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Sample records for reported childhood physical

  1. Self-reported childhood physical activity and breast cancer in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    The association between physical activity during childhood and breast cancer risk was examined. To study this question data on physical activity in childhood were analyzed. A hospital-based case-control study of 250 Polish incident breast cancer cases (49.2% of eligible) and 301 (41.4% of all selected) frequency matched for age controls was conducted in 2003-2004 in the Region of Western Pomerania. Women were asked to compare their total physical activity at ages 10-12 years and 13-15 years with the activity of their female peers by choose from one of three categories: less active, equally active, more active, the best describing their activity. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression, fitted by the method of maximum likehood. Women who reported having been physically more active than their peers at ages 10-12 years had an age-adjusted OR=0.88 (95% CI=0.36-2.15, P for trend=0.37) as compared with those reported being less active. Adjustment for potential confounders and total lifetime physical activity decreased the risk estimate to OR=0.25 (95% CI=0.06-1.10, P for trend=0.15). For physical activity at ages 13-15 years, both an age-adjusted and multivariate adjusted ORs were also decreased among women who were at least such active as their peers, but the reductions were not statistically significant. For women who were more physically active than their peers during both age periods the adjusted OR was 0.30 (95% CI=0.11-1.34, P for trend =0.21). These results show no protective role for physical activity in childhood on breast cancer development among women aged 35-75 years. Further investigations employing larger sample sizes with comprehensive assessment of physical activity during the childish years are needed to verify this evidence.

  2. Measured versus self-reported physical function in adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Webb A; Li, Zhenghong; Loftin, Mark; Carlyle, Brent E; Hudson, Melissa M; Robison, Leslie L; Ness, Kirsten K

    2014-02-01

    Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) experience late effects that interfere with physical function. Limitations in physical function can affect CCS abilities to actively participate in daily activities. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the concordance between self-reported physical performance and clinically evaluated physical performance among adult CCS. CCS 18 yr or older and 10 yr or older from diagnosis who are participants in the St. Jude Lifetime cohort study responded to the physical function section of the Medical Outcome Survey Short Form (SF-36). Measured physical performance was evaluated using the Physical Performance Test and the 6-Minute Walk Test. Individuals (N = 1778, 50.8% female) with a median time since diagnosis of 24.9 yr (range = 10.9-48.2) and a median age of 32.4 yr (range = 19.1-48.2) completed testing. Limitations in physical performance were self-reported by 14.1% of participants. The accuracy of self-report physical performance was 0.87 when the SF-36 was compared with the 6-Minute Walk Test or the Physical Performance Test. Reporting inaccuracies most often involved reporting a physical performance limitation. Poor accuracy was associated with previous diagnosis of a bone or CNS tumor, lymphoma, older age, and large body size. These results suggest that self-report, using the physical performance subscale of the SF-36, correctly identifies CCS who do not have physical performance limitations. In contrast, this same measure is less able to identify individuals who have performance limitations.

  3. Self-Reported Versus Accelerometer-Assessed Daily Physical Activity in Childhood Obesity Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnurr, Theresia Maria; Bech, Bianca; Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark

    2017-01-01

    percentile for sex and age, aged 5–17 years had valid GT3X + accelerometer-assessed PA and interview-assessed self-reported information on PA engagement at the time of enrollment in a multidisciplinary outpatient tertiary treatment for childhood obesity. Accelerometer-derived mean overall PA and time spent......We investigated the relationship between interview-based subjective ratings of physical activity (PA) engagement and accelerometer-assessed objective measured PA in children and adolescents with overweight or obesity. A total of 92 children and adolescents (40 males, 52 females) with BMI ≥ 90th......). PAS, derived from self-report, may be a useful instrument for evaluating PA at a group level among children and adolescents enrolled in multidisciplinary obesity treatment....

  4. Factors associated with physical activity among adolescent and young adult survivors of early childhood cancer: A report from the childhood cancer survivor study (CCSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Katie A; Mertens, Ann C; Whitton, John A; Wilson, Carmen L; Ness, Kirsten K; Gilleland Marchak, Jordan; Leisenring, Wendy; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Robison, Leslie L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Krull, Kevin R

    2017-08-14

    To evaluate concurrent and longitudinal associations between psychosocial functioning and physical activity in adolescent and young adult survivors of early childhood cancer. Adolescent survivors of early childhood cancer (diagnosed before age four) participating in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study completed the Coping Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition (CHIP-AE; n = 303; mean age at survey: 17.6 years). A subset of these survivors (n = 248) completed a follow-up survey an average of 6.0 years later (range: 4-10). Logistic regression identified associations between psychosocial functioning in adolescence and physical activity levels in adolescence and young adulthood. Survivors reported low physical activity as adolescents (46.1% scored below CHIP-AE cut-point) and young adults (40.8% below Centers for Disease Control guidelines). Poor physical activity during adolescence was associated with female sex (OR = 2.06, 95% CI, 1.18-3.68), parents with less than a college education (OR = 1.91, 95% CI, 1.11-3.32), previous treatment with cranial radiation (OR = 3.35, 95% CI, 1.69-6.88), TV time (OR = 1.77, 95% CI, 1.00-3.14), and limitations of activity due to health or mobility restrictions (OR = 8.28, 95% CI, 2.87-30.34). Poor diet (OR = 1.84, 95% CI, 1.05-3.26) and low self-esteem (OR = 1.80, 95% CI, 0.99-3.31) during adolescence were associated with lower odds of meeting Centers for Disease Control physical activity guidelines in young adulthood. These findings provide targets for future interventional studies to improve physical activity in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Childhood chronic physical condition, self-reported health, and life satisfaction in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Heidi; Hurtig, Tuula; Taanila, Anja; Honkanen, Meri; Ebeling, Hanna; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigates the prevalence and type of chronic conditions at 7 years of age-with special reference to atopic conditions-and their longitudinal associations with self-reported health and life satisfaction in adolescence. The data were obtained from Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986), which is a longitudinal 1-year birth cohort from an unselected, regionally defined population (n = 9,432). The present study investigated a sample of 8,036 children with data of chronic conditions at 7 years of age and a sample of 6,680 children with data of chronic conditions at 16 years of age. According to parents' report the prevalence of CC at 7 years of age was 14.8 % among boys and 13.2 % among girls, these figures being at 16 years of age 20.7 and 19.4 %, respectively. Atopic conditions were the most common chronic conditions at 7 years of age (12.7 % vs. other chronic conditions 4.7 %). Childhood chronic condition was associated with subsequent self-reported health in adolescence, but not with subsequent self-reported life satisfaction. Chronic condition at 7 years of age increased the risk of reporting health as "poor" even if the chronic condition was no longer prevalent at 16 years of age. Atopic conditions seemed to be linked with self-reported poor/moderate health more often than other chronic conditions among girls. Conclusion Childhood chronic conditions seem to affect adolescent's subjective health, but fortunately, they do not affect adolescents' subjective well-being to such an extent that it could lower their life satisfaction.

  6. Self-Reported Versus Accelerometer-Assessed Daily Physical Activity in Childhood Obesity Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnurr, Theresia Maria; Bech, Bianca; Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between interview-based subjective ratings of physical activity (PA) engagement and accelerometer-assessed objective measured PA in children and adolescents with overweight or obesity. A total of 92 children and adolescents (40 males, 52 females) with BMI ≥ 90th......-assessed daily total PA levels (r = 0.34, p children who reported a high PAS were more physically active compared with children who reported a low PAS. There was a fair level of agreement between self-reported PAS and accelerometer-assessed PA (Kappa agreement = 0.23; 95% CI = [0.03, 0.43]; p = .01...... in moderate to vigorous physical intensity were generated, applying cut-offs based on Vector Magnitude settings as defined by Romanzini et al. (2014), and a physical activity score (PAS) based on self-reported data was calculated. Overall, a higher self-reported PAS was correlated with higher accelerometer...

  7. Childhood Physical Activity and Adulthood Earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Jaana T; Tammelin, Tuija H; Viinikainen, Jutta; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T; Pehkonen, Jaakko

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the associations between childhood physical activity level and adulthood earnings. The data were drawn from the ongoing longitudinal Young Finns Study, which was combined with register-based Finnish Longitudinal Employer-Employee Data and register-based parents' background information from the Longitudinal Population Census of Statistics Finland. The study consisted of children who were 9 yr (n = 1257, 52% boys), 12 yr (n = 1662, 51% boys), and 15 yr (n = 1969, 49% boys) of age at the time when physical activity was measured. The children were followed until 2010, when they were between 33 and 45 yr old. Leisure-time physical activity in childhood was self-reported, whereas earnings in adulthood were register based and covered over a 10-yr period from 2000 to 2010. Ordinary least squares models were used to analyze the relationship between physical activity and earnings. Childhood physical activity level was positively associated with long-term earnings among men (P childhood physical activity can have far-reaching positive effects on adulthood earnings. Possibilities for improving physical activity during childhood may not only promote health but also affect long-term labor market outcomes.

  8. Childhood asthma and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Nielsen, Kim G; Petersen, Poul Erik;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents. The obj......BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents...... and extracted data from original articles that met the inclusion criteria. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were used to express the results of the meta-analysis (forest plot). We explored heterogeneity using funnel plots and the Graphic Appraisal Tool for Epidemiology (GATE). RESULTS......: We retrieved 1,571 titles and selected 11 articles describing three cohort and eight cross-sectional studies for inclusion. A meta-analysis of the cohort studies revealed a risk of new-onset asthma in children with low PA (OR [95 % CI] 1.32 [0.95; 1.84] [random effects] and 1.35 [1.13; 1.62] [fixed...

  9. Childhood asthma and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Nielsen, Kim G; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents....... The objectives of our study were to (1) summarize the evidence available on associations between PA and asthma prevalence in children and adolescents and (2) assess the role of PA in new-onset or incident asthma among children and adolescents. METHODS: We searched Medline, the Cochrane Library, and Embase......: We retrieved 1,571 titles and selected 11 articles describing three cohort and eight cross-sectional studies for inclusion. A meta-analysis of the cohort studies revealed a risk of new-onset asthma in children with low PA (OR [95 % CI] 1.32 [0.95; 1.84] [random effects] and 1.35 [1.13; 1.62] [fixed...

  10. Physical Science in Constructivist Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tsuguhiko; Van Meeteren, Beth Dykstra

    2008-01-01

    Teachers at the Freeburg Early Childhood Program know that experimentation with physical science is of great interest to young children, and can begin as early as the age of 3. The constructivist teachers at this experimental school at the University of Northern Iowa worked for six years to develop a center-based approach to physical science with…

  11. Analysis of North Carolina Community College Early Childhood Education Coursework on Nutrition, Health, and Physical Activity. Early Childhood Professional Development Report, Volume 1, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Raab, Melinda; Hamby, Deborah W.; Long, Anna Lauren

    2015-01-01

    The results from a content analysis of coursework required and offered at the 58 North Carolina Community Colleges to obtain an Associate in Applied Sciences Degree in early childhood education are described. The analyses were conducted to determine the likelihood that the courses could include content knowledge or practice on 12 infant and child…

  12. Physical exercise training interventions for children and young adults during and after treatment for childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, Katja I.; van der Torre, Patrick; Takken, Tim; Veening, Margreet A.; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Kaspers, Gertjan J L

    BACKGROUND: A decreased physical fitness has been reported in patients and survivors of childhood cancer. This is influenced by the negative effects of the disease and the treatment of childhood cancer. Exercise training for adult cancer patients has frequently been reported to improve physical

  13. Physical exercise training interventions for children and young adults during and after treatment for childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, Katja I.; van der Torre, Patrick; Takken, Tim; Veening, Margreet A.; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Kaspers, Gertjan J L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A decreased physical fitness has been reported in patients and survivors of childhood cancer. This is influenced by the negative effects of the disease and the treatment of childhood cancer. Exercise training for adult cancer patients has frequently been reported to improve physical fitn

  14. Reconsidering Physical Activity Restrictions for Mononephric Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Maki; Hockenberry, Marilyn J; Koh, Chester J; Meeske, Kathleen A; Rangan, Kasey E; Rodgers, Cheryl; Rosenthal, Yael; Ruccione, Kathleen S; Freyer, David R

    2016-07-01

    Although traditional recommendations for mononephric childhood cancer survivors are to avoid contact sports in order to protect the remaining kidney, review of available evidence suggests that the majority of renal loss is caused by accidents not involving sports. An interdisciplinary team performed a review of the English literature published from 1999 to 2012 within the PubMed, Cochrane, Google Scholar, and National Guidelines Clearinghouse databases. The level of evidence and proposed recommendations were graded according to an established rubric and GRADE criteria. Our review found that kidney loss is most commonly caused by nonsports activities such as motor vehicle accidents and falls, implying that restrictions on sports-related activity in mononephric pediatric survivors are not well supported. This favors encouraging ordinary sports and related activities without restriction in mononephric childhood cancer survivors because the known benefits of exercise outweigh the exceedingly low risk of renal loss. Accordingly, activity recommendations for mononephric patients have been revised in the most current version of the Children's Oncology Group Long-term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent and Young Adult Cancers. This has important implications for this and similar populations who may now undertake individual and organized sports without undue regard for their mononephric status.

  15. Report on Childhood Obesity in China (8): Effects and Sustainability of Physical Activity Intervention on Body Composition of Chinese Youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.P.; Hu, X.Q.; Schouten, E.G.; Liu, A.L.; Du, S.M.; Li, L.Z.; Cui, Z.H.; Wang, D.; Kok, F.J.; Hu, F.B.; Ma, G.S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether a large-scale physical activity intervention could affect body composition in primary school students in Beijing, China. Methods The study design was one-year cluster randomized controlled trial of physical activity intervention (20 min of daily exercise in the

  16. Report on Childhood Obesity in China (6) Evaluation of a Classroom-based Physical Activity Promotion Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI-LING LIU; XIAO-QI HU; GUAN-SHENG MA; ZHAO-HUI CUI; YONG-PING PAN; SU-YING CHANG; WEN-HUA ZHAO; CHUN-MING CHEN

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of Happy 10 program on the promotion of physical activity, physical growth and development of primary-school students, and on obesity control and prevention. Methods Two similar primary schools from one district of Beijing, China were selected, one as an intervention school and the other as a control school. Happy 10program was implemented at least once every school day in the intervention school for two semesters, whereas no intervention was adopted in the control school. The information on energy expenditure and duration of physical activity was collected by a validated 7-day physical activity questionnaire. Height and weight were measured by trained investigators following the standardized procedure. Energy expenditure and intensity of each Happy 10 session was measured by a physical activity monitor. Results The average energy expenditure and duration of total physical activity per day among students in the intervention school increased significantly from 15.0 to 18.2 kcal/kg, and 2.8 to 3.3 h respectively, whereas the figures significantly decreased in the control school. There was a significant difference in change of weight and BMI between girls in the intervention and control school (2.4 kg vs 4.6 kg, -0.47 kg/m2 vs 0.66 kg/m2). The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the intervention school decreased by 0.4%-5.6%, as compared to the increase by 0.6%-4.5% in the control school. The average energy expenditure and intensity per 10-minute session ranged from 25.0-35.1 kcal, 4.8-6.2 kcal/kg/h respectively in grades 1-5.Conclusion Happy 10 program provides a useful strategy to promote physical activity among school children and also plays a positive role in building up physical growth and development of girls.

  17. Childhood physical abuse and aggression: Shame and narcissistic vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Amanda C; Epps, James

    2016-01-01

    This study examined narcissistic vulnerability and shame-proneness as potential mediators between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and adult anger and aggression. Participants were 400 undergraduate students, 134 of whom had a history of CPA. All participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing history of CPA, shame-proneness, narcissistic vulnerability, physical aggression, trait anger, and hostility. Results indicated abused participants were more angry and aggressive and experienced higher levels of shame-proneness and narcissistic vulnerability than nonabused participants. Multiple mediation analyses showed that narcissistic vulnerability, but not shame-proneness, partially mediated the relation between abuse and physical aggression. However, narcissistic vulnerability and shame-proneness both emerged as partial mediators between abuse and the anger and hostility variables. These findings suggest that narcissistic vulnerability and shame-proneness may function as mediators of adjustment following childhood maltreatment. Study limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  18. Childhood physical punishment or maltreatment and partnership outcomes at age 30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Geraldine F H; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John

    2014-05-01

    Childhood physical abuse is known to be associated with impaired outcomes in adulthood (e.g., particularly for mental and physical health). However, relatively little is known about adult partnership outcomes for those exposed to childhood physical punishment or maltreatment. This study aims to examine the associations between childhood physical punishment or maltreatment and partnership outcomes at age 30. This investigation analyzed data from a birth cohort of more than 900 New Zealand adults studied to age 30. At ages 18 and 21, cohort members reported on the extent of exposure to childhood physical punishment or maltreatment prior to age 16. Measures of partner relations were collected up to age 30. After adjustment for childhood social, family, and related factors, increasing exposure to childhood physical punishment or maltreatment was associated with greater negative partner relationships (p=.002), partner social adjustment problems (p=.006), interpartner violence victimization (p=.010), and interpartner violence perpetration (p=.019). However, after adjustment, the association between childhood physical punishment or maltreatment and the number of cohabiting relationships was no longer statistically significant (p=.151). Interactions between childhood physical punishment or maltreatment and gender were tested for each of the outcomes. This analysis showed an interactive relationship between childhood physical punishment or maltreatment and partner social adjustment problems in which childhood physical punishment or maltreatment for females, but not males, was associated with partner social adjustment problems. These findings suggest that increasing exposure to childhood physical punishment or maltreatment is associated with impaired partnership outcomes: more negative partner relations, increased reports of a partner with social adjustment problems, and higher levels of interpartner violence.

  19. Factors Influencing School Counselors' Suspecting and Reporting of Childhood Physical Abuse: Investigating Child, Parent, School, and Abuse Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Kathleen S.; Prazak, Michael D.; Burrier, Lauren; Miller, Sadie; Benezra, Max; Lynch, Lori

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to explore possible child abuse reporting problems for children, including both disparities among school counselors. The participants in this study were elementary school counselors (N = 398) from across the United States. Each participant read a series of vignettes and completed a survey regarding their inclinations about…

  20. Differences in childhood physical abuse reporting and the association between CPA and alcohol use disorder in European American and African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Kimberly B; Grant, Julia D; McCutcheon, Vivia V; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Sartor, Carolyn E

    2016-06-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine whether the magnitude of the association between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) varies by type of CPA assessment and race of the respondents. Data are from the Missouri adolescent female twins study and the Missouri family study (N = 4508) where 21.2% identified as African American (AA) and 78.8% as European American (EA); mean age = 23.8. Data were collected using a structured comprehensive interview which assessed CPA experiences using behavioral questions about specific abusive behaviors and trauma checklist items. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted, adjusting for additional risk factors associated with AUD, including co-occurring psychiatric disorders (defined as time-varying) and parental alcohol misuse. Overall, CPA reporting patterns were highly correlated (tetrachoric ρ = 0.73); although, only 25.8% of women who endorsed behaviorally defined CPA also endorsed checklist items whereas 72.2% of women who endorsed checklist items also endorsed behavioral questions. Racial disparities were evident, with behaviorally defined CPA increasing the hazard for AUD in EA but not AA women. Additional racial disparities in the risk for AUD were observed: increased hazard for AUD were associated with major depressive disorder in AA, and cannabis dependence and paternal alcohol problems in EA, women. Results demonstrate the relevance of the type of CPA measure in assessing CPA in studies of alcohol-related problems-behavioral items may be more inclusive of CPA exposure and more predictive of AUD- and highlight racial distinctions of AUD etiology in women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Childhood trauma, country report (Thailand).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junnanond, C; Ruangkanchanasetr, S; Chunharas, A

    1993-10-01

    In Thailand, each year approximately 15,000 people die from accidents, a figure exceeded only by cardiovascular diseases. Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) is the principal cause of death and injuries in children of all ages except preschool group. In 1988 there were 554,452 cases of injuries out of which 10,031 died from MVA. In Bangkok alone MVA accounts for an average of 300 childhood and teenage death and 1,900 cases of injuries each year. Falls, burns and poisonings are relatively high in children less than 4 years old while MVA and injuries from sharp and blunt objects of both accidental and non-accidental cases increase with age and become the two leading causes of injury in older children. The sex ratio (F:M) in preschool ages are 1:1.4 and 1:2 in preteen. Poisonings, though less common, are considered to be very important because of their severity. Drugs, hydrocarbon, insecticides, lead and corrosive substances are leading agents. As for injuries caused by animals, 150 cases of rabies were reported each year while around 5,000 cases of snake bites were found in 1987 and 20 per cent of the victims were children. The study from Ramathibodi Hospital revealed that the majority of accidents (65-72%) occur at home and 20 per cent in the street in children younger than 12 years. Peak incidence were found between 5-9 pm. During weekend and holidays the incidence is higher. Ninety-five per cent of the accidents reported were mild cases, 15 per cent moderate, 3 per cent severe and less than 1 per cent caused death.

  2. Low income/socio-economic status in early childhood and physical health in later childhood/adolescence: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Nick; Thanh, Tu Mai; Louise, Séguin

    2013-04-01

    To systematically review the literature on the relationship between early childhood low income/socioeconomic status (SES) and physical health in later childhood/adolescence, to identify gaps in the literature and to suggest new avenues for research. A systematic search of electronic databases from their start date to November 2011 was conducted to identify prospective longitudinal studies in industrialized countries with a measure of low income/SES in the first 5 years of life and physical health outcomes in later childhood or adolescence. STROBE criteria were used to assess study quality. Risk estimates were expressed as odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals where possible. Heterogeneity of studies precluded meta-analysis. Nine studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Significant associations of early childhood low income/SES with activity-limiting illness, parent-reported poor health status, acute and recurrent infections, increasing BMI percentile and hospitalization were reported. Results for parent-reported asthma were less consistent: there was a significant association with low income/SES in early childhood in 2 studies but null findings in 3 others. This systematic review of the association of early childhood low income/SES with physical health status in later childhood and adolescence shows that, in contrast to the extensive literature on the impact of poor childhood social circumstances on adult health, the evidence base is limited. The literature points to some associations of early low income/SES with later poor health status, but many key research questions remain unanswered. Implications for further research are considered.

  3. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2013-01-01

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people’s cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents’ academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = –0.023, 95% confidence interval = –0.031, –0.015) and obesity (B = –0.025, 95% confidence interval = –0.039, –0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement. PMID:23277558

  4. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantomaa, Marko T; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2013-01-29

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people's cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents' academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = -0.023, 95% confidence interval = -0.031, -0.015) and obesity (B = -0.025, 95% confidence interval = -0.039, -0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement.

  5. The provision of compulsory school physical activity: Associations with physical activity, fitness and overweight in childhood and twenty years later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blizzard Leigh

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine whether the provision of higher levels of compulsory school physical activity is associated with higher physical activity and fitness levels and less overweight in childhood and 20 years later. Methods As part of the 1985 Australian Schools Health and Fitness Survey, 109 schools reported how much compulsory physical education (PE and school sport they provided and were classified as low (2 cutpoints. 9, 12 and 15 year-olds (n = 2,595 completed a cycle ergometer fitness test (physical working capacity at heart rate 170, PWC170. At follow-up in 2004–5, 2,346 participants kept a pedometer record, completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and/or a PWC170 fitness test; and had height and weight measured (overweight = BMI≥25 m/kg2. Results At baseline and follow-up, median total physical activity, fitness and BMI were similar in participants who attended low, medium and high physical activity schools, and those attending high physical activity schools reported only modestly higher school physical activity. There was no difference in the prevalence of high total physical activity and fitness levels in childhood or adulthood across compulsory school physical activity categories. The prevalence of overweight in childhood and adulthood was similar across low, medium and high compulsory physical activity schools. Conclusion The amount of compulsory physical activity reported by schools was not associated with total physical activity, fitness or overweight in childhood or in adulthood. Policies promoting amounts of compulsory school physical activity in this range may not be sufficient to increase physical activity and fitness or reduce the prevalence of obesity in children.

  6. Identifying Experiences of Physical and Psychological Violence in Childhood that Jeopardize Mental Health in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Emily A.; Marks, Nadine F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined associations between profiles of physical and psychological violence in childhood from parents and two dimensions of mental health in adulthood (negative affect and psychological well-being). Profiles were distinguished by the types of violence retrospectively self-reported (only physical, only psychological, or both…

  7. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2012-01-01

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people’s cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, pre...

  8. The contribution of physical activity and media use during childhood and adolescence to adult women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2006-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of both past and current physical activity and media use on women's body image. A sample of 144 female undergraduate students completed measures of current physical activity, media use and body image, as well as providing retrospective reports of their physical activity participation and media usage during childhood and adolescence. Regression analyses showed that childhood experiences of physical activity and media use predicted adult body-image concerns more strongly than current activities. It was concluded that early experiences of both physical activity and media use during childhood and adolescence play an important role in the development of adult women's body image.

  9. Tracking of objectively measured physical activity from childhood to adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Lund; Møller, N C; Korsholm, L

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated tracking of physical activity from childhood to adolescence and, in general, these studies have been based on methods with some degree of subjectivity (e.g., questionnaires). The aim of the present study was to evaluate tracking of physical activity from...... childhood to adolescence using accelerometry, taking into account major sources of variation in physical activity. Both a crude and an adjusted model was fitted, and, in the adjusted model, analyses were corrected for seasonal variation, within-week variation, activity registration during night time sleep......, in the adjusted model highly significant stability coefficients of 0.53 and 0.48 for boys and girls, respectively, were observed. It was concluded that physical activity behavior tends to track moderately from childhood to adolescence....

  10. Reports of Parental Maltreatment during Childhood in a United States Population-Based Survey of Homosexual, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, Heather L.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined childhood maltreatment among 2917 heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual adults. Homosexual/bisexual men reported higher rates than heterosexual men of childhood emotional and physical maltreatment by their mothers and major physical maltreatment by their fathers. Homosexual/bisexual women reported higher rates of major physical…

  11. Childhood masturbation simulating epileptic seizures: A report of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Childhood masturbation simulating epileptic seizures: A report of two cases ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... Background: Childhood masturbation (self-gratification) may mimic epileptic seizures, and is ...

  12. The interplay of trait anger, childhood physical abuse, and alcohol consumption in predicting intimate partner aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David

    2015-04-01

    The current study examined three well-established risk factors for intimate partner aggression (IPA) within Finkel and Eckhardt's I(3) model, including two impellance factors-trait anger and childhood physical abuse history-and the disinhibiting factor of alcohol consumption. Participants were 236 male and female college students in a committed heterosexual dating relationship who completed a battery of self-report measures assessing childhood physical abuse, trait anger, alcohol consumption, and IPA perpetration. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction showing that as the disinhibition factor alcohol consumption increased, the interaction of the two impelling factors, trait anger and childhood physical abuse, became increasingly more positive. Individuals who had high levels of childhood physical abuse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk of IPA perpetration when trait anger was high. Consistent with the I(3) model, these findings suggest that trait anger and a history of childhood physical abuse may increase tendencies to aggress against one's partner, whereas alcohol consumption may reduce individuals' abilities to manage these aggressive tendencies. The importance of interplay among these risk factors in elevating IPA risk is discussed, as are the implications for clinicians working with male and female IPA perpetrators.

  13. Physical performance limitations in adolescent and adult survivors of childhood cancer and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueegg, Corina S; Michel, Gisela; Wengenroth, Laura; von der Weid, Nicolas X; Bergstraesser, Eva; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates physical performance limitations for sports and daily activities in recently diagnosed childhood cancer survivors and siblings. The Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study sent a questionnaire to all survivors (≥ 16 years) registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry, who survived >5 years and were diagnosed 1976-2003 aged sports; 2) limitations in daily activities (using SF-36 physical function score). We compared results between survivors diagnosed before and after 1990 and determined predictors for both types of limitations by multivariable logistic regression. The sample included 1038 survivors and 534 siblings. Overall, 96 survivors (9.5%) and 7 siblings (1.1%) reported a limitation in sports (Odds ratio 5.5, 95%CI 2.9-10.4, pcancer, even those diagnosed recently and treated with modern protocols, remain at high risk for physical performance limitations. Treatment and follow-up care should include tailored interventions to mitigate these late effects in high-risk patients.

  14. Indian Childhood Cirrhosis: Case Report and Pediatric Diagnostic Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaivinder Yadav

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Indian childhood cirrhosis is a chronic liver disease usually seen in paediatric age group and is unique to the Indian subcontinent. The definitive causative factor for the disease is not found till now but excess copper ingestion has been associated with it.Case presentation: An Indian origin one and half year old premorbidly normal male child presented with history of gradual distension of abdomen for 6 months and jaundice, generalized body swelling, high colour urine for 20 days. There was no history of any bleeding or feature suggestive of hepatic encephalopathy. On physical examination child was icteric, pale and had anasarca, massive hepatosplenomegaly and ascites. The child was evaluated for various causes of hepatic failure in pediatric age group including infective, metabolic and autoimmune etiologies. Unfortunately the child succumbed to the illness. The post-mortem liver biopsy and copper estimation cleared the air, revealing Indian childhood cirrhosis as the underlying etiology.Conclusion: Though Indian childhood cirrhosis is a rare entity and reported less frequently in literature, the treating pediatrician should keep this as a differential in case of pediatric hepatic failure. The liver biopsy and hepatic copper estimation are the gold standard diagnostic tests for diagnosing Indian Childhood cirrhosis.

  15. Childhood physical abuse is associated with incident metabolic syndrome in mid-life women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midei, Aimee J; Matthews, Karen A; Chang, Yue-Fang; Bromberger, Joyce T

    2013-02-01

    Previous research has suggested that childhood emotional abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse are associated with an increased risk for ischemic heart disease. Our objective was to examine whether childhood abuse predicted incident metabolic syndrome, a precursor to heart disease, in midlife women. Participants were 342 (114 Black, 228 White) women from the Pittsburgh site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). SWAN included a baseline assessment of premenopausal or early perimenopausal women in midlife (mean age = 45.7), and women were evaluated for presence of the metabolic syndrome over 7 annual follow-up visits. Women were classified as having metabolic syndrome if they met 3 of the following criteria: waist circumference >88 cm, triglycerides ≥150 mg/dl, HDL Childhood Trauma Questionnaire is a standardized measure that retrospectively assesses 3 domains of abuse in childhood and adolescence: emotional, physical, and sexual abuse. Approximately 34% of the participants reported a history of abuse. Cox model survival analysis showed that physical abuse was associated with incident metabolic syndrome over the course of 7 years (HR = 2.12, p = .02), adjusted for ethnicity, age at baseline, and time-dependent menopausal status. Sexual abuse and emotional abuse were unrelated to the metabolic syndrome. This is the first study to show that a history of childhood abuse, specifically physical abuse, is related to the development of metabolic syndrome in midlife women.

  16. Physical activity and aerobic fitness in childhood : associated with asthma?

    OpenAIRE

    Berntsen, Sveinung

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood asthma in the Western world has increased the last decades, whereas knowledge of asthma prevalence in districts where “Westernized lifestyle” is not adopted is inadequate. Even though there is a general lack of studies including objective physical activity measurements and direct measurements of maximal oxygen consumption, the overriding public perception of today’s children and adolescents is that they are less physical active and with lower leve...

  17. Notions of Physical Laws in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Pfuhl Rodrigues, Dulce Madalena Autran

    1980-01-01

    Presented is an experiment investigating children's awareness of regularities in physical phenomena and their capacity for expressing these regularities. Hypothesized and confirmed is that children can use statements with the form and purpose of a physical law. Cartoons related to Archimedes' principle (and connected gravitation and fluid…

  18. Promoting Physical Activity during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidoni, Carla; Ignico, Arlene

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents from low-income families in the USA has become a significant concern over the last 20 years. One of the major contributors to this problem is the lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper is to describe initiatives designed to: (1) engage young children in physical activity during…

  19. Gender Differences in the Physical and Psychological Manifestation of Childhood Trauma and/or Adversity in People with Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Shaun; Air, Tracy; Zannettino, Lana; Galletly, Cherrie

    2015-01-01

    The link between childhood trauma and/or adversity and risk of psychosis is well known. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of childhood trauma and/or adversity in people who have psychotic disorders and to investigate the association between childhood trauma and/or adversity and a range of social and health measures. Participants (n = 391, 42% male) were specifically asked about any experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity. Respondents provided information about education, employment, physical health, and health service utilization. Univariate analyses revealed that childhood trauma and/or adversity was associated with poorer levels of self-reported physical health and social problems. This includes the experience of chronic pain, headaches, arthritis, asthma, and victimization/stigma in men. Participants with a childhood trauma and/or adversity history indicated higher rates of lifetime suicide attempts with women reporting more lifetime depressive symptoms. Multivariate analyses revealed differing profiles in relation to physical and psychological health variable between males and females. Males with the experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity were significantly more likely to report cardiovascular/stroke issues, migraines and anhedonia. Females with the experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity were more likely to report a lifetime history of elevated mood and to be married or in a de facto relationship. There has been very little research into the assessment and treatment of the effects of childhood trauma and/or adversity in adults with psychosis. Childhood trauma and/or adversity may contribute to higher rates of self-reported poor health in men and is associated with increased depression in women. Our findings suggest that interventions to address the effects of past trauma are urgently needed.

  20. Gender differences in the physical and psychological manifestation of childhood trauma and/or adversity in people with psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun eSweeney

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The link between childhood trauma and/or adversity and risk of psychosis is well known. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of childhood trauma and/or adversity in people who have psychotic disorders and to investigate the association between childhood trauma and/or adversity and a range of social and health measures. Participants (n=391, 42% male were specifically asked about any experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity. Respondents provided information about education, employment, physical health and health service utilisation. Univariate analyses revealed that childhood trauma and/or adversity was associated with poorer levels of self-reported physical health and social problems. This includes the experience of chronic pain, headaches, arthritis, asthma and victimisation/stigma in men. Participants with a childhood trauma and/or adversity history indicated higher rates of lifetime suicide attempts with women reporting more lifetime depressive symptoms. Multivariate analyses revealed differing profiles in relation to physical and psychological health variable between males and females. Males with the experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity were significantly more likely to report cardiovascular/stroke issues, migraines and anhedonia. Females with the experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity were more likely to report a lifetime history of elevated mood and to be married or in a defacto relationship. There has been very little research into the assessment and treatment of the effects of childhood trauma and/or adversity in adults with psychosis. Childhood trauma and/or adversity may contribute to higher rates of self-reported poor health in men and is associated with increased depression in women. Our findings suggest that interventions to address the effects of past trauma are urgently needed.

  1. Nuclear Physics Department annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This annual report presents articles and abstracts published in foreign journals, covering the following subjects: nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, applied physics, instrumentation, nonlinear phenomena and high energy physics

  2. Childhood obesity in Italian primary schools: eating habits, physical activity and perception of weight by parents

    OpenAIRE

    Giancarlo Scarafile

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is the worst not infectious disease in the world with few clinical treatment options. The purpose of this review is to analyze the epidemiological differences related to childhood obesity in the age group of 6-11 years, both in the United States and Italy which are the most affected by this disease. Among the main causes, three were analyzed: eating habits, physical activity and the perception of the body weight of children by their parents. The review also reports a series ...

  3. Childhood vulvovaginitis: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsiu-Yuan; Wan, Chuan; Tseng, Ching-Chang

    2006-01-01

    Vaginal discharge in young prepubertal girls is a common problem in clinical practice. No specific infective pathogen is identified in most of the children. The reported common microbes include group A beta-hemolytic streptococci, Haemophilus influenzae and some Gram-negative bacilli. Sexually transmitted pathogens such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis are important causes of vulvovaginitis in children suffering from sexual abuse. We report two cases of prepubertal vulvovaginitis presenting with profuse purulent vaginal discharge, and H. influenzae and N. gonorrhoeae identified respectively. Both girls denied any sexual exposure and there was no evidence of sexual abuse. They responded well to antibiotic treatment, and no symptoms recurred in the following months. We would like to emphasize the defined etiology of childhood vulvovaginitis and appropriate treatment, in addition to gynecological evaluation for evidence of sexual abuse.

  4. Childhood physical abuse and differential development of paranormal belief systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Stefanie L; Allen, Rhiannon

    2006-05-01

    This study compared paranormal belief systems in individuals with and without childhood physical abuse histories. The Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and the Assessing Environments III Questionnaire were completed by 107 University students. Psi, precognition, and spiritualism, which are thought to provide a sense of personal efficacy and control, were among the most strongly held beliefs in abused subjects, and were significantly higher in abused versus nonabused subjects. Superstition and extraordinary life forms, thought to have an inverse or no relation to felt control, were the least strongly held beliefs in abused subjects, and, along with religious beliefs, did not differ between the two abuse groups. Witchcraft was unexpectedly found to be the most strongly held belief among those with abuse histories. Results suggest that by providing a sense of control, certain paranormal beliefs may offer a powerful emotional refuge to individuals who endured the stress of physical abuse in childhood.

  5. Diet quality and physical activity in relation to childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng

    2017-04-01

    Healthy lifestyles such as being physically active and eating a healthy diet help reduce the childhood obesity risk. However, population-level studies on the relationship between lifestyles and childhood obesity typically focus on either physical activity or diet but seldom both. This study examined physical activity and diet quality in relation to obesity in a nationally representative sample of U.S. children and adolescents. The study sample of 2818 children 6-17 years old came from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 waves. A healthy eating index (HEI)-2010 was constructed based on two nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Participants at or above the 60th percentile of the HEI-2010 score were classified as consuming a healthy diet. Participants engaging in at least 60 min of moderate-vigorous physical activity daily measured by accelerometer were classified as being physically active. Adjusted average marginal effect of diet quality and physical activity on obesity was calculated based on estimates from logistic regressions. Compared with those consuming a healthy diet who are physically active, the estimated probabilities for overweight and obesity were 19.03 (95% confidence interval: 11.31, 26.74) and 15.84 (10.48, 21.21) percentage points higher among children consuming an unhealthy diet and who are physically inactive, 16.53 (7.58, 25.48) and 13.48 (5.68, 21.29) percentage points higher among children consuming a healthy diet but who are physically inactive and 3.22 (-3.43, 9.88) and 3.10 (-3.08, 9.29) percentage points higher among children consuming an unhealthy diet but physically active, respectively. Healthy habit formation at an early age is essential in obesity prevention.

  6. Do race, neglect, and childhood poverty predict physical health in adulthood? A multilevel prospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nikulina, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Childhood neglect and poverty often co-occur and both have been linked to poor physical health outcomes. In addition, Blacks have higher rates of childhood poverty and tend to have worse health than Whites. This paper examines the unique and interacting effects of childhood neglect, race, and family and neighborhood poverty on adult physical health outcomes. This prospective cohort design study uses a sample (N = 675) of court-substantiated cases of childhood neglect and matched controls foll...

  7. Childhood physical abuse and midlife physical health: testing a multi-pathway life course model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Kristen W

    2009-07-01

    Although prior research has established that childhood abuse adversely affects midlife physical health, it is unclear how abuse continues to harm health decades after the abuse has ended. In this project, I assess four life course pathways (health behaviors, cognition, mental health, and social relation) that plausibly link childhood physical abuse to three midlife physical health outcomes (bronchitis diagnosis, ulcer diagnosis, and general physical health). These three outcomes are etiologically distinct, leading to unique testable hypotheses. Multivariate models controlling for childhood background and early adversity were estimated using data from over 3000 respondents in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, USA. The results indicate that midlife social relations and cognition do not function as pathways for any outcome. However, smoking is a crucial pathway connecting childhood abuse with bronchitis; mental health is important for ulcers; and BMI, smoking, and mental health are paramount for general physical health. These findings suggest that abuse survivors' coping mechanisms can lead to an array of midlife health problems. Furthermore, the results validate the use of etiologically distinct outcomes for understanding plausible causal pathways when using cross-sectional data.

  8. Carrying the Pain of Abuse: Gender-Specific Findings on the Relationship between Childhood Physical Abuse and Obesity in Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esme Fuller-Thomson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood abuse has been associated with negative adult health outcomes, including obesity. This study sought to investigate the association between childhood physical abuse and adult obesity, while controlling for five clusters of potentially confounding factors: childhood stressors, socioeconomic indicators, marital status, health behaviors, and mental health. Methods: Representative data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey were selected. The response rate was approximately 84%. Gender-specific logistic regression analyses determined the association between abuse and obesity, while controlling for age and race and five clusters of potentially confounding factors. Of the 12,590 respondents with complete data, 2,787 were obese and 976 reported physical abuse as a child or adolescent by someone close to them. Results: Among women with childhood physical abuse compared to no abuse, the odds of obesity were 35% higher, even when controlling for age, race, and the five clusters of factors (odds ratio (OR = 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.09, 1.67. Childhood physical abuse was not associated with adult obesity among men (OR = 1.12; 95% CI = 0.82, 1.53. Conclusions: This study provides one of the first population-based, gender-specific analyses of the association between childhood physical abuse and obesity controlling for a wide range of factors. The gender-specific findings require further exploration.

  9. Retrospective Reports of Childhood Trauma in Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucklidge, Julia J.; Brown, Deborah L.; Crawford, Susan; Kaplan, Bonnie J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although studies have documented higher prevalence of abuse in children with ADHD, no studies have investigated childhood reports of abuse in individuals identified with ADHD in adulthood. Method: Forty ADHD women, 17 ADHD males, 17 female controls, and 40 male controls complete the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and other measures of…

  10. Cranial fasciitis of childhood: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumon, Y; Sakaki, S; Sakoh, M; Nakano, K; Fukui, K; Kurihara, K

    1992-07-01

    Cranial fasciitis of childhood is very rare, only 17 cases having been reported in the literature. We report an additional case of this rare disease. The patient was a 5-year-old boy who complained of left exophthalmos and double vision. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large epidural mass in the left frontal region that had invaded into the underlying anterior skull base. The tumor showed homogeneous, low density with nonhomogeneous contrast enhancement on the CT scans, and low intensity on the T1-weighted and high intensity on the T2-weighted MRI images. A whitish-pink, elastic, hard tumor was revealed in the epidural space in the left anterior cranial fossa, which was totally excised with curettage of the affected anterior skull base. The origin of the tumor was suspected to be the fibrous connective tissue of the sphenofrontal suture. The histological diagnosis was that of cranial fasciitis. There was no evidence of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  11. Do race, neglect, and childhood poverty predict physical health in adulthood? A multilevel prospective analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulina, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Childhood neglect and poverty often co-occur and both have been linked to poor physical health outcomes. In addition, Blacks have higher rates of childhood poverty and tend to have worse health than Whites. This paper examines the unique and interacting effects of childhood neglect, race, and family and neighborhood poverty on adult physical health outcomes. This prospective cohort design study uses a sample (N = 675) of court-substantiated cases of childhood neglect and matched controls followed into adulthood (Mage = 41). Health indicators (C-Reactive Protein [CRP], hypertension, and pulmonary functioning) were assessed through blood collection and measurements by a registered nurse. Data were analyzed using hierarchical linear models to control for clustering of participants in childhood neighborhoods. Main effects showed that growing up Black predicted CRP and hypertension elevations, despite controlling for neglect and childhood family and neighborhood poverty and their interactions. Multivariate results showed that race and childhood adversities interacted to predict adult health outcomes. Childhood family poverty predicted increased risk for hypertension for Blacks, not Whites. In contrast, among Whites, childhood neglect predicted elevated CRP. Childhood neighborhood poverty interacted with childhood family poverty to predict pulmonary functioning in adulthood. Gender differences in health indicators were also observed. The effects of childhood neglect, childhood poverty, and growing up Black in the United States are manifest in physical health outcomes assessed 30 years later. Implications are discussed. PMID:24189205

  12. Do race, neglect, and childhood poverty predict physical health in adulthood? A multilevel prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulina, Valentina; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2014-03-01

    Childhood neglect and poverty often co-occur and both have been linked to poor physical health outcomes. In addition, Blacks have higher rates of childhood poverty and tend to have worse health than Whites. This paper examines the unique and interacting effects of childhood neglect, race, and family and neighborhood poverty on adult physical health outcomes. This prospective cohort design study uses a sample (N=675) of court-substantiated cases of childhood neglect and matched controls followed into adulthood (M(age)=41). Health indicators (C-Reactive Protein [CRP], hypertension, and pulmonary functioning) were assessed through blood collection and measurements by a registered nurse. Data were analyzed using hierarchical linear models to control for clustering of participants in childhood neighborhoods. Main effects showed that growing up Black predicted CRP and hypertension elevations, despite controlling for neglect and childhood family and neighborhood poverty and their interactions. Multivariate results showed that race and childhood adversities interacted to predict adult health outcomes. Childhood family poverty predicted increased risk for hypertension for Blacks, not Whites. In contrast, among Whites, childhood neglect predicted elevated CRP. Childhood neighborhood poverty interacted with childhood family poverty to predict pulmonary functioning in adulthood. Gender differences in health indicators were also observed. The effects of childhood neglect, childhood poverty, and growing up Black in the United States are manifest in physical health outcomes assessed 30 years later. Implications are discussed.

  13. An Experimental Test of Parenting Practices as a Mediator of Early Childhood Physical Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Laurie Miller; O'Neal, Colleen R.; Huang, Keng-Yen; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Rosenfelt, Amanda; Shrout, Patrick E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Parenting practices predict early childhood physical aggression. Preventive interventions that alter parenting practices and aggression during early childhood provide the opportunity to test causal models of early childhood psychopathology. Although there have been several informative preventive intervention studies that test mediation…

  14. Personality traits, education, physical exercise, and childhood neurological function as independent predictors of adult obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Cheng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether personality traits, education, physical exercise, parental socio-economic conditions, and childhood neurological function are independently associated with obesity in 50 year old adults in a longitudinal birth cohort study. METHOD: The sample consisted of 5,921 participants born in Great Britain in 1958 and followed up at 7, 11, 33, 42, and 50 years with data on body mass index measured at 42 and 50 years. RESULTS: There was an increase of adult obesity from 14.2% at age 42 to 23.6% at 50 years. Cohort members who were reported by teachers on overall clumsiness as "certainly applied" at age 7 were more likely to become obese at age 50. In addition, educational qualifications, traits Conscientiousness and Extraversion, psychological distress, and physical exercise were all significantly associated with adult obesity. The associations remained to be significant after controlling for birth weight and gestation, maternal and paternal BMI, childhood BMI, childhood intelligence and behavioural adjustment, as well as diet. CONCLUSION: Neurological function in childhood, education, trait Conscientiousness, and exercise were all significantly and independently associated with adult obesity, each explained unique individual variability.

  15. Personality Traits, Education, Physical Exercise, and Childhood Neurological Function as Independent Predictors of Adult Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether personality traits, education, physical exercise, parental socio-economic conditions, and childhood neurological function are independently associated with obesity in 50 year old adults in a longitudinal birth cohort study. Method The sample consisted of 5,921 participants born in Great Britain in 1958 and followed up at 7, 11, 33, 42, and 50 years with data on body mass index measured at 42 and 50 years. Results There was an increase of adult obesity from 14.2% at age 42 to 23.6% at 50 years. Cohort members who were reported by teachers on overall clumsiness as “certainly applied” at age 7 were more likely to become obese at age 50. In addition, educational qualifications, traits Conscientiousness and Extraversion, psychological distress, and physical exercise were all significantly associated with adult obesity. The associations remained to be significant after controlling for birth weight and gestation, maternal and paternal BMI, childhood BMI, childhood intelligence and behavioural adjustment, as well as diet. Conclusion Neurological function in childhood, education, trait Conscientiousness, and exercise were all significantly and independently associated with adult obesity, each explained unique individual variability. PMID:24250828

  16. Personality traits, education, physical exercise, and childhood neurological function as independent predictors of adult obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether personality traits, education, physical exercise, parental socio-economic conditions, and childhood neurological function are independently associated with obesity in 50 year old adults in a longitudinal birth cohort study. The sample consisted of 5,921 participants born in Great Britain in 1958 and followed up at 7, 11, 33, 42, and 50 years with data on body mass index measured at 42 and 50 years. There was an increase of adult obesity from 14.2% at age 42 to 23.6% at 50 years. Cohort members who were reported by teachers on overall clumsiness as "certainly applied" at age 7 were more likely to become obese at age 50. In addition, educational qualifications, traits Conscientiousness and Extraversion, psychological distress, and physical exercise were all significantly associated with adult obesity. The associations remained to be significant after controlling for birth weight and gestation, maternal and paternal BMI, childhood BMI, childhood intelligence and behavioural adjustment, as well as diet. Neurological function in childhood, education, trait Conscientiousness, and exercise were all significantly and independently associated with adult obesity, each explained unique individual variability.

  17. Risk of testicular germ-cell tumours in relation to childhood physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, M B; Zhang, Y; Graubard, B I; Rubertone, M V; Erickson, R L; McGlynn, K A

    2008-01-15

    The US Servicemen's Testicular Tumor Environmental and Endocrine Determinants (STEED) case-control study of testicular germ-cell tumours (TGCTs) enrolled participants and their mothers in 2002-2005. Hours of sports or vigorous childhood physical activity per week were ascertained for three time periods; 1st-5th grades, 6th-8th grades and 9th-12th grades. Son- and mother-reports were analysed separately and included 539 control son-mother pairs and 499 case son-mother pairs. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were produced. The analysis of the sons' responses found no relationship between childhood physical activity and TGCT, while the mothers' analysis found an inverse association, which was solely due to nonseminoma. Future studies should seek to validate responses further using recorded information sources such as school records.

  18. Childhood serum sickness: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Y K; Shyur, S D; Wu, C Y; Wang, C Y

    2001-09-01

    Childhood serum sickness is a rare allergic disease that follows the administration of a foreign antigenic material, most commonly caused by injecting a protein or haptenic drug. The disease is a type III hypersensitivity reaction mediated by deposits of circulating immune complexes in small vessels, which leads to complement activation and subsequent inflammation. The clinical features are fever, cutaneous eruptions, lymphadenopathy, arthralgias, albuminuria, and nephritis. Serum sickness is an acute self-limited disease. We report a 3-year-old child who presented with fever and a rash; an invasive bacterial infection was strongly suspected. He was therefore given penicillin and gentamicin and responded well. At day 4 after admission, he developed a serum sickness reaction and showed symptoms of arthralgias, generalized edema, purpura, and gross hematuria. The white blood cell count was 12 190/mm3 with 7% eosinophils. Urinalysis revealed red blood cell above 100 per high power field, white blood cell 10 to 15 per high power field, and proteinuria. The antibiotics were discontinued and hydrocortisone (20 mg/kg/d), diphenhydramine HCl (4 mg/kg/d), aspirin (66 mg/kg/d) was administered, plus 1 dose of epinephrine (0.01 mL/kg) administered intramuscularly. On day 7, the 3rd day after withholding antibiotics, his condition dramatically improved. The clinical symptoms resolved progressively and his urinalysis returned to normal.

  19. Major initiatives related to childhood obesity and physical inactivity in Canada: the year in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript briefly reviews 15 significant initiatives related to childhood obesity and physical inactivity in Canada between September 2010 and September 2011. These include the: announcement of a Federal-Provincial-Territorial framework for action to promote healthy weights; implementation of the nutrition labeling initiative; launch of the CBC "Live Right Now" campaign; announcement of the Public Health Agency of Canada's innovation strategy funding related to obesity; publication of the Canadian Health Measures Survey physical activity findings; release of new Canadian physical activity and sedentary behaviour guidelines; launch of ParticipACTION's "Think Again" campaign; workshop on building trust to address the epidemic of obesity; start of the Canadian Pediatric Weight Management Registry; initiation of "Our Health Our Future: A National Dialogue on Healthy Weights"; release of the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth; National Obesity Summit; Nature Play Day and Sports Day in Canada; development of the Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy; and the creation of Active Canada 20/20--A National Physical Activity Plan. The diversity and intensity of activity addressing the childhood obesity and physical inactivity "epidemic" in Canada is encouraging and must be maintained and enhanced.

  20. Physical performance limitations in adolescent and adult survivors of childhood cancer and their siblings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina S Rueegg

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study investigates physical performance limitations for sports and daily activities in recently diagnosed childhood cancer survivors and siblings. METHODS: The Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study sent a questionnaire to all survivors (≥ 16 years registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry, who survived >5 years and were diagnosed 1976-2003 aged <16 years. Siblings received similar questionnaires. We assessed two types of physical performance limitations: 1 limitations in sports; 2 limitations in daily activities (using SF-36 physical function score. We compared results between survivors diagnosed before and after 1990 and determined predictors for both types of limitations by multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: The sample included 1038 survivors and 534 siblings. Overall, 96 survivors (9.5% and 7 siblings (1.1% reported a limitation in sports (Odds ratio 5.5, 95%CI 2.9-10.4, p<0.001, mainly caused by musculoskeletal and neurological problems. Findings were even more pronounced for children diagnosed more recently (OR 4.8, CI 2.4-9.6 and 8.3, CI 3.7-18.8 for those diagnosed <1990 and ≥ 1990, respectively; p=0.025. Mean physical function score for limitations in daily activities was 49.6 (CI 48.9-50.4 in survivors and 53.1 (CI 52.5-53.7 in siblings (p<0.001. Again, differences tended to be larger in children diagnosed more recently. Survivors of bone tumors, CNS tumors and retinoblastoma and children treated with radiotherapy were most strongly affected. CONCLUSION: Survivors of childhood cancer, even those diagnosed recently and treated with modern protocols, remain at high risk for physical performance limitations. Treatment and follow-up care should include tailored interventions to mitigate these late effects in high-risk patients.

  1. Working group report: Collider Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunanda Banerjee; Rohini M Godbole; Sreerup Raychaudhuri; Ben Allanach; Sunanda Banerjee; Satyaki Bhattacharyya; Debajyoti Choudhury; Siba Prasad Das; Anindya Datta; Rohini M Godbole; Monoranjan Guchait; Sabine Kraml; Gobinda Majumdar; David Miller; Margarete Mühlleitner; Nobuchika Okada; Maxim Perelstein; Santosh K Rai; Sreerup Raychaudhuri; Saurabh D Rindani; D P Roy; K Sridhar; Rishikesh Vaidya; D Zeppenfeld

    2006-10-01

    This is summary of the activities of the working group on collider physics in the IXth Workshop on High Energy Physics Phenomenology (WHEPP-9) held at the Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, India in January 2006. Some of the work subsequently done on these problems by the subgroups formed during the workshop is included in this report.

  2. Self Reported Childhood Difficulties, Adult Multimorbidity and Allostatic Load. A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Norwegian HUNT Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margret Olafia Tomasdottir

    Full Text Available Multimorbidity receives increasing scientific attention. So does the detrimental health impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACE. Aetiological pathways from ACE to complex disease burdens are under investigation. In this context, the concept of allostatic overload is relevant, denoting the link between chronic detrimental stress, widespread biological perturbations and disease development. This study aimed to explore associations between self-reported childhood quality, biological perturbations and multimorbidity in adulthood.We included 37 612 participants, 30-69 years, from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, HUNT3 (2006-8. Twenty one chronic diseases, twelve biological parameters associated with allostatic load and four behavioural factors were analysed. Participants were categorised according to the self-reported quality of their childhood, as reflected in one question, alternatives ranging from 'very good' to 'very difficult'. The association between childhood quality, behavioural patterns, allostatic load and multimorbidity was compared between groups.Overall, 85.4% of participants reported a 'good' or 'very good' childhood; 10.6% average, 3.3% 'difficult' and 0.8% 'very difficult'. Childhood difficulties were reported more often among women, smokers, individuals with sleep problems, less physical activity and lower education. In total, 44.8% of participants with a very good childhood had multimorbidity compared to 77.1% of those with a very difficult childhood (Odds ratio: 5.08; 95% CI: 3.63-7.11. Prevalences of individual diseases also differed significantly according to childhood quality; all but two (cancer and hypertension showed a significantly higher prevalence (p<0.05 as childhood was categorised as more difficult. Eight of the 12 allostatic parameters differed significantly between childhood groups.We found a general, graded association between self-reported childhood difficulties on the one hand and multimorbidity, individual

  3. Substance Abuse during Adulthood Subsequent to the Experience of Physical Abuse and Psychological Distress during Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Longman-Mills

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated if there was a significant relationship between physical abuse during childhood and experiencing psychological distress and substance abuse among university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized a questionnaire to collect retrospective data from 382 university students (103 males and 279 females about their substance use patterns, level of psychological distress and their exposure to physical abuse. The data were then analysed using bivariate statistics. Results: Most (61.8% participants met the criteria for being physically abused, however, only 27.2% recognized the experience as abuse. Another 38.9% of the students reported moderate to severe psychological distress. There was a significant relationship between being physically abused and experiencing higher levels of psychological distress (p < 0.001. Cannabis was the most frequently utilized illicit drug (10.3% while alcohol was the most frequently utilized licit drug (37.4%. Drug abuse was found to be significantly associated with being physically abused during childhood (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Even though the results obtained are not generalizable, this study has provided important preliminary information, that experiencing physical abuse increases the likelihood of having higher levels of psychological distress and becoming a substance abuser during adulthood; thereby identifying an overlooked area to target anti-drug use interventions.

  4. [Model for predicting childhood obesity from diet and physical activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrosa-Haro, Alfredo; González-Pérez, Guillermo Julián; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar Manuel; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Chávez-Palencia, Clío; Salazar-Preciado, Laura Leticia; Lizárraga-Corona, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    If obesity results from the interaction of variables that involve the subject and his environment, the alternatives to face the problem could be very diverse. The objective of this study was to seek for the best predictive model of childhood obesity from energy ingestion, dietary habits and physical activity. Case control study of 99 obese and 100 healthy weight children (Center for Diseases Control criteria). Energy ingestion was estimated by means of a 24-hour recall, dietary and physical activity habits by validated questionnaires. A logistic regression analysis was made. Variables independently associated to obesity were higher energy ingestion; lower frequency in mealtimes; having the afternoon lunch outside home; higher frequency of consumption of fat, junk food and sweetened beverages; lower time of moderate physical activity at school and at home; and increased time for homework and watching TV. The variables included in the regression model were energy intake; frequency of ingestion of fat, junk foods and sweetened beverages; and physical activity at home and at school. The diversity of associated variables underlines the complexity and multi-causal condition of obesity.

  5. Relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination along childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Saraiva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The two main goals of this review were to understand how the relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination are established along the motor development of children and adolescents, and how they would influence their future lives. The web based bibliographic database B-On was searched for peer-reviewed publications during the last decade (2000 to 2009. Search criteria included all articles on relationships between any two of the above named factors. Although different methodological designs and variables were found as markers for the same factor, overall results suggested the existence of a clear positive relationship among physical activity, physical fitness, somatic fitness, and coordination from childhood to adolescence, with a special relevance for the relationship between physical activity and coordination. It was also noted a renewed interest on physical activity and motor coordination developmental characteristics and relationships as well as on their lifelong health effects.

  6. The Interpersonal and Psychological Functioning of Women Who Experienced Childhood Physical Abuse, Incest, and Parental Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kathleen M.; Gilbert, Brenda O.

    1994-01-01

    Questionnaires assessing childhood physical abuse, childhood incest, and parental alcoholism were completed by 253 college women. Analysis of level of depression; self-esteem; and involvement with physically abusive, sexually assaultive, sexually coercive, and chemically dependent partners revealed support for an additive model of trauma that…

  7. Childhood Trauma and Coping through the Science of Physics: An Attachment Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucabeche, Viviana; Haney, Jolynn; Quinn, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Trauma can be defined as stressful life events that disrupt and/or delay successful transition during childhood developmental stages (Roberts, 2000). In this exploratory study, transitional stressors are defined as: childhood physical, sexual, or emotional abuse; loss of a caregiver or significant relative due to death or abandonment; exposure to physical violence by non-family members (e.g., bullying); or illness resulting in permanent physical disability. Trauma may produce disorganized attachments in childhood, which may lead to emotional and to social impairment in adulthood (Siegel, 1999). Consequently, traumatized individuals, who suffer from disorganized attachments, may seek to engage in activities which are emotionally predictable. An examination of the personal childhood histories from a sample of Nobel Prize winners in the field of physics provides support for the hypothesis that the study of physics may serve as an effective coping method for individuals who have experienced childhood trauma.

  8. Impairments that Influence Physical Function among Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children treated for cancer are at increased risk of developing chronic health conditions, some of which may manifest during or soon after treatment while others emerge many years after therapy. These health problems may limit physical performance and functional capacity, interfering with participation in work, social, and recreational activities. In this review, we discuss treatment-induced impairments in the endocrine, musculoskeletal, neurological, and cardiopulmonary systems and their influence on mobility and physical function. We found that cranial radiation at a young age was associated with a broad range of chronic conditions including obesity, short stature, low bone mineral density and neuromotor impairments. Anthracyclines and chest radiation are associated with both short and long-term cardiotoxicity. Although numerous chronic conditions are documented among individuals treated for childhood cancer, the impact of these conditions on mobility and function are not well characterized, with most studies limited to survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and brain tumors. Moving forward, further research assessing the impact of chronic conditions on participation in work and social activities is required. Moreover, interventions to prevent or ameliorate the loss of physical function among children treated for cancer are likely to become an important area of survivorship research.

  9. Reliability and comparability of psychosis patients' retrospective reports of childhood abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Helen L; Craig, Thomas K; Fearon, Paul; Morgan, Kevin; Dazzan, Paola; Lappin, Julia; Hutchinson, Gerard; Doody, Gillian A; Jones, Peter B; McGuffin, Peter; Murray, Robin M; Leff, Julian; Morgan, Craig

    2011-05-01

    An increasing number of studies are demonstrating an association between childhood abuse and psychosis. However, the majority of these rely on retrospective self-reports in adulthood that may be unduly influenced by current psychopathology. We therefore set out to explore the reliability and comparability of first-presentation psychosis patients' reports of childhood abuse. Psychosis case subjects were drawn from the Aetiology and Ethnicity of Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses (ÆSOP) epidemiological study and completed the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire to elicit abusive experiences that occurred prior to 16 years of age. High levels of concurrent validity were demonstrated with the Parental Bonding Instrument (antipathy: r(s)=0.350-0.737, P<.001; neglect: r(s)=0.688-0.715, P<.001), and good convergent validity was shown with clinical case notes (sexual abuse: κ=0.526, P<.001; physical abuse: κ=0.394, P<.001). Psychosis patients' reports were also reasonably stable over a 7-year period (sexual abuse: κ=0.590, P<.01; physical abuse: κ=0.634, P<.001; antipathy: κ=0.492, P<.01; neglect: κ=0.432, P<.05). Additionally, their reports of childhood abuse were not associated with current severity of psychotic symptoms (sexual abuse: U=1768.5, P=.998; physical abuse: U=2167.5, P=.815; antipathy: U=2216.5, P=.988; neglect: U=1906.0, P=.835) or depressed mood (sexual abuse: χ(2)=0.634, P=.277; physical abuse: χ(2)=0.159, P=.419; antipathy: χ(2)=0.868, P=.229; neglect: χ(2)=0.639, P=.274). These findings provide justification for the use in future studies of retrospective reports of childhood abuse obtained from individuals with psychotic disorders.

  10. Panel report: nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Joseph A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hartouni, Edward P [LLNL

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear science is at the very heart of the NNSA program. The energy produced by nuclear processes is central to the NNSA mission, and nuclear reactions are critical in many applications, including National Ignition Facility (NIF) capsules, energy production, weapons, and in global threat reduction. Nuclear reactions are the source of energy in all these applications, and they can also be crucial in understanding and diagnosing the complex high-energy environments integral to the work of the NNSA. Nuclear processes are complex quantum many-body problems. Modeling and simulation of nuclear reactions and their role in applications, coupled tightly with experiments, have played a key role in NNSA's mission. The science input to NNSA program applications has been heavily reliant on experiment combined with extrapolations and physical models 'just good enough' to provide a starting point to extensive engineering that generated a body of empirical information. This body of information lacks the basic science underpinnings necessary to provide reliable extrapolations beyond the domain in which it was produced and for providing quantifiable error bars. Further, the ability to perform additional engineering tests is no longer possible, especially those tests that produce data in the extreme environments that uniquely characterize these applications. The end of testing has required improvements to the predictive capabilities of codes simulating the reactions and associated applications for both well known and well characterized cases as well as incompletely known cases. Developments in high performance computing, computational physics, applied mathematics and nuclear theory have combined to make spectacular advances in the theory of fission, fusion and nuclear reactions. Current research exploits these developments in a number of Office of Science and NNSA programs, and in joint programs such as the SciDAC (Science Discovery through Advanced Computing) that

  11. Corporate responsibility for childhood physical activity promotion in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Liliana; Ling, Tom; Baldassarre, Laura; Barnett, Lisa M; Capranica, Laura; Pesce, Caterina

    2016-12-01

    The alarming epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity at paediatric age urges societies to rise to the challenge of ensuring an active lifestyle. As one response to this, business enterprises are increasingly engaged in promoting sport and physical activity (PA) initiatives within the frame of corporate social responsibility (CSR). However, comparative analyses among industry sectors of CSR strategies for PA promotion with a particular focus on children are still lacking. This study aimed to explore (i) what are the CSR strategies for PA promotion adopted in different industry sectors and (ii) whether corporate engagement in promoting PA for children is supportive of children's rights to play and be physically active. Corporate pledges pertaining to CSR initiatives to promote PA were analysed. The hypothesis was that companies from different sectors employ different CSR strategies and that companies with a higher profile as regard to public health concerns for children tend to legitimate their action by adopting a compensatory strategy. Results show that the issue of PA promotion is largely represented within CSR commitments. CSR strategies for PA promotion vary across industry sectors and the adoption of a compensatory strategy for rising childhood obesity allows only a limited exploitation of the potential of CSR commitments for the provision of children's rights to play and be physically active. Actors within the fields of public health ethics, human rights and CSR should be considered complementary to develop mainstreaming strategies and improve monitoring systems of PA promotion in children. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Childhood socioeconomic position and objectively measured physical capability levels in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie, Kate; Cooper, Rachel; Martin, Richard M;

    2011-01-01

    Grip strength, walking speed, chair rising and standing balance time are objective measures of physical capability that characterise current health and predict survival in older populations. Socioeconomic position (SEP) in childhood may influence the peak level of physical capability achieved...... in early adulthood, thereby affecting levels in later adulthood. We have undertaken a systematic review with meta-analyses to test the hypothesis that adverse childhood SEP is associated with lower levels of objectively measured physical capability in adulthood....

  13. Low physical fitness in childhood is associated with the development of asthma in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, F; Lambrechtsen, J; Siersted, H C

    2000-01-01

    Intense physical activity in children may either improve fitness and protect against asthma, or may trigger symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine whether physical fitness in childhood has an impact on the development of asthma. In this prospective, community-based study, 757 (84...... correlation was found between physical fitness in childhood and airway responsiveness to methacholine at follow-up when adjusted for body mass index, age and sex (r=0.11; p...

  14. Childhood Facial Osteo Sarcoma: a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Farhangi, Hamid; Farzadnia, Mahdi; Alamdaran, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the eighth common cancer of childhood and its incidence is 4 cases in one million in children younger than 14. Facial OS incidence is estimated between 8 and 10% of OS cases. The main etiology of OS is unknown, but various predisposing factors are proposed such as radiation, radiotherapy, some benign bone diseases like Paget?s disease or fibrous dysplasia. There is a 5-year survival rate of 68% and it decreases with the increase of age. Positive history of radiotherapy is...

  15. Childhood Facial Osteosracoma: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid farhangih

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma (OS is the eighth common cancer of childhood and its incidence is 4 cases in one million in children younger than 14. Facial OS incidence is estimated between 8 and 10% of OS cases. The main etiology of OS is unknown, but various predisposing factors are proposed such as radiation, radiotherapy, some benign bone diseases like Paget’s disease or fibrous dysplasia. There is a 5-year survival rate of 68% and it decreases with the increase of age. Positive history of radiotherapy is the main predisposing factor for childhood OS. There is some evidence about the X-ray induced mutation in genomic DNA that leads to osteosarcoma. In the present paper we present a 19-month old girl with a mass located in the inferior margin of the left cheek and orbit. Our case is unique with regard to her young age and sex. Moreover, the tumor was located in an uncommon site and her disease was progressive and resistant.

  16. Global Matrix 2.0: Report Card Grades on the Physical Activity of Children and Youth Comparing 38 Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Barnes, Joel; Gonzales, Silvia;

    2016-01-01

    , understand underlying determinants, conceive innovative solutions, and mitigate the global childhood inactivity crisis. The paradox of higher physical activity and lower sedentary behavior in countries reporting poorer infrastructure, and lower physical activity and higher sedentary behavior in countries...

  17. Is Childhood Physical Abuse Associated with Peptic Ulcer Disease? Findings from a Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bottoms, Jennifer; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Hurd, Marion

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated childhood physical abuse and ulcers in a regionally representative community sample. Age, race and sex were controlled for in addition to five clusters of potentially confounding factors: adverse childhood conditions, adult socioeconomic status, current health behaviors, current stress and marital status, and history of…

  18. Physics division annual report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, J.; Physics

    2008-02-28

    This report highlights the activities of the Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory in 2006. The Division's programs include the operation as a national user facility of ATLAS, the Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System, research in nuclear structure and reactions, nuclear astrophysics, nuclear theory, investigations in medium-energy nuclear physics as well as research and development in accelerator technology. The mission of nuclear physics is to understand the origin, evolution and structure of baryonic matter in the universe--the core of matter, the fuel of stars, and the basic constituent of life itself. The Division's research focuses on innovative new ways to address this mission.

  19. Childhood obesity in Italian primary schools: eating habits, physical activity and perception of weight by parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Scarafile

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is the worst not infectious disease in the world with few clinical treatment options. The purpose of this review is to analyze the epidemiological differences related to childhood obesity in the age group of 6-11 years, both in the United States and Italy which are the most affected by this disease. Among the main causes, three were analyzed: eating habits, physical activity and the perception of the body weight of children by their parents. The review also reports a series of targeted measures adopted by specialized physicians whose main aim is to fight and reduce, in the shortest period possible, the prevalence of childhood obesity. Overeating, often unaware of energy dense foods and beverages, and a sedentary lifestyle habits as well the increase of body weight. The wrong timing of meals, jumping breakfast, eating few fruit and vegetables all day long and drinking sugary and/or carbonated drinks are more frequent and deep-rooted habits among children. To correct these habits and promote a healthy eating it is necessary to plan targeted interventions.

  20. Does adult attachment style mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and mental and physical health outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J; Kozakowski, Sandra Sepulveda; Chauhan, Preeti

    2017-05-15

    Attachment theory has been proposed as one explanation for the relationship between childhood maltreatment and problematic mental and physical health outcomes in adulthood. This study seeks to determine whether: (1) childhood physical abuse and neglect lead to different attachment styles in adulthood, (2) adult attachment styles predict subsequent mental and physical health outcomes, and (3) adult attachment styles mediate the relationship between childhood physical abuse and neglect and mental and physical health outcomes. Children with documented cases of physical abuse and neglect (ages 0-11) were matched with children without these histories and followed up in adulthood. Adult attachment style was assessed at mean age 39.5 and outcomes at 41.1. Separate path models examined mental and physical health outcomes. Individuals with histories of childhood neglect and physical abuse had higher levels of anxious attachment style in adulthood, whereas neglect predicted avoidant attachment as well. Both adult attachment styles (anxious and avoidant) predicted mental health outcomes (higher levels of anxiety and depression and lower levels of self-esteem), whereas only anxious adult attachment style predicted higher levels of allostatic load. Path analyses revealed that anxious attachment style in adulthood in part explained the relationship between childhood neglect and physical abuse to depression, anxiety, and self-esteem, but not the relationship to allostatic load. Childhood neglect and physical abuse have lasting effects on adult attachment styles and anxious and avoidant adult attachment styles contribute to understanding the negative mental health consequences of childhood neglect and physical abuse 30 years later in adulthood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Associations between objectively measured physical activity intensity in childhood and measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Grøntved, Anders; Møller, Niels Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: No prospective studies have investigated the association between physical activity (PA) and carotid subclinical cardiovascular disease across childhood. Therefore, the primary aim was to investigate the association between PA intensity across childhood and carotid intima media...

  2. Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy of Childhood; A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza SALEHIOMRAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Salehi Omran MR, Nooreddini H, Baghdadi F. Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy of Childhood; A Case Report. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Spring;7(2:51-54. AbstractAcute Necrotizing Encephalopathy of Childhood (ANEC is an atypical disease followed by respiratory or gastrointestinal infection, high fever, which is accompanied with rapid alteration of consciousness and seizures. This disease is seen nearly exclusively in East Asian infants and children who had previously a good health. Serial MRI examinations demonstrated symmetric lesions involving the thalami, brainstem, cerebellum, and white matter. This disease has a poor prognosis, often culminating in profound morbidity and mortality. A 22-month infant with ANEC hospitalized in Amirkola Children Hospital has been evaluated. References1. Mizuguchi M. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood: a novel form of acute encephalopathy prevalent in Japan and Taiwan. Brain Dev. 1997 Mar;19(2:81-92. Review.2. Wang HS, Huang SC. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood. Chang Gung Med J 2001 Jan;24(1:1-10.3. Campistol J, Gassió R, Pineda M, Fernandez-Alvarez E. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood (infantile bilateral  thalamic necrosis: two non-Japanese cases. Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Nov;40(11:771-4.4. Ito Y, Ichiyama T, Kimura H, Shibata M, Ishiwada N, Kuroki H, Furukawa S, Morishima T. Detection of influenza virus RNA by reverse transcription-PCR and proinflammatory cytokines in influenza-virus-associated encephalopathy. J Med Virol 1999 Aug;58(4:420-5.5. Sugaya N. Influenza-associated encephalopathy in Japan. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2002 Apr;13(2:79-84. Review.6. Skelton BW, Hollingshead MC, Sledd AT, Phillips CD, Castillo M. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood: typical findings in an atypical disease. Pediatr Radiol 2008 Jul; 38(7:810-3.7. Wong AM, Simon EM, Zimmerman RA, Wang HS, Toh CH, Ng SH. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood

  3. Schizophrenia clinical symptom differences in women vs. men with and without a history of childhood physical abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Deanna L; Rowland, Laura M; Patchan, Kathleen M; Sullivan, Kelli; Earl, Amber; Raley, Heather; Liu, Fang; Feldman, Stephanie; McMahon, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Childhood abuse has been implicated as an environmental factor that increases the risk for developing schizophrenia. A recent large population-based case-control study found that abuse may be a risk factor for schizophrenia in women, but not men. Given the sex differences in onset and clinical course of schizophrenia, we hypothesized that childhood abuse may cause phenotypic differences in the disorder between men and women. We examined the prevalence of childhood physical abuse in a cohort of men and women with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Specifically, we examined differences in positive, negative, cognitive and depressive symptoms in men and women who reported a history of childhood physical abuse. We recruited 100 subjects for a single visit and assessed a history of childhood physical abuse using the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) and clinical symptoms and cognition using the brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS), the calgary depression scale (CDS) and the repeatable battery of the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS) for cognition. Ninety-two subjects completed the full CTQ with abuse classified as definitely present, definitely absent or borderline. Twelve subjects who reported borderline abuse scores were excluded. Of the 80 subjects whose data was analyzed, 10 of 24 (41.6 %) women and 11 of 56 (19.6 %) men reported a history of childhood physical abuse (χ(2) = 4.21, df = 1, p = 0.04). Women who reported such trauma had significantly more psychotic (sex by abuse interaction; F = 4.03, df = 1.76, p = 0.048) and depressive (F = 4.23, df = 1.76, p = 0.04) symptoms compared to women who did not have a trauma history and men, regardless of trauma history. There were no differences in negative or cognitive symptoms. Women with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder may represent a distinct phenotype or subgroup with distinct etiologies and may require different, individually tailored treatments.

  4. Physical Attractiveness and Self-Esteem in Middle Childhood: Do Recent Life-Span Developmental Texts Perpetuate or Challenge Gender Stereotypes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Beth H.

    This document reports on an investigation focusing on how the content of introductory college psychology texts' content related to physical attractiveness and self-esteem. The primary objective of this study was to review how recently published life-span developmental texts present physical development in middle childhood as related to traditional…

  5. Perceived barriers to and facilitators of physical activity in young adults with childhood-onset physical disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buffart, L.M.; Westendorp, T.; Berg-Emons, van den R.J.; Stam, H.; Roebroeck, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the main barriers to and facilitators of physical activity in young adults with childhood-onset physical disabilities. DESIGN: Qualitative study using focus groups. PARTICIPANTS: Sixteen persons (12 men and 4 women) aged 22.4 (standard deviation 3.4) years, of whom 50% were

  6. Perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and adolescent physical activity and fitness: a longitudinal assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Beurden Eric

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and subsequent adolescent physical activity and fitness. Methods In 2000, children's motor skill proficiency was assessed as part of a school-based physical activity intervention. In 2006/07, participants were followed up as part of the Physical Activity and Skills Study and completed assessments for perceived sports competence (Physical Self-Perception Profile, physical activity (Adolescent Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire and cardiorespiratory fitness (Multistage Fitness Test. Structural equation modelling techniques were used to determine whether perceived sports competence mediated between childhood object control skill proficiency (composite score of kick, catch and overhand throw, and subsequent adolescent self-reported time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. Results Of 928 original intervention participants, 481 were located in 28 schools and 276 (57% were assessed with at least one follow-up measure. Slightly more than half were female (52.4% with a mean age of 16.4 years (range 14.2 to 18.3 yrs. Relevant assessments were completed by 250 (90.6% students for the Physical Activity Model and 227 (82.3% for the Fitness Model. Both hypothesised mediation models had a good fit to the observed data, with the Physical Activity Model accounting for 18% (R2 = 0.18 of physical activity variance and the Fitness Model accounting for 30% (R2 = 0.30 of fitness variance. Sex did not act as a moderator in either model. Conclusion Developing a high perceived sports competence through object control skill development in childhood is important for both boys and girls in determining adolescent physical activity participation and fitness. Our findings highlight the need for interventions to target and improve the perceived sports competence of youth.

  7. Differential Influences of Parenting Dimensions and Parental Physical Abuse during Childhood on Overweight and Obesity in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mößle, Thomas; Kliem, Sören; Lohmann, Anna; Bergmann, Marie Christine; Baier, Dirk

    2017-03-07

    Besides other explanatory variables, parenting styles and parental violence might also be responsible for setting a path towards overweight/obesity in childhood. While this association has consistently been observed for adults, findings for adolescents still remain scarce and inconsistent. Therefore, the goal of this study is to add evidence on this topic for children and adolescents. Analyses are based on a sample of 1729 German, ninth-grade students. To analyze associations between parenting dimensions and weight status, non-parametric conditional inference trees were applied. Three gender-specific pathways for a heightened risk of overweight/obesity were observed: (1) female adolescents who report having experienced severe parental physical abuse and medium/high parental warmth in childhood; (2) male adolescents who report having experienced low or medium parental monitoring in childhood; and (3) this second pathway for male adolescents is more pronounced if the families receive welfare. The importance of promoting parenting styles characterized by warmth and a lack of physical abuse is also discussed. This is one of only a few studies examining the association of parenting dimensions/parental physical abuse and weight status in adolescence. Future studies should include even more parenting dimensions, as well as parental physical abuse levels, in order to detect and untangle gender-specific effects on weight status.

  8. Differential Influences of Parenting Dimensions and Parental Physical Abuse during Childhood on Overweight and Obesity in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mößle

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides other explanatory variables, parenting styles and parental violence might also be responsible for setting a path towards overweight/obesity in childhood. While this association has consistently been observed for adults, findings for adolescents still remain scarce and inconsistent. Therefore, the goal of this study is to add evidence on this topic for children and adolescents. Analyses are based on a sample of 1729 German, ninth-grade students. To analyze associations between parenting dimensions and weight status, non-parametric conditional inference trees were applied. Three gender-specific pathways for a heightened risk of overweight/obesity were observed: (1 female adolescents who report having experienced severe parental physical abuse and medium/high parental warmth in childhood; (2 male adolescents who report having experienced low or medium parental monitoring in childhood; and (3 this second pathway for male adolescents is more pronounced if the families receive welfare. The importance of promoting parenting styles characterized by warmth and a lack of physical abuse is also discussed. This is one of only a few studies examining the association of parenting dimensions/parental physical abuse and weight status in adolescence. Future studies should include even more parenting dimensions, as well as parental physical abuse levels, in order to detect and untangle gender-specific effects on weight status.

  9. Reports of Severe Physical Punishment and Exposure to Animal Cruelty by Inmates Convicted of Felonies and by University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Karla S.; Knutson, John F.

    1997-01-01

    A self-report questionnaire designed to assess abusive childhood environments and exposure to animal cruelty was administered to 314 prison inmates. Although high rates of physical punishment characterized the entire sample, persons charged with violent but nonhomicidal crimes reported more severely punitive childhood histories than those charged…

  10. Prospective associations among cereal intake in childhood and adiposity, lipid levels, and physical activity during late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Ann M; Thompson, Douglas; Franko, Debra L; Holschuh, Norton M; Bauserman, Robert; Barton, Bruce A

    2009-10-01

    Cereal consumption is a common dietary behavior that has been associated with positive health outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine prospective associations between cereal intake in childhood and percent body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, lipid levels, and physical activity during late adolescence. In this longitudinal investigation (data collected 1987-1997), data were analyzed for the 2,379 girls who participated in the 10-year National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. The cumulative percent of days that each girl consumed cereal during childhood (based on 3-day food diaries collected during six study visits between ages 11.5 and 18.6 years) was examined in relation to percent body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, lipid levels, and physical activity measured at age 18.6 years. Results indicated that nearly all girls (90.1%) reported eating cereal and 18.7% reported eating cereal on half or more of the days reported in the food diaries. Girls who ate cereal on a greater percentage of days during childhood had lower percent body fat and total cholesterol, and were more likely to exhibit high levels of physical activity and less television viewing during Study Year 10 (P values<0.05). Further research should explore lifestyle issues related to cereal consumption.

  11. Eosinophilic annular erythema in childhood - Case report*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarzúa, Alvaro; Giesen, Laura; Silva, Sergio; González, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic annular erythema is a rare, benign, recurrent disease, clinically characterized by persistent, annular, erythematous lesions, revealing histopathologically perivascular infiltrates with abundant eosinophils. This report describes an unusual case of eosinophilic annular erythema in a 3-year-old female, requiring sustained doses of hydroxychloroquine to be adequately controlled. PMID:27579748

  12. Childhood neuroblastoma masquerading as pheochromocytoma: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Moon SB

    2016-01-01

    Suk-Bae MoonDepartment of Surgery, Kangwon National University Hospital, Kangwon National School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, South KoreaAbstract: Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children. Mild hypertension is a frequent symptom, presumably an effect of catecholamines that tumors release. Reported herein is the rare occurrence of severe hypertension and subsequent heart failure attributable to adrenal gland neuroblastoma. A 3-year-old boy p...

  13. Childhood Morgagni hernia: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Nain Rattan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Morgagni diaphragmatic hernia is a rare congenital anomaly to be seen in the pediatric age group. We are reporting two cases of Morgagni hernia, which presented with non-specific symptoms and posed a diagnostic dilemma. One of the patients was 10 years old and associated with asplenia and Down’s syndrome; the second case presented as isolated Morgagni hernia in an 8 month baby. The diagnosis was confirmed with radiography and computed chest tomography. Both cases were managed successfully with surgical repair of the diaphragmatic defect through trans-abdominal approach.

  14. An Empirical Investigation of the Dimensionality of the Physical Literacy Environment in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Schachter, Rachel E.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Yeager Pelatti, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the dimensionality of the physical literacy environment of early childhood education classrooms. Data on the classroom physical literacy environment were collected from 245 classrooms using the Classroom Literacy Observation Profile. A combination of confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis was used to identify five…

  15. Physical Therapists' Perceptions of Providing Services to Adults with Childhood-Onset Neuromotor Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton-Griffith, Kelsi N.; Cicirello, Nancy A.; Turner, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Adults with childhood-onset neuromotor disabilities face problems accessing health care services. There are often challenges finding primary care providers or specialized providers, such as physical therapists, who are knowledgeable about neuromotor disabilities. The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of physical therapists…

  16. [Experimental nuclear physics]. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-04-01

    This is the final report of the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington on work supported in part by US Department of Energy contract DE-AC06-81ER40048. It contains chapters on giant dipole resonances in excited nuclei, nucleus-nucleus reactions, astrophysics, polarization in nuclear reactions, fundamental symmetries and interactions, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), ultra-relativistic heavy ions, medium energy reactions, work by external users, instrumentation, accelerators and ion sources, and computer systems. An appendix lists Laboratory personnel, a Ph. D. degree granted in the 1990-1991 academic year, and publications. Refs., 41 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. [Experimental nuclear physics]. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-04-01

    This is the final report of the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington on work supported in part by US Department of Energy contract DE-AC06-81ER40048. It contains chapters on giant dipole resonances in excited nuclei, nucleus-nucleus reactions, astrophysics, polarization in nuclear reactions, fundamental symmetries and interactions, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), ultra-relativistic heavy ions, medium energy reactions, work by external users, instrumentation, accelerators and ion sources, and computer systems. An appendix lists Laboratory personnel, a Ph. D. degree granted in the 1990-1991 academic year, and publications. Refs., 41 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. The long shadow cast by childhood physical and mental problems on adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Alissa; Joyce, Robert; Smith, James P

    2011-04-12

    In this article we assess and compare long-term adult socioeconomic status impacts from having experienced psychological and physical health problems in childhood. To do so, we use unique prospective data from the British National Child Development Study, a continuing panel study of a cohort of 17,634 children born in Great Britain during a single week in March 1958. To date there have been nine waves for this birth cohort to monitor their physical, educational, and social development, during childhood (at birth and 7, 11, and 16 y) and adulthood (age 23, 33, 42, 46, and 50 y). Excellent contemporaneous information exists throughout childhood on physical and psychological health, captured by doctor and nurse-led medical examinations and detailed parental and teacher questionnaires. This information is combined with a wealth of contemporaneous information on adult health and economic experiences collected from cohort members. Information includes their economic circumstances (earnings, labor supply, and other sources of family income), physical and psychological health, and relationship status. Large effects are found due to childhood psychological problems on the ability of affected children to work and earn as adults and on intergenerational and within-generation social mobility. Adult family incomes are reduced by 28% by age 50 y, with sustained impacts on labor supply, marriage stability, and the conscientiousness and agreeableness components of the "Big Five" personality traits. Effects of psychological health disorders during childhood are far more important over a lifetime than physical health problems.

  19. [Giant paraovarian cyst in childhood - Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Janina P; Íñiguez, Rodrigo D

    2015-01-01

    Paraovarian cysts are very uncommon in children To present a case of giant paraovarian cyst case in a child and its management using a modified laparoscopic-assisted technique A 13-year-old patient with a 15 day-history of intermittent abdominal pain, located in the left hemiabdomen and associated with progressive increase in abdominal volume. Diagnostic imaging was inconclusive, describing a giant cystic formation that filled up the abdomen, but without specifying its origin. Laboratory tests and tumor markers were within normal range. Video-assisted transumbilical cystectomy, a modified laparoscopic procedure with diagnostic and therapeutic intent, was performed with a successful outcome. The histological study reported giant paraovarian cyst. Cytology results were negative for tumor cells. The patient remained asymptomatic during the postoperative follow-up. The video-assisted transumbilical cystectomy is a safe procedure and an excellent diagnostic and therapeutic alternative for the treatment of giant paraovarian cysts. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  20. Early Childhood Policy Focus: Healthy Eating and Physical Activity. Early Childhood Highlights. Volume 2, Issue 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, David; Mackintosh, Bonnie; McCoy-Roth, Marci

    2011-01-01

    The importance of good nutrition and exercise is well known, and parents have long worried about their children's diets and envied their high energy levels. Like so many life style habits, patterns of nutrition and exercise behaviors are typically established in early childhood. Poor diet and lack of exercise contribute to obesity, which has been…

  1. Early Childhood Policy Focus: Healthy Eating and Physical Activity. Early Childhood Highlights. Volume 2, Issue 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, David; Mackintosh, Bonnie; McCoy-Roth, Marci

    2011-01-01

    The importance of good nutrition and exercise is well known, and parents have long worried about their children's diets and envied their high energy levels. Like so many life style habits, patterns of nutrition and exercise behaviors are typically established in early childhood. Poor diet and lack of exercise contribute to obesity, which has been…

  2. Self-Reported Childhood Maltreatment and Traumatic Events among Israeli Patients Suffering from Fibromyalgia and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellou, Raneen; Brenner, Inbal; Buskila, Dan; Jacob, Giris; Elkayam, Ori; Aloush, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The association between Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) and childhood maltreatment and adversity has frequently been proposed but limited data exists regarding the transcultural nature of this association. Methods. 75 Israeli FMS patients and 23 Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients were compared. Childhood maltreatment was assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and potential depressive and anxiety disorders were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-4. FMS severity was assessed by the Widespread Pain Index (WPI), the Symptom Severity Score (SSS), and the FIQ. PTSD was diagnosed according to the DSM IV. RA severity was assessed by the RA Disease Activity Index. Health status was assessed by the SF-36. Results. Similar to reports in other countries, high levels of self-reported childhood adversity were reported by Israeli FMS patients. PTSD was significantly more common among FMS patients compared with RA patients, as well as childhood emotional abuse and physical and emotional neglect. Levels of depression and anxiety were significantly higher among FMS patients. Conclusion. The study demonstrated the cross cultural association between FMS and childhood maltreatment, including neglect, emotional abuse, and PTSD. Significant differences were demonstrated between FMS patients and patients suffering from RA, a model of an inflammatory chronic rheumatic disease. PMID:28167861

  3. Differential effects of childhood trauma subtypes on fatigue and physical functioning in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Venter, Maud; Illegems, Jela; Van Royen, Rita; Moorkens, Greta; Sabbe, Bernard G C; Van Den Eede, Filip

    2017-07-19

    There is wide consensus that childhood trauma plays an important role in the aetiology of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The current study examines the differential effects of childhood trauma subtypes on fatigue and physical functioning in individuals suffering from CFS. Participants were 155 well-documented adult, predominantly female CFS patients receiving treatment at the outpatient treatment centre for CFS of the Antwerp University Hospital in Belgium. Stepwise regression analyses were conducted with outcomes of the total score of the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS) measuring fatigue and the scores on the physical functioning subscale of the Medical Outcomes Short Form 36 Health Status Survey (SF-36) as the dependent variables, and the scores on the five subscales of the Traumatic Experiences Checklist (TEC) as the independent variables. The patients' fatigue (β=1.38; p=0.025) and physical functioning scores (β=-1.79; p=0.034) were significantly predicted by childhood sexual harassment. There were no significant effects of emotional neglect, emotional abuse, bodily threat, or sexual abuse during childhood. Of the childhood trauma subtypes investigated, sexual harassment emerged as the most important predictor of fatigue and poor physical functioning in the CFS patients assessed. These findings have to be taken into account in further clinical research and in the assessment and treatment of individuals coping with chronic fatigue syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. ALICE EMCal Physics Performance Report

    CERN Document Server

    Abeysekara, U.; Aronsson, T.; Awes, T.; Badala, A.; Baumgart, S.; Bellwied, R.; Benhabib, L.; Bernard, C.; Bianchi, N.; Blanco, F.; Bortoli, Y.; Boswell, B.; Bourdaud, G.; Bourrion, O.; Boyer, B.; Brown, C.R.; Bruna, E.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calvo Diaz Aldagalan, D.; Capitani, G.P.; Carcagno, Y.; Casanova Diaz, A.; Cherney, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Cormier, T.M.; Cosentino, M.R.; Cunqueiro Mendez, L.; Delagrange, H.; Del Franco, M.; Dialinas, M.; Di Nezza, P.; Donoghue, A.; Elnimr, M.; Enokizono, A.; Estienne, M.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fenton-Olsen, B.; Fichera, F.; Figueredo, M.A.S.; Foglio, B.; Fresneau, S.; Fujita, J.; Furget, C.; Gadrat, S.; Garishvili, I.; Germain, M.; Giudice, N.; Gorbunov, Y.N.; Grimaldi, A.; Guernane, R.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harris, J.W.; Hasch, D.; Heinz, M.; Hicks, B.; Hille, P.T.; Hornback, D.; Ichou, R.; Jacobs, P.; Jangal, S.; Jayananda, K.; Kalliokoski, T.; Kharlov, Y.; Klay, J.L.; Knospe, A.G.; Kox, S.; Kral, J.; Laloux, P.; LaPointe, S.; La Rocca, P.; Lewis, S.; Li, Q.; Librizzi, F.; Ma, R.; Madagodahettige Don, D.; Mao, Y.; Markert, C.; Martashvili, I.; Mayes, B.; Milletto, T.; Mlynarz, J.; Muccifora, V.; Mueller, H.; Munhoz, M.G.; Muraz, J.F.; Newby, J.; Nattrass, C.; Noto, F.; Novitzky, N.; Nilsen, B.S.; Odyniec, G.; Orlandi, A.; Palmeri, A.; Pappalardo, G.S.; Pavlinov, A.; Pesci, W.; Petrov, V.; Petta, C.; Pichot, P.; Pinsky, L.; Ploskon, M.; Pompei, F.; Pulvirenti, A.; Putschke, J.; Pruneau, C.A.; Rak, J.; Rasson, J.; Read, K.F.; Real, J.S.; Reolon, A.R.; Riggi, F.; Riso, J.; Ronchetti, F.; Roy, C.; Roy, D.; Salemi, M.; Salur, S.; Sano, M.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Sharma, M.; Silvermyr, D.; Smirnov, N.; Soltz, R.; Sorensen, S.; Sparti, V.; Srivastava, B.K.; Stutzmann, J.S.; Symons, J.; Tarazona Martinez, A.; Tarini, L.; Thomen, R.; Timmins, A.; Turvey, A.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vieira, R.; Viticchie, A.; Voloshin, S.; Vernet, R.; Wang, D.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    The ALICE detector at the LHC (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) will carry out comprehensive measurements of high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions, in order to study QCD matter under extreme conditions and the phase transtion between confined matter and the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). This report presents our current state of understanding of the Physics Performance of the large acceptance Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EMCal) in the ALICE central detector. The EMCal enhances ALICE’s capabilities for jet measurements. The EMCal enables triggering and full reconstruction of high energy jets in ALICE, and augments existing ALICE capabilities to measure high momentum photons and electrons. Combined with ALICE’s excellent capabilities to track and identify particles from very low pT to high pT , the EMCal enables a comprehensive study of jet interactions in the medium produced in heavy ion collisions at the LHC.

  5. Physics Division annual report - 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-07

    Summaries are given of progress accomplished for the year in the following areas: (1) Heavy-Ion Nuclear Physics Research; (2) Operation and Development of Atlas; (3) Medium-Energy Nuclear Physics Research; (4) Theoretical Physics Research; and (5) Atomic and Molecular Physics Research.

  6. Physics division annual report 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, J.; Physics

    2007-03-12

    This report highlights the research performed in 2005 in the Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory. The Division's programs include operation of ATLAS as a national user facility, nuclear structure and reaction research, nuclear theory, medium energy nuclear research and accelerator research and development. The mission of Nuclear Physics is to understand the origin, evolution and structure of baryonic matter in the universe--the matter that makes up stars, planets and human life itself. The Division's research focuses on innovative new ways to address this mission and 2005 was a year of great progress. One of the most exciting developments is the initiation of the Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade, CARIBU. By combining a Cf-252 fission source, the gas catcher technology developed for rare isotope beams, a high-resolution isobar separator, and charge breeding ECR technology, CARIBU will make hundreds of new neutron-rich isotope beams available for research. The cover illustration shows the anticipated intensities of low-energy beams that become available for low-energy experiments and for injection into ATLAS for reacceleration. CARIBU will be completed in early 2009 and provide us with considerable experience in many of the technologies developed for a future high intensity exotic beam facility. Notable results in research at ATLAS include a measurement of the isomeric states in {sup 252}No that helps pin down the single particle structure expected for superheavy elements, and a new low-background measurement of {sup 16}N beta-decay to determine the {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}){sup 16}O reaction rate that is so important in astrophysical environments. Precise mass measurements shed new light on the unitarity of the quark weak-mixing matrix in the search for physics beyond the standard model. ATLAS operated for 4686 hours of research in FY2005 while achieving 95% efficiency of beam delivery for experiments. In Medium-Energy Physics, radium

  7. Childhood Obesity. A Concern for the Physical Educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plimpton, Carol E.

    1987-01-01

    Physical educators can help obese children to realize their worth and become healthy individuals. Physical educators should encourage a positive attitude toward exercise and fitness, individual counseling, nutrition instruction, and development of high self-esteem. (CB)

  8. Intrusions of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting childhood emotional maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Spinhoven

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available During childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM negative attitudes are provided to the child (e.g., “you are worthless”. These negative attitudes may result in emotion inhibition strategies in order to avoid thinking of memories of CEM, such as thought suppression. However, thought suppression may paradoxically enhance occurrences (i.e., intrusions of these memories, which may occur immediately or sometime after active suppression of these memories.Until now, studies that examined suppressive coping styles in individuals reporting CEM have utilized self-report questionnaires. Therefore, it is unclear what the consequences will be of emotion inhibition styles on the intrusion of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting CEM.Using a thought suppression task, this study aimed to investigate the experience of intrusions during suppression of, and when no longer instructed to actively suppress, positive and negative autobiographical memories in individuals reporting Low, Moderate, and Severe CEM compared to No Abuse (total N = 83.We found no group differences during active suppression of negative and positive autobiographical memories. However, when individuals reporting Severe CEM were no longer instructed to suppress thinking about the memory, individuals reporting No Abuse, Low CEM, or Moderate CEM reported fewer intrusions of both positive and negative autobiographical memories than individuals reporting Severe CEM. Finally, we found that intrusions of negative memories are strongly related with psychiatric distress.The present study results provide initial insights into the cognitive mechanisms that may underlie the consequences of childhood emotional maltreatment and suggests avenues for successful interventions.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online

  9. Activities report in nuclear physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J. F. W.; Scholten, O.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental studies of giant resonances, nuclear structure, light mass systems, and heavy mass systems are summarized. Theoretical studies of nuclear structure, and dynamics are described. Electroweak interactions; atomic and surface physics; applied nuclear physics; and nuclear medicine are discus

  10. Childhood school segregation and later life sense of control and physical performance in the African American Health cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinsky, Fredric D; Andresen, Elena M; Malmstrom, Theodore K; Miller, J Philip; Schootman, Mario; Miller, Douglas K

    2012-09-27

    The association between childhood school desegregation and later life sense of control and physical performance among African Americans is not clear. We hypothesized that childhood school desegregation adversely affected the sense of control of in later life, and that this reduced sense of control accounts in part for reduced physical performance. In-home follow-up assessments were completed in 2010 with 582 of the 58-74 year old men and women participating in the on-going African American Health cohort. We used these data to examine the relationship between (a) retrospective self-reports of attending segregated schools during one's 1st-to-12th grade education and one's current sense of control, as well as (b) the association between current sense of control and physical performance. Multiple linear regression analysis with propensity score re-weighting was used. Attending segregated schools for at least half of one's 1st-to-12th grade education was significantly associated with higher scores on the sense of control. Adjusting for all covariates and potential confounders, those receiving half or more of their 1st-to-12th grade education in segregated schools had sense of control scores that were .886 points higher (p ≤ .01; standardized effect size = .22). Sense of control scores were independently (all p sense of control scores either partially or fully mediated the statistically significant beneficial associations between childhood school segregation and physical performance. Childhood school desegregation was adversely associated with the sense of control of African Americans in later life, and this reduced sense of control appears, in part, to account for their poorer physical performance. The etiologic mechanism through which childhood school segregation at the time that this cohort experienced it improved the sense of control in later life, which subsequently led to better physical performance, has not been identified. We suspect, however, that

  11. High-level physical activity in childhood seems to protect against low back pain in early adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedderkopp, Niels; Kjær, Per; Hestbaek, L

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The evidence on the impact of physical activity on back pain in children and adolescents has been contradicting. It has also been shown that the physical activity cannot accurately be estimated in children using questionnaires. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to establish if physical...... activity in childhood had any impact on back pain reporting in early adolescence (3 years later), using an objective instrumental measurement of physical activity. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PATIENT SAMPLE: Representative random sample of Danish children from the city of Odense sampled at age...... in early adolescence. Larger prospective studies with repetitive follow-ups and preferably intervention studies should be performed, to see if these findings can be reproduced....

  12. Is Childhood Obesity Associated with High-Fat Foods and Low Physical Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muecke, Lee; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Study investigated whether high-fat food consumption and low physical activity were risk factors for obesity in third graders. Tests revealed a greater prevalence of childhood obesity in 1985 than in 1976-80. Neither intake nor activity level were independent risk factors, but there may be synergistic effects with both present. (SM)

  13. Evidence Supporting an Independent Association between Childhood Physical Abuse and Lifetime Suicidal Ideation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson; Esme; Baker, Tobi M.; Brennenstuhl, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    A regionally representative Canadian sample was used to investigate the gender-specific relationship between childhood physical abuse and lifetime suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was about five times higher in abused men and women compared with their nonabused counterparts. After controlling for five clusters of potentially…

  14. The Influence of Weight Change on Physical Fitness from Childhood to Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han; Housner, Lynn; Gao, Yong

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to explore how weight changes from childhood to adolescence influenced the performances of physical fitness. The participants (N = 115) were pre-tested when they were in kindergarten, first, or second grades (mean age = 7.25). The same participants were post-tested again after 6 years. The President's Challenge test battery was…

  15. Physical activity as an important determinant in developing childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Bukara-Radujković Gordana; Zdravković Dragan

    2009-01-01

    The correlation between physical activity and sedentary life style was investigated as a determinant of the body mass index in children and adolescents in Banjaluka region. The study involved 1204 children and adolescents, 6-17 years old, 578 boys, 626 girls. BMI was calculated from their height and weight using standard formula. Each child, together with their parents answered the questions considering their level of involvement in physical versus sedentary activities. Physical activity was ...

  16. Physics Division annual report 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, J.

    2006-04-06

    This report highlights the research performed in 2004 in the Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory. The Division's programs include operation of ATLAS as a national user facility, nuclear structure and reaction research, nuclear theory, medium energy nuclear research and accelerator research and development. The intellectual challenges of this research represent some of the most fundamental challenges in modern science, shaping our understanding of both tiny objects at the center of the atom and some of the largest structures in the universe. A great strength of these efforts is the critical interplay of theory and experiment. Notable results in research at ATLAS include a measurement of the charge radius of He-6 in an atom trap and its explanation in ab-initio calculations of nuclear structure. Precise mass measurements on critical waiting point nuclei in the rapid-proton-capture process set the time scale for this important path in nucleosynthesis. An abrupt fall-off was identified in the subbarrier fusion of several heavy-ion systems. ATLAS operated for 5559 hours of research in FY2004 while achieving 96% efficiency of beam delivery for experiments. In Medium Energy Physics, substantial progress was made on a long-term experiment to search for the violation of time-reversal invariance using trapped Ra atoms. New results from HERMES reveal the influence of quark angular momentum. Experiments at JLAB search for evidence of color transparency in rho-meson production and study the EMC effect in helium isotopes. New theoretical results include a Poincare covariant description of baryons as composites of confined quarks and non-point-like diquarks. Green's function Monte Carlo techniques give accurate descriptions of the excited states of light nuclei and these techniques been extended to scattering states for astrophysics studies. A theoretical description of the phenomena of proton radioactivity has been extended to triaxial nuclei. Argonne

  17. Physical fitness and amount of asthma and asthma-like symptoms from childhood to adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg-Møller, Jørgen; Hancox, Bob; Mikkelsen, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The potential benefits of physical activity on the development of respiratory symptoms are not well known. The present study investigated the longitudinal association between physical fitness and the development of asthma-like symptoms from childhood to adulthood in a longitudinal...... reduced by 2% from early adolescence to young adulthood (ages 9-29 years) by increasing the maximal workload with 1 W/kg. CONCLUSION: This finding provide further evidence of a possible beneficial effect of physical activity in childhood on the development of respiratory symptoms in adulthood and supports...... the notion that the lower levels of physical activity in recent decades may have contributed to an increase in the prevalence of asthma and asthma-like symptoms....

  18. Body mass index, fitness and physical activity from childhood through adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahkala, Katja; Hernelahti, Miika; Heinonen, Olli J; Raittinen, Päivi; Hakanen, Maarit; Lagström, Hanna; Viikari, Jorma S A; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Raitakari, Olli T; Simell, Olli

    2013-01-01

    Obesity, sedentary lifestyle and poor cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood may increase the risk of health problems later in life. The authors studied the association of early childhood weight status with cardiorespiratory fitness and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in adolescence. The stability and associations of LTPA and fitness from childhood through adolescence were also studied. Body mass index (BMI) was assessed annually since birth in a prospective, longitudinal study. The mean BMI between ages 2 and 7 years indicated weight status at preschool age. Fitness was studied with a shuttle run test at age 9 and with a maximal cycle ergometer test at age 17. The same questionnaire was used to assess LTPA at age 9, 13 and 17. Complete data on preschool BMI, LTPA at ages 13 and 17 and fitness at age 17 years was provided by 351 children, while fitness and LTPA data were available for 74 children at ages 9 and 17. Preschool BMI was inversely associated with fitness in adolescence independently of adolescent LTPA (p=0.0001). Children who had a high preschool BMI but whose weight status was reduced in adolescence had similar fitness in adolescence as the children with a persistently low BMI. Regardless of the fitness level in childhood, the children whose LTPA increased between age 9 and 17 had a similar adolescent fitness level as persistently active subjects. It is important to maintain a healthy body weight and a physically active lifestyle from very childhood through adolescence to improve fitness during adolescence.

  19. Physical fitness and training in chronic childhood conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brussel, M.

    2008-01-01

    Chapter 1 is a general introduction with background information about physical fitness and training in healthy children and children with a chronic condition. Chapter 2 describes a systematic review on the physical fitness in survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). The analysis showed that

  20. Physical fitness and training in chronic childhood conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brussel, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30481962X

    2008-01-01

    Chapter 1 is a general introduction with background information about physical fitness and training in healthy children and children with a chronic condition. Chapter 2 describes a systematic review on the physical fitness in survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). The analysis showed that

  1. Childhood conditions and current physical performance among non-institutionalized individuals aged 50+ in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Adverse socioeconomic conditions in childhood have been previously linked with high risk of various health conditions. However, the association with future physical function has been less studied. Hand grip strength and chair-rising time are objective measures of physical capability indicating current and future health outcomes. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that perceived socio-economic status in childhood is related to current measures of physical function, among Israeli participants of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe project. The study included 2300 participants aged 50 years or older (mean age 68 ± 10; 56 % women). Generalized linear regression models were used to examine the associations of childhood wealth and number of books in residence with grip strength and time to complete five rises from a chair. Logistic regression models were used to assess the relationships between the early life conditions and the ability to perform the physical tests. Adjustment was made for current income or household wealth, and for demographic, anthropometric, health, and life-style measures. Being wealthy and having a large number of books at home in childhood was associated with a stronger hand grip and a better chair-rise test performance. These associations were more robust in women compared to men, and persisted after adjustment for potential covariates. In addition, childhood wealth and number of books were associated with lower risk of being unable to perform the tests. Thus, early-life programming may contribute to physical function indicators in mid- and late-life.

  2. Joint physical custody and neighborhood friendships in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazen, Ariana; Wolfinger, Nicholas H; Cahill, Caitlin; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Almost half of first marriages end in divorce, which in turn may produce joint physical custody arrangements. Seen by many states to be in the best interest of the child, joint physical custody is increasingly common. Yet much is unknown about its consequences for children. This article considers how joint physical custody arrangements affect children’s neighborhood friendships, an important component of child well-being because of their contributions to social and cognitive development. Thirteen parents and 17 children (aged 5–11) in 10 families, selected via convenience and snowball sampling, participated in semistructured interviews. The findings suggest that joint physical custody arrangements do not imperil children’s neighborhood friendships; indeed, most children and parents interviewed voiced contentment in this area.

  3. Idiopathic childhood occipital epilepsy of Gastaut: report of 12 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamoto, Hiroyuki; Nagao, Hideo; Fukuda, Mitsumasa; Watanabe, Shohei; Motoki, Takahiro; Ohmori, Hiromitsu; Ishii, Eiichi

    2011-03-01

    This study sought to present clinical and outcome data of patients with idiopathic childhood occipital epilepsy of Gastaut, to validate previously reported characteristics of this epilepsy. The study group was comprised of 12 affected children (three boys and nine girls), with a median age of onset at 10.3 years. Common ictal manifestations included elementary visual hallucinations (75.0%), blindness or blurring of vision (50.0%), headache (50.0%), and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures (58.3%). Interictal electroencephalography revealed occipital spike-wave paroxysms reactive to eye closure and opening in all patients, accompanied by spike-wave activity in the extra-occipital areas in four (33.3%), and by generalized spike-wave discharges in two (16.7%). One patient exhibited the onset of occipital lobe seizures 1 year after manifesting absence epilepsy. Seizure remission occurred in 81.8% of cases, in half of which medication was discontinued by late adolescence. This study confirmed the previously delineated electroclinical features of epilepsy syndrome, with additional aspects including the frequent association of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and atypical evolution from childhood absence epilepsy.

  4. Validation of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Short Forms for Use in Childhood-Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jordan T; Carle, Adam C; Wootton, Janet; Liberio, Brianna; Lee, Jiha; Schanberg, Laura E; Ying, Jun; Morgan DeWitt, Esi; Brunner, Hermine I

    2017-01-01

    To validate the pediatric Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System short forms (PROMIS-SFs) in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a clinical setting. At 3 study visits, childhood-onset SLE patients completed the PROMIS-SFs (anger, anxiety, depressive symptoms, fatigue, physical function-mobility, physical function-upper extremity, pain interference, and peer relationships) using the PROMIS assessment center, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) legacy measures (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire, Simple Measure of Impact of Lupus Erythematosus in Youngsters [SMILEY], and visual analog scales [VAS] of pain and well-being). Physicians rated childhood-onset SLE activity on a VAS and completed the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000. Using a global rating scale of change (GRC) between study visits, physicians rated change of childhood-onset SLE activity (GRC-MD1: better/same/worse) and change of patient overall health (GRC-MD2: better/same/worse). Questionnaire scores were compared in support of validity and responsiveness to change (external standards: GRC-MD1, GRC-MD2). In this population-based cohort (n = 100) with a mean age of 15.8 years (range 10-20 years), the PROMIS-SFs were completed in less than 5 minutes in a clinical setting. The PROMIS-SF scores correlated at least moderately (Pearson's r ≥ 0.5) with those of legacy HRQoL measures, except for the SMILEY. Measures of childhood-onset SLE activity did not correlate with the PROMIS-SFs. Responsiveness to change of the PROMIS-SFs was supported by path, mixed-model, and correlation analyses. To assess HRQoL in childhood-onset SLE, the PROMIS-SFs demonstrated feasibility, internal consistency, construct validity, and responsiveness to change in a clinical setting. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  5. Improvements in the Measurement of Physical Activity in Childhood Obesity Research; Lessons from Large Studies of Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Ness

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in technology have improved our ability to measure physical activity in free-living humans. In the last few years, several large epidemiological studies in Europe and the United States have used accelerometers to assess physical activity in children and adolescents. The use of accelerometers to study physical activity has presented some challenges on how to summarise and interpret the data that they generate, however these studies are providing important information on the levels and patterns of physical activity among children and adolescents. Some studies have reported that few children and adolescents appear to meet the recommended minimum of 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous activity per day. Accelerometers have also allowed examination of the relationships between physical activity and health outcomes like obesity and other chronic disease risk factors such as insulin resistance, aerobic fitness, blood lipids and blood pressure. Use of accelerometers allows such relationships to be estimated with a precision that was previously impossible with self-report measures of physical activity. Such information is already advancing our understanding of the role that physical activity plays in preventing childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease risk.

  6. The Effectiveness of the Teens Reaching Youth 4-H Model in a Childhood Nutirition and Physical Activity Education Program

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes Strong, Kristen Rae

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity rates are on the rise. There are detrimental physical and psychological health effects associated with childhood obesity. Society needs proven methods of delivering nutrition and physical activity education to children. The Teens Reaching Youth (TRY) 4-H model has been shown to be effective at delivering curriculum in a variety of topics. To assess the effectiveness of the TRY 4-H model at delivering nutrition and physical activity education to youth, grades third throug...

  7. The Effectiveness of the Teens Reaching Youth 4-H Model in a Childhood Nutirition and Physical Activity Education Program

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes Strong, Kristen Rae

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity rates are on the rise. There are detrimental physical and psychological health effects associated with childhood obesity. Society needs proven methods of delivering nutrition and physical activity education to children. The Teens Reaching Youth (TRY) 4-H model has been shown to be effective at delivering curriculum in a variety of topics. To assess the effectiveness of the TRY 4-H model at delivering nutrition and physical activity education to youth, grades third throug...

  8. Daily physical activities and sports in adult survivors of childhood cancer and healthy controls: a population-based questionnaire survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina S Rueegg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Healthy lifestyle including sufficient physical activity may mitigate or prevent adverse long-term effects of childhood cancer. We described daily physical activities and sports in childhood cancer survivors and controls, and assessed determinants of both activity patterns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a questionnaire survey including all children diagnosed with cancer 1976-2003 at age 0-15 years, registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry, who survived ≥5 years and reached adulthood (≥20 years. Controls came from the population-based Swiss Health Survey. We compared the two populations and determined risk factors for both outcomes in separate multivariable logistic regression models. The sample included 1058 survivors and 5593 controls (response rates 78% and 66%. Sufficient daily physical activities were reported by 52% (n = 521 of survivors and 37% (n = 2069 of controls (p<0.001. In contrast, 62% (n = 640 of survivors and 65% (n = 3635 of controls reported engaging in sports (p = 0.067. Risk factors for insufficient daily activities in both populations were: older age (OR for ≥35 years: 1.5, 95CI 1.2-2.0, female gender (OR 1.6, 95CI 1.3-1.9, French/Italian Speaking (OR 1.4, 95CI 1.1-1.7, and higher education (OR for university education: 2.0, 95CI 1.5-2.6. Risk factors for no sports were: being a survivor (OR 1.3, 95CI 1.1-1.6, older age (OR for ≥35 years: 1.4, 95CI 1.1-1.8, migration background (OR 1.5, 95CI 1.3-1.8, French/Italian speaking (OR 1.4, 95CI 1.2-1.7, lower education (OR for compulsory schooling only: 1.6, 95CI 1.2-2.2, being married (OR 1.7, 95CI 1.5-2.0, having children (OR 1.3, 95CI 1.4-1.9, obesity (OR 2.4, 95CI 1.7-3.3, and smoking (OR 1.7, 95CI 1.5-2.1. Type of diagnosis was only associated with sports. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Physical activity levels in survivors were lower than recommended, but comparable to controls and

  9. Legumes steam allergy in childhood: Update of the reported cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaliti, G; Pavone, P; Spataro, G; Giunta, L; Guglielmo, F; Falsaperla, R

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, the prevalence of allergic diseases has deeply increased, with a key role played by food allergies. Legumes seem to play a major role towards the overall increase in the scenario of food allergy, since they are an appreciated source, consumed worldwide, due to their high protein content, variable amounts of lipids and for the presence of vitamins. In literature there are numerous descriptions of adverse reactions after ingestion of uncooked and cooked legumes. Nevertheless, cases of allergic reactions induced by inhaling vapours from cooking legumes have rarely been described. Herein the authors report an update of the literature data on allergic reactions caused by legume steam inhalation, underlying the possible pathogenic mechanism of these atopic events and the knowledge of literature data in paediatric age. The importance of this review is the focus on the clinical aspects concerning legume vapour allergy, referring to literature data in childhood.

  10. Research in theoretical physics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domokos, G.; Kovesi-Domokos, S.

    1998-06-01

    This report summarizes the research carried out under Grant DE-FG02-85ER40211. The main topics covered are: astroparticle physics at very high and ultrahigh energies; search for new physics by means of detectors of ultrahigh energy particles of extraterrestrial origin. Methods for searching in heavy quark decays for signatures of physics beyond the standard model are developed.

  11. Identification of contrastive and comparable school neighborhoods for childhood obesity and physical activity research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoffel Katherine

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The neighborhood social and physical environments are considered significant factors contributing to children's inactive lifestyles, poor eating habits, and high levels of childhood obesity. Understanding of neighborhood environmental profiles is needed to facilitate community-based research and the development and implementation of community prevention and intervention programs. We sought to identify contrastive and comparable districts for childhood obesity and physical activity research studies. We have applied GIS technology to manipulate multiple data sources to generate objective and quantitative measures of school neighborhood-level characteristics for school-based studies. GIS technology integrated data from multiple sources (land use, traffic, crime, and census tract and available social and built environment indicators theorized to be associated with childhood obesity and physical activity. We used network analysis and geoprocessing tools within a GIS environment to integrate these data and to generate objective social and physical environment measures for school districts. We applied hierarchical cluster analysis to categorize school district groups according to their neighborhood characteristics. We tested the utility of the area characterizations by using them to select comparable and contrastive schools for two specific studies. Results We generated school neighborhood-level social and built environment indicators for all 412 Chicago public elementary school districts. The combination of GIS and cluster analysis allowed us to identify eight school neighborhoods that were contrastive and comparable on parameters of interest (land use and safety for a childhood obesity and physical activity study. Conclusion The combination of GIS and cluster analysis makes it possible to objectively characterize urban neighborhoods and to select comparable and/or contrasting neighborhoods for community-based health studies.

  12. Physics division annual report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thayer, K., ed.; Physics

    2000-12-06

    This report summarizes the research performed in the past year in the Argonne Physics Division. The Division's programs include operation of ATLAS as a national heavy-ion user facility, nuclear structure and reaction research with beams of heavy ions, accelerator research and development especially in superconducting radio frequency technology, nuclear theory and medium energy nuclear physics. The Division took significant strides forward in its science and its initiatives for the future in the past year. Major progress was made in developing the concept and the technology for the future advanced facility of beams of short-lived nuclei, the Rare Isotope Accelerator. The scientific program capitalized on important instrumentation initiatives with key advances in nuclear science. In 1999, the nuclear science community adopted the Argonne concept for a multi-beam superconducting linear accelerator driver as the design of choice for the next major facility in the field a Rare Isotope Accelerator (WA) as recommended by the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee's 1996 Long Range Plan. Argonne has made significant R&D progress on almost all aspects of the design concept including the fast gas catcher (to allow fast fragmentation beams to be stopped and reaccelerated) that in large part defined the RIA concept the superconducting rf technology for the driver accelerator, the multiple-charge-state concept (to permit the facility to meet the design intensity goals with existing ion-source technology), and designs and tests of high-power target concepts to effectively deal with the full beam power of the driver linac. An NSAC subcommittee recommended the Argonne concept and set as tie design goal Uranium beams of 100-kwatt power at 400 MeV/u. Argonne demonstrated that this goal can be met with an innovative, but technically in-hand, design. The heavy-ion research program focused on GammaSphere, the premier facility for nuclear structure gamma-ray studies. One example

  13. Physics division annual report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thayer, K., ed.; Physics

    2000-12-06

    This report summarizes the research performed in the past year in the Argonne Physics Division. The Division's programs include operation of ATLAS as a national heavy-ion user facility, nuclear structure and reaction research with beams of heavy ions, accelerator research and development especially in superconducting radio frequency technology, nuclear theory and medium energy nuclear physics. The Division took significant strides forward in its science and its initiatives for the future in the past year. Major progress was made in developing the concept and the technology for the future advanced facility of beams of short-lived nuclei, the Rare Isotope Accelerator. The scientific program capitalized on important instrumentation initiatives with key advances in nuclear science. In 1999, the nuclear science community adopted the Argonne concept for a multi-beam superconducting linear accelerator driver as the design of choice for the next major facility in the field a Rare Isotope Accelerator (WA) as recommended by the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee's 1996 Long Range Plan. Argonne has made significant R&D progress on almost all aspects of the design concept including the fast gas catcher (to allow fast fragmentation beams to be stopped and reaccelerated) that in large part defined the RIA concept the superconducting rf technology for the driver accelerator, the multiple-charge-state concept (to permit the facility to meet the design intensity goals with existing ion-source technology), and designs and tests of high-power target concepts to effectively deal with the full beam power of the driver linac. An NSAC subcommittee recommended the Argonne concept and set as tie design goal Uranium beams of 100-kwatt power at 400 MeV/u. Argonne demonstrated that this goal can be met with an innovative, but technically in-hand, design. The heavy-ion research program focused on GammaSphere, the premier facility for nuclear structure gamma-ray studies. One example

  14. [Physical activity, sedentary leisure, short sleeping and childhood overweight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigo Vázquez, Isaac; Busto Zapico, Raquel; Herrero Díez, Javier; Fernández Rodríguez, Concepción

    2008-11-01

    In this study, using the path analysis, the relation between physical activity, non-regulated activity, sedentary leisure, hours of sleeping, and the body mass index (BMI) was analyzed. The sample was made up of 103 students, 59 girls and 44 boys, aged between 9 and 10 1/2 years. An individual interview was performed in which the children were asked about the TV programs they watched each day of the week; the time they played with the console and the computer; the time dedicated to sports, games and other activities. The results showed that sedentary leisure (number of hours of TV, computer and console) maintains a significant and inverse relation with the hours of sleeping, non-regulated activity (games and others activities), and physical sport activity. The difference between the results of this study and the previous one is discussed, taking into account the recruitment procedure of the participants.

  15. Reported maternal postpartum depression and risk of childhood psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Meghan J; Davis, Caroline; Al-Sahab, Ban; Tamim, Hala

    2013-07-01

    Childhood emotional and behavioural disorders are prevalent, can cause significant maladaptation and often persist into adulthood. Previous literature investigating the potential influence of postpartum depression (PPD) is inconsistent. The present study examined the association between PPD and childhood behavioural/emotional outcomes, while considering a number of potentially important factors. Data were analyzed prospectively from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth at two follow-up periods (ages 2-3, N = 1,452 and ages 4-5, N = 1,357). PPD was measured using the diagnostic criteria of the DSM-IV-TR. Four behavioural/emotional outcomes were analyzed at each follow-up. For both age groups, logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between PPD and each of the behavioural and emotional outcomes adjusting for child, obstetric, environmental and socio-demographic factors. PPD was associated with the Emotional Disorder-Anxiety among 2-3 year olds [OR = 2.38, 95 % CI 1.15, 4.91]. Among 2-3 year olds, hostile/ineffective parenting was associated with Hyperactivity-Inattention [OR = 1.88, 95 % CI 1.14, 3.11] and Physical Aggression-Opposition [OR = 2.95, 95 % CI 1.77, 4.92]. Among 4-5 year olds, hostile/ineffective parenting was associated with Hyperactivity-Inattention [OR = 2.34, 95 % CI 1.22, 4.47], Emotional Disorder-Anxiety [OR = 2.16, 95 % CI 1.00, 4.67], Physical Aggression-Conduct Disorder [OR = 1.96, 95 % CI 1.09, 3.53] and Indirect Aggression [OR = 1.87, 95 % CI 1.09, 3.21]. The findings of the present study do not suggest that PPD is independently associated with any enduring sequelae in the realm of child behavioural/emotional psychology, though the symptoms of PPD may be giving way to other important mediating factors such as parenting style.

  16. Childhood school segregation and later life sense of control and physical performance in the African American Health cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolinsky Fredric D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between childhood school desegregation and later life sense of control and physical performance among African Americans is not clear. We hypothesized that childhood school desegregation adversely affected the sense of control of in later life, and that this reduced sense of control accounts in part for reduced physical performance. Methods In-home follow-up assessments were completed in 2010 with 582 of the 58–74 year old men and women participating in the on-going African American Health cohort. We used these data to examine the relationship between (a retrospective self-reports of attending segregated schools during one’s 1st-to-12th grade education and one’s current sense of control, as well as (b the association between current sense of control and physical performance. Multiple linear regression analysis with propensity score re-weighting was used. Results Attending segregated schools for at least half of one’s 1st-to-12th grade education was significantly associated with higher scores on the sense of control. Adjusting for all covariates and potential confounders, those receiving half or more of their 1st-to-12th grade education in segregated schools had sense of control scores that were .886 points higher (p ≤ .01; standardized effect size = .22. Sense of control scores were independently (all p  Conclusions Childhood school desegregation was adversely associated with the sense of control of African Americans in later life, and this reduced sense of control appears, in part, to account for their poorer physical performance. The etiologic mechanism through which childhood school segregation at the time that this cohort experienced it improved the sense of control in later life, which subsequently led to better physical performance, has not been identified. We suspect, however, that the pathway involves greater exposure to racial solidarity, same-race students as peer role models and

  17. Daily physical activities and sports in adult survivors of childhood cancer and healthy controls: a population-based questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueegg, Corina S; von der Weid, Nicolas X; Rebholz, Cornelia E; Michel, Gisela; Zwahlen, Marcel; Grotzer, Michael; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2012-01-01

    Healthy lifestyle including sufficient physical activity may mitigate or prevent adverse long-term effects of childhood cancer. We described daily physical activities and sports in childhood cancer survivors and controls, and assessed determinants of both activity patterns. The Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a questionnaire survey including all children diagnosed with cancer 1976-2003 at age 0-15 years, registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry, who survived ≥5 years and reached adulthood (≥20 years). Controls came from the population-based Swiss Health Survey. We compared the two populations and determined risk factors for both outcomes in separate multivariable logistic regression models. The sample included 1058 survivors and 5593 controls (response rates 78% and 66%). Sufficient daily physical activities were reported by 52% (n = 521) of survivors and 37% (n = 2069) of controls (psports (p = 0.067). Risk factors for insufficient daily activities in both populations were: older age (OR for ≥35 years: 1.5, 95CI 1.2-2.0), female gender (OR 1.6, 95CI 1.3-1.9), French/Italian Speaking (OR 1.4, 95CI 1.1-1.7), and higher education (OR for university education: 2.0, 95CI 1.5-2.6). Risk factors for no sports were: being a survivor (OR 1.3, 95CI 1.1-1.6), older age (OR for ≥35 years: 1.4, 95CI 1.1-1.8), migration background (OR 1.5, 95CI 1.3-1.8), French/Italian speaking (OR 1.4, 95CI 1.2-1.7), lower education (OR for compulsory schooling only: 1.6, 95CI 1.2-2.2), being married (OR 1.7, 95CI 1.5-2.0), having children (OR 1.3, 95CI 1.4-1.9), obesity (OR 2.4, 95CI 1.7-3.3), and smoking (OR 1.7, 95CI 1.5-2.1). Type of diagnosis was only associated with sports. Physical activity levels in survivors were lower than recommended, but comparable to controls and mainly determined by socio-demographic and cultural factors. Strategies to improve physical activity levels could be similar as for the general population.

  18. USSR Report, Physics and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    interferograms of the interaction regions were registered in argon, nitrogen and carbon dioxide , which were used to model different depths of physical... carbon dioxide gas. Output power of 45W was obtained, with gain of the active medium of 0.9 m" • The output power per unit length of discharge is as...Frequency Passive Mode Locking in Iodine Photodissociation CV, M. Kiselev, A. S. Grenishin, et al.; KVANTOVAYA ELEKTRONIKA, No 8, Aug 84) 61 Long

  19. Physical exercise training interventions for children and young adults during and after treatment for childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, Katja I; van der Torre, Patrick; Takken, Tim; Veening, Margreet A; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Kaspers, Gertjan J L

    2016-03-31

    A decreased physical fitness has been reported in patients and survivors of childhood cancer. This is influenced by the negative effects of the disease and the treatment of childhood cancer. Exercise training for adult cancer patients has frequently been reported to improve physical fitness. In recent years, literature on this subject has also become available for children and young adults with cancer, both during and after treatment. This is an update of the original review that was performed in 2011. To evaluate the effect of a physical exercise training intervention on the physical fitness (i.e. aerobic capacity, muscle strength, or functional performance) of children with cancer within the first five years from their diagnosis (performed either during or after cancer treatment), compared to a control group of children with cancer who did not receive an exercise intervention.To determine whether physical exercise within the first five years of diagnosis has an effect on fatigue, anxiety, depression, self efficacy, and HRQoL and to determine whether there are any adverse effects of the intervention. We searched the electronic databases of Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PEDro; ongoing trial registries and conference proceedings on 6 September 2011 and 11 November 2014. In addition, we performed a handsearch of reference lists. The review included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and clinical controlled trials (CCTs) that compared the effects of physical exercise training with no training, in people who were within the first five years of their diagnosis of childhood cancer. Two review authors independently identified studies meeting the inclusion criteria, performed the data extraction, and assessed the risk of bias using standardized forms. Study quality was rated by the Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Apart from the five studies in the original review, this

  20. Childhood autism in a 13 year old boy with oculocutaneous albinism: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakare Muideen O

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hypomelanotic skin disorders like tuberous sclerosis and hypomelanosis of Ito that present with multiple systemic manifestations have been reported in association with childhood autism. Oculocutaneous albinism is another hypomelanotic skin disorder that rarely presents with multiple systemic manifestations. It is infrequently reported in association with childhood autism when compared to tuberous sclerosis and hypomelanosis of Ito. Case presentation This article reports a case of co-morbid childhood autism and oculocutaneous albinism in a 13-year old boy from Nigeria in Sub-Saharan Africa. Conclusion The observation in this case report and in two previous reports which documented association between oculocutaneous albinism and childhood autism both in the affected individuals and families of individuals with childhood autism, raises the question of a possible genetic and clinical association between oculocutaneous albinism and childhood autism. More family and genetic studies into the relationship between oculocutaneous albinism and childhood autism is desirable. This may provide useful clues into the etiology, prevention and management of childhood autism as well as oculocutaneous albinism.

  1. Self-reported drunkenness among adolescents in four sub-Saharan African countries: associations with adverse childhood experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crichton Joanna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of alcohol is associated with acute and chronic adverse health outcomes. There is a paucity of studies that explore the determinants of alcohol use among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa and, in particular, that examine the effects of adverse childhood experiences on alcohol use. Methods The paper draws on nationally-representative data from 9,819 adolescents aged 12-19 years from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda. Logistic regression models were employed to identify correlates of self-reported past-year drunkenness. Exposure to four adverse childhood experiences comprised the primary independent variables: living in a food-insecure household, living with a problem drinker, having been physically abused, and having been coerced into having sex. We controlled for age, religiosity, current schooling status, the household head's sex, living arrangements, place of residence, marital status, and country of survey. All analyses were conducted separately for males and females. Results At the bivariate level, all independent variables (except for coerced sex among males were associated with the outcome variable. Overall, 9% of adolescents reported that they had been drunk in the 12 months preceding the survey. In general, respondents who had experienced an adverse event during childhood were more likely to report drunkenness. In the multivariate analysis, only two adverse childhood events emerged as significant predictors of self-reported past-year drunkenness among males: living in a household with a problem drinker before age 10, and being physically abused before age 10. For females, exposure to family-alcoholism, experience of physical abuse, and coerced sex increased the likelihood of reporting drunkenness in the last 12 months. The association between adverse events and reported drunkenness was more pronounced for females. For both males and females there was a graded relationship between the number of

  2. The relation of childhood physical activity and aerobic fitness to brain function and cognition: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naiman A; Hillman, Charles H

    2014-05-01

    Physical inactivity has been shown to increase the risk for several chronic diseases across the lifespan. However, the impact of physical activity and aerobic fitness on childhood cognitive and brain health has only recently gained attention. The purposes of this article are to: 1) highlight the recent emphasis for increasing physical activity and aerobic fitness in children's lives for cognitive and brain health; 2) present aspects of brain development and cognitive function that are susceptible to physical activity intervention; 3) review neuroimaging studies examining the cross-sectional and experimental relationships between aerobic fitness and executive control function; and 4) make recommendations for future research. Given that the human brain is not fully developed until the third decade of life, preadolescence is characterized by changes in brain structure and function underlying aspects of cognition including executive control and relational memory. Achieving adequate physical activity and maintaining aerobic fitness in childhood may be a critical guideline to follow for physical as well as cognitive and brain health.

  3. Systematic review of physical activity and cognitive development in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Valerie; Hunter, Stephen; Kuzik, Nicholas; Wiebe, Sandra A; Spence, John C; Friedman, Alinda; Tremblay, Mark S; Slater, Linda; Hinkley, Trina

    2016-07-01

    To comprehensively review all observational and experimental studies examining the relationship between physical activity and cognitive development during early childhood (birth to 5 years). Systematic review. Electronic databases were searched in July, 2014. No study design, date, or language limits were imposed on the search. Included studies had to be published, peer reviewed articles that satisfied the a priori determined population (apparently healthy children aged birth to 5 years), intervention (duration, intensity, frequency, or patterns of physical activity), comparator (various durations, intensity, or patterns of physical activity), and outcome (cognitive development) study criteria. Study quality and risk of bias were assessed in December 2014. A total of seven studies, representing 414 participants from five different countries met the inclusion criteria, including two observational and five experimental studies. Six studies found increased or higher duration/frequency of physical activity had statistically significant (pcognitive development outcome, including 67% of the outcomes assessed in the executive function domain and 60% in the language domain. No study found that increased or higher duration/frequency of physical activity had statistically significant detrimental effects on cognitive development. Six of the seven studies were rated weak quality with a high risk of bias. This review provides some preliminary evidence that physical activity may have beneficial effects on cognitive development during early childhood. Given the shortage of the information and the weak quality of available evidence, future research is needed to strengthen the evidence base in this area. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. USSR Report, Physics and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    61 TECHNICAL PHYSICS Influence of Supermolecular Structure on Electric and Physico- Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene (M.A. Kurbanov, S.A...of the spark-streamer channel for formation of a precisely straight plasma filament. The pulse energy from an IK-50-3 capacitor bank was varied...gaps in each 7.2 nF - 1 kohm stage, consisting of eight 1.8 nF BaTi03 capacitor pairs, were excited by ultraviolet radiation from the preceding

  5. Reported Childhood Trauma and Suicide Attempts in Schizophrenic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alec

    2005-01-01

    Childhood traumas are associated with suicidal behavior but this aspect has not been examined in relation to schizophrenia. In this study, 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had attempted suicide were compared with 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had never attempted suicide for their scores on the 34-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire…

  6. Theoretical nuclear physics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    As the three-year period FY93-FY96 ended, there were six senior investigators on the grant full-time: Bulgac, Henley, Miller, Savage, van Kolck and Wilets. This represents an increase of two members from the previous three-year period, achieved with only a two percent increase over the budget for FY90-FY93. In addition, the permanent staff of the Institute for Nuclear Theory (George Bertsch, Wick Haxton, and David Kaplan) continued to be intimately associated with our physics research efforts. Aurel Bulgac joined the Group in September, 1993 as an assistant professor, with promotion requested by the Department and College of Arts and Sciences by September, 1997. Martin Savage, who was at Carnegie-Mellon University, jointed the Physics Department in September, 1996. U. van Kolck continued as research assistant professor, and we were supporting one postdoctoral research associate, Vesteinn Thorssen, who joined us in September, 1995. Seven graduate students were being supported by the Grant (Chuan-Tsung Chan, Michael Fosmire, William Hazelton, Jon Karakowski, Jeffrey Thompson, James Walden and Mitchell Watrous).

  7. Physics Analysis Tools Workshop Report

    CERN Document Server

    Assamagan, K A

    A Physics Analysis Tools (PAT) workshop was held at the University of Tokyo in Tokyo Japan on May 15-19, 2006. Unlike the previous ones, this workshop brought together the core PAT developers and ATLAS users. The workshop was attended by 69 people from various institutions: Australia 5 Canada 1 China 6 CERN 4 Europe 7 Japan 32 Taiwan 3 USA 11 The agenda consisted of a 2-day tutorial for users, a 0.5-day user feedback discussion session between users and developers, and a 2-day core PAT workshop devoted to issues in Physics Analysis Tools activities. The tutorial, attended by users and developers, covered the following grounds: Event Selection with the TAG Event Selection Using the Athena-Aware NTuple Event Display Interactive Analysis within ATHENA Distributed Analysis Monte Carlo Truth Tools Trigger-Aware Analysis Event View By many accounts, the tutorial was useful. This workshop was the first time that the ATLAS Asia-Pacific community (Taiwan, Japan, China and Australia) go...

  8. Decline in physical activity level in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Carmen L; Stratton, Kayla; Leisenring, Wendy L; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Nathan, Paul C; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen; Hudson, Melissa M; Castellino, Sharon M; Stovall, Marilyn; Armstrong, Gregory T; Brinkman, Tara M; Krull, Kevin R; Robison, Leslie L; Ness, Kirsten K

    2014-08-01

    We aimed to identify demographic and health-related predictors of declining physical activity levels over a four-year period among participants in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Analyses included 7,287 ≥5-year childhood cancer survivors and 2,107 siblings who completed multiple follow-up questionnaires. Participants were classified as active if they met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for physical activity. Generalized linear models were used to compare participants whose physical activity levels declined from active to inactive over the study to those who remained active. In addition, selected chronic conditions (CTCAE v4.03 Grade 3 and 4) were evaluated as risk factors in an analysis limited to survivors only. The median age at last follow-up among survivors and siblings was 36 (range, 21-58) and 38 (range, 21-62) years, respectively. The rate of decline did not accelerate over time among survivors when compared with siblings. Factors that predicted declining activity included body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) [RR = 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.19-1.46, P physical activity levels were associated with the presence of chronic musculoskeletal conditions (P = 0.034), but not with the presence of cardiac (P = 0.10), respiratory (P = 0.92), or neurologic conditions (P = 0.21). Interventions designed to maximize physical activity should target female, obese, and less educated survivors. Survivors with chronic musculoskeletal conditions should be monitored, counseled, and/or referred for physical therapy. Clinicians should be aware of low activity levels among subpopulations of childhood cancer survivors, which may heighten their risk for chronic illness. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Parental Reports on Touch Screen Use in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristia, Alejandrina; Seidl, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Touch screens are increasingly prevalent, and anecdotal evidence suggests that young children are very drawn towards them. Yet there is little data regarding how young children use them. A brief online questionnaire queried over 450 French parents of infants between the ages of 5 and 40 months on their young child's use of touch-screen technology. Parents estimated frequency of use, and further completed several checklists. Results suggest that, among respondent families, the use of touch screens is widespread in early childhood, meaning that most children have some exposure to touch screens. Among child users, certain activities are more frequently reported to be liked than others, findings that we discuss in light of current concern for children's employment of time and the cognitive effects of passive media exposure. Additionally, these parental reports point to clear developmental trends for certain types of interactive gestures. These results contribute to the investigation of touch screen use on early development and suggest a number of considerations that should help improve the design of applications geared towards toddlers, particularly for scientific purposes.

  10. Parental Reports on Touch Screen Use in Early Childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandrina Cristia

    Full Text Available Touch screens are increasingly prevalent, and anecdotal evidence suggests that young children are very drawn towards them. Yet there is little data regarding how young children use them. A brief online questionnaire queried over 450 French parents of infants between the ages of 5 and 40 months on their young child's use of touch-screen technology. Parents estimated frequency of use, and further completed several checklists. Results suggest that, among respondent families, the use of touch screens is widespread in early childhood, meaning that most children have some exposure to touch screens. Among child users, certain activities are more frequently reported to be liked than others, findings that we discuss in light of current concern for children's employment of time and the cognitive effects of passive media exposure. Additionally, these parental reports point to clear developmental trends for certain types of interactive gestures. These results contribute to the investigation of touch screen use on early development and suggest a number of considerations that should help improve the design of applications geared towards toddlers, particularly for scientific purposes.

  11. Transition from childhood to adulthood in coeliac disease: the Prague consensus report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Agreus, Lars; Ciacci, Carolina; Crowe, Sheila E; Geller, Marilyn G; Green, Peter H R; Hill, Ivor; Hungin, A Pali; Koletzko, Sibylle; Koltai, Tunde; Lundin, Knut E A; Mearin, M Luisa; Murray, Joseph A; Reilly, Norelle; Walker, Marjorie M; Sanders, David S; Shamir, Raanan; Troncone, Riccardo; Husby, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    The process of transition from childhood to adulthood is characterised by physical, mental and psychosocial development. Data on the transition and transfer of care in adolescents/young adults with coeliac disease (CD) are scarce. In this paper, 17 physicians from 10 countries (Sweden, Italy, the USA, Germany, Norway, the Netherlands, Australia, Britain, Israel and Denmark) and two representatives from patient organisations (Association of European Coeliac Societies and the US Celiac Disease Foundation) examined the literature on transition from childhood to adulthood in CD. Medline (Ovid) and EMBASE were searched between 1900 and September 2015. Evidence in retrieved reports was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation method. The current consensus report aims to help healthcare personnel manage CD in the adolescent and young adult and provide optimal care and transition into adult healthcare for patients with this disease. In adolescence, patients with CD should gradually assume exclusive responsibility for their care, although parental support is still important. Dietary adherence and consequences of non-adherence should be discussed during transition. In most adolescents and young adults, routine small intestinal biopsy is not needed to reconfirm a childhood diagnosis of CD based on European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) or North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) criteria, but a biopsy may be considered where paediatric diagnostic criteria have not been fulfilled, such as, in a patient without biopsy at diagnosis, additional serology (endomysium antibody) has not been performed to confirm 10-fold positivity of tissue transglutaminase antibodies or when a no biopsy strategy has been adopted in an asymptomatic child. PMID:27196596

  12. Activities report in applied physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research concerning acoustics, heat, architecture, materials research, and (optical) instrumentation is presented; active noise control and acoustic path identification were investigated. Energy conservation, solar energy, and building physics activities were carried out. Ultraviolet absorbing glasses, glass fibers, sheet glass, and aluminium and silicon oxynitrides, were studied. Glass fiber based sensor and laser applications, and optical space-instrumentation are discussed. Signal processing, sensors, and integrated electronics applications were developed. Scale model experiments for flow induced noise and vibrations, caused by engines, ventilators, wind turbines, and propellers, were executed. A multispectral charge coupled device airborne scanner, with four modules (one for forward observations) is described. A ground radar, based on seismic exploration signal processing and used for the location of pipes, sewers and cables, was developed.

  13. Health physics 1992 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, radiation protection services are provided by ESH-1, -4, and -12, and technical support is provided by ESH-6 to Laboratory groups that work with significant quantities of fissile material. The mission of all these groups is to protect Laboratory workers, the public, and the environment from radiation associated with Laboratory operations. In this report, 1992 radiation protection performance trends are presented. These data show that, in general, the collective external dose equivalent quantities from penetrating (gamma, x-ray, and neutron) radiation and from nonpenetrating (beta and low-energy photon) radiation showed a slight downward trend during 1992. The number of confirmed contaminations of skin and personal clothing decreased in 1992 when compared to the previous year. Finally, there was one reportable DOE 5000.3A internal contamination event in 1992. The 1992 radiation protection activities of the Laboratory, conducted at both the Nevada Test Site and at Los Alamos, are presented and discussed. These activities include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, radiation-monitoring instrumentation, sample analysis, workplace radiological monitoring, nuclear criticality safety, hazardous materials response, radiological training, and radiological records. This report details routine activities, including any significant changes and improvements in 1992; additional activities, including special investigations, studies, and reviews; publications and presentations; and professional activities, including professional memberships, training received, and conferences attended.

  14. Differential DNA methylation regions in cytokine and transcription factor genomic loci associate with childhood physical aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Provençal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animal and human studies suggest that inflammation is associated with behavioral disorders including aggression. We have recently shown that physical aggression of boys during childhood is strongly associated with reduced plasma levels of cytokines IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10, later in early adulthood. This study tests the hypothesis that there is an association between differential DNA methylation regions in cytokine genes in T cells and monocytes DNA in adult subjects and a trajectory of physical aggression from childhood to adolescence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared the methylation profiles of the entire genomic loci encompassing the IL-1α, IL-6, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-8 and three of their regulatory transcription factors (TF NFkB1, NFAT5 and STAT6 genes in adult males on a chronic physical aggression trajectory (CPA and males with the same background who followed a normal physical aggression trajectory (control group from childhood to adolescence. We used the method of methylated DNA immunoprecipitation with comprehensive cytokine gene loci and TF loci microarray hybridization, statistical analysis and false discovery rate correction. We found differentially methylated regions to associate with CPA in both the cytokine loci as well as in their transcription factors loci analyzed. Some of these differentially methylated regions were located in known regulatory regions whereas others, to our knowledge, were previously unknown as regulatory areas. However, using the ENCODE database, we were able to identify key regulatory elements in many of these regions that indicate that they might be involved in the regulation of cytokine expression. CONCLUSIONS: We provide here the first evidence for an association between differential DNA methylation in cytokines and their regulators in T cells and monocytes and male physical aggression.

  15. Working group report: Collider and flavour physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debajyoti Choudhury; Asesh K Datta; Anirban Kundu

    2009-01-01

    The activities of the working group took place under two broad subgroups: Collider Physics subgroup and Flavour Physics subgroup. Reports on some of the projects undertaken are included. Also, some of the leading discussions organized by the working group are summarized.

  16. Research in High Energy Physics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, John S.

    2013-08-09

    This final report details the work done from January 2010 until April 2013 in the area of experimental and theoretical high energy particle physics and cosmology at the University of California, Davis.

  17. Working group report: Neutrino and astroparticle physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raj Gandhi; Kamales Kar; S Uma Sankar; Abhijit Bandyopadhyay; Rahul Basu; Pijushpani Bhattacharjee; Biswajoy Brahmachari; Debrupa Chakraborti; M Chaudhury; J Chaudhury; Sandhya Choubey; E J Chun; Atri Desmukhya; Anindya Datta; Gautam Dutta; Sukanta Dutta; Raj Gandhi; Anjan Giri; Sourendu Gupta; Srubabati Goswami; Kamales Kar; Namit Mahajan; H S Mani; A Mukherjee; Biswarup Mukhopadhyaya; S N Nayak; M Randhawa; Subhendu Rakshit; Asim K Ray; Amitava Raychaudhuri; D P Roy; Probir Roy; Suryadeep Roy; Shiv Sethi; G Sigl; Arunansu Sil; N Nimai Singh; S Uma Sankar; Mark Vagins; Urjit Yagnik

    2003-02-01

    This is the report of neutrino and astroparticle physics working group at WHEPP-7. Discussions and work on CP violation in long baseline neutrino experiments, ultra high energy neutrinos, supernova neutrinos and water Cerenkov detectors are discussed.

  18. Associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and glycemic control in a large cohort of adolescents with type 1 diabetes: the Hvidoere Study Group on Childhood Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aman, J; Skinner, T C; de Beaufort, C E;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Hvidoere Study Group on Childhood Diabetes has demonstrated persistent differences in metabolic outcomes between pediatric diabetes centers. These differences cannot be accounted for by differences in demographic, medical, or treatment variables. Therefore, we sought to explore...... whether differences in physical activity or sedentary behavior could explain the variation in metabolic outcomes between centers. METHODS: An observational cross-sectional international study in 21 centers, with demographic and clinical data obtained by questionnaire from participants. Hemoglobin A1c (Hb...... in reported physical activity (p metabolic control. CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity is strongly associated with psychological well-being but has weak associations with metabolic control. Leisure time...

  19. Physical activity in childhood and the association with myopia in adolescence – The CHAMPS Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Lars Kristian; Vestergaard, Anders Højslet; Jacobsen, Nina

    Purpose: Myopia is the most frequent eye disease globally and is usually caused by increasing axial growth of the eye during childhood and adolescence. Lifestyle changes such as reduced physical activity (PA) are thought to be the driving force behind the rapid increase of myopia worldwide......-PA prompt a 0.3 mm longer AL (Pphysical activity was associated with a shorter axial length and refractive error for SED-PA and M-PA, consistent with theory....... cohort (Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study Denmark). PA was assessed with GT3X accelerometer (ActiGraph, Florida, USA) worn for 7 full consecutive days at the period August to October 2010: mean intensity was estimated as counts/min (CPM); and cut off-points for sedentary (SED...

  20. Family meal traditions. Comparing reported childhood food habits to current food habits among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if reported childhood food habits predict the food habits of students at present. Questions addressed are: does the memory of childhood family meals promote commensality among students? Does the memory of (grand)parents' cooking influence students' cooking? And, is there still a gender difference in passing on everyday cooking skills? Using a cross-sectional survey, 104 students were asked about their current eating and cooking habits, and their eating habits and the cooking behavior of their (grand)parents during their childhood. Results show that frequencies in reported childhood family meals predict frequencies of students' commensality at present. The effects appear for breakfast and dinner, and stay within the same meal: recalled childhood family breakfasts predict current breakfast commensality, recalled childhood family dinners predict current dinner commensality. In terms of recalled cookery of (grand)parents and the use of family recipes a matrilineal dominance can be observed. Mothers are most influential, and maternal grandmothers outscore paternal grandmothers. Yet, fathers' childhood cooking did not pass unnoticed either. They seem to influence male students' cookery. Overall, in a life-stage of transgression students appear to maintain recalled childhood food rituals. Suggestions are discussed to further validate these results.

  1. Childhood hyperactivity, physical aggression and criminality: a 19-year prospective population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Pingault

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research shows that children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder are at elevated risk of criminality. However, several issues still need to be addressed in order to verify whether hyperactivity in itself plays a role in the prediction of criminality. In particular, co-occurrence with other behaviors as well as the internal heterogeneity in ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity and inattention should be taken into account. The aim of this study was to assess the unique and interactive contributions of hyperactivity to the development of criminality, whilst considering inattention, physical aggression and family adversity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We monitored the development of a population-based sample of kindergarten children (N = 2,741. Hyperactivity, inattention, and physical aggression were assessed annually between the ages of 6 and 12 years by mothers and teachers. Information on the presence, the age at first charge and the type of criminal charge was obtained from official records when the participants were aged 25 years. We used survival analysis models to predict the development of criminality in adolescence and adulthood: high childhood hyperactivity was highly predictive when bivariate analyses were used; however, with multivariate analyses, high hyperactivity was only marginally significant (Hazard Ratio: 1.38; 95% CI: 0.94-2.02. Sensitivity analyses revealed that hyperactivity was not a consistent predictor. High physical aggression was strongly predictive (Hazard Ratio: 3.44; 95% CI: 2.43-4.87 and its role was consistent in sensitivity analyses and for different types of crime. Inattention was not predictive of later criminality. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although the contribution of childhood hyperactivity to criminality may be detected in large samples using multi-informant longitudinal designs, our results show that it is not a strong predictor of later criminality. Crime prevention should instead target

  2. Natural Environments and Childhood Experiences Promoting Physical Activity, Examining the Mediational Effects of Feelings about Nature and Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogiuri, Giovanna

    2016-04-21

    The importance of natural environments (NEs) for physical activity (PA) has been studied extensively. However, there is scant evidence to explain the motivational processes underlying the NE-PA relation. The aim of this study was to investigate the NE-PA relation using an ecological framework, focusing on perception of NEs, childhood experiences and possible intra- and inter-individual mediators. Data were retrieved from a cross-sectional survey among 2168 adults from all over Norway. In addition, the coverage of NEs by municipalities was retrieved from national registers. Logistic regression showed that, unlike the self-reported proximity to NEs, higher ratings of perceived supportiveness of NEs for PA predicted participation in NE-based PA for at least 60 min/week or 150 min/week, before and after controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. Reporting frequent experiences in nature during childhood was also an important predictor of higher levels of NE-based PA. Furthermore, a mediational analysis showed that the effect of both predictors was mediated by "feelings about nature" and "social networks". These findings indicate that to encourage the use of local NE for PA, not only should environmental perceptions be taken into account, positive feelings towards nature alongside opportunities to share activity in nature with others should also be promoted.

  3. Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology position stand: Benefit and risk for promoting childhood physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmuir, Patricia E; Colley, Rachel C; Wherley, Valerie A; Tremblay, Mark S

    2014-11-01

    Current guidelines recommend children accumulate 60 min of daily physical activity; however, highly publicized sudden-death events among young athletes raise questions regarding activity safety. An expert group convened (June 2012) to consider the safety of promoting increased physical activity for children, and recommended the publication of an evidence-based statement of current knowledge regarding the benefits and risks of physical activity for children. Recommendations for encouraging physical activity while maximizing the opportunity to identify children who have been prescribed a physical activity restriction include (1) professionals and (or) researchers that encourage children to change the type of physical activity or to increase the frequency, intensity, or duration of their activity should inquire whether a child has primary healthcare provider-prescribed activity limitations before the child's activity participation changes; (2) physical activity researchers should prioritize the development of evidence regarding the benefits and risks of childhood physical activity and inactivity, particularly data on the risks of sedentary lifestyles and physical activity-associated injury risks that accounts for the amount of activity performed, and the effectiveness of current risk-management strategies and screening approaches; (3) professionals and researchers should prioritize the dissemination of information regarding the benefits of physical activity and the risks of sedentary behaviour in children; and (4) parents and professionals should encourage all children to accumulate at least 60 min of physical activity daily. The recommendations are established as a minimum acceptable standard that is applicable to all physical activity opportunities organized for children, whether those opportunities occur in a community, school, or research setting.

  4. Physical and Psychosocial Functions of Adults with Lower Limb Congenital Deficiencies and Amputations in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ll. Montesinos-Magraner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To describe the epidemiological and medical features of a sample with LLA and LLD in childhood and (2 to explore their relationship with subsequent physical and psychosocial functions in adulthood. Methods. Cross-sectional survey. Demographics, medical data, Locomotor Capabilities Index (LCI, and Discomfort-Engagement in Everyday Activities Involving Revealing the Body Scale (D-EEARB were collected from thirty-two adults who suffered from LLA in childhood or LLD. Results. Most of the sample (53.1% males was working (84.4%, living independently (75%, and single (75%. Mean age was 33.16 (SD = 7.64, range 18–50. Leading causes for LLA were traumatic (40.6% and oncologic (25%. LLD was present in 6 cases (18.8%. LCI scores revealed a high performance among males (t17,464=2.976, p=.008. D-EEARB scores showed that 56.25% stated feeling “quite” or “totally comfortable” in situations which involved revealing their body, but 43.75% stated the contrary (“uncomfortable” or “very uncomfortable”. LLD and traumatic LLA show higher scores in D-EEARB than vascular and oncological LLA (χ2=7.744, df = 3, p=.05. Conclusions. Adults suffering from LLDs and LLAs during childhood seem to perform well once they are adults. However, 43.75% of patients express considerable discomfort in situations that involve revealing the body.

  5. Clinical Characteristics of Adults Reporting Repressed, Recovered, or Continuous Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Richard J.; Perlman, Carol A.; Ristuccia, Carel S.; Clancy, Susan A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors assessed women and men who either reported continuous memories of their childhood sexual abuse (CSA, n = 92), reported recovering memories of CSA (n = 38), reported believing they harbored repressed memories of CSA (n = 42), or reported never having been sexually abused (n = 36). Men and women were indistinguishable on all clinical and…

  6. Working group report: Neutrino and astroparticle physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srubabati Goswami; Raghavan Rangarajan; K Agashe; A Bandyopadhyay; K Bhattacharya; B Brahmachari; C Burgess; E J Chun; D Choudhury; P K Das; A Dighe; A Godbole; S Goswami; N Gupta; M Kaplinghat; D Indumathi; J Forshaw; Y Y Keum; B Layek; D Majumdar; N Mahajan; P Mehta; R N Mohapatra; N Mondal; S More; N Nir; S Pakvasa; M K Parida; M Ravikumar; G Rajasekaran; P Ramadevi; R Rangarajan; S D Rindani; D P Roy; P Roy; N Sahu; A samanta; Y Shadmi; A M Srivastava; S Uma Sankar; R Vaidya; U Yajnik

    2004-12-01

    This is the report of neutrino and astroparticle physics working group at WHEPP-8. We present the discussions carried out during the workshop on selected topics in the above fields and also indicate progress made subsequently. The neutrino physics subgroup studied the possibilities of constraining neutrino masses, mixing and CPT violation in lepton sector from future experiments. Neutrino mass models in the context of Abelian horizontal symmetries, warped extra dimensions and in the presence of triplet Higgs were studied. Effect of threshold corrections on radiative magnification of mixing angles was investigated. The astroparticle physics subgroup focused on how various particle physics inputs affect the CMBR fluctuation spectrum, and on brane cosmology. This report also contains an introduction on how to use the publicly available code CMBFAST to calculate the CMBR fluctuations.

  7. Independent effect of physical workload and childhood socioeconomic status on low back pain among health care workers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Clausen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the independent effect of physical workload and childhood socioeconomic status (CSES) on low back pain (LBP) and LBP-related sickness absence among female health care workers. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The role of physical worklo...

  8. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukheris, Houda [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gilbert, Ethel S. [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stratton, Kayla L. [Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hammond, Sue [Department of Pathology, Ohio State University School of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Mertens, Ann C. [Department of Pediatrics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California (United States); Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L. [Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Neglia, Joseph P. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Inskip, Peter D., E-mail: inskippe@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies.

  9. First Impressions (Primeras Impresiones): Report of the Task Force on Early Childhood and Elementary Education [with] Executive Summary (Sintesis Ejecutiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    The Task Force on Early Childhood and Elementary Education, created by the Texas State Board of Education in January 1993, found that the current system of early childhood and elementary education is struggling to meet the challenges of childhood in today's Texas. This report summarizes the task force's call for schools to reconfigure themselves…

  10. Childhood and adolescent predictors of leisure time physical activity during the transition from adolescence to adulthood: a population based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Kim A; Blizzard, Leigh; Dwyer, Terry; McKercher, Charlotte; Venn, Alison J

    2011-06-01

    Few studies have investigated factors that influence physical activity behavior during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. This study explores the associations of sociodemographic, behavioral, sociocultural, attitudinal and physical factors measured in childhood and adolescence with physical activity behavior during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Childhood and adolescent data (at ages 7-15 years) were collected as part of the 1985 Australian Health and Fitness Survey and subdivided into sociodemographics (socioeconomic status, parental education), behavioral (smoking, alcohol, sports diversity, outside school sports), sociocultural (active father, active mother, any older siblings, any younger siblings, language spoken at home), attitudinal (sports/recreational competency, self-rated health, enjoyment physical education/physical activity, not enjoying school sports) and physical (BMI, time taken to run 1.6 km, long jump) factors. Physical activity between the ages 15 and 29 years was reported retrospectively using the Historical Leisure Activity Questionnaire at follow-up in 2004-2006 by 2,048 participants in the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study (CDAH). Australia's physical activity recommendations for children and adults were used to categorize participants as persistently active, variably active or persistently inactive during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. For females, perceived sports competency in childhood and adolescence was significantly associated with being persistently active (RR=1.88, 95% CI=1.39, 2.55). Smoking (RR=0.31 CI=0.12, 0.82) and having younger siblings (RR=0.69 CI=0.52, 0.93) were inversely associated with being persistently active after taking physical and attitudinal factors into account. For males, playing sport outside school (RR=1.47 CI=1.05, 2.08), having active fathers (RR=1.25 CI=1.01, 1.54) and not enjoying school sport (RR=4.07 CI=2.31, 7.17) were associated with being persistently

  11. Childhood and adolescent predictors of leisure time physical activity during the transition from adolescence to adulthood: a population based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKercher Charlotte

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated factors that influence physical activity behavior during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. This study explores the associations of sociodemographic, behavioral, sociocultural, attitudinal and physical factors measured in childhood and adolescence with physical activity behavior during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Methods Childhood and adolescent data (at ages 7-15 years were collected as part of the 1985 Australian Health and Fitness Survey and subdivided into sociodemographics (socioeconomic status, parental education, behavioral (smoking, alcohol, sports diversity, outside school sports, sociocultural (active father, active mother, any older siblings, any younger siblings, language spoken at home, attitudinal (sports/recreational competency, self-rated health, enjoyment physical education/physical activity, not enjoying school sports and physical (BMI, time taken to run 1.6 km, long jump factors. Physical activity between the ages 15 and 29 years was reported retrospectively using the Historical Leisure Activity Questionnaire at follow-up in 2004-2006 by 2,048 participants in the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study (CDAH. Australia's physical activity recommendations for children and adults were used to categorize participants as persistently active, variably active or persistently inactive during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Results For females, perceived sports competency in childhood and adolescence was significantly associated with being persistently active (RR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.39, 2.55. Smoking (RR = 0.31 CI = 0.12, 0.82 and having younger siblings (RR = 0.69 CI = 0.52, 0.93 were inversely associated with being persistently active after taking physical and attitudinal factors into account. For males, playing sport outside school (RR = 1.47 CI = 1.05, 2.08, having active fathers (RR = 1.25 CI = 1.01, 1.54 and not enjoying school sport

  12. A Memorandum Report: Physical Constants of MCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    A MEMORANDUM REPORT: PHYSICAL CONSTANTS OF MCE ECBC-TR-1289 B.L. Harris CHEMICAL WARFARE SERVICE August 2016 Approved for public release...MCE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Harris , B.L. 5d. PROJECT NUMBER A 1.13 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...original 1945 publication. Note from Reviewers This version is a reprint with corrections of Harris , B.L. A Memorandum Report: Physical Constants of

  13. School's out … now what? Objective estimates of afterschool sedentary time and physical activity from childhood to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickel, Eric E; Belton, Sarahjane

    2016-08-01

    To describe the change in afterschool levels of sedentary time and physical activity from childhood to adolescence. Longitudinal. 375 youth (50% boys) from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (United States) provided accelerometer data at 9 (2000/01) and 15 yrs (2006/07). Average time spent in sedentary, light, moderate, vigorous, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; minh(-1)) was reported across the afterschool period (15:00-22:00) and separately across whole days. Mean comparisons were conducted to report between- and within-group differences in afterschool data. Analysis of covariance was used to determine the effect of sex, ethnicity, and baseline body mass index (BMI) on the 6-yr change in afterschool sedentary time and MVPA before and after adjusting for covariates (baseline afterschool sedentary/MVPA time, change in non-afterschool sedentary/MVPA time, difference in afterschool wear time, and socioeconomic status). From 9 to 15 yrs, sedentary time increased and activity decreased during the afterschool period. After covariate adjustment, the decline in afterschool MVPA was significantly greater among girls, compared to boys (B coefficient (95%CI)=-0.94 (-1.47, -0.40)), and among overweight/obese youth, compared to youth with normal BMI values (B coefficient (95%CI)=-0.65 (-1.22, -0.08)). During the transition from childhood to adolescence, afterschool activity (minh(-1)) decreases while sedentary time increases. Programs are needed throughout this period that promote the maintenance of activity or encourage additional activity with age. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Adults' Memories of Childhood: True and False Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianjian; Ogle, Christin M.; Goodman, Gail S.

    2008-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors examined factors that, according to the source-monitoring framework, might influence false memory formation and true/false memory discernment. In Experiment 1, combined effects of warning and visualization on false childhood memory formation were examined, as were individual differences in true and false childhood…

  15. Report of CCI Early Childhood Think Tank on Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Care, Inc., 2008

    2008-01-01

    Child Care, Inc. (CCI) invited a group of early childhood experts to help reflect on what CCI had learned from other states about governance and to apply that knowledge to New York City. The goal was to foster more systemic thinking about how to move toward a more coherent early care and education system in New York City that would better meet the…

  16. SuperB Progress Report for Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, B.; /Aachen, Tech. Hochsch.; Matias, J.; Ramon, M.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Pous, E.; /Barcelona U.; De Fazio, F.; Palano, A.; /INFN, Bari; Eigen, G.; /Bergen U.; Asgeirsson, D.; /British Columbia U.; Cheng, C.H.; Chivukula, A.; Echenard, B.; Hitlin, D.G.; Porter, F.; Rakitin, A.; /Caltech; Heinemeyer, S.; /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; McElrath, B.; /CERN; Andreassen, R.; Meadows, B.; Sokoloff, M.; /Cincinnati U.; Blanke, M.; /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.; Lesiak, T.; /Cracow, INP /DESY /Zurich, ETH /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Glasgow U. /Indiana U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol. /KEK, Tsukuba /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Lisbon, IST /Ljubljana U. /Madrid, Autonoma U. /Maryland U. /MIT /INFN, Milan /McGill U. /Munich, Tech. U. /Notre Dame U. /PNL, Richland /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Orsay, LAL /Orsay, LPT /INFN, Pavia /INFN, Perugia /INFN, Pisa /Queen Mary, U. of London /Regensburg U. /Republica U., Montevideo /Frascati /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rutherford /Sassari U. /Siegen U. /SLAC /Southern Methodist U. /Tel Aviv U. /Tohoku U. /INFN, Turin /INFN, Trieste /Uppsala U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Wayne State U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2012-02-14

    -constraints of the unitarity triangle through multiple measurements of all angles and sides. This report extends and updates the studies presented in both the SuperB Conceptual Design Report in 2007 and the Proceedings of SuperB Workshop VI in Valencia in 2008. Together, these three documents detail the Physics case of the SuperB Project.

  17. Association between physical and motor development in childhood: a longitudinal study of Japanese twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Latvala, Antti; Kaprio, Jaakko; Yokoyama, Yoshie

    2014-06-01

    Length and weight in infancy are associated with neurodevelopment, but less is known about growth in other anthropometric measures. In this study we analyzed how the development in length, weight, head circumference, and chest circumference over infancy is associated with motor development in early childhood, using a twin study design. Information on physical development over infancy and the age at achievement of eight developmental milestones over early childhood was collected for 370 Japanese twin pairs. Linear mixed models were used to analyze how physical development is associated with motor development between individual twins, as well as within twin pairs, adjusting the results for shared maternal and postnatal environmental factors. Delayed motor development was associated with smaller body size over infancy, and we also found some suggestive evidence that it was associated with catch-up growth as well. When studying the associations within twin pairs discordant for motor development, similar associations were found. However, chest circumference showed the most robust association within discordant twin pairs. Smaller body size and rapid catch-up growth are associated with delayed motor development. When studying these associations within twin pairs and thus adjusting the results for gestational age as well as many other maternal and postnatal environmental factors, chest circumference showed the most robust association. Chest circumference, rarely used in developed countries, can offer additional information on prenatal conditions relevant for further motor development not achieved by more traditional anthropometric measures.

  18. Self-reported childhood trauma correlates with schizotypal measures in schizophrenia but not bipolar pedigrees

    OpenAIRE

    Schürhoff, Franck; Laguerre, Audrey; Fisher, Helen; Etain, Bruno; Méary, Alexandre; Soussy, Caroline; Szöke, Andreï; Leboyer, Marion

    2008-01-01

    International audience; BACKGROUND: Strong evidence supports the association between childhood trauma and psychotic disorders. In two different high-risk populations, we looked for a correlation between the magnitude of schizotypal dimensions and the importance of self-reported childhood trauma.MethodA sample of 138 unaffected first-degree relatives was recruited (67 relatives of schizophrenic probands and 71 relatives of bipolar probands). The relationship between schizotypal dimensions and ...

  19. Long-term survivors of childhood Ewing sarcoma: report from the childhood cancer survivor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Jill P; Goodman, Pamela; Leisenring, Wendy; Ness, Kirsten K; Meyers, Paul A; Wolden, Suzanne L; Smith, Stephanie M; Stovall, Marilyn; Hammond, Sue; Robison, Leslie L; Oeffinger, Kevin C

    2010-08-18

    The survival of Ewing sarcoma (ES) patients has improved since the 1970s but is associated with considerable future health risks. The study population consisted of long-term (> or =5-year) survivors of childhood ES diagnosed before age 21 from 1970 to 1986. Cause-specific mortality was evaluated in eligible survivors (n = 568), and subsequent malignant neoplasms, chronic health conditions, infertility, and health status were evaluated in the subset participating in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (n = 403). Outcomes were compared with the US population and sibling control subjects (n = 3899). Logistic, Poisson, or Cox proportional hazards models, with adjustments for sex, age, race/ethnicity, and potential intrafamily correlation, were used. Statistical tests were two-sided. Cumulative mortality of ES survivors was 25.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 21.1 to 28.9) 25 years after diagnosis. The all-cause standardized mortality ratio was 13.3 (95% CI = 11.2 to 15.8) overall, 23.1 (95% CI = 17.6 to 29.7) for women, and 10.0 (95% CI = 7.9 to 12.5) for men. The nonrecurrence-progression non-external cause standardized mortality ratio (subsequent non-ES malignant neoplasms and cardiac and pulmonary causes potentially attributable to ES treatment) was 8.7 (95% CI = 6.2 to 12.0). Twenty-five years after ES diagnosis, cumulative incidence of subsequent malignant neoplasms, excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers, was 9.0% (95% CI = 5.8 to 12.2). Compared with siblings, survivors had an increased risk of severe, life-threatening, or disabling chronic health conditions (relative risk = 6.0, 95% CI = 4.1 to 9.0). Survivors had lower fertility rates (women: P = .005; men: P < .001) and higher rates of moderate to extreme adverse health status (P < .001). Long-term survivors of childhood ES exhibit excess mortality and morbidity.

  20. Elementary Particle Physics at Baylor (Final Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittmann, J.R.

    2012-08-25

    This report summarizes the activities of the Baylor University Experimental High Energy Physics (HEP) group on the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment from August 15, 2005 to May 31, 2012. Led by the Principal Investigator (Dr. Jay R. Dittmann), the Baylor HEP group has actively pursued a variety of cutting-edge measurements from proton-antiproton collisions at the energy frontier.

  1. Physics Division activities report, 1986--1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the research activities of the Physics Division for the years 1986 and 1987. Areas of research discussed in this paper are: research on e/sup +/e/sup /minus// interactions; research on p/bar p/ interactions; experiment at TRIUMF; double beta decay; high energy astrophysics; interdisciplinary research; and advanced technology development and the SSC.

  2. Nuclear Physics Laboratory 1980 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelberger, E.G. (ed.)

    1980-09-01

    Research progress is reported in the following areas: astrophysics and cosmology, fundamental symmetries, nuclear structure and reactions, radiative capture, medium energy physics, heavy ion reactions, research by outside users, accelerators and ion sources, instrumentation and experimental techniques, and computers and computing. Publications are listed. (WHK)

  3. Nuclear Physics Laboratory 1979 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelberger, E.G. (ed.)

    1979-07-01

    Research progress is reported in the following areas: astrophysics and cosmology, fundamental symmetries, nuclear structure, radiative capture, medium energy physics, heavy ion reactions, research by users and visitors, accelerator and ion source development, instrumentation and experimental techniques, and computers and computing. Publications are listed. (WHK)

  4. A home-based physical activity intervention using activity trackers in survivors of childhood cancer: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Alyssa; Mitchell, Hannah-Rose; Zheng, Daniel J; Rotatori, Jaime; Fahey, John T; Ness, Kirsten K; Kadan-Lottick, Nina S

    2017-02-01

    Over 70% of childhood cancer survivors develop late complications from therapy, many of which can be mitigated by physical activity. Survivors engage in exercise at similar or lower rates than their sedentary healthy peers. We piloted a novel home-based exercise intervention with a motivational activity tracker. We evaluated (i) feasibility, (ii) impact on activity levels and physical fitness, and (iii) barriers, preferences, and beliefs regarding physical activity. Childhood cancer survivors currently 15 years or older and not meeting the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention physical activity guidelines were enrolled and instructed to wear the Fitbit One, a 4.8 cm × 1.8 cm motivational activity tracker, daily for 6 months. Baseline and follow-up evaluations included self-report surveys, an Actigraph accelerometer for 7 days, and a VO2 maximum test by cardiac stress test. Nineteen participants were enrolled (13.4% participation rate) with a mean age of 24.3 ± 5.8 years (range 15-35). Four participants withdrew with a 79% retention rate. Participants wore the Fitbit an average of 19.0 ± 4.7 days per month during months 1-3 and 15.0 ± 7.9 days per month during months 4-6. Total weekly moderate to vigorous physical activity increased from 265.6 ± 117.0 to 301.4 ± 135.4 min and VO2 maximum increased from 25.7 ± 7.7 to 27.2 ± 7.4 ml/kg/min. These changes were not statistically significant (P = 0.47 and 0.30, respectively). Survey responses indicated no change in barriers, preferences, and beliefs regarding physical activity. This pilot study of a motivational activity tracker demonstrated feasibility as measured by participant retention, receptivity, and belief of utility. Future studies with a large sample size are needed to demonstrate the efficacy and sustainability of this intervention. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The relationship between childhood sexual/physical abuse and sexual dysfunction in patients with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Atilla; Meriç, Ceren; Sağbilge, Ezgi; Kenar, Jülide; Yayla, Sinan; Özer, Ömer Akil; Karamustafalioğlu, Oğuz

    2016-01-01

    Childhood traumatic events are known as developmental factors for various psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of childhood sexual and physical abuse (CSA/CPA), and co-morbid depression on sexual functions in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Data obtained from 113 SAD patients was analysed. Childhood traumatic experiences were evaluated using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale was used for the evaluation of the sexual functions. The data from interviews performed with SCID-I were used for determination of Axis I diagnosis. The Beck Anxiety Scale, Beck Depression Scale and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale were administered to each patient. History of childhood physical abuse (CPA) was present in 45.1% of the SAD patients, and 14.2% had a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Depression co-diagnosis was present in 30.1% of SAD patients and 36.3% had sexual dysfunction. History of CSA and depression co-diagnosis were determined as two strong predictors in SAD patients (odds ratio (OR) for CSA, 7.83; 95% CI, 1.97-31.11; p = 0.003 and OR for depression, 3.66; 95% CI, 1.47-9.13; p = 0.005). CSA and depression should be considered and questioned as an important factor for SAD patients who suffer from sexual dysfunction.

  6. "Every Child (of Every Size) Matters" in Physical Education! Physical Education's Role in Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo

    2013-01-01

    The role of schools and physical education in promoting health, producing a "healthy nation" and in tackling obesity has been increasingly recognised in recent years. In England this is evidenced by various policies, strategies and responses from government that have highlighted schools to be instrumental in addressing health broadly and…

  7. "Every Child (of Every Size) Matters" in Physical Education! Physical Education's Role in Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo

    2013-01-01

    The role of schools and physical education in promoting health, producing a "healthy nation" and in tackling obesity has been increasingly recognised in recent years. In England this is evidenced by various policies, strategies and responses from government that have highlighted schools to be instrumental in addressing health broadly and…

  8. The relationships between harsh physical punishment and child maltreatment in childhood and intimate partner violence in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Mota, Natalie; Sareen, Jitender; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2017-05-23

    Physical punishment of children is an important public health concern. Yet, few studies have examined how physical punishment is related to other types of child maltreatment and violence across the lifespan. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to examine if harsh physical punishment (i.e., being pushed, grabbed, shoved, hit, and/or slapped without causing marks, bruises, or injury) is associated with an increased likelihood of more severe childhood maltreatment (i.e., physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect, emotional neglect, and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV)) in childhood and perpetration or victimization of IPV in adulthood. Data were drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions collected in 2004 to 2005 (n = 34,402, response rate = 86.7%), a representative United States adult sample. Harsh physical punishment was associated with increased odds of childhood maltreatment, including emotional abuse, sexual abuse, physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional neglect, and exposure to IPV after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, family history of dysfunction, and other child maltreatment types (range 1.6 to 26.6). Harsh physical punishment was also related to increased odds of experiencing IPV in adulthood (range 1.4 to 1.7). It is important for parents and professionals working with children to be aware that pushing, grabbing, shoving, hitting, or slapping children may increase the likelihood of emotional abuse, sexual abuse, physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional neglect, and exposure to IPV in childhood and also experiencing IPV victimization and/or perpetration in later adulthood.

  9. Association between childhood physical abuse, unprotected receptive anal intercourse and HIV infection among young men who have sex with men in Vancouver, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arn J Schilder

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The association between childhood sexual abuse and HIV risk among men who have sex with men (MSM is well established. However, no studies have examined the potential impact of other forms of childhood maltreatment on HIV incidence in this population. METHODS: We explored the impact of child physical abuse (CPA on HIV seroconversion in a cohort of gay/bisexual men aged 15 to 30 in Vancouver, Canada. Cox proportional hazard models were used, controlling for confounders. RESULTS: Among 287 participants, 211 (73.5% reported experiencing CPA before the age of 17, and 42 (14.6% reporting URAI in the past year. After a median of 6.6 years follow-up, 16 (5.8% participants HIV-seroconverted. In multivariate analysis, CPA was significantly associated with HIV seroconversion (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 4.89, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.65-14.48, after controlling for potential confounders. CONCLUSION: Our study uncovered a link between childhood physical violence and HIV incidence. Results highlight an urgent need for screening of young gay and bisexual men for histories of violence, and social and structural supports to prevent HIV transmission in this population.

  10. The relationship between childhood adverse experiences and disability due to physical health problems in a community sample of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonmyr, Lil; Jamieson, Ellen; Mery, Leslie S; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the association of physical and sexual abuse in childhood, poverty, parental substance abuse problems and parental psychiatric problems with disability due to physical health problems in a community sample of women. We included 4,243 women aged 15-64 years from the Ontario Mental Health Supplement in the analysis. The associations were tested by multiple logistic regression. Ten percent of women had a disability due to physical health problems. Among women with a disability, approximately 40% had been abused while growing up. After controlling for income and age, disability showed the strongest association with childhood physical abuse, parental education less than high school and parental psychiatric disorder. The association with child sexual abuse was not significant. Given the high correlation between abuse and disability due to physical health problems, it is important to investigate approaches to identify women who are at increased risk of subsequent impairment.

  11. Television viewing habits and their influence on physical activity and childhood overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele F. Dutra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of television (TV viewing habits and their association with childhood sedentary lifestyle and overweight in 8-year-old children, from a cohort in a city in Southern Brazil.METHODS: A prospective cohort study with hospital screening of all births that occurred from September of 2002 to May of 2003. This study refers to a cross-sectional analysis of data collected during the cohort's follow-up conducted at 8 years of age. To evaluate the level of physical activity, a physical activity questionnaire for children and adolescents was used (PAQ-C, during the consultation at 8 years of age.RESULTS: Of the 616 interviewed children, a prevalence of sedentary lifestyle > 70% was found, as well as the habit of watching TV for more than two hours a day in 60% of the sample, regardless of gender (p = 0.30, income (p = 0.57, or family socioeconomic level (p = 0.90. The daily time spent watching TV was inversely associated with physical activity (p < 0.05 and positively associated with excess weight (p < 0.01. Regarding physical activity, running was the most frequently practiced sports modality among the population.CONCLUSIONS: Considering the high prevalence of sedentary lifestyle and children who watch TV for an excessive period of time, it is necessary to motivate such individuals to perform interactive activities, as well as promote a more active lifestyle, by decreasing the time children spend in front of the TV.

  12. Low physical fitness in childhood is associated with the development of asthma in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, F; Lambrechtsen, J; Siersted, H C

    2000-01-01

    Intense physical activity in children may either improve fitness and protect against asthma, or may trigger symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine whether physical fitness in childhood has an impact on the development of asthma. In this prospective, community-based study, 757 (84......%) asymptomatic children with an average age at inclusion of 9.7 yrs were followed for 10.5 yrs. In both surveys a maximal progressive exercise test on a bicycle ergometer was used to measure physical fitness (maximal workload) and to induce airway narrowing. A methacholine provocation test was performed...... in the subjects at follow-up. During the 10-yr study period, 51 (6.7%) of the previously asymptomatic children developed asthma. These subjects had a lower mean physical fitness in 1985 than their peers: (3.63 versus 3.89 W x kg(-1); p=0.02) in boys and (3.17 versus 3.33 W x kg(-1); p=0.02) in girls. A weak...

  13. Disability, body image and sports/physical activity in adult survivors of childhood CNS tumors: population-based outcomes from a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, Krister K; Hörnquist, Lina; De Graaff, Lisanne; Rickardsson, Jenny; Lannering, Birgitta; Gustafsson, Göran

    2013-03-01

    Childhood CNS tumor survivors risk health and functional impairments that threaten normal psychological development and self-perception. This study investigated the extent to which health and functional ability predict adult survivors' body image (BI) and self-confidence regarding sports and physical activity. The study cohort covered 708 eligible ≥ 18 year old CNS tumor survivors, and data from 528 (75 %) were analyzed. Disability was estimated using the Health Utilities Index™ Mark2/3, a multidimensional self-report instrument. Physical self-confidence in terms of BI and sports/physical activity-related self-confidence (SPAS) were assessed using the BI and the Sports/Athletics modules of a standardized self-report assessment scale. In adjusted regression models, global health and functional status (GHFS) predicted BI (B = 0.94, 95 % CI 0.69-1.19) and SPAS (B = 0.79, 95 % CI 0.55-1.04). Emotion and pain, and to a lesser degree cognition, speech and vision disability, were associated with poorer BI and SPAS. Gender, sub-diagnosis, and time since diagnosis influenced the relationship between health status and physical self-confidence outcomes. Females had poorer GHFS, BI and SPAS than males. Decreased health and functional ability following childhood CNS cancer intrudes on physical self-confidence, with females being at heightened risk for both disability and negative self-confidence. Identified disability and gender-related risk calls for a follow-up plan that integrates treatment of psychological sequelae in lifetime monitoring of childhood CNS tumor survivors to restore and protect self-image and self-confidence, essential mental health correlates. An expanded plan should recognize the need for such services, optimizing life-long quality of survival for CNS tumor survivors.

  14. Longitudinal relationship between inflammatory markers in adolescents and childhood fatness, fitness and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca El-Naaman; Froberg, Karsten

    Low-grade inflammation may provide a mechanism linking obesity with cardiometabolic diseases and is also related to aerobic fitness (VO2max) and physical activity (PA). However, the longitudinal associations between these factors over the course of childhood and young adolescence are yet...... to be elucidated. PURPOSE: To determine if fatness and exercise during childhood is related to level of inflammation during adolescence. METHODS: Subjects for this longitudinal study were 387, 6 year old children followed for 7 years, obtained from 18 schools near Copenhagen. Sum of 4 skinfolds (S4SF) was measured...... was inversely related to CRP level at age 13 only for girls (r=-0.172, p=0.025) and not significantly related to IL-6 in either sex (p>0.05). Conversely children in the two lowest tertiles of VO2max at age 6 had odds ratios of 1.83 and 1.97 (p=0.046 & 0.022, respectively) for being in the highest tertile of IL6...

  15. Working group report: Cosmology and astroparticle physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raghavan Rangarajan; Ajit Srivastava; A Bandyopadhyay; A Basak; M Bastero-Gil; A Berera; J Bhatt; K Bhattacharya; S Chakraborty; M Das; S Das; K Dutta; D Ghosh; S Goswami; U Gupta; P Jain; Y-Y Keum; E Masso; D Majumdar; A P Mishra; S Mohanty; R Mohapatra; A Nautiyal; T Prokopec; S Rao; D P Roy; N Sahu; A Sarkar; P Saumia; A Sen; A Shivaji

    2011-05-01

    This is the report of the cosmology and astroparticle physics working group at WHEPPXI. We present the discussions carried out during the workshop on selected topics in the above fields. The problems discussed concerned axions, infrared divergences in inflationary theories, supersonic bubbles in a first-order electroweak phase transition, dark matter, MOND, interacting dark energy, composite Higgs models and statistical anisotropy of the Universe.

  16. Effect of adverse childhood experiences on physical health in adulthood: Results of a study conducted in Baghdad city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameel F Al-Shawi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have revealed a powerful relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs and physical and mental health in adulthood. Literature documents the conversion of traumatic emotional experiences in childhood into organic disease later in life. Objective: The aim was to estimate the effect of childhood experiences on the physical health of adults in Baghdad city. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to January 2014. The study sample was drawn from Baghdad city. Multistage sampling techniques were used in choosing 13 primary health care centers and eight colleges of three universities in Baghdad. In addition, teachers of seven primary schools and two secondary schools were chosen by a convenient method. Childhood experiences were measured by applying a modified standardized ACEs-International Questionnaire form and with questions for bonding to family and parental monitoring. Physical health assessment was measured by a modified questionnaire derived from Health Appraisal Questionnaire of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The questionnaire includes questions on cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, tumor, respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Results: Logistic regression model showed that a higher level of bonding to family (fourth quartile is expected to reduce the risk of chronic physical diseases by almost the half (odds ratio = 0.57 and exposure to a high level of household dysfunction and abuse (fourth quartile is expected to increase the risk of chronic physical diseases by 81%. Conclusion: Childhood experiences play a major role in the determination of health outcomes in adulthood, and early prevention of ACEs. Encouraging strong family bonding can promote physical health in later life.

  17. Risk and impact of pulmonary complications in survivors of childhood cancer: A report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Andrew C; Chen, Yan; Yasui, Yutaka; Ness, Kirsten K; Hagood, James S; Chow, Eric J; Stovall, Marilyn; Neglia, Joseph P; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Mertens, Ann C; Robison, Leslie L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Mulrooney, Daniel A

    2016-12-01

    Pulmonary complications after cancer therapy are varied. This study describes pulmonary outcomes among childhood cancer survivors and evaluates their impact on daily activities. The incidence of pulmonary outcomes (asthma, chronic cough, emphysema, lung fibrosis, oxygen need, and recurrent pneumonia) reported among 5-year cancer survivors (n = 14,316) and the incidence of death due to pulmonary causes among all eligible survivors (n = 20,690) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study were compared with those for sibling controls (n = 4027) with cumulative incidence, standardized mortality ratio (SMR), and piecewise exponential models. Logistic regression with random effects was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for activity limitations with pulmonary complications. By the age of 45 years, the cumulative incidence of any pulmonary condition was 29.6% (95% CI, 29.1%-30.0%) for cancer survivors and 26.5% (95% CI, 24.9%-28.0%) for siblings. Fewer survivors reported ever smoking (23.6% vs 36.4%, P cancer and can affect daily activities. Cancer 2016;122:3687-96. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  18. Idiopathic giant cell myocarditis in childhood: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan, Sultan; Akçan, Ramazan; Heybet, Eyup Ruşen; Cavlak, Mehmet; Pehlivan, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Idiopathic giant cell myocarditis is a rare entity of unknown origin, which causes sudden death in more than half of the affected patients. It is rarely seen in childhood, and might result in death due to heart failure and ventricular arrhythmias. Idiopathic giant cell myocarditis is mostly diagnosed at autopsy incidentally. Here we present a rare case of childhood idiopathic giant cell myocarditis. A 10-year old boy found dead in his bed in the morning. Interview with family members revealed death the boy was in good health conditions apart from being overweight. At autopsy, external examination was completely normal. Internal examination revealed normal findings; the heart was 297g and macroscopically normal. No traces of any toxic agents detected in complete toxicological analyses. Areas characterized with granulomatous lesions, lymphocytes, histiocytes, and multinucleated giant cells were observed in myocardium at histopathological examination. No necrosis was observed in granulomatous areas. Tuberculosis was negative in the PCR assays. There were no signs indicative of fungal infection, and clinical status of the case was not compatible with the sarcoidosis. In this respect death was attributed to idiopathic giant cell myocarditis.

  19. [Relationship of childhood physical abuse and internet addiction disorder in adolescence: the mediating role of self-esteem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-hua; Yang, Lin-sheng; Hao, Jia-hu; Huang, Fen; Zhang, Xiu-jun; Sun, Ye-huan

    2012-01-01

    To find out whether the effects of childhood physical abuse on internet addiction disorder in adolescence could be mediated by self-esteem. 3798 high school students selected from 76 classes in Grade One and Grade Two, were asked to fill in the anonymous questionnaire, which including the demographic characteristics of students, Young's Internet Addiction Scale, Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. Childhood physical abuse could directly predict less self-esteem and internet addiction disorder (r = -0.108, P self-esteem (a = -0.703, standardized b = -0.104, z = 5.052, P Self-esteem had mediated 22.5% of the childhood physical abuse cases on their internet addiction disorders during the period of adolescence. Self-esteem could partially mediate the relationship between childhood physical abuse and internet addiction disorder. The mediating roles of self-esteem suggested that salient leverage points could make a change through empowerment training, self-esteem group training on self-esteem enhancement in the stage of adolescence.

  20. Long-Term Psychological Consequences in Women of Witnessing Parental Physical Conflict and Experiencing Abuse in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Azmaira Hamid; Kemmelmeier, Markus; Peterson, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Examines how the coexisting risk factors of sexual abuse and parental substance use contribute to psychopathology in women. Results indicate that depression, trauma symptoms, antisocial behaviors, and suicidal behaviors are related to childhood experiences of sexual and physical abuse. The need for future research to examine multiple childhood…

  1. Childhood Play and Environmental Interests: Panacea or Snake Oil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadala, Carin E.; Bixler, Robert D.; James, J. Joy

    2007-01-01

    Both wildland recreationists and conservationists report that wildland childhood play is an important socialization experience. However, researchers know little about the details of play experiences during the formative childhood years. In this article, the authors describe the content and physical and social components of childhood play as…

  2. Television viewing habits and their influence on physical activity and childhood overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Gisele F; Kaufmann, Cristina C; Pretto, Alessandra D B; Albernaz, Elaine P

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of television (TV) viewing habits and their association with childhood sedentary lifestyle and overweight in 8-year-old children, from a cohort in a city in Southern Brazil. A prospective cohort study with hospital screening of all births that occurred from September of 2002 to May of 2003. This study refers to a cross-sectional analysis of data collected during the cohort's follow-up conducted at 8 years of age. To evaluate the level of physical activity, a physical activity questionnaire for children and adolescents was used (PAQ-C), during the consultation at 8 years of age. Of the 616 interviewed children, a prevalence of sedentary lifestyle>70% was found, as well as the habit of watching TV for more than two hours a day in 60% of the sample, regardless of gender (p=0.30), income (p=0.57), or family socioeconomic level (p=0.90). The daily time spent watching TV was inversely associated with physical activity (pphysical activity, running was the most frequently practiced sports modality among the population. Considering the high prevalence of sedentary lifestyle and children who watch TV for an excessive period of time, it is necessary to motivate such individuals to perform interactive activities, as well as promote a more active lifestyle, by decreasing the time children spend in front of the TV. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Physical activity and late effects in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia long-term survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertorello, N; Manicone, R; Galletto, C; Barisone, E; Fagioli, F

    2011-08-01

    In the present study the authors evaluated therapy-related long-term adverse effects and physical activity in a cohort of long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), diagnosed in their center between March 1991 and August 2000, treated according to the AIEOP (Associazione Italiana di Ematologia e Oncologia Pediatrica) ALL 91 or 95 study protocol and regularly seen in the authors' long-term follow-up unit. The authors analyzed the long-term sequelae of major body systems in this cohort of subjects and administered an "ad hoc" questionnaire concerning sport. The authors found that 70 patients out of 102 (68.5%) showed no late effects, 10% presented only instrumental or neuropsychological test abnormalities, and 21.5% had 1 or more clinical late sequelae. None of the evidenced late effects represented a contraindication to do physical activity. Sixty-one percent of survivors do physical activity, most of them regularly. Sixty-one percent of males and 18.5% of females (P < .005) do competitive sport (sports rates are similar to those of the general age-matched population). Nearly all subjects spontaneously choose to do sport and think physical exercise is an important and useful resource for their health. The authors conclude that the more recent therapy regimens for leukemia treatment, excluding bone marrow transplantation, do not seem to cause such late effects as to prevent survivors from doing sport. Therefore, in the care of ALL survivors, physical activity is not only not contraindicated, but should also be promoted as much as possible. The development of specific educational programs is warranted as part of the care of cancer survivors.

  4. Brain serotonin synthesis in adult males characterized by physical aggression during childhood: a 21-year longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Booij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adults exhibiting severe impulsive and aggressive behaviors have multiple indices of low serotonin (5-HT neurotransmission. It remains unclear though whether low 5-HT mediates the behavior or instead reflects a pre-existing vulnerability trait. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, positron emission tomography with the tracer alpha-[(11C]methyl-L-tryptophan ((11C-AMT was used to compare 5-HT synthesis capacity in two groups of adult males from a 21-year longitudinal study (mean age +/- SD: 27.1+/-0.7: individuals with a history of childhood-limited high physical aggression (C-LHPA; N = 8 and individuals with normal (low patterns of physical aggression (LPA; N = 18. The C-LHPA males had significantly lower trapping of (11C-AMT bilaterally in the orbitofrontal cortex and self-reported more impulsiveness. Despite this, in adulthood there were no group differences in plasma tryptophan levels, genotyping, aggression, emotional intelligence, working memory, computerized measures of impulsivity, psychosocial functioning/adjustment, and personal and family history of mood and substance abuse disorders. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results force a re-examination of the low 5-HT hypothesis as central in the biology of violence. They suggest that low 5-HT does not mediate current behavior and should be considered a vulnerability factor for impulsive-aggressive behavior that may or may not be expressed depending on other biological factors, experience, and environmental support during development.

  5. (Medium energy particle physics): Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nefkens, B.M.K.

    1985-10-01

    Investigations currently carried out by the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group can be arranged into four programs: Pion-Nucleon Scattering; Tests of Charge Symmetry and Isospin Invariance; Light Nuclei (Strong Form Factors of /sup 3/H, /sup 3/He, /sup 4/He; Detailed Balance in pd /r reversible/ /gamma//sup 3/H; Interaction Dynamics); and Search for the Rare Decay /Mu//sup +/ /yields/ e/sup +/ + /gamma/ (MEGA). The general considerations which led to the choice of physics problems investigated by our group are given in the next section. We also outline the scope of the research being done which includes over a dozen experiments. The main body of this report details the research carried out in the past year, the status of various experiments, and new projects.

  6. Is childhood cruelty to animals a marker for physical maltreatment in a prospective cohort study of children?☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Fiona S.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Childhood cruelty to animals is thought to indicate that a child may have been maltreated. This study examined: (a) prevalence of cruelty to animals among 5- to 12-year-old children; (b) the association between cruelty to animals, child physical maltreatment, and adult domestic violence; and (c) whether cruelty to animals is a marker of maltreatment taking into account age, persistence of cruelty, and socioeconomic disadvantage. Data were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological representative cohort of 2,232 children living in the United Kingdom. Mothers reported on cruelty to animals when children were 5, 7, 10, and 12 years, on child maltreatment up to age 12, and adult domestic violence. Nine percent of children were cruel to animals during the study and 2.6% persistently (≥2 time-points). Children cruel to animals were more likely to have been maltreated than other children (OR = 3.32) although the majority (56.4%) had not been maltreated. Animal cruelty was not associated with domestic violence when maltreatment was controlled for. In disadvantaged families, 6 in 10 children cruel to animals had been maltreated. In other families, the likelihood of maltreatment increased with age (from 3 in 10 5-year-olds to 4.5 in 10 12-year-olds) and persistence (4.5 in 10 of those persistently cruel). Although childhood cruelty to animals is associated with maltreatment, not every child showing cruelty had been maltreated. The usefulness of cruelty to animals as a marker for maltreatment increases with the child's age, persistence of behavior, and poorer social background. PMID:24268376

  7. [Experimental nuclear physics]. Annual report 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-05-01

    This is the May 1988 annual report of the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington. It contains chapters on astrophysics, giant resonances, heavy ion induced reactions, fundamental symmetries, polarization in nuclear reactions, medium energy reactions, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), research by outside users, Van de Graaff and ion sources, the Laboratory`s booster linac project work, instrumentation, and computer systems. An appendix lists Laboratory personnel, Ph.D. degrees granted in the 1987-88 academic year, and publications. Refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Cross-Cultural Considerations in Early Childhood Special Education. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Georgia Earnest; Watkins, Ruth; Eatman, Janet; Bennett, Tess; Zhang, Chun; Tarnow, Laura Hojnar; McCollum, Jeanette; Yates, Tweety; Ostrosky, Micki; Halle, James

    From 1996-2001, the Early Childhood Research Institute on Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) has worked to support practitioners in increasing their understanding and awareness of the impact of culture and language on their interactions with children and families. This report presents four articles outlining some of the key…

  9. Early Childhood Aggression Trajectories: Associations with Teacher-Reported Problem Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildeboer, Andrea; Thijssen, Sandra; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; van der Ende, Jan; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hofman, Albert; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2015-01-01

    High and stable levels of aggression and the presence of aggressive behaviour in multiple settings according to different informants are risk factors for later problems. However, these two factors have not been investigated in early childhood. The present study investigates trajectories of parent-reported child aggression from 1.5 up to 6 years of…

  10. Mt. Druitt Early Childhood Project. Third, Fourth, and Fifth Annual Reports to Bernard Van Leer Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macquarie Univ., North Ryde (Australia). School of Education.

    This series of the third, fourth, and fifth annual reports to the Bernard Van Leer Foundation on the Mt. Druitt Early Childhood Project of Macquarie University, Australia, describes the general activities, program developments, and research activities of the project for the period 1977-1979. The main objective of the project is to develop,…

  11. Reciprocal relations between parents' physical discipline and children's externalizing behavior during middle childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Criss, Michael M; Laird, Robert D; Shaw, Daniel S; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2011-02-01

    Using data from two long-term longitudinal projects, we investigated reciprocal relations between maternal reports of physical discipline and teacher and self-ratings of child externalizing behavior, accounting for continuity in both discipline and externalizing over time. In Study 1, which followed a community sample of 562 boys and girls from age 6 to 9, high levels of physical discipline in a given year predicted high levels of externalizing behavior in the next year, and externalizing behavior in a given year predicted high levels of physical discipline in the next year. In Study 2, which followed an independent sample of 290 lower income, higher risk boys from age 10 to 15, mother-reported physical discipline in a given year predicted child ratings of antisocial behavior in the next year, but child antisocial behavior in a given year did not predict parents' use of physical discipline in the next year. In neither sample was there evidence that associations between physical discipline and child externalizing changed as the child aged, and findings were not moderated by gender, race, socioeconomic status, or the severity of the physical discipline. Implications for the reciprocal nature of the socialization process and the risks associated with physical discipline are discussed.

  12. Childhood trauma and compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Chang, Joy; Jewell, Bryan; Rock, Rachel

    2013-02-01

    Childhood trauma has been empirically associated with various types of self-regulatory difficulties in adulthood. However, according to the extant literature, no study has examined relationships between various types of childhood trauma and compulsive buying behavior in adulthood. Using a self-report survey methodology in a cross-sectional consecutive sample of 370 obstetrics/gynecology patients, we examined five types of childhood trauma before the age of 12 years (i.e. witnessing violence, physical neglect, emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse) in relationship to compulsive buying as assessed by the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS). All forms of trauma demonstrated statistically significant correlations with the CBS. Using a linear regression analysis, both witnessing violence and emotional abuse significantly contributed to CBS scores. Further analyses indicated that race did not moderate the relationship between childhood trauma and compulsive buying. Findings indicate that various forms of childhood trauma are correlated with compulsive buying behavior, particularly witnessing violence and emotional abuse.

  13. Retrospective Reports of Childhood Misfortune Are Associated With Positive and Negative Affect in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turiano, Nicholas A; Silva, Nicole M; McDonald, Courtney; Hill, Patrick L

    2017-01-01

    Childhood misfortune refers to nonnormative experiences individuals encounter at younger ages that affect development across the life span. This study examined whether retrospectively reported childhood misfortune was associated with negative and positive affect in adulthood. In addition, we explored whether perceived control beliefs would moderate these associations. We used archival data from 6,067 adults ( Mage = 46.86; range = 20-75) from the Midlife Development in the United States study. Higher levels of misfortune were associated with higher levels of negative affect and lower levels of positive affect in adulthood. However, control beliefs moderated this association such that the combination of higher perceived control and misfortune resulted in less of a decrease in positive affect and less of an increase in negative affect. Overall, early life events were associated with later life emotional health, and control beliefs were an important psychological resource that buffered the negative effects of childhood misfortune.

  14. Reported maltreatment in childhood in relation to the personality features of Norwegian adult psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, Gunilla Klensmeden; Holen, Are

    2007-01-01

    To explore long-term associations between maltreatment in childhood and personality features in adulthood, 160 consecutive adult psychiatric outpatients completed self-administered questionnaires. Maltreatment was defined as either child abuse or neglect exerted by parents or other adults, coldness and overprotection by parents, or bullying by peers. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to detect childhood abuse by parents or other adults, while dimensions of parental coldness and overprotection were captured by the Parental Bonding Instrument. Bullying by peers was measured by an inventory used in schools. Personality variables were covered by the 5-PFa related to the "Big Five," The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Locus of Control of Behavior. Reports of bullying by peers were linked to poor self-esteem and external locus of control. Child maltreatment by parents or other adults were linked to the Big Five personality dimensions; bullying by peers was not.

  15. Quarterly report -- Physics unit: October--December, 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, D.E.; Faulkner, J.E.; Ozeroff, J.

    1954-01-11

    This report is intended to be a description of current work being done by the Physics Unit at the Hanford Atomic Products Operation. The work is concerned mainly with the study of graphite-moderated natural uranium reactors for the production of plutonium on a large scale. In addition, varied physics problems associated with the operation of an industrial atomic plant are occasionally dealt with. The report is divided into four sections; lattice physics; nuclear physics; irradiation physics; and plant physics.

  16. Does physical abuse in early childhood predict substance use in adolescence and early adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E

    2010-05-01

    Prospective longitudinal data from 585 families were used to examine parents' reports of child physical abuse in the first 5 years of life as a predictor of substance use at ages 12, 16, and 24. Path analyses revealed that physical abuse in the first 5 years of life predicted subsequent substance use for females but not males. We found a direct effect of early physical abuse on girls'substance use at age 12 and indirect effects on substance use at age 16 and age 24 through substance use at age 12. For boys, age 12 substance use predicted age 16 substance use, and age 16 substance use predicted age 24 substance use, but physical abuse in the first 5 years of life was unrelated to subsequent substance use. These findings suggest that for females, a mechanism of influence of early physical abuse on substance use into early adulthood appears to be through precocious initiation of substance use in early adolescence.

  17. Does Physical Abuse in Early Childhood Predict Substance Use in Adolescence and Early Adulthood?

    OpenAIRE

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; BATES, JOHN E.

    2010-01-01

    Prospective longitudinal data from 535 families were used to examine parents’ reports of child physical abuse in the first five years of life as a predictor of substance use at ages 12, 16, and 24. Path analyses revealed that physical abuse in the first five years of life predicted subsequent substance use for females but not males. We found a direct effect of early physical abuse on girls’ substance use at age 12 and indirect effects on substance use at age 16 and age 24 through substance us...

  18. Immune thrombocytopenia of childhood responsive to tonsillectomy in the setting of chronic tonsillitis: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard William; Gungor, Anil

    2016-11-23

    Immune thrombocytopenia of childhood (platelet count children. Patients typically present with bruising and bleeding in the setting of thrombocytopenia. Although it is usually short-lived, some cases persist and are unresponsive to treatment. This can lead to exposure to a variety of treatment regimens including immunosuppressants and splenectomy. The goal of this report is to present a case of chronic ITP of childhood that responded to tonsillectomy addressing the tonsils as a source of chronic infection and inflammation triggering ITP. A 4-year-old male with ITP of childhood presented with enlarged tonsils and obstructive sleep apnea. History and physical were consistent with chronic tonsillitis/adenoiditis including malaise, poor oral intake, congestion, rhinorrhea, tonsil hypertrophy, and lymphadenopathy persisting despite antibiotic therapy. Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy were performed. One, six, and eighteen weeks post-operatively the platelet count was 371, 215, and 205 respectively. Although at 12months two relapses had occurred, during the observed period, he had decreased incidence and severity of disease. In around 60% of ITP there is a history of prior infection within the last month but no systemic symptoms at time of diagnosis. Additionally, chronic ITP is characterized by relapses coinciding with infection. This case is unique because the patient had chronic ITP and a clinical history and physical exam concerning for a subclinical, indolent inflammatory process that responded to surgical intervention. Given that chronic ITP exacerbation has been associated with recurrent acute infections it seems probable that chronic tonsillitis could serve as a trigger for relapse or contribute to a prolonged and/or more severe disease course. Therefore, tonsillectomy may result in earlier treatment and/or an altered disease course with avoidance of the expense and morbidity associated with frequent exacerbations and multiple treatment regimens. Copyright © 2016

  19. Physics division progress report for period ending September 30 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, A.B. [ed.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in physics. The areas covered are: Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility; low/medium energy nuclear physics; high energy experimental physics; the Unisor program; experimental atomic physics; laser and electro-optics lab; theoretical physics; compilations and evaluations; and radioactive ion beam development. (LSP)

  20. Physics division progress report for period ending September 30 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, A.B. (ed.)

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in physics. The areas covered are: Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility; low/medium energy nuclear physics; high energy experimental physics; the Unisor program; experimental atomic physics; laser and electro-optics lab; theoretical physics; compilations and evaluations; and radioactive ion beam development. (LSP)

  1. Physics Division progress report for period ending June 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    Progress is reported in detail in the following areas: Holifield Heavy-Ion Research Facility, nuclear physics, the UNISOR program, neutron physics, theoretical physics, the Nuclear Data Project, atomic and plasma physics, and high energy physics. Publications are listed. Separate abstracts were prepared for 34 papers. (WHK)

  2. Childhood physical neglect promotes development of mild cognitive impairment in old age - A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Yang, Linlin; Yu, Lulu; Song, Mei; Zhao, Xiaochuan; Gao, Yuanyuan; Han, Keyan; An, Cuixia; Xu, Shunjiang; Wang, Xueyi

    2016-08-30

    This study aimed to investigate the role of early traumatic experiences in development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Chinese elderly people. Seventy six patients and 61 controls were selected and assigned into two study groups, MCI and control, respectively. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) was used for assessment of early trauma, episodic memory and association learning scales for memory evaluation. In addition, event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured using electroencephalography (EEG) to indicate brain electrical activity of subjects during memory/cognitive tests. MCI patients showed higher scores of physical neglect and lower scores of emotional abuse in childhood than control group. Physical neglect score was negatively correlated with scores of MMSE, MoCA, episodic memory, calculation, and the amplitude of CzP300, FzP300 and PzP300, while a positive correlation was seen between the score of physical neglect and the latency of PzN200, FzN200, CzN200, CzP300, FzP300 and PzP300. The score of emotional abuse was weakly correlated with FzP300 amplitude, but not with any other ERP components. Our results suggested that early childhood exposure to physical neglect may lead to impairment in learning and memory, particularly in the associative learning and episodic memory, in old age.

  3. The Risk of Cataract among Survivors of Childhood and Adolescent Cancer: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodick, Gabriel; Sigurdson, Alice J; Kleinerman, Ruth A; Sklar, Charles A; Leisenring, Wendy; Mertens, Ann C; Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan A; Weathers, Rita E; Veiga, Lene H S; Robison, Leslie L; Inskip, Peter D

    2016-04-01

    With therapeutic successes and improved survival after a cancer diagnosis in childhood, increasing numbers of cancer survivors are at risk of subsequent treatment-related morbidities, including cataracts. While it is well known that the lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the human body, the risks associated with radiation doses less than 2 Gy are less understood, as are the long- and short-term cataract risks from exposure to ionizing radiation at a young age. In this study, we followed 13,902 five-year survivors of childhood cancer in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort an average of 21.4 years from the date of first cancer diagnosis. For patients receiving radiotherapy, lens dose (mean: 2.2 Gy; range: 0-66 Gy) was estimated based on radiotherapy records. We used unconditional multivariable logistic regression models to evaluate prevalence of self-reported cataract in relationship to cumulative radiation dose both at five years after the initial cancer diagnosis and at the end of follow-up. We modeled the radiation effect in terms of the excess odds ratio (EOR) per Gy. We also analyzed cataract incidence starting from five years after initial cancer diagnosis to the end of follow-up using Cox regression. A total of 483 (3.5%) cataract cases were identified, including 200 (1.4%) diagnosed during the first five years of follow-up. In a multivariable logistic regression model, cataract prevalence at the end of follow-up was positively associated with lens dose in a manner consistent with a linear dose-response relationship (EOR per Gy = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.65-1.20). The odds ratio for doses between 0.5 and 1.5 Gy was elevated significantly relative to doses <0.5 Gy (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.7). The results from this study indicate a strong association between ocular exposure to ionizing radiation and long-term risk of pre-senile cataract. The risk of cataract increased with increasing exposure, beginning at lens doses as low as 0.5 Gy. Our

  4. Verbal abuse, like physical and sexual abuse, in childhood is associated with an earlier onset and more difficult course of bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Robert M.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Kupka, Ralph; McElroy, Susan L.; Frye, Mark A.; Rowe, Michael; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Grunze, Heinz; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E.; Nolen, Willem A.

    2015-01-01

    ObjectivesPhysical or sexual abuse in childhood is known to have an adverse effect on the course of bipolar disorder, but the impact of verbal abuse has not been well elucidated. MethodsWe examined the occurrence and frequency (never to frequently) of each type of abuse in childhood in 634 US adult

  5. Applied Physics Division 1998 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecchini, M.; Crescentini, L; Ghezzi, L.; Kent, C.; Bottomei, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy). Applied physics Division

    1999-07-01

    This report outlines the 1998 research activities carried out by the Applied Physics Division of the Innovation Department of ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment). The fields addressed and discussed include: optical and electro-optical technologies (chaps. 1 and 2); accelerator technologies (chap. 3); diagnostic systems for science and engineering (chaps. 4 and 5); theory, modelling and computational methods (chaps. 6 and 7). The aim of the Applied Physics Division is to develop technologies and systems that can be directly applied by internal (ENEA) and external users in research (high-resolution spectroscopy, laser-generated soft-x-ray sources), production processes (laser material photoproduction, structural analysis), social, cultural and environmental sciences (laser remote sensing, modelling of ecosystems and population dynamics) and medicine (particle accelerator for radiotherapy). Most of the work in 1998 was performed by the division's laboratories at the Frascati, Casaccia and Bologna Research Centres of ENEA; some was done elsewhere in collaboration with other ENEA units, external laboratories and industries. A good share of the activities was carried out for international projects; in particular, the IV European Union Framework Program.

  6. A Meta-Analysis of Disparities in Childhood Sexual Abuse, Parental Physical Abuse, and Peer Victimization Among Sexual Minority and Sexual Nonminority Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshal, Michael P.; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Wei, Chongyi; Wong, Carolyn F.; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Stall, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the likelihood of childhood sexual abuse (under age 18), parental physical abuse, and peer victimization based on sexual orientation. Methods. We conducted a meta-analysis of adolescent school-based studies that compared the likelihood of childhood abuse among sexual minorities vs sexual nonminorities. Results. Sexual minority individuals were on average 3.8, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.4 times more likely to experience sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, or assault at school or to miss school through fear, respectively. Moderation analysis showed that disparities between sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals were larger for (1) males than females for sexual abuse, (2) females than males for assault at school, and (3) bisexual than gay and lesbian for both parental physical abuse and missing school through fear. Disparities did not change between the 1990s and the 2000s. Conclusions. The higher rates of abuse experienced by sexual minority youths may be one of the driving mechanisms underlying higher rates of mental health problems, substance use, risky sexual behavior, and HIV reported by sexual minority adults. PMID:21680921

  7. Physics and Advanced Technologies 2001 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, R

    2002-05-09

    The Physics and Advanced Technologies (PAT) Directorate was created in July 2000 by Bruce Tarter, Director of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Director called for the new organization to execute and support programs that apply cutting-edge physics and advanced technology to develop integrated solutions to problems in national security, fusion energy, information science, health care, and other national grand challenges. When I was appointed a year later as the PAT Directorate's first Associate Director, I initiated a strategic planning project to develop a vision, mission, and long-term goals for the Directorate. We adopted the goal of becoming a leader in frontier physics and technology for twenty-first-century national security missions: Stockpile Stewardship, homeland security, energy independence, and the exploration of space. Our mission is to: (1) Help ensure the scientific excellence and vitality of the major LLNL programs through its leadership role in performing basic and applied multidisciplinary research and development with programmatic impact, and by recruiting and retaining science and technology leaders; (2) Create future opportunities and directions for LLNL and its major programs by growing new program areas and cutting-edge capabilities that are synergistic with, and supportive of, its national security mission; (3) Provide a direct conduit to the academic and high-tech industrial sectors for LLNL and its national security programs, through which the Laboratory gains access to frontier science and technology, and can impact the science and technology communities; (4) Leverage unique Laboratory capabilities, to advance the state universe. This inaugural PAT Annual Report begins a series that will chronicle our progress towards fulfilling this mission. I believe the report demonstrates that the PAT Directorate has a strong base of capabilities and accomplishments on which to build in meeting its goals. Some of the highlights

  8. pedometer-measured physical activity, self-reported physical activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as a direct/objective measure of ambulatory physical activity.[8-10]. Furthermore, such ..... that 100 steps/minute is a reasonable heuristic value indicative of ... funding this project: Durban University of Technology (DUT) and the. National ...

  9. Mental Health Consequences of Childhood Physical Abuse in Chinese Populations: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Patrick; Wong, Rosa S; Li, Sophia L; Chan, Ko Ling; Ho, Frederick K; Chow, Chun-Bong

    2016-12-01

    Childhood physical abuse (CPA) can lead to adverse mental health outcomes in adulthood, but its potential impact on Chinese populations is still unclear. This meta-analysis is the first to examine the association between CPA and mental health outcomes in Chinese populations. Studies published before December 31, 2014 were identified from Embase, CINAHL, Scopus, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. Studies with data on the association between CPA and mental health outcomes from Chinese subjects were included. Twenty-four studies were initially identified but two were excluded because of poor quality. Two reviewers independently extracted data to generate summary effect sizes using a random-effects meta-analytic model. A priori subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate heterogeneity and bias in these studies. Our meta-analysis of 22 studies found a significant positive association between CPA and overall mental health outcomes among all Chinese subjects (pooled effect size: odds ratio [OR] = 2.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.87, 2.49]) and among community samples (pooled effect size: OR = 2.06, 95% CI [1.71, 2.48]). Based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, diagnostic criteria, CPA was more strongly associated with Axis II (OR = 2.62, 95% CI [2.13, 3.22]) than Axis I disorders (OR = 1.85, 95% CI [1.58, 2.17]). The detrimental effects of CPA on mental health outcomes in Chinese populations were comparable to, if not more than, the West. Contrary to the Chinese belief that physical punishment is a safe way to discipline children, our findings highlight the potential harm to mental health and the need to change this parenting practice. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVELS IN CHILDREN´S MOVEMENT SESSIONS IN AN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION CLASSROOM

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Martínez, Jenifer; Martínez Bello, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the physical activity levels (PA), group composition and role of the teacher during a traditional movement session and an alternative movement session in five years children in an early childhood education school in the province of Valencia, Spain. It was a descriptive-exploratory study using two data collection instruments: an observational system and a pedometry system. Eight girls and eight boys were monitored during both sessions. The results indicate ...

  11. Educating early childhood care and education providers to improve knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengwu; Lehman, Erik B.; Mincemoyer, Claudia; Verdiglione, Nicole; Levi, Benjamin H.

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood care and education providers (CCPs) work with over 7 million young children. These children are vulnerable to physical, sexual and emotional abuse, and neglect. However, CCPs make less than 1% of all reports of suspected child abuse and neglect that are made to child protective services. CCPs are therefore an untapped resource in the public health response to child maltreatment. However, their knowledge and attitudes about duties to report child maltreatment are poorly understood. Moreover, no rigorous research has tested whether their knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment can be improved. These gaps in knowledge are important because knowledge of the duty and positive attitudes towards it produce more effective reporting, and little evidence exists about how to enhance cognitive and affective attributes. Using the CONSORT approach, we report a single-blind test-retest randomized controlled trial evaluating iLook Out for Child Abuse, a customized online educational intervention for CCPs to increase knowledge and attitudes towards the reporting duty. 762 participants were randomized with results analyzed for 741 participants (372 in the intervention group; 369 in the control). Knowledge of the reporting duty increased in the intervention group from 13.54 to 16.19 out of 21 (2.65 increase, 95% CI: (2.37, 2.93); large effect size 0.95, p education for CCPs and other professions. Future research should also explore effects of education on reporting behavior. Trial registration: US National Institutes of Health NCT02225301 PMID:28542285

  12. Physics division annual report - October 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thayer, K. [ed.

    2000-10-16

    This report summarizes the research performed in the past year in the Argonne Physics Division. The Division's programs include operation of ATLAS as a national heavy-ion user facility, nuclear structure and reaction research with beams of heavy ions, accelerator research and development especially in superconducting radio frequency technology, nuclear theory and medium energy nuclear physics. The Division took significant strides forward in its science and its initiatives for the future in the past year. Major progress was made in developing the concept and the technology for the future advanced facility of beams of short-lived nuclei, the Rare Isotope Accelerator. The scientific program capitalized on important instrumentation initiatives with key advances in nuclear science. In 1999, the nuclear science community adopted the Argonne concept for a multi-beam superconducting linear accelerator driver as the design of choice for the next major facility in the field a Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) as recommended by the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee's 1996 Long Range Plan. Argonne has made significant R&D progress on almost all aspects of the design concept including the fast gas catcher (to allow fast fragmentation beams to be stopped and reaccelerated) that in large part, defined the RIA concept the superconducting rf technology for the driver accelerator, the multiple-charge-state concept (to permit the facility to meet the design intensity goals with existing ion-source technology), and designs and tests of high-power target concepts to effectively deal with the full beam power of the driver linac. An NSAC subcommittee recommended the Argonne concept and set as tie design goal Uranium beams of 100-kwatt power at 400 MeV/u. Argonne demonstrated that this goal can be met with an innovative, but technically in-hand, design.

  13. Final Report: Particle Physics Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karchin, Paul E.

    2011-09-01

    We describe recent progress in accelerator-based experiments in high-energy particle physics and progress in theoretical investigations in particle physics. We also describe future plans in these areas.

  14. Household reporting of childhood respiratory health and air pollution in rural Alaska Native communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desirae N. Ware

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air pollution is an important contributor to respiratory disease in children. Objective: To examine associations between household reporting of childhood respiratory conditions and household characteristics related to air pollution in Alaska Native communities. Design: In-home surveys were administered in 2 rural regions of Alaska. The 12-month prevalence of respiratory conditions was summarized by region and age. Odds ratios (ORs were calculated to describe associations between respiratory health and household and air quality characteristics. Results: Household-reported respiratory health data were collected for 561 children in 328 households. In 1 region, 33.6% of children aged <5 years had a recent history of pneumonia and/or bronchitis. Children with these conditions were 2 times more likely to live in a wood-heated home, but these findings were imprecise. Resident concern with mould was associated with elevated prevalence of respiratory infections in children (ORs 1.6–2.5, while reported wheezing was associated with 1 or more smokers living in the household. Reported asthma in 1 region (7.6% was lower than national prevalence estimates. Conclusions: Findings suggest that there may be preventable exposures, including wood smoke and mould that affect childhood respiratory disease in these rural areas. Additional research is needed to quantify particulate matter 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter or less and mould exposures in these communities, and to objectively evaluate childhood respiratory health.

  15. Childhood inattention and hyperactivity symptoms self-reported by adults with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Pekka; Lindberg, Nina; Appelberg, Bjorn; Nieminen-von Wendt, Taina; von Wendt, Lennart; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja

    2006-01-01

    Increasing public awareness of the adult manifestations of developmental neuropsychiatric disorders, like Asperger syndrome and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), has provoked an increasing number of persons to seek assessment for the first time in adulthood. As these disorders have their origin in childhood, instruments for retrospective evaluation of childhood behavior are needed. In this preliminary study, 20 adults with Asperger syndrome filled in the Wender-Utah Rating Scale for ADHD to describe retrospectively their childhood behavior. Fourteen out of 20 adults with Asperger syndrome self-rated above the cut-off limit for ADHD. The median total score was also higher than that reported in normal populations in previous studies. When compared with 10 controls, patients with Asperger syndrome scored higher in almost all individual items. A high score on the Wender-Utah rating Scale for ADHD in this patient group might be a sign of true comorbidity with ADHD, an indication of overlapping features typical of both disorders, or a result of other psychiatric comorbidity originating already in childhood. Moreover, there are no data about the proper cut-off limit for ADHD in these subjects. Therefore, one should be cautious when applying this scale beyond its original context of comparison between adults with ADHD, unipolar depression and healthy controls.

  16. [Parsonage-Turner syndrome in childhood and adolescence: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-de la Cruza, Sagrario

    2012-10-01

    We present the case of a 17-year-old male whose diagnosis is Parsonage-Turner syndrome relapsing in the right arm. In his medical record, he was diagnosed as having amyotrophic neuralgia of the upper limb in three previous occasions. The diagnosis was similar in all episodes, although the affected upper limb was alternating. He was treated in the Rehabilitation Services of two hospitals. At physical examination, in every relapse, he showed acute pain in both, shoulder and arm, and loss of strength in the shoulder blade and the affected upper limb. The aim of his treatment combines the healing of the pain and, together with physiotherapy, fighting against muscular atrophy. The patient evolved favourably in each of the episodes. Nowadays, he does not show any symptom, and he has been discharged from the rehabilitation service.

  17. Physics Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, A.B. (ed.)

    1990-03-01

    This report discusses topics in the following areas: Holifield heavy ion research; Experimental Nuclear physics; The Uniser program; Experimental Atomic Physics; Theoretical Physics; Laser and electro-optics lab; High Energy Physics; compilations and evaluations; and accelerator design and development. (FI)

  18. Working group report: Flavor physics and model building

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Parida; Nita Sinha; B Adhikary; B Allanach; A Alok; K S Babu; B Brahmachari; D Choudhury; E J Chun; P K Das; A Ghosal; D Hitlin; W S Hou; S Kumar; H N Li; E Ma; S K Majee; G Majumdar; B Mishra; G Mohanty; S Nandi; H Pas; M K Parida; S D Rindani; J P Saha; N Sahu; Y Sakai; S Sen; C Sharma; C D Sharma; S Shalgar; N N Singh; S Uma Sankar; N Sinha; R Sinha; F Simonetto; R Srikanth; R Vaidya

    2006-11-01

    This is the report of flavor physics and model building working group at WHEPP-9. While activities in flavor physics have been mainly focused on -physics, those in model building have been primarily devoted to neutrino physics. We present summary of working group discussions carried out during the workshop in the above fields, and also briefly review the progress made in some projects subsequently

  19. Castleman's disease in childhood: report of three cases and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrieri Patrizia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Castleman's disease (CD is a rare, localized or generalized, lymphoproliferative disorder with a frequent mediastinal location, but possible in any lymph node or extra nodal site. It usually appears in young adults whilst it rarely occurs in childhood. There are only about 100 pediatric cases published, five of them in Italy. We report 3 cases of localized Castleman's disease, investigated in our Department in a 3 years period and reviewed the literature.

  20. Childhood Oral Lichen Planus: Report of Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sageena; John, Sheen Ann; Anandaraj, S; Issac, Jyoti Sumi; Harris, Anoop; Reshmi, J

    2015-05-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic mucocutaneous disease widely recognized in adults, but uncommon in children. The purpose of this paper is to report two cases of LP in children. The diagnosis was made based on clinical and histopathological findings. The treatment consisted of antifungal and multivitamin therapy. Regression of lesions was observed. The patients are still under follow-up. Although LP is uncommon in children, it is necessary to have adequate knowledge about this condition for proper diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Predicting borderline personality disorder symptoms in adolescents from childhood physical and relational aggression, depression, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Boylan, Khrista; Duku, Eric; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-08-01

    Developmental cascade models linking childhood physical and relational aggression with symptoms of depression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; assessed at ages 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14) to borderline personality disorder (BPD) features (assessed at age 14) were examined in a community sample of 484 youth. Results indicated that, when controlling for within-time covariance and across-time stability in the examination of cross-lagged relations among study variables, BPD features at age 14 were predicted by childhood relational aggression and symptoms of depression for boys, and physical and relational aggression, symptoms of depression, and symptoms of ADHD for girls. Moreover, for boys BPD features were predicted from age 10 ADHD through age 12 depression, whereas for girls the pathway to elevated BPD features at age 14 was from depression at age 10 through physical aggression symptoms at age 12. Controlling for earlier associations among variables, we found that for girls the strongest predictor of BPD features at age 14 was physical aggression, whereas for boys all the risk indicators shared a similar predictive impact. This study adds to the growing literature showing that physical and relational aggression ought to be considered when examining early precursors of BPD features.

  2. Cognitive function is preserved in older adults with a reported history of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Joanne; Kamiya, Yumiko; Robertson, Ian H; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-12-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with mood and cognitive deficits in children and young adults. Evidence suggests that the effects of early-life adversity persist throughout adulthood; however, the impact of CSA on cognition in older adults is largely unknown. This study investigated cognitive function in older adults with a reported history of CSA. Data are from a population-based study (The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing) of 6,912 adults aged 50 years and older. Participants answered questions about CSA as part of a stressful life events questionnaire. Global cognition, executive function, memory (both objective and self-rated), attention, and processing speed were measured via a comprehensive battery of tests. Anxiety and depression, other childhood adversity, health behaviours, chronic disease, and medication use were also assessed. Of the total sample, 6.5% reported CSA. These individuals were more likely to have experienced other forms of childhood adversity and to exhibit poor mental health compared to those who reported no history of CSA. Multivariate regression analyses revealed, however, that CSA was associated with better global cognition, memory, executive function, and processing speed, despite poorer psychological health in this group. Future studies should aim to investigate possible reasons for this finding.

  3. Childhood Oral Lichen Planus: Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sageena George

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lichen planus (LP is a chronic mucocutaneous disease widely recognized in adults, but uncommon in children. The purpose of this paper is to report two cases of LP in children. The diagnosis was made based on clinical and histopathological findings. The treatment consisted of antifungal and multivitamin therapy. Regression of lesions was observed. The patients are still under follow up.Although LP is uncommon in children, it is necessary to have adequate knowledge about this condition for proper diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and childhood cancer: a concise review of case reports and future research considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Larry; Peterson, Leah; Kobrinsky, Nathan

    2014-05-01

    We reviewed the published literature on the relationship between childhood cancer and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). A Pub Med search identified 12 subjects with the co-occurrence of FASD and cancer. We included an additional case from the author's institution. Neuroblastomas comprised 6 of the 13 (46%) case reports, yet neuroblastomas comprise only about 10% of childhood cancers (z = 4.1; P cancer was reported more than once. Few cases of childhood cancer associated with FASD were identified likely due to under ascertainment of FASD.

  5. Physical activity and blood pressure in childhood: findings from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Sam D; Ness, Andy R; Smith, George Davey; Mattocks, Calum; Deere, Kevin; Blair, Steven N; Riddoch, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The pathological processes associated with development of cardiovascular disease begin early in life. For example, elevated blood pressure (BP) can be seen in childhood and tracks into adulthood. The relationship between physical activity (PA) and BP in adults is well-established, but findings in children have been inconsistent, with few studies measuring PA mechanically. Children aged 11 to 12 years were recruited from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. 5505 had systolic and diastolic BP measurements, plus valid (at least 10 hours for at least 3 days) accelerometer measures of PA; total PA recorded as average counts per minute (cpm) over the period of valid recording, and minutes per day spent in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA). Data on a number of possible confounders were also available. Small inverse associations were observed; for systolic BP, beta=-0.44 (95% confidence interval -0.59, -0.28) mm Hg per 100 cpm, and beta=-0.66 (95% CI -0.92, -0.39) mm Hg per 15 minutes/d MVPA, adjusting for child's age and gender. After adjustment for potential confounders, associations were weakened but remained. When PA variables were modeled together, associations with total PA were only a little weaker, whereas those with MVPA were substantially reduced; for systolic BP, beta=-0.42 (95% CI -0.71, -0.13) mm Hg per 100 cpm, and beta=-0.03 (95% CI -0.54, 0.48) mm Hg per 15 minutes/d MVPA. In conclusion, higher levels of PA were associated with lower BP, and results suggested that the volume of activity may be more important than the intensity.

  6. Treatment of the femoral neck peudoarthrosis in childhood: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Femoral neck fractures in children and adolescents are rare. However, their complications are frequent - avascular necrosis, femoral neck pseudoarthrosis, premature physeal closure with consequent growth disturbance and coxa vara deformity. Case Outline. A 9.5­year­old boy was injured in a car accident, and femoral neck fracture was diagnosed. Prior to admission at our hospital he was surgically treated several times. He was admitted at our hospital eight months following the accident. On the X­ray transcervical pseudoarthrosis of the femoral neck was found, as well as coxa vara deformity and metaphyseal avascular necrosis. He was operated at our hospital; all previously placed ostefixation material was removed, valgus osteotomy of 30 degrees was done as well as additional local osteoplasty using the commercial osteoindactive agent (Osteovit®. Postoperatively, we applied skin traction, bed rest and physical therapy. At the final follow­up, the patient was recovered completely. He is now painless, the legs are of equal length, range of movements in the left hip is full, life activity is normal. The X­ray shows that the femoral neck pseudoarthrosis is fully healed. Conclusion. This case is presented in order to encourage other colleagues to challenge the problematic situation such as this one. Also, we would like to remind them what one should think about and what should be taken into consideration in the primary treatment of femoral neck fractures in children. Valgus femoral osteotomy, as a part of the primary treatment of femoral neck fracture in children (identically as in the adults can prevent the occurrence of femoral neck pseudoarthrosis.

  7. [Linear IgA bullous dermatosis of childhood: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Baraona, Francisco; Andino, Romina; Carrasco, Juan Eduardo; Arriagada, Camila; Guerrero, Silvia

    2014-04-01

    Linear IgA bullous dermatosis is a rare acquired autoinmune vesiculobullous disease characterized by linear IgA deposit on the dermo-epidermal basement membrane observed with direct inmunofluorescence. The characteristic lesions are vesicles and tense serous bullae, which most often are grouped giving a "cluster of jewels" appearance. Differential diagnosis must be established with other autoimmune dermatosis, such as dermatitis herpetiformis and bullous pemphigoid. Dapsone is the first line therapy, with excellent response in a short period. This is a benign disease that tends to wax and wane in severity until it disappears spontaneously. We report the case of a 5-year-old girl presenting with bullous lesions, being diagnosed a linear IgA bullous dermatosis, with excellent response to dapsone in less than 2 weeks.

  8. Associations between objectively measured physical activity intensity in childhood and measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Grøntved, Anders; Møller, Niels Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: No prospective studies have investigated the association between physical activity (PA) and carotid subclinical cardiovascular disease across childhood. Therefore, the primary aim was to investigate the association between PA intensity across childhood and carotid intima media...... thickness (cIMT) and stiffness in adolescence. Second, we included a clustered cardiovascular disease risk score as outcome. METHODS: This was a prospective study of a sample of 254 children (baseline age 8-10 years) with a 6-year follow-up. The mean exposure and the change in minutes of moderate......-and-vigorous and vigorous PA intensity were measured using the Actigraph activity monitor. Subclinical cardiovascular disease was expressed as cIMT, carotid arterial stiffness and secondarily as a metabolic risk z-score including the homoeostasis model assessment score of insulin resistance, triglycerides, total...

  9. Examining Perpetration of Physical Violence by Women: The Influence of Childhood Adversity, Victimization, Mental Illness, Substance Abuse, and Anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Sheryl; Fedock, Gina; Kim, Woo Jong; Bybee, Deborah

    2017-02-01

    Research on women's perpetration of physical violence has focused primarily on partners, often neglecting perpetration against nonpartners. This study proposes a conceptual model with direct and indirect relationships between childhood adversity and different targets of violence (partners and nonpartners), mediated by victimization experiences (by partner and nonpartners), mental illness, substance abuse, and anger. Using survey data from a random sample of incarcerated women (N = 574), structural equation modeling resulted in significant, albeit different, indirect paths from childhood adversity, through victimization, to perpetration of violence against partners (β = .20) and nonpartners (β = .19). The results indicate that prevention of women's violence requires attention to specific forms of victimization, anger expression, and targets of her aggression.

  10. Report on the solar physics-plasma physics workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, P. A.; Baum, P. J.; Beckers, J. M.; Newman, C. E.; Priest, E. R.; Rosenberg, H.; Smith, D. F.; Wentzel, D. G.

    1976-01-01

    The paper summarizes discussions held between solar physicists and plasma physicists on the interface between solar and plasma physics, with emphasis placed on the question of what laboratory experiments, or computer experiments, could be pursued to test proposed mechanisms involved in solar phenomena. Major areas discussed include nonthermal plasma on the sun, spectroscopic data needed in solar plasma diagnostics, types of magnetic field structures in the sun's atmosphere, the possibility of MHD phenomena involved in solar eruptive phenomena, the role of non-MHD instabilities in energy release in solar flares, particle acceleration in solar flares, shock waves in the sun's atmosphere, and mechanisms of radio emission from the sun.

  11. Working group report: Astroparticle and neutrino physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raj Gandhi; Subhendra Mohanty; Tarun Souradeep; S Agarwalla; K Bhattacharya; B Brahmachari; R Crittenden; S Goswami; P Ghoshal; M Lindner; H S Mani; S Mitra; S Pascoli; S Panda; R Rangarajan; S Ray; T Roy Choudhury; R Saha; S Sarkar; A Srivastava; R Sheth; S Uma Sankar; U Yajnik

    2006-10-01

    The working group on astroparticle and neutrino physics at WHEPP-9 covered a wide range of topics. The main topics were neutrino physics at INO, neutrino astronomy and recent constraints on dark energy coming from cosmological observations of large scale structure and CMB anisotropy.

  12. SuperB Progress Reports - Physics

    CERN Document Server

    O'Leary, B.; Ramon, M.; Pous, E.; De Fazio, F.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Asgeirsson, D.; Cheng, C.H.; Chivukula, A.; Echenard, B.; Hitlin, D.G.; Porter, F.; Rakitin, A.; Heinemeyer, S.; McElrath, B.; Andreassen, R.; Meadows, B.; Sokoloff, M.; Blanke, M.; Lesiak, T.; Shindou, T.; Ronga, F.; Baldini, W.; Bettoni, D.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Luppi, E.; Rama, M.; Bossi, F.; Guido, E.; Patrignani, C.; Tosi, S.; Davies, C.; Lunghi, E.; Haisch, U.; Hurth, T.; Westhoff, S.; Crivellin, A.; Hofer, L.; Goto, T.; Brown, David Nathan; Branco, G.C.; Zupan, J.; Herrero, M.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, A.; Simi, G.; Tackmann, F.J.; Biassoni, P.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Stracka, S.; Lindemann, D.M.; Robertson, S.H.; Duling, B.; Gemmler, K.; Gorbahn, M.; Jager, S.; Paradisi, P.; Straub, D.M.; Bigi, I.; Asner, D.M.; Fast, J.E.; Kouzes, R.T.; Morandin, M.; Rotondo, M.; Ben-Haim, E.; Arnaud, N.; Burmistrov, L.; Kou, E.; Perez, A.; Stocchi, A.; Viaud, B.; Domingo, F.; Piccinini, F.; Manoni, E.; Batignani, G.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M.; Lusiani, A.; Oberhof, B.; Paoloni, E.; Neri, N.; Walsh, J.; Bevan, A.; Bona, M.; Walker, C.; Weiland, C.; Lenz, A.; Gonzalez-Sprinberg, G.; Faccini, R.; Renga, F.; Polosa, A.; Silvestrini, L.; Virto, J.; Ciuchini, M.; Lubicz, V.; Tarantino, C.; Wilson, F.F.; Carpinelli, M.; Huber, T.; Mannel, T.; Graham, M.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Santoro, V.; Sekula, S.; Shougaev, K.; Soffer, A.; Shimizu, Y.; Gambino, P.; Mussa, R.; Nardecchia, M.; Stal, O.; Bernabeu, J.; Botella, F.; Jung, M.; Lopez March, N.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Oyanguren, A.; Pich, A.; Lozano, M.A.Sanchis; Vidal, J.; Vives, O.; Banerjee, S.; Roney, J.M.; Petrov, A.A.; Flood, K.

    2010-01-01

    SuperB is a high luminosity e+e- collider that will be able to indirectly probe new physics at energy scales far beyond the reach of any man made accelerator planned or in existence. Just as detailed understanding of the Standard Model of particle physics was developed from stringent constraints imposed by flavour changing processes between quarks, the detailed structure of any new physics is severely constrained by flavour processes. In order to elucidate this structure it is necessary to perform a number of complementary studies of a set of golden channels. With these measurements in hand, the pattern of deviations from the Standard Model behavior can be used as a test of the structure of new physics. If new physics is found at the LHC, then the many golden measurements from SuperB will help decode the subtle nature of the new physics. However if no new particles are found at the LHC, SuperB will be able to search for new physics at energy scales up to 10-100 TeV. In either scenario, flavour physics measure...

  13. Physics Division annual report, April 1, 1993--March 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thayer, K.J. [ed.; Henning, W.F.

    1994-08-01

    This is the Argonne National Laboratory Physics Division Annual Report for the period April 1, 1993 to March 31, 1994. It summarizes work done in a number of different fields, both on site, and at other facilities. Chapters describe heavy ion nuclear physics research, operation and development of the ATLAS accelerator, medium-energy nuclear physics research, theoretical physics, and atomic and molecular physics research.

  14. Psychiatric Symptoms in Childhood Wilson’s Disease: Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevcan Karakoç Demirkaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Various psychiatric symptoms/signs have been identified since the identification of Wilson’s disease (WD. Every patient with WD suffers from one or more psychiatric problems (organic dementia, psychosis, and impulsivity across the disease course. Sometimes, insidious symptoms, such as behavioral changes, failure in school performance, and disturbances in hand-eye coordination may be seen before the onset of neurologic presentation. In this report, five patients, who were diagnosed with WD and followed up in the Child Neurology Unit, were assessed by a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4-based semistructured psychiatric interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children. All patients had psychiatric symptoms. One patient had a history of a manic episode and the other had a history of a psychotic disorder at the initial stage of WD. Psychiatric symptoms coexist mostly with neurologic signs in patients with WD. In this sense, pediatric neurological consultation and copper screening are lifesaving in excluding organic etiology. However, WD is a lifelong treatment-requiring disease and psychiatric evaluation of the patients is essential.

  15. 40 CFR 716.50 - Reporting physical and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting physical and chemical properties. 716.50 Section 716.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.50 Reporting physical and...

  16. Prevalence and correlates of sleep paralysis in adults reporting childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Murray P; Mulligan, Ashlee D; Carleton, R Nicholas; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2008-12-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) occurs when rapid eye movement (REM) activity and concomitant paralysis of the skeletal muscles persist as an individual awakens and becomes conscious of his/her surroundings. SP is often accompanied by frightening hallucinations that some researchers suggest may be confounded with memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA; [McNally, R. J., & Clancy, S. A. (2005). Sleep paralysis in adults reporting repressed, recovered, or continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 19, 595-602]). The purpose of this study was to evaluate relationships between CSA and SP. Based on self-report, participants (n=263) were categorized into three CSA groups: confirmed, unconfirmed, or no history of CSA. Relative to participants reporting no CSA history, those reporting CSA reported more frequent and more distressing episodes of SP. Post hoc analyses revealed that participants with clinically significant post-traumatic symptoms (irrespective of CSA history) also reported more frequent and more distressing episodes of SP. Significant correlations were found among SP indices and measures of post-traumatic symptoms, depression, dissociation, and absorption. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  17. Childhood experiences of parental rearing patterns reported by Chinese patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianjun; Napolitano, Lisa A; Wu, Jiang; Yang, Yunping; Xi, Yingjun; Li, Yawen; Li, Kai

    2014-02-01

    The primary purposes of this study were to (1) compare the characteristics of childhood experiences of parental rearing patterns in China reported by patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), patients with other personality disorders and patients without personality disorders; (2) identify the reported parental rearing patterns associated with BPD in China; and (3) determine whether these patterns differ for males and females. One hundred and fifty-two patients with BPD, 79 patients with other personality disorders and 55 patients without Axis II diagnoses were administered the Chinese version of the McLean Screening Instrument for BPD and completed the Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran (EMBU), a self-report measure of childhood parental rearing patterns. Parental rearing patterns reported by the BPD group were characterized by less emotional warmth, and greater punishment, rejection and control than patterns reported by the other two groups. Within the BPD group, males were more likely than females to report parental punishment, rejection and control. Paternal punishment, low maternal emotional warmth and female gender predicted BPD diagnosis. Negative parental rearing patterns appear to contribute to the development of BPD in China and vary with the gender of the child. Maternal emotional warmth may be a protective factor against BPD. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  18. Les Houches 2013: Physics at TeV Colliders: New Physics Working Group Report

    CERN Document Server

    Brooijmans, G; Fuks, B; Moortgat, F; Richardson, P; Sekmen, S; Weiler, A; Alloul, A; Arbey, A; Baglio, J; Barducci, D; Barr, A J; Basso, L; Battaglia, M; Bélanger, G; Belyaev, A; Bernon, J; Bharucha, A; Bondu, O; Boudjema, F; Boos, E; Buchkremer, M; Bunichev, V; Cacciapaglia, G; Chalons, G; Conte, E; Dolan, M J; Deandrea, A; De Causmaecker, K; Djouadi, A; Dumont, B; Ellis, J; Englert, C; Falkowski, A; Fichet, S; Flacke, T; Gaz, A; Ghezzi, M; Godbole, R; Goudelis, A; Gouzevitch, M; Greco, D; Grober, R; Grojean, C; Guadagnoli, D; Gunion, J F; Herrmann, B; Kalinowski, J; Kim, J H; Kraml, S; Krauss, M E; Kulkarni, S; Lee, S J; Lim, S H; Liu, D; Mahmoudi, F; Maravin, Y; Massironi, A; Mitzka, L; Mohan, K; Moreau, G; Mühlleitner, M M; Nhung, D T; O'Leary, B; Oliveira, A; Panizzi, L; Pappadopulo, D; Pataraia, S; Porod, W; Pukhov, A; Riva, F; Rojo, J; Rosenfeld, R; Ruiz-Álvarez, J; Rzehak, H; Sanz, V; Sengupta, D; Spannowsky, M; Spira, M; Streicher, J; Strobbe, N; Thamm, A; Thomas, M; Torre, R; Waltenberger, W; Walz, K; Wilcock, A; Wulzer, A; Würthwein, F; Wymant, C

    2014-01-01

    We present the activities of the "New Physics" working group for the "Physics at TeV Colliders" workshop (Les Houches, France, 3--21 June, 2013). Our report includes new computational tool developments, studies of the implications of the Higgs boson discovery on new physics, important signatures for searches for natural new physics at the LHC, new studies of flavour aspects of new physics, and assessments of the interplay between direct dark matter searches and the LHC.

  19. The Effectiveness of Interventions on Sustained Childhood Physical Activity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Sims

    Full Text Available Increased physical activity (PA has been associated with a reduction in non-communicable disease risk factors and outcomes. However, interventions to increase childhood PA typically produce small to negligible effects. Recent reviews are limited due to lack of post-intervention follow-up measurement. This review aimed to examine measured effects at least six months post-intervention.We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, ScienceDirect, SportDiscus and Google Scholar between 1st January 1991 and 1st November 2014 for controlled studies reporting six-month post-intervention measurement for children aged 5 to 18 years. 14 studies met inclusion criteria; 12 reported moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA (n = 5790 and 10 reported total PA (TPA (n = 4855. We calculated overall effect estimates and 95% CI's using random effects modelling with inverse variance weighting. Mean difference was calculated for MVPA, with standardised mean difference calculated to TPA due to measurement variation. Meta-regression assessed heterogeneity by continuous level variables. Negligible mean difference in MVPA existed in favour of the intervention group, amounting to 1.47 (95% CI -1.88, 4.82 mins/day compared to controls, while no difference was recorded on TPA. Sub-group analyses revealed males (2.65 mins/day: 95% CI 2.03, 3.27 reported higher levels of MVPA than females (-0.42 mins/day: 95% CI -7.77, 6.94, community settings (2.67 mins/day: 95% CI 2.05, 3.28 were more effective than school settings (1.70 mins/day: 95% CI -4.84, 8.25, and that treatment (4.47 mins/day: 95% CI -0.81, 9.76 demonstrated greater effects than population approaches (1.03 mins/day: 95% CI -2.54, 4.60. Meta-regression revealed no significant differences by factor on pooled effects. Significant heterogeneity existed between studies and potential for small study effects was present.Improved PA levels subsequent to intervention were not maintained six month post-intervention. A potentially

  20. A conceptual framework for organizational readiness to implement nutrition and physical activity programs in early childhood education settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shreela V; Upadhyaya, Mudita; Schober, Daniel J; Byrd-Williams, Courtney

    2014-10-30

    Across multiple sectors, organizational readiness predicts the success of program implementation. However, the factors influencing readiness of early childhood education (ECE) organizations for implementation of new nutrition and physical activity programs is poorly understood. This study presents a new conceptual framework to measure organizational readiness to implement nutrition and physical activity programs in ECE centers serving children aged 0 to 5 years. The framework was validated for consensus on relevance and generalizability by conducting focus groups; the participants were managers (16 directors and 2 assistant directors) of ECE centers. The framework theorizes that it is necessary to have "collective readiness," which takes into account such factors as resources, organizational operations, work culture, and the collective attitudes, motivation, beliefs, and intentions of ECE staff. Results of the focus groups demonstrated consensus on the relevance of proposed constructs across ECE settings. Including readiness measures during program planning and evaluation could inform implementation of ECE programs targeting nutrition and physical activity behaviors.

  1. Littre hernia in childhood: A case report with a brief review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Pampal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year-old boy with a right-sided and painful inguinal swelling for the last 2 h was admitted to the emergency department. As there were no apparent peritoneal irritation findings, right-sided incarcerated inguinal hernia was reduced and the patient was scheduled for an elective herniorrhaphy. Perioperatively even though the sac seemed empty, it was opened in order to inspect its content. The adherence of Meckel′s diverticulum (MD to the base of hernial sac was realized and Littre hernia (LH was diagnosed. The hernia was highly ligated after the wedge resection of the diverticulum and anastomosis. The patient was fed on the second postoperative day and discharged on the third postoperative day. Despite numerous presentations of LH in the adult age group in the literature, there are limited data about the disease in the childhood period. Even though the scarcity of the data, there are some so-called rules for LH in childhood like protruding more common through umbilical hernias, containing heterotopic tissues more frequent than adult age and incarcerating/strangulating more often. The aim of this study is to review the reported LH cases, present a new case and discuss the features of LH in childhood period.

  2. Retrospective self-reports of childhood accidents causing unconsciousness in phallometrically diagnosed pedophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray; Christensen, Bruce K; Strong, Scott M; Cantor, James M; Kuban, Michael E; Klassen, Philip; Dickey, Robert; Blak, Thomas

    2002-12-01

    The present study investigated whetherhead injuries in childhood might increase the risk of pedophilia in males. The subjects were 1206 patients referred to a clinical sexology service for assessment of their erotic preferences. These were classified, on the basis of phallometric test results, as pedophilic (n = 413) or nonpedophilic (n = 793). Information regarding early head injuries, other signs of possible neurodevelopmental problems, and parental histories of psychiatric treatment were collected with self-administered questionnaires. The results showed that childhood accidents that resulted in unconsciousness were associated with pedophilia and with lower levels of intelligence and education. These associations were statistically significant for accidents that occurred before the age of 6, but not for accidents that occurred between the ages of 6 and 12. These results are compatible with the hypothesis that neurodevelopmental perturbations in early childhood may increase the risk of pedophilia. They are also, however, compatible with the alternative explanation that prior neurodevelopmental problems lead to accident-proneness and head injury, on the one hand, and to pedophilia, on the other, and that head injury has no causal influence on pedophilia. A secondary finding was that the pedophiles were more likely to report that their mothers had undergone psychiatric treatment. This finding suggests that pedophilia may be influenced by genetic factors, which are manifested in women as an increased risk of psychiatric problems, and in their sons, as an increased risk of erotic interest in children.

  3. High energy physics division semiannual report of research activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoessow, P.; Moonier, P.; Talaga, R.; Wagner, R. (eds.) (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1991-08-01

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period of January 1, 1991--June 30, 1991. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of division publications and colloquia are included.

  4. New HEPAP report outlines revolution in particle physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "The most compelling questions facing contemporary particle physics research and a program to address them have been distilled into a new report “Quantum Universe: The Revolution in 21st-Century Particle Physics,” adopted today by the Department of Energy/National Science Foundation High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP)" (1 page)

  5. Men in Early Childhood: A Moral Panic? A research report from a UK University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cronin Mark

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Significant changes in the role fathers play in their children’s care alongside the increased interest shown by teenage boys in working with young children has so far resulted in no noticeable increase in the numbers of men working in Early Childhood in the UK. Previous research has identified how the gendered nature of this workforce presents significant barriers to men’s involvement combined with an increasingly dogmatic media discourse which represents men solely as a threat to young children. The research reported in this paper explored the experiences of a group of undergraduate male students in their pursuit of a career working with young children and to what degree the dynamics of being othered had impacted them. It also sought to consider the rhetoric and reality of recent UK government attempts to address the imbalance in the Early Childhood workforce. Thirteen male students from two undergraduate programmes at a UK University were interviewed for this study. The research data identified a number of risk factors which present barriers to men’s involvement in Early Childhood such as gender stereotyping, marginalisation or ‘othering’ of men and negative media discourses. It also identified potential protective factors which enable men’s involvement such as supportive family and friends, male role-models and a sense of social responsibility. Broader reflections also identified the significant difference between the UK government rhetoric in support of increasing men’s participation in Early Childhood and the reality of the active indifference shown to challenging the barriers to participation driven by political motives which has effectively generated a new ‘moral panic’ around men working with young children.

  6. [High Energy Physics: Research in high energy physics]. Annual report, FY 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barish, B C

    1982-12-31

    This report discusses high energy physics research on: Quantum chromodynamics; neutrinos; multiparticle spectrometers; inclusive scattering; Mark III detector; and cascade decays of phi resonances. (LSP)

  7. Do childhood and adult socioeconomic circumstances influence health and physical function in middle-age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Madsen, Mia; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie;

    2009-01-01

    , respectively and health in midlife, measured as limitations in running 100 m, poor dental status, poor self-rated health, and fatigue. In both datasets, men with low childhood or adult social class had a higher risk of being unable to run 100 m, having poor dental status, having poor self-rated health...... effects on the estimates for childhood social class, but attenuated the effect of adult social class somewhat. Among male twin pairs discordant on adult social class, the twin in the lowest class seemed to be unable to run 100 m, rate own health poorer and being fatigued more often than the high class co...

  8. Physics division. Progress report, January 1, 1995--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, M.; Bacon, D.S.; Aine, C.J.; Bartsch, R.R. [eds.] [comps.] [and others

    1997-10-01

    This issue of the Physics Division Progress Report describes progress and achievements in Physics Division research during the period January 1, 1995-December 31, 1996. The report covers the five main areas of experimental research and development in which Physics Division serves the needs of Los Alamos National Laboratory and the nation in applied and basic sciences: (1) biophysics, (2) hydrodynamic physics, (3) neutron science and technology, (4) plasma physics, and (5) subatomic physics. Included in this report are a message from the Division Director, the Physics Division mission statement, an organizational chart, descriptions of the research areas of the five groups in the Division, selected research highlights, project descriptions, the Division staffing and funding levels for FY95-FY97, and a list of publications and presentations.

  9. Childhood Abuse, Chronic Pain, and Depression in the National Comorbidity Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen; Hernandez, Annya

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the effects of childhood sexual and physical abuse on reports of pain in men and women (N=1,727). Methods: Data from the National Comorbidity Survey, a nationally representative sample, were utilized. Childhood experiences of physical and sexual abuse were assessed, and pain reports in relation to current…

  10. Report of the Quark Flavor Physics Working Group

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, J N; Ritchie, J L; Cirigliano, V; Kettell, S; Briere, R; Petrov, A A; Schwartz, A; Skwarnicki, T; Zupan, J; Christ, N; Sharpe, S R; Van de Water, R S; Altmannshofer, W; Arkani-Hamed, N; Artuso, M; Asner, D M; Bernard, C; Bevan, A J; Blanke, M; Bonvicini, G; Browder, T E; Bryman, D A; Campana, P; Cenci, R; Cline, D; Comfort, J; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Datta, A; Dobbs, S; Duraisamy, M; El-Khadra, A X; Fast, J E; Forty, R; Flood, K T; Gershon, T; Grossman, Y; Hamilton, B; Hill, C T; Hill, R J; Hitlin, D G; Jaffe, D E; Jawahery, A; Jessop, C P; Kagan, A L; Kaplan, D M; Kohl, M; Krizan, P; Kronfeld, A S; Lee, K; Littenberg, L S; MacFarlane, D B; Mackenzie, P B; Meadows, B T; Olsen, J; Papucci, M; Parsa, Z; Paz, G; Perez, G; Piilonen, L E; Pitts, K; Purohit, M V; Quinn, B; Ratcliff, B N; Roberts, D A; Rosner, J L; Rubin, P; Seeman, J; Seth, K K; Schmidt, B; Schopper, A; Sokoloff, M D; Soni, A; Stenson, K; Stone, S; Sundrum, R; Tschirhart, R; Vainshtein, A; Wah, Y W; Wilkinson, G; Wise, M B; Worcester, E; Xu, J; Yamanaka, T

    2013-01-01

    This report represents the response of the Intensity Frontier Quark Flavor Physics Working Group to the Snowmass charge. We summarize the current status of quark flavor physics and identify many exciting future opportunities for studying the properties of strange, charm, and bottom quarks. The ability of these studies to reveal the effects of new physics at high mass scales make them an essential ingredient in a well-balanced experimental particle physics program.

  11. High energy physics research. Final technical report, 1957--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, H.H.

    1995-10-01

    This is the final technical report to the Department of Energy on High Energy Physics at the University of Pennsylvania. It discusses research conducted in the following areas: neutrino astrophysics and cosmology; string theory; electroweak and collider physics; supergravity; cp violation and baryogenesis; particle cosmology; collider detector at Fermilab; the sudbury neutrino observatory; B-physics; particle physics in nuclei; and advanced electronics and detector development.

  12. Report of the Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    Theoretical and experimental work in plasma physics is summarized. Technological and engineering aspects of plasma experiments in the SPICA, TORTUR 2, and RINGBOOG 2 reactors are discussed with emphasis on screw pinch, turbulent heating, and gas blankets. The free boundary equilibrium in high beta Tokamak plasma, wave dynamics, and transport problems were investigated.

  13. Reality monitoring in adults reporting repressed, recovered, or continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Richard J; Clancy, Susan A; Barrett, Heidi M; Parker, Holly A

    2005-02-01

    People who report either repressed or recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may have deficits in reality monitoring--the process whereby one discriminates memories of percepts from memories of images. Using signal detection methods, the authors found that adults reporting either repressed or recovered memories of CSA were less able to discriminate between words they had seen from words they had imagined seeing than were adults reporting either never having forgotten their CSA or adults reporting no history of CSA. Relative deficits in the ability to discriminate percepts from images (i.e., low d') were apparent on only some tests. The groups did not differ in their criterion--response bias--for affirming having seen versus imagined stimuli. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Longitudinal relationship between inflammatory markers in adolescents and childhood fatness, fitness and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca El-Naaman; Froberg, Karsten

    to be elucidated. PURPOSE: To determine if fatness and exercise during childhood is related to level of inflammation during adolescence. METHODS: Subjects for this longitudinal study were 387, 6 year old children followed for 7 years, obtained from 18 schools near Copenhagen. Sum of 4 skinfolds (S4SF) was measured...

  15. Dental management of early childhood caries in spastic quadriparesis: a case report and clinical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotwani, Kavita; Sharma, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) describes a group of permanent disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to non-progressive disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal or infant brain. The motor disorders of CP are often accompanied by epilepsy, secondary musculoskeletal problems, and disturbances of sensation, perception, cognition, communication, and behavior. Spastic quadriparesis is the most severe form of spastic cerebral palsy. The present report describes the management of a 5-year-old patient with early childhood caries and spastic quadriparesis. The oral manifestations and clinical guidelines are discussed considering the special health care needs in these patients so as to provide comprehensive dental care.

  16. Childhood osteosarcoma of greater wing of sphenoid: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meel, Rachna; Thulkar, Sanjay; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Jagadesan, Pandjatcharan; Mohanti, Bidhu Kalyan; Sharma, Suresh Chandra; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2012-03-01

    Primary osteosarcoma of skull base is extremely rare. We present a case of primary osteosarcoma arising in greater wing of sphenoid in a child. Our patient had an incomplete excision after which he received adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. There was good response to adjuvant chemoradiotherapy and the patient is disease free at a follow-up of 18 months. Treatment of skull base osteosarcomas is difficult, as complete excision is often not possible. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of sphenoid wing osteosarcoma in childhood to be reported in literature.

  17. Retropharyngeal hematoma secondary to whiplash injury in childhood: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurata, Hakan; Yilmaz, Muhammet Bahadır; Borcek, Alp Ozgun; Oner, Ali Yusuf; Baykaner, M Kemali

    2012-01-01

    Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) has been reported as an adult phenomenon. Whiplash injury has classically been described as a cervical soft tissue hyperextension- flexion injury after a trauma such as a rear end impact car crash, contact sport injuries, blows to the head from a falling object or a punch and shaken baby syndrome and is mostly seen in adults . It is important as it may cause severe disability due to spinal cord injury, decrease work productivity and even retropharyngeal hematoma resulting airway obstruction and mortality due to bleeding amongst deep cervical fascias. We describe a case of retropharyngeal hematoma after whiplash injury in a childhood.

  18. Physical Activity in Long-term Survivors of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Childhood and Adolescence: A Cross-sectional Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayiager, Trishana; Barr, Ronald D; Anderson, Loretta; Cranston, Amy; Hay, John

    2017-01-01

    Inadequate physical activity (PA) and elevated overweight/obesity (OW/OB) rates are common in survivors of cancer in childhood, especially acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Bony morbidity, including fractures, is also prevalent among survivors of ALL. This study examined the interrelationships of PA, measured in hours by the Habitual Activity Estimation Scale; OW/OG, defined by body mass index; and fractures (yes/no) in survivors of ALL (n=75) more than 10 years after diagnosis. All had been treated using protocols of the Dana Farber Cancer Institute Childhood ALL Consortium. The median age was 21.15 years and time from diagnosis 15.07 years, and 27 subjects had experienced fractures. More than 30% of the total sample were OW/OB. There was no correlation of body mass index with present PA. There were no significant differences between those with/without fractures in terms of age, sex, time from diagnosis, and the prevalence of OW/OB. Subjects with fractures during treatment reported more total activity on typical weekend days than those without fractures (mean 8.8 vs. 6.9 h, P<0.01). There was no significant difference on weekdays. Higher activity on weekends suggests that fractures may have occurred more commonly in those who had a more active lifestyle before, during, and after treatment.

  19. FINAL REPORT: GEOMETRY AND ELEMENTARY PARTICLE PHYSICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Isadore M.

    2008-03-04

    The effect on mathematics of collaborations between high-energy theoretical physics and modern mathematics has been remarkable. Mirror symmetry has revolutionized enumerative geometry, and Seiberg-Witten invariants have greatly simplified the study of four manifolds. And because of their application to string theory, physicists now need to know cohomology theory, characteristic classes, index theory, K-theory, algebraic geometry, differential geometry, and non-commutative geometry. Much more is coming. We are experiencing a deeper contact between the two sciences, which will stimulate new mathematics essential to the physicists’ quest for the unification of quantum mechanics and relativity. Our grant, supported by the Department of Energy for twelve years, has been instrumental in promoting an effective interaction between geometry and string theory, by supporting the Mathematical Physics seminar, postdoc research, collaborations, graduate students and several research papers.

  20. Working group report: Heavy ion physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jan-E Alam; K Assamagan; S Chattopadhyay; R Gavai; Sourendu Gupta; B Layek; S Mukherjee; R Ray; Pradip K Roy; A Srivastava

    2004-12-01

    The 8th workshop on high energy physics phenomenology (WHEPP-8) was held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai, India during January 5–16, 2004. One of the four working groups, group III was dedicated to QCD and heavy ion physics (HIC). The present manuscript gives a summary of the activities of group III during the workshop (see also [1] for completeness). The activities of group III were focused to understand the collective behaviours of the system formed after the collisions of two nuclei at ultra-relativistic energies from the interactions of the elementary degrees of freedom, i.e. quarks and gluons, governed by non-abelian gauge theory, i.e. QCD. This was initiated by two plenary talks on experimental overview of heavy ion collisions and lattice QCD and several working group talks and discussions.

  1. Nuclear Physics Division, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeflinski, Z.; Kirejczyk, M.; Popkiewicz, M. [eds.

    1998-08-01

    In the presented report the research activities of Nuclear Physics Division (NPD) of the Institute of Experimental Physics (Warsaw University) in year 1997 are described. The report is divided into three parts: Reaction Mechanisms and Nuclear Structure, Experimental Methods and Instrumentation and the third one contain the lists of personnel, seminars held at the Nuclear Physics Division and published papers. A summary of the (NPD) activities are briefly presented in ``Preface`` written by NDP director prof. K. Siwek-Wilczynska

  2. Nuclear Physics Division, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University Annual Report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeflinski, Z.; Popkiewicz, M. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    In the presented report the research activities of Nuclear Physics Division (NPD) of the Institute of Experimental Physics (Warsaw University) in year 1996 are described. The report is divided into three parts: Reaction mechanisms and nuclear structure; Experimental methods and instrumentation and the third part contains the list of personnel, seminars held at the Nuclear Physics Division and published papers. A summary of the (NPD) activities are briefly presented in ``Preface`` by NPD director prof. Ch. Droste.

  3. Nuclear Physics Division - Inst. of Experimental Physics - Warsaw University - Annual Report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirejczyk, M.; Szeflinski, Z. [eds.

    1999-08-01

    In the presented report the research activities of Nuclear Physics Division (NPD) of the Warsaw University Institute of Experimental Physics in year of 1998 are described. The report is divided into three parts: Reaction Mechanisms and Nuclear Structure, Experimental Methods and Instrumentation and the third one contains the lists of personnel, seminars held at the Nuclear Physics Division and list of published papers. A summary of the (NPD) activities are briefly presented in ``Preface`` written by NDP director prof. K. Siwek-Wilczynska

  4. Department of Theoretical Physics. Annual report 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The report gives information about personnel, grants, participation in conferences and seminars, scientific degrees, lectures, graduate students, visiting scientists, results of studies (in the form of abstracts) and the list of publications.

  5. March 2011 Physical Indicators Workshop Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent

    2011-01-01

    The National Climate Assessment (NCA) convened a workshop on Physical Climate Indicators from 29-30 March 2011, as part of a series on Monitoring Climate Change and its Impacts . The overarching goal of this workshop was to identify a few broad categories of potential physical climate indicators using a set of priorities developed by the NCA, and to provide a clear justification for how they would inform the Nation about climate change. Additional goals included providing input on the overall NCA framework for selecting the indicators and suggesting methodologies to construct indicators. Although one of the workshop goals was to address the status of current observational networks to support indicators, this was not a main focus of any single discussion. However, participants agreed with the NCA indicator vision that high quality data were needed to develop indicators, and generally focused on identifying indicator categories that current observation systems could support. The nearly 60 participants, primarily from Federal agencies, received a white paper in advance of the workshop that detailed the NCA vision for a coordinated suite of climate-related physical, ecological, and societal indicators. The intent of these national indicators of change is to develop a way to evaluate and communicate over time both the rate of change in impacts and the capacity to respond to climate drivers. These indicators will be tracked as a part of ongoing, long-term assessment activities, with adjustments as necessary to adapt to changing conditions and understanding. An initial framework was provided to workshop participants to ensure that everyone understood the audience, scope, and purpose of the indicators. A common lexicon was defined since indicator terminology varies widely. In addition, several potential approaches to grouping or categorizing the indicators were presented. Participants spent most of their time in small breakout groups with facilitators, working to address a

  6. Physics Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, A.B. (ed.)

    1986-04-01

    This report covers the research and development activities of the Physics Division for the 1985 fiscal year. The research activities were centered on experimental nuclear physics, experimental atomic physics, and theoretical nuclear and atomic physics. The experimental nuclear physics program is dominated by heavy ion research. A major part of this effort is the responsibility for operating the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility as a national user facility. A major new activity described is the preparation for participation in an ultrarelativistic heavy ion experiment to be performed at CERN in 1986. The experimental atomic physics program has two components: the accelerator-based studies of basic collisional phenomena and the studies in support of the controlled fusion program. Also associated with the fusion-related studies are a plasma diagnostics program and the operation of an atomic physics data center. Theory efforts associated with the UNISOR program are described, as well as smaller programs in applications and high-energy physics. (LEW)

  7. Discoid Lupus Erythematosus in Childhood: A Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlteriş Oğuz Topal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE is an uncommon disease in childhood. The lesions are similar to adults, are seen more frequently on sun-exposed areas. Discoid skin lesions, characterized by scaly, erythematous, telangiectatic papules and plaques. Histopathological and immunohistochemical studies are similar to that of adult patients. Antinuclear antibody (ANA positivity can be seen in laboratory investigations. Topical agents such as topical steroids and topical calcineurin inhibitors can be used with sun protection for the treatment. We report two pediatric patients who presented to our out-patient clinic with persistent wound on the face. One of them had symetrical atrophic plaques on the lower eyelids, the other had an erythematous plaque on the right lower eyelid. Skin biopsy samples was performed from the lesions of two patients. Laboratory examinations were within normal limits. The patients were diagnosed as DLE and outpatient follow-up was recommended. Although the incidence of DLE is uncommon in childhood, the risk of development systemic lupus erythematosus is more frequently reported compared to adult patients. Therefore, inorder to check for the ANA titers and other clinical and laboratory parameters regular follow-up of pediatric patients is essential.

  8. Daily Physical Activity and Screen Time, but Not Other Sedentary Activities, Are Associated with Measures of Obesity during Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Nik Shanita, Safii; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ), body fatness (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514). PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours. PMID:25546277

  9. Daily Physical Activity and Screen Time, but Not Other Sedentary Activities, Are Associated with Measures of Obesity during Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoo Thien Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI, BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ, body fatness (%BF and waist circumference (WC. A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514. PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours.

  10. Daily physical activity and screen time, but not other sedentary activities, are associated with measures of obesity during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Shanita, Safii Nik; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ), body fatness (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514). PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours.

  11. Pain in long-term adult survivors of childhood cancers and their siblings: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian; Krull, Kevin R; Leisenring, Wendy; Owen, Jason E; Kawashima, Toana; Tsao, Jennie C I; Zebrack, Bradley; Mertens, Ann; Armstrong, Gregory T; Stovall, Marilyn; Robison, Leslie L; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2011-11-01

    Little is known about pain among long-term adult survivors of childhood cancers. The study investigated pain prevalence in this population compared with sibling controls and examined pain-related risk factors. Three self-reported pain outcomes including pain conditions, prescription analgesics used, and pain attributed to cancer and treatment were assessed among 10,397 cancer survivors and 3034 sibling controls from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Pain conditions (pain/abnormal sensation, migraines, and other headaches) were reported by 12.3%, 15.5%, and 20.5% of survivors, respectively; 16.7% of survivors reported use of prescription analgesics, and 21% attributed pain to cancer and treatment. Risks of reporting pain conditions and using prescription analgesics were higher among survivors than siblings, adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Younger age at diagnosis and a history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Wilms tumor, or neuroblastoma (compared to leukemia) were associated with greater risk of reporting pain conditions. A history of bone cancer or soft tissue sarcoma (compared to leukemia) was associated with greater risks of using prescription analgesics and cancer-related pain attribution. Non-brain-directed scatter irradiation was associated with elevated risk for migraines and cancer-related pain attribution. Female gender and lower educational attainment were associated with increased reports of all 3 pain outcomes; minority status, unemployment, and being single were associated with greater risks for reporting pain conditions. These findings contribute to the understanding of pain and associated risk factors among adult survivors of childhood cancer and suggest areas of focus for pain intervention.

  12. Melanoma as a Subsequent Neoplasm in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappo, AS; Armstrong, GT; Liu, W; Srivastava, DK; McDonald, A; Leisenring, WM; Hammond, S; Stovall, M; Neglia, JP; Robison, LL

    2012-01-01

    Background Childhood cancer survivors have a six fold increased risk of developing subsequent neoplasms when compared to the general population. We sought to describe the occurrence of melanoma as a subsequent neoplasm among adult survivors of childhood cancer. Patients and Methods Among 14,358 5-year survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed between 1970–86, we calculated the cumulative incidence, standardized incidence ratio (SIR), and absolute excess risk (AER) of subsequent melanoma. Potential risk factors were assessed using a cause-specific hazards model. Results 57 melanomas (46 invasive, 2 ocular and 9 in situ) occurred in 51 survivors. The median time to the development of melanoma was 21.0 years (range 5.6–35.4 years) and the median age at melanoma was 32.3 years (range 10.9 – 49.0 years). Initial cancer diagnoses included soft tissue and bone sarcoma (n=15), leukemia (13), lymphoma (14), central nervous system malignancy (5), Wilms’ tumor (3), and neuroblastoma (1). The cumulative incidence of first subsequent melanoma at 35 years from initial cancer diagnosis was 0.55% (95% CI 0.37–0.73). The SIR of subsequent invasive malignant melanoma of the skin was 2.42 (95% CI 1.77 – 3.23), and the AER was 0.10 (95% CI 0.05 – 0.15) per 1,000 person years. No statistically significant associations were found between melanoma risk and family history of cancer, demographic, or treatment-related factors. Conclusion Survivors of childhood cancer have an approximate 2.5-fold increased risk of melanoma. Early screening and prevention strategies are warranted. PMID:22887858

  13. Section for nuclear physics and energy physics - Annual report January 1 to December 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    This annual report summarizes the research and development activities of the Section for Nuclear Physics and Energy Physics at the University of Oslo in 1997. It includes experimental and theoretical nuclear physics, as well as other fields of physics in which members of the section have participated. The report describes completed projects and work currently in progress. As in previous years, the experimental activities in nuclear physics have mainly been centered around the Cyclotron Laboratory with the SCANDITRONIX MC-35 Cyclotron. The main auxiliary equipment consists of a multi-detector system CACTUS, and presently with a unique locally designed silicon strip detector array SIRI. In experimental nuclear physics the section staff members are engaged within three main fields: nuclei at high temperature, high spin nuclear structure and high and intermediate energy nuclear physics.

  14. Section for nuclear physics and energy physics - Annual report January 1 to December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This annual report summarizes the research and development activities of the Section for Nuclear Physics and Energy Physics at the University of Oslo in 1996. It includes experimental and theoretical nuclear physics, as well as other fields of physics in which members of the section have participated. The report describes completed projects and work currently in progress. As in previous years, the experimental activities in nuclear physics have mainly been centered around the Cyclotron Laboratory with the SCANDITRONIX MC-35 Cyclotron. Using CACTUS multidetector system, several experiments have been completed. Some results have been published while more data remains to be analyzed. In experimental nuclear physics the section staff members are engaged within three main fields: nuclei at high temperature, high spin nuclear structure and high and intermediate energy nuclear physics.

  15. Retrospective Parent Report of Early Vocal Behaviours in Children with Suspected Childhood Apraxia of Speech (sCAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highman, Chantelle; Hennessey, Neville; Sherwood, Mellanie; Leitao, Suze

    2008-01-01

    Parents of children with suspected Childhood Apraxia of Speech (sCAS, n = 20), Specific Language Impairment (SLI, n = 20), and typically developing speech and language skills (TD, n = 20) participated in this study, which aimed to quantify and compare reports of early vocal development. Via a questionnaire, parents reported on their child's early…

  16. Childhood obesity and its physical and psychological co-morbidities: a systematic review of Australian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Ross H; Han, Ahreum; Baker, Julien S; Cobley, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Australia is predicted to have the highest overweight/obesity rate in the world by 2022 outranking the USA and UK. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the associations between childhood obesity and physical and psychological health co-morbidities. Therefore, a systematic literature search was conducted from six databases (2004-2014). Studies were included if they investigated obesity-related co-morbidities with participants residing in Australia aged 0-18 years. Forty-seven studies fulfilled selection criteria. Evidence suggests that overweight/obese Australian children and adolescents, compared to normal-weight peers, had more cardio-metabolic risk factors and higher risk factors of non-alcohol fatty liver disease and were experiencing more negative psychological outcomes (depression, low self-esteem and lower scores of health-related quality of life). Many other health consequences have either not been investigated in Australia, or as frequently as in other countries. Given Australia's current overweight/obesity prevalence and trajectory, Australia-based studies are needed to identify the suspected co-morbidities, understand the range of individual, social and environmental mechanisms driving obesity, and help identify policies, interventions and strategies that will change the future trajectory and 'disease burden' both in Australia and internationally. • Trend analyses have shown that obesity prevalence in Australia is increasing and will outrank UK and the USA by 2022. • Every third Australian child/adolescent between 5 and 19 years old is predicted to be classified as overweight or obese by 2025. • Childhood obesity is associated with multiple immediate physical and psychological health co-morbidities as well as co-morbidities in adulthood. These have often been identified and examined individually. What is New: • This paper presents a holistic picture of childhood obesity and the associated multiple co-morbidities in Australia.

  17. Risky sexual behavior in adolescent survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosky, James L; Foster, Rebecca H; Li, Zhenghong; Peasant, Courtney; Howell, Carrie R; Mertens, Ann C; Robison, Leslie L; Ness, Kirsten K

    2014-08-01

    To identify correlates of risky sexual behavior among adolescents surviving childhood cancer. The Child Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition (CHIP-AE) was completed by 307 survivors of childhood cancer aged 15-20 years (M age at diagnosis 1.53 years; range 0-3.76). Univariate analyses were performed using χ² and Fisher's Exact tests, and multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risky sexual behaviors. Diagnosis of central nervous system cancer (OR = .13, 95% CI: .02-.96, p sexual intercourse. Good psychological health (scores ≥-1.5 SD on the CHIP-AE Emotional Discomfort scale) associated with decreased risk of early intercourse (OR = .19, CI: .05-.77, p = .02), whereas high parental education (≥ college degree) associated with decreased risk of multiple lifetime sexual partners (OR = .25, CI: .09-.72, p = .01). Increased time from diagnosis (OR = .27, CI: .10-.78, p = .02) and psychological health (OR = .09, CI: .02-.36, p sexual behavior in adolescents surviving childhood cancer is associated with cancer type, time since diagnosis, psychological health, alcohol use, and peer influences. Consideration of these factors may provide direction for future interventions designed to reduce adolescent sexual risk-taking.

  18. Educator engagement and interaction and children's physical activity in early childhood education and care settings: an observational study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel A; Hagenbuchner, Markus; Nguyen, Tuc V; Okely, Anthony D

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The benefits of regular physical activity for children are significant. Previous research has addressed the quantity and quality of children's physical activity while in early childhood education and care (ECEC) settings, yet little research has investigated the social and physical environmental influences on physical activity in these settings. The outcomes of this study will be to measure these social and physical environmental influences on children's physical activity using a combination of a real-time location system (RTLS) (a closed system that tracks the location of movement of participants via readers and tags), accelerometry and direct observation. Methods and analysis This study is the first of its kind to combine RTLSs and accelerometer data in ECEC settings. It is a cross-sectional study involving ∼100 educators and 500 children from 11 ECEC settings in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia. A RTLS and Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers will be concurrently used to measure the level and location of the children's and educators' physical activity while in outside environments. Children and educators will wear accelerometers on their hip that record triaxial acceleration data at 100 Hz. Children and educators will also wear a tag watch on their wrist that transmits a signal to anchors of the RTLS and the triangulation of signals will identify their specific location. In addition to these, up to three random periods (10–25 min in length) will be used to collect observational data each day and assessed with the classroom assessment and scoring system to measure the quality of interactions. In conjunction with the real-time location system (RTLS) and accelerometers, these observations will measure the relationship between the quality of interactions and children's physical activity. Ethics and dissemination The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and presentations. Ethical approval was

  19. Sudden unexplained death in childhood. An audit of the quality of Autopsy reporting

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Treacy, A

    2013-03-01

    Cases of sudden unexplained death in childhood (SUDC) in Ireland in children aged >1year and <5 years were examined in order to assess the quality of autopsy reporting. All SUDC cases are notified to and documented by the National Sudden Infant Death Register (NSIDR) in Ireland along with all cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) referring to sudden infant deaths less than one year of age. The database of the NSIDR in Ireland was interrogated and cases of SIDS and SUDC were compared over a fifteen-year period (1995-2009). SIDS cases whose autopsies were conducted in the same hospital in the same year as the index SUDC case were used for comparison. The autopsy report for each case was examined and modified Rushton(MR) scores 1\\r\

  20. Forgetting of trauma cues in adults reporting continuous or recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Richard J; Ristuccia, Carel S; Perlman, Carol A

    2005-04-01

    According to betrayal trauma theory, adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) who were molested by their caretakers (e.g., a father) are especially likely to dissociate ("repress") their memories of abuse. Testing college students, some reporting CSA, DePrince and Freyd (2004) found that those scoring high on a dissociation questionnaire exhibited memory deficits for trauma words when they viewed these words under divided-attention conditions. Replicating DePrince and Freyd's procedure, we tested for memory deficits for trauma words relative to neutral words in adults reporting either continuous or recovered memories of CSA versus adults denying a history of CSA. A memory deficit for trauma words under divided attention was expected in the recovered-memory group. Results were inconsistent with this prediction, as all three groups exhibited better recall of trauma words than neutral words, irrespective of encoding conditions.

  1. Neurogenic pulmonary edema combined with febrile seizures in early childhood-A report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaka, Keiji; Matsubara, Kousaku; Hori, Masayuki; Nigami, Hiroyuki; Iwata, Aya; Isome, Kenichi; Kawasaki, Yu; Nagai, Sadayuki

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is a clinical entity that can occur following central nervous system disorders. However, NPE occurs quite rarely in early childhood, and there has only been one report about pediatric NPE associated with febrile seizures. Two cases are reported here. One case involved a 2-year-old girl who presented with febrile seizures, which rapidly progressed to severe NPE. Since the NPE occurred in the emergency department room, the patient was able to be resuscitated via immediate endotracheal intubation. The other case involved an 11-month-old boy who developed respiratory distress following a 50-min episode of febrile status epilepticus. Both patients required respiratory management in the intensive care unit. However their conditions were dramatically improved within several days and fully recovered without any sequelae.

  2. Childhood pustular psoriasis elicited by the streptococcal antigen: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra, Marya; Conte, Eugene; Cortez, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    The Zumbusch pattern of generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) classically presents as waves of widespread sheets of sterile pustules on brightly erythematous skin. The occurrence of this disease in childhood is rare, and fewer than 200 cases have been reported in the literature. We describe a 10-year-old boy with GPP who had an elevated serum antistreptolysin titer. Several antigenic factors shown to elicit GPP have been reported, including withdrawal of steroids, emotional stress, and infection. However, we further propose that the group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus can trigger a flare of GPP. We suggest that if pustular psoriasis is suspected clinically, an elevated serum antistreptolysin antibody titer may help identify the causative antigen.

  3. Validation of reported physical activity for cholesterol control using two different physical activity instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Z Fan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Amy Z Fan1, Sandra A Ham2, Shravani Reddy Muppidi3, Ali H Mokdad41Behavioral Surveillance Branch, Division of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; 2Physical Activity and Health Branch, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA; 4Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: The National Cholesterol Education Program recommends increasing physical activity to improve cholesterol levels and overall cardiovascular health. We examined whether US adults who reported increasing their physical activity to control or lower blood cholesterol following physician’s advice or on their own efforts had higher levels of physical activity than those who reported that they did not. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004, which implemented two physical activity assessment instruments. The physical activity questionnaire (PAQ assessed self-reported frequency, intensity, and duration of leisure-time, household, and transportation-related physical activity in the past month. Physical movement was objectively monitored using a waist accelerometer that assessed minute-by-minute intensity (counts of movement/minute during waking time over a 7-day period. We adjusted our analysis for age, gender, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and body mass index. Participants who reported increasing physical activity to control blood cholesterol had more PAQ-assessed physical activity and more accelerometer-assessed active days per week compared to those who did not. However, there were no significant differences in cholesterol levels between comparison groups. These findings suggest that self-report of exercising

  4. Physics and Advanced Technologies 2003 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A; Sketchley, J

    2005-01-20

    The Physics and Advanced Technologies (PAT) Directorate overcame significant challenges in 2003 to deliver a wealth of scientific and programmatic milestones, and move toward closer alignment with programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We acted aggressively in enabling the PAT Directorate to contribute to future, growing Lawrence Livermore missions in homeland security and at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). We made heavy investments to bring new capabilities to the Laboratory, to initiate collaborations with major Laboratory programs, and to align with future Laboratory directions. Consistent with our mission, we sought to ensure that Livermore programs have access to the best science and technology, today and tomorrow. For example, in a move aimed at revitalizing the Laboratory's expertise in nuclear and radiation detection, we brought the talented Measurement Sciences Group to Livermore from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, after its mission there had diminished. The transfer to our I Division entailed significant investment by PAT in equipment and infrastructure required by the group. In addition, the move occurred at a time when homeland security funding was expected, but not yet available. By the end of the year, though, the group was making crucial contributions to the radiation detection program at Livermore, and nearly every member was fully engaged in programmatic activities. Our V Division made a move of a different sort, relocating en masse from Building 121 to the NIF complex. This move was designed to enhance interaction and collaboration among high-energy-density experimental scientists at the Laboratory, a goal that is essential to the effective use of NIF in the future. Since then, V Division has become increasingly integrated with NIF activities. Division scientists are heavily involved in diagnostic development and fielding and are poised to perform equation-of-state and high-temperature hohlraum experiments in 2004

  5. Human pericardium graft in the management of bleb's complication performed in childhood: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koutsandrea Chrysanthi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report a case with hypotony due to late leakage of the filtering bleb performed during childhood and treated surgically using human pericardium graft. Case Presentation A man with hypotony related to bleb's leakage in his right eye was presented. During his childhood trabeculectomy was performed to manage ocular hypertension due to pediatric glaucoma. Biomicroscopy revealed choroidal tissue incarcerated in the sclerectomy under the conjunctiva. Bleb revision was performed. Human pericardium graft was used to cover the sclerectomy and a new bleb with controlled outflow was created. The intraocular pressure (IOP and Seidel test represent the main outcomes. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded. Fifteen days postoperatively the IOP was of 7 mmHg and the bleb seemed to filter properly. Five months later the IOP was 9 mmHg and no complications were noticed. During the follow up time, the Seidel test was negative. Conclusion We used human pericardium graft with no complications in a case of bleb leakage performed for pediatric glaucoma.

  6. Childhood poverty and young adults' allostatic load: the mediating role of childhood cumulative risk exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Kim, Pilyoung

    2012-09-01

    Childhood poverty is linked to a host of physical and psychological disorders during childhood and later in life. In the study reported here, we showed that the proportion of childhood spent in poverty from birth to age 9 was linked to elevated allostatic load, a marker of chronic physiological stress, in 17-year-olds. Furthermore, this prospective longitudinal relationship was mediated by cumulative risk exposure at age 13. The greater the duration of early life spent in poverty, the greater the exposure to cumulative risk. This, in turn, leads to elevated allostatic load. Multiple psychological, biological, and neurological pathways likely account for the social patterning of psychological and physical disease.

  7. Perceived physical competence towards physical activity, and autonomous motivation and enjoyment in physical education as longitudinal predictors of adolescents' self - reported physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Jaakkola, Timo; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to investigate if adolescents’ perceived physical competence towards physical activity (PA), and autonomous motivation and enjoyment in physical education (PE) during early adolescence can predict amount and intensity of self-reported physical activity six years later. Design This study utilized a 6-year longitudinal data set collected within Finnish school settings. Students responded to questionnaires measuring their perceived physical compete...

  8. Risk Factors Associated With Secondary Sarcomas in Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Tara O., E-mail: thenderson@peds.bsd.uchicago.edu [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Rajaraman, Preetha [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, TX (United States); Constine, Louis S. [University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Olive, Aliza [Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Smith, Susan A. [M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, TX (United States); Mertens, Ann [Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Meadows, Anna [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Neglia, Joseph P. [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Hammond, Sue [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Whitton, John [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Inskip, Peter D. [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Robison, Leslie L. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Diller, Lisa [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Children' s Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Childhood cancer survivors have an increased risk of secondary sarcomas. To better identify those at risk, the relationship between therapeutic dose of chemotherapy and radiation and secondary sarcoma should be quantified. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested case-control study of secondary sarcomas (105 cases, 422 matched controls) in a cohort of 14,372 childhood cancer survivors. Radiation dose at the second malignant neoplasm (SMN) site and use of chemotherapy were estimated from detailed review of medical records. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Excess odds ratio (EOR) was modeled as a function of radiation dose, chemotherapy, and host factors. Results: Sarcomas occurred a median of 11.8 years (range, 5.3-31.3 years) from original diagnosis. Any exposure to radiation was associated with increased risk of secondary sarcoma (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.8-9.5). A dose-response relation was observed, with elevated risks at doses between 10 and 29.9 Gy (OR = 15.6, 95% CI = 4.5-53.9), 30-49.9 Gy (OR = 16.0, 95% CI 3.8-67.8) and >50 Gy (OR = 114.1, 95% CI 13.5-964.8). Anthracycline exposure was associated with sarcoma risk (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.6-7.7) adjusting for radiation dose, other chemotherapy, and primary cancer. Adjusting for treatment, survivors with a first diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma (OR = 10.7, 95% CI = 3.1-37.4) or primary sarcoma (OR = 8.4, 95% CI = 3.2-22.3) were more likely to develop a sarcoma. Conclusions: Of the risk factors evaluated, radiation exposure was the most important for secondary sarcoma development in childhood cancer survivors; anthracycline chemotherapy exposure was also associated with increased risk.

  9. Evaluation and treatment of childhood physical abuse and neglect: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Marissa; Berkowitz, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    According to 2010 CDC estimates, 1 in 5 US children have experienced maltreatment. Risk factors for child maltreatment include child characteristics such as non-compliance and diagnostic conditions that increase caregiver burden. Parent characteristic risk factors include parental mental illness and low social support. New developments in radiologic evaluation of child maltreatment will be reviewed. New findings in evidence based psychotherapies for childhood maltreatment will be discussed. A review of the role of pharmacotherapy in child maltreatment cases will also be presented. New evidence from prevention models targeting young mothers and families are also reviewed.

  10. Heritability and Genetic Relationship of Adult Self-Reported Stuttering, Cluttering and Childhood Speech-Language Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagnani, Corrado; Fibiger, Steen; Skytthe, Axel;

    2011-01-01

    Genetic influence and mutual genetic relationship for adult self-reported childhood speech-language disorders, stuttering, and cluttering were studied. Using nationwide questionnaire answers from 34,944 adult Danish twins, a multivariate biometric analysis based on the liability-threshold model......, 0.78/0.80 for stuttering, and 0.53/0.65 for cluttering. For each trait, the same genes were suggested to affect liability in males and females. Furthermore, high genetic correlations between the traits were obtained; the estimates for childhood speech-language disorders and stuttering were 0.......71/0.79 for males/females, for childhood speech-language disorders and cluttering 0.73/0.56, and for stuttering and cluttering 0.53/0.57. Substantial unique environmental correlations between the traits were also found in both genders. Conclusion: With the limitations related to self-reporting from adult age...

  11. Final Report for Studies in Elementary Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piilonen, Leo; Takeuchi, Tatsu; Minic, Djordje; Link, Jonathan

    2013-11-01

    This is the final report of DOE Grant DE-FG05-92ER40709 awarded to the Virginia Tech high energy physics group. It covers the period February 1, 2010 through April 30, 2013. The high energy physics program at Virginia Tech supported by this grant is organized into three tasks: A for theory (Profs. Tatsu Takeuchi and Djordje Minic), B for heavy flavor physics with the Belle and Belle II experiments (Prof. Leo Piilonen), and N for neutrino physics (Profs. Jonathan Link and Piilonen).

  12. Physics Division: Annual report, 1 January-31 December 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-05-01

    This report summarizes the research programs of the Physics Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory during calendar 1985. The Division's principal activities are research in theoretical and experimental high energy physics, and the development of tools such as sophisticated detectors to carry out that research. The physics activity also includes a program in astrophysics, and the efforts of the Particle Data Group whose compilations serve the worldwide high energy physics community. Finally, in addition to the physics program, there is a smaller but highly significant research effort in applied mathematics. Some specific topics included in this report are: Research on e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, superconducting super collider, double beta decay, high energy astrophysics and interdisciplinary experiments, detector research and development, electroweak interactions, strong interaction, quantum field theory, superstrings and quantum gravity, vortex methods and turbulence and computational mathematics.

  13. Les Houches 2011: Physics at TeV Colliders New Physics Working Group Report

    CERN Document Server

    Brooijmans, G; Moortgat, F; Santiago, J; Skands, P; Vásquez, D Albornoz; Allanach, B C; Alloul, A; Arbey, A; Azatov, A; Baer, H; Balázs, C; Barr, A; Basso, L; Battaglia, M; Bechtle, P; Bélanger, G; Belyaev, A; Benslama, K; Bergström, L; Bharucha, A; Boehm, C; Bondarenko, M; Bondu, O; Boos, E; Boudjema, F; Bringmann, T; Brown, M; Bunichev, V; Calvet, S; Campanelli, M; Carmona, A; Cerdeño, D G; Chala, M; Chivukula, R S; Chowdhury, D; Christensen, N D; Cirelli, M; Cox, S; Cranmer, K; Da Silva, J; Delahaye, T; De Roeck, A; Djouadi, A; Dobson, E; Dolan, M; Donato, F; La Rochelle, G Drieu; Duda, G; Duhr, C; Dumont, B; Edsjö, J; Ellis, J; Evoli, C; Falkowski, A; Felcini, M; Fuks, B; Gabrielli, E; Gaggero, D; Gascon-Shotkin, S; Ghosh, D K; Giammanco, A; Godbole, R M; Gondolo, P; Goto, T; Grasso, D; Gris, P; Guadagnoli, D; Gunion, J F; Haisch, U; Hartgring, L; Heinemeyer, S; Hirsch, M; Hewett, J; Ismail, A; Jeltema, T; Kadastik, M; Kakizaki, M; Kannike, K; Khalil, S; Kneur, J-L; Krämer, M; Kraml, S; Kreiss, S; Lavalle, J; Leane, R; Lykken, J; Maccione, L; Mahmoudi, F; Mangano, M; Martin, S P; Maurin, D; Moreau, G; Moretti, S; Moskalenko, I; Moultaka, G; Muhlleitner, M; Niessen, I; O'Leary, B; Orlando, E; Panci, P; Polesello, G; Porod, W; Porter, T; Profumo, S; Prosper, H; Pukhov, A; Racioppi, A; Raidal, M; de Traubenberg, M Rausch; Renaud, A; Reuter, J; Rizzo, T G; Robens, T; Rodríguez-Marrero, A Y; Salati, P; Savage, C; Scott, P; Sekmen, S; Semenov, A; Shan, C -L; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C; Simmons, E H; Slavich, P; Speckner, C; Staub, F; Strong, A; Taillet, R; Thomas, F S; Thomas, M C; Tomalin, I; Tytgat, M; Ughetto, M; Valéry, L; Walker, D G E; Weiler, A; West, S M; White, C D; Williams, A J; Wingerter, A; Wymant, C; Yu, J -H; Yuan, C -P; Zerwas, D

    2012-01-01

    We present the activities of the "New Physics" working group for the "Physics at TeV Colliders" workshop (Les Houches, France, 30 May-17 June, 2011). Our report includes new agreements on formats for interfaces between computational tools, new tool developments, important signatures for searches at the LHC, recommendations for presentation of LHC search results, as well as additional phenomenological studies.

  14. Applying an ESSENCE Framework to Understanding Adult Autism Spectrum Disorder and ADHD: Retrospective Parent Reports of Childhood Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Plenty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder (ASD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are increasingly being made in adulthood. However, assessments can fail to address the diverse range of problems that patients have experienced. The current study applied an early symptomatic syndromes eliciting neurodevelopmental clinical examinations (ESSENCE framework to explore retrospectively reported childhood developmental and behavioral problems. It examined if adult ASD and ADHD patients would show problems outside those reflected in the respective diagnostic criteria, and also if these patient groups would show more extensive childhood problems than other psychiatric patients. Parents of adults with ADHD (n = 130, ASD (n = 57, coexisting ADHD and ASD (n = 38, and other psychiatric disorders (n = 56 reported on a range of childhood problems. Descriptions of the ADHD, ASD, and ADHD+ASD groups reflected greater impairment than descriptions for patients with other psychiatric disorders in most problem areas. Although differences were observed between ADHD and ASD patients in the core diagnostic areas, these syndromes also shared a number of childhood difficulties. The ESSENCE approach can assist in understanding the symptom history of adult ADHD and ASD patients and can be helpful to distinguish their childhood experiences from other psychiatric patients' experiences.

  15. Childhood Trauma and Alexithymia in Patients with Conversion Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Anum; Yousaf, Aasma

    2016-07-01

    To determine the relationship between childhood trauma (physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect) and alexithymia in patients with conversion disorder, and to identify it as a predictor of alexithymia in conversion disorder. An analytical study. Multiple public sector hospitals in Lahore, from September 2012 to July 2013. Eighty women with conversion disorder were recruited on the basis of DSM IV-TR diagnostic criteria checklist to screen conversion disorder. Childhood abuse interview to measure childhood trauma and Bermond Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, DSM-IV TR Dianostic Criteria Checklist, and Childhood Abuse Interview to assess alexithymia were used, respectively. The mean age of the sample was 18 ±2.2 years. Thirty-six cases had a history of childhood trauma, physical abuse was the most reported trauma (f = 19, 23.8%) in their childhood. Patients with conversion disorder has a significant association with alexithymia (p conversion disorder. Strategies should be devised to reduce this disorder among women in Pakistani society.

  16. Exergames: the role of ergonomics and design in helping to control childhood obesity through physical and functional exercise program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Marina; Neves, André; Correia, Walter; Soares, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    In the area of the design and physiotherapy, the using of virtual technologies for immersion of users are spreading. And this affirmation extends to several areas of knowledge. In games, the quote is, resources are being used to work cognitive skills, attention, memory, among other factors beside the children. Currently, at the expense of usability, low cost, virtual technologies of perception and interaction, as Nintendo Wii, X-Box 360, among others, arises therefore a new class of games called Exergames, which is the union of physical activity the game. This fact gives users the development of sensory and motor skills through virtual reality mechanisms suitable for certain needs. This literature review aimed to provide an overview of the current context of Exergames, especially in use for controlling childhood obesity, which is growing alarmingly, with some features, applications and possibilities for use at the design and other areas such as physiotherapy.

  17. Subcorneal Pustular Dermatosis in Childhood: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Scalvenzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcorneal pustular dermatosis (SCPD, also known as Sneddon-Wilkinson disease is a rare, benign, chronic, sterile pustular eruption which usually develops in middle-age or elderly women; it is rarely seen in childhood and adolescence. The primary lesions are pea-sized pustules classically described as half-pustular, half-clear flaccid blisters. Histologically the most important feature is a subcorneal accumulation of neutrophils with the absence of spongiosis or acantholysis, although acantholysis may be reported in older lesions. In this paper we present the case of a 7-year-old boy diagnosed with SCPD based on the characteristic clinical and histological features. Dapsone has been successfully used in the treatment of the disease.

  18. [Narcolepsy in childhood and adolescence: symptoms, diagnosis, and therapy. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrmann, Jochen; Siegler, Dominik; Ignacy, Evelin; Reimer, Inga

    2017-03-01

    Narcolepsy is a rare, multifactorial disease of the hypothalamus characterized by its leading symptoms of excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy. Sleep-EEG and a HLA-DR-genotype serve to secure the diagnosis. We report here on a 14-year-old girl suffering from anxieties, depression, school refusal, social withdrawal as well as very frequent attacks of sleep during the day and cataplexy. Currently, there is no approved drug for children and adolescents suffering from narcolepsy. Our patient benefited significantly and quickly from an off-label treatment with methylphenidate in combination with psychoeducation, cognitive behavioral therapy, and family therapy. Narcolepsy is a very rare but probably underestimated differential diagnosis applied to unclear daytime sleepiness, anxieties, or depression in childhood and adolescence. Both the key symptoms and the comorbid symptoms improve significantly under treatment with stimulants, albeit at a higher dosage.

  19. Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus presenting in childhood: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Tammy; Walsh, Erica; Berry, Ryan; DeSantis, Emily; Smidt, Aimee C

    2014-01-01

    A 2-year-old African American, Hispanic boy presented with well-defined, violaceous, annular dermal plaques without scale over the upper extremities, face, lower extremities, and buttocks. The clinical presentation and laboratory studies were consistent with a diagnosis of subacute cutaneous lupus erythematous (SCLE). SCLE presenting in childhood is exceedingly rare, with only eight cases previously reported. It is important to clinically differentiate SCLE from other eruptions more common to children, such as atopic dermatitis, urticarial drug eruptions, and psoriasis vulgaris, because progression to systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) may occur. SLE needs to be closely followed. We present the first case (to our knowledge) of SCLE in a child of African American or Hispanic descent and provide a table of other documented pediatric presentations of SCLE for comparison.

  20. Childhood Obesity, Gender, Actual-Ideal Body Image Discrepancies, and Physical Self-Concept in Hong Kong Children: Cultural Differences in the Value of Moderation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Hau, K. T.; Sung, R. Y. T.; Yu, C. W.

    2007-01-01

    Childhood obesity is increasingly prevalent in Western and non-Western societies. The authors related multiple dimensions of physical self-concept to body composition for 763 Chinese children aged 8 to 15 and compared the results with Western research. Compared with Western research, gender differences favoring boys were generally much smaller for…

  1. Associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and glycemic control in a large cohort of adolescents with type 1 diabetes : the Hvidoere Study Group on Childhood Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aman, J.; Skinner, T. C.; de Beaufort, C. E.; Swift, P. G. F.; Aanstoot, H-J; Cameron, F.

    2009-01-01

    angstrom man J, Skinner TC, de Beaufort CE, Swift PGF, Aanstoot H-J, Cameron F, for and on behalf of the Hvidoere Study Group on Childhood Diabetes. Associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and glycemic control in a large cohort of adolescents with type 1 diabetes: the Hvidoere St

  2. Efforts - Final technical report on task 4. Physical modelling calidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Olsson, David Dam; Christensen, T. W.

    The present report is documentation for the work carried out in Task 4 at DTU Physical modelling-validation on the Brite/Euram project No. BE96-3340, contract No. BRPR-CT97-0398, with the title Enhanced Framework for forging design using reliable three-dimensional simulation (EFFORTS). The report...

  3. Les Houches 2015: Physics at TeV colliders - new physics working group report

    CERN Document Server

    Brooijmans, G; Delgado, A.; Englert, C.; Falkowski, A.; Fuks, B.; Nikitenko, S.; Sekmen, S.; Barducci, D.; Bernon, J.; Bharucha, A.; Brehmer, J.; Brivio, I.; Buckley, A.; Burns, D.; Cacciapaglia, G.; Cai, H.; Carmona, A.; Carvalho, A.; Chalons, G.; Chen, Y.; Chivukula, R.S.; Conte, E.; Deandrea, A.; De Filippis, N.; Desai, N.; Flacke, T.; Frigerio, M.; Garcia-Pepin, M.; Gleyzer, S.; Goudelis, A.; Goertz, F.; Gras, P.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hewett, J.L.; Ittisamai, P.; Katz, A.; Kopp, J.; Kraml, S.; Krauss, M.E.; Kulkarni, S.; Laa, U.; Lacroix, S.; Lane, K.; Majumder, D.; Martin, A.; Mawatari, K.; Mohan, K.; Morse, D.M.; Mimasu, K.; Mühlleitner, M.; Nardecchia, M.; No, J.M.; Orlando, R.D.; Pani, P.; Papucci, M.; Polesello, G.; Pollard, C.; Porod, W.; Prosper, H.B.; Quirós, M.; Rizzo, T.; Sakurai, K.; Santiago, Jose; Sanz, V.; Schmidt, T.; Schmeier, D.; Sengupta, D.; Shao, H. -S.; Simmons, E.H.; Sonneveld, J.; Spieker, T.; Spira, M.; Tattersall, J.; Unel, G.; Vega-Morales, R.; Waltenberger, W.; Weiler, A.; You, T.; Zapata, O.A.; Zerwas, D.

    2016-01-01

    We present the activities of the 'New Physics' working group for the 'Physics at TeV Colliders' workshop (Les Houches, France, 1-19 June, 2015). Our report includes new physics studies connected with the Higgs boson and its properties, direct search strategies, reinterpretation of the LHC results in the building of viable models and new computational tool developments. Important signatures for searches for natural new physics at the LHC and new assessments of the interplay between direct dark matter searches and the LHC are also considered.

  4. A Conceptual Framework for Organizational Readiness to Implement Nutrition and Physical Activity Programs in Early Childhood Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Mudita; Schober, Daniel J.; Byrd-Williams, Courtney

    2014-01-01

    Across multiple sectors, organizational readiness predicts the success of program implementation. However, the factors influencing readiness of early childhood education (ECE) organizations for implementation of new nutrition and physical activity programs is poorly understood. This study presents a new conceptual framework to measure organizational readiness to implement nutrition and physical activity programs in ECE centers serving children aged 0 to 5 years. The framework was validated for consensus on relevance and generalizability by conducting focus groups; the participants were managers (16 directors and 2 assistant directors) of ECE centers. The framework theorizes that it is necessary to have “collective readiness,” which takes into account such factors as resources, organizational operations, work culture, and the collective attitudes, motivation, beliefs, and intentions of ECE staff. Results of the focus groups demonstrated consensus on the relevance of proposed constructs across ECE settings. Including readiness measures during program planning and evaluation could inform implementation of ECE programs targeting nutrition and physical activity behaviors. PMID:25357258

  5. Gender Differences in the Physical and Psychological Manifestation of Childhood Trauma and/or Adversity in People with Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Shaun eSweeney; Tracy eAir; Lana eZannettino; Cherrie eGalletly

    2015-01-01

    The link between childhood trauma and/or adversity and risk of psychosis is well known. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of childhood trauma and/or adversity in people who have psychotic disorders and to investigate the association between childhood trauma and/or adversity and a range of social and health measures. Participants (n = 391, 42% male) were specifically asked about any experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity. Respondents provided information about education, employm...

  6. High Energy Physics at Tufts University Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, Gary R. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States); Oliver, William P. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States); Napier, Austin [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States); Gallagher, Hugh R. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

    2012-07-18

    In this Final Report, we the researchers of the high energy physics group at Tufts University summarize our works and achievements in three frontier areas of elementary particle physics: (i) Neutrino physics at the Intensity Frontier, (ii) Collider physics at the Energy Frontier, and (iii) Theory investigations of spin structure and quark-gluon dynamics of nucleons using quantum chromodynamics. With our Neutrino research we completed, or else brought to a useful state, the following: Data-taking, physics simulations, physics analysis, physics reporting, explorations of matter effects, and detector component fabrication. We conducted our work as participants in the MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE neutrino oscillation experiments and in the MINERvA neutrino scattering experiment. With our Collider research we completed or else brought to a useful state: Data-taking, development of muon system geometry and tracking codes, software validation and maintenance, physics simulations, physics analysis, searches for new particles, and study of top-quark and B-quark systems. We conducted these activities as participants in the ATLAS proton-proton collider experiment at CERN and in the CDF proton-antiproton collider experiment at Fermilab. In our Theory research we developed QCD-based models, applications of spin phenomenology to fundamental systems, fitting of models to data, presenting and reporting of new concepts and formalisms. The overarching objectives of our research work have always been: 1) to test and clarify the predictions of the Standard Model of elementary particle physics, and 2) to discover new phenomena which may point the way to a more unified theoretical framework.

  7. "Every Child (of Every Size) Matters" in Physical Education! Physical Education's Role in Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo

    2013-01-01

    The role of schools and physical education in promoting health, producing a "healthy nation" and in tackling obesity has been increasingly recognised in recent years. In England this is evidenced by various policies, strategies and responses from government that have highlighted schools to be instrumental in addressing health broadly and…

  8. Toward Interagency Coordination FY '75 Federal Research and Development Activities Pertaining to Early Childhood. Fifth Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Thomas W.; Mann, Ada Jo

    This report provides an overview of the federally-funded early childhood research activities of fiscal year 1975. In order to assess the directions in which federal research programs are moving, ongoing research projects are analyzed both within individual agencies and within the federal government as a whole. The first chapter reviews the…

  9. Alternatives in Early Childhood Care and Education. Report of the Bernard van Leer Foundation, 1984-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard Van Leer Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The Bernard van Leer Foundation is dedicated to early childhood education and care of socially and culturally disadvantaged children. Part one of this report from the Foundation includes a brief biography of the founder, an account of the Foundation's origins and development, and an introduction. In part two, a global review of program…

  10. ECIA, Chapter 1 Early Childhood Education Program in the Portland Public Schools. 1985-86 Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Kan

    This year-end evaluation report of the Chapter 1 Early Childhood Education (Preschool) Program in Portland (Oregon) Public Schools is a narrative supplement to the statistical forms used by Chapter 1 Education Consolidation Improvement Act (ECIA) evaluation and is organized into six sections: (1) introduction; (2) description of the program,…

  11. An Exploratory Qualitative Study of the Self-Reported Impact of Female-Perpetrated Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Rebecca; Mellor, David

    2011-01-01

    The limited findings on the impact of female-perpetrated sexual abuse of children are often contradictory, particularly in relation to males. In this exploratory qualitative study, a sample of nine men and five women who reported that they had been sexually abused by women in their childhood were recruited from the general community. They…

  12. Patterns and predictors of clustered risky health behaviors among adult survivors of childhood cancer: A report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lown, E Anne; Hijiya, Nobuko; Zhang, Nan; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Leisenring, Wendy M; Nathan, Paul C; Castellino, Sharon M; Devine, Katie A; Dilley, Kimberley; Krull, Kevin R; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Hudson, Melissa M; Armstrong, Gregory T; Robison, Leslie L; Ness, Kirsten K

    2016-09-01

    Health complications related to childhood cancer may be influenced by risky health behaviors (RHBs), particularly when RHBs co-occur. To the authors' knowledge, only limited information is available describing how RHBs cluster among survivors of childhood cancer and their siblings and the risk factors for co-occurring RHBs. Latent class analysis was used to identify RHB clusters using longitudinal survey data regarding smoking, alcohol use, and physical activity from adult survivors (4184 survivors) and siblings (1598 siblings) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Generalized logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between demographic characteristics, treatment exposures, psychological distress, health conditions, and cluster membership. Three RHB clusters were identified: a low-risk cluster, an insufficiently active cluster, and a high-risk cluster (tobacco and risky alcohol use and insufficient activity). Compared with siblings, survivors were more likely to be in the insufficiently active cluster (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj ], 1.17; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.06-1.27) and were less likely to be in the high-risk cluster (ORadj , 0.79; 95% CI, 0.69-0.88). Risk factors for membership in the high-risk cluster included psychological distress (ORadj , 2.76; 95% CI, 1.98-3.86), low educational attainment (ORadj , 7.49; 95% CI, 5.15-10.88), income cancer and their siblings. Economic and educational disadvantages and psychological distress should be considered in screening and interventions to reduce RHBs. Cancer 2016. © 2016 American Cancer Society. Cancer 2016;122:2747-2756. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  13. Poor muscle strength and function in physically inactive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus despite very mild disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Jéssica Pinto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare muscle strength (i.e. lower- and upper-body strength and function between physically inactive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients (C-SLE and healthy controls (CTRL. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study and the sample consisted of 19 C-SLE (age between 9 and 18 years and 15 CTRL matched by age, sex, body mass index (BMI, and physical activity levels (assessed by accelerometry. Lower- and upper-body strength was assessed by the one-repetition-maximum (1-RM test. Isometric strength was assessed through a handgrip dynamometer. Muscle function was evaluated by the timed-stands test (TST and the timed-up-and-go test (TUG. Results: When compared with CTRL, C-SLE showed lower leg-press and bench-press 1-RM (p = 0.026 and p = 0.008, respectively, and a tendency toward lower handgrip strength (p = 0.052. C-SLE showed lower TST scores (p = 0.036 and a tendency toward higher TUG scores (p = 0.070 when compared with CTRL. Conclusion: Physically inactive C-SLE patients with very mild disease showed reduced muscle strength and functionality when compared with healthy controls matched by physical activity levels. These findings suggest C-SLE patients may greatly suffer from a physically inactive lifestyle than healthy controls do. Moreover, some sub-clinical “residual” effect of the disease or its pharmacological treatment seems to affect C-SLE patients even with a well-controlled disease.

  14. Sleep paralysis in adults reporting repressed, recovered, or continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Richard J; Clancy, Susan A

    2005-01-01

    Sleep paralysis typically occurs as individuals awaken from rapid eye movement sleep before motor paralysis wanes. Many episodes are accompanied by tactile and visual hallucinations, often of threatening intruders in the bedroom. Pendergrast [Victims of Memory: Incest Accusations and Shattered Lives, HarperCollins, London, 1996] proposed that individuals who report repressed or recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may misinterpret episodes of sleep paralysis as reemerging fragments of dissociated ("repressed") memories of CSA. To investigate this issue, we administered a sleep paralysis questionnaire to people reporting either repressed (n = 18), recovered (n = 14), or continuous (n = 36) memories of CSA, or to a control group reporting no history of CSA (n = 16). The prevalence of sleep paralysis was: repressed memory group (44%), recovered memory group (43%), continuous memory group (47%), and control group (13%). Among the six individuals in the recovered memory group who had experienced sleep paralysis, one interpreted it as related to sexual abuse (i.e., a rate of 17%). All other participants who had reported sleep paralysis embraced other interpretations (e.g., saw a ghost). Dissociation and depressive symptoms were more common among those who had experienced sleep paralysis than among those who denied having experienced it.

  15. Global action plan for childhood diarrhoea: Developing research priorities Report from a Workshop of the Programme for Global Paediatric Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvin Zipursky

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood diarrhoea remains a major public health problem responsible for the deaths of approximately 800 000 children annually, worldwide. The present study was undertaken to further define research priorities for the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea in low and middle income countries. We used the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI process for defining research priorities. This provided a transparent, systematic method of obtaining the opinions of experts regarding research priorities in childhood diarrhoea. The present report describes the deliberations of a workshop that reviewed these research priorities by stakeholders including colleagues from: government agencies, academic institutions, major funding agencies and non–governmental organizations.

  16. Childhood Movement Skills: Predictors of Physical Activity in Anglo American and Mexican American Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Sallis, James F.; Broyles, Sheila L.; Zive, Michelle M.; Nader, Philip R.; Berry, Charles C.; Brennan, Jesse J.

    2002-01-01

    Assessed the relationship between young children's movement skills and their physical activity in early adolescence. Balance, agility, eye-hand coordination, and skinfold thickness were measured in young Mexican and Anglo American. Habitual physical activity was assessed when they were 12 years old. Ethnic differences in movement skills were not…

  17. Innovative Developmental Physical Activities for Early Childhood and Special Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsallo, Michael

    1980-01-01

    The document provides information on physical activities for handicapped and young nonhandicapped children. Activities are explained to include individual, small group, and large group experiences. Entries for five activities provide information on equipment needed; areas of concern (motor, perceptual motor, or physical skills); procedures; rules;…

  18. The impact of self-reported childhood trauma on emotion regulation in borderline personality disorder and major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Fernando, Silvia; Beblo, Thomas; Schlosser, Nicole; Terfehr, Kirsten; Otte, Christian; Löwe, Bernd; Wolf, Oliver Tobias; Spitzer, Carsten; Driessen, Martin; Wingenfeld, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Early life stress is said to play a critical role in the development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), but the underlying mediating factors remain uncertain. This study aimed to investigate self-reported childhood trauma, emotion regulation difficulties, and their associations in a sample of BPD (n = 49) and MDD (n = 48) patients and healthy control participants (n = 63). Multiple regressions were used to evaluate the impact of the quality and severity of self-reported childhood trauma on self-reported emotion regulation. The results supported an association between self-reported maltreatment experiences, especially emotional abuse and neglect, and emotion regulation difficulties. Additional analyses showed that emotion regulation difficulties influence the association between self-reported emotional abuse and acute symptomatology in the BPD subgroup. Emotion regulation difficulties may be 1 pathway through which early life stress, particularly emotional abuse, increases the risk for developing BPD symptomatology.

  19. Effect of Population Socioeconomic and Health System Factors on Medical Care of Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplin, Deirdre A; Smith, Ken R; Ness, Kirsten K; Hanson, Heidi A; Smith, Stephanie M; Nathan, Paul C; Hudson, Melissa M; Leisenring, Wendy M; Robison, Leslie L; Oeffinger, Kevin C

    2017-03-01

    To determine the independent contribution of population socioeconomic and health system factors on childhood cancer survivors' medical care and screening. 7899 childhood cancer survivors in the United States and Canada enrolled in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Population-level factors were derived from U.S. Area Health Resource File or 201 Canadian Census. Health service utilization and individual-level factors were self-reported. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate the effect of population factors on medical care (any care vs. no care; risk-based care vs. general care) and indicated echocardiogram or mammogram, adjusting for individual sociodemographic and health status. After adjusting for individual factors, population factors had a nominal impact on childhood cancer survivors' medical care and screening. Higher population median income was associated with risk-based survivor-focused care versus general care (odds ratio [OR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.09) among all participants, but not among U.S. residents only (OR 1.03, 95% CI, 0.99-1.07). For U.S. residents, the number of CCSS centers within the geographic area was associated with greater odds of receiving risk-based survivor-focused medical care (OR 1.12, 95% CI, 1.04-1.20). Areas with higher median income had higher rates of echocardiogram screening among survivors at risk of cardiomyopathy (for every $10,000 increase in median income, there is a 12% increase in odds of echocardiogram screening; 95% CI 1.05-1.20). A positive relationship was identified between greater number of physicians and surgeons in the county of residence and recommended echocardiogram (for every additional 1000 physicians and surgeons: OR 1.12, 95% CI, 1.01-1.23). We found no association between population-level factors and mammography screening. Population socioeconomic disparities moderately affect childhood cancer survivors' risk-based medical care and screening after accounting

  20. Childhood sexual abuse and its association with adult physical and mental health: results from a national cohort of young Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Jan; Lee, Adeline; Taft, Angela; Mazza, Danielle; Loxton, Deborah

    2015-07-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) occurs across the world, with a prevalence of 20% internationally. Our aim was to investigate the associations between CSA, CSA plus adult violence experiences, and selected self-reported physical and mental health in a community sample of women. Data from 7,700 women aged 28-33 years from the 1973-1978 cohort who completed Survey 4 of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) were analyzed. Questions about prior abuse experience such as child sexual abuse, IPV, adult physical and sexual assaults, andphysical and mental health. Women who experienced CSA were 1.4 times more likely to experience bodily pain (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.37, confidence interval [CI] = [1.19, 1.58]), 1.3 times more likely to have poorer general health (AOR = 1.33, CI = [1.15, 1.54]), and 1.4 times more likely to be depressed in the past 3 years (AOR = 1.44, CI = [1.22, 1.71]) compared with those without abuse.. Women who experienced both CSA and adult violence were 2.4 to 3.1 times more likely to experience poor general (AOR = 2.35, CI = [1.76, 3.14]) and mental health (AOR = 2.69, CI = [1.98, 3.64]), and suffer from depression (AOR = 2.84, CI = [2.13, 3.78]) and anxiety (AOR = 3.10, CI = [2.12, 4.53]) compared with women with no abuse. This study demonstrates the importance of CSA in pain and poorer long-term mental and physical health.. It emphasizes how prior CSA may amplify pain and poorer long-term mental and physical health among women who are again exposed to violence in adulthood.

  1. Heritability and Genetic Relationship of Adult Self-Reported Stuttering, Cluttering and Childhood Speech-Language Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagnani, Corrado; Fibiger, Steen; Skytthe, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Genetic influence and mutual genetic relationship for adult self-reported childhood speech-language disorders, stuttering, and cluttering were studied. Using nationwide questionnaire answers from 34,944 adult Danish twins, a multivariate biometric analysis based on the liability-threshold model...... for monozygotic compared to dizygotic pairs, suggesting genetic influence. Multivariate biometric analyses showed that additive genetic and unique environmental factors best explained the observed concordance patterns. Heritability estimates for males/females were 0.71/0.87 for childhood speech-language disorders......, 0.78/0.80 for stuttering, and 0.53/0.65 for cluttering. For each trait, the same genes were suggested to affect liability in males and females. Furthermore, high genetic correlations between the traits were obtained; the estimates for childhood speech-language disorders and stuttering were 0...

  2. Brief report: Physical health of adolescent perpetrators of sibling aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Van Gundy, Karen; Sharp, Erin Hiley; Rebellon, Cesar

    2015-12-01

    We describe adolescents' perpetration of sibling aggression and its link to physical health two years later. In-school surveys at Time 1 (N = 331) and Time 2 (two-years later, N = 283) were administered to adolescents (at Time 1, Mage = 15.71 years, SD = .63; 52% female) living in the United States querying about perpetration of aggression toward a sibling closest in age and perceived physical health. The majority of adolescents perpetrated aggression towards their sibling (74%). Adolescents who were part of brother-brother pairs reported the most aggression. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that perpetrating sibling aggression more often at Time 1 was predictive of lower physical health at Time 2 controlling for Time 1 physical health and demographic characteristics. Perpetration of aggression toward a sibling is common and has negative health consequences in late adolescence suggesting this issue should be targeted to improve adolescents' sibling dynamics and physical health.

  3. Physics Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, A.B. (ed.)

    1985-01-01

    The research activities of the Division are centered primarily in three areas: experimental nuclear physics, experimental atomic physics, and theoretical nuclear and atomic physics. The largest of these efforts, experimental nuclear physics, is dominated by the heavy ion research program. A major responsibility under this program is the operation of the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility as a national user facility. During the period of this report, the facility has begun routine operation for the experimental program. The experimental atomic physics program has two components: the accelerator-based studies of basic collisional phenomena and the studies in support of the controlled fusion program. Also associated with the fusion-related studies are a plasma diagnostics program and the operation of an atomic physics data center. The theoretical physics program, both nuclear and atomic, is covered. This program has benefited this year from the success of the VAX-AP computer system and from the increase in manpower provided by the ORNL/University of Tennessee Distinguished Scientist Program. Smaller programs in applications and high-energy physics are summarized. During the period of this report, we continued to explore possible future extensions of the Holifield Facility. We retain a strong interest in a relativistic heavy-ion collider in the 10 x 10 GeV/nuclear energy range. The ideas for such a facility, described in last year's report, have been modified to utilize the HHIRF 25 MV tandem accelerator as the first stage. Finally, the report concludes with some general information on publications, Division activities, and personnel changes.

  4. Nuclear Physics Division Institute of Experimental Physics Warsaw University annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osuch, S. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    In the presented Annual Report the activities of the Nuclear Physics Division of the Institute of Experimental Physics of the Warsaw University in 1994 are described. The report consist of three sections: (i) Reaction Mechanism and Nuclear Structure (12 articles); (ii) Experimental Methods and Instrumentation (2 articles); (iii) Other Research (1 article). Additionally the list of seminars held at the NPD, personnel list and list of published papers is also given. In the first, leading article of the report written by head of NPD prof. Ch. Droste the general description of the Department activity is presented.

  5. Revitalizing Physics Departments: The Spin-UP Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehn, J. G.; Czujko, R.; Hilborn, R.

    2007-12-01

    The American Institute of Physics (AIP) has carefully measured education trends in the physics and related sciences community for nearly five decades. During the 1990s, the community realized that the number of undergraduate physics majors was declining significantly. A number of efforts were launched in the physics community intending to reverse that decline and the number of bachelor's degrees has been rebounding for the last 7 years. The National Task Force on Undergraduate Physics (NTFUP) was one such effort that identified thriving physics departments and analyzed strategies shared among those departments. In 2003 NTFUP issued a report entitled: Strategic Programs for Innovations in Undergraduate Physics, referred to as Spin-UP. A subsequent study of physics programs in two-year colleges, Spin-UP TYC, produced many similar findings published in 2005. Lessons learned as stated in the Spin-UP reports and several conferences will be reviewed. Some lessons learned include: A thriving department demonstrated (1) a widespread attitude among the faculty that the department has the primary responsibility for maintaining or improving the undergraduate program; (2) a challenging, but supportive and encouraging undergraduate program that includes a well-developed curriculum, advising and mentoring, an undergraduate research participation program, and many opportunities for informal student-faculty interactions, enhanced by a strong sense of community among the students and faculty; (3) strong and sustained leadership within the department and a clear sense of the mission of its undergraduate program; and (4) a strong disposition toward continuous evaluation of and experimentation with the undergraduate program. In short, thriving departments paid attention to undergraduates and made majors feel like members of their physics department and members of a physics community.

  6. Physics Division progress report, January 1, 1984-September 30, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, W.E. (comp.)

    1987-10-01

    This report provides brief accounts of significant progress in development activities and research results achieved by Physics Division personnel during the period January 1, 1984, through September 31, 1986. These efforts are representative of the three main areas of experimental research and development in which the Physics Division serves Los Alamos National Laboratory's and the Nation's needs in defense and basic sciences: (1) defense physics, including the development of diagnostic methods for weapons tests, weapon-related high-energy-density physics, and programs supporting the Strategic Defense Initiative; (2) laser physics and applications, especially to high-density plasmas; and (3) fundamental research in nuclear and particle physics, condensed-matter physics, and biophysics. Throughout the report, emphasis is placed on the design, construction, and application of a variety of advanced, often unique, instruments and instrument systems that maintain the Division's position at the leading edge of research and development in the specific fields germane to its mission. A sampling of experimental systems of particular interest would include the relativistic electron-beam accelerator and its applications to high-energy-density plasmas; pulsed-power facilities; directed energy weapon devices such as free-electron lasers and neutral-particle-beam accelerators; high-intensity ultraviolet and x-ray beam lines at the National Synchrotron Light Source (at Brookhaven National Laboratory); the Aurora KrF ultraviolet laser system for projected use as an inertial fusion driver; antiproton physics facility at CERN; and several beam developments at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility for studying nuclear, condensed-matter, and biological physics, highlighted by progress in establishing the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center.

  7. Matched trauma: The role of parents' and children's shared history of childhood domestic violence exposure in parents' report of children's trauma-related symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohodes, Emily; Hagan, Melissa; Narayan, Angela; Lieberman, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Parents' childhood experiences of trauma may influence their reports of their children's behavior, and this may be particularly true when children are also traumatized. The present study proposed and tested a matched trauma hypothesis, positing that compared to parents without a childhood history of witnessing domestic violence (DV), parents with a childhood history of witnessing DV may report their children's trauma-related symptomatology differently following children's exposure to DV. Of 137 included parents (M age = 32 years; 93% mothers), 81 reported witnessing childhood DV (matched group), whereas 56 reported no childhood DV exposure (nonmatched comparison group). All parents reported on their 3- to 6-year-old children's dissociation and posttraumatic stress symptoms following children's DV exposure. An analysis of covariance controlling for parental life stress, dissociation symptoms, and other childhood traumatic events revealed that parents who witnessed childhood DV reported significantly fewer child dissociation symptoms than comparison parents. No difference was found for parents' reports of children's posttraumatic stress symptoms. Exploratory analyses on a subsample of children with teacher reports of child dissociation symptoms (n = 75) revealed that the strength of the association between parent and teacher reports of dissociation symptoms was moderated by matched versus nonmatched group membership. Findings suggest the importance of considering a parent's history of trauma when using parents as informants for children's trauma symptoms.

  8. Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Defined as the scientific study of matter and energy, physics explains how all matter behaves. Separated into modern and classical physics, the study attracts both experimental and theoretical physicists. From the discovery of the process of nuclear fission to an explanation of the nature of light, from the theory of special relativity to advancements made in particle physics, this volume profiles 10 pioneers who overcame tremendous odds to make significant breakthroughs in this heavily studied branch of science. Each chapter contains relevant information on the scientist''s childhood, research, discoveries, and lasting contributions to the field and concludes with a chronology and a list of print and Internet references specific to that individual.

  9. The intensity of physical activity influences bone mineral accrual in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Malene Søborg; Mølgaard, Christian; Husby, Steffen;

    2013-01-01

    between the categories of physical activity and bone traits. Results Of 800 invited children, 742 (93%) accepted to participate. Of these, 682/742 (92%) participated at follow up. Complete datasets were obtained in 602/742 (81%) children. Mean (range) of age was 11.5 years (9.7-13.9). PA at different......Background Studies indicate genetic and lifestyle factors can contribute to optimal bone development. In particular, the intensity level of physical activity may have an impact on bone health. This study aims to assess the relationship between physical activity at different intensities and Bone....... Physical activity (PA) was recorded by accelerometers (ActiGraph, model GT3X). Percentages of different PA intensity levels were calculated and log odds of two intensity levels of activity relative to the third level were calculated. Multilevel regression analyses were used to assess the relationship...

  10. Physical activity, exercise and sport practice to fight against youth and childhood obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red Española de Investigación En Ejercicio Físico y Salud, Exernet; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Benito, Pedro J; Casajús, José A; Ara, Ignacio; Aznar, Susana; Castillo, Manuel J; Dorado, Cecilia; González-Agüero, Alejandro; González-Gallego, Javier; González-Gross, Marcela; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Gutiérrez, Ángel; Gusi, Narcis; Jiménez-Pavón, David; Lucía, Alejandro; Márquez, Sara; Moreno, Luis; Ortega, Francisco B; De Paz, José Antonio; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Serrano, José Antonio; Tur, Josep A; Valtueña, Jara

    2016-12-07

    The aim of this document (written by professionals in physical activity and health EXERNET - Red Española de Investigación en Ejercicio Físico y Salud-) is to propose a list of recommendations about the practice of the physical and sport activity that in an individual, familiar and institutional level, help to prevent and manage the obesity in childs and teenagers.

  11. Neuropsychology reports for childhood brain tumor survivors: implementation of recommendations at home and school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Lorraine L T; Wakefield, Claire E; Ellis, Sarah J; Mandalis, Anna; Frow, Eleanor; Cohn, Richard J

    2014-06-01

    As pediatric brain tumor survivors may experience cognitive decline post-treatment, a neuropsychology assessment is often conducted. The assessment evaluates the child's cognitive functioning and highlights potential challenges. Whilst neuropsychology reports provide recommendations for the home and school, how this translates in practice is under researched. This study explored parent and teacher understanding of neuropsychology reports, implementation rates for recommendations and their perceived effectiveness. Barriers to implementation were also investigated. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 parents and 8 teachers of childhood brain tumor survivors from 15 Australian families who had received a neuropsychology report within 2 years of the interview. Twenty-four neuropsychology reports encompassing 131 recommendations were reviewed. The qualitative methodological framework of Miles and Huberman [Miles M, Huberman A. Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. London: Sage; 1994] was used to analyze interview transcripts with QSR NVivo 9.0. The majority of parents and teachers had a sound understanding of the report. Implementation of recommendations at home and school was 47% and 41%, respectively. Recommendations that did not require extra effort and organization appeared more likely to be implemented, however, those perceived to be more effective or helpful did not necessarily have higher implementation rates. Key reported barriers to implementation barrier were patient reluctance, and a lack of parents' willingness to adopt the recommendation. Patient understanding and willingness play a significant role in the implementation of neuropsychology recommendations. Collaboration and clear communication between the patient, teacher, parent, and neuropsychologist is vital for effective management. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Peripheral SLC6A4 DNA methylation is associated with in vivo measures of human brain serotonin synthesis and childhood physical aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongsha Wang

    Full Text Available The main challenge in addressing the role of DNA methylation in human behaviour is the fact that the brain is inaccessible to epigenetic analysis in living humans. Using positron emission tomography (PET measures of brain serotonin (5-HT synthesis, we found in a longitudinal sample that adult males with high childhood-limited aggression (C-LHPA had lower in vivo 5-HT synthesis in the orbitofrontal cortex (OBFC. Here we hypothesized that 5-HT alterations associated with childhood aggression were linked to differential DNA methylation of critical genes in the 5-HT pathway and these changes were also detectable in peripheral white blood cells. Using pyrosequencing, we determined the state of DNA methylation of SLC6A4 promoter in T cells and monocytes isolated from blood of cohort members (N = 25 who underwent a PET scan, and we examined whether methylation status in the blood is associated with in vivo brain 5-HT synthesis. Higher levels of methylation were observed in both T cells and monocytes at specific CpG sites in the C-LHPA group. DNA methylation of SLC6A4 in monocytes appears to be associated more reliably with group membership than T cells. In both cell types the methylation state of these CpGs was associated with lower in vivo measures of brain 5-HT synthesis in the left and right lateral OBFC (N = 20 where lower 5-HT synthesis in C-LHPA group was observed. Furthermore, in vitro methylation of the SLC6A4 promoter in a luciferase reporter construct suppresses its transcriptional activity supporting a functional role of DNA methylation in SLC6A4 promoter regulation. These findings indicate that state of SLC6A4 promoter methylation is altered in peripheral white blood cells of individuals with physical aggression during childhood. This supports the relevance of peripheral DNA methylation for brain function and suggests that peripheral SLC6A4 DNA methylation could be a marker of central 5-HT function.

  13. New Physics at the LHC: A Les Houches Report. Physics at Tev Colliders 2007 - New Physics Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooijmans, Gustaaf H.; /Columbia U.; Delgado, A.; /Notre Dame U.; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; /Fermilab; Grojean, C.; /CERN /Saclay, SPhT; Narain, Meenakshi; /Brown U.; Alwall, Johan; /SLAC; Azuelos, Georges; /Montreal U. /TRIUMF; Black, K.; /Harvard U.; Boos, E.; /SINP, Moscow; Bose, Tulika; /Brown U.; Bunichev, V.; /SINP, Moscow; Chivukula, R.S.; /Michigan State U.; Contino, R.; /CERN; Djouadi, A.; /Louis Pasteur U., Strasbourg I /Orsay, LAL; Dudko, Lev V.; /Durham U.; Ferland, J.; /Montreal U.; Gershtein, Yuri S.; /Florida State U.; Gigg, M.; /Durham U.; Gonzalez de la Hoz, S.; /Valencia U., IFIC; Herquet, M.; /Louvain U.; Hirn, J.; /Yale U. /Brown U. /Boston U. /Annecy, LAPTH /INFN, Turin /Valencia U., IFIC /Yale U. /Arizona U. /Louis Pasteur U., Strasbourg I /Orsay, LAL /KEK, Tsukuba /Moscow State U. /Lisbon, LIFEP /CERN /Durham U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Sao Paulo, IFT /Fermilab /Zurich, ETH /Boston U. /DESY /CERN /Saclay, SPhT /Durham U. /Cambridge U. /Michigan State U. /Louis Pasteur U., Strasbourg I /Orsay, LAL /Annecy, LAPTH /Fermilab /CERN /Arizona U. /Northwestern U. /Argonne /Kyoto U. /Valencia U., IFIC /UC, Berkeley /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-12-05

    We present a collection of signatures for physics beyond the standard model that need to be explored at the LHC. The signatures are organized according to the experimental objects that appear in the final state, and in particular the number of high p{sub T} leptons. Our report, which includes brief experimental and theoretical reviews as well as original results, summarizes the activities of the 'New Physics' working group for the 'Physics at TeV Colliders' workshop (Les Houches, France, 11-29 June, 2007).

  14. Physics Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, A.B. (ed.)

    1989-03-01

    This report covers the research and development activities of the Physics Division for the 1988 fiscal year, beginning October 1, 1987, and ending September 30, 1988. The activities of this Division are concentrated in the areas of experimental nuclear physics, experimental atomic physics, and theoretical nuclear and atomic physics. Operation of the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility as a national user facility continues to represent the single largest activity within the Division. This year saw the completion of the acceleration tube upgrade of the 25-MV tandem electrostatic accelerator and the achievement of record terminal potentials, operation for an experiment with 25 million volts on terminal, and successful tests with beam at 25.5 MV. The experimental nuclear physics program continues to be dominated by research utilizing heavy ions. These activities, while continuing to center largely on the Holifield Facility, have seen significant growth in the use of facilities that provide intermediate energies and especially ultrarelativistic beams. The UNISOR program, since its inception, has been intimately associated with the Division and, most particularly, with the Holifield Facility. In addition to the Holifield Facility, the Division operates two smaller facilities, the EN Tandem and the ECR Ion Source Facility, as ''User Resources.'' The efforts in theoretical physics, covering both nuclear and atomic physics, are presented. In addition to research with multicharged heavy ions from the ECR source, the effort on atomic physics in support of the controlled fusion program includes a plasma diagnostics development program. The concentration of this program on optical and laser technology is marked by the change in designation to the Laser and Electro-Optics Lab. A small, continuing effort in elementary particle physics, carried out in collaboration with the University of Tennessee, is reported.

  15. Brief Report: Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Likely Manifestation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Savita; Subodh, B. N.; Parakh, Preeti; Lahariya, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder is a rare disorder, characterized by regression of acquired skills after a period of normal development. The case of childhood disintegrative disorder presented here was found to have vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia on extensive evaluation to find a probable cause for regression. This case…

  16. Brief Report: Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Likely Manifestation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Savita; Subodh, B. N.; Parakh, Preeti; Lahariya, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder is a rare disorder, characterized by regression of acquired skills after a period of normal development. The case of childhood disintegrative disorder presented here was found to have vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia on extensive evaluation to find a probable cause for regression. This case…

  17. Lifestyle and metabolic syndrome in adult survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Webb A; Li, Chenghong; Nottage, Kerri A; Mulrooney, Daniel A; Armstrong, Gregory T; Lanctot, Jennifer Q; Chemaitilly, Wassim; Laver, Joseph H; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M; Ness, Kirsten K

    2014-09-01

    Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), which may be reduced with lifestyle modifications. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize lifestyle habits and associations with MetSyn among CCS. CCS who were ≥ 10 years from diagnosis, aged > 18 years, and participating in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study completed medical and laboratory tests and a food frequency questionnaire. The Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel criteria were used to classify participants with MetSyn. Anthropometric, food frequency questionnaire, and self-reported physical activity data were used to characterize lifestyle habits according to World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) recommendations. Those who met ≥ 4 of 7 recommendations were classified as having followed guidelines. Sex-stratified log-binomial regression models were used to evaluate associations between dietary/lifestyle habits and MetSyn, adjusted for age, age at cancer diagnosis, receipt of cranial radiotherapy, education, and household income. Among 1598 CCS (49.2% of whom were male, with a median age of 32.7 years [range, 18.9 years-60.0 years]), 31.8% met criteria for MetSyn and 27.0% followed WCRF/AICR guidelines. Females who did not follow WCRF/AICR guidelines were 2.4 times (95% confidence interval, 1.7-3.3) and males were 2.2 times (95% confidence interval, 1.6-3.0) more likely to have MetSyn than those who followed WCRF/AICR guidelines. Adherence to a heart-healthy lifestyle is associated with a lower risk of MetSyn among CCS. There is a need to determine whether lifestyle interventions prevent or remediate MetSyn in CCS. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  18. The intensity of physical activity influences bone mineral accrual in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Malene Søborg; Mølgaard, Christian; Husby, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies indicate genetic and lifestyle factors can contribute to optimal bone development. In particular, the intensity level of physical activity may have an impact on bone health. This study aims to assess the relationship between physical activity at different intensities and Bone....... Physical activity (PA) was recorded by accelerometers (ActiGraph, model GT3X). Percentages of different PA intensity levels were calculated and log odds of two intensity levels of activity relative to the third level were calculated. Multilevel regression analyses were used to assess the relationship...... intensity levels was for boys and girls respectively, sedentary 62% and 64%, low 29% for both genders and moderate to high 9% and 7% of the total time. Mean (range) BMC, BMD, and BA was 1179 g (563–2326), 0.84 g/cm2 (0.64-1.15) and 1393 cm2 (851–2164), respectively. Valid accelerometer data were obtained...

  19. Reporting Physical Activity: Perceptions and Practices of Australian Media Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ben J; Bonfiglioli, Catriona M F

    2015-08-01

    Advocacy informed by scientific evidence is necessary to influence policy and planning to address physical inactivity. The mass media is a key arena for this advocacy. This study investigated the perceptions and practices of news media professionals reporting physical activity and sedentariness to inform strategic communication about these issues. We interviewed media professionals working for major television, radio, newspaper and online news outlets in Australia. The interviews explored understandings of physical activity and sedentariness, attributions of causality, assignment of responsibility, and factors affecting news reporting on these topics. Data were thematically analyzed using NVivo. Physical inactivity was recognized as pervasive and important, but tended to be seen as mundane and not newsworthy. Sedentariness was regarded as more novel than physical activity, and more likely to require organizational and environment action. Respondents identified that presenting these issues in visual and engaging ways was an ongoing challenge. Physical activity researchers and advocates need to take account of prevailing news values and media practices to improve engagement with the news media. These include understanding the importance of novelty, narratives, imagery, and practical messages, and how to use these to build support for environmental and policy action.

  20. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 10% of children are obese. Twin and adoption studies demonstrate a large genetic component to obesity, especially in adults. However, the increasing prevalence of obesity over the last 20 years can only be explained by environmental factors. In most obese individuals, no measurable differences in metabolism can be detected. Few children engage in regular physical activity. Obese children and adults uniformly underreport the amount of food they eat. Obesity is particularly related to increased consumption of high-fat foods. BMI is a quick and easy way to screen for childhood obesity. Treating childhood obesity relies on positive family support and lifestyle changes involving the whole family. Food preferences are influenced early by parental eating habits, and when developed in childhood, they tend to remain fairly constant into adulthood. Children learn to be active or inactive from their parents. In addition, physical activity (or more commonly, physical inactivity) habits that are established in childhood tend to persist into adulthood. Weight loss is usually followed by changes in appetite and metabolism, predisposing individuals to regain their weight. However, when the right family dynamics exist--a motivated child with supportive parents--long-term success is possible.

  1. Effect of Parental Migration Background on Childhood Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Besharat Pour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Poor nutrition, lack of physical activity, and obesity in children have important public health implications but, to date, their effects have not been studied in the growing population of children in Sweden with immigrant parents. Methods. We estimated the association between parental migration background and nutrition, physical activity, and weight in 8-year-old children born in Stockholm between 1994 and 1996 of immigrants and Swedish parents (n=2589. Data were collected through clinical examination and questionnaires filled out by parents. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. Results. Children of immigrants complied more closely with Nordic Nutrition Recommendations compared with those of Swedes (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.11–1.64. They had higher intake of dietary fibre, vitamins C, B6, and E, folic acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6 reflecting higher consumption of foods of plant origin, but lower intake of vitamins A and D, calcium, and iron reflecting lower consumption of dairy products. Children of immigrants had higher intake of sucrose reflecting higher consumption of sugar and sweets. Furthermore, these children had a higher risk of having low physical activity (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.06–1.62 and being overweight (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.06–1.65 compared with children of Swedish parents. The odds of having low physical activity and being overweight were even higher in children whose parents were both immigrants. A low level of parental education was associated with increased risk of low physical activity regardless of immigration background. Conclusions. Culturally appropriate tools to capture the diverse range of ethnic foods and other lifestyle habits are needed. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the low levels of physical activity, increased weight, and lack of consumption of some important vitamins among children of

  2. Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, R.D.; Ramond, P.M.; Sikivie, P. [and others

    1995-12-01

    This is the annual progress report of the University of Florida`s elementary particle physics group. The theoretical high energy physics group`s research covers a broad range of topics, including both theory and phenomenology. Present work of the experimental high energy physics group is directed toward the CLEO detector, with some effort going to B physics at Fermilab. The Axion Search project is participating in the operation of a large-scale axion detector at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with the University of Florida taking responsibility for this experiment`s high-resolution spectrometer`s assembly, programming, and installation, and planning to take shifts during operation of the detector in FY96. The report also includes a continuation of the University`s three-year proposal to the United States Department of Energy to upgrade the University`s high-energy physics computing equipment and to continue student support, system manager/programmer support, and maintenance. Report includes lists of presentations and publications by members of the group.

  3. CLIC CDR - physics and detectors: CLIC conceptual design report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, E.; Demarteau, M.; Repond, J.; Xia, L.; Weerts, H. (High Energy Physics); (Many)

    2012-02-10

    This report forms part of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) of the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC). The CLIC accelerator complex is described in a separate CDR volume. A third document, to appear later, will assess strategic scenarios for building and operating CLIC in successive center-of-mass energy stages. It is anticipated that CLIC will commence with operation at a few hundred GeV, giving access to precision standard-model physics like Higgs and top-quark physics. Then, depending on the physics landscape, CLIC operation would be staged in a few steps ultimately reaching the maximum 3 TeV center-of-mass energy. Such a scenario would maximize the physics potential of CLIC providing new physics discovery potential over a wide range of energies and the ability to make precision measurements of possible new states previously discovered at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The main purpose of this document is to address the physics potential of a future multi-TeV e{sup +}e{sup -} collider based on CLIC technology and to describe the essential features of a detector that are required to deliver the full physics potential of this machine. The experimental conditions at CLIC are significantly more challenging than those at previous electron-positron colliders due to the much higher levels of beam-induced backgrounds and the 0.5 ns bunch-spacing. Consequently, a large part of this report is devoted to understanding the impact of the machine environment on the detector with the aim of demonstrating, with the example of realistic detector concepts, that high precision physics measurements can be made at CLIC. Since the impact of background increases with energy, this document concentrates on the detector requirements and physics measurements at the highest CLIC center-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. One essential output of this report is the clear demonstration that a wide range of high precision physics measurements can be made at CLIC with detectors which are challenging, but

  4. The Interplay of Externalizing Problems and Physical and Inductive Discipline during Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Olson, Sheryl L.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2013-01-01

    Children who are physically disciplined are at elevated risk for externalizing problems. Conversely, maternal reasoning and reminding of rules, or inductive discipline, is associated with fewer child externalizing problems. Few studies have simultaneously examined bidirectional associations between these forms of discipline and child adjustment…

  5. Chronic Diseases, Exercise, and Physical Activity in Childhood : 2016 in Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, Tim

    2017-01-01

    In this year's review I want to make a case for exercise and physical activity in children with chronic disease or disability. Using two 2016 papers I will illustrate the infancy of the field, especially children who are wheelchair using. More efforts are needed to develop better methods to measure

  6. Practical Ways Psychotherapy Can Support Physical Healthcare Experiences for Male Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, Angela; Stalker, Carol A.; Schachter, Candice L.; Teram, Eli; Lasiuk, Gerri

    2011-01-01

    Many survivors of child sexual abuse who engage in psychotherapy also experience physical health problems. This article summarizes the findings of a multiphased qualitative study about survivors' experiences in healthcare settings. The study informed the development of the "Handbook on Sensitive Practice for Health Care Practitioners: Lessons…

  7. Physical Activity Promotes Academic Achievement and a Healthy Lifestyle when Incorporated into Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadie, Ben R.; Brown, Stanley P.

    2010-01-01

    The detrimental effects of physical inactivity within children have enormous personal health consequences. These health conditions have the potential to impact the economic vitality of society as a whole. Studies have indicated that inactive children are far more likely to suffer from obesity, type II diabetes, and hypertension than their…

  8. Does Writing about Past Childhood Abuse Reduce Psychological and Physical Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, Holly M.; Range, Lillian M.

    2009-01-01

    To see if writing about former abuse reduced depression, somatic, and sleep complaints, 664 undergraduates were screened for past physical or sexual abuse. Of those abused, 88 consenting students were randomly assigned to no-writing control or writing (20 minutes on 4 different days) about abuse or trivial topics. All completed pre-, post-, and…

  9. Exposure to childhood neglect and physical abuse and developmental trajectories of heavy episodic drinking from early adolescence into young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunny H; Miller, Daniel P; Teicher, Martin H

    2013-01-01

    Although the literature suggests that childhood maltreatment (CM) relates to adolescent heavy episodic drinking (HED), few studies have examined the long-term effects of CM on adolescent HED. This study is the first to examine associations between exposure to CM and trajectories of HED from adolescence to young adulthood for the US population. Four waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used. A total of 8503 adolescents followed from adolescence (7th-12th grades) into young adulthood (ages 24-32) were assessed on CM and past-year HED frequency. Using growth curve modeling, trajectories of adolescent HED were examined, with subtype, frequency, and severity of CM as the primary independent variables. All of our analyses controlled for common risk factors for adolescent HED, including demographics, parental and peer alcohol use, parental education and employment, family income, parent-child relationship, and adolescent depression. After controlling for potential risk factors, neglect and physical abuse, both individually and in conjunction, were associated with faster increases in HED during adolescence and persistently elevated HED over much of adolescence and young adulthood. The frequency of neglect and physical abuse, individually and in conjunction, was also associated with the trajectory of HED, such that additional instances of these types of maltreatment were associated with faster increases in HED during adolescence and higher rates of peak use during young adulthood. Child neglect and physical abuse appear to have long-lasting adverse effects on HED beyond adolescence and throughout much of young adulthood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Design of the health examination survey on early childhood physical growth in the Great East Japan Earthquake affected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Hiroko; Ishikuro, Mami; Kikuya, Masahiro; Chida, Shoichi; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Ono, Atsushi; Kato, Noriko; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Yamagata, Zentaro; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Kure, Shigeo

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on preschool children's physical growth in the disaster-affected areas, the three medical universities in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures conducted a health examination survey on early childhood physical growth. The survey was conducted over a 3-year period to acquire data on children who were born in different years. Our targets were as follows: 1) children who were born between March 1, 2007 and August 31, 2007 and experienced the disaster at 43-48 months of age, 2) children who were born between March 1, 2009 and August 31, 2009 and experienced the disaster at 19-24 months of age, and 3) children who were born between June 1, 2010 and April 30, 2011 and were under 10 months of age or not born yet when the disaster occurred. We collected their health examination data from local governments in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures. We also collected data from Aomori, Akita, and Yamagata Prefectures to use as a control group. The survey items included birth information, anthropometric measurements, and methods of nutrition during infancy. Eighty municipalities from Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima Prefectures and 21 from the control prefectures participated in the survey. As a result, we established three retrospective cohorts consisting of 13,886, 15,474, and 32,202 preschool children. The large datasets acquired for the present survey will provide valuable epidemiological evidence that should shed light on preschool children's physical growth in relation to the disaster. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Physical modelling in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering – 2: Session Report

    OpenAIRE

    Madabhushi, Gopal

    2015-01-01

    This is the accepted manuscript. The final version is available at http://www.icevirtuallibrary.com/content/article/10.1680/ijpmg.14.00033. Geotechncial earthquake engineering continues to be an important area of research for physical modellers. There were 13 papers presented in this session. These papers and the direction of future research in this area are discussed in this session report.

  12. Nuclear Physics Laboratory annual report, University of Washington April 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, John G.; Ramirez, Maria G.

    1992-01-01

    This report contains short discusses on topics in the following areas: astrophysics; giant resonances and photonuclear reactions; nucleus-nucleus reactions; fundamental symmetries; accelerator mass spectrometry; medium energy nuclear physics; ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions; cluster fusion; instrumentation; van de graaff accelerators and ion sources; and computer data acquisition systems. (LSP)

  13. Nuclear Physics Laboratory annual report, University of Washington April 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    This report contains short discusses on topics in the following areas: astrophysics; giant resonances and photonuclear reactions; nucleus-nucleus reactions; fundamental symmetries; accelerator mass spectrometry; medium energy nuclear physics; ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions; cluster fusion; instrumentation; van de graaff accelerators and ion sources; and computer data acquisition systems. (LSP)

  14. Brugada syndrome during physical therapy : a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frolke, J.P.M.; Bruggeman, A.W.A.; Klomp, F.P.; Smeets, J.L.R.M.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This case report describes about a young, male patient with persisting syncope during physical therapy for complex regional pain syndrome type 1 after metatarsal fractures. The patient was referred to the Emergency Department, where Brugada syndrome was diagnosed. A cardioverter defibrilla

  15. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Anju; Sharma, Rajni

    2013-04-01

    Childhood obesity is an issue of serious medical and social concern. In developing countries including India, it is a phenomenon seen in higher socioeconomic strata due to the adoption of a western lifestyle. Consumption of high calorie food, lack of physical activity and increased screen time are major risk factors for childhood obesity apart from other genetic, prenatal factors and socio-cultural practices. Obese children and adolescents are at increased risk of medical and psychological complications. Insulin resistance is commonly present especially in those with central obesity and manifests as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, polycystic ovarian syndrome and metabolic syndrome. Obese children and adolescents often present to general physicians for management. The latter play a key role in prevention and treatment of obesity as it involves lifestyle modification of the entire family. This article aims at discussing the approach to diagnosis and work-up, treatment and preventive strategies for childhood obesity from a general physician's perspective.

  16. Childhood trauma and current psychological functioning in adults with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Janice R; Goldin, Philippe R; Werner, Kelly; Heimberg, Richard G; Gross, James J

    2011-05-01

    Etiological models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggest that early childhood trauma contributes to the development of this disorder. However, surprisingly little is known about the link between different forms of childhood trauma and adult clinical symptoms in SAD. This study (1) compared levels of childhood trauma in adults with generalized SAD versus healthy controls (HCs), and (2) examined the relationship between specific types of childhood trauma and adult clinical symptoms in SAD. Participants were 102 individuals with generalized SAD and 30 HCs who completed measures of childhood trauma, social anxiety, trait anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. Compared to HCs, individuals with SAD reported greater childhood emotional abuse and emotional neglect. Within the SAD group, childhood emotional abuse and neglect, but not sexual abuse, physical abuse, or physical neglect, were associated with the severity of social anxiety, trait anxiety, depression, and self-esteem.

  17. Clinical and Pathological Features of Childhood-Onset Nemaline Myopathy: A Report of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether immunological abnormalities can be found in the specimens of four childhood-onset nemaline myopathy (NM patients without autoimmune diseases. Pathological examination revealed that nemaline rods were found in all specimens. The immunohistochemical results showed that CD4 positive cells and some other cells were gathered among the necrotic muscle fibers. We conclude that immunological abnormalities are present in the specimens of certain childhood-onset NM patients without autoimmune diseases. Further evaluation of the immunological changes is warranted in childhood-onset NM patients.

  18. Physics division. Progress report for period ending September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, S.J. [ed.

    1997-04-01

    This report covers the research and development activities of the Physics Division for the 1995 and 1996 fiscal years, beginning October 1, 1994, and ending September 30, 1996. The activities of the Division continue to be concentrated in the areas of experimental nuclear physics, experimental atomic physics, and theoretical nuclear and atomic physics. In addition, there are smaller programs in plasma diagnostics and data compilation and evaluation. During the period of this report, there has been considerable success in bringing the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) into routine operation. The budgets of the nuclear physics portion of the Division have increased each year in nearly all areas, and several new members have been added to the Division research and development staff. On August 30, 1996, the HRIBF successfully accelerated its first radioactive ion beams, {sup 69}As and {sup 70}As. Prior to this, the heart of the facility, the RIB injector system, was completed, including installation of a remote handling system for the target/ion source assembly. Target and ion source development is likely to be the technical key to success of the HRIBF. We have expanded our efforts in those development areas. Of special note is the development of highly permeable composite targets which have now been shown to allow release of difficult-to-produce radioactive ions such as {sup 17,18}F. A summary of the HRIBF work is provided in Chapter 1, along with supporting activities of the Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research.

  19. Holistic care patient with Early Childhood Caries (ECC: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Maulani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Early Childhood Caries (ECC is a specific form of severe dental caries that affects infants and young children. ECC progresses rapidly in those who are at high risk, and often goes untreated. Children experiencing caries as infants or toddlers have a much greater probability of subsequent caries in both primary and permanent dentitions. This case showed management holistic care for children with ECC.A five year old boy patient accompanied with her parents were reported to the Pedodontic Clinic Padjadjaran University Dental Hospital with a chief complaint of decayed upper anterior teeth and pain in the molar teeth. Clinical examinations found dental caries almost all teeth in the maxilla and mandible. Based on panoramic radiograph, treatments that can be done are strip crown glass ionomer restorations, pulp treatments, extractions and fixed space maintainer. Patients diagnosed with severe ECC, patient and parents described on this type of caries. During treatment the patient was given oral hygiene instruction and recommend daily use of tooth mouse. After all treatment were completed, fluoride topical, and fissure sealants, recall check up after three months was scheduled. Holistic care needed in handling children with ECC.

  20. Postelimination Status of Childhood Leprosy: Report from a Tertiary-Care Hospital in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chaitra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Leprosy, a statistically “eliminated” disease from the globe, continues to linger around in its endemic countries including India. Objective. This study describes the epidemiological and clinicopathological pattern of the disease seen in children over a period of 8 years following its elimination in India. Materials and Methods. Medical records of all leprosy cases up to 14 years of age registered between April 2005 and March 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Data were retrieved using a predesigned proforma and entered into the database system for analysis. Results. Child proportion of newly registered leprosy cases did not show a significant decline in the years following its elimination. The disease seemed to manifest frequently in older children with an insignificant gender predilection. More than half of child cases had a history of household contact. Paucibacillary leprosy dominated in them with a solitary skin lesion as the most frequent presentation. Although nerve thickening was seen in nearly half of these children, neuritis and lepra reactions were less common. Deformity at the time of diagnosis was noted in 13.89% of cases. Although smear positivity was not a common feature in children affected with leprosy, a good clinicohistopathological correlation was observed in those who underwent biopsy. Conclusion. Our study and reports from different parts of the country depict the unturned curves in the epidemiology of childhood leprosy which mirrors active transmission in the community, lacunae in diagnosis, and the need to strengthen contact screening activities in the pediatric population to sustain elimination.

  1. Gitelman syndrome manifesting in early childhood and leading to delayed puberty: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raza Farhan

    2012-10-01

    . Conclusion Diagnosis of Gitelman syndrome is usually made incidentally during adolescence or early adulthood based on clinical and biochemical findings. We report that Gitelman syndrome can present during the early childhood years. If undiagnosed and untreated, it can lead to growth retardation and delayed puberty.

  2. Women's self-esteem: a community study of women who report and do not report childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romans, S; Martin, J; Mullen, P

    1996-12-01

    The determinants of self-esteem have been little studied in non-clinic samples. It has been suggested recently that child sexual abuse (CSA) may be a major determinant of low self-esteem in adulthood. The psychosocial circumstances associated with low self-esteem in two random samples of women, one reporting CSA, the other not, were compared, with particular emphasis on characteristics of family of origin. A two-phase (postal-then-interview) random community study assessed self-esteem and related variables. Psychosocial variables predicting low self-esteem were the same in the two groups. They included being a follower or a loner, having an overcontrolling mother, being poorly qualified, giving a history of depressive disorder and displaying current psychiatric disorder. In addition, the subject's CSA status led to low self-esteem but only when it was of the most intrusive type. The CSA women had substantially lower mean total self-esteem score. However, not all aspects of self-esteem were diminished equally; 12/30 items differed between the two groups, and two of the five generated self-esteem factors, which we named Pessimism and Fatalism, which differed between the control group and the whole CSA group. There were no differences for Likeability and Determination. Predictors of low self-esteem for women include childhood temperament, a poor relationship with the mother, low qualification attainment, psychiatric morbidity, both previous and current, and, only when it is the most intrusive, CSA.

  3. International linear collider physics and detectors. 2011 status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brau, James E. [Oregon Univ., OR (United States); Fuster, Juan [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Hesla, Leah [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States). NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center; Illenseer, Monika; Warmbein, Barbara [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Royole-Degieux, Perrine [CNRS/IN2P3, Paris (France); Takahashi, Rika [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Yamada, Sakue [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Yamamoto, Hitoshi [Tohoku Gakuin Univ., Sendai (Japan); Min, Zhang (eds.) [IHEP, Beijing (China)

    2011-07-01

    The studies of physics and detectors for the International Linear Collider are an important parallel element to the effort for the ILC Technical Design Report. The studies comprise the physics opportunities, detector requirements, and detector development to achieve the challenging high performance demanded by the physics, as well as integration of detectors into the accelerator. The current phase of this effort began with a call for Letters of Intent (LOIs) in 2007 and will lead to the submission of Detailed Baseline Design (DBD) report together with the ILC Technical Design Report at the end of 2012. Here we summarise the current status of this process, review what it has accomplished and identify the work that still needs to be completed. This report, titled International Linear Collider Physics and Detectors: 2011 Status Report, does just this. This report begins with a discussion of the outstanding issues in physics that motivate the construction of the ILC. It describes the organisation of the LOI process, the validation of the LOIs by the International Detector Advisory Group, and the results of R and D carried out to support the detector designs. The details of the concept detectors have already been published in the LOIs, which were completed in 2009. This report will, in a complementary way, describe the status of the detector R and D for each individual detector component and the status of the physics simulation infrastructure that has been built for the detector design process. Much of this work is carried out in cooperation between the two detector concept groups. This report describes the five common task groups and two working groups that have organised these cooperative activities. Many members of the detector concept groups and the common task groups have contributed to this report. Many more people have carried out the actual work that is reviewed. The complete list of members of each detector concept group can be found from the author lists of

  4. Brief Report: The Sexual and Physical Abuse Histories of Offenders with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, W.; Steptoe, L.; Haut, F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Some studies have found higher rates of childhood sexual abuse in sex offenders while others have failed to find such relationships. Method: This study reviews the sexual and physical abuse histories of 156 male sex offenders with intellectual disability (ID), 126 non-sexual male offenders with ID and 27 female offenders with ID.…

  5. Nuclear Physics Division, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University annual report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osuch, S. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    In the presented Annual Report the activities of Nuclear Physics Division (NPD) of Warsaw University in 1995 are described. The report consists of three sections: (i) Reaction Mechanism and Nuclear Structure (11 articles); (ii) Instrumentation and Experimental Methods (9 articles); (iii) Other Research (1 article). Additionally the list of seminars held at the NPD, personnel list and list of published papers are also given. The first, leading article in the report written by head of NPD prof. Ch. Droste the general description of the Department activity is presented.

  6. [A case report of childhood systemic lupus erythematosus complicated with lupus cystitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Rumiko; Miyamae, Takako; Imagawa, Tomoyuki; Katakura, Shigeki; Mori, Masaaki; Aihara, Yuhkoh; Yokota, Shumpei

    2006-06-01

    The patient was a 13-year-old girl. In August 2000, she presented with a fever, together with diarrhea, vomiting, arthralgia, nasal bleeding and malaise, and was examined by another physician. Because her platelet count was low, and there were positive reactions for anti-nuclear antibodies, anti-DNA antibodies and platelet-associated IgG, idiopathic thrombopenic purpura, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was suspected. From January 2001, when she caught measles, she reported abdominal pain, and urinalysis indicated urinary protein and occult blood, and the left kidney was found hydronephrotic. At the same time left ureter stenosis and dilatation were demonstrated. Symptoms were disappeared by hydration and treatment with NSAIDs, but 2 months later fever and erythematous patches seen on both cheeks led to the proper diagnosis of SLE, and she was admitted to our hospital. Intravenous pyelography revealed hydronephrosis on left kidney, constriction and dilatation of the left ureter, and intracystic endoscopy showed erythema at the orifice of the left ureter. The pathological examination indicated the presence of vasculitis, and finally lupus cystitis was diagnosed. Intravenous cyclophosphamide (IVCY)-pulse therapy was introduced to a total of 8 times over the period of a year, and maintenance therapy with predonisolone and azathioprin was also used. After completion of the IVCY-pulse therapy, the hydronephrosis and constriction of the ureter were disappeared. No side effects of IVCY-pulses were observed, and the patient is now in remission. We reported a case of childhood SLE complicated with lupus cystitis and successfully treated by IVCY-pulse therapy and maintenance predonisolone and azathioprin.

  7. Is social desirability associated with self-reported physical activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward; DiStefano, Christine

    2005-06-01

    Physical activity has been considered to be a socially desirable behavior that might be overreported because of a social desirability bias. This study involved an examination of the possible influence of social desirability on self-report measures of physical activity. Participants were male and female college students (N = 782) who completed the Lie scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (L-scale), Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (SDS), Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ), and Stanford Usual Activity Questionnaire. Scores from the Lie scale were not significantly correlated with scores from either the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire or the Stanford Usual Activity Questionnaire. With the Social Desirability Scale, there were statistically significant, but weak correlations with scores from the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire and the Stanford Usual Activity Questionnaire. There was no influence of the Lie scale and Social Desirability Scale on the magnitude of the correlations between scores from the two measures of physical activity. This study provides minimal evidence of an influence of social desirability on scores from two self-report instruments for measuring physical activity in young adults.

  8. Physical and emotional well-being of survivors of childhood and young adult allo-SCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Josef Nathan; Gøtzsche, Frederik; Heilmann, Carsten;

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine, within a population-based study of a national cohort comprising Danish survivors of allo-SCT (n = 148), the long-term effects of allo-SCT in children and young adults. Physical and emotional well-being was assessed using the Short Form 36 (SF-36......) and the HADS. Allo-SCT-related data were obtained from the participants' medical records. The study includes 148 patients, with an 89% response rate (n = 132). For comparison purposes, norm data from Danish (1994, n = 6000), Swedish (2006, n = 285), and British (2001, n = 1792) population samples were used...... of questioning (median values were within normal range). Overall scores of allo-SCT patients were similar to norm data. In conclusion, this national cohort study shows that patients treated with SCT in early life (

  9. Industrial safety and applied health physics. Annual report for 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auxier, J.A.; Davis, D.M.

    1978-06-01

    Progress is reported on the following: radiation monitoring with regard to personnel monitoring and health physics instrumentation; environs surveillance with regard to atmospheric monitoring, water monitoring, radiation background measurements, and soil and grass samples; radiation and safety surveys with regard to laboratory operations monitoring, radiation incidents, and laundry monitoring; industrial safety and special projects with regard to accident analysis, disabling injuries, and safety awards. (HLW)

  10. The impact of under-reporting of cases on the estimates of childhood cancer incidence and survival in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paapsi, Keiu; Mägi, Margit; Mikkel, Sirje; Saks, Kadri; Aareleid, Tiiu; Innos, Kaire

    2017-06-09

    About 35 new childhood cancer cases are diagnosed in Estonia (population 1.3 million in 2011) every year. Despite continuous improvements in the healthcare system and available cancer treatment options, the survival rates for childhood cancers have appeared to remain lower than the European average. These observations and the accompanying decrease in incidence led us to hypothesize that some nonfatal cases might be missing from the Estonian Cancer Registry (ECR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the completeness of reporting of childhood cancer cases to the ECR and its impact on the estimates of cancer incidence and survival. All cases of benign and malignant tumours, diagnosed in 2000-2011 among children aged 0-17 years and eligible for registration in the ECR, were included in the study. Completeness of reporting was evaluated for cases aged 0-17 years, and incidence and survival were analysed for cases aged 0-14 for international comparisons. The total number of new cancer cases increased from 459 to 515. Overall completeness of case ascertainment was estimated to be 89.5%. After adding the missing cases, the overall incidence rate increased from 12.9 to 14.9/100 000 (from 3.4 to 4.7 for leukaemias). The 2010-2014 period estimate of the 5-year survival increased from 70 to 76% for all sites combined and from 71 to 82% for leukaemias. In conclusion, the under-reporting of nonfatal childhood cancer cases to the ECR had an important impact on incidence and survival rates, causing a considerable underestimation of both.

  11. 'Rules' for boys, 'guidelines' for girls: Gender differences in symptom reporting during childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Alice; Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

    2010-02-01

    The emergence of higher reported morbidity in females compared with males is a feature of adolescent health in a large proportion of the world's industrialised countries. In this paper, qualitative data from twenty-five single-sex focus groups (90 participants in total) conducted with 10-, 13-, and 15-year olds in two Scottish schools is used to explore whether symptom reporting is influenced by perceived societal gender- and age-related expectations and the social context of symptom experiences. The degree to which these factors can help explain quantitative evidence of increases in gender differences in symptom reporting during adolescence is also examined. Accounts suggested gender-related expectations act as strict 'rules' for boys and less prohibitive 'guidelines' for girls. An unexpected finding was the extent of similarity between these 'rules' and 'guidelines'. Both boys and girls presented themselves as pressured to react to symptoms in stoic, controlled and independent ways, particularly when in the company of their peers, and both perceived that boys and girls could incur negative consequences if seen to have physical (e.g. stomach ache) or, especially, psychological symptoms (e.g. feeling like crying). These qualitative findings do not suggest that girls are simply more willing than boys to report their symptoms as they get older, which is one potential explanation for the quantitative evidence of increasing gender differences in symptom reporting in adolescence. Rather, the findings suggest a need to highlight both the potentially damaging effects of gender stereotypes which make boys reluctant to seek help for physical and, particularly, psychological symptoms, and the misconception that girls are not similarly reluctant to report illness.

  12. Characterizing the magnitude of the relation between self-reported childhood parentification and adult psychopathology: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lisa M; Decoster, Jamie; White, Nyshetia; Voltz, Mukesha L

    2011-10-01

    Several decades of research have shown that people who experience parentification in childhood are at an increased risk of experiencing psychopathology in adulthood. A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the magnitude of the relation between self-reported parentification experienced in childhood and psychopathology evidenced in adulthood. Results from 12 nonoverlapping studies (N = 2,472), which were conducted between 1984 and 2010, revealed a small significant but reliable effect (r = .14; 95% confidence interval = .10 to .18). Moderator analyses were performed to explore possible explanations for the variance evidenced between parentification and psychopathology. Moderators that were examined include population factors, methodological factors, and type of psychopathology. The present findings indicate that four factors-types of psychopathology, type of sample, race, and parentification measure used-moderated the relation between parentification and psychopathology. The meta-analytic findings that emerged highlight the need for additional empirical research. Possible explanations and clinical

  13. Menace of childhood non-accidental traumatic brain injuries: A single unit report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI has high rate of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are dearths of reports from developing countries with large paediatric population on trauma; neurosurgery trauma of nonaccidental origin is not an exemption. This study analysed menace of non-accidental TBI in the paediatric population from our center. Materials and Methods: This is a single unit, retrospective study of the epidemiology of non-accidental TBI in children starting from September, 2008 to March, 2014. The management outcomes of the epidemiology of the non-accidental TBI were analysed. Results: Total of 109 children age range from 0 (intra-natal to 16 years with a mean of 5.8 ± 4.6 years (median, 5 years were enrolled into the study. 34 (31.2% were domestic violence, 26 (23.9% street assaults, 16 (14.7% were due to animal assaults and mishaps, 17 (15.6% fall from heights. Seven (6.4% cases of collapsed buildings were also seen during the period. Four (3.7% industrial accidents and two (1.8% were self-inflicted injuries. There were also three (2.8% cases of iatrogenic TBI out of which two infants (1.8% sustained TBI from cesarean section procedure while one patient (0.9% under general anaesthesia felt from the operation bed resulting to severe TBI. Conclusion: Child abuse, unprotected child labour, parental/care-givers negligence are the main cause of nonaccidental TBI. Human right activists and government agents should be incorporated in curtailing the menace.

  14. Progress report - Physical and Environmental Sciences - Physics Division, 1995 January 1 to December 31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, M. (ed.)

    1996-05-01

    This document is a Progress Report for the Physical and Environmental Sciences, Physics Division, for the period 1995 January 1 to December 31, at the Chalk River nuclear Labs. The condensed matter science group continued to operate a multi-faceted program involving collaborative basic and applied research with external scientists in the fields of materials science, physics, chemistry and biology. The Applied Neutron Diffraction for Industry (And) program gained strength with ever wider applications for the nuclear, aerospace, and manufacturing programs. Steps continued towards making neutron scattering facilities at NRU reactor more user friendly. The neutrino physics group, as part of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) Institute, collaborating with scientists from Canada, USA and UK. The accelerator physics group spent considerable effort working with materials and fuels scientists to show the value of accelerators as an out-reactor source of radiation. Specific research activities have included the demonstration of laser plasma deposition of diamond coating, which has potential application for high-wear components in reactors, and the study for a Free Electron Laser upgrade for the IMPELA accelerator. As a result of funding reduction all programs of the Division were dissolved as of 1997 March 31.

  15. Final Physics Report for the Engineering Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, I. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    1956-06-25

    This report is a summary of the physics design work performed on the Engineering Test Reactor. The ETR presents computational difficulties not found in other reactors because of the large number of experimental holes in the core. The physics of the ETR depends strongly upon the contents of the in-core experimental facilities. In order to properly evaluate the reactor; taking into account the experiments in the core, multi-region, two-dimensional calculations are required. These calculations require .the use of a large computer such as the Remington Rand Univac and are complex and expensive enough to warrant a five-stage program: 1. In the early stages of design, only preliminary two-dimensional calculations were performed .in order to obtain a rough idea of the general behavior of the reactor and its critical mass with tentative experiments in place. 2. A large amount of work was carried out in which the reactor was approximated as one with a uniform homogeneous core. With this model, detailed studies were carried out to investigate the feasibility and to obtain general design data on such points as the design and properties of the gray and black-control rods, the design of the beryllium reflector, gamma and neutron heating, the use of burnable poisons, etc. In performing these calculations, use was made of the IBM 650 PROD code obtained from KAPL. 3. With stages 1 and 2 carried out, two-dimensional calculations of the core at start-up conditions were performed on the Univac computer. 4. Detailed two-dimensional calculations of the properties of the ETR with a proposed first set of experiments in place were carried out. 5. A series of nuclear tests were performed at the reactivity measurements facility at the MTR site in order to confirm the validity of the analytical techniques in physics analysis. In performing the two-dimensional Univac calculations, the MUG code developed by KAPL and the Cuthill code developed at the David Taylor Model Basin were utilized. In

  16. Chondrosarcoma arising within a radiation-induced osteochondroma several years following childhood total body irradiation: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Shuji [Kurume University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Fukuoka (Japan); Shen, Robert K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States); Laack, Nadia N. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rochester, MN (United States); Inwards, Carrie Y. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Pathology, Rochester, MN (United States); Wenger, Doris E.; Amrami, Kimberly K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Malignant degeneration arising in radiation-induced osteochondromas is extremely rare. We report a case of a 34-year-old man with a chondrosarcoma arising from an osteochondroma of the left posterior eighth rib that developed following total body irradiation received as part of the conditioning regimen prior to bone marrow transplantation at age 8. To our knowledge, this is only the fourth reported case of a chondrosarcoma arising within a radiation-induced osteochondroma and the first case occurring following childhood total body irradiation. (orig.)

  17. Aripiprazole Augmentation in Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Three Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yuce

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aripiprazole is a third generation antipsychotic that has a partial dopamine agonistic activity. There is an increasing usage of aripiprazole in children and adolescents with schizophrenia, pervasive developmental disorders, and bipolar disorders. In these presentation, we aimed to present three pediatric obsessive%u2013compulsive disorder (OCD cases who were resistant to two different selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatments and prescribed aripiprazole for augmentation therapy. The results of these three cases suggest that aripiprazole is an effective and safe alternative as augmentation for childhood OCD treatment. However, to investigate the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in childhood OCD, randomized controlled treatment studies are needed.

  18. UCLA Particle Physics Research Group annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nefkens, B.M.K.

    1983-11-01

    The objectives, basic research programs, recent results, and continuing activities of the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group are presented. The objectives of the research are to discover, to formulate, and to elucidate the physics laws that govern the elementary constituents of matter and to determine basic properties of particles. The research carried out by the Group last year may be divided into three separate programs: (1) baryon spectroscopy, (2) investigations of charge symmetry and isospin invariance, and (3) tests of time reversal invariance. The main body of this report is the account of the techniques used in our investigations, the results obtained, and the plans for continuing and new research. An update of the group bibliography is given at the end.

  19. Physics of vertically integrated waveguide photodetectors and amplifiers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, E.M. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Optical Sciences Center

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the efforts supported by LLNL under the Subcontract No. B239593 at the University of Arizona during the Fiscal Year 1992. A solid physical foundation has been developed for understanding the operation of vertically integrated photodetectors and amplifiers. This has been achieved through a combination of numerical simulation and development of simple coupled-mode theories. Coupled-mode theory has been used to elucidate the physics underlying the operation of vertically integrated photodetectors. In particular, the relation between the spatial transients observed in experiments and numerical simulations, and the non-power orthogonality of the underlying modes has been clarified. The coupled-mode theory has been extended to the case of coupled waveguide-amplifiers.

  20. Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses research in the following areas: theoretical elementary particle physics; experimental elementary particle physics; axion project; SSC detector development; and computer acquisition. (LSP).

  1. Physics Division annual report, April 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thayer, K.J. [ed.

    1996-11-01

    The past year has seen several major advances in the Division`s research programs. In heavy-ion physics these include experiments with radioactive beams of interest to nuclear astrophysics, a first exploration of the structure of nuclei situated beyond the proton drip line, the discovery of new proton emitters--the heaviest known, the first unambiguous detection of discrete linking transitions between superdeformed and normal deformed states, and the impact of the APEX results which were the first to report, conclusively, no sign of the previously reported sharp electron positron sum lines. The medium energy nuclear physics program of the Division has led the first round of experiments at the CEBAF accelerator at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and the study of color transparency in rho meson propagation at the HERMES experiment at DESY, and it has established nuclear polarization in a laser driven polarized hydrogen target. In atomic physics, the non-dipolar contribution to photoionization has been quantitatively established for the first time, the atomic physics beamline at the Argonne 7 GeV Advanced Photon Source was constructed and, by now, first experiments have been successfully performed. The theory program has pushed exact many-body calculations with fully realistic interactions (the Argonne v{sub 18} potential) to the seven-nucleon system, and interesting results have been obtained for the structure of deformed nuclei through meanfield calculations and for the structure of baryons with QCD calculations based on the Dyson-Schwinger approach. Brief summaries are given of the individual research programs.

  2. Childhood abuse related to nicotine, illicit and prescription drug use by women: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Cathy L; Vanhorn, Daniel R; Wilson, Josephine F; Martorano, Lisa M; Venema, Jana M; Kennedy, Sarah M

    2008-10-01

    A sample of 811 women ages 18 to 59 (M=26.0, SD=6.5) responded to an advertisement by telephone. Inquiries were made about childhood abuse status and adult use of alcohol, nicotine, and prescription and illicit drugs. Significant associations were noted for reported sexual, physical, and emotional childhood abuse with use of nicotine, marijuana, and antidepressants in adulthood. Reported childhood physical and emotional abuses were also significantly associated with use of cocaine and anxiolytics, and sexual abuse with antipsychotic use in adulthood. Only childhood emotional abuse was associated with the use of sleeping pills. Number of types of abuse was significantly related with use of nicotine, marijuana, cocaine, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and anxiolytics. Alcohol use was not related to any type of abuse. The long-term effects of childhood emotional abuse may be just as severe as physical or sexual abuse.

  3. Undiagnosed asthma in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, R.

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is the most prevalent chronic disease in childhood. To study the actual prevalence and impact of undiagnosed childhood asthma in daily life (i.e. quality of life, participation in physical and school activities) we performed a survey in schoolchildren (aged 7-10 years) in the southern part of

  4. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Childhood Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reports of childhood abuse and neglect were investigated. Childhood trauma, defined as abuse, neglect, or loss, is a ... the lifespan. In various animal and human studies childhood trauma has been associated with low resting cortisol levels, ...

  5. Possible Involvement of Avoidant Attachment Style in the Relations Between Adult IBS and Reported Separation Anxiety in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Israel, Yuval; Shadach, Eran; Levy, Sigal; Sperber, Ami; Aizenberg, Dov; Niv, Yaron; Dickman, Ram

    2016-12-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adults as well as separation anxiety disorder (SAD) and recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) in childhood are associated with anxiety and somatization. Our aim was to examine possible associations between IBS in adulthood and SAD in childhood. Patients with IBS and healthy subjects completed a demographic questionnaire, the Separation Anxiety Symptom Inventory (SASI), the Somatization Subscale of Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), the Attachment Style Questionnaire, and a retrospective self-report questionnaire regarding RAP. Compared with controls, patients with IBS were characterized by an avoidant attachment style and scored higher on the SCL-90-R scale regarding the tendency to somatization (25.35 ± 7.47 versus16.50 ± 4.40, p Adults with IBS were characterized by somatization, insecure attachment style and recalled higher rates of RAP and surprisingly less symptoms of SAD in childhood. Based on these results, an etiological model for IBS is suggested, in which an avoidant attachment style and a tendency to somatization play an important role in the development of IBS. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of Effects of the Clovis - Portales Bilingual Early Childhood Program: Final Report, 1972-73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askins, Billy E.; Alford, Gay

    Initiated in 1972, the Bilingual Early Childhood Program (BECP) serves as early intervention for 3- and 4-year-old children in Clovis and Portales, New Mexico (40 children at each site). Target group children were predominantly from Spanish-speaking backgrounds and were selected as participants using guideline requirements of language, background,…

  7. Strong Foundations: Early Childhood Care and Education. EFA Global Monitoring Report, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Early childhood is a time of remarkable transformation and extreme vulnerability. Programmes that support young children during the years before they go to primary school provide strong foundations for subsequent learning and development. Such programmes also compensate for disadvantage and exclusion, offering a way out of poverty. This Report…

  8. Evaluation of Parent Involvement in Early Childhood Programs 1979-1980. Technical Summary, Report No. 8130.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, John

    Evaluation of parent involvement in the following ten early childhood programs in the Philadelphia school district is presented: (1) Child Care (CC); (2) Head Start (HS); (3) Parent Nursery (PN); (4) Get Set (GS); (5) Durham Child Development Center (DCD); (6) Preschool Child Development Project (PCD); (7) Original Follow Through (OFT); (8) Follow…

  9. Infertility, infertility treatment, and achievement of pregnancy in female survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Sara E; Najita, Julie S; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S; Leisenring, Wendy M; Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita E; Sklar, Charles A; Robison, Leslie L; Diller, Lisa

    2013-08-01

    Previous studies have shown decreased pregnancy rates and early menopause in female cancer survivors; however, infertility rates and reproductive interventions have not been studied. We investigated infertility and time to pregnancy in female childhood cancer survivors, and analysed treatment characteristics associated with infertility and subsequent pregnancy. The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) is a cohort study including 5 year cancer survivors from 26 Canadian and US institutions who were younger than 21 years at the time of diagnosis between Jan 1, 1970, and Dec 31, 1986, and a sibling control group. We included women aged 18-39 years who had ever been sexually active. We gathered demographic, medical, and reproductive data via a baseline questionnaire, and quantified exposure to alkylating agents and radiation therapy. Self-reported infertility, medical treatment for infertility, time to first pregnancy in survivors and siblings, and the risk of infertility in survivors by demographic, disease, and treatment variables were analysed. 3531 survivors and 1366 female sibling controls who enrolled between Nov 3, 1992, and April 4, 2004, were included. Compared with their siblings, survivors had an increased risk (relative risk [RR] 1·48 [95% CI 1·23-1·78]; pinfertility (ie, >1 year of attempts at conception without success), which was most pronounced at early reproductive ages (RR 2·92 [95% CI 1·18-7·20], p=0·020, in participants ≤24 years; 1·61 [1·05-2·48], p=0·029, in those aged 25-29 years; and 1·37 [1·11-1·69], p=0·0035, in those aged 30-40 years). Despite being equally likely to seek treatment for infertility, survivors were less likely than were their siblings to be prescribed drugs for treatment of infertility (0·57 [95% CI 0·46-0·70], pinfertility. Although survivors had an increased time to pregnancy compared with their siblings (p=0·032), 292 (64%) of 455 participants with self-reported clinical infertility achieved a

  10. Annual report 1997. Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, P.H.; Dannemand Andersen, P.; Skrumsager, B. [eds.

    1998-08-01

    The report describes the work of the Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Department at Risoe National Laboratory during 1997. The research of the department aims to develop new opportunities in the exploitation of wind energy and to map and alleviate atmospheric aspects of environmental problems. The expertise of the department is utilised in commercial activities such as wind turbine testing and certification, training programmes, courses and consultancy services to industry, authorities and Danish and international organisations on wind energy and atmospheric environmental impact. (au)

  11. Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Department annual progress report 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    The report describes the work of the Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Department at Risø National Laboratory in 1999. The research of the department aims to develop new opportunities in the exploitation of wind energy and to map and alleviateatmospheric aspects of environmental problems....... The expertise of the department is utilised in commercial activities such as wind turbine testing and certification, training programmes, courses and consultancy services to industry, authorities and Danishand international organisations on wind energy and atmospheric environmental impact. A sum......-mary of the department's activities in 1999 is presented, including lists of publications, lectures, committees and staff members....

  12. Annual progress report 2000. Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, S.E.; Skrumsager, B. [eds.

    2001-05-01

    The report describes the work of the Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Department at Risoe National Laboratory in 2000. The research of the department aims to develop new opportunities in the exploitation of wind energy and to map and alleviate atmospheric aspects of environmental problems. The expertise of the department is utilised in commercial activities such as wind turbine testing and certification, training programmes, courses and consultancy services to industry, authorities and Danish and international organisations on wind energy and atmospheric environmental impact. A summary of the department's activities in 2000 is shown, including lists of publications, lectures, committees and staff members. (au)

  13. Annual progress report 2000. Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, S.E.; Skrumsager, B. (eds.)

    2001-05-01

    The report describes the work of the Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Department at Risoe National Laboratory in 2000. The research of the department aims to develop new opportunities in the exploitation of wind energy and to map and alleviate atmospheric aspects of environmental problems. The expertise of the department is utilised in commercial activities such as wind turbine testing and certification, training programmes, courses and consultancy services to industry, authorities and Danish and international organisations on wind energy and atmospheric environmental impact. A summary of the department's activities in 2000 is shown, including lists of publications, lectures, committees and staff members. (au)

  14. Applied physical chemistry progress report, October 1991--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.E.; Attaya, H.M.; Billone, M.C.; Blomquist, R.A.; Kopasz, J.P.; Leibowitz, L.; Roche, M.F.; Seils, C.A.

    1993-12-01

    This document reports on the work done in applied physical chemistry at the Chemical Technology Division (CMT), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in the period October 1991 through September 1992. this work includes research into the process that control the release and transport of fission products under accident-like conditions in a light water reactor, the thermophysical properties of the metal fuel in the Integral Fast Reactor under development at ANL, and the properties of candidate tritium breeding materials in environments simulating those of fusion energy systems. Viscosity and liquidus-solidus temperatures of core-concrete mixtures were studied.

  15. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  16. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  17. Late Effects Surveillance Recommendations among Survivors of Childhood Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A Children's Oncology Group Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Eric J; Anderson, Lynnette; Baker, K Scott; Bhatia, Smita; Guilcher, Gregory M T; Huang, Jennifer T; Pelletier, Wendy; Perkins, Joanna L; Rivard, Linda S; Schechter, Tal; Shah, Ami J; Wilson, Karla D; Wong, Kenneth; Grewal, Satkiran S; Armenian, Saro H; Meacham, Lillian R; Mulrooney, Daniel A; Castellino, Sharon M

    2016-05-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an important curative treatment for children with high-risk hematologic malignancies, solid tumors, and, increasingly, nonmalignant diseases. Given improvements in care, there are a growing number of long-term survivors of pediatric HCT. Compared with childhood cancer survivors who did not undergo transplantation, HCT survivors have a substantially increased burden of serious chronic conditions and impairments involving virtually every organ system and overall quality of life. This likely reflects the joint contributions of pretransplantation treatment exposures and organ dysfunction, the transplantation conditioning regimen, and any post-transplantation graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In response, the Children's Oncology Group (COG) has created long-term follow-up guidelines (www.survivorshipguidelines.org) for survivors of childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer, including those who were treated with HCT. Guideline task forces, consisting of HCT specialists, other pediatric oncologists, radiation oncologists, organ-specific subspecialists, nurses, social workers, other health care professionals, and patient advocates systematically reviewed the literature with regards to late effects after childhood cancer and HCT since 2002, with the most recent review completed in 2013. For the most recent review cycle, over 800 articles from the medical literature relevant to childhood cancer and HCT survivorship were reviewed, including 586 original research articles. Provided herein is an organ system-based overview that emphasizes the most relevant COG recommendations (with accompanying evidence grade) for the long-term follow-up care of childhood HCT survivors (regardless of current age) based on a rigorous review of the available evidence. These recommendations cover both autologous and allogeneic HCT survivors, those who underwent transplantation for nonmalignant diseases, and those with a history of chronic GVHD.

  18. Relations among adults' remembrances of parental acceptance-rejection in childhood, self-reported psychological adjustment, and adult psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akün, Ebru

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine relationships among recollections of maternal and paternal acceptance-rejection in childhood and the level of psychological adjustment among adults diagnosed with schizophrenia, social anxiety, and nonclinical control. The study focused primarily on adults with schizophrenia and social anxiety in comparison to nonclinical adults. Fifty-three adults diagnosed with schizophrenia, 51 adults with self-reported social anxiety, and 147 nonclinical controls between the ages of 18 and 62 participated in the study. Data were collected using adult versions of the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire for mothers and for fathers, Personality Assessment Questionnaire, Brief Symptom Inventory, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, and the Demographic Information Form. Findings of analyses showed that participants in the schizophrenia and social anxiety groups remembered having experienced significantly more maternal rejection in childhood than did the nonclinical group. Patient with schizophrenia also reported more recollections of paternal rejection than the nonclinical group. Both clinical groups self-reported more psychological maladjustment than did the nonclinical group. Regression analysis indicated that even though the overall psychological adjustment of adults diagnosed with schizophrenia was predicted by both maternal and paternal acceptance-rejection, psychological adjustment of adults in the social anxiety group was predicted only by maternal (but not paternal) acceptance-rejection. This study provides evidence about the long-lasting associations between adults' recollections of parental acceptance-rejection in childhood and their psychological adjustment in two mental disorders, in which genetic and environmental factors have a different weight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Self-reported history of childhood smoking is associated with an increased risk for peripheral arterial disease independent of lifetime smoking burden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Priest

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic disorders are well known to be associated with obesity, lipid profile, smoking, hypertension and other medical comorbidities, and large cohort studies have explored the childhood correlates to these adult risk factors. However, there has been little investigation into the childhood risk factors for peripheral arterial disease (PAD. We endeavored to better understand the role of smoking in childhood in the risk for PAD in a well described cohort of 1,537 adults at high risk for cardiovascular disease. In a multivariate regression model, we observed an increased risk of PAD among those who reported a history of smoking during childhood (OR = 2.86; 95% CI, 1.99-4.11; P<0.001, which remained statistically significant after controlling for lifetime smoking burden (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.00-2.41; P = 0.049. Our novel observation of disproportionate risk of PAD conferred by a history of childhood smoking may reflect an unrecognized biological mechanism such as a unique susceptibility to vascular injury or an unaccounted for covariate such as secondhand smoke exposure in childhood. This observation suggests further investigation is required into the pathophysiology of smoking in the developing vasculature and the need for detailed clinical data about patterns of childhood smoking and smoke exposure.

  20. Duke University high energy physics. Progress report, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.

    1992-07-01

    This Progress Report presents a review of the research done in 1992 by the Duke High Energy Physics Group. This is the first year of a three-year grant which was approved by the Office of High Energy Physics at DOE after an external review of our research program during the summer of 1991. Our research is centered at Fermilab where we are involved with two active experiments, one using the Tevatron collider (CDF, the Collider Detector Facility) and the other using a proton beam in the high intensity laboratory (E771, study of beauty production). In addition to these running experiments we are continuing the analysis of data from experiments E735 (collider search for a quark-gluon plasma), E705 (fixed target study of direct photon and {sub {Chi}} meson production) and E597 (particle production from hadron-nucleus collisions). Finally, this year has seen an expansion of our involvement with the design of the central tracking detector for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) and an increased role in the governance of the collaboration. Descriptions of these research activities are presented in this report.

  1. Pregnancy after chemotherapy in male and female survivors of childhood cancer treated between 1970 and 1999: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Eric J; Stratton, Kayla L; Leisenring, Wendy M; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Sklar, Charles A; Donaldson, Sarah S; Ginsberg, Jill P; Kenney, Lisa B; Levine, Jennifer M; Robison, Leslie L; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Stovall, Marilyn; Armstrong, Gregory T; Green, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The effect of many contemporary chemotherapeutic drugs on pregnancy and livebirth is not well established. We aimed to establish the effects of these drugs on pregnancy in male and female survivors of childhood cancer not exposed to pelvic or cranial radiotherapy. Methods We used data from a subset of the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort, which followed 5-year survivors of the most common types of childhood cancer who were diagnosed before age 21 years and treated at 27 institutions in the USA and Canada between 1970 and 1999. We extracted doses of 14 alkylating and similar DNA interstrand crosslinking drugs from medical records. We used sex-specific Cox models to establish the independent effects of each drug and the cumulative cyclophosphamide equivalent dose of all drugs in relation to pregnancies and livebirths occurring between ages 15 years and 44 years. We included siblings of survivors as a comparison group. Findings We included 10 938 survivors and 3949 siblings. After a median follow-up of 8 years (IQR 4–12) from cohort entry or at age 15 years, whichever was later, 4149 (38%) survivors reported having or siring a pregnancy, of whom 3453 (83%) individuals reported at least one livebirth. After a median follow-up of 10 years (IQR 6–15), 2445 (62%) siblings reported having or siring a pregnancy, of whom 2201 (90%) individuals reported at least one livebirth. In multivariable analysis, survivors had a decreased likelihood of siring or having a pregnancy versus siblings (male survivors: hazard ratio [HR] 0·63, 95% CI 0·58–0·68; p<0·0001; female survivors: 0·87, 0·81–0·94; p<0·0001) or of having a livebirth (male survivors: 0·63, 0·58–0·69; p<0·0001; female survivors: 0·82, 0·76–0·89; p<0·0001). In male survivors, reduced likelihood of pregnancy was associated with upper tertile doses of cyclophosphamide (HR 0·60, 95% CI 0·51–0·71; p<0·0001), ifosfamide (0·42, 0·23–0·79; p=0·0069), procarbazine

  2. Physics Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-12-01

    Research and development activities are summarized in the following areas: Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility, nuclear physics, the UNISOR program, accelerator-based atomic physics, theoretical physics, nuclear science applications, atomic physics and plasma diagnostics for fusion program, high-energy physics, the nuclear data project, and the relativistic heavy-ion collider study. Publications and papers presented are listed. (WHK)

  3. Linking Traumatic Childhood Experiences to the Physical Health of Korean Adolescents in Out-of-Home Care through Depression and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyunah; Chung, Ick-Joong; Chun, JongSerl; Nho, Choong Rai; Woo, Seokjin

    2017-02-17

    The main purpose of this study is to assess whether the physical health of Korean adolescents in out-of-home care is affected directly by traumatic childhood experiences and/or indirectly through depression and anxiety. Study participants are 460 adolescents who are included in the first and second wave of the Panel Study on Korean Children in Out-of-Home Care. The data are analyzed using structural equation modeling. Our structural model finds no direct effects of traumatic experiences on physical health. Among the two types of trauma experiences, namely, family instability and violence experiences, only violence experiences affect physical health indirectly through depression and anxiety. Based on the results, practice implications for Korean adolescents in care are discussed.

  4. Patterns of childhood trauma and psychological distress among injecting heroin users in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Childhood trauma has been reported as a possible cause of future substance abuse in some countries. This study reports the prevalence of childhood trauma and examines its association with psychological distress among injecting drug users from mainland China. METHODOLOGY: The study was conducted in three government-operated drug rehabilitation facilities in Shanghai, China in 2007. The Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form (ETISR-SF was used to evaluate 4 types (general, emotional, physical and sexual and severity of childhood trauma, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R to evaluate psychological distress. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Among 341 injecting drug users who completed the study, about 80% reported one or more types of childhood trauma, specifically 53% general trauma, 56% physical abuse, 36% emotional abuse and 26% sexual abuse. Compared to female injecting drug users, males reported significantly higher scores of general trauma and physical abuse, but lower sexual abuse scores. Hierarchical linear regression analyses showed that greater physical and emotional abuse in childhood predict greater current psychopathological distress among these injecting drug users in China. CONCLUSIONS: The results reveal a high prevalence of childhood trauma among injecting drug users in China, and it is comparable to other similar studies in Western countries. It is important to consider the role of childhood trauma in the prevention and treatment of substance abuse.

  5. Self-reported physical fitness of older persons: A substitute for performance-based measures of physical fitness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanHeuvelen, M.J.G.; Kempen, G.I J M; Ormel, J.; deGreef, M.H.G.

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the validity of self-report measures of physical fitness as substitutes for performance-based tests, self-reports and performance-based tests of physical fitness were compared. Subjects were a community-based sample of older adults (N = 624) aged 57 and over. The performance-based tests

  6. Self-reported physical fitness of older persons : A substitute for performance-based measures of physical fitness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanHeuvelen, MJG; Kempen, GIJM; Ormel, J; de Greef, M.H.G.

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the validity of self-report measures of physical fitness as substitutes for performance-based tests, self-reports and performance-based tests of physical fitness were compared. Subjects were a community-based sample of older adults (N = 624) aged 57 and over. The performance-based tests

  7. Childhood Reports of Food Neglect and Impulse Control Problems and Violence in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Michael G.; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Naeger, Sandra; Huang, Jin; Piquero, Alex R.

    2016-01-01

    Food insecurity and hunger during childhood are associated with an array of developmental problems in multiple domains, including impulse control problems and violence. Unfortunately, extant research is based primarily on small convenience samples and an epidemiological assessment of the hunger-violence link is lacking. The current study employed data from Wave 1 (2001–2002) and Wave 2 (2004–2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). The NESARC is a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized U.S. residents aged 18 years and older. Participants who experienced frequent hunger during childhood had significantly greater impulsivity, worse self-control, and greater involvement in several forms of interpersonal violence. These effects were stronger among whites, Hispanics, and males. The findings support general theoretical models implicating impulse control problems as a key correlate of crime and violence and add another facet to the importance of ameliorating food neglect in the United States. PMID:27043598

  8. Dental complications of rickets in early childhood: case report on 2 young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davit-Béal, Tiphaine; Gabay, Julie; Antoniolli, Pauline; Masle-Farquhar, Jeanne; Wolikow, Maryse

    2014-04-01

    Vitamin D is an essential hormone for calcium gut absorption. It is also involved in child growth, cancer prevention, immune system responses, and tooth formation. Due to inadequate vitamin D intake and/or decreased sunlight exposure, vitamin D deficiency has resurfaced in developed countries despite known inexpensive and effective preventive methods. Vitamin D deficiency is a common cause of rickets, a condition that affects bone development in children and that can have serious dental complications. Deficiency during pregnancy can cause enamel hypoplasia of primary teeth. Enamel regeneration is currently impossible; hypoplasia is therefore irreversible, and once affected, teeth are prone to fast caries development. Deficiency during early childhood can affect permanent teeth and ensuing caries can sometimes lead to tooth loss at a young age. Oral manifestations of rickets should be diagnosed early by both physicians and dentists to prevent severe dental complications. This case study presents 2 young girls with rickets in early childhood who suffered from subsequent serious tooth decay.

  9. Childhood Reports of Food Neglect and Impulse Control Problems and Violence in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Michael G; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Naeger, Sandra; Huang, Jin; Piquero, Alex R

    2016-03-30

    Food insecurity and hunger during childhood are associated with an array of developmental problems in multiple domains, including impulse control problems and violence. Unfortunately, extant research is based primarily on small convenience samples and an epidemiological assessment of the hunger-violence link is lacking. The current study employed data from Wave 1 (2001-2002) and Wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). The NESARC is a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized U.S. residents aged 18 years and older. Participants who experienced frequent hunger during childhood had significantly greater impulsivity, worse self-control, and greater involvement in several forms of interpersonal violence. These effects were stronger among whites, Hispanics, and males. The findings support general theoretical models implicating impulse control problems as a key correlate of crime and violence and add another facet to the importance of ameliorating food neglect in the United States.

  10. Report on Childhood Obesity in China (7)Comparison of NCHS and WGOC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI-QUN XU; CHENG-YE JI; COOPERATIVE STUDY ON CHILDHOOD OBESITY:WORKING GRO

    2008-01-01

    To test the validity of Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) reference in screening childhood obesity using obesity-related metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components as disease risk evidence. Methods A total of 2020 adolescents (1007 boys and 1013 girls) aged 14-16 years were sampled in Beijing, China. Anthropometxic and biochemical measurements, as well as blood pressure parameters were available. Prevalence of overweight/obesity and related MS risk factors were analyzed across different body mass index (BMI) categories. The sensitivity and specificity of the WGOC cut-offs were compared with those of National Central Health Statistics (NCHS). Results Significantly high prevalence of MS and its components were found both in the obesity and overweight groups, which were classified by the WGOC and NCHS references. Similar distribution pattern of MS risk factors existed among different BMI categories, hut the frequency and clustering of these factors in the obesity group classified by the NCHS were much higher. Owing to its irrelevant high cut-offs for overweight/obesity (especially for girls since the mid-adolescence), the NCHS reference had a high specificity but a low sensitivity. By contrast, the WGOC reference with a high sensitivity (90.1% for boys and 89.2% for girls) and a relative high specificity (96.4% and 92.8% for obese boys and girls, 78.1% and 68.9% for overweight boys and girls respectively) was more suitable to support the need for early screening, intervention, and treatment of childhood obesity in China. Conclusion High sensitivity is more important than specificity in choosing appropriate screening tools for childhood obesity. Validity test demonstrates that it is rational to use the WGOC reference, established on the basis of the Chinese own reference population as a uniform screening tool for childhood obesity, which can effectively overcome the unnecessary treatment and psychosocial implications of stigmatization caused by misclassification.

  11. Radiation, Atherosclerotic Risk Factors, and Stroke Risk in Survivors of Pediatric Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Sabine, E-mail: muellers@neuropeds.ucsf.edu [Department of Neurology, Pediatrics and Neurosurgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Fullerton, Heather J. [Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Stratton, Kayla; Leisenring, Wendy [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Weathers, Rita E.; Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Armstrong, Gregory T. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Goldsby, Robert E. [Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Packer, Roger J. [Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Sklar, Charles A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bowers, Daniel C. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, Texas (United States); Robison, Leslie L.; Krull, Kevin R. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To test the hypotheses that (1) the increased risk of stroke conferred by childhood cranial radiation therapy (CRT) persists into adulthood; and (2) atherosclerotic risk factors further increase the stroke risk in cancer survivors. Methods and Materials: The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study of 14,358 5-year survivors of childhood cancer and 4023 randomly selected sibling controls with longitudinal follow-up. Age-adjusted incidence rates of self-reported late-occurring (≥5 years after diagnosis) first stroke were calculated. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify independent stroke predictors. Results: During a mean follow-up of 23.3 years, 292 survivors reported a late-occurring stroke. The age-adjusted stroke rate per 100,000 person-years was 77 (95% confidence interval [CI] 62-96), compared with 9.3 (95% CI 4-23) for siblings. Treatment with CRT increased stroke risk in a dose-dependent manner: hazard ratio 5.9 (95% CI 3.5-9.9) for 30-49 Gy CRT and 11.0 (7.4-17.0) for 50+ Gy CRT. The cumulative stroke incidence in survivors treated with 50+ Gy CRT was 1.1% (95% CI 0.4-1.8%) at 10 years after diagnosis and 12% (95% CI 8.9-15.0%) at 30 years. Hypertension increased stroke hazard by 4-fold (95% CI 2.8-5.5) and in black survivors by 16-fold (95% CI 6.9-36.6). Conclusion: Young adult pediatric cancer survivors have an increased stroke risk that is associated with CRT in a dose-dependent manner. Atherosclerotic risk factors enhanced this risk and should be treated aggressively.

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Document Server

    Submitted by

    Physics Week: plenary meeting on physics groups plans for startup (14–15 May 2008) The Physics Objects (POG) and Physics Analysis (PAG) Groups presented their latest developments at the plenary meeting during the Physics Week. In the presentations particular attention was given to startup plans and readiness for data-taking. Many results based on the recent cosmic run were shown. A special Workshop on SUSY, described in a separate section, took place the day before the plenary. At the meeting, we had also two special DPG presentations on “Tracker and Muon alignment with CRAFT” (Ernesto Migliore) and “Calorimeter studies with CRAFT” (Chiara Rovelli). We had also a report from Offline (Andrea Rizzi) and Computing (Markus Klute) on the San Diego Workshop, described elsewhere in this bulletin. Tracking group (Boris Mangano). The level of sophistication of the tracking software increased significantly over the last few months: V0 (K0 and Λ) reconstr...

  13. Objective Assessment of Physical Activity during Physical Exercise Sessions in a Multidisciplinary Intervention for the Treatment of Childhood Obesity/Valoració objectiva de l'activitat física en sessions d'exercici físic d'un programa multidisciplinari per al tractament de l'obesitat infantil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Assumpta Ensenyat; Ignasi Palacios; Noemi Serra-Paya; Ivan Castro-Viñuales

    2016-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to analyse the level of movement and estimate energy expenditure during the supervised physical exercise sessions of an intervention for the treatment of childhood obesity. Method...

  14. Long-Term Physical and Mental Health Consequences of Childhood Physical Abuse: Results from a Large Population-Based Sample of Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Kristen W.; Sheridan, Jennifer; Kuo, Daphne; Carnes, Molly

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Child maltreatment has been linked to negative adult health outcomes; however, much past research includes only clinical samples of women, focuses exclusively on sexual abuse and/or fails to control for family background and childhood characteristics, both potential confounders. Further research is needed to obtain accurate,…

  15. Physics Division progress report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollen, G.Y.; Schappert, G.T. [comp.

    1994-07-01

    This report discusses its following topics: Recent Weapons-Physics Experiments on the Pegasus II Pulsed Power Facility; Operation of a Large-Scale Plasma Source Ion Implantation Experiment; Production of Charm and Beauty Mesons at Fermilab Sudbury Neutrino Observatory; P-Division`s Essential Role in the Redirected Inertial Confinement Fusion Program; Trident Target Physics Program; Comparative Studies of Brain Activation with Magnetocephalography and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Cellular Communication, Interaction of G-Proteins, and Single-Photon Detection; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Oxygen-doped La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4+{delta}} Thermoacoustic Engines; A Shipborne Raman Water-Vapor Lidar for the Central Pacific Experiment; Angara-5 Pinch Temperature Verification with Time-resolved Spectroscopy; Russian Collaborations on Megagauss Magnetic Fields and Pulsed-Power Applications; Studies of Energy Coupling from Underground Explosions; Trapping and Cooling Large Numbers of Antiprotons: A First Step Toward the Measurement of Gravity on Antimatter; and Nuclear-Energy Production Without a Long-Term High-Level Waste Stream.

  16. Report from the June Trigger and Physics Week

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Bee

    The week of June 4th saw the 5th ATLAS Trigger and Physics week at CERN. The meeting, bringing together people working in the trigger, data preparation, detector combined-performance and physics groups, aimed at focusing work and discussions on preparing ATLAS for first data-taking. The meeting started on Monday afternoon with a set of plenary presentations on topics ranging from software status and validation, the ATLAS analysis model and its implications for the computing model, and initial ideas for trigger menus for the expected LHC start-up luminosity of 1031cm-2s-1. There was also a report from Peter Jenni on the expected LHC start-up schedule. The participation exceeded the organisers' wildest dreams as the CERN Council Chamber (seating capacity 160) proved woefully inadequate to seat everyone. A packed Council Chamber for the opening plenary Tuesday was dedicated to parallel sessions of the trigger and combined performance groups. A great deal of progress was presented in all areas, notably on...

  17. [Research in theoretical and experimental elementary particle physics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    This report gives summaries of particle physics research conducted by different group members for Task A. A summary of work on the CLEO experiment and detector is included for Task B along with a list of CLEO publications. During the present grant period for Task C, the authors had responsibility for the design, assembly, and programming of the high-resolution spectrometer which looks for narrow peaks in the output of the cavity in the LLNL experiment. They successfully carried out this task. Velocity peaks are expected in the spectrum of dark matter axions on Earth. The computing proposal (Task S) is submitted in support of the High Energy Experiment (CLEO, Fermilab, CMS) and the Theory tasks.

  18. American Association of Physics Teachers Annual Report, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Physics Teachers (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    The American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT) mission is to enhance the understanding and appreciation of physics through teaching. Aspiring to advance the greater good through physics, AAPT strives to be the leading voice, primary resource, advocate of choice, and driving force in physics education, serving professionals who teach physics…

  19. Neurocognitive Outcomes Decades After Treatment for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Report From the St Jude Lifetime Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Kevin R.; Brinkman, Tara M.; Li, Chenghong; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Ness, Kirsten K.; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Gurney, James G.; Kimberg, Cara; Krasin, Matthew J.; Pui, Ching-Hon; Robison, Leslie L.; Hudson, Melissa M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine rates, patterns, and predictors of neurocognitive impairment in adults decades after treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Patients and Methods Survivors of childhood ALL treated at St Jude Children's Research Hospital who were still alive at 10 or more years after diagnosis and were age ≥ 18 years were recruited for neurocognitive testing. In all, 1,014 survivors were eligible, 738 (72.8%) agreed to participate, and 567 (76.8%) of these were evaluated. Mean age was 33 years; mean time since diagnosis was 26 years. Medical record abstraction was performed for data on doses of cranial radiation therapy (CRT) and cumulative chemotherapy. Multivariable modeling was conducted and glmulti package was used to select the best model with minimum Akaike information criterion. Results Impairment rates across neurocognitive domains ranged from 28.6% to 58.9%, and those treated with chemotherapy only demonstrated increased impairment in all domains (all P values < .006). In survivors who received no CRT, dexamethasone was associated with impaired attention (relative risk [RR], 2.12; 95% CI, 1.11 to 4.03) and executive function (RR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.20 to 4.91). The impact of CRT was dependent on young age at diagnosis for intelligence, academic, and memory functions. Risk for executive function problems increased with survival time in a CRT dose-dependent fashion. In all survivors, self-reported behavior problems increased by 5% (RR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.09) with each year from diagnosis. Impairment was associated with reduced educational attainment and unemployment. Conclusion This study demonstrates persistent and significant neurocognitive impairment in adult survivors of childhood ALL and warrants ongoing monitoring of brain health to facilitate successful adult development and to detect early onset of decline as survivors mature. PMID:24190124

  20. Impact of Radiation and Chemotherapy on Risk of Dental Abnormalities: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaste, Sue C.; Goodman, Pamela; Leisenring, Wendy; Stovall, Marilyn; Hayashi, Robert; Yeazel, Mark; Beiraghi, Soraya; Hudson, Melissa M.; Sklar, Charles A.; Robison, Leslie L.; Baker, K. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Describe frequencies and risk factors of altered oral health and odontogenesis in childhood cancer survivors. Patients and Methods 9308 survivors, diagnosed between 1970–1986, and 2951 siblings from Childhood Cancer Survivor Study completed a survey containing oral-dental health information. We analyzed treatment impact, socioeconomic data and patient demographics on dental outcomes using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (OR). Results In multivariate analysis, survivors more likely reported microdontia (OR 3.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.4–3.8), hypodontia (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.4–2.0), root abnormalities (OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.2–4.0), abnormal enamel (OR 2.4, 95% CI 2.0–2.9), teeth loss ≥6 (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.9–3.6), severe gingivitis (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0–1.5), xerostomia (OR 9.7, 95% CI 4.8–19.7). Controlling for chemotherapy and socio-economic factors, radiation exposure of ≥20Gy to dentition was significantly associated with increased risk of ≥1 dental abnormality. Dose-dependent alkylating agent therapy significantly increased risk ≥1 anatomic/developmental dental abnormalities in survivors diagnosed <5 years of age (OR 1.7, 2.7, 3.3 for alkylating agent score of 1, 2, 3, respectively). Conclusion Radiation and chemotherapy are independent risk factors for adverse oral-dental sequelae among childhood cancer survivors. Patients receiving alkylating agents at < 5 years should be closely monitored. PMID:19834960

  1. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics Workshop Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Jr., Lloyd [University of Southern California

    1997-09-21

    This document contains the final reports from the five panels that comprised a Workshop held to explore future directions, scientific impacts and technological connections of research in Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics. This workshop was sponsored by the Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences Division and was held at the Westfields International Conference Center in Chantilly, Virginia on September 21-24, 1997. The workshop was chaired by Lloyd Armstrong, Jr., University of Southern California and the five panels focused on the following topics: Panel A: Interactions of Atoms and Molecules with Photons - Low Field Daniel Kleppner (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), chair Panel B: Interactions of Atoms and Molecules with Photons - High Field Phil Bucksbaum (University of Michigan), chair Panel C: Surface Interactions with Photons, Electrons, Ions, Atoms and Molecules J. Wayne Rabalais (University of Houston), chair Panel D: Theory of Structure and Dynamics Chris Greene (University of Colorado), chair Panel E: Nano- and Mesocopic Structures Paul Alivisatos (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory), chair The choice of focus areas reflects areas of significant interest to DOE/BES but is clearly not intended to span all fields encompassed by the designation of atomic, molecular and optical physics, nor even all areas that would be considered for review and funding under DOE’s AMOP program. In a similar vein, not all research that might be suggested under these topics in this report would be appropriate for consideration by DOE’s AMOP program. The workshop format included overview presentations from each of the panel chairs, followed by an intensive series of panel discussion sessions held over a two-day period. The panels were comprised of scientists from the U. S. and abroad, many of whom are not supported by DOE’s AMOP Program. This workshop was held in lieu of the customary “Contractors Meeting” held annually for

  2. An improved interim therapeutic restoration technique for management of anterior early childhood caries: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood caries presents unique treatment challenges that often require advanced behavior management techniques, such as general anesthesia or procedural sedation. In some cases, use of these pharmacologic adjuncts is undesirable or not possible. The interim therapeutic restoration is a treatment method that, while sometimes employed in such cases, can often produce unsatisfactory results in primary anterior teeth. This is often due to insufficient bulk of material and lack of retention. The purpose of this report was to describe a simple alternative technique (resin modified glass ionomer strip crowns) that may be employed to deliver esthetic anterior restorations to marginally cooperative children in the dental clinic setting and to report on two cases in which it was successfully used. \\\\\\Department of Pediatric Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash., USA. tmnelson@uw.edu

  3. Male infertility in long-term survivors of pediatric cancer: A report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewski-Masker, K; Seidel, K D; Leisenring, W; Mertens, A C; Shnorhavorian, M; Ritenour, C W; Stovall, M; Green, D M; Sklar, C A; Armstrong, G T; Robison, L L; Meacham, L R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of male infertility and treatment-related risk factors in childhood cancer survivors. Methods Within the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, 1622 survivors and 274 siblings completed the Male Health Questionnaire. The analysis was restricted to survivors (938/1622; 57.8%) and siblings (174/274; 63.5%) who tried to become pregnant. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the prevalence of self-reported infertility were calculated using generalized linear models for demographic variables and treatment-related factors to account for correlation among survivors and siblings of the same family. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Among those who provided self-report data, the prevalence of infertility was 46.0% in survivors versus 17.5% in siblings (RR=2.64, 95% CI 1.88-3.70, p < 0.001). Of survivors who met the definition for infertility, 37% had reported at least one pregnancy with a female partner that resulted in a live birth. In a multivariable analysis, risk factors for infertility included an alkylating agent dose score (AAD) ≥ 3 (RR= 2.13, 95% CI 1.69-2.68 for AAD ≥ 3 versus AAD<3), surgical excision of any organ of the genital tract (RR=1.63, 95% CI 1.20-2.21), testicular radiation ≥ 4Gy (RR=1.99, 95% CI 1.52-2.61), and exposure to bleomycin (RR=1.55, 95% CI 1.20-2.01). Conclusion Many survivors who experience infertility father their own children suggesting episodes of both fertility and infertility. This and the novel association of infertility with bleomycin warrant further investigation. Implications for Cancer Survivors Though infertility is common, male survivors reporting infertility often father their own children. Bleomycin may pose some fertility risk. PMID:24711092

  4. Physics Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1978. [ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This report contains information on the Holifield Heavy-Ion Research Facility, nuclear physics, nuclear physics with neutrons, theoretical physics, the Nuclear Data Project, accelerator-based atomic physics, magnetic fusion energy-applied physics research, electron spectroscopy, and high-energy physics, as well as lists of publications, papers presented at meetings, and other general information. Sixty-two items containing significant information were abstracted and indexed individually. (RWR)

  5. Reversal of childhood idiopathic scoliosis in an adult, without surgery: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawes Martha C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some patients with mild or moderate thoracic scoliosis (Cobb angle Case presentation A diagnosis of thoracic scoliosis (Cobb angle 45 degrees with pectus excavatum and thoracic hypokyphosis in a female patient (DOB 9/17/52 was made in June 1964. Immediate spinal fusion was strongly recommended, but the patient elected a daily home exercise program taught during a 6-week period of training by a physical therapist. This regime was carried out through 1992, with daily aerobic exercise added in 1974. The Cobb angle of the primary thoracic curvature remained unchanged. Ongoing clinical symptoms included dyspnea at rest and recurrent respiratory infections. A period of multimodal treatment with clinical monitoring and treatment by an osteopathic physician was initiated when the patient was 40 years old. This included deep tissue massage (1992-1996; outpatient psychological therapy (1992-1993; a daily home exercise program focused on mobilization of the chest wall (1992-2005; and manipulative medicine (1994-1995, 1999-2000. Progressive improvement in chest wall excursion, increased thoracic kyphosis, and resolution of long-standing respiratory symptoms occurred concomitant with a >10 degree decrease in Cobb angle magnitude of the primary thoracic curvature. Conclusion This report documents improved chest wall function and resolution of respiratory symptoms in response to nonsurgical approaches in an adult female, diagnosed at age eleven years with idiopathic scoliosis.

  6. Case report: Physical therapy management of axial dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voos, Mariana Callil; Oliveira, Tatiana de Paula; Piemonte, Maria Elisa Pimentel; Barbosa, Egberto Reis

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have described physical therapy approaches to provide functional independence and reduce pain in individuals with dystonia. This report describes the physical therapy treatment of a 46-year-old woman diagnosed with idiopathic segmental axial dystonia. For two years, the patient was treated with kinesiotherapy (active and resisted movements and stretching of neck and trunk muscles), abdominal taping (kinesiotaping techniques), functional training, and sensory tricks. She was assessed with parts I, II and III of Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS-I, TWSTRS-II and TWSTRS-III), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Six-Minute Walk Test (6-MWT), and the motor domain of Functional Independence Measure (FIM-motor) before and after the two-year treatment and after the one year follow-up. Postural control and symmetry improved (TWSTRS-I: from 30 to 18), functional independence increased (TWSTRS-II: from 27 to 15; BBS: from 36 to 46; 6-MWT: from 0 to 480 meters (m); FIM-motor: from 59 to 81), and the pain diminished (TWSTRS-III: from 12 to 5). The functional improvement was retained after one year (TWSTRS-I: 14/35; TWRTRS-II: 12/30; TWRTRS-III: 5/20; BBS: 48/56; 6-MWT: 450 m; FIM-motor: 81/91). This program showed efficacy on providing a better control of the dystonic muscles and thus the doses of botulinum toxin needed to treat them could be reduced. Outcomes support the therapeutic strategies used to deal with this type of dystonia.

  7. The Limits of Autonomy: The Belmont Report and the History of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Tamar W.; Gutmann, Myron P.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research recommendations on children as research subjects in the context of the history of American childhood. The Commission's deliberations took place during the post-World War II period of rapid changes in understandings of childhood and adolescence, brought on in part by school children's highly visible roles as risk-taking protagonists in the polio vaccine trials and the civil rights movement; by the children's rights movement and court decisions granting children and adolescents greater autonomy in divorce cases and in delinquency and mental health hearings, among other rights; and finally by a renewed movement for child protection led by parents of disabled children and by polio survivors themselves. The National Commission's final recommendations emphasized the need for parents to approve, for children above age seven to assent to research, and for children in special care (either medical, psychiatric, or because they were orphans or had committed juvenile crimes) generally to be subjects of research only if there was some direct connection between the reasons for their special care and the objectives of the research. Ultimately, in these recommendations, the National Commission charted a middle ground between the children's rights movement, which advocated enhanced self-determination for children, and the disability rights movement, which urged greater protection for children. PMID:20418274

  8. The limits of autonomy: the Belmont Report and the history of childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Tamar W; Gutmann, Myron P

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research recommendations on children as research subjects in the context of the history of American childhood. The Commission's deliberations took place during the post-World War II period of rapid changes in understandings of childhood and adolescence, brought on in part by school children's highly visible roles as risk-taking protagonists in the polio vaccine trials and the civil rights movement; by the children's rights movement and court decisions granting children and adolescents greater autonomy in divorce cases and in delinquency and mental health hearings, among other rights; and finally by a renewed movement for child protection led by parents of disabled children and by polio survivors themselves. The National Commission's final recommendations emphasized the need for parents to approve, for children above age seven to assent to research, and for children in special care (either medical, psychiatric, or because they were orphans or had committed juvenile crimes) generally to be subjects of research only if there was some direct connection between the reasons for their special care and the objectives of the research. Ultimately, in these recommendations, the National Commission charted a middle ground between the children's rights movement, which advocated enhanced self-determination for children, and the disability rights movement, which urged greater protection for children.

  9. Family-Based Behavioral Treatment for Childhood Obesity: Caretaker-Reported Barriers and Facilitators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Marker, Arwen M.; Comeaux, James; Frelier, Johannah M.; Hsia, Daniel S.; Broyles, Stephanie T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Family-based behavioral treatments are effective ways to promote children's weight management through healthy eating and exercise. However, programs typically have high attrition and low attendance. The aim of this study was to obtain in-depth caregiver input on barriers and facilitators to participate in a family-based, behavioral childhood obesity treatment program. Methods: Three focus groups were facilitated among 21 parents/guardians at 2 school-based health centers and 1 federally qualified health center. Audio recordings were transcribed and uploaded into NVivo software to assist in thematic coding. Results: Focus group participants were females aged 18-57 years, of whom 71% were black, and 81% were not married. Participants listed numerous barriers: lack of time, frustration from prior unsuccessful weight-loss attempts, and the perceived cost of healthy foods and exercise options. Facilitators included a convenient location, a supportive weight-loss program leader, and rewards for the child's progress. Conclusion: Future interventions should incorporate caregivers' perspectives to develop sustainable, feasible strategies for the treatment of childhood obesity. PMID:28331454

  10. Utilizing the salutogenic paradigm to investigate well-being among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse and other adversities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Shanta R; Rishi, Shobhana

    2017-02-26

    The long-term negative consequences of adverse childhood experiences are well documented. However, less is known about salutogenesis (well-being) among adult survivors of childhood adversity. The 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data were analyzed to assess the contribution of four health promoting factors (physical activity, smoking abstinence, educational level, social-emotional support) with positive health-related quality of life (HRQoL), among adults who retrospectively reported childhood abuse or exposure to other childhood toxic stressors (n=12,032) and separately for adults who reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Outcomes examined included positive self-rated health (good/very good/excellent); mentally unhealthy days (MUDS) and physically unhealthy days (PUDS) in the past 30 days. After controlling for demographic characteristics and existing health conditions, physical activity (pwell-being.

  11. Multiple Sclerosis: Associations Between Physical Disability and Depression Are Not Mediated by Self-Reported Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Calabrese, Pasquale; Merkt, Helene; Naegelin, Yvonne; Gerber, Markus; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the interrelatedness of physical disability, physical activity, and depression among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). We hypothesized that self-reported physical activity would mediate the effect of disability on depressive symptoms. Twenty-seven patients with MS (mean age: 49 years; 44.5% females) completed self-rating scales covering sociodemographic variables, intake of antidepressants, physical activity, and symptoms of depression; disability was measured by the Expanded Disability Status Scale. We found a higher level of disability to be significantly associated with more symptoms of depression. While higher reported physical activity was descriptively associated with lower depression scores and unrelated to Expanded Disability Status Scale, physical activity levels did not mediate the effect of disability on depressive symptoms.

  12. Relationships between Parental Education and Overweight with Childhood Overweight and Physical Activity in 9-11 Year Old Children: Results from a 12-Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuri, Stella K; Onywera, Vincent O; Tremblay, Mark S; Broyles, Stephanie T; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V; Maher, Carol; Maia, José; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Sarmiento, Olga L; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Church, Timothy S; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the high prevalence of overweight and low levels of physical activity among children has serious implications for morbidity and premature mortality in adulthood. Various parental factors are associated with childhood overweight and physical activity. The objective of this paper was to investigate relationships between parental education or overweight, and (i) child overweight, (ii) child physical activity, and (iii) explore household coexistence of overweight, in a large international sample. Data were collected from 4752 children (9-11 years) as part of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment in 12 countries around the world. Physical activity of participating children was assessed by accelerometry, and body weight directly measured. Questionnaires were used to collect parents' education level, weight, and height. Maternal and paternal overweight were positively associated with child overweight. Higher household coexistence of parent-child overweight was observed among overweight children compared to the total sample. There was a positive relationship between maternal education and child overweight in Colombia 1.90 (1.23-2.94) [odds ratio (confidence interval)] and Kenya 4.80 (2.21-10.43), and a negative relationship between paternal education and child overweight in Brazil 0.55 (0.33-0.92) and the USA 0.54 (0.33-0.88). Maternal education was negatively associated with children meeting physical activity guidelines in Colombia 0.53 (0.33-0.85), Kenya 0.35 (0.19-0.63), and Portugal 0.54 (0.31-0.96). Results are aligned with previous studies showing positive associations between parental and child overweight in all countries, and positive relationships between parental education and child overweight or negative associations between parental education and child physical activity in lower economic status countries. Relationships between maternal and paternal education and child weight status and physical activity appear to

  13. Relationships between Parental Education and Overweight with Childhood Overweight and Physical Activity in 9–11 Year Old Children: Results from a 12-Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuri, Stella K.; Onywera, Vincent O.; Tremblay, Mark S.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V.; Maher, Carol; Maia, José; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Church, Timothy S.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, the high prevalence of overweight and low levels of physical activity among children has serious implications for morbidity and premature mortality in adulthood. Various parental factors are associated with childhood overweight and physical activity. The objective of this paper was to investigate relationships between parental education or overweight, and (i) child overweight, (ii) child physical activity, and (iii) explore household coexistence of overweight, in a large international sample. Methods Data were collected from 4752 children (9–11 years) as part of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment in 12 countries around the world. Physical activity of participating children was assessed by accelerometry, and body weight directly measured. Questionnaires were used to collect parents’ education level, weight, and height. Results Maternal and paternal overweight were positively associated with child overweight. Higher household coexistence of parent-child overweight was observed among overweight children compared to the total sample. There was a positive relationship between maternal education and child overweight in Colombia 1.90 (1.23–2.94) [odds ratio (confidence interval)] and Kenya 4.80 (2.21–10.43), and a negative relationship between paternal education and child overweight in Brazil 0.55 (0.33–0.92) and the USA 0.54 (0.33–0.88). Maternal education was negatively associated with children meeting physical activity guidelines in Colombia 0.53 (0.33–0.85), Kenya 0.35 (0.19–0.63), and Portugal 0.54 (0.31–0.96). Conclusions Results are aligned with previous studies showing positive associations between parental and child overweight in all countries, and positive relationships between parental education and child overweight or negative associations between parental education and child physical activity in lower economic status countries. Relationships between maternal and paternal education

  14. Number of Women in Physics Departments: A Simulation Analysis. Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan; Ivie, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Women's representation in physics lags behind most other STEM disciplines. Currently, women make up about 13% of faculty members in all physics degree-granting departments, and there are physics departments with no women faculty members at all. These two data points are often cited as evidence of a lack of equity for women. In this article,…

  15. Childhood Roots of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Norman F.; Lubensky, Amy W.

    1976-01-01

    Earlier project reports compared childhood social behavior of nonmigratory schizophrenics and normal classmates by analyzing teachers' comments in school records. This article expands the sample to include migratory schizophrenics and analyzes childhood intellectual functioning. Behavioral differences indicated emotional immaturity and social…

  16. Differential Influences of Parenting Dimensions and Parental Physical Abuse during Childhood on Overweight and Obesity in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Mößle; Sören Kliem; Anna Lohmann; Marie Christine Bergmann; Dirk Baier

    2017-01-01

    Besides other explanatory variables, parenting styles and parental violence might also be responsible for setting a path towards overweight/obesity in childhood. While this association has consistently been observed for adults, findings for adolescents still remain scarce and inconsistent. Therefore, the goal of this study is to add evidence on this topic for children and adolescents. Analyses are based on a sample of 1729 German, ninth-grade students. To analyze associations between parentin...

  17. The Impact of Childhood Adversity on the Clinical Features of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Recent research has drawn attention to the link between childhood maltreatment and schizophrenia. Child abuse and neglect may have an impact on symptoms and physical health in these patients. This association has not been studied to date in India. Materials and Methods. Clinically stable patients with schizophrenia (n = 62) were assessed for childhood adversity using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The association of specific forms of adversity with symptomatology and associated variables was examined. Results. Emotional abuse was reported by 56.5% patients and physical abuse by 33.9%; scores for childhood neglect were also high. Persecutory delusions were linked to physical abuse, while anxiety was linked to emotional neglect and depression to emotional abuse and childhood neglect. Physical abuse was linked to elevated systolic blood pressure, while emotional abuse and neglect in women were linked to being overweight. Conclusions. Childhood adversity is common in schizophrenia and appears to be associated with a specific symptom profile. Certain components of the metabolic syndrome also appear to be related to childhood adversity. These results are subject to certain limitations as they are derived from remitted patients, and no control group was used for measures of childhood adversity.

  18. The Impact of Childhood Adversity on the Clinical Features of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Philip Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Recent research has drawn attention to the link between childhood maltreatment and schizophrenia. Child abuse and neglect may have an impact on symptoms and physical health in these patients. This association has not been studied to date in India. Materials and Methods. Clinically stable patients with schizophrenia (n=62 were assessed for childhood adversity using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The association of specific forms of adversity with symptomatology and associated variables was examined. Results. Emotional abuse was reported by 56.5% patients and physical abuse by 33.9%; scores for childhood neglect were also high. Persecutory delusions were linked to physical abuse, while anxiety was linked to emotional neglect and depression to emotional abuse and childhood neglect. Physical abuse was linked to elevated systolic blood pressure, while emotional abuse and neglect in women were linked to being overweight. Conclusions. Childhood adversity is common in schizophrenia and appears to be associated with a specific symptom profile. Certain components of the metabolic syndrome also appear to be related to childhood adversity. These results are subject to certain limitations as they are derived from remitted patients, and no control group was used for measures of childhood adversity.

  19. Self-reported prevalence of childhood allergic diseases in three cities of China: a multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jing

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies conducted during the 1990s indicated that childhood allergic diseases were increasing worldwide, but more recent investigations in some Western countries have suggested that the trend is stabilizing or may even be reversing. However, few data are available on the current status of allergic disease prevalence in Chinese children. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence rates of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema in children of three major cities of China, to determine the status of allergic diseases among Chinese children generally, and to evaluate the prevalence of allergic diseases in children of different ages. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey between October 2008 and May 2009 in three major cities of China (Beijing, Chongqing, and Guangzhou to evaluate the prevalence rates of childhood allergic diseases including asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema, using a questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC group. A total of 24,290 children aged 0-14 years were interviewed, using a multi-stage sampling method. To acquire data on children aged 3-14 years, we visited schools and kindergartens. To access children too young to attend school or kindergarten, we extended our survey to community health service centers. Each questionnaire was completed by a parent or guardian of a child after an informed consent form was signed. Results Of the 24,290 children in our study, 12,908 (53.14% were males and 11,382 (46.86% females; 10,372 (42.70% were from Beijing, 9,846 (40.53% from Chongqing, and 4,072 (16.77% from Guangzhou. Our survey indicated that in Beijing, Chongqing, and Guangzhou, the prevalence rates of asthma were 3.15%, 7.45%, and 2.09%, respectively; the rates of allergic rhinitis were 14.46%, 20.42%, and 7.83%; and the rates of eczema were 20.64%, 10.02%, and 7.22%. The prevalence of allergic diseases varied with age. Asthma was

  20. Industrial safety and applied health physics. Annual report, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    In connection with personnel monitoring, there were no external or internal exposures to personnel which exceeded the standards for radiation protection as defined in DOE Manual Chapter 0524. Only 55 employees received whole-body dose equivalent of one rem or greater. The highest whole-body dose equivalent to an employee was 2.8 rem. The highest internal exposure was less than one-half of a maximum permissible dose for any calendar quarter. During 1979, 57 portable health physics instruments were added to the inventory and 75 retired. The total number in service on January 1, 1979, was 977. With regards to environmental monitoring, there were no releases of gaseous waste from the Laboratory which were of a level that required an incident report to DOE. There were no releases of liquid radioactive waste from the Laboratory which were of a level that required an incident report to DOE. Soil samples were collected at all perimeter and remote monitoring stations and analyzed for eleven radionuclides including plutonium and uranium. Plutonium-239 content ranged from 0.01 to 0.06 pCi/g, and the uranium-235 content ranged from 0.01 to 0.05 pCi/g. Grass samples were collected at all perimeter and remote monitoring stations and analyzed for twelve radionuclides including plutonium and uranium. Plutonium-239 content ranged from 0.001 to 0.010 pCi/g, and uranium-235 content ranged from 0.001 to 0.010 pCi/g. Two radiation incidents involving radioactive materials were recorded during 1979. This compares with 14 incidents in 1978. (ERB)

  1. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 2: Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Barklow, Tim; Fujii, Keisuke; Gao, Yuanning; Hoang, Andre; Kanemura, Shinya; List, Jenny; Logan, Heather E; Nomerotski, Andrei; Perelstein, Maxim; Peskin, Michael E; Pöschl, Roman; Reuter, Jürgen; Riemann, Sabine; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Servant, Geraldine; Tait, Tim M P

    2013-01-01

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to incr...

  2. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 2: Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, Howard [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Barklow, Tim [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fujii, Keisuke [National Lab. for High Energy Physics (KEK), Tokai (Japan); Gao, Yuanning [Unlisted; Hoang, Andre [Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Kanemura, Shinya [Univ. of Toyama (Japan); List, Jenny [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Logan, Heather E. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Nomerotski, Andrei [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Perelstein, Maxim [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Peskin, Michael E. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Pöschl, Roman [Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France). Linear Accelerator Lab. (LAL); Reuter, Jürgen [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Riemann, Sabine [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Savoy-Navarro, Aurore [CNRS/IN2P3. Univ. Paris (France). Observatoire de Paris. AstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC); Servant, Geraldine [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Tait, Tim P. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Yu, Jaehoon [Univ. of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China)

    2013-06-26

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to increase significantly our understanding of the fundamental processes that govern the evolution of the Universe.

  3. Prospective association of childhood receptive vocabulary and conduct problems with self-reported adolescent delinquency: tests of mediation and moderation in sibling-comparison analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Van Hulle, Carol A; Rathouz, Paul J

    2014-11-01

    Associations among receptive vocabulary measured at 4-9 years, mother-reported childhood conduct problems at 4-9 years, and self-reported adolescent delinquency at 14-17 years were assessed using data from a prospective study of the offspring of a large U.S. nationally representative sample of women. A novel quasi-experimental strategy was used to rule out family-level confounding by estimating path-analytic associations within families in a sibling comparison design. This allowed simultaneous tests of the direct and indirect effects of receptive vocabulary and childhood conduct problems, and of their joint moderation, on adolescent delinquency without family-level environmental confounding. The significant association of receptive vocabulary with later adolescent delinquency was indirect, mediated by childhood conduct problems. Furthermore, a significant interaction between receptive vocabulary and childhood conduct problems reflected a steeper slope for the predictive association between childhood conduct problems and adolescent delinquency when receptive vocabulary scores were higher. These findings of significant indirect association were qualitatively identical in both population-level and within-family analyses, suggesting that they are not the result of family-level confounds.

  4. Childhood-onset (Juvenile Huntington′s disease: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash Chandra Patra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington′s disease (HD is a rare dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized clinically by a combination of abnormal involuntary (choreic movements, neuropsychiatric manifestations, and dementia. It is caused by an unstable CAG repeat expansion in the gene IT15 which encodes a Huntingtin protein. We present a case of a 9 year old boy who had developmental regression starting from the age of 8 years of age along with resistant seizures and signs of cerebellar involvement with absence of chorea and is on anticonvulsants, baclofen, and tetrabenzine. As is expected in a case of childhood-onset HD, our patient is rapidly deteriorating and is currently in the terminal phase of his illness along with resistant convulsions.

  5. Concordance Between Self-Reported Childhood Maltreatment Versus Case Record Reviews for Child Welfare-Affiliated Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U; Trickett, Penelope K

    2017-02-01

    The present study used data from an ongoing longitudinal study of the effects of maltreatment on adolescent development to (1) describe rates of maltreatment experiences obtained from retrospective self-report versus case record review for adolescents with child welfare-documented maltreatment histories, (2) examine self-reported versus child welfare-identified maltreatment in relation to mental health and risk behavior outcomes by maltreatment type, and (3) examine the association between the number of different types of maltreatment and mental health and risk behavior outcomes. Maltreatment was coded from case records using the Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI) and participants were asked at mean age = 18.49 about childhood maltreatment experiences using the Comprehensive Trauma Interview (CTI). Results showed that an average of 48% of maltreatment found by the MCRAI for each type of maltreatment were unique cases not captured by the CTI, whereas an average of 40% self-reported maltreatment (CTI) was not indicated by the MCRAI. Analyses with outcomes showed generally, self-reported maltreatment, regardless of concordance with MCRAI, was related to the poorest outcomes. The difference in associations with the outcomes indicates both self-report and case record review data may have utility depending on the outcomes being assessed.

  6. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities. Semi-annual progress report, July 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norem, J.; Bajt, D.; Rezmer, R.; Wagner, R.

    1996-10-01

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period July 1, 1995 - December 31, 1995. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of division publications and colloquia are included.

  7. Epidemics of overweight and obesity among growing childhood in China between 1997 and 2009: Impact of Family Income, Dietary Intake, and Physical Activity Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chang; Zhang, Bing; Wang, You-Fa; Jia, Xiao-Fang; Xue, Hong; Wang, Hui-Jun

    2015-07-20

    Obesity has become a major health problem among children and adolescents worldwide. This study aimed to examine the trends of overweight and obesity among childhood in China and assess their associations with family income, dietary intake, and physical activity (PA) between 1997 and 2009. Two waves of cross-sectional data of Chinese children and adolescents aged 7-17 years from the China Health and Nutrition Survey were used. Weight and height were measured following standardized procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by 3 consecutive 24-h recalls. Childhood overweight and obesity were defined using the International Obesity Task Force-recommended body mass index cut-offs. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine the associations of family income with diet intakes and PA. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the associations of overweight and obesity with family income, dietary intake, and PA. The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased from 12.6% in 1997 to 22.1% in 2009, particularly in the medium- and high-family income groups, which increased by 102.7% and 90.3%, respectively. Higher fat intake (% energy), and moderate and vigorous PA were significantly associated with overweight and obesity in final model (odds ratio [OR] = 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-1.02, P = 0.004; and OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.98-1.00, P = 0.036, respectively). The prevalence of overweight and obesity among Chinese children and adolescents has increased between 1997 and 2009. Reducing fat intake and increasing PA may help obesity prevention.

  8. Epidemics of overweight and obesity among growing childhood in China between 1997 and 2009: Impact of Family Income, Dietary Intake, and Physical Activity Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chang; Zhang, Bing; Wang, You-Fa; Jia, Xiao-Fang; Xue, Hong; Wang, Hui-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become a major health problem among children and adolescents worldwide. This study aimed to examine the trends of overweight and obesity among childhood in China and assess their associations with family income, dietary intake, and physical activity (PA) between 1997 and 2009. Methods: Two waves of cross-sectional data of Chinese children and adolescents aged 7–17 years from the China Health and Nutrition Survey were used. Weight and height were measured following standardized procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by 3 consecutive 24-h recalls. Childhood overweight and obesity were defined using the International Obesity Task Force-recommended body mass index cut-offs. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine the associations of family income with diet intakes and PA. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the associations of overweight and obesity with family income, dietary intake, and PA. Results: The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased from 12.6% in 1997 to 22.1% in 2009, particularly in the medium- and high-family income groups, which increased by 102.7% and 90.3%, respectively. Higher fat intake (% energy), and moderate and vigorous PA were significantly associated with overweight and obesity in final model (odds ratio [OR] = 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00–1.02, P = 0.004; and OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.98–1.00, P = 0.036, respectively). Conclusions: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among Chinese children and adolescents has increased between 1997 and 2009. Reducing fat intake and increasing PA may help obesity prevention. PMID:26168826

  9. Epidemics of overweight and obesity among growing childhood in China between 1997 and 2009: Impact of Family Income, Dietary Intake, and Physical Activity Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Su; Bing Zhang; You-Fa Wang; Xiao-Fang Jia; Hong Xue; Hui-Jun Wang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Obesity has become a major health problem among children and adolescents worldwide.This study aimed to examine the trends of overweight and obesity among childhood in China and assess their associations with family income,dietary intake,and physical activity (PA) between 1997 and 2009.Methods:Two waves of cross-sectional data of Chinese children and adolescents aged 7-17 years from the China Health and Nutrition Survey were used.Weight and height were measured following standardized procedures.Dietary intake was assessed by 3 consecutive 24-h recalls.Childhood overweight and obesity were defined using the International Obesity Task Force-recommended body mass index cut-offs.Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine the associations of family income with diet intakes and PA.Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the associations of overweight and obesity with family income,dietary intake,and PA.Results:The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased from 12.6% in 1997 to 22.1% in 2009,particularly in the medium-and high-family income groups,which increased by 102.7% and 90.3%,respectively.Higher fat intake (% energy),and moderate and vigorous PA were significantly associated with overweight and obesity in final model (odds ratio [OR] =1.01,95% confidence interval [CI]:1.00-1.02,P =0.004;and OR =0.99,95% CI:0.98-1.00,P =0.036,respectively).Conclusions:The prevalence of overweight and obesity among Chinese children and adolescents has increased between 1997 and 2009.Reducing fat intake and increasing PA may help obesity prevention.

  10. Management of childhood brain tumors: consensus report by the Pediatric Hematology Oncology (PHO) Chapter of Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sunil; Yadav, Satya Prakash; Suri, Vaishali; Patir, Rana; Kurkure, Purna; Kellie, Stewart; Sachdeva, Anupam

    2011-12-01

    Brain tumors are the second most common childhood tumors and remain the leading cause of cancer related deaths in children. Appropriate diagnosis and management of these tumors are essential to improve survival. There are no clinical practical guidelines available for the management of brain tumors in India. This document is a consensus report prepared after a National Consultation on Pediatric Brain Tumors held in Delhi on 06 Nov 2008. The meeting was attended by eminent experts from all over the country, in the fields of Neurosurgery, Radiation Oncology, Pediatric Oncology, Neuropathology, Diagnostic Imaging, Pediatric Endocrinology and Allied Health Professionals. This article highlights that physicians looking after children with brain tumors should work as part of a multidisciplinary team to improve the survival, quality of life, neuro-cognitive outcomes and standards of care for children with brain tumors. Recommendations for when to suspect, diagnostic workup, initial management, long-term follow up and specific management of individual tumors are outlined.

  11. Physics Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, A.B. (ed.)

    1988-03-01

    The activities of this Division are concentrated in the areas of experimental nuclear physics, experimental atomic physics, and theoretical nuclear and atomic physics. A major activity within the Division is operation of the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility as a national user facility. Highlights for this year, which include a record number of beam hours provided for research, are summarized. The experimental nuclear physics program continues to be dominated by research utilizing heavy ions. These activities, while continuing to center largely on the Holifield Facility, have seen growth in the use of facilities that provide intermediate energies (GANIL) and ultrarelativistic beams (CERN). The UNISOR program, since its inception, has been intimately associated with the Division and, most particularly, with the Holifield Facility. The experimental nuclear structure research of this consortium is included. In addition to the Holifield Facility, the Division also operates two smaller facilities, the EN Tandem and the ECR Ion Source Facility, as /open quotes/User Resources/close quotes/. The tandem continues a long history of supporting research in accelerator-based atomic physics. During this past year, new beam lines have been added to the ECR ion source to create user opportunities for atomic physics experiments with this unique device. These two facilities and the experimental programs in atomic physics are discussed. The efforts in theoretical physics, covering both nuclear and atomic physics, are presented. Also included is the theory effort in support of the UNISOR structure program. In addition to research with multicharged heavy ions from the ECR source, the effort on atomic physics in support of the controlled fusion program includes a plasma diagnostics development program and operation of an atomic physics data center. The nuclear physics program also operates a compilation and evaluation effort; this work is also described.

  12. Working group report: Physics at the Large Hadron Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D K Ghosh; A Nyffeler; V Ravindran

    2011-05-01

    This is a summary of the activities of the Physics at the LHC working group in the XIth Workshop on High Energy Physics Phenomenology (WHEPP-XI) held at the Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, India in January 2010. We discuss the activities of each sub-working group on physics issues at colliders such as Tevatron and Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The main issues discussed involve (1) results on W mass measurement and associated QCD uncertainties, (2) an attempt to understand the asymmetry measured at Tevatron in the top quark production, and (3) phenomenology of warped space dimension model.

  13. Correlates of Agreement between Accelerometry and Self-reported Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerin, Ester; Cain, Kelli L; Oyeyemi, Adewale L

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Understanding factors that influence accurate assessment of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) is important to measurement development, epidemiologic studies, and interventions. This study examined agreement between self-reported (International Physical Activity Questionn...

  14. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PHYSICAL EDUCATION STUDENTS' MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES, ENJOYMENT, STATE ANXIETY, AND SELF-REPORTED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Yli-Piipari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze motivational profiles based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 2000 and how these profiles are related to physical education students' enjoyment, state anxiety, and physical activity. The participants, 429 sixth grade students (girls = 216; boys = 213 completed SMS, Sport Enjoyment Scale, PESAS, and Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses identified two motivational profiles: 1 the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2 the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation. The students in the first cluster enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active. The results revealed that students may be motivated towards physical education lessons both intrinsically and extrinsically, and still experience enjoyment in physical education.

  15. Role of childhood traumatic experience in personality disorders in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, TianHong; Chow, Annabelle; Wang, LanLan; Dai, YunFei; Xiao, ZePing

    2012-08-01

    There has been no large-scale examination of the association between types of childhood abuse and personality disorders (PDs) in China using standardized assessment tools and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. Hence, this study aimed to explore the relationship between retrospective reports of various types of childhood maltreatments and current DSM-IV PDs in a clinical population in China, Shanghai. One thousand four hundred two subjects were randomly sampled from the Shanghai Psychological Counselling Centre. PDs were assessed using the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire, Fourth Edition Plus. Participants were also interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV axis II. The Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to assess childhood maltreatment in 5 domains (emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect). According to Pearson correlations, childhood maltreatment had a strong association with most PDs. Subsequently, using partial correlations, significant relationships were also demonstrated between cluster B PDs and all the traumatic factors except physical neglect. A strongest positive correlation was found between cluster B PD and CTQ total scores (r = .312, P traumatic experiences are strongly related to the development of PDs. The effects of childhood maltreatment in the 3 clusters of PDs are different. Childhood trauma has the most significant impact on cluster B PD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Examining Childhood Maltreatment and School Bullying Among Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study From Anhui Province in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Geng-Fu; Jiang, Liu; Wang, Lu-Han; Hu, Guo-Yun; Fang, Yu; Yuan, Shan-Shan; Wang, Xiu-Xiu; Su, Pu-Yu

    2016-05-03

    Although a body of research has established the relationship between childhood maltreatment and bullying in Western culture backgrounds, few studies have examined the association between childhood maltreatment experiences and bullying in China. Moreover, to date, the relationship between multiple types of childhood maltreatment and cyber bullying is poorly understood. This study examined the association between multiple types of childhood maltreatment (physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect) and multiple forms of school bullying (physical, verbal, relational, and cyber). A cross-sectional study using three-stage random cluster-sampling approach was conducted in Tongling, Chuzhou, and Fuyang, in Anhui Province. Self-reported questionnaires were completed by 5,726 middle school students to assess their school bullying involvement and childhood maltreatment experiences. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to explore the relationship between each single type of childhood maltreatment and each single form of school bullying. Each type of childhood maltreatment was associated with increased risk for involvement in each form of bullying as bullies, victims, and bully-victims. Specifically, both childhood physical neglect and emotional neglect were associated with increased risk for involvement in each form of school bullying. Each type of childhood maltreatment was associated with involvement in cyber bullying. Students who experienced multiple types of childhood maltreatment seem to report more forms of school bullying. Furthermore, multiple forms of school bullying caused the co-occurrence of several forms of school bullying. Our results indicated a significant association between school bullying and childhood maltreatment among adolescents. Interventions to reduce school bullying encompassing prevention toward childhood maltreatment might get better results in China. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Positive affect, childhood adversity, and psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl W. Etter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background : Low positive affect is closely related to common pathological responses to childhood adversity, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression, but little is known about how the characteristics of early adversity experiences might be related to positive affect in adulthood. Objective : This study aimed to explore whether low positive affect is related to specific childhood adversities, including abuse, neglect, caretaker dysfunction, and low childhood social support. Method : Using structured interviews and self-report measure data collected from 173 adult psychiatric inpatients, this study examined the relationship between positive affect and symptoms of psychopathology, as well as how the number of types of abuse experienced, severity of adversity types (physical abuse and sexual abuse, childhood environment (childhood social support, neglect, and caretaker dysfunction, and number of non-abuse traumas related to positive affect. Results: Positive affect was significantly negatively related to several symptoms of psychopathology, including depression, dissociation, self-destructive behavior, PTSD, and global psychopathology. Individuals who experienced both physical and sexual abuse reported significantly less positive affect than those with only physical or no abuse experiences. Lower positive affect was predicted by lower childhood social support and greater severity of sexual abuse, with both factors accounting for unique variance in positive affect. Conclusion : These results suggest that individuals who experience multiple types of early adversity, more severe sexual abuse experiences, and less social support are at risk of psychological difficulties. Given the relatively strong association between positive affect and childhood social support, interventions to foster social support may be a means of increasing positive affect among individuals exposed to childhood adversity.

  18. Positive affect, childhood adversity, and psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Darryl W; Gauthier, Justin R; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth; Cloitre, Marylene; Carlson, Eve B

    2013-01-01

    Low positive affect is closely related to common pathological responses to childhood adversity, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, but little is known about how the characteristics of early adversity experiences might be related to positive affect in adulthood. This study aimed to explore whether low positive affect is related to specific childhood adversities, including abuse, neglect, caretaker dysfunction, and low childhood social support. Using structured interviews and self-report measure data collected from 173 adult psychiatric inpatients, this study examined the relationship between positive affect and symptoms of psychopathology, as well as how the number of types of abuse experienced, severity of adversity types (physical abuse and sexual abuse), childhood environment (childhood social support, neglect, and caretaker dysfunction), and number of non-abuse traumas related to positive affect. Positive affect was significantly negatively related to several symptoms of psychopathology, including depression, dissociation, self-destructive behavior, PTSD, and global psychopathology. Individuals who experienced both physical and sexual abuse reported significantly less positive affect than those with only physical or no abuse experiences. Lower positive affect was predicted by lower childhood social support and greater severity of sexual abuse, with both factors accounting for unique variance in positive affect. These results suggest that individuals who experience multiple types of early adversity, more severe sexual abuse experiences, and less social support are at risk of psychological difficulties. Given the relatively strong association between positive affect and childhood social support, interventions to foster social support may be a means of increasing positive affect among individuals exposed to childhood adversity.

  19. The Hundred Languages of Children Exhibition: A Unique Early Childhood Education Professional Development Program. Final Evaluation Report (September 15 to December 15, 1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Shareen; Huggins, Joyce M.

    The "Exhibition of the Hundred Languages of Children" (HLC) was organized in the early 1980s by the early childhood schools in Reggio Emilia, Italy to promote the study of their educational methods and to reveal the potential of young children for learning and creative expression. This report details an evaluation of the exhibition and…

  20. Evaluation of the Infant/Toddler Systems Building Initiative: Final Report for the Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation Program, June 2006-June 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Jones, Janell; Townsend, Maria Zeglen

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes key activities and contributions and offers recommendations for project operations. The pilot project was very successful in building a solid foundation for the Early Childhood Mental Health (ECMH) Consultation Program. Practitioners and other regional stakeholders clearly indicated that the project is providing a much…

  1. Nutrition in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolo, Marie Claire

    2014-01-01

    Childhood is the stage in a human’s life associated with growth and development. Growth proceeds rapidly in early life, slows down in middle childhood and accelerates at puberty before linear growth ceases. With increasing age there is also physical and psychomotor maturation, which influences activity, body composition, feeding skills and food choices (Geissler, 2011). Adequate nutrition is essential for growth, health and development of children. Poor nutrition in...

  2. Obstacles and Enablers on the Way towards Integrated Physical Activity Policies for Childhood Obesity Prevention: An Exploration of Local Policy Officials’ Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Marie Hendriks

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Limited physical activity (PA is a risk factor for childhood obesity. In Netherlands, as in many other countries worldwide, local policy officials bear responsibility for integrated PA policies, involving both health and nonhealth domains. In practice, its development seems hampered. We explore which obstacles local policy officials perceive in their effort. Methods. Fifteen semistructured interviews were held with policy officials from health and nonhealth policy domains, working at strategic, tactic, and operational level, in three relatively large municipalities. Questions focused on exploring perceived barriers for integrated PA policies. The interviews were deductively coded by applying the Behavior Change Ball framework. Findings. Childhood obesity prevention appeared on the governmental agenda and all officials understood the multicausal nature. However, operational officials had not yet developed a tradition to develop integrated PA policies due to insufficient boundary-spanning skills and structural and cultural differences between the domains. Tactical level officials did not sufficiently support intersectoral collaboration and strategic level officials mainly focused on public-private partnerships. Conclusion. Developing integrated PA policies is a bottom-up innovation process that needs to be supported by governmental leaders through better guiding organizational processes leading to such policies. Operational level officials can assist in this by making progress in intersectoral collaboration visible.

  3. 76 FR 43851 - Large Trader Reporting for Physical Commodity Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ...,'' 75 FR 80174, December 21, 2010. With regard to the definition of ``reporting entity,'' FIA and the... reporting entities by limiting the set of reportable swaps, the Commission has amended the definition to... regulations, Better Markets suggested additional reporting fields, arguing that reporting entities should...

  4. Impact of chronic disease on emotional distress in adult survivors of childhood cancer: A report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuotto, Stefanie C; Krull, Kevin R; Li, Chenghong; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Green, Daniel M; Patel, Sunita K; Srivastava, Deokumar; Stovall, Marilyn; Ness, Kirsten K; Armstrong, Gregory T; Robison, Leslie L; Brinkman, Tara M

    2017-02-01

    The current study was performed to examine associations between childhood cancer therapies, chronic health conditions, and symptoms of emotional distress in adult survivors of childhood cancer. Participants included 5021 adult survivors of childhood cancer (mean age, 32.0 years [standard deviation, 7.6 years] with a time since diagnosis of 23.2 years [standard deviation, 4.5 years]) who completed measures assessing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress. Cardiac, pulmonary, and endocrine conditions were graded using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 4.03; grades 1-4). Structural equation modeling was used to examine hypothesized pathways between cancer treatment exposures, chronic health conditions, and symptoms of emotional distress. Multivariable models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) for associations between chronic health conditions and distress. Survivors with cardiovascular, endocrine, or pulmonary conditions were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of emotional distress symptoms. In path analyses and multivariable models, significant effects were observed between endocrine (β = .12 [P = .002] and RR, 1.3 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.1-1.6]) and pulmonary (β = .13 [Pcancer therapies contribute to emotional distress in adult survivors. Targeted mental health screening efforts in this at-risk population appear warranted. Therapeutic approaches should consider the complex interplay between chronic health conditions and symptoms of emotional distress. Cancer 2017;123:521-528. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  5. Childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia expressing "Ia-like" antigen:" a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupa, A; Beckman, I G; Bradley, J; Moore, H; Thomas, M; Zola, H; Cheney, K; Rice, M; Toogood, I

    1982-01-01

    A 4-year-old girl presenting with vomiting, abdominal pain, and renal failure was found to have gross hepatosplenomegaly, a renal mass, and bilateral pleural effusions. A diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) was suggested by a peripheral white cell count (WCC) of 119,000 x 10(6)mm3, 57% blasts, 22% lymphocytes, and confirmed by bone marrow examination. Lymphocyte surface marker studies at diagnosis enabled classification as a T-ALL, with a significant proportion of the T cells also bearing receptors for the third component of complement (C3). Seventy-two percent of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells reacted with anti-Ia monoclonal antibody (FMC44), and a smaller proportion (25%) carried receptors for the Fc portion of IgG. The T-classification of this ALL was verified at central nervous system (CNS) relapse and at a subsequent nodal relapse. Double-marker studies on cells from the infiltrated lymph node prepared in suspension confirmed the presence of Ia-positive T cells. The Ia marker is usually a useful discriminant between T and non-T cells in normal and ALL cell populations. The case described here highlights the need for a panel of markers to be used in classification of childhood ALL and supports the suggestion that there is a distinct subtype of Ia-positive T-ALL.

  6. Associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and glycemic control in a large cohort of adolescents with type 1 diabetes: the Hvidoere Study Group on Childhood Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aman, J; Skinner, T C; de Beaufort, C E

    2009-01-01

    whether differences in physical activity or sedentary behavior could explain the variation in metabolic outcomes between centers. METHODS: An observational cross-sectional international study in 21 centers, with demographic and clinical data obtained by questionnaire from participants. Hemoglobin A1c (Hb...... in reported physical activity (p sedentary behavior (p

  7. Relationships between physical education students' motivational profiles, enjoyment, state anxiety, and self-reported physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze motivational profiles based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 2000) and how these profiles are related to physical education students' enjoyment, state anxiety, and physical activity. The participants, 429 sixth grade students (girls = 216; boys = 213) completed SMS, Sport Enjoyment Scale, PESAS, and Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses identified two motivational profiles: 1) the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation. The students in the first cluster enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active. The results revealed that students may be motivated towards physical education lessons both intrinsically and extrinsically, and still experience enjoyment in physical education. Key pointsTWO MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES WERE REVEALED: 1) the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation.The students in the first profile enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active than the students in the second profile.Moreover, the representatives of the "High motivation profile "experienced greater anxiety toward physical education than the representatives of the "Low motivation profile"These findings raised an interesting question whether students engaging in physical education benefit more from the presence of both self-determined and non-self-determined forms of motivation, or are the benefits higher if students are primarily self-determined?

  8. Higher Childhood Peer Reports of Social Preference Mediates the Impact of the Good Behavior Game on Suicide Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Alison R; Roth, Kimberly B; Kellam, Sheppard G; Wang, Wei; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Hart, Shelley R; Wagner, Barry M; Wilcox, Holly C

    2016-02-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a universal classroom-based preventive intervention directed at reducing early aggressive, disruptive behavior and improving children's social adaptation into the classroom. The GBG is one of the few universal preventive interventions delivered in early elementary school that has been shown to reduce the risk for future suicide attempts. This paper addresses one potential mechanism by which the GBG lowers the risk of later suicide attempt. In this study, we tested whether the GBG, by facilitating social adaptation into the classroom early on, including the level of social preference by classmates, thereby lowers future risk of suicide attempts. The measure of social adaptation is based on first and second grade peer reports of social preference ("which children do you like best?"; "which children don't you like?"). As part of the hypothesized meditational model, we examined the longitudinal association between childhood peer social preference and the risk of future suicide attempt, which has not previously been examined. Data were from an epidemiologically based randomized prevention trial, which tested the GBG among two consecutive cohorts of first grade children in 19 public schools and 41 classrooms. Results indicated that peer social preference partially mediated the relationship between the GBG and the associated reduction of risk for later suicide attempts by adulthood, specifically among children characterized by their first grade teacher as highly aggressive, disruptive. These results suggest that positive childhood peer relations may partially explain the GBG-associated reduction of risk for suicide attempts and may be an important and malleable protective factor for future suicide attempt.

  9. Social influences on self-reported physical activity in overweight Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, Sabina B; Reynolds, Erica B; Ip, Edward H; Fenlason, Lindy C; Pont, Stephen J; Poe, Eli K; Barkin, Shari L

    2008-10-01

    Psychosocial variables influence physical activity for different age groups, sex, and ethnic groups. However, little is known about their influence on physical activity in preadolescent Latino children. The authors examined how a) confidence in one's ability to be physically active (self-efficacy); b) ideas about the consequences of being physically active (beliefs), and c) the influences of family and friends on physical activity (social influences) effect physical activity levels in overweight (body mass index >or=85%) Latino preadolescent children. One hundred and fourteen preadolescents participated in a larger intervention designed to improve healthy lifestyles for Latino families. The authors report baseline data collected at a community-based primary care clinic. Multivariate regression analyses showed that only social influences significantly predicted (P < .01) the metabolic equivalent adjusted self-reported baseline physical activity. Prevention and intervention strategies that augment social influences on physical activity are likely to result in more physical activity and improved health in these children.

  10. Developmental links between trajectories of physical violence, vandalism, theft, and alcohol-drug use from childhood to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lier, Pol A C; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D; Koot, Hans M; Tremblay, Richard E

    2009-05-01

    Differences in developmental trajectories of physical violence, vandalism, theft, and alcohol-drug use from ages 10 to 15 were studied. For females and for males, three trajectories of theft and of alcohol-drug use increased from 10 years to 15 years, while only the high trajectory of vandalism increased from ten to 14. All trajectories of physical violence decreased. Children who engaged in the high trajectories of vandalism, theft, and alcohol-drug use had a high probability of also being high in physical violence. Compared to males, females were less likely to be on the high trajectory of physical violence, and their trajectories of other antisocial behaviors were less strongly associated with high levels of physical violence. The results suggest that physical violence during pre-adolescence and adolescence has a different developmental pattern than other forms of antisocial behavior, and that its relation to these other forms of antisocial behavior differs by sex.

  11. University of Washington, Nuclear Physics Laboratory annual report, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington supports a broad program of experimental physics research. The current program includes in-house research using the local tandem Van de Graff and superconducting linac accelerators and non-accelerator research in double beta decay and gravitation as well as user-mode research at large accelerator and reactor facilities around the world. This book is divided into the following areas: nuclear astrophysics; neutrino physics; nucleus-nucleus reactions; fundamental symmetries and weak interactions; accelerator mass spectrometry; atomic and molecular clusters; ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions; external users; electronics, computing, and detector infrastructure; Van de Graff, superconducting booster and ion sources; nuclear physics laboratory personnel; degrees granted for 1994--1995; and list of publications from 1994--1995.

  12. Nuclear Physics Laboratory, University of Washington annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Nuclear Physics Laboratory at the University of Washington in Seattle pursues a broad program of nuclear physics. These activities are conducted locally and at remote sites. The current programs include in-house research using the local tandem Van de Graaff and superconducting linac accelerators and non-accelerator research in solar neutrino physics at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory in Canada and at SAGE in Russia, and gravitation as well as user-mode research at large accelerators and reactor facilities around the world. Summaries of the individual research projects are included. Areas of research covered are: fundamental symmetries, weak interactions and nuclear astrophysics; neutrino physics; nucleus-nucleus reactions; ultra-relativistic heavy ions; and atomic and molecular clusters.

  13. Final Report. Research in Theoretical High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greensite, Jeffrey P. [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States); Golterman, Maarten F.L. [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Grant-supported research in theoretical high-energy physics, conducted in the period 1992-2015 is briefly described, and a full listing of published articles result from those research activities is supplied.

  14. Physics Division annual progress report, January 1-December 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trela, W.J. (comp.)

    1984-12-01

    The Physics Division is organized into three major research areas: Weapons Physics, Inertial Fusion Physics, and Basic Research. In Weapons Physics, new strategic defensive research initiatives were developed in response to President Reagan's speech in May 1983. Significant advances have been made in high-speed diagnostics including electro-optic technique, fiber-optic systems, and imaging. In Inertial Fusion, the 40-kJ Antares CO/sub 2/ laser facility was completed, and the 1- by 1- by 2-m-long large-aperture module amplifier (LAM) was constructed and operated. In Basic Research, our main emphasis was on development of the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility as a world-class pulsed neutron research facility

  15. Physics Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, A.B. (ed.)

    1991-03-01

    The activities of this Division continue to be concentrated in the areas of experimental nuclear physics, experimental atomic physics, and theoretical nuclear and atomic physics. The Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility and its operation as a national user facility continued as the single largest activity within the Division. The experimental nuclear physics program continues to emphasize heavy ion studies, with much of the activity centered at the Holifield Facility. The work with heavy ions at ultrarelativistic energies continues at the CERN SPS. Studies at the Brookhaven AGS, particularly in preparation of future experiments at RHIC, have seen an increased emphasis. A major consortium has been formed to propose the design and construction of a dimuon detector as the basis for one the principal experiments for RHIC. Also included are results from the increasing effort in particle physics, including participation in the L* proposal for the SSC. The UNISOR program, since its inception, has been associated intimately with the Division and, most particularly, with the Holifield Facility. A major area of experimental research for the Division is atomic physics. This activity comprises two groups: one on accelerator-based atomic physics, centered primarily at the EN-tandem and the Holifield Facility, but extending this year to an experiment at ultrarelativistic energies at the CERN SPS; and one on atomic physics in support of fusion energy, based primarily at the ECR ion source facility. Included in this section is also a description of a new effort in multicharged ion-surface interactions, and details of a planned upgrade of the ECR source.

  16. Definitions of Physical Concepts: A Study of Physics Teachers' Knowledge and Views. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galili, Igal; Lehavi, Yaron

    2006-01-01

    A study was made of the ability of a population of high-school physics teachers to define physics concepts and of their views regarding the importance of such definitions. It was found possible to arrange the definitions accumulated in categories, and the classification so obtained was consonant with that of the philosophy of science. Although the…

  17. Mothers' Perceived Physical Health during Early and Middle Childhood: Relations with Child Developmental Delay and Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.

    2013-01-01

    The self-perceived physical health of mothers raising children with developmental delay (DD; N = 116) or typical development (TD; N = 129) was examined across child ages 3-9 years, revealing three main findings. First, mothers of children with DD experienced poorer self-rated physical health than mothers of children with TD at each age. Latent…

  18. 4th ATLAS Physics Workshop (Athens) - Report from the Physics Sessions

    CERN Multimedia

    Kersevan, B P

    The 4th ATLAS Physics Workshop provided a showcase for studies of some of the most exciting aspects of LHC physics, both within the Standard Model and beyond. It was clear from the wide range of topics covered, from QCD studies to TeV-scale Black Hole production, that preparations are well in hand for understanding whatever Nature, and the LHC, may throw at us. The Standard Model session concentrated on QCD and Electroweak physics, which will form the core of the ATLAS physics program during the first years of LHC operation. Convenor Matt Dobbs began by summarising recent and ongoing studies and pointed out that the first ATLAS papers will aim to prove that we understand LHC physics in the regime where the Standard Model is reliable. Only then will we be able to make convincing claims for the existence of New Physics. Subsequent talks discussed our understanding of this 'bread-and-butter' physics, including minimum bias processes and underlying events (Arthur Moraes), Parton Distribution Functions (Jon Butte...

  19. Reaching the Critical Mass: The Twenty Year Surge in High School Physics. Findings from the 2005 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. AIP Report. Number R-442

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuschatz, Michael; McFarling, Mark; White, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This report traces the growth of high school physics in American school over the past twenty years. Highlights of the report include: (1) Enrollments in high school physics continue to grow; (2) Increase in number and proportion of physics teachers; (3) Number of students taking honors, advance placement or second-year physics course has nearly…

  20. Income and Physical Activity among Adults: Evidence from Self-Reported and Pedometer-Based Physical Activity Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Jaana T; Pehkonen, Jaakko; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Yang, Xiaolin; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T; Tammelin, Tuija H

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between income and physical activity by using three measures to illustrate daily physical activity: the self-reported physical activity index for leisure-time physical activity, pedometer-based total steps for overall daily physical activity, and pedometer-based aerobic steps that reflect continuous steps for more than 10 min at a time. The study population consisted of 753 adults from Finland (mean age 41.7 years; 64% women) who participated in 2011 in the follow-up of the ongoing Young Finns study. Ordinary least squares models were used to evaluate the associations between income and physical activity. The consistency of the results was explored by using register-based income information from Statistics Finland, employing the instrumental variable approach, and dividing the pedometer-based physical activity according to weekdays and weekend days. The results indicated that higher income was associated with higher self-reported physical activity for both genders. The results were robust to the inclusion of the control variables and the use of register-based income information. However, the pedometer-based results were gender-specific and depended on the measurement day (weekday vs. weekend day). In more detail, the association was positive for women and negative or non-existing for men. According to the measurement day, among women, income was positively associated with aerobic steps despite the measurement day and with totals steps measured on the weekend. Among men, income was negatively associated with aerobic steps measured on weekdays. The results indicate that there is an association between income and physical activity, but the association is gender-specific and depends on the measurement type of physical activity.