paralysis.

  10. Psychopathia sexualis: sexuality in old and new psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breger, Louis

    2014-02-01

    The different conceptions of sexuality in classical and contemporary psychoanalysis are explored. Freud's misguided theories of sexual or libidinal drives and the Oedipus complex are shown to be defenses against his own traumatic attachment history. The evidence for this is found in a review of his childhood and self-analysis, and further illustrated with the cases reported in the Studies on Hysteria and elsewhere. Modern views of sex turn these old theories on their heads, demonstrating that sexual fantasies and actions are phenomena, unique to each individual, that are themselves in need of explanation. These radically different conceptions of sexuality are illustrated with 3 case histories.

  11. Convivendo com a diversidade sexual: relato de experiência Conviviendo con la diversidad sexual: relato de experiencia Living with sexual diversity: experience report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elma Mathias Dessunti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa relatar a experiência de alunos e docentes do curso de Graduação em Enfermagem da Universidade Estadual de Londrina junto a uma Organização da Sociedade Civil (OSC, que atua com travestis e garotos de programa. Inicialmente, alunos e docentes permaneciam diariamente na OSC visando o atendimento de necessidades imediatas e semanalmente realizando palestras. Atualmente vêm sendo realizadas oficinas semanais sobre diversidade sexual ministradas pelas travestis aos alunos e docentes. Num segundo momento, as oficinas são ministradas por alunos e docentes abordando temas selecionados previamente pelas travestis. Considera-se esta experiência enriquecedora contribuindo para o crescimento pessoal e profissional de docentes e alunos, assim como para a melhoria da qualidade da assistência e qualidade de vida das travestis.Este trabajo tiene por objetivo relatar la experiência de alumnos y docentes del curso de Graduación de Enfermería de la Universidad Estadual de Londrina junto a una Organización de la Sociedad Civil (OSC, que atua con travestis y " muchachos de programa" . Inicialmente, alumnos y docentes permanecían diariamente en la OSC con la finalidad de ofrecer atención a las necesidades inmediatas y semanalmente para dictar conferencias. Actualmente se están realizando talleres semanales sobre diversidad sexual a cargo de las travestis para los alumnos y docentes. Posteriormente serán alumnos y docentes que abordarán temas seleccionados previamente por las travestis. Esta experiência se há considerado enriquecedora porque há contribuído para el crecimiento personal y profesional de docentes y alumnos, así como para la mejoría de la calidad de la asistencia y calidad de vida de las travestis.This study reports the experience of undergraduate students and faculty from the School of Nursing - Londrina State University, in a Civil Society Organization (CSO that works with transvestites and men who provide

  12. Sources of Knowledge of Departmental Policy on Child Sexual Abuse and Mandatory Reporting Identified by Primary School Student-Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Grimbeek, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of a Department of Education policy on child sexual abuse and mandatory reporting is significant for school teachers. The mandatory reporting of child sexual abuse by school teachers carries wide-ranging and significant implications for the lives of school-aged children, and for the teachers who must implement the policy's…

  13. Childhood Oral Lichen Planus: Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sageena George

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lichen planus (LP is a chronic mucocutaneous disease widely recognized in adults, but uncommon in children. The purpose of this paper is to report two cases of LP in children. The diagnosis was made based on clinical and histopathological findings. The treatment consisted of antifungal and multivitamin therapy. Regression of lesions was observed. The patients are still under follow up.Although LP is uncommon in children, it is necessary to have adequate knowledge about this condition for proper diagnosis and treatment.

  14. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and childhood cancer: a concise review of case reports and future research considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Larry; Peterson, Leah; Kobrinsky, Nathan

    2014-05-01

    We reviewed the published literature on the relationship between childhood cancer and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). A Pub Med search identified 12 subjects with the co-occurrence of FASD and cancer. We included an additional case from the author's institution. Neuroblastomas comprised 6 of the 13 (46%) case reports, yet neuroblastomas comprise only about 10% of childhood cancers (z = 4.1; P cancer was reported more than once. Few cases of childhood cancer associated with FASD were identified likely due to under ascertainment of FASD.

  15. Position statement: Gender dysphoria in childhood and adolescence. Working Group on Gender Identity and Sexual Development of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (GIDSEEN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteva de Antonio, Isabel; Asenjo Araque, Nuria; Hurtado Murillo, Felipe; Fernández Rodríguez, María; Vidal Hagemeijer, Ángela; Moreno-Pérez, Oscar; Lucio Pérez, María Jesús; López Siguero, Juan Pedro

    2015-10-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) in childhood and adolescence is a complex condition where early detection and comprehensive treatment are essential to improve quality of life, decrease mental comorbidity, and improve GD. In this position statement, the Working Group on Gender Identity and Sexual Development of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (GIDSEEN), consisting of specialists in Endocrinology, Psychology, Psychiatry, Pediatrics and Sociology, sets out recommendations for evaluation and treatment of GD in children and adolescents. Interdisciplinary management of GD should be carried out at specialized units (UTIGs), considering that any clinical intervention should follow the principles of scientific rigor, experience, ethical and deontological principles, and the necessary caution in front of chronic, aggressive, and irreversible treatments. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. The Relationship between Psychological Dysfunction and Sexuality within a Marital Context. Report on a Literature Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonnesson, Lena Nilsson

    A literature study was conducted to highlight the relationship between psychological dysfunction and sexuality within a marital context. The research reviewed suggests that women report more psychological symptoms, in particular depression, than do men. The husband's personality and functioning appeared to determine the level of marital…

  17. Youth Self-Report of Physical and Sexual Abuse: A Latent Class Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooner, Kate B.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Thompson, Richard; Margolis, Benjamin; English, Diana J.; Knight, Elizabeth D.; Everson, Mark D.; Roesch, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine if meaningful groups of at-risk pre-adolescent youth could be identified based on their self-report of physical and sexual abuse histories. Methods: Youth participating in a consortium of ongoing longitudinal studies were interviewed using an audio-computer assisted self-interview (A-CASI) when they were approximately 12…

  18. Elementary Teachers' Knowledge of Legislative and Policy Duties for Reporting Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Mathews, Ben; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2013-01-01

    This study examined elementary school teachers' knowledge of their legislative and policy-based reporting duties with respect to child sexual abuse. Data were collected from 470 elementary school teachers from urban and rural government and nongovernment schools in 3 Australian states, which at the time of the study had 3 different legislative…

  19. Substance Use and Sexual Intimacy on Commercial Television. Report No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Collado, Carlos; And Others

    This study reports a content analysis of 1976-1977 commercial television programing for incidents of alcohol, drug, and tobacco use and sexual behavior. The analysis included one episode of each prime time and Saturday morning dramatic series, comprising 77 programs and 58 hours of television viewing. A concurrent survey among 300 fourth, sixth,…

  20. Migration Experiences and Reported Sexual Behavior Among Young, Unmarried Female Migrants in Changzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Zhanhong; Yang, Wenjian; Sun, Xiaoming; Mao, Jingshu; Shu, Xingyu; Hearst, Norman

    2017-09-27

    China has a large migrant population, including many young unmarried women. Little is known about their sexual behavior, contraceptive use, and risk of unintended pregnancy. 475 unmarried female migrants aged 15-24, working in 1 of 6 factories in 2 districts of Changzhou city, completed an anonymous self-administered questionnaire in May 2012 on demographic characteristics, work and living situation, and health. We examined demographic and migration experience predictors of sexual and contraceptive behavior using bivariate and multivariate regressions. 30.1% of the respondents were sexually experienced, with the average age at first sex of 19 years (standard deviation=3). 37.8% reported using contraception at first sex, 58.0% reported using consistent contraception during the past year, and 28.0% reported having at least 1 unintended pregnancy with all unintended pregnancies resulting in abortion. Those who had had at least 1 abortion reported having on average 1.6 abortions [SD=1] in total. Migrating with a boyfriend and changing jobs fewer times were associated with being sexually experienced. Younger age, less education, and changing jobs more times were associated with inconsistent contraceptive use. These findings demonstrate there is an unmet need for reproductive health education and services where these women work as well as in their hometown communities. This education must begin early to reach young women before they migrate. © Zong et al.

  1. Elementary Teachers' Knowledge of Legislative and Policy Duties for Reporting Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Mathews, Ben; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2013-01-01

    This study examined elementary school teachers' knowledge of their legislative and policy-based reporting duties with respect to child sexual abuse. Data were collected from 470 elementary school teachers from urban and rural government and nongovernment schools in 3 Australian states, which at the time of the study had 3 different legislative…

  2. Sexual behavior in sleep, sleepwalking and possible REM behavior disorder: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, R; Alóe, F; Tavares, S; Vidrio, S; Yáñez, L; Aguilar-Roblero, R; Rosenthal, L; Villalobos, L; Fernández-Cancino, F; Drucker-Colín, R; Chagoya De Sanchez, V

    1999-01-01

    Seven cases of sexual behavior during sleep (SBS) have been recently reported. The subjects had histories of behavioral parasomnias as well as positive family histories of parasomnia. A 27 year-old man with a history of sexual behavior during sleep was reported. His sleep history disclosed sleepwalking (SW) since 9 years of age. He also developed episodes of highly disruptive and violent nocturnal behavior with dream enactment at age 20 years, which often resulted in physical injuries either to himself or his wife and infant. His wife also reported episodes of amnestic sexual behavior that began 4 years before referral. During the episodes, the patient typically procured his wife, achieving complete sexual intercourse with total amnesia. Physical and neurological diagnostic workups were unremarkable. Family history disclosed sleepwalking in his brother. He was put on 2mg/day of bedtime clonazepam with a remarkable clinical improvement. This case involves either the combination of violent and non-violent sleepwalking with SBS, or the superimposition of presumed REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) on top of preexisting SW in a man who also developed SBS in adulthood. Thus, this is a case report of probable parasomnia overlap syndrome.

  3. Childhood Trauma and Alexithymia in Patients with Conversion Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Anum; Yousaf, Aasma

    2016-07-01

    To determine the relationship between childhood trauma (physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect) and alexithymia in patients with conversion disorder, and to identify it as a predictor of alexithymia in conversion disorder. An analytical study. Multiple public sector hospitals in Lahore, from September 2012 to July 2013. Eighty women with conversion disorder were recruited on the basis of DSM IV-TR diagnostic criteria checklist to screen conversion disorder. Childhood abuse interview to measure childhood trauma and Bermond Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, DSM-IV TR Dianostic Criteria Checklist, and Childhood Abuse Interview to assess alexithymia were used, respectively. The mean age of the sample was 18 ±2.2 years. Thirty-six cases had a history of childhood trauma, physical abuse was the most reported trauma (f = 19, 23.8%) in their childhood. Patients with conversion disorder has a significant association with alexithymia (p conversion disorder. Strategies should be devised to reduce this disorder among women in Pakistani society.

  4. [Linear IgA bullous dermatosis of childhood: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Baraona, Francisco; Andino, Romina; Carrasco, Juan Eduardo; Arriagada, Camila; Guerrero, Silvia

    2014-04-01

    Linear IgA bullous dermatosis is a rare acquired autoinmune vesiculobullous disease characterized by linear IgA deposit on the dermo-epidermal basement membrane observed with direct inmunofluorescence. The characteristic lesions are vesicles and tense serous bullae, which most often are grouped giving a "cluster of jewels" appearance. Differential diagnosis must be established with other autoimmune dermatosis, such as dermatitis herpetiformis and bullous pemphigoid. Dapsone is the first line therapy, with excellent response in a short period. This is a benign disease that tends to wax and wane in severity until it disappears spontaneously. We report the case of a 5-year-old girl presenting with bullous lesions, being diagnosed a linear IgA bullous dermatosis, with excellent response to dapsone in less than 2 weeks.

  5. Psychiatric Symptoms in Childhood Wilson’s Disease: Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevcan Karakoç Demirkaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Various psychiatric symptoms/signs have been identified since the identification of Wilson’s disease (WD. Every patient with WD suffers from one or more psychiatric problems (organic dementia, psychosis, and impulsivity across the disease course. Sometimes, insidious symptoms, such as behavioral changes, failure in school performance, and disturbances in hand-eye coordination may be seen before the onset of neurologic presentation. In this report, five patients, who were diagnosed with WD and followed up in the Child Neurology Unit, were assessed by a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4-based semistructured psychiatric interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children. All patients had psychiatric symptoms. One patient had a history of a manic episode and the other had a history of a psychotic disorder at the initial stage of WD. Psychiatric symptoms coexist mostly with neurologic signs in patients with WD. In this sense, pediatric neurological consultation and copper screening are lifesaving in excluding organic etiology. However, WD is a lifelong treatment-requiring disease and psychiatric evaluation of the patients is essential.

  6. Retrospective reports of developmental stressors, syndemics, and their association with sexual risk outcomes among gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Tyler G; Rotondi, Nooshin K; Ing, Stanley; Myers, Ted; Calzavara, Liviana M; Loutfy, Mona R; Hart, Trevor A

    2015-10-01

    Gay and bisexual men (GBM) continue to have a disproportionately higher HIV incidence than any other group in Canada and the United States. This study examined how multiple co-occurring psychosocial problems, also known as a syndemic, contribute to high-risk sexual behavior among GBM. It also examined the impact of early life adversity on high-risk sexual behavior as mediated by syndemic severity. A sample of 239 GBM completed self-report questionnaires at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Syndemic variables included depression, polysubstance use, and intimate partner violence. Early life adversity variables measured retrospectively included physical and verbal bullying by peers and physical and sexual abuse by adults. A Cochran-Armitage trend test revealed a proportionate increase between number of syndemic problems and engagement in high-risk sex (p indirect effects of two types of early life adversity on high-risk sex via syndemic severity: verbal bullying by peers and physical abuse by adults. There was also an overall effect of physical bullying by peers on high-risk sexual behavior, but no specific direct or indirect effects were observed. Consistent with syndemic theory, results provide evidence that certain types of early life adversity impact high-risk sex later in life via syndemic problems. Behavioral interventions to reduce sexual risk among GBM should address anti-gay discrimination experienced before adulthood as well as adult psychological problems.

  7. Childhood experiences of parental rearing patterns reported by Chinese patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianjun; Napolitano, Lisa A; Wu, Jiang; Yang, Yunping; Xi, Yingjun; Li, Yawen; Li, Kai

    2014-02-01

    The primary purposes of this study were to (1) compare the characteristics of childhood experiences of parental rearing patterns in China reported by patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), patients with other personality disorders and patients without personality disorders; (2) identify the reported parental rearing patterns associated with BPD in China; and (3) determine whether these patterns differ for males and females. One hundred and fifty-two patients with BPD, 79 patients with other personality disorders and 55 patients without Axis II diagnoses were administered the Chinese version of the McLean Screening Instrument for BPD and completed the Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran (EMBU), a self-report measure of childhood parental rearing patterns. Parental rearing patterns reported by the BPD group were characterized by less emotional warmth, and greater punishment, rejection and control than patterns reported by the other two groups. Within the BPD group, males were more likely than females to report parental punishment, rejection and control. Paternal punishment, low maternal emotional warmth and female gender predicted BPD diagnosis. Negative parental rearing patterns appear to contribute to the development of BPD in China and vary with the gender of the child. Maternal emotional warmth may be a protective factor against BPD. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. Predictors of men's sexual response to erotic film stimuli: the role of affect and self-reported thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Cátia; Laja, Pedro; Carvalho, Joana; Quinta Gomes, Ana; Vilarinho, Sandra; Janssen, Erick; Nobre, Pedro J

    2014-11-01

    Both emotions and cognitions seem to play a role in determining sexual arousal. However, no studies to date have tested the effects of self-reported thoughts on subjective sexual arousal and genital response using psychophysiological methods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of self-reported thoughts and affect during exposure to erotic material in predicting subjective and genital responses in sexually healthy men. Twenty-seven men were presented with two explicit films, and genital responses, subjective sexual arousal, self-reported thoughts, and positive and negative affect were assessed. Men's genital responses, subjective sexual arousal, affective responses, and self-reported thoughts during exposure to sexual stimulus were measured. Regression analyses revealed that genital responses were predicted by self-reported thoughts (explaining 20% of the variance) but not by affect during exposure to erotic films. On the other hand, subjective sexual arousal was significantly predicted by both positive and negative affect (explaining 18% of the variance) and self-reported thoughts (explaining 37% of the variance). Follow-up analyses using the single predictors showed that "sexual arousal thoughts" were the only significant predictor of subjective response (β = 0.64; P < 0.01) and that "distracting/disengaging thoughts" were the best predictor of genital response (β = -0.51; P < 0.05). The findings of this study suggest that both affect and sexual arousal thoughts play an important role in men's subjective sexual response, whereas genital response seems to be better predicted by distracting thoughts. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Stability of Self-Reported Arousal to Sexual Fantasies Involving Children in a Clinical Sample of Pedophiles and Hebephiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Dorit; Krupp, Jurian; Scherner, Gerold; Amelung, Till; Beier, Klaus M

    2016-07-01

    In forensic research, there is a controversial discussion concerning the changeability or stability of pedophilia. Seto (2012) conceptualized pedophilia as a sexual age orientation characterized by an early onset, correlations with sexual and romantic behavior, and stability over time. However, empirical data are sparse and are mostly based on samples of detected offenders. The present study examined self-reported arousal to sexual fantasies involving children in a clinical sample of pedo-/hebephiles. In Study 1, retrospective self-reports on the age of onset and duration of sexual interest in minors were examined. In Study 2, the stability and variability of self-reported arousal to sexual fantasies involving children were evaluated prospectively. Non-prosecuted self-identifying pedo-/hebephilic men seeking professional help were recruited within the Berlin Prevention Project Dunkelfeld. Between 2005 and 2013, 494 participants completed the intake assessment. Self-reported data were collected via questionnaire focusing on sexual arousal to fantasies during masturbation involving prepubescent and/or early pubescent minors. Subsequent assessments of sexual arousal were obtained for 121 of the participants. The average time between the first and last assessment was approximately 29 months. Spearman's correlation coefficients examined the between-group rank-order and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests examined the within-individual mean-level stability. The majority of subjects reported an early onset of their pedo-/hebephilic sexual arousal. The rank-order stability was medium to high. Over the investigated period, the majority of subjects showed no or only minimal decrease or increase of self-reported sexual arousal. These results suggested that sexual arousal to fantasies involving prepubescent and/or early pubescent children is stable. Furthermore, the results support the conceptualization of pedo-/hebephilia as a sexual age orientation in men.

  10. Abused Sexuality- Experience of Sexuality Post Experiences of Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Sunanda Jalote

    2016-01-01

    Sexual abuse has been happening from times immemorial and is that brutal aspect of society which also talk about spirituality, peace and harmony in the same breath. Youth gets irrevocably scarred by such childhood traumas which linger on in their adult life too. In the present study, an effort was made to study and understand how heterosexual and queer youth in contemporary middle class in Delhi explore the relationship sexual abuse survivors have with their own sexuality and how their negoti...

  11. Abused Sexuality- Experience of Sexuality Post Experiences of Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Sunanda Jalote

    2016-01-01

    Sexual abuse has been happening from times immemorial and is that brutal aspect of society which also talk about spirituality, peace and harmony in the same breath. Youth gets irrevocably scarred by such childhood traumas which linger on in their adult life too. In the present study, an effort was made to study and understand how heterosexual and queer youth in contemporary middle class in Delhi explore the relationship sexual abuse survivors have with their own sexuality and how their negoti...

  12. Peer Rejection, Affiliation with Deviant Peers, Delinquency, and Risky Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Fontaine, Reid Griffith; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Risky sexual behavior poses significant health risks by increasing sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. Previous research has documented many factors related to risky sexual behavior. This study adds to the literature by proposing a prospective, developmental model of peer factors related to risky sexual behavior. Developmental pathways to risky sexual behavior were examined in a sample of 517 individuals (51% female; 82% European American, 16% African American, 2% other) followed from age 5 to 27. Structural equation models examined direct and indirect effects of peer rejection (assessed via peer nominations at ages 5, 6, 7, and 8), affiliation with deviant peers (assessed via self-report at ages 11 and 12), and delinquency (assessed via maternal report at ages 10 and 16) on risky sexual behavior (assessed via self-report at age 27). More peer rejection during childhood, affiliation with deviant peers during pre- adolescence, and delinquency in childhood and adolescence predicted more risky sexual behavior through age 27, although delinquency at age 16 was the only risk factor that had a significant direct effect on risky sexual behavior through age 27 above and beyond the other risk factors. Peer rejection was related to subsequent risk factors for girls but not boys. Peer risk factors as early as age 5 shape developmental pathways through childhood and adolescence and have implications for risky sexual behavior into adulthood. PMID:25150986

  13. Littre hernia in childhood: A case report with a brief review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Pampal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year-old boy with a right-sided and painful inguinal swelling for the last 2 h was admitted to the emergency department. As there were no apparent peritoneal irritation findings, right-sided incarcerated inguinal hernia was reduced and the patient was scheduled for an elective herniorrhaphy. Perioperatively even though the sac seemed empty, it was opened in order to inspect its content. The adherence of Meckel′s diverticulum (MD to the base of hernial sac was realized and Littre hernia (LH was diagnosed. The hernia was highly ligated after the wedge resection of the diverticulum and anastomosis. The patient was fed on the second postoperative day and discharged on the third postoperative day. Despite numerous presentations of LH in the adult age group in the literature, there are limited data about the disease in the childhood period. Even though the scarcity of the data, there are some so-called rules for LH in childhood like protruding more common through umbilical hernias, containing heterotopic tissues more frequent than adult age and incarcerating/strangulating more often. The aim of this study is to review the reported LH cases, present a new case and discuss the features of LH in childhood period.

  14. Retrospective self-reports of childhood accidents causing unconsciousness in phallometrically diagnosed pedophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray; Christensen, Bruce K; Strong, Scott M; Cantor, James M; Kuban, Michael E; Klassen, Philip; Dickey, Robert; Blak, Thomas

    2002-12-01

    The present study investigated whetherhead injuries in childhood might increase the risk of pedophilia in males. The subjects were 1206 patients referred to a clinical sexology service for assessment of their erotic preferences. These were classified, on the basis of phallometric test results, as pedophilic (n = 413) or nonpedophilic (n = 793). Information regarding early head injuries, other signs of possible neurodevelopmental problems, and parental histories of psychiatric treatment were collected with self-administered questionnaires. The results showed that childhood accidents that resulted in unconsciousness were associated with pedophilia and with lower levels of intelligence and education. These associations were statistically significant for accidents that occurred before the age of 6, but not for accidents that occurred between the ages of 6 and 12. These results are compatible with the hypothesis that neurodevelopmental perturbations in early childhood may increase the risk of pedophilia. They are also, however, compatible with the alternative explanation that prior neurodevelopmental problems lead to accident-proneness and head injury, on the one hand, and to pedophilia, on the other, and that head injury has no causal influence on pedophilia. A secondary finding was that the pedophiles were more likely to report that their mothers had undergone psychiatric treatment. This finding suggests that pedophilia may be influenced by genetic factors, which are manifested in women as an increased risk of psychiatric problems, and in their sons, as an increased risk of erotic interest in children.

  15. Men in Early Childhood: A Moral Panic? A research report from a UK University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cronin Mark

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Significant changes in the role fathers play in their children’s care alongside the increased interest shown by teenage boys in working with young children has so far resulted in no noticeable increase in the numbers of men working in Early Childhood in the UK. Previous research has identified how the gendered nature of this workforce presents significant barriers to men’s involvement combined with an increasingly dogmatic media discourse which represents men solely as a threat to young children. The research reported in this paper explored the experiences of a group of undergraduate male students in their pursuit of a career working with young children and to what degree the dynamics of being othered had impacted them. It also sought to consider the rhetoric and reality of recent UK government attempts to address the imbalance in the Early Childhood workforce. Thirteen male students from two undergraduate programmes at a UK University were interviewed for this study. The research data identified a number of risk factors which present barriers to men’s involvement in Early Childhood such as gender stereotyping, marginalisation or ‘othering’ of men and negative media discourses. It also identified potential protective factors which enable men’s involvement such as supportive family and friends, male role-models and a sense of social responsibility. Broader reflections also identified the significant difference between the UK government rhetoric in support of increasing men’s participation in Early Childhood and the reality of the active indifference shown to challenging the barriers to participation driven by political motives which has effectively generated a new ‘moral panic’ around men working with young children.

  16. Positive affect, childhood adversity, and psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl W. Etter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background : Low positive affect is closely related to common pathological responses to childhood adversity, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression, but little is known about how the characteristics of early adversity experiences might be related to positive affect in adulthood. Objective : This study aimed to explore whether low positive affect is related to specific childhood adversities, including abuse, neglect, caretaker dysfunction, and low childhood social support. Method : Using structured interviews and self-report measure data collected from 173 adult psychiatric inpatients, this study examined the relationship between positive affect and symptoms of psychopathology, as well as how the number of types of abuse experienced, severity of adversity types (physical abuse and sexual abuse, childhood environment (childhood social support, neglect, and caretaker dysfunction, and number of non-abuse traumas related to positive affect. Results: Positive affect was significantly negatively related to several symptoms of psychopathology, including depression, dissociation, self-destructive behavior, PTSD, and global psychopathology. Individuals who experienced both physical and sexual abuse reported significantly less positive affect than those with only physical or no abuse experiences. Lower positive affect was predicted by lower childhood social support and greater severity of sexual abuse, with both factors accounting for unique variance in positive affect. Conclusion : These results suggest that individuals who experience multiple types of early adversity, more severe sexual abuse experiences, and less social support are at risk of psychological difficulties. Given the relatively strong association between positive affect and childhood social support, interventions to foster social support may be a means of increasing positive affect among individuals exposed to childhood adversity.

  17. Positive affect, childhood adversity, and psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Darryl W; Gauthier, Justin R; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth; Cloitre, Marylene; Carlson, Eve B

    2013-01-01

    Low positive affect is closely related to common pathological responses to childhood adversity, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, but little is known about how the characteristics of early adversity experiences might be related to positive affect in adulthood. This study aimed to explore whether low positive affect is related to specific childhood adversities, including abuse, neglect, caretaker dysfunction, and low childhood social support. Using structured interviews and self-report measure data collected from 173 adult psychiatric inpatients, this study examined the relationship between positive affect and symptoms of psychopathology, as well as how the number of types of abuse experienced, severity of adversity types (physical abuse and sexual abuse), childhood environment (childhood social support, neglect, and caretaker dysfunction), and number of non-abuse traumas related to positive affect. Positive affect was significantly negatively related to several symptoms of psychopathology, including depression, dissociation, self-destructive behavior, PTSD, and global psychopathology. Individuals who experienced both physical and sexual abuse reported significantly less positive affect than those with only physical or no abuse experiences. Lower positive affect was predicted by lower childhood social support and greater severity of sexual abuse, with both factors accounting for unique variance in positive affect. These results suggest that individuals who experience multiple types of early adversity, more severe sexual abuse experiences, and less social support are at risk of psychological difficulties. Given the relatively strong association between positive affect and childhood social support, interventions to foster social support may be a means of increasing positive affect among individuals exposed to childhood adversity.

  18. High School Religious Context and Reports of Same-Sex Attraction and Sexual Identity in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Lindsey; Pearson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to understand the association between high school religious context in adolescence and the reporting of same-sex attraction and sexual identity in young adulthood and how these associations vary by gender. Previous studies have considered how high school contexts shape the well-being of sexual minority youth, yet…

  19. Sexual Violence Against Female and Male Children in the United Republic of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagi, Kevin J; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Gladden, R Matthew; Chiang, Laura F; Brooks, Andrew; Nyunt, Myo-Zin; Kwesigabo, Gideon; Mercy, James A; Dahlberg, Linda L

    2016-03-14

    During a household survey in Tanzania, a nationally representative sample of females and males aged 13-24 years reported any experiences of sexual violence that occurred before the age of 18 years. The authors explore the prevalence, circumstances, and health outcomes associated with childhood sexual violence. The results suggest that violence against children in Tanzania is pervasive, with roughly three in 10 females and one in eight males experiencing some form of childhood sexual violence, and its health consequences are severe. Results are being used by the Tanzanian government to implement a National Plan of Action.

  20. Patterns of childhood trauma and psychological distress among injecting heroin users in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Childhood trauma has been reported as a possible cause of future substance abuse in some countries. This study reports the prevalence of childhood trauma and examines its association with psychological distress among injecting drug users from mainland China. METHODOLOGY: The study was conducted in three government-operated drug rehabilitation facilities in Shanghai, China in 2007. The Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form (ETISR-SF was used to evaluate 4 types (general, emotional, physical and sexual and severity of childhood trauma, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R to evaluate psychological distress. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Among 341 injecting drug users who completed the study, about 80% reported one or more types of childhood trauma, specifically 53% general trauma, 56% physical abuse, 36% emotional abuse and 26% sexual abuse. Compared to female injecting drug users, males reported significantly higher scores of general trauma and physical abuse, but lower sexual abuse scores. Hierarchical linear regression analyses showed that greater physical and emotional abuse in childhood predict greater current psychopathological distress among these injecting drug users in China. CONCLUSIONS: The results reveal a high prevalence of childhood trauma among injecting drug users in China, and it is comparable to other similar studies in Western countries. It is important to consider the role of childhood trauma in the prevention and treatment of substance abuse.

  1. A neurocognitive model of borderline personality disorder: effects of childhood sexual abuse and relationship to adult social attachment disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minzenberg, Michael J; Poole, John H; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2008-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a paradigmatic disorder of adult attachment, with high rates of antecedent childhood maltreatment. The neurocognitive correlates of both attachment disturbance and maltreatment are both presently unknown in BPD. This study evaluated whether dimensional adult attachment disturbance in BPD is related to specific neurocognitive deficits, and whether childhood maltreatment is related to these dysfunctions. An outpatient BPD group (n=43) performed nearly 1 SD below a control group (n=26) on short-term recall, executive, and intelligence functions. These deficits were not affected by emotionally charged stimuli. In the BPD group, impaired recall was related to attachment-anxiety, whereas executive dysfunction was related to attachment-avoidance. Abuse history was correlated significantly with executive dysfunction and at a trend level with impaired recall. Neurocognitive deficits and abuse history exhibited both independent and interactive effects on adult attachment disturbance. These results suggest that (a) BPD patients' reactivity in attachment relationships is related to temporal-limbic dysfunction, irrespective of the emotional content of stimuli, (b) BPD patients' avoidance within attachment relationships may be a relational strategy to compensate for the emotional consequences of frontal-executive dysregulation, and (c) childhood abuse may contribute to these neurocognitive deficits but may also exert effects on adult attachment disturbance that is both independent and interacting with neurocognitive dysfunction.

  2. Self-Reported Childhood Maltreatment and Traumatic Events among Israeli Patients Suffering from Fibromyalgia and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellou, Raneen; Brenner, Inbal; Buskila, Dan; Jacob, Giris; Elkayam, Ori; Aloush, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The association between Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) and childhood maltreatment and adversity has frequently been proposed but limited data exists regarding the transcultural nature of this association. Methods. 75 Israeli FMS patients and 23 Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients were compared. Childhood maltreatment was assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and potential depressive and anxiety disorders were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-4. FMS severity was assessed by the Widespread Pain Index (WPI), the Symptom Severity Score (SSS), and the FIQ. PTSD was diagnosed according to the DSM IV. RA severity was assessed by the RA Disease Activity Index. Health status was assessed by the SF-36. Results. Similar to reports in other countries, high levels of self-reported childhood adversity were reported by Israeli FMS patients. PTSD was significantly more common among FMS patients compared with RA patients, as well as childhood emotional abuse and physical and emotional neglect. Levels of depression and anxiety were significantly higher among FMS patients. Conclusion. The study demonstrated the cross cultural association between FMS and childhood maltreatment, including neglect, emotional abuse, and PTSD. Significant differences were demonstrated between FMS patients and patients suffering from RA, a model of an inflammatory chronic rheumatic disease. PMID:28167861

  3. Treatment of sexual trauma dissolves contamination fear: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam J. Nijdam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In patients with co-morbid obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, repetitive behavior patterns, rituals, and compulsions may ward off anxiety and often function as a coping strategy to control reminders of traumatic events. Therefore, addressing the traumatic event may be crucial for successful treatment of these symptoms. Objective: In this case report, we describe a patient with comorbid OCD and PTSD who underwent pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Methods: Case Report. A 49-year-old Dutch man was treated for severe PTSD and moderately severe OCD resulting from anal rape in his youth by an unknown adult man. Results: The patient was treated with paroxetine (60 mg, followed by nine psychotherapy sessions in which eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR and exposure and response prevention (ERP techniques were applied. During psychotherapy, remission of the PTSD symptoms preceded remission of the OCD symptoms. Conclusions: This study supports the idea of a functional connection between PTSD and OCD. Successfully processing the trauma results in diminished anxiety associated with trauma reminders and subsequently decreases the need for obsessive–compulsive symptoms.

  4. Dental management of early childhood caries in spastic quadriparesis: a case report and clinical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotwani, Kavita; Sharma, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) describes a group of permanent disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to non-progressive disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal or infant brain. The motor disorders of CP are often accompanied by epilepsy, secondary musculoskeletal problems, and disturbances of sensation, perception, cognition, communication, and behavior. Spastic quadriparesis is the most severe form of spastic cerebral palsy. The present report describes the management of a 5-year-old patient with early childhood caries and spastic quadriparesis. The oral manifestations and clinical guidelines are discussed considering the special health care needs in these patients so as to provide comprehensive dental care.

  5. Childhood osteosarcoma of greater wing of sphenoid: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meel, Rachna; Thulkar, Sanjay; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Jagadesan, Pandjatcharan; Mohanti, Bidhu Kalyan; Sharma, Suresh Chandra; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2012-03-01

    Primary osteosarcoma of skull base is extremely rare. We present a case of primary osteosarcoma arising in greater wing of sphenoid in a child. Our patient had an incomplete excision after which he received adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. There was good response to adjuvant chemoradiotherapy and the patient is disease free at a follow-up of 18 months. Treatment of skull base osteosarcomas is difficult, as complete excision is often not possible. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of sphenoid wing osteosarcoma in childhood to be reported in literature.

  6. Retropharyngeal hematoma secondary to whiplash injury in childhood: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurata, Hakan; Yilmaz, Muhammet Bahadır; Borcek, Alp Ozgun; Oner, Ali Yusuf; Baykaner, M Kemali

    2012-01-01

    Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) has been reported as an adult phenomenon. Whiplash injury has classically been described as a cervical soft tissue hyperextension- flexion injury after a trauma such as a rear end impact car crash, contact sport injuries, blows to the head from a falling object or a punch and shaken baby syndrome and is mostly seen in adults . It is important as it may cause severe disability due to spinal cord injury, decrease work productivity and even retropharyngeal hematoma resulting airway obstruction and mortality due to bleeding amongst deep cervical fascias. We describe a case of retropharyngeal hematoma after whiplash injury in a childhood.

  7. Stability and change in self-reported sexual orientation identity in young people: application of mobility metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Miles Q; Corliss, Heather L; Wypij, David; Rosario, Margaret; Austin, S Bryn

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated stability and change in self-reported sexual orientation identity over time in youth. We describe gender- and age-related changes in sexual orientation identity from early adolescence through emerging adulthood in 13,840 youth ages 12-25 employing mobility measure M, a measure we modified from its original application for econometrics. Using prospective data from a large, ongoing cohort of U.S. adolescents, we examined mobility in sexual orientation identity in youth with up to four waves of data. Ten percent of males and 20% of females at some point described themselves as a sexual minority, while 2% of both males and females reported ever being "unsure" of their orientation. Two novel findings emerged regarding gender and mobility: (1) Although mobility scores were quite low for the full cohort, females reported significantly higher mobility than did males. (2) As expected, for sexual minorities, mobility scores were appreciably higher than for the full cohort; however, the gender difference appeared to be eliminated, indicating that changing reported sexual orientation identity throughout adolescence occurred at a similar rate in female and male sexual minorities. In addition, we found that, of those who described themselves as "unsure" of their orientation identity at any point, 66% identified as completely heterosexual at other reports and never went on to describe themselves as a sexual minority. Age was positively associated with endorsing a sexual-minority orientation identity. We discuss substantive and methodological implications of our findings for understanding development of sexual orientation identity in young people.

  8. Discrepancy between information reported by the victims of sexual assaults and clinical forensic findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherer, Susanne; Hansen, Steen Holger; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: From the clinical forensic examination reports made at the Department of Forensic Medicine, the University of Copenhagen, in 2007 concerning rape, attempted rape and sexual assault (RAS), information about the assault, including both violence and the perpetrator's line of sexual...... action was extracted, analysed and compared to the observed lesions (LE). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 184 girls and women were included in this retrospective study. RESULTS: 75.5% of the victims were under 30 years of age. Observed LE: 79% had observed LE. 41% had body LE only, 19% genito-anal LE...... only, and 40% had both body and genito-anal LE. Half of the victims, who reported no exposure to violence, had body LE. Five victims also had LE of a self-inflicted character. Genito-anal LE: 47% had genito-anal LE, 64% of whom had one or two, commonest a tear. Body LE: 64% had body LE. 57% was caused...

  9. Self-reported sexual and psychosocial health among non-heterosexual Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graugaard, Christian; Giraldi, Annamaria; Frisch, Morten

    2015-01-01

    .8% versus 6.9% for women), and significantly more non-heterosexuals reported acts of sexual violence (8.3% versus 2.1% for men and 35.8% versus 13.0% for women). Finally, non-heterosexual respondents had contemplated suicide more than twice as often as heterosexuals (15.9% versus 7.4% for men and 19.......7% versus 8.3% for women). Actual suicide attempts were roughly three times more frequent in the non-heterosexual groups (8.3% versus 2.6 % for men and 11.8% versus 4.2% for women). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, non-heterosexual Danes reported higher degrees of sexual and/or psychosocial distress than heterosexuals...

  10. Shame, guilt, and posttraumatic stress disorder in adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse at risk for human immunodeficiency virus: outcomes of a randomized clinical trial of group psychotherapy treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Karni; Butler, Lisa D; Giese-Davis, Janine; Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Neri, Eric; Koopman, Cheryl; Classen, Catherine C; Spiegel, David

    2009-07-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of group psychotherapy in reducing levels of shame and guilt in adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse at risk for HIV, and whether such reductions would mediate the effects of treatment on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. One hundred sixty-six women were randomized into 3 conditions: a trauma-focused group, a present-focused group, and a waitlist group. Women received 6 months of treatment and were assessed at pretreatment (T1), immediately posttreatment (T2), and 6 months posttreatment (T3). Both treatment conditions resulted in reduced shame and guilt. The treatment effect on PTSD symptoms was mediated by changes in shame, but it was not associated with changes in guilt. These findings suggest that, when treating childhood sexual abuse survivors' PTSD, it is important to address the negative self-appraisals, such as shame, that commonly accompany such symptoms.

  11. Childhood trauma and current psychological functioning in adults with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Janice R; Goldin, Philippe R; Werner, Kelly; Heimberg, Richard G; Gross, James J

    2011-05-01

    Etiological models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggest that early childhood trauma contributes to the development of this disorder. However, surprisingly little is known about the link between different forms of childhood trauma and adult clinical symptoms in SAD. This study (1) compared levels of childhood trauma in adults with generalized SAD versus healthy controls (HCs), and (2) examined the relationship between specific types of childhood trauma and adult clinical symptoms in SAD. Participants were 102 individuals with generalized SAD and 30 HCs who completed measures of childhood trauma, social anxiety, trait anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. Compared to HCs, individuals with SAD reported greater childhood emotional abuse and emotional neglect. Within the SAD group, childhood emotional abuse and neglect, but not sexual abuse, physical abuse, or physical neglect, were associated with the severity of social anxiety, trait anxiety, depression, and self-esteem.

  12. Department of Defense Annual Report on Sexual Assault in the Military. Fiscal Year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Court-Martial Charge Preferred (Initiated) Conviction YES Female victim alleged Marine male subject met victim at gym , forced her to have oral sex ...Reports, FY11. Categories with zero values are not shown. Note: The category “Age 16–19” is used because the relevant UCMJ sex crimes apply to victims...ASSAULT In the Department, the term “sexual assault” does not refer to one specific crime; rather, it encompasses a range of sex crimes that

  13. Dentist attitudes and responsibilities concerning child sexual abuse. A review and a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrocho-Rangel, Arturo; Márquez-Preciado, Raúl; Olguín-Vivar, Ana-Isabel; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Socorro; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury

    2015-07-01

    According to the World Health Organization, child abuse and neglect is "every kind of physical, sexual, emotional abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, commercial or other exploitation resulting in actual or potential harm to the child's health, survival, development or dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or power". The aim of the present report is to inform about the most relevant aspects of child abuse and the characteristics of injuries to the head, neck, and orofacial regions, in addition to the suggested role of, and management by, the dentist for the evaluation of this condition, and also for reporting a case of a physically and sexually abused girl aged 5 years 8 months. Throughout the appointments, some type of abuse in this patient was suspected by the treating dentists at the clinic, mainly due to the initial behavior exhibited by the patient in the dental chair. Based on the clinical diagnostic an intensive preventive plan and restorative treatment was realized. The timely detection of the signs and symptoms of sexual abuse, often present in the orofacial region, place the pediatric dentist in a strategic situation, with the capacity to recognize, register, and later report those cases considered as suspect, including the dental treatment delivered and the intensive behavioral-psychological management, in order to achieve acceptation by the otherwise very anxious patient of the indicated restorative and preventive dental procedures. Key words:Child abuse, dentistry, behavior management.

  14. Transition from childhood to adulthood in coeliac disease: the Prague consensus report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Agreus, Lars; Ciacci, Carolina; Crowe, Sheila E; Geller, Marilyn G; Green, Peter H R; Hill, Ivor; Hungin, A Pali; Koletzko, Sibylle; Koltai, Tunde; Lundin, Knut E A; Mearin, M Luisa; Murray, Joseph A; Reilly, Norelle; Walker, Marjorie M; Sanders, David S; Shamir, Raanan; Troncone, Riccardo; Husby, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    The process of transition from childhood to adulthood is characterised by physical, mental and psychosocial development. Data on the transition and transfer of care in adolescents/young adults with coeliac disease (CD) are scarce. In this paper, 17 physicians from 10 countries (Sweden, Italy, the USA, Germany, Norway, the Netherlands, Australia, Britain, Israel and Denmark) and two representatives from patient organisations (Association of European Coeliac Societies and the US Celiac Disease Foundation) examined the literature on transition from childhood to adulthood in CD. Medline (Ovid) and EMBASE were searched between 1900 and September 2015. Evidence in retrieved reports was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation method. The current consensus report aims to help healthcare personnel manage CD in the adolescent and young adult and provide optimal care and transition into adult healthcare for patients with this disease. In adolescence, patients with CD should gradually assume exclusive responsibility for their care, although parental support is still important. Dietary adherence and consequences of non-adherence should be discussed during transition. In most adolescents and young adults, routine small intestinal biopsy is not needed to reconfirm a childhood diagnosis of CD based on European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) or North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) criteria, but a biopsy may be considered where paediatric diagnostic criteria have not been fulfilled, such as, in a patient without biopsy at diagnosis, additional serology (endomysium antibody) has not been performed to confirm 10-fold positivity of tissue transglutaminase antibodies or when a no biopsy strategy has been adopted in an asymptomatic child. PMID:27196596

  15. Self-reported childhood physical activity and breast cancer in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    The association between physical activity during childhood and breast cancer risk was examined. To study this question data on physical activity in childhood were analyzed. A hospital-based case-control study of 250 Polish incident breast cancer cases (49.2% of eligible) and 301 (41.4% of all selected) frequency matched for age controls was conducted in 2003-2004 in the Region of Western Pomerania. Women were asked to compare their total physical activity at ages 10-12 years and 13-15 years with the activity of their female peers by choose from one of three categories: less active, equally active, more active, the best describing their activity. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression, fitted by the method of maximum likehood. Women who reported having been physically more active than their peers at ages 10-12 years had an age-adjusted OR=0.88 (95% CI=0.36-2.15, P for trend=0.37) as compared with those reported being less active. Adjustment for potential confounders and total lifetime physical activity decreased the risk estimate to OR=0.25 (95% CI=0.06-1.10, P for trend=0.15). For physical activity at ages 13-15 years, both an age-adjusted and multivariate adjusted ORs were also decreased among women who were at least such active as their peers, but the reductions were not statistically significant. For women who were more physically active than their peers during both age periods the adjusted OR was 0.30 (95% CI=0.11-1.34, P for trend =0.21). These results show no protective role for physical activity in childhood on breast cancer development among women aged 35-75 years. Further investigations employing larger sample sizes with comprehensive assessment of physical activity during the childish years are needed to verify this evidence.

  16. Emotional and Sexual Correlates of Child Sexual Abuse as a Function of Self-Definition Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Bédard, Maryline Germain; Charest, Émilie; Briere, John; Sabourin, Stéphane

    2016-08-01

    Among individuals defined as having been sexually abused based on legal criteria, some will self-report having been abused and some will not. Yet, the empirical correlates of self-definition status are not well studied. Different definitions of abuse may lead to varying prevalence rates and contradictory findings regarding psychological outcomes. The present study examined whether, among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, identifying oneself as having experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with more severe abuse, negative emotional reactions toward the abuse, and current sexual reactions. A convenience sample of 1,021 French-speaking Canadians completed self-report questionnaires online. The prevalence of legally defined CSA was 21.3% in women and 19.6% in men, as compared to 7.1% in women and 3.8% in men for self-defined CSA. Among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, those who identified themselves as CSA survivors had been abused more frequently, were more likely to report a male aggressor, and more often described abuse by a parental figure than those who did not self-identify as abused. Further, self-defined CSA was associated with more negative postabuse reactions and sexual avoidance, whereas those not identifying as sexually abused were more likely to report sexual compulsion.

  17. Overweight, obesity and female sexuality in perimenopause: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Jarząbek-Bielecka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The research was conducted among patients of the Department of Perinatology and Gynaecology of the Poznań University of Medical Sciences. Its aim was to investigate the influence of overweight and obesity on female sexuality during the perimenopausal period. Preliminary results of the research are presented in the thesis, which was as a matter of fact intended as a preliminary report. The examination of sexual functions of the patients was performed with the use of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI form. Material and methods: Sixty-one women during the perimenopausal period filled out the survey, with the average age of these women being 51 years. Forty-two of the examined women had an appropriate body mass index (BMI, i.e. between 18.5 and 25, while for 19 of the women, the BMI was above normal. For statistical analysis and in order to assess the differences between the two above-mentioned groups of patients, the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test was applied. A statistically significant value was assumed at p < 0.05. The results of the conducted research indicated no such difference between the women with differing BMI for the specific domains of the FSFI test. Results: The results obtained show that research in the area needs to be continued. Conclusions: All the hitherto existing scientific studies also seem to indicate that the influence of overweight and obesity on female sexuality during the perimenopause has not yet been unambiguously proven. Beyond any doubt, however, sexual disorders appear in women at this time of life and the factors which determine them can vary greatly. Given the character of the situation, women ought to be supported both by a team of specialists representing different branches of medicine as well as by their relatives. The whole situation also calls for more research of the important subject matter.

  18. Childhood chronic physical condition, self-reported health, and life satisfaction in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Heidi; Hurtig, Tuula; Taanila, Anja; Honkanen, Meri; Ebeling, Hanna; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigates the prevalence and type of chronic conditions at 7 years of age-with special reference to atopic conditions-and their longitudinal associations with self-reported health and life satisfaction in adolescence. The data were obtained from Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986), which is a longitudinal 1-year birth cohort from an unselected, regionally defined population (n = 9,432). The present study investigated a sample of 8,036 children with data of chronic conditions at 7 years of age and a sample of 6,680 children with data of chronic conditions at 16 years of age. According to parents' report the prevalence of CC at 7 years of age was 14.8 % among boys and 13.2 % among girls, these figures being at 16 years of age 20.7 and 19.4 %, respectively. Atopic conditions were the most common chronic conditions at 7 years of age (12.7 % vs. other chronic conditions 4.7 %). Childhood chronic condition was associated with subsequent self-reported health in adolescence, but not with subsequent self-reported life satisfaction. Chronic condition at 7 years of age increased the risk of reporting health as "poor" even if the chronic condition was no longer prevalent at 16 years of age. Atopic conditions seemed to be linked with self-reported poor/moderate health more often than other chronic conditions among girls. Conclusion Childhood chronic conditions seem to affect adolescent's subjective health, but fortunately, they do not affect adolescents' subjective well-being to such an extent that it could lower their life satisfaction.

  19. Sexual Regret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study sought to answer three key questions about explaining the emotion of regret in the domain of casual sex: Are sex differences in sexual regret robust or attenuated in a highly egalitarian culture? What proximate psychological variables might explain sex differences in sexual regret? And what accounts for within-sex variation in experiences of sexual regret about casual sex. We conducted a study of 263 Norwegian students (ages 19–37 who reported how much they regretted having either engaged in, or passed up, their most recent casual sexual experience. Sex differences in sexual regret are not attenuated in this sexually egalitarian culture. The study revealed sex differences in worries about pregnancy, STIs, and reputation; however, these predictors did not succeed in accounting for the sex differences in regret engaging in casual sex. Sexual gratification and socio-sexual orientation both predicted the sex differences in casual sex regret. In contrast, only socio-sexual orientation attenuated the sex difference in regret passing up casual sex. Predictors of within-sex variation in casual sexual regret included worry about sexual reputation, experienced gratification during the encounter, and socio-sexual orientation. Discussion focuses on implications for the psychological design features of this relatively neglected emotion.

  20. Victims' psychosocial well-being after reporting sexual harassment in the military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Margret E; Street, Amy E; Stafford, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of reporting to sexual harassment prevention and intervention efforts, it is not surprising that an extensive scientific literature has developed on predictors of victims' decisions about making a formal report to authorities about their experiences. In contrast, little empirical work has focused on how reporting affects victims, particularly their psychosocial well-being. This study used a national sample of 1,562 former military Reservists who had experienced sexual harassment during their service to examine the relationship between reporting; experiences reporting; and psychosocial well-being, as indicated by post-harassment functioning, worst symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following the harassment, and current symptoms of depression. Making a formal report was not associated with well-being, but among those who did report, perceiving that the report had resulted in the harassment being addressed by authorities was associated with better post-harassment functioning and fewer symptoms of PTSD. Satisfaction with the reporting process showed the strongest association with well-being, demonstrating small but meaningful associations with depression and medium-to-large and medium associations with post-harassment functioning and PTSD, respectively. Although findings did not vary by gender, predictors accounted for more variance in well-being for men than women. In the whole sample, satisfaction with the reporting process mediated the relationship between victims' perceptions of system responsiveness to the report and post-harassment functioning and PTSD. Findings suggest that a victim's perceptions of and satisfaction with the reporting process may impact well-being more strongly than whether the victim made a report to authorities. Men may be even more strongly impacted by their experiences with the reporting process than women.

  1. Heritable factors influence sexual orientation in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J M; Pillard, R C; Neale, M C; Agyei, Y

    1993-03-01

    Homosexual female probands with monozygotic cotwins, dizygotic cotwins, or adoptive sisters were recruited using homophile publications. Sexual orientation of relatives was assessed either by asking relatives directly, or, when this was impossible, by asking the probands. Of the relatives whose sexual orientation could be confidently rated, 34 (48%) of 71 monozygotic cotwins, six (16%) of 37 dizygotic cotwins, and two (6%) of 35 adoptive sisters were homosexual. Probands also reported 10 (14%) nontwin biologic sisters to be homosexual, although those sisters were not contacted to confirm their orientations. Heritabilities were significant using a wide range of assumptions about both the base rate of homosexuality in the population and ascertainment bias. The likelihood that a monozygotic cotwin would also be homosexual was unrelated to measured characteristics of the proband such as self-reported history of childhood gender nonconformity. Concordant monozygotic twins reported similar levels of childhood gender nonconformity.

  2. [Reports of domestic, sexual and other forms of violence against children in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Avanci, Joviana Quintes; Pesce, Renata Pires; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira; Gomes, Daniela Lopes

    2012-09-01

    The scope of this article is to outline the scenario of domestic, sexual and other forms of violence against children (0-9 years old) in Brazil for the year 2010. It is based on data from reports of domestic, sexual and other forms of violence registered with SINAN - Information System for Notifiable Diseases (Continuous VIVA). Absolute and relative numbers are presented, derived from reported violence, discriminating between children under 1 year of age and those between 1-9 years old, due to the specificities that exist in these age groups. Throughout the country, the number of reports among those under 10 years of age is low (17.1%). Differences were found for the distribution of reports in the different Brazilian States. Few municipalities and few services reported violence to SINAN-Net in 2010 in the country. Some differences were found between children under 1 year of age and those between 1 and 9 years of age, as for instance the relationship between the profile of the violence, the victim and the perpetrator, and the handling of the case. The quality of the reported information is discussed showing the high level of unreported data in some spaces of the reporting form. Lack of information may prejudice comprehension of the phenomenon, interfering with the planning, organization and operation actions of the health services in the country.

  3. Sexuality in eating disorders patients: etiological factors, sexual dysfunction and identity issues. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Giovanni; Lelli, Lorenzo; Ricca, Valdo; Maggi, Mario

    2016-02-01

    The scientific community appears to be less interested in sexuality of eating disorders (EDs) as compared to other psychiatric or medical comorbidities. However, a clear association between sexual problems and ED psychopathology was reported from different perspectives. The overarching goal of this systematic review was to evaluate the general approach of the scientific literature toward the topic of sexuality and EDs. In particular, four different categories of research have been individuated, encompassing the role of puberty, and sexual abuse in the pathogenesis of the disorders, sexual dysfunctions, and the association between sexual orientation and EDs psychopathology. Timing of puberty with its hormonal consequences and the changes in the way persons perceive their own body represent a crucial period of life for the onset of the disorder. Sexual abuse, and especially childhood sexual abuse are well-recognized risk factors for the development of ED, determining a worse long-term outcome. Recent research overcome the approach that considers sexual activity of EDs patients, in terms of hypersexuality and dangerous sexual behaviors, considering the sexuality of EDs persons in terms of sexual desire, satisfaction, orgasm and pain. Results from this line of research are promising, and describe a clear relationship between sexual dysfunction and the core psychopathological features of EDs, such as body image disturbances. Finally, the analysis of the literature showed an association between sexual orientation and gender dysphoria with EDs psychopathology and pathological eating behaviors, confirming the validity of research developing new models of maintaining factors of EDs related to the topic of self-identity.

  4. [Information and education on sexually transmitted diseases, AIDS and human sexuality--a case report after 14 years of experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gir, E; Moriya, T M; de Oliveira, M H; Pelá, N T

    1998-12-01

    The authors present their 14-year experience about Information/education on sexually transmitted diseases/Aids and human sexuality. They describe the actions implemented, emphasizing the positive and negative points. Concerning the positive results they mention the divulgation of information about preventive measures against HIV infection/Aids, Sexually Transmitted Diseases and human sexuality to several people from scientific and non scientific community. Another positive point is the transmission of knowledge gotten in such experiences at undergraduation and graduation teaching, as well as the development of research. Concerning the negative aspects, the difficult to evaluate the information actions, specially lectures was perceived, mainly because it is a communication tool basically unilateral. The authors mention some facts that historically influenced the implementation of the official actions.

  5. Discoid Lupus Erythematosus in Childhood: A Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlteriş Oğuz Topal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE is an uncommon disease in childhood. The lesions are similar to adults, are seen more frequently on sun-exposed areas. Discoid skin lesions, characterized by scaly, erythematous, telangiectatic papules and plaques. Histopathological and immunohistochemical studies are similar to that of adult patients. Antinuclear antibody (ANA positivity can be seen in laboratory investigations. Topical agents such as topical steroids and topical calcineurin inhibitors can be used with sun protection for the treatment. We report two pediatric patients who presented to our out-patient clinic with persistent wound on the face. One of them had symetrical atrophic plaques on the lower eyelids, the other had an erythematous plaque on the right lower eyelid. Skin biopsy samples was performed from the lesions of two patients. Laboratory examinations were within normal limits. The patients were diagnosed as DLE and outpatient follow-up was recommended. Although the incidence of DLE is uncommon in childhood, the risk of development systemic lupus erythematosus is more frequently reported compared to adult patients. Therefore, inorder to check for the ANA titers and other clinical and laboratory parameters regular follow-up of pediatric patients is essential.

  6. Autobiographical memory specificity after manipulating retrieval cues in adults reporting childhood sexual abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauer, Beatrijs J. A.; Wessel, Ineke; Geraerts, Elke; Merckelbach, Harald; Dalgleish, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Traumatized samples have relative difficulty in generating specific autobiographical memories on a cue word task, compared to nonexposed controls. Simultaneously, trauma is associated with highly specific intrusive trauma memories in day-to-day life. Possibly, day-to-day intrusions and memories gene

  7. Pain in long-term adult survivors of childhood cancers and their siblings: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian; Krull, Kevin R; Leisenring, Wendy; Owen, Jason E; Kawashima, Toana; Tsao, Jennie C I; Zebrack, Bradley; Mertens, Ann; Armstrong, Gregory T; Stovall, Marilyn; Robison, Leslie L; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2011-11-01

    Little is known about pain among long-term adult survivors of childhood cancers. The study investigated pain prevalence in this population compared with sibling controls and examined pain-related risk factors. Three self-reported pain outcomes including pain conditions, prescription analgesics used, and pain attributed to cancer and treatment were assessed among 10,397 cancer survivors and 3034 sibling controls from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Pain conditions (pain/abnormal sensation, migraines, and other headaches) were reported by 12.3%, 15.5%, and 20.5% of survivors, respectively; 16.7% of survivors reported use of prescription analgesics, and 21% attributed pain to cancer and treatment. Risks of reporting pain conditions and using prescription analgesics were higher among survivors than siblings, adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Younger age at diagnosis and a history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Wilms tumor, or neuroblastoma (compared to leukemia) were associated with greater risk of reporting pain conditions. A history of bone cancer or soft tissue sarcoma (compared to leukemia) was associated with greater risks of using prescription analgesics and cancer-related pain attribution. Non-brain-directed scatter irradiation was associated with elevated risk for migraines and cancer-related pain attribution. Female gender and lower educational attainment were associated with increased reports of all 3 pain outcomes; minority status, unemployment, and being single were associated with greater risks for reporting pain conditions. These findings contribute to the understanding of pain and associated risk factors among adult survivors of childhood cancer and suggest areas of focus for pain intervention.

  8. Sexual, Physical, Verbal/Emotional Abuse and Unexplained Chest Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslick, Guy D.; Koloski, Natasha A.; Talley, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Approximately one third of patients with non cardiac chest pain (NCCP) report a history of abuse, however no data exists on the prevalence of abuse among people with unexplained chest pain in the general population. We aimed to determine if there is a relationship between childhood sexual, physical, emotional abuse and unexplained…

  9. Melanoma as a Subsequent Neoplasm in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappo, AS; Armstrong, GT; Liu, W; Srivastava, DK; McDonald, A; Leisenring, WM; Hammond, S; Stovall, M; Neglia, JP; Robison, LL

    2012-01-01

    Background Childhood cancer survivors have a six fold increased risk of developing subsequent neoplasms when compared to the general population. We sought to describe the occurrence of melanoma as a subsequent neoplasm among adult survivors of childhood cancer. Patients and Methods Among 14,358 5-year survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed between 1970–86, we calculated the cumulative incidence, standardized incidence ratio (SIR), and absolute excess risk (AER) of subsequent melanoma. Potential risk factors were assessed using a cause-specific hazards model. Results 57 melanomas (46 invasive, 2 ocular and 9 in situ) occurred in 51 survivors. The median time to the development of melanoma was 21.0 years (range 5.6–35.4 years) and the median age at melanoma was 32.3 years (range 10.9 – 49.0 years). Initial cancer diagnoses included soft tissue and bone sarcoma (n=15), leukemia (13), lymphoma (14), central nervous system malignancy (5), Wilms’ tumor (3), and neuroblastoma (1). The cumulative incidence of first subsequent melanoma at 35 years from initial cancer diagnosis was 0.55% (95% CI 0.37–0.73). The SIR of subsequent invasive malignant melanoma of the skin was 2.42 (95% CI 1.77 – 3.23), and the AER was 0.10 (95% CI 0.05 – 0.15) per 1,000 person years. No statistically significant associations were found between melanoma risk and family history of cancer, demographic, or treatment-related factors. Conclusion Survivors of childhood cancer have an approximate 2.5-fold increased risk of melanoma. Early screening and prevention strategies are warranted. PMID:22887858

  10. Retrospective Parent Report of Early Vocal Behaviours in Children with Suspected Childhood Apraxia of Speech (sCAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highman, Chantelle; Hennessey, Neville; Sherwood, Mellanie; Leitao, Suze

    2008-01-01

    Parents of children with suspected Childhood Apraxia of Speech (sCAS, n = 20), Specific Language Impairment (SLI, n = 20), and typically developing speech and language skills (TD, n = 20) participated in this study, which aimed to quantify and compare reports of early vocal development. Via a questionnaire, parents reported on their child's early…

  11. Attitudes toward Sexual Partner Concurrency: Development and Evaluation of a Brief, Self-Report Measure for Field Research

    OpenAIRE

    Michael P. Carey; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Kate B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a brief, reliable, and valid self-report measure of attitudes toward sexual partner concurrency. Focus groups, conducted with 59 participants, yielded 26 common attitudes. STD clinic patients (n = 370) reported their sexual risk history, and rated the 26 attitude statements. This sample was randomly divided into two subsamples, with some participants completing the items on two occasions (separated by 3 months) to evaluate test-retest reliability. Both...

  12. Sexual Distress and Sexual Problems During Pregnancy: Associations With Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, Sarah A; Rosen, Natalie O

    2017-03-01

    Sexual problems are common during pregnancy, but the proportion of pregnant women who experience sexual distress is unknown. In non-pregnant samples, sexual distress is associated with lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. To identify the proportion of women experiencing sexual distress during pregnancy and to compare the sexual and relationship satisfaction of women who report sexual distress during pregnancy with that of women without distress. Two-hundred sixty-one pregnant women completed a cross-sectional online survey. Women completed validated measurements of sexual functioning (Female Sexual Function Index; score relationship satisfaction (Couples Satisfaction Index). Overall, 42% of women met the clinical cutoff for sexual distress. Of sexually active women (n = 230), 26% reported concurrent sexual problems and distress and 14% reported sexual distress in the absence of sexual problems. Sexual distress and/or problems in sexual functioning were linked to lower sexual and relationship satisfaction compared with pregnant women with lower sexual distress and fewer sexual problems. Sexual distress is common during pregnancy and associated with lower sexual and relationship satisfaction. Health care providers should ask pregnant women about feelings of sexual distress. Identifying pregnant women who experience sexual distress and referring them to appropriate resources could help minimize sexual and relationship problems during pregnancy. Vannier SA, Rosen NO. Sexual Distress and Sexual Problems During Pregnancy: Associations With Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction. J Sex Med 2017;14:387-395. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in American Adults' Reported Same-Sex Sexual Experiences and Attitudes, 1973-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Sherman, Ryne A; Wells, Brooke E

    2016-10-01

    We examined change over time in the reported prevalence of men having sex with men and women having sex with women and acceptance of those behaviors in the nationally representative General Social Survey of U.S. adults (n's = 28,161-33,728, ages 18-96 years), 1972-2014. The number of U.S. adults who had at least one same-sex partner since age 18 doubled between the early 1990s and early 2010s (from 3.6 to 8.7 % for women and from 4.5 to 8.2 % for men). Bisexual behavior (having sex with both male and female partners) increased from 3.1 to 7.7 %, accounting for much of the rise, with little consistent change in those having sex exclusively with same-sex partners. The increase in same-sex partners was larger for women than for men, consistent with erotic plasticity theory. Attitudes toward same-sex sexual behavior also became substantially more accepting, d = .75, between the early 1970s and early 2010s. By 2014, 49 % of American adults believed that same-sex sexual activity was "not wrong at all," up from 11 % in 1973 and 13 % in 1990. Controlling for acceptance reduced, but did not eliminate, the increase in same-sex behavior over time. Mixed effects (hierarchical linear modeling) analyses separating age, time period, and cohort showed that the trends were primarily due to time period. Increases in same-sex sexual behavior were largest in the South and Midwest and among Whites, were mostly absent among Blacks, and were smaller among the religious. Overall, same-sex sexual behavior has become both more common (or at least more commonly reported) and more accepted.

  14. Self-Reported Versus Accelerometer-Assessed Daily Physical Activity in Childhood Obesity Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnurr, Theresia Maria; Bech, Bianca; Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark

    2017-01-01

    percentile for sex and age, aged 5–17 years had valid GT3X + accelerometer-assessed PA and interview-assessed self-reported information on PA engagement at the time of enrollment in a multidisciplinary outpatient tertiary treatment for childhood obesity. Accelerometer-derived mean overall PA and time spent......We investigated the relationship between interview-based subjective ratings of physical activity (PA) engagement and accelerometer-assessed objective measured PA in children and adolescents with overweight or obesity. A total of 92 children and adolescents (40 males, 52 females) with BMI ≥ 90th......). PAS, derived from self-report, may be a useful instrument for evaluating PA at a group level among children and adolescents enrolled in multidisciplinary obesity treatment....

  15. Sudden unexplained death in childhood. An audit of the quality of Autopsy reporting

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Treacy, A

    2013-03-01

    Cases of sudden unexplained death in childhood (SUDC) in Ireland in children aged >1year and <5 years were examined in order to assess the quality of autopsy reporting. All SUDC cases are notified to and documented by the National Sudden Infant Death Register (NSIDR) in Ireland along with all cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) referring to sudden infant deaths less than one year of age. The database of the NSIDR in Ireland was interrogated and cases of SIDS and SUDC were compared over a fifteen-year period (1995-2009). SIDS cases whose autopsies were conducted in the same hospital in the same year as the index SUDC case were used for comparison. The autopsy report for each case was examined and modified Rushton(MR) scores 1\\r\

  16. Neurogenic pulmonary edema combined with febrile seizures in early childhood-A report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaka, Keiji; Matsubara, Kousaku; Hori, Masayuki; Nigami, Hiroyuki; Iwata, Aya; Isome, Kenichi; Kawasaki, Yu; Nagai, Sadayuki

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is a clinical entity that can occur following central nervous system disorders. However, NPE occurs quite rarely in early childhood, and there has only been one report about pediatric NPE associated with febrile seizures. Two cases are reported here. One case involved a 2-year-old girl who presented with febrile seizures, which rapidly progressed to severe NPE. Since the NPE occurred in the emergency department room, the patient was able to be resuscitated via immediate endotracheal intubation. The other case involved an 11-month-old boy who developed respiratory distress following a 50-min episode of febrile status epilepticus. Both patients required respiratory management in the intensive care unit. However their conditions were dramatically improved within several days and fully recovered without any sequelae.

  17. Childhood pustular psoriasis elicited by the streptococcal antigen: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra, Marya; Conte, Eugene; Cortez, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    The Zumbusch pattern of generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) classically presents as waves of widespread sheets of sterile pustules on brightly erythematous skin. The occurrence of this disease in childhood is rare, and fewer than 200 cases have been reported in the literature. We describe a 10-year-old boy with GPP who had an elevated serum antistreptolysin titer. Several antigenic factors shown to elicit GPP have been reported, including withdrawal of steroids, emotional stress, and infection. However, we further propose that the group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus can trigger a flare of GPP. We suggest that if pustular psoriasis is suspected clinically, an elevated serum antistreptolysin antibody titer may help identify the causative antigen.

  18. Clinical Holistic Medicine: The Case Story of Anna. I. Long-Term Effect of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Incest with a Treatment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The nervous breakdown of a 22-year-old, young woman was caused by severe sexual abuse in childhood, which was repressed over many years. During therapy, the patient accumulated resources to start the painful integration of these old traumas. Using holistic existential therapy in accordance with the life mission theory and the holistic process theory of healing, she finally was able to confront her old traumas and heal her existence. She seemingly recovered completely (including regaining full emotional range through holistic existential therapy, individually and in a group. The therapy took 18 months and more than 100 hours of intensive therapy. In the beginning of the therapy, the issues were her physical and mental health; in the middle of the therapy, the central issue was her purpose of life and her love life; and at the conclusion of the therapy, the issue was gender and sexuality. The strategy was to build up her strength for several months, mobilizing hidden resources and motivation for living, before the old traumas could be confronted and integrated. The therapy was based on quality of life philosophy, on the life mission theory, the theory of ego, the theory of talent, the theory of the evil side of man, the theory of human character, and the holistic process theory of healing. The clinical procedures included conversation, philosophical training, group therapeutic tools, extended use of therapeutic touch, holistic pelvic examination, and acceptance through touch was used to integrate the early traumas bound to the pelvis and scar tissue in the sexual organs. She was processed according to 10 levels of the advanced toolbox for holistic medicine and the general plan for clinical holistic psychiatry. The emotional steps she went through are well described by the scale of existential responsibility. The case story of Anna is an example of how even the most severely ill patient can recover fully with the support of holistic medical

  19. A phenomenological exploration of reflections on lived space by child sexual abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Linda H

    2010-12-01

    Child sexual abusers may be better understood by phenomenological exploration of reflections on childhood lived space. Child sexual abusers often suffer from child sexual abuse, physical abuse, and neglect in their childhood lived space. These experiences may be considered a limitation or deformation of the child's lived space, resulting in a distorted self view that contributes to adult behavior. Child sexual abuse is not a new phenomenon; it is a problem that has existed throughout history but has rarely enjoyed the publicity and concern of recent times. Child sexual abusers' reflections on their lived space during childhood were explored by interviewing eight incarcerated child sexual abusers in a US correctional center. Van Manen's descriptive-interpretive theoretical process was used to guide abusers' existential reflections on their childhood lived space. van Manen's phenomenological method is dynamic and was used to organize and analyze data into essential categorical themes, one of which is "failure to root." While the viewpoint is retrospective, participants in this study provided unique perspectives on childhood reflections on lived space. These experiences, as reported by the participants, could be used to assist child victims to cope and to guide nursing practice, education, and future research related to Healthy People 2010's Goal 15 (Healthy People 2010, n.d.).

  20. Maternal support following childhood sexual abuse: Associations with children's adjustment post-disclosure and at 9-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Kristyn; Ralston, M Elizabeth; Smith, Daniel W

    2015-06-01

    Maternal support has been widely cited as an important predictor of children's adjustment following disclosure of sexual abuse. However, few studies have examined these effects longitudinally. The current study examines the relationships between a multidimensional assessment of maternal support rated by both mothers and children and children's adjustment in various domains (internalizing, externalizing, anger, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms) concurrently and longitudinally. Participants were 118 mother-child dyads recruited from a Child Advocacy Center where children were determined through a forensic evaluation to be victims of sexual abuse. Child and mother ratings of maternal support and child adjustment were collected shortly after the forensic evaluation and at 9-month follow-up. Results were consistent with findings from past studies that maternal support is significantly related to children's post-disclosure adjustment and extends these findings longitudinally. Additionally, the study sheds light on differential relations between dimensions of maternal support (Emotional Support, Blame/Doubt, Vengeful Arousal, and Skeptical Preoccupation) and child adjustment and suggests the importance of using both child and mother ratings of maternal support in future research.