WorldWideScience

Sample records for reported child maltreatment

  1. Child Maltreatment Identification and Reporting Behavior of School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Victoria L.; Zibulsky, Jamie; Viezel, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    A majority of substantiated maltreatment reports are made by educators and thus, teacher knowledge of child maltreatment reporting mandates and reporting behavior has been a focus of research. The knowledge and behavior of school psychologists, however, has not received similar attention. This study investigated the child maltreatment reporting…

  2. Community characteristics, social service allocation, and child maltreatment reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Arieh, Asher

    2015-03-01

    This study expands research on the relationship between community (defined here as a locality) characteristics and child maltreatment. Research in this field is not new, but it is scarce. Our study is unique by examining changes between two periods rather than focusing on one point in time. Furthermore, our study examines structural conditions in small and medium size localities in Israel, a non-Western and non-Christian society. We compare our results with those from studies on inner-city and suburban neighborhoods in Western countries and earlier studies in Israel. We collected data on 169 Israeli localities, ranging from small ones (with as few as 1,500 residents) to medium size localities (i.e., towns) (with as many as 50,000 residents) in which approximately 34% of the Israeli child population resides. Our study tested four hypotheses: (1) Socioeconomic characteristics of the locality will be negatively correlated with the availability of social services; (2) Reported child maltreatment rates will be negatively correlated with the socioeconomic characteristics of the locality; (3) The availability of social services will be positively correlated with reported child maltreatment rates; and (4) Overall reported child maltreatment rates will be negatively correlated with the overall status of the localities. We have supported our second and third hypothesis in full, and partially supported our first and fourth hypothesis. In particular we have demonstrated that while demographics play a different role in Israel than in other countries in regard to child maltreatment, social, economic and cultural context are crucial for understating reported rates of child maltreatment.

  3. Self-Reports of Child Maltreatment in the U.S.: A Key Social Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, John E.

    2007-01-01

    A key social indicator of the well being of a society is the health and welfare of their children. Child maltreatment is a major problem in the U.S. and the world and the reporting of maltreatment has been the subject of much research and debate. However, little is known about self-reports of child maltreatment. Children face many obstacles that…

  4. Substantiated Reports of Child Maltreatment From the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect 2008: Examining Child and Household Characteristics and Child Functional Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Katz, Laurence Y; Tonmyr, Lil; Sareen, Jitender

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Identifying child and household characteristics that are associated with specific child maltreatment types and child functional impairment are important for informing prevention and intervention efforts. Our objectives were to examine the distribution of several child and household characteristics among substantiated child maltreatment types in Canada; to determine if a specific child maltreatment type relative to all other types was associated with increased odds of child functional impairment; and to determine which child and household characteristics were associated with child functional impairment. Method: Data were from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (collection 2008) from 112 child welfare sites across Canada (n = 6163 children). Results: Physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment were highly prevalent among children aged 10 to 15 years. For single types of child maltreatment, the highest prevalence of single-parent homes (50.6%), social assistance (43.0%), running out of money regularly (30.7%), and unsafe housing (30.9%) were reported for substantiated cases of neglect. Being male, older age, living in a single-parent home, household running out of money, moving 2 or more times in the past year, and household overcrowding were associated with increased odds of child functional impairment. Conclusions: More work is warranted to determine if providing particular resources for single-parent families, financial counselling, and facilitating adequate and stable housing for families with child maltreatment histories or at risk for child maltreatment could be effective for improving child functional outcomes. PMID:26175390

  5. Child Maltreatment Reporting by Educational Personnel: Implications for Racial Disproportionality in the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krase, Kathryn Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    African American children are disproportionally overrepresented in the U.S. child protection system. Because educational personnel are a significant source of reports of suspected child maltreatment across the country and in all states, the present study examines the impact of these reports on racial disproportionality and disparity at the…

  6. Child Maltreatment: Optimizing Recognition and Reporting by School Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kathleen S; MacKay, Peggy; Woods, Stephanie J

    2016-12-07

    School nurses perform a crucial role in the prevention, identification, intervention, and reporting of child maltreatment. The purpose of this article is to share the highlights of a research project conducted to (a) examine the effectiveness of an educational intervention program in increasing the knowledge, confidence, and self-efficacy in school nurses regarding children at risk of maltreatment; and (b) discover issues surrounding the comfort level engaging with children, communicating with teachers and other personnel, and ethical issues. The study consisted of two phases. Phase 1 was a face-to-face evidenced-based educational intervention. Focus groups implemented in Phase 2 discovered specific concerns of school nurses. Results indicate a significant increase in school nurse knowledge, confidence, and self-efficacy related to children at risk. Five themes were identified from the focus groups: the importance of interprofessional collaboration, identifiers of children at risk of maltreatment, the role of the school nurse as a mentor and leader, the importance of advancing one's knowledge and skill set, and constraints faced by school nurses.

  7. Child protection decisions to substantiate hospital child protection teams' reports of suspected maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedwab, Merav; Benbenishty, Rami; Chen, Wendy; Glasser, Saralee; Siegal, Gil; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2015-02-01

    The present study focuses on the way child protection officers (CPOs) in Israel assess suspected abuse and neglect (SCAN) reports made by hospital child protection teams (CPTs), to determine whether the alleged maltreatment is substantiated. The study was conducted in six medical centers and included 358 reports investigated by CPOs for SCAN. A structured questionnaire was completed by hospital CPTs to capture all relevant information on each child referred to the CPTs. Structured phone interviews were conducted with each of the CPOs who received a CPT report. Bivariate associations and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to estimate the substantiation rate of cases reported by CPTs and the types of maltreatment substantiated, as well as to identify case characteristics of the child and the family that were associated with the CPOs' substantiation decision. CPO follow-up investigations revealed a substantiation rate of 53.5%. The maltreatment type most commonly substantiated was neglect. The case characteristics associated with substantiation included socio-demographic background, parents' health and functioning, previous contact with social services, characteristics of the hospital referral, medical findings and an assessment of the parents' behaviors. The findings of the study highlighted the importance of cooperation between the health and welfare services and the policy makers. This cooperation is essential for identifying early signs of maltreatment. Enhanced cooperation and effective information transfer between various professionals would help prevent or at least reduce the recurrence of maltreatment and would ensure that the children and their families are treated appropriately.

  8. Comparison of Parent and Child Reports on Child Maltreatment in a Representative Household Sample in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated and compared the rates of child maltreatment as reported by parents and children. Self-reports of 1,093 children aged 12 to 18, which were matched with both parents' records, were compared and analyzed in the study. The levels of agreement between parent and child reporting of various kinds of parental child maltreatment were low to moderate. Factors affecting the disagreement in reports were also investigated. Social desirability and violence approval were the common ...

  9. Identifying Children at High Risk for a Child Maltreatment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Howard; Kim, Jeongeun; Black, Maureen M.; Weisbart, Cindy; Semiatin, Joshua; Magder, Laurence S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To help professionals identify factors that place families at risk for future child maltreatment, to facilitate necessary services and to potentially help prevent abuse and neglect. Method: The data are from a prospective, longitudinal study of 332 low-income families recruited from urban pediatric primary care clinics, followed for…

  10. Child Maltreatment Fatalities in Children under 5: Findings from the National Violence Death Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevens, Joanne; Leeb, Rebecca T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the distribution of child maltreatment fatalities of children under 5 by age, sex, race/ethnicity, type of maltreatment, and relationship to alleged perpetrator using data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS). Study design: Two independent coders reviewed information from death certificates, medical…

  11. Commitment, confidence, and concerns: Assessing health care professionals' child maltreatment reporting attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Rebecca H; Olson-Dorff, Denyse; Reiland, Hannah M; Budzak-Garza, Ann

    2017-02-24

    Given that childhood maltreatment is a significant international public health problem contributing to all major morbidity and mortality determinants, there is need to explore current practices and readiness of health care professionals (HCPs) to assess maltreatment, identify maltreatment risk factors, and complete mandated reporting. HCPs (N=114) completed a child maltreatment mandated reporting measure to assess level of comfort with mandated reporting, commitment to the reporting role, and confidence in the child protection system to take action as needed. Additional questions explored comfort discussing maltreatment and risk factors for maltreatment in a medical setting and knowledge of community resources. Results indicated that HCPs were committed to their mandated reporting role and did not perceive substantial potential negative consequences of reporting. However, there were concerns regarding lack of confidence in the system's ability to respond sufficiently to reports. Despite commitment to the reporting role, results showed that large proportions of HCPs do not routinely screen for maltreatment, feel uncomfortable discussing maltreatment history, and lack knowledge about community resources. Additional training efforts must be prioritized in health care systems to improve short- and long-term health outcomes.

  12. Concordance Between Self-Reported Childhood Maltreatment Versus Case Record Reviews for Child Welfare-Affiliated Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U; Trickett, Penelope K

    2017-02-01

    The present study used data from an ongoing longitudinal study of the effects of maltreatment on adolescent development to (1) describe rates of maltreatment experiences obtained from retrospective self-report versus case record review for adolescents with child welfare-documented maltreatment histories, (2) examine self-reported versus child welfare-identified maltreatment in relation to mental health and risk behavior outcomes by maltreatment type, and (3) examine the association between the number of different types of maltreatment and mental health and risk behavior outcomes. Maltreatment was coded from case records using the Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI) and participants were asked at mean age = 18.49 about childhood maltreatment experiences using the Comprehensive Trauma Interview (CTI). Results showed that an average of 48% of maltreatment found by the MCRAI for each type of maltreatment were unique cases not captured by the CTI, whereas an average of 40% self-reported maltreatment (CTI) was not indicated by the MCRAI. Analyses with outcomes showed generally, self-reported maltreatment, regardless of concordance with MCRAI, was related to the poorest outcomes. The difference in associations with the outcomes indicates both self-report and case record review data may have utility depending on the outcomes being assessed.

  13. The dilemma of reporting suspicions of child maltreatment in pediatric dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvist, Therese; Wickström, Anette; Miglis, Isabelle; Dahllöf, Göran

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the factors that lead specialists in pediatric dentistry to suspect child abuse or neglect and the considerations that influence the decision to report these suspicions to social services. Focus group discussions were used to identify new aspects of child maltreatment suspicion and reporting. Such discussions illuminate the diversity of informants' experiences, opinions, and reflections. Focus groups included 19 specialists and postgraduate students in pediatric dentistry. We conducted video-recorded focus group discussions at the informants' dental clinics. All sessions lasted approximately 1.5 h. We transcribed the discussions verbatim and studied the transcripts using thematic analysis, a method well-suited to evaluating the experiences discussed and how the informants understand them. The analysis process elicited key concepts and identified one main theme, which we labeled 'the dilemma of reporting child maltreatment'. We found this dilemma to pervade a variety of situations and divided it into three sub-themes: to support or report; differentiating concern for well-being from maltreatment; and the supportive or unhelpful consultation. Reporting a suspicion about child maltreatment seems to be a clinical and ethical dilemma arising from concerns of having contradicting professional roles, difficulties confirming suspicions of maltreatment, and perceived shortcomings in the child-protection system.

  14. Self reported awareness of child maltreatment among school professionals in Saudi Arabia: impact of CRC ratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlBuhairan, Fadia S; Inam, Sarah S; AlEissa, Majid A; Noor, Ismail K; Almuneef, Maha A

    2011-12-01

    The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was ratified by Saudi Arabia 15 years ago; yet addressing the issue of child maltreatment only began in more recent years. School professionals play a significant role in children's lives, as they spend a great deal of time with them and are hence essential to protecting and identifying those in danger or at risk. The objective of this study is to identify school professional's awareness of child maltreatment and the existing national policies and procedures to examine the extent of efforts made in Saudi Arabia and to activate the roles of schools and school professionals in protecting children from violence and implementation of Article 19 of the CRC. This was a cross-sectional study, where school professionals from randomly selected schools throughout the country were invited to participate in a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 3,777 school professionals participated in the study. Fifty-five percent of professionals had at least 10 years of work experience. A low-level of awareness of child maltreatment was found in about 1/3 of school professionals. Only 1.9% of school professionals had ever attended any sort of specific training on child maltreatment, though 69.3% of those who had not, were willing to attend future training. With regards to awareness of CRC Article 19 or policies and procedures addressing child maltreatment, only 22% reported being aware of it. The majority of school professionals in Saudi Arabia have a low-intermediate level of awareness of child maltreatment, ratification of CRC, and related national policies and procedures, yet most are willing to attend training programs on this subject matter. Efforts need to be made in the country to fill this gap. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Examining the Relationship between Economic Hardship and Child Maltreatment Using Data from the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2013 (OIS-2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Rachael Lefebvre; Barbara Fallon; Melissa Van Wert; Joanne Filippelli

    2017-01-01

    There is strong evidence that poverty and economic disadvantage are associated with child maltreatment; however, research in this area is underdeveloped in Canada. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between economic hardship and maltreatment for families and children identified to the Ontario child protection system for a maltreatment concern. Secondary analyses of the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2013 (OIS-2013) were conducted. The OIS-201...

  16. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K.; Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Peckins, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, often collectively called child maltreatment, are huge social problems affecting millions of children and adolescents in America. Adolescents are affected both by maltreatment which occurred during childhood with lingering effects and by maltreatment that continues into or begins in adolescence. Several decades of research…

  17. Community interaction and child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bomi; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2015-03-01

    The way in which parents interact with their environment may have implications for their likelihood of abuse and neglect. This study examines the parent-environment relationship through community involvement and perception, using social disorganization theory. We hypothesize mothers who participate in their communities and have positive perceptions of them may be less likely to maltreat their children because of the potential protective capacity of neighborhood supports. Using information from the 5 year Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n=2991), the mother's self-reported acts of psychological and physical maltreatment and neglect are measured. A mother's community involvement index is the number of community activities a mother was involved in, and community perception is measured by two five-item Likert scales assessing perception of community collective efficacy. We analyze the relationship between community variables and each of mother's maltreatment behaviors as well as the interaction between community factors using a series of nested logistic regressions. Higher levels of community involvement are associated with lower levels of psychological aggression. More positive perception of community social control is associated with lower levels of physical assault. A moderation effect of community perception suggests that a mother's perception of her community changes the relationship between community involvement and psychological child abuse. The results provide important policy and empirical implications to build positive and supportive communities as a protective factor in child maltreatment. Getting parents involved in their communities can improve the environment in which children and families develop, and decrease the likelihood that maltreatment will occur.

  18. Does Ethnicity Matter? Social Workers’ Personal Attitudes and Professional Behaviors in Reporting Child Maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Ashton

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined differences in the attitudes of professional social workers regarding corporal punishment and the perception and reporting of child maltreatment, according to the worker’s ethnic group membership (Asian, Black American, Black Caribbean, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White. Data were obtained by mailed questionnaires from 808 members of the New York City chapter of NASW. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. Results indicate that approval of corporal punishment and perception of maltreatment differed according to ethnic group membership. However, ethnicity had no effect on the likelihood of reporting maltreatment. Findings suggest that social work values override personal-culture values in the execution of job-related responsibilities. Implications for education and practice are discussed.

  19. Parent-Child Agreement on Parent-to-Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compier-de Block, Laura H C G; Alink, Lenneke R A; Linting, Mariëlle; van den Berg, Lisa J M; Elzinga, Bernet M; Voorthuis, Alexandra; Tollenaar, Marieke S; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2017-01-01

    Parent-child agreement on child maltreatment was examined in a multigenerational study. Questionnaires on perpetrated and experienced child maltreatment were completed by 138 parent-child pairs. Multi-level analyses were conducted to explore whether parents and children agreed about levels of parent-to-child maltreatment (convergence), and to examine whether parents and children reported equal levels of child maltreatment (absolute differences). Direct and moderating effects of age and gender were examined as potential factors explaining differences between parent and child report. The associations between parent- and child-reported maltreatment were significant for all subtypes, but the strength of the associations was low to moderate. Moreover, children reported more parent-to-child neglect than parents did. Older participants reported more experienced maltreatment than younger participants, without evidence for differences in actual exposure. These findings support the value of multi-informant assessment of child maltreatment to improve accuracy, but also reveal the divergent perspectives of parents and children on child maltreatment.

  20. Child maltreatment in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

    2013-11-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem.

  1. Does Ethnicity Matter? Social Workers’ Personal Attitudes and Professional Behaviors in Reporting Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This study examined differences in the attitudes of professional social workers regarding corporal punishment and the perception and reporting of child maltreatment, according to the worker’s ethnic group membership (Asian, Black American, Black Caribbean, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White). Data were obtained by mailed questionnaires from 808 members of the New York City chapter of NASW. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. Results indicate that approval of corporal punishment and perc...

  2. Child maltreatment: Abuse and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Pala

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Each year, millions of children around the world are the victims and witnesses of physical, sexual and emotional violence. Child maltreatment is a major global problem with a serious impact on the victims’ physical and mental health, well-being and development throughout their lives and, by extension, on society in general. Family physicians who are involved in the care of children are likely to encounter child abuse and should be able to recognize its common presentations. There is sufficient evidence that child maltreatment can be prevented. The ultimate goal is to stop child maltreatment before it starts.In this paper, the characteristics of the perpetrators and victims of child maltreatment, maltreatment types, risk factors, differential diagnosis and discuss about strategies for preventing were summarized.

  3. Prevalence of child maltreatment in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euser, Eveline M; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Prinzie, Peter; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2010-02-01

    The first nationwide prevalence study of child maltreatment in The Netherlands (NPM-2005) was designed as a replication of the National Incidence Studies (NISs) conducted in the United States. Child maltreatment cases were reported by 1,121 professionals from various occupational branches, trained in a detailed registration system of six types of abuse and neglect. In addition, cases registered by the Dutch Child Protection Services (CPS) were analyzed. For 2005, the overall prevalence rate was estimated to be 107,200 (95% CI 102,054-112,882) maltreated children aged 0-18 years, or 30 cases per 1,000 children. Neglect was the most prevalent type (56% of all cases) and sexual abuse had the lowest rate (4%). Of the maltreated children, 47% experienced more than one type of maltreatment. Major risk factors were very low parental education and unemployment. It is worrisome that CPS agencies only see the tip of the iceberg as only 12.6% of all maltreatment cases were reported to the CPS. Training of professionals in observing and reporting child maltreatment is badly needed. The absence of a legal obligation to report in The Netherlands needs reconsideration.

  4. Child Maltreatment and Risky Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard; Lewis, Terri; Neilson, Elizabeth C; English, Diana J; Litrownik, Alan J; Margolis, Benyamin; Proctor, Laura; Dubowitz, Howard

    2017-02-01

    Risky sexual behavior is a serious public health problem. Child sexual abuse is an established risk factor, but other forms of maltreatment appear to elevate risky behavior. The mechanisms by which child maltreatment influence risk are not well understood. This study used data from 859 high-risk youth, followed through age 18. Official reports of each form of maltreatment were coded. At age 16, potential mediators (trauma symptoms and substance use) were assessed. At age 18, risky sexual behavior (more than four partners, unprotected sex, unassertiveness in sexual refusal) was assessed. Neglect significantly predicted unprotected sex. Substance use predicted unprotected sex and four or more partners but did not mediate the effects of maltreatment. Trauma symptoms predicted unprotected sex and mediated effects of emotional maltreatment on unprotected sex and on assertiveness in sexual refusal and the effects of sexual abuse on unprotected sex. Both neglect and emotional maltreatment emerged as important factors in risky sexual behavior. Trauma symptoms appear to be an important pathway by which maltreatment confers risk for risky sexual behavior. Interventions to reduce risky sexual behavior should include assessment and treatment for trauma symptoms and for history of child maltreatment in all its forms.

  5. Child Maltreatment and Adult Substance Abuse: The Role of Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Elwyn, Laura; Smith, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a risk factor for substance abuse in adulthood. This study examines whether memory of maltreatment is a necessary link in the path leading from prospectively measured childhood maltreatment to adult substance use problems. Official Child Protective Services reports and adult retrospective recall of childhood maltreatment were used to predict illegal drug use and alcohol problems in adulthood controlling for covariates. Memory was a necessary link in the path between pros...

  6. A Longitudinal Analysis of Risk Factors for Child Maltreatment: Findings of a 17-Year Prospective Study of Officially Recorded and Self-Reported Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jocelyn; Cohen, Patricia; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Salzinger, Suzanne

    1998-01-01

    Repeated surveys assessing demographic variables, family relationships, parental behavior, and parent/child characteristics were administered to 664 families and compared with child abuse and neglect data from state records and retrospective self-reports. Analysis found maternal youth and sociopathy predicted general child maltreatment, but…

  7. Identifying indicators during pregnancy for child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Erika L; Thompson, Lindsay A; Black, Erik W; Esernio-Jenssen, Debra; Hardt, Nancy; Das, Rajeeb; Roth, Jeffrey

    2013-12-01

    To measure the effect of a short interpregnancy interval (IPI), along with other indicators routinely asked during pregnancy on later report of child maltreatment. We hypothesized that an IPI of child maltreatment. This study was a secondary analysis of a linked population-based dataset from 2005 to 2007 in Florida. Data were derived from three sources: Birth Certificates, Healthy Start Prenatal Risk Screens, and the HomeSafeNet Database. Primary predictor variables were IPI, and mothers' evaluations of the timing of the pregnancy and perceptions of harm. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the odds of child maltreatment, adjusting for demographic and other known risk factors for maltreatment. The final study sample consisted of 85,258 multipara women-infant dyads with credible IPIs and with completed Healthy Start Prenatal Risk Screens. Seventeen percent of children had a report of child maltreatment in the first 5 years of life. An IPI of less than 18 months was associated with 18 % higher odds of maltreatment compared to an IPI of greater than 18 months (95 % CI 1.13, 1.23). Mothers' perception of harm and desire to be pregnant at a later time were also significantly associated with higher odds of maltreatment report (AOR = 2.43 95 % CI = 2.17, 2.71 and AOR = 1.18 95 % CI 1.13, 1.24, respectively). Ascertaining short IPI and asking pregnant and peripartum women about their perception of harm and desire for a longer birth spacing can alert obstetricians, family practitioners and pediatricians to potential child maltreatment.

  8. Child Maltreatment and Adult Substance Abuse: The Role of Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwyn, Laura; Smith, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a risk factor for substance abuse in adulthood. This study examines whether memory of maltreatment is a necessary link in the path leading from prospectively measured childhood maltreatment to adult substance use problems. Official Child Protective Services reports and adult retrospective recall of childhood maltreatment were used to predict illegal drug use and alcohol problems in adulthood controlling for covariates. Memory was a necessary link in the path between prospective reports of maltreatment and alcohol problems, and an important link in the path between prospective reports and illegal drug use. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed.

  9. Keeping Children Safe: Afterschool Staff and Mandated Child Maltreatment Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandarilla, Maria; O'Donnell, Julie

    2014-01-01

    With 8.4 million children in the U.S. spending an average of eight hours a week in afterschool programs, afterschool providers are an important part of the network of caring adults who can help to keep children safe. In addition, afterschool staff are "mandated reporters." Whether or not the laws specifically mention afterschool staff,…

  10. Examining the Relationship between Economic Hardship and Child Maltreatment Using Data from the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2013 (OIS-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Rachael; Fallon, Barbara; Van Wert, Melissa; Filippelli, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    There is strong evidence that poverty and economic disadvantage are associated with child maltreatment; however, research in this area is underdeveloped in Canada. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between economic hardship and maltreatment for families and children identified to the Ontario child protection system for a maltreatment concern. Secondary analyses of the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2013 (OIS-2013) were conducted. The OIS-2013 examines the incidence of reported maltreatment and the characteristics of children and families investigated by child welfare authorities in Ontario in 2013. Descriptive and bivariate chi-square analyses were conducted in addition to a logistic regression predicting the substantiation of maltreatment. In 9% of investigations, the household had run out of money for food, housing, and/or utilities in the past 6 months. Children in these households were more likely to have developmental concerns, academic difficulties, and caregivers with mental health concerns and substance use issues. Controlling for key clinical and case characteristics, children living in families facing economic hardship were almost 2 times more likely to be involved in a substantiated maltreatment investigation (OR = 1.91, p < 0.001). The implications in regard to future research and promoting resilience are discussed. PMID:28208690

  11. Examining the Relationship between Economic Hardship and Child Maltreatment Using Data from the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2013 (OIS-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Rachael; Fallon, Barbara; Van Wert, Melissa; Filippelli, Joanne

    2017-02-08

    There is strong evidence that poverty and economic disadvantage are associated with child maltreatment; however, research in this area is underdeveloped in Canada. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between economic hardship and maltreatment for families and children identified to the Ontario child protection system for a maltreatment concern. Secondary analyses of the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2013 (OIS-2013) were conducted. The OIS-2013 examines the incidence of reported maltreatment and the characteristics of children and families investigated by child welfare authorities in Ontario in 2013. Descriptive and bivariate chi-square analyses were conducted in addition to a logistic regression predicting the substantiation of maltreatment. In 9% of investigations, the household had run out of money for food, housing, and/or utilities in the past 6 months. Children in these households were more likely to have developmental concerns, academic difficulties, and caregivers with mental health concerns and substance use issues. Controlling for key clinical and case characteristics, children living in families facing economic hardship were almost 2 times more likely to be involved in a substantiated maltreatment investigation (OR = 1.91, p < 0.001). The implications in regard to future research and promoting resilience are discussed.

  12. Examining the Relationship between Economic Hardship and Child Maltreatment Using Data from the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2013 (OIS-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Lefebvre

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence that poverty and economic disadvantage are associated with child maltreatment; however, research in this area is underdeveloped in Canada. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between economic hardship and maltreatment for families and children identified to the Ontario child protection system for a maltreatment concern. Secondary analyses of the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2013 (OIS-2013 were conducted. The OIS-2013 examines the incidence of reported maltreatment and the characteristics of children and families investigated by child welfare authorities in Ontario in 2013. Descriptive and bivariate chi-square analyses were conducted in addition to a logistic regression predicting the substantiation of maltreatment. In 9% of investigations, the household had run out of money for food, housing, and/or utilities in the past 6 months. Children in these households were more likely to have developmental concerns, academic difficulties, and caregivers with mental health concerns and substance use issues. Controlling for key clinical and case characteristics, children living in families facing economic hardship were almost 2 times more likely to be involved in a substantiated maltreatment investigation (OR = 1.91, p < 0.001. The implications in regard to future research and promoting resilience are discussed.

  13. Self Reported Awareness of Child Maltreatment among School Professionals in Saudi Arabia: Impact of CRC Ratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlBuhairan, Fadia S.; Inam, Sarah S.; AlEissa, Majid A.; Noor, Ismail K.; Almuneef, Maha A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was ratified by Saudi Arabia 15 years ago; yet addressing the issue of child maltreatment only began in more recent years. School professionals play a significant role in children's lives, as they spend a great deal of time with them and are hence essential to protecting and identifying…

  14. Child maltreatment in Taiwan for 2004-2013: A shift in age group and forms of maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Tsai; Yang, Nan-Ping; Chou, Pesus

    2016-02-01

    Cases of child maltreatment are being increasingly reported in Taiwan. However, the trend or changes of child maltreatment in Taiwan are fragmentary and lack empirical evidence. This study analyzed the epidemiological characteristics of substantiated child maltreatment cases from the previous decade, using mortality as an indicator to investigate the care of children who experienced substantiated maltreatment in the past to determine any new developments. Data for analysis and estimates were retrieved from the Department of Statistics in the Ministry of the Interior from 2004 to 2013. Trend analyses were conducted using the Joinpoint Regression Program. The child maltreatment rate in Taiwan was found to have nearly tripled from 2004 to 2013. A greater increase in the maltreatment of girls than boys and the maltreatment of aboriginal children than non-aboriginal children was noted from 2004 to 2013. When stratified by age group, the increase in maltreatment was most pronounced in children aged 12-17 years, and girls aged 12-17 years experienced the greatest increase in maltreatment. In terms of the proportional changes of different maltreatment forms among substantiated child maltreatment cases, child neglect was decreasing. The increase in sexual abuse was higher than for any other form of maltreatment and surpassed neglect by the end of 2013. Furthermore, the mortality rate of children with substantiated maltreatment record is increasing in Taiwan, whereas the mortality rate among children without any substantiated maltreatment record is decreasing. The results of this study highlight the need for policy reform in Taiwan regarding child maltreatment.

  15. Lifetime Prevalence of Investigating Child Maltreatment Among US Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunil; Wildeman, Christopher; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett

    2017-02-01

    To estimate the lifetime prevalence of official investigations for child maltreatment among children in the United States. We used the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Child Files (2003-2014) and Census data to develop synthetic cohort life tables to estimate the cumulative prevalence of reported childhood maltreatment. We extend previous work, which explored only confirmed rates of maltreatment, and we add new estimations of maltreatment by subtype, age, and ethnicity. We estimate that 37.4% of all children experience a child protective services investigation by age 18 years. Consistent with previous literature, we found a higher rate for African American children (53.0%) and the lowest rate for Asians/Pacific Islanders (10.2%). Child maltreatment investigations are more common than is generally recognized when viewed across the lifespan. Building on other recent work, our data suggest a critical need for increased preventative and treatment resources in the area of child maltreatment.

  16. Educating early childhood care and education providers to improve knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengwu; Lehman, Erik B.; Mincemoyer, Claudia; Verdiglione, Nicole; Levi, Benjamin H.

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood care and education providers (CCPs) work with over 7 million young children. These children are vulnerable to physical, sexual and emotional abuse, and neglect. However, CCPs make less than 1% of all reports of suspected child abuse and neglect that are made to child protective services. CCPs are therefore an untapped resource in the public health response to child maltreatment. However, their knowledge and attitudes about duties to report child maltreatment are poorly understood. Moreover, no rigorous research has tested whether their knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment can be improved. These gaps in knowledge are important because knowledge of the duty and positive attitudes towards it produce more effective reporting, and little evidence exists about how to enhance cognitive and affective attributes. Using the CONSORT approach, we report a single-blind test-retest randomized controlled trial evaluating iLook Out for Child Abuse, a customized online educational intervention for CCPs to increase knowledge and attitudes towards the reporting duty. 762 participants were randomized with results analyzed for 741 participants (372 in the intervention group; 369 in the control). Knowledge of the reporting duty increased in the intervention group from 13.54 to 16.19 out of 21 (2.65 increase, 95% CI: (2.37, 2.93); large effect size 0.95, p education for CCPs and other professions. Future research should also explore effects of education on reporting behavior. Trial registration: US National Institutes of Health NCT02225301 PMID:28542285

  17. The Development and Validation of the Protective Factors Survey: A Self-Report Measure of Protective Factors against Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, Jacqueline M.; Buffington, Elenor S.; Chang-Rios, Karin; Rasmussen, Heather N.; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the internal structure of a self-report measure of multiple family-level protective factors against abuse and neglect and explore the relationship of this instrument to other measures of child maltreatment. Methods: For the exploratory factor analysis, 11 agencies from 4 states administered…

  18. Drugs used in child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Between 2000 and 2008, the American Association of Poison Control Centers recorded 1439 cases in which drugs or alcohol were used to mistreat children under 7 years of age, representing an average of 160 reports per year. Median age was 2 years, and 57% of victims were boys. The substances included psychotropic drugs, analgesics, cold remedies, alcohol, and illicit drugs. 18 children died, while 32 children experienced life-threatening effects or residual disability. It is not clear whether these results can be extrapolated to the French population. In France, a yearly survey of the Centres for Evaluation and Information on Pharmacodependence (CEIP) identified 162 cases of "chemical submission", 3 of which involved children. In practice, it is often difficult to recognise when a child is being maltreated, especially when medications, illicit drugs or alcohol are used. Taking into consideration the known adverse effect profile of a drug may provide a clue, help to limit harms to the child and allow appropriate management.

  19. Does Ethnicity Matter? Social Workers' Personal Attitudes and Professional Behaviors in Reporting Child Maltreatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ashton, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    .... However, ethnicity had no effect on the likelihood of reporting maltreatment. Findings suggest that social work values override personal-culture values in the execution of job-related responsibilities...

  20. Black-White Differences in Child Maltreatment Reports and Foster Care Placements: A Statistical Decomposition Using Linked Administrative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Tim; Jiang, Nan; Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Dalton, Erin; Vaithianathan, Rhema

    2017-03-01

    Introduction Official statistics have confirmed that relative to their presence in the population and relative to white children, black children have consistently higher rates of contact with child protective services (CPS). We used linked administrative data and statistical decomposition techniques to generate new insights into black and white differences in child maltreatment reports and foster care placements. Methods Birth records for all children born in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, between 2008 and 2010 were linked to administrative service records originating in multiple county data systems. Differences in rates of involvement with child protective services between black and white children by age 4 were decomposed using nonlinear regression techniques. Results Black children had rates of CPS involvement that were 3 times higher than white children. Racial differences were explained solely by parental marital status (i.e., being unmarried) and age at birth (i.e., predominantly teenage mothers). Adding other covariates did not capture any further racial differences in maltreatment reporting or foster care placement rates, they simply shifted differences already explained by marital status and age to these other variables. Discussion Racial differences in rates of maltreatment reports and foster care placements can be explained by a basic model that adjusts only for parental marital status and age at the time of birth. Increasing access to early prevention services for vulnerable families may reduce disparities in child protective service involvement. Using birth records linked to other administrative data sources provides an important means to developing population-based research.

  1. Unintended pregnancy as a predictor of child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Kai

    2015-10-01

    Whereas child maltreatment research has developed considerable evidence on post-natal risk-factors, pre-natal circumstances have been largely overlooked. The circumstances surrounding a pregnancy may considerably impact the environment in which later parenting behaviors occur. This study examines one of the earliest potentially identifiable risk-factors for child maltreatment: the intentions of a pregnancy. Utilizing both mother and father reports, this study focuses on maltreatment risk, as it relates with both parents' perspectives of the pregnancy's intention. Drawing upon data from the Fragile Families and Child Well Being study, a longitudinal, birth cohort study, survey questions were used that asked parents, at the time of the birth, whether they considered abortion for the child. Unintended pregnancy demonstrates predictive value as one of the earliest identifiable risk-factors for child maltreatment. Regardless of whether the mother or father reported the unintended pregnancy, the relationship with maltreating behavior is largely the same, although for different maltreatment types. Mothers' reports of unintended pregnancy are associated with psychological aggression, and neglect. Fathers' reports of unintended pregnancy are associated with physical aggression. Fathers' perspectives regarding pregnancy intentions matter just as much as mothers,' and accounting for their perspectives could be important in understanding the maltreating behaviors of both parents. Identifiable in the earliest stages of caregiving, unintended pregnancy may be an important risk-factor in predicting and understanding child maltreatment.

  2. Evaluation of a Spiritually Based Child Maltreatment Prevention Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Louisa K.; Rigazio-DiGilio, Sandra A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors empirically evaluated a spiritually based 1-day child maltreatment training program. Pretest, posttest, and follow-up results indicated that participants' recognition of hypothetical maltreatment did not increase after training. Furthermore, although participants decreased their use of items known to dissuade decisions to report, they…

  3. Child Maltreatment and the School Psychologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viezel, Kathleen D.; Davis, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment remains a relevant issue for school psychologists. This special issue was designed to provide school psychology practitioners, researchers, and other school personnel with current, empirically sound information about child maltreatment. This introduction provides context for the articles in this volume, including definitions of…

  4. Child Maltreatment and the School Psychologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viezel, Kathleen D.; Davis, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment remains a relevant issue for school psychologists. This special issue was designed to provide school psychology practitioners, researchers, and other school personnel with current, empirically sound information about child maltreatment. This introduction provides context for the articles in this volume, including definitions of…

  5. Child Maltreatment Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Have Safe, Stable, Nurturing Relationships [PDF 255KB] Essentials for Childhood Connecting the Dots: An Overview of the Links Among Multiple Forms of Violence [PDF 2.51MB] Economic Cost of Child Abuse Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) ...

  6. Burden attributable to child maltreatment in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Ferrari, Alize J; Mills, Ryan; Dunne, Michael P; Erskine, Holly E; Devries, Karen M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A; McCarthy, Molly; Norman, Rosana E

    2015-10-01

    Child maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, with four main types (childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect) highly interrelated. All types of maltreatment have been linked to adverse health consequences and exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment increases risk. In Australia to date, only burden attributable to childhood sexual abuse has been estimated. This study synthesized the national evidence and quantified the burden attributable to the four main types of child maltreatment. Meta-analyses, based on quality-effects models, generated pooled prevalence estimates for each maltreatment type. Exposure to child maltreatment was examined as a risk factor for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made for co-occurrence of multiple forms of child maltreatment. Overall, an estimated 23.5% of self-harm, 20.9% of anxiety disorders and 15.7% of depressive disorders burden in males; and 33.0% of self-harm, 30.6% of anxiety disorders and 22.8% of depressive disorders burden in females was attributable to child maltreatment. Child maltreatment was estimated to cause 1.4% (95% uncertainty interval 0.4-2.3%) of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in males, and 2.4% (0.7-4.1%) of all DALYs in females in Australia in 2010. Child maltreatment contributes to a substantial proportion of burden from depressive and anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm in Australia. This study demonstrates the importance of including all forms of child maltreatment as risk factors in future burden of disease studies.

  7. Does the gender of parent or child matter in child maltreatment in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Naixue; Xue, Jia; Connolly, Cynthia A; Liu, Jianghong

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health problem worldwide, and China is no exception. However, the pattern of child maltreatment remains unknown, including whether the gender of children and their parents has an impact on the occurrence of maltreatment. This study aims at examining the rates and frequency of child maltreatment, including physical abuse, psychological abuse and neglect perpetrated by mothers and fathers. We also test whether the interaction between parents' gender and their child's gender affects the occurrence of child maltreatment in China. 997 children from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study participated in the present study and reported their maltreatment experience perpetrated by their mothers and fathers using the questionnaire, Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC_CA). Generalized linear model analyses show that boys were more likely than girls to report physical abuse, and, in particular, boys were more likely than girls to be physically abused by their fathers. On the other hand, mothers were more likely than fathers to exhibit psychological aggression and use corporal punishment for both boys and girls. There was no difference based on the child's or parent's gender in the occurrence of neglect. The findings present empirical evidence that enhances the understanding of the pattern of child maltreatment in China, provide implications for social workers and health professionals to identify children at risk of child maltreatment, and shed light on future research studies.

  8. Maternal Childhood Maltreatment History and Child Mental Health: Mechanisms in Intergenerational Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosquet Enlow, Michelle; Englund, Michelle M; Egeland, Byron

    2016-04-12

    The objectives of this study were to examine whether a maternal history of maltreatment in childhood has a detrimental impact on young children's mental health and to test theoretically and empirically informed pathways by which maternal history may influence child mental health. Mother-child dyads (N = 187) were evaluated between birth and 64 months of age via home and laboratory observations, medical and child protection record reviews, and maternal interviews to assess maternal history of childhood maltreatment and microsystem and exosystem measures of the caregiving context, including child maltreatment, maternal caregiving quality, stress exposures, and social support. When the children were 7 years of age, mothers and teachers reported on child emotional and behavioral problems. Analyses examined whether the caregiving context variables linked maternal maltreatment history with child emotional and behavioral problems, controlling for child sex (54% male), race/ethnicity (63% White), and family sociodemographic risk at birth. Maltreated mothers experienced greater stress and diminished social support, and their children were more likely to be maltreated across early childhood. By age 7, children of maltreated mothers were at increased risk for clinically significant emotional and behavioral problems. A path analysis model showed mediation of the effects of maternal childhood maltreatment history on child symptoms, with specific effects significant for child maltreatment. Interventions that reduce child maltreatment risk and stress exposures and increase family social support may prevent deleterious effects of maternal childhood maltreatment history on child mental health.

  9. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  10. Child Maltreatment: Effects on Development and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    The number of young children who have suffered from maltreatment has risen in recent years. This paper describes the negative neurological, psychological, and cognitive effects from this maltreatment. Interventions that can prevent abuse and neglect and promote resilience in the child victims are examined and discussed. The paper concludes by…

  11. Using Capture-Recapture Methods to Better Ascertain the Incidence of Fatal Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palusci, Vincent J.; Wirtz, Stephen J.; Covington, Theresa M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To (1) test the use of capture-recapture methods to estimate the total number of child maltreatment deaths in a single state using information from death certificates, child welfare reports, child death review teams, and uniform crime reports; and to (2) compare these estimates to the number of maltreatment deaths identified through an…

  12. The Social Context of Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1994-01-01

    Discusses family factors associated with child abuse from an ecological perspective. Identifies economic and cultural generative factors of child abuse. Explores special circumstances affecting occurrence of child maltreatment. Examines dimensions of responsiveness, demandingness, and parental authority patterns in their application to abusive…

  13. The Social Context of Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1994-01-01

    Discusses family factors associated with child abuse from an ecological perspective. Identifies economic and cultural generative factors of child abuse. Explores special circumstances affecting occurrence of child maltreatment. Examines dimensions of responsiveness, demandingness, and parental authority patterns in their application to abusive…

  14. Risk terrain modeling predicts child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Dyann; Bachmann, Michael; Bachmann, Brittany A; Pedigo, Christian; Bui, Minh-Thuy; Coffman, Jamye

    2016-12-01

    As indicated by research on the long-term effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), maltreatment has far-reaching consequences for affected children. Effective prevention measures have been elusive, partly due to difficulty in identifying vulnerable children before they are harmed. This study employs Risk Terrain Modeling (RTM), an analysis of the cumulative effect of environmental factors thought to be conducive for child maltreatment, to create a highly accurate prediction model for future substantiated child maltreatment cases in the City of Fort Worth, Texas. The model is superior to commonly used hotspot predictions and more beneficial in aiding prevention efforts in a number of ways: 1) it identifies the highest risk areas for future instances of child maltreatment with improved precision and accuracy; 2) it aids the prioritization of risk-mitigating efforts by informing about the relative importance of the most significant contributing risk factors; 3) since predictions are modeled as a function of easily obtainable data, practitioners do not have to undergo the difficult process of obtaining official child maltreatment data to apply it; 4) the inclusion of a multitude of environmental risk factors creates a more robust model with higher predictive validity; and, 5) the model does not rely on a retrospective examination of past instances of child maltreatment, but adapts predictions to changing environmental conditions. The present study introduces and examines the predictive power of this new tool to aid prevention efforts seeking to improve the safety, health, and wellbeing of vulnerable children.

  15. Child Maltreatment Histories among Female Inmates Reporting Inmate on Inmate Sexual Victimization in Prison: The Mediating Role of Emotion Dysregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; Gonsalves, Valerie M.; Scalora, Mario J.; King, Steve; Hardyman, Patricia L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite data indicating that child maltreatment (CM) in various forms is associated with adult sexual victimization among community women, few studies have explicitly explored how types of CM might relate to prison sexual victimization. Because little is known about "how" CM might give rise to prison sexual victimization, the present…

  16. Child Maltreatment among School Children in the Kurdistan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Sheikhattari, Payam; Assasi, Nazilla; Eftekhar, Hassan; Zamani, Qasem; Maleki, Bahram; Kiabayan, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the determinants of three types of child maltreatment: physical maltreatment, mental maltreatment, and child neglect among school children in the Kurdistan Province of Iran. The analysis examines the impact of socioeconomic, familial, demographic, and household dynamic factors on the three child maltreatment…

  17. Child maltreatment, parents & the emergency department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, E.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focuses on the evaluation of several methods of screening for child maltreatment at the emergency department, with an emphasis on screening based on parental risk factors (‘child check’). The use of a screening checklist (mandatory in all Dutch emergency

  18. Trauma-Informed Forensic Child Maltreatment Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Donna M.

    2011-01-01

    Trauma-informed child welfare systems (CWSs) are the focus of several recent national and state initiatives. Since 2005 social work publications have focused on systemic and practice changes within CW which seek to identify and reduce trauma to children and families experiencing child maltreatment or other distressing events, as well as to the…

  19. Trauma-Informed Forensic Child Maltreatment Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Donna M.

    2011-01-01

    Trauma-informed child welfare systems (CWSs) are the focus of several recent national and state initiatives. Since 2005 social work publications have focused on systemic and practice changes within CW which seek to identify and reduce trauma to children and families experiencing child maltreatment or other distressing events, as well as to the…

  20. Child maltreatment, parents & the emergency department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, E.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focuses on the evaluation of several methods of screening for child maltreatment at the emergency department, with an emphasis on screening based on parental risk factors (‘child check’). The use of a screening checklist (mandatory in all Dutch emergency departm

  1. Measuring health-related quality of life for child maltreatment: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosser Lisa A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child maltreatment causes substantial morbidity and mortality in the U.S. Morbidity associated with child maltreatment can reduce health-related quality of life. Accurately measuring the reduction in quality of life associated with child maltreatment is essential to the economic evaluation of educational programs and interventions to reduce the incidence of child maltreatment. The objective of this study was to review the literature for existing approaches and instruments for measuring quality-of-life for child maltreatment outcomes. Methods We reviewed the current literature to identify current approaches to valuing child maltreatment outcomes for economic evaluations. We also reviewed available preference-based generic QOL instruments (EQ-5D, HUI, QWB, SF-6D for appropriateness in measuring change in quality of life due to child maltreatment. Results We did not identify any studies that directly evaluated quality-of-life in maltreated children. We identified 4 studies that evaluated quality of life for adult survivors of child maltreatment and 8 studies that measured quality-of-life for pediatric injury not related to child maltreatment. No study reported quality-of-life values for children younger than age 3. Currently available preference-based QOL instruments (EQ-5D, HUI, QWB, SF-6D have been developed primarily for adults with the exception of the Health Utilities Index. These instruments do not include many of the domains identified as being important in capturing changes in quality of life for child maltreatment, such as potential for growth and development or psychological sequelae specific to maltreatment. Conclusion Recommendations for valuing preference-based quality-of-life for child maltreatment will vary by developmental level and type of maltreatment. In the short-term, available multi-attribute utility instruments should be considered in the context of the type of child maltreatment being measured. However

  2. An Agent-Based Model for Studying Child Maltreatment and Child Maltreatment Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaolin; Puddy, Richard W.

    This paper presents an agent-based model that simulates the dynamics of child maltreatment and child maltreatment prevention. The developed model follows the principles of complex systems science and explicitly models a community and its families with multi-level factors and interconnections across the social ecology. This makes it possible to experiment how different factors and prevention strategies can affect the rate of child maltreatment. We present the background of this work and give an overview of the agent-based model and show some simulation results.

  3. Child maltreatment experience among primary school children: a large scale survey in Selangor state, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Ahmed

    Full Text Available Official reports of child maltreatment in Malaysia have persistently increased throughout the last decade. However there is a lack of population surveys evaluating the actual burden of child maltreatment, its correlates and its consequences in the country. This cross sectional study employed 2 stage stratified cluster random sampling of public primary schools, to survey 3509 ten to twelve year old school children in Selangor state. It aimed to estimate the prevalence of parental physical and emotional maltreatment, parental neglect and teacher- inflicted physical maltreatment. It further aimed to examine the associations between child maltreatment and important socio-demographic factors; family functioning and symptoms of depression among children. Logistic regression on weighted samples was used to extend results to a population level. Three quarters of 10-12 year olds reported at least one form of maltreatment, with parental physical maltreatment being most common. Males had higher odds of maltreatment in general except for emotional maltreatment. Ethnicity and parental conflict were key factors associated with maltreatment. The study contributes important evidence towards improving public health interventions for child maltreatment prevention in the country.

  4. Child maltreatment experience among primary school children: a large scale survey in Selangor state, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayesha; Wan-Yuen, Choo; Marret, Mary Joseph; Guat-Sim, Cheah; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Chinna, Karuthan

    2015-01-01

    Official reports of child maltreatment in Malaysia have persistently increased throughout the last decade. However there is a lack of population surveys evaluating the actual burden of child maltreatment, its correlates and its consequences in the country. This cross sectional study employed 2 stage stratified cluster random sampling of public primary schools, to survey 3509 ten to twelve year old school children in Selangor state. It aimed to estimate the prevalence of parental physical and emotional maltreatment, parental neglect and teacher- inflicted physical maltreatment. It further aimed to examine the associations between child maltreatment and important socio-demographic factors; family functioning and symptoms of depression among children. Logistic regression on weighted samples was used to extend results to a population level. Three quarters of 10-12 year olds reported at least one form of maltreatment, with parental physical maltreatment being most common. Males had higher odds of maltreatment in general except for emotional maltreatment. Ethnicity and parental conflict were key factors associated with maltreatment. The study contributes important evidence towards improving public health interventions for child maltreatment prevention in the country.

  5. Intergenerational transmission of child abuse and neglect: Do maltreatment type, perpetrator, and substantiation status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jessica Dym; Kotake, Chie; Fauth, Rebecca; Easterbrooks, M Ann

    2017-01-01

    A maternal history of childhood maltreatment is thought to be a potent risk factor for child abuse and neglect, yet the extent of continuity across generations is unclear, with studies reporting vastly different rates of intergenerational transmission. Disparate findings may be due to lack of attention to the nature of maltreatment experiences in each generation. We sought to expand the current literature by examining the role of maltreatment type, perpetrator identity, and substantiation status of reports to child protective services (CPS) on intergenerational maltreatment among adolescent mothers (n=417) and their children. We found that when mothers had at least one report of childhood maltreatment (substantiated or not), the odds that they maltreated their children increased by 72% (OR=2.52), compared to mothers who are not maltreated, but the odds were considerably lower when we limited analysis to substantiated reports. Both a maternal history of substantiated neglect and multiple type maltreatment (neglect and physical or sexual abuse) were associated with increased risk of child maltreatment, yet the likelihood of children experiencing multiple maltreatment perpetrated with their mothers identified as perpetrators increased over 300% when mothers had a childhood history of multiple maltreatment.

  6. The prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands across a 5-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euser, Saskia; Alink, Lenneke R A; Pannebakker, Fieke; Vogels, Ton; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands was in 2005 first systematically examined in the Netherlands' Prevalence study on Maltreatment of children and youth (NPM-2005), using sentinel reports and substantiated CPS cases, and in the Pupils on Abuse study (PoA-2005), using high school students' self-report. In this second National Prevalence study on Maltreatment (NPM-2010), we used the same three methods to examine the prevalence of child maltreatment in 2010, enabling a cross-time comparison of the prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands. First, 1,127 professionals from various occupational branches (sentinels) reported each child for whom they suspected child maltreatment during a period of three months. Second, we included 22,661 substantiated cases reported in 2010 to the Dutch Child Protective Services. Third, 1,920 high school students aged 12-17 years filled out a questionnaire on their experiences of maltreatment in 2010. The overall prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands in 2010 was 33.8 per 1,000 children based on the combined sentinel and CPS reports and 99.4 per 1,000 adolescents based on self-report. Major risk factors for child maltreatment were parental low education, immigrant status, unemployment, and single parenthood. We found a large increase in CPS-reports, whereas prevalence rates based on sentinel and self-report did not change between 2005 and 2010. Based on these findings a likely conclusion is that the actual number of maltreated children has not increased from 2005 to 2010, but that professionals have become more aware of child maltreatment, and more likely to report cases to CPS.

  7. Development of Perception of Child Maltreatment Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday B. Fakunmoju

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents reliability and validity analyses of the Perception of Child Maltreatment Scale (PCMS. The scale comprised 34 items that measure abusive behaviors related to emotional/psychological abuse (10 items, sexual abuse (6 items, child neglect (6 items, child labor (7 items, and physical abuse (5 items. Analysis was based on a convenience sample of 317 participants in Nigeria. Exploratory factor analysis with promax rotation was used to determine construct validity of its five-factor structure (subscales. The overall internal consistency of the PCMS was .95; subscales of Emotional/Psychological Abuse (.93 and Sexual Abuse (.91 were high, whereas those of Child Neglect (.89, Child Labor (.86, and Physical Abuse (.84 were good. Cutoff scores were computed categorizing scores into low/weak, medium/moderate, and high/strong perceptions of child maltreatment. Strengths and limitations as well as practical applications and implications of the scale for research were discussed.

  8. Preventing child maltreatment: An evidence-based update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Child maltreatment is a significant public health problem associated with a broad range of negative outcomes in children and adolescents that can extend into adulthood. This review summarizes information about programs aimed at the prevention of child maltreatment evaluated by controlled trials, with a focus on home visitation programs. It does not include programs aimed at prevention of child sexual abuse, the subject of a separate review in this series. We discuss those programs that include one or more measures of child maltreatment and related outcomes (reports of abuse and neglect, injuries, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. Most programs targeting at-risk families have not shown evidence of effectiveness in preventing abuse or neglect. An important exception is the Nurse Family Partnership (NFP, a program provided by nurses to first-time socially disadvantaged mothers beginning prenatally that has undergone rigorous evaluation in three randomized controlled trials. It has shown consistent effects in reducing reports of maltreatment and associated outcomes as well as additional benefits in maternal and child health in high-risk families. A second exception is the promising Early Start program provided by nurses and social workers to at-risk families beginning postnatally. One randomized controlled trial of the program has shown reduced rates of parental reports of severe abuse and hospital attendance for injuries and poisonings, based on records. The characteristics of the NFP and Early Start programs are discussed with special emphasis on ways in which they differ from other home visitation programs.

  9. Borderline personality features in childhood: the role of subtype, developmental timing, and chronicity of child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Kathryn F; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Crick, Nicki R

    2014-08-01

    Child maltreatment has been established as a risk factor for borderline personality disorder (BPD), yet few studies consider how maltreatment influences the development of BPD features through childhood and adolescence. Subtype, developmental timing, and chronicity of child maltreatment were examined as factors in the development of borderline personality features in childhood. Children (M age = 11.30, SD = 0.94), including 314 maltreated and 285 nonmaltreated children from comparable low socioeconomic backgrounds, provided self-reports of developmentally salient borderline personality traits. Maltreated children had higher overall borderline feature scores, had higher scores on each individual subscale, and were more likely to be identified as at high risk for development of BPD through raised scores on all four subscales. Chronicity of maltreatment predicted higher overall borderline feature scores, and patterns of onset and recency of maltreatment significantly predicted whether a participant would meet criteria for the high-risk group. Implications of findings and recommendations for intervention are discussed.

  10. Child maltreatment as a global phenomenon: from trauma to prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Chantal; Michel, Geneviève; Dumais, Marilyne

    2013-01-01

    Past studies have clearly showed the negative impact of neglect and abuse on child development at both the psychological and neurobiological levels. To date, many studies have focused on identifying risk and protective factors occurring at all levels of the ecology. However, more distal-level variables, such as culture and ethnicity, have not been studied as much as those of more proximal levels; yet studies in Western countries have consistently found an overrepresentation of child maltreatment reports among ethnic minority groups. In this commentary, we reflect on a series of articles examining maltreatment from a crosscultural perspective and using samples of diverse countries. Taken together, studies in this special section document the terrible fact that maltreatment is a global phenomenon. Through a summary of these studies' main findings and concerns, we highlight four key points that we believe are important to consider for future research and intervention efforts.

  11. Evidence for a relationship between child maltreatment and absenteeism among high-school students in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagborg, Johan Melander; Berglund, Kristina; Fahlke, Claudia

    2017-09-07

    School absenteeism is a potent predictor of academic failure. Maltreated adolescents have been found to be more absent from school compared to their peers. However, it is scarcely studied in what degree a general population of students with high levels of school absenteeism has been exposed to child maltreatment. Furthermore, it is not known if maltreated school-absentees have specific characteristics compared to not-maltreated absentees. In this article, the first objective was to present and compare the prevalence of six types of child maltreatment in a general population of high school students reporting no, moderate or excessive absenteeism. The second objective was to compare maltreated and not-maltreated students who report absenteeism in respect to mental health, perceived school environment and peer victimization in school. Data from 667 girls and 649 boys (mean age 14.3) was used from the longitudinal multidisciplinary research program LoRDIA (Longitudinal Research on Development In Adolescence). Data was collected via self-report questionnaires in classroom settings. All six types of child maltreatment were overrepresented among absentees. Roughly 25% of absentees reported one subtype of maltreatment (16% in the total population) and a mean of 22% of absentees reported two or more types of maltreatment (11% in the total population). Maltreated absentees reported more mental health problems, personal harassment and worse relationship with their teachers than not-maltreated absentees. There might be specific correlates of school absenteeism among maltreated adolescents and professionals involved in preventing school-absenteeism should be made aware of the relationship between maltreatment and absenteeism. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. ADHD Symptoms and Likelihood of Child Maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between inattentive and hyperactivity symptoms and child maltreatment was studied among a sample of 14,322 participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Healh at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.

  13. Child maltreatment and hypertension in young adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Suglia, Shakira F.; Clark, Cari J.; Boynton-Jarrett, Renée; Kressin, Nancy R.; Koenen,Karestan C

    2014-01-01

    Background Maltreatment during childhood and adolescence has been associated with chronic conditions in adulthood including cardiovascular disease. However, less is known about the effects of childhood maltreatment on cardiovascular risk factors prior to development of cardiovascular disease, or whether these effects are evident in young adulthood. Furthermore, few studies have examined sex differences and most studies have relied on self-reported outcome measures that are subject to misclass...

  14. Risk factors for child maltreatment in an Australian population-based birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doidge, James C; Higgins, Daryl J; Delfabbro, Paul; Segal, Leonie

    2017-02-01

    Child maltreatment and other adverse childhood experiences adversely influence population health and socioeconomic outcomes. Knowledge of the risk factors for child maltreatment can be used to identify children at risk and may represent opportunities for prevention. We examined a range of possible child, parent and family risk factors for child maltreatment in a prospective 27-year population-based birth cohort of 2443 Australians. Physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect and witnessing of domestic violence were recorded retrospectively in early adulthood. Potential risk factors were collected prospectively during childhood or reported retrospectively. Associations were estimated using bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions and combined into cumulative risk scores. Higher levels of economic disadvantage, poor parental mental health and substance use, and social instability were strongly associated with increased risk of child maltreatment. Indicators of child health displayed mixed associations and infant temperament was uncorrelated to maltreatment. Some differences were observed across types of maltreatment but risk profiles were generally similar. In multivariate analyses, nine independent risk factors were identified, including some that are potentially modifiable: economic disadvantage and parental substance use problems. Risk of maltreatment increased exponentially with the number of risk factors experienced, with prevalence of maltreatment in the highest risk groups exceeding 80%. A cumulative risk score based on the independent risk factors allowed identification of individuals at very high risk of maltreatment, while a score that incorporated all significant risk and protective factors provided better identification of low-risk individuals.

  15. Linking child maltreatment history with child abuse potential: Relative roles of maltreatment types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitkovic-Voncina Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The independent roles of each childhood maltreatment type on child abuse potential in adults have been insufficiently explored and are inconsistent, with dissociation as one of the possible suggested mediators of intergenerational child abuse. We investigated these effects among 164 non-clinical adult parents, who filled in general questionnaires: Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI and Dissociative Experience Scale (DES. Among all maltreatment types (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, emotional and physical neglect, emotional abuse was the only independent predictor in the regression model of child abuse potential. The relationship between emotional abuse history and child abuse potential was partially mediated by dissociation. The findings could speak in favor of the potentially unique detrimental role of emotional abuse in intergenerational maltreatment, with dissociation as one of the possible mechanisms.

  16. Relational interventions for child maltreatment: past, present, and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Sheree L; Gravener-Davis, Julie A; Guild, Danielle J; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-11-01

    It is well established that child maltreatment has significant deleterious effects for the individual as well as for society. We briefly review research regarding the impact of child maltreatment on the attachment relationship, highlighting the need for relational interventions for maltreated children and their families to effectively thwart negative developmental cascades that are so often observed in the context of child maltreatment. Next, historical and contemporaneous perspectives on relational interventions for individuals with histories of child maltreatment are discussed, with attention to the empirical evidence for and the current evidence-based status of several relationally based interventions for child maltreatment. Differential sensitivity to the environment is then discussed as a theoretical framework with important implications for interventions for individuals who have been reared in maltreating environments. Current research on neurobiology and maltreatment is then reviewed, with an emphasis on the need for future investigations on genetic variants, epigenetics, and the efficacy of relational interventions for maltreated children. We conclude with a discussion of the tenets of developmental psychopathology, their implications for relational interventions for child maltreatment, and recommendations for advancing the development, provision, and evaluation of relational interventions for individuals with histories of child maltreatment.

  17. Using Routinely Collected Hospital Data for Child Maltreatment Surveillance: Issues, Methods and Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Debbie A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International data on child maltreatment are largely derived from child protection agencies, and predominantly report only substantiated cases of child maltreatment. This approach underestimates the incidence of maltreatment and makes inter-jurisdictional comparisons difficult. There has been a growing recognition of the importance of health professionals in identifying, documenting and reporting suspected child maltreatment. This study aimed to describe the issues around case identification using coded morbidity data, outline methods for selecting and grouping relevant codes, and illustrate patterns of maltreatment identified. Methods A comprehensive review of the ICD-10-AM classification system was undertaken, including review of index terms, a free text search of tabular volumes, and a review of coding standards pertaining to child maltreatment coding. Identified codes were further categorised into maltreatment types including physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional or psychological abuse, and neglect. Using these code groupings, one year of Australian hospitalisation data for children under 18 years of age was examined to quantify the proportion of patients identified and to explore the characteristics of cases assigned maltreatment-related codes. Results Less than 0.5% of children hospitalised in Australia between 2005 and 2006 had a maltreatment code assigned, almost 4% of children with a principal diagnosis of a mental and behavioural disorder and over 1% of children with an injury or poisoning as the principal diagnosis had a maltreatment code assigned. The patterns of children assigned with definitive T74 codes varied by sex and age group. For males selected as having a maltreatment-related presentation, physical abuse was most commonly coded (62.6% of maltreatment cases while for females selected as having a maltreatment-related presentation, sexual abuse was the most commonly assigned form of maltreatment (52.9% of

  18. Academic Achievement Despite Child Maltreatment: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coohey, Carol; Renner, Lynette M.; Hua, Lei; Zhang, Ying J.; Whitney, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Although researchers have concluded that child maltreatment has a negative effect on children's learning and academic achievement, not all children are negatively affected by maltreatment, and some children seem to succeed academically despite being maltreated. Drawing on risk and resilience theory, we examined a broad range of potential…

  19. Parental Substance Abuse and the Nature of Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famularo, Richard; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Randomly selected juvenile court records (n=190) of cases of child maltreatment found that 67 percent involved parents who were substance abusers. Specific associations were found between (1) alcohol abuse and physical maltreatment, and (2) cocaine abuse and sexual maltreatment. (Author/DB)

  20. Academic Achievement Despite Child Maltreatment: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coohey, Carol; Renner, Lynette M.; Hua, Lei; Zhang, Ying J.; Whitney, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Although researchers have concluded that child maltreatment has a negative effect on children's learning and academic achievement, not all children are negatively affected by maltreatment, and some children seem to succeed academically despite being maltreated. Drawing on risk and resilience theory, we examined a broad range of potential…

  1. Child maltreatment and adult psychopathology in an Irish context.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzhenry, Mark

    2015-07-01

    One-hundred-ninety-nine adult mental health service users were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Structured Clinical Interviews for Axis I and II DSM-IV disorders, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale, the SCORE family assessment measure, the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Schedule, and the Readiness for Psychotherapy Index. Compared to a U.S. normative sample, Irish clinical cases had higher levels of maltreatment. Cases with comorbid axis I and II disorders reported more child maltreatment than those with axis I disorders only. There was no association between types of CM and types of psychopathology. Current family adjustment and service needs (but not global functioning and motivation for psychotherapy) were correlated with a CM history. It was concluded that child maltreatment may contribute to the development of adult psychopathology, and higher levels of trauma are associated with co-morbid personality disorder, greater service needs and poorer family adjustment. A history of child maltreatment should routinely be determined when assessing adult mental health service users, especially those with personality disorders and where appropriate evidence-based psychotherapy which addresses childhood trauma should be offered.

  2. Does Child Maltreatment Predict Adult Crime? Reexamining the Question in a Prospective Study of Gender Differences, Education, and Marital Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyunzee; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Klika, J Bart; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Brown, Eric C

    2015-08-01

    Bivariate analyses of adult crime and child maltreatment showed that individuals who had been maltreated as children, according to child welfare reports, subsequently committed more crime than others who had not been maltreated. Analyses of crimes by category-property, person, and society-provided further evidence of a link between child maltreatment and crime at the bivariate level. Tests of gender differences showed that crime generally is more prevalent among males, although females with a history of maltreatment were more likely than those in a no-maltreatment (comparison) group to report having had some prior involvement in crime. Surprisingly, multivariate analyses controlling for childhood socioeconomic status, gender, minority racial status, marital status, and education level showed that, with one exception (crimes against society), the significant association between child maltreatment and crime observed in bivariate tests was not maintained. Implications for future research are discussed.

  3. An innovative approach to providing collaborative education to undergraduate students in the area of child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    Frontline workers in the area of child welfare often enter the field without having taken any specialized coursework in the area of child maltreatment. This article discusses an interdisciplinary certificate program that is specifically designed to teach persons from various academic areas the knowledge and skills necessary to work with children who experience maltreatment. The child advocacy studies certificate program specifically focuses on coursework in the area of child maltreatment and child advocacy to better train future frontline workers in their vital roles. This certificate will decrease underreporting of child abuse cases by mandated reporters by making them more aware of the signs and symptoms of child maltreatment and also give students a greater understanding of how to work with individuals from various fields.

  4. Less money, more problems: How changes in disposable income affect child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Michael

    2017-03-21

    A number of research studies have documented an association between child maltreatment and family income. Yet, little is known about the specific types of economic shocks that affect child maltreatment rates. The paucity of information is troubling given that more than six million children are reported for maltreatment annually in the U.S. alone. This study examines whether an exogenous shock to families' disposable income, a change in the price of gasoline, predicts changes in child maltreatment. The findings of a fixed-effects regression show that increases in state-level gas prices are associated with increases in state-level child maltreatment referral rates, even after controlling for demographic and other economic variables. The results are robust to the manner of estimation; random-effects and mixed-effects regressions produce similar estimates. The findings suggest that fluctuations in the price of gas may have important consequences for children.

  5. Neuropsychology of Child Maltreatment and Implications for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew S.; Moss, Lauren E.; Nogin, Margarita M.; Webb, Nadia Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment has the potential to alter a child's neurodevelopmental trajectory and substantially increase the risk of later psychiatric disorders, as well as to deleteriously impact neurocognitive functioning throughout the lifespan. Child maltreatment has been linked to multiple domains of neurocognitive impairment, including…

  6. Neuropsychology of Child Maltreatment and Implications for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew S.; Moss, Lauren E.; Nogin, Margarita M.; Webb, Nadia Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment has the potential to alter a child's neurodevelopmental trajectory and substantially increase the risk of later psychiatric disorders, as well as to deleteriously impact neurocognitive functioning throughout the lifespan. Child maltreatment has been linked to multiple domains of neurocognitive impairment, including…

  7. Child Psychological Maltreatment in the Family: Definition and Severity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Ignacia Arruabarrena

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychological maltreatment is one of the main and potentially more destructive forms of child maltreatment. It is difficult to identify, assess and treat. Compared to other forms of child maltreatment such as sexual abuse, physical abuse and neglect, attention received from researchers, child protection service managers and practitioners has been scarce. A review of available knowledge about psychological maltreatment reveals challenges to define the concept in ways useful to policy makers and practitioners. This paper presents a review of definitions of child psychological maltreatment and several measures available for assessing its severity. The review has been used in the Comunidad Autónoma Vasca (Spain to develop more specific criteria for the identification and severity assessment of child psychological maltreatment in Spanish children services. This paper develops these criteria.

  8. Socioeconomic inequality and child maltreatment in Iranian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinkhani, Z; Nedjat, S; Aflatouni, A; Mahram, M; Majdzadeh, R

    2016-02-01

    Socioeconomic inequality and child maltreatment have not been studied using the concentration index as an indicator of inequality. The study aimed to assess the association of child maltreatment with socioeconomic status among schoolchildren in Qazvin province, Islamic Republic of Iran. In this cross-sectional study a questionnaire based on the ISPCAN Child Maltreatment Screening Tool-Children's Version and the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire was filled by 1028 children aged 9-14 years, selected through multistage stratified random sampling. The concentration indices for economic inequality were -0.086 for any type of child maltreatment and -0.155, -0.098 and -0.139 for the physical, psychological and neglect subtypes of maltreatment respectively. The number of children and the economic status of the family also showed a significant association with child maltreatment in all 3 subtypes. Appropriate planning for effective interventions for at-risk children of lower socioeconomic status should be considered by the relevant decision-makers.

  9. Religion-Related Child Maltreatment: A Profile of Cases Encountered by Legal and Social Service Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, Bette L; Goodman, Gail S; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Diviak, Kathleen R; Shaver, Phillip R

    2015-08-01

    Religion can foster, facilitate, and be used to justify child maltreatment. Yet religion-related child abuse and neglect have received little attention from social scientists. We examined 249 cases of religion-related child maltreatment reported to social service agencies, police departments, and prosecutors' offices nationwide. We focused on cases involving maltreatment perpetrated by persons with religious authority, such as ministers and priests; the withholding of medical care for religious reasons; and abusive attempts to rid a child of supposed evil. By providing a descriptive statistical profile of the major features of these cases, we illustrate how these varieties of religion-related child maltreatment occur, who the victims and perpetrators are, and how religion-related child abuse and neglect are reported and processed by the social service and criminal justice systems. We end with a call for greater research attention to these important offenses against children.

  10. Media Analysis of Early Dissemination of Canadian Child Maltreatment Surveillance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonmyr, Lil; Jack, Susan

    2010-01-01

    A media strategy was developed to disseminate Canadian child maltreatment surveillance data. Print media were systematically searched and 29 articles reporting on the data were retrieved. Using content analysis, the articles were analyzed to assess informational accuracy and to understand how the media framed the issue of maltreatment. This…

  11. The prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands across a 5-year period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euser, S.; Alink, L.R.A.; Pannebakker, F.; Vogels, T.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; IJzendoorn, M.H. van

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands was in 2005 first systematically examined in the Netherlands’ Prevalence study on Maltreatment of children and youth (NPM-2005), using sentinel reports and substantiated CPS cases, and in the Pupils on Abuse study (PoA-2005), using high school

  12. Factors related to child maltreatment in children presenting with burn injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibbenmeyer, Lucy; Liao, Junlin; Heard, Jason; Kealey, Lyn; Kealey, Gerald; Oral, Resmiye

    2014-01-01

    The underpinnings of maltreatment in children presenting with burn injuries are necessary to discern as detection and prevention rest on a clear delineation of factors associated with maltreatment. Inaccurate identification of child victims can result in perpetuation of the maltreatment and its attendant neuropsychological sequela. The authors sought to determine factors associated with maltreatment in children presenting with burn injuries, which would guide the burn team in assessing the likelihood of maltreatment. All consenting children admitted with burn injuries were surveyed regarding their injury mechanism and current sociodemographic status. Suspicious injuries were referred by the burn team to the multidisciplinary review team (MRT). The MRT reported injuries with signs of physical abuse, supervision neglect, neglect of other basic needs, or sexual abuse. These children constituted the cases in our study. Variables related to maltreatment were entered into stepwise logistic regression to identify independent predicting variables. Pmaltreatment. Risk factors related to suspicions of maltreatment included: young age, large burns, tap water injury, immersion lines, delay in care, absence of a two-parent family (unconventional family structure), young parents, inconsistent history, and injury pattern. In this single-center prospective study, the authors identified several factors that, when present in injuries with initial suspicion of maltreatment, should trigger a child maltreatment workup. Burn clinicians have an important role as advocates for children and their families. It is important to continue to further the knowledge of maltreatment detection and prevention among children presenting with burn injuries.

  13. The Moderating Effect of Substance Abuse Service Accessibility on the Relationship between Child Maltreatment and Neighborhood Alcohol Availability

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Cory M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how the relationship between dense concentrations of alcohol retailers and high rates of child maltreatment may be moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. Using a cross-sectional design, the study utilized data from Bergen County, New Jersey on child maltreatment reports, alcohol-selling retailers, substance abuse service facilities, and the United States Census. Findings indicate child maltreatment rates were higher in neighborhoods with lower...

  14. Effects of Parenting Programs on Child Maltreatment Prevention: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengtong; Chan, Ko Ling

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of parenting programs in reducing child maltreatment and modifying associated factors as well as to examine the moderator variables that are linked to program effects. For this meta-analysis, we searched nine electronic databases to identify randomized controlled trials published before September 2013. The effect sizes of various outcomes at different time points were computed. From the 3,578 studies identified, we selected 37 studies for further analysis. The total random effect size was 0.296. Our results showed that parenting programs successfully reduced substantiated and self-reported child maltreatment reports and reduced the potential for child maltreatment. The programs also reduced risk factors and enhanced protective factors associated with child maltreatment. However, the effects of the parenting programs on reducing parental depression and stress were limited. Parenting programs produced positive effects in low-, middle-, and high-income countries and were effective in reducing child maltreatment when applied as primary, secondary, or tertiary child maltreatment intervention. In conclusion, parenting programs are effective public health approaches to reduce child maltreatment. The evidence-based service of parenting programs could be widely adopted in future practice.

  15. The whole picture: Child maltreatment experiences of youths who were physically abused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kristopher I; Schneiderman, Janet U; Negriff, Sonya; Brinkmann, Andrea; Trickett, Penelope K

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the current study was to describe the maltreatment experiences of a sample of urban youths identified as physically abused using the Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI). The sample (n=303) of 9-12 year old youths was recruited from active child protective services (CPS) cases in 2002-2005, and five years of child protective service records were reviewed. The demographic and maltreatment experiences of MCRAI-identified youths with physical abuse were compared to maltreated youths who were not physically abused and youths who were identified as physically abused by CPS when they entered this longitudinal study. T-tests and chi-square tests were used to compare the demographics and maltreatment experiences of the sample MCRAI-identified physically abused to the sample MCRAI-identified as nonphysically abused maltreated by gender. Of the total sample, 156 (51%) were identified by MCRAI as physically abused and 96.8% of these youth also experienced other types of maltreatment. Whereas youth with the initial CPS identification of physical abuse showed little co-occurrence (37.7%) with other forms of maltreatment. The MCRAI-identified physically abused youths had a significantly higher mean number of CPS reports and higher mean number of incidents of maltreatment than MCRAI-identified nonphysically maltreated youths. Lifeline plots of case record history from the time of first report to CPS to entry into the study found substantial individual variability in maltreatment experiences for both boys and girls. Thus, obtaining maltreatment information from a single report vastly underestimates the prevalence of physical abuse and the co-occurrence of other maltreatment types.

  16. The Moderating Effect of Substance Abuse Service Accessibility on the Relationship between Child Maltreatment and Neighborhood Alcohol Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates how the relationship between dense concentrations of alcohol retailers and high rates of child maltreatment may be moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. Using a cross-sectional design, the study utilized data from Bergen County, New Jersey on child maltreatment reports, alcohol-selling retailers, substance abuse service facilities, and the United States Census. Findings indicate child maltreatment rates were higher in neighborhoods with lower socioeconomic status and those with greater alcohol outlet density. Neighborhoods with easily accessed substance abuse service facilities had lower rates of child maltreatment. Additionally, the relationship between child maltreatment and alcohol outlet density was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. The study findings highlight the relevance of making primary prevention approaches readily available and using multi-sector collaboration to reduce child maltreatment.

  17. Psychologists and child psychological maltreatment severity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruabarrena, Ignacia; De Paúl, Joaquín; Indias, Silvia; Ullate, María

    2013-01-01

    Psychological maltreatment (PM) is probably the most difficult child maltreatment form to detect and evaluate. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of an instrument developed to improve accuracy in the assessment of PM severity in Child Protection Services (CPS). Case vignettes representing different severity levels of PM situations were used. 146 CPS psychologists participated in the study. A first group was made up of 115 psychologists who had been trained in the use of the instrument for 4 hours. The second group was made up of 31 psychologists who had been using the instrument for more than 12 months at the time of the study. Psychologists from the first group rated the severity of the vignettes in two ways: applying their own daily work criteria and applying the instrument after the training. Accurate ratings clearly improved when psychologists used the instrument criteria. However, only psychologists who had used the instrument for more than 12 months at the time of the study obtained more than 80% of accurate ratings. Results support the importance for CPS psychologists to use psychological maltreatment severity assessment instruments and show the conditions under which they could be effective.

  18. Differential Child Maltreatment Risk Across Deployment Periods of US Army Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Christine M; Ross, Michelle E; Wood, Joanne N; Griffis, Heather M; Harb, Gerlinde C; Mi, Lanyu; Song, Lihai; Strane, Douglas; Lynch, Kevin G; Rubin, David M

    2016-01-01

    We described the risk for maltreatment among toddlers of US Army soldiers over different deployment cycles to develop a systematic response within the US Army to provide families appropriate supports. We conducted a person-time analysis of substantiated maltreatment reports and medical diagnoses among children of 112,325 deployed US Army soldiers between 2001 and 2007. Risk of maltreatment was elevated after deployment for children of soldiers deployed once but not for children of soldiers deployed twice. During the 6 months after deployment, children of soldiers deployed once had 4.43 substantiated maltreatment reports and 4.96 medical diagnoses per 10,000 child-months. The highest maltreatment rate among children of soldiers deployed twice occurred during the second deployment for substantiated maltreatment (4.83 episodes per 10,000 child-months) and before the first deployment for medical diagnoses of maltreatment (3.78 episodes per 10,000 child-months). We confirmed an elevated risk for child maltreatment during deployment but also found a previously unidentified high-risk period during the 6 months following deployment, indicating elevated stress within families of deployed and returning soldiers. These findings can inform efforts by the military to initiate and standardize support and preparation to families during periods of elevated risk.

  19. Histories of Child Maltreatment and Psychiatric Disorder in Pregnant Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Elisa; Zoccolillo, Mark; Paquette, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The study investigated histories of child maltreatment and psychiatric disorder in a high-risk sample of pregnant adolescents. Method: Cross-sectional data were obtained for 252 pregnant adolescents from high school, hospital, and group home settings in Montreal (Canada). Adolescents completed a child maltreatment questionnaire and a…

  20. Implementing an Inpatient Social Early Warning System for Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabaki, Armita; Heddaeus, Daniela; Metzner, Franka; Schulz, Holger; Siefert, Sonke; Pawils, Silke

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The current article describes the process evaluation of a social early warning system (SEWS) for the prevention of child maltreatment in the federal state of Hamburg. This prevention initiative targets expectant mothers and their partners including an initial screening of risk factors for child maltreatment, a subsequent structured…

  1. Identification of Child Maltreatment in Iranian Children with the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Esmaeili, DZ; Vaezzadeh, N; MR Esmaeili; Hosseini, SH; Kaheni, S; Esmaeili, H.; Z. Shahhosseini

    2014-01-01

    Background: Child abuse and neglect is a worldwide problem and varies across many sociodemographic characteristics. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of different types of child maltreatment in Iranian kids according to the reports of their caregivers. Subjects and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 562 mothers with the last child aged between 1 and 12 years were recruited based on purposeful sampling method in one pediatric referent Mazandaran province, Iran. Chil...

  2. Child maltreatment and interpersonal relationship among Chinese children with oppositional defiant disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Li, Longfeng; Chi, Peilian; Wang, Zhonghui; Heath, Melissa Allen; Du, Hongfei; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment negatively affects children's development and wellbeing. This study investigated the associations between child maltreatment (i.e., emotional neglect, emotional abuse, and physical abuse) and interpersonal functioning, including parent-child relationship, teacher-student relationship, and peer relationships among children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). A total of 256 children with ODD and their parents and class master teachers from Mainland China completed questionnaires. Results showed a negative correlation between emotional abuse (parent-reported) and children's interpersonal relationships with parents, teachers, and peers. Emotional neglect and physical abuse were related to poor parent-child relationships. Latent profile analysis revealed three profiles of child maltreatment among children with ODD. ODD children with more severe levels of one type of maltreatment were also more likely to have experienced severe levels of other types of maltreatment. Children with ODD who were in the group of high maltreatment had the poorest quality of interpersonal relationships. Our findings highlight the urgent need to prevent child maltreatment and promote more positive parenting in families with ODD children.

  3. Recognizing child maltreatment in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N Z; Lynch, M A

    1997-08-01

    Concern is increasing in Bangladesh over child abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Children from all walks of life are being treated at the Child Development Center (CDC) Dhaka Shishu Hospital for neurodevelopmental problems resulting from abuse and neglect. Efforts to protect children from sexual harassment result in girls being isolated at home or married at an early age. Some young brides are eventually abandoned and forced into prostitution. Early marriage reflects the lack of acknowledgement of a period of adolescence and the belief that puberty is a marker of adulthood. Many girls aged 8-16 are employed as live-in domestic servants, and many suffer sexual as well as emotional abuse. Garment factories, on the other hand, offer girls an escape from extreme poverty, domestic service, and early marriage but are threatened by forces that condemn child labor. Rather than ending such opportunities, employers should be encouraged to provide employees with educational and welfare facilities. The CDC seeks to explore the extent and depth of the problem of child abuse while recognizing the special circumstances at work in Bangladesh. It is also necessary to raise awareness of these issues and of the discrepancies between the law and cultural practices. For example, the legal marriage age of 18 years for a woman and 21 years for a man is often ignored. Additional forms of abuse receiving the attention of women's organizations and human rights groups include the trafficking of children. A network of concerned organizations should be created to work against the child abuse, neglect, and exploitation that Bangladesh has pledged to overcome by signing the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  4. How Public Health Nurses Identify and Intervene in Child Maltreatment Based on the National Clinical Guideline

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    Paavilainen Eija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe how Finnish public health nurses identify and intervene in child maltreatment and how they implement the National Clinical Guideline in their work. Design and Sample. Cross-sectional survey of 367 public health nurses in Finland. Measures. A web-based questionnaire developed based on the content areas of the guideline: identifying, intervening, and implementing. Results. The respondents reported they identify child maltreatment moderately (mean 3.38, intervene in it better (4.15, and implement the guideline moderately (3.43, scale between 1 and 6. Those with experience of working with maltreated children reported they identify them better P<0.001, intervene better P<0.001, and implement the guideline better P<0.001 than those with no experience. This difference was also found for those who were aware of the guideline, had read it, and participated in training on child maltreatment, as compared to those who were not aware of the guideline, had not read it, or had not participated in such training. Conclusions. The public health nurses worked quite well with children who had experienced maltreatment and families. However, the results point out several developmental targets for increasing training on child maltreatment, for devising recommendations for child maltreatment, and for applying these recommendations systematically in practice.

  5. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset Among African American Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E

    2010-05-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship between child maltreatment (i.e., neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other/mixed abuse) and the likelihood of a delinquency petition using a sample of African American males (N = 2,335) born before 1990. Multivariable logistic regression models compared those with a delinquency-based juvenile justice petition to those without. Results indicate that African American males with a history of neglect, physical abuse, or other/mixed abuse were more likely to be involved in the juvenile justice system than those without any child maltreatment. Additionally, multiple maltreatment reports, a prior history of mental health treatment, victimization, and having a parent who did not complete high school also increased the likelihood of a delinquency petition. Implications for intervention and prevention are discussed.

  6. Predicting criminality from child maltreatment typologies and posttraumatic stress symptoms

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    Ask Elklit

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The associations between childhood abuse and subsequent criminality and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD are well known. However, a major limitation of research related to childhood abuse and its effects is the focus on one particular type of abuse at the expense of others. Recent work has established that childhood abuse rarely occurs as a unidimensional phenomenon. Therefore, a number of studies have investigated the existence of abuse typologies. Methods: The study is based on a Danish stratified random probability survey including 2980 interviews of 24-year-old people. The sample was constructed to include an oversampling of child protection cases. Building on a previous latent class analysis of four types of childhood maltreatment, three maltreatment typologies were used in the current analyses. A criminality scale was constructed based on seven types of criminal behavior. PTSD symptoms were assessed by the PC-PTSD Screen. Results: Significant differences were found between the two genders with males reporting heightened rates of criminality. Furthermore, all three maltreatment typologies were associated with criminal behavior with odds ratios (ORs from 2.90 to 5.32. Female gender had an OR of 0.53 and possible PTSD an OR of 1.84. Conclusion: The independent association of participants at risk for PTSD and three types of maltreatment with criminality should be studied to determine if it can be replicated, and considered in social policy and prevention and rehabilitation interventions.

  7. Elevated child maltreatment rates in immigrant families and the role of socioeconomic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euser, Eveline M; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Prinzie, Peter; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2011-02-01

    Are immigrant families at elevated risk for child maltreatment, and if so, what role do socioeconomic and family composition factors play? In a national prevalence study on child maltreatment in the Netherlands, child maltreatment cases were reported by 1,121 professionals from various occupational branches. Maltreating families were compared to a national representative family sample on immigrant status and parental educational level and family composition factors. The authors differentiated between traditional immigrant families who immigrated as labor migrants from Turkey, Morocco, Suriname, and the Antillean Islands, and nontraditional immigrant families who more recently immigrated from countries with severe economic hardships or political turmoil (refugees). Traditional immigrant and nontraditional immigrant families were both significantly overrepresented among maltreating families, but this overrepresentation disappeared for the traditional immigrants after correction for educational level of the parents. Nontraditional immigrant families, however, remained at increased risk for child maltreatment even after correction for educational level. It is proposed that interventions to prevent child maltreatment in immigrant families should focus on decreasing socioeconomic risks associated with low levels of education.

  8. Prevalence of different forms of child maltreatment among Taiwanese adolescents: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Chang, Yi-Ting; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Fetzer, Susan; Wang, Jung-Der

    2015-04-01

    Reported cases of child maltreatment are increasing in Taiwan. Yet, comprehensive epidemiological characteristics of adolescents' exposure over the wide spectrum of violence are still lacking. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and magnitude of child maltreatment among Taiwanese adolescents. A population-based study was conducted with 5,276 adolescents aged 12-18 from 35 schools in 17 cities and townships to determine the prevalence of five forms of child maltreatment in Taiwan. A total of 5,236 adolescents completed anonymous, self-report, structured questionnaires. Most adolescents (91%, n=4,788) experienced at least one form of maltreatment with 83% (n=4,347) exposed during the previous year. Violence exposure was the most common type of child maltreatment experienced, followed by psychological abuse, physical abuse, neglect, and sexual abuse. Adolescents reported an average of 7.4 (SD=5.87) victimizations over their lifetime and 4.8 (SD=4.82) victimizations during the past year. Females reported a higher rate of neglect, while males reported a higher rate of sexual abuse. Most of the sexual abuse perpetrators were known by their victims. Adolescents' victimization and polyvictimization from child maltreatment in Taiwan deserves a review and modification of national control and prevention policies.

  9. Parasite stress promotes homicide and child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, Randy; Fincher, Corey L

    2011-12-12

    Researchers using the parasite-stress theory of human values have discovered many cross-cultural behavioural patterns that inform a range of scholarly disciplines. Here, we apply the theory to major categories of interpersonal violence, and the empirical findings are supportive. We hypothesize that the collectivism evoked by high parasite stress is a cause of adult-on-adult interpersonal violence. Across the US states, parasite stress and collectivism each positively predicts rates of men's and women's slaying of a romantic partner, as well as the rate of male-honour homicide and of the motivationally similar felony-related homicide. Of these four types of homicide, wealth inequality has an independent effect only on rates of male-honour and felony-related homicide. Parasite stress and collectivism also positively predict cross-national homicide rates. Child maltreatment by caretakers is caused, in part, by divestment in offspring of low phenotypic quality, and high parasite stress produces more such offspring than low parasite stress. Rates of each of two categories of the child maltreatment--lethal and non-lethal--across the US states are predicted positively by parasite stress, with wealth inequality and collectivism having limited effects. Parasite stress may be the strongest predictor of interpersonal violence to date.

  10. Child maltreatment in Canada: an understudied public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a major public health problem associated with impairment in childhood, adolescence, and extending throughout the lifespan. Within Canada, high-quality child maltreatment studies have been conducted and are critical for informing prevention and intervention efforts. However, compared to other parts of the world (e.g., United States, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Mexico), the number of studies conducted in Canada is far fewer and the data used to study this important public health problem are less diverse. Importantly, to date, representative data on child maltreatment from the general population at the national level in Canada do not exist. This means that many questions regarding child maltreatment in Canada remain unanswered. To advance our understanding of child maltreatment in Canada and to make significant strides towards protecting Canadian children and families, research using Canadian data is essential. To begin to meet these important public health goals, we need to invest in collecting high-quality, nationally representative Canadian data on child maltreatment. Solutions for the barriers and challenges for the inclusion of child maltreatment data into nationally representative Canadian surveys are provided.

  11. Does Typography of Substance Abuse and Dependence Differ as a Function of Exposure to Child Maltreatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Dangelmaier, Ruth E.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the link between child maltreatment, including child sexual assault (CSA) and child physical assault (CPA), and addiction-related symptomatology in a subsample of adolescents from the National Survey of Adolescents, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for substance abuse or dependence (N = 281). More than 60% of the sample reported a…

  12. Does Typography of Substance Abuse and Dependence Differ as a Function of Exposure to Child Maltreatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Dangelmaier, Ruth E.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the link between child maltreatment, including child sexual assault (CSA) and child physical assault (CPA), and addiction-related symptomatology in a subsample of adolescents from the National Survey of Adolescents, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for substance abuse or dependence (N = 281). More than 60% of the sample reported a…

  13. The relationship between child maltreatment and substance abuse treatment outcomes among emerging adults and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Brooke D; Smith, Douglas C; Smith, Jane Ellen; Godley, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is the period of greatest risk for problematic substance use. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between a broad measure of child maltreatment and several key outcomes for a large clinical sample of emerging adults (n = 858) and adolescents (n = 2,697). The secondary aim was to examine the extent to which the relationship between child maltreatment and treatment outcomes differed between emerging adults and adolescents. Multilevel latent growth curve analyses revealed emerging adults and adolescents who experienced child maltreatment reported significantly greater reductions over time on several treatment outcomes (e.g., substance use, substance-related problems, and emotional problems). Overall, analyses did not support differential relationships between child maltreatment and changes over time in these substance use disorder treatment outcomes for emerging adults and adolescents. The one exception was that although emerging adults with child maltreatment did reduce their HIV risk over time, their improvements were not as great as were the improvements in HIV risk reported by adolescents who had experienced child maltreatment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Longitudinal Associations among Child Maltreatment, Social Functioning, and Cortisol Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Cicchetti, Dante; Kim, Jungmeen; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2012-01-01

    Child maltreatment increases the risk for impaired social functioning and cortisol regulation. However, the longitudinal interplay among these factors is still unclear. This study aimed to shed light on the effect of maltreatment on social functioning and cortisol regulation over time. The sample consisted of 236 children (mean age 7.64 years, SD…

  15. Longitudinal Associations among Child Maltreatment, Social Functioning, and Cortisol Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Cicchetti, Dante; Kim, Jungmeen; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2012-01-01

    Child maltreatment increases the risk for impaired social functioning and cortisol regulation. However, the longitudinal interplay among these factors is still unclear. This study aimed to shed light on the effect of maltreatment on social functioning and cortisol regulation over time. The sample consisted of 236 children (mean age 7.64 years, SD…

  16. Parental Cognitive Impairment and Child Maltreatment in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, David; Feldman, Maurice; Aunos, Marjorie; Prasad, Narasimha

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of parental cognitive impairment in cases opened for child maltreatment investigation in Canada, and to examine the relationship between parental cognitive impairment and maltreatment investigation outcomes including substantiation, case disposition and court application. Methods:…

  17. Aspects of abuse: recognizing and responding to child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Allison M; Kissoon, Natalie; Greene, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health problem and toxic stress impacting at least 1 in 8 children by the age of 18 years. Maltreatment can take the form of physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment. While some children may experience only one form of maltreatment, others may survive multiple forms, and in some cases particularly complex forms of maltreatment such as torture and medical child abuse. When considering maltreatment, providers should be adept at obtaining a thorough history not only from the parent but when appropriate also from the patient. The most common form of child maltreatment is neglect, which encompasses nutritional and medical neglect, as well as other forms such as physical and emotional neglect. Talking with caregivers about stressors and barriers to care may give insight into the etiology for neglect and is an opportunity for the provider to offer or refer for needed assistance. Familiarity with injury patterns and distribution in the context of developmental milestones and injury mechanisms is critical to the recognition of physical abuse. While most anogenital exam results of child victims of sexual abuse are normal, knowing the normal variations for the female genitalia, and thereby recognizing abnormal findings, is important not only forensically but also more importantly for patient care. Pattern recognition does not only apply to specific injuries or constellation of injuries but also applies to patterns of behavior. Harmful patterns of behavior include psychological maltreatment and medical child abuse, both of which cause significant harm to patients. As health professionals serving children and families, pediatric providers are in a unique position to identify suspected maltreatment and intervene through the health care system in order to manage the physical and psychological consequences of maltreatment and to promote the safety and well-being of children and youth by making referrals to child protective

  18. Challenges in using medicaid claims to ascertain child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Ramesh; Brown, Derek S; Allaire, Benjamin T; Garfield, Lauren D; Ross, Raven E; Hedeker, Donald

    2015-05-01

    Medicaid data contain International Classification of Diseases, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes indicating maltreatment, yet there is a little information on how valid these codes are for the purposes of identifying maltreatment from health, as opposed to child welfare, data. This study assessed the validity of Medicaid codes in identifying maltreatment. Participants (n = 2,136) in the first National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being were linked to their Medicaid claims obtained from 36 states. Caseworker determinations of maltreatment were compared with eight sets of ICD-9-CM codes. Of the 1,921 children identified by caseworkers as being maltreated, 15.2% had any relevant ICD-9-CM code in any of their Medicaid files across 4 years of observation. Maltreated boys and those of African American race had lower odds of displaying a maltreatment code. Using only Medicaid claims to identify maltreated children creates validity problems. Medicaid data linkage with other types of administrative data is required to better identify maltreated children.

  19. Stress and anger as contextual factors and preexisting cognitive schemas: predicting parental child maltreatment risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M; Richardson, Michael J

    2007-11-01

    Progress in the child maltreatment field depends on refinements in leading models. This study examines aspects of social information processing theory (Milner, 2000) in predicting physical maltreatment risk in a community sample. Consistent with this theory, selected preexisting schema (external locus-of-control orientation, inappropriate developmental expectations, low empathic perspective-taking ability, and low perceived attachment relationship to child) were expected to predict child abuse risk beyond contextual factors (parenting stress and anger expression). Based on 115 parents' self-report, results from this study support cognitive factors that predict abuse risk (with locus of control, perceived attachment, or empathy predicting different abuse risk measures, but not developmental expectations), although the broad contextual factors involving negative affectivity and stress were consistent predictors across abuse risk markers. Findings are discussed with regard to implications for future model evaluations, with indications the model may apply to other forms of maltreatment, such as psychological maltreatment or neglect.

  20. Preventing Maltreatment with a Community-Based Implementation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Paul; Kohl, Patricia L; Benz, Joan; Swinger, Dawn; Drake, Brett

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine rates of child abuse and neglect reports following a community implementation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), an evidence-supported intervention for the prevention of maltreatment. Among a group of families receiving PCIT, predictors of reports were examined including family demographics, course of treatment, changes in clinical measures, and caregiver report for prior maltreatment victimization and perpetration. Participants (n=120) included families at-risk for future maltreatment with and without prior maltreatment history. Agency case records were linked with state administrative records of child welfare reports. Time to follow-up ranged from 13-40 months. Bivariate and multivariate survival analyses are used to model risk for a later report. During the follow-up period, 12.5% of families had a report for physical abuse or neglect. Reports of prior victimization as a child and prior perpetration as an adult were strong predictors of a report of perpetration after PCIT. Dosage of PCIT and change in clinical measures did not increase risk for a later report. PCIT can be an effective intervention for preventing maltreatment. Family history of child welfare involvement is a prominent factor in assessing risk for future involvement.

  1. Association of child maltreatment and depressive symptoms among Puerto Rican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschek, Graciela; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; He, Xin; Lee, Sunmin; Canino, Glorisa

    2016-08-01

    This article compares multiple types of child maltreatment among Puerto Rican youth. We seek to expand the limited knowledge of the effects of multiple types of maltreatment on depressive symptoms in a specific Latino population as emerging studies indicate that children who are exposed to one type of maltreatment are often exposed to other types. This study examines the predictive strength of different and multiple types of lifetime child maltreatment (i.e., physical, sexual, and emotional abuse; and neglect), and the effect of youth support from parents, youth coping, youth self-esteem, and place of residence on depressive symptoms among Puerto Rican youth. Secondary data analyses were performed using three annual waves (2000-2004) of data from the Boricua Youth Study. The analytic sample consists of 1041 10-13 year old Puerto Rican youth living in New York and Puerto Rico. Results indicate that: (1) youth who experienced 'sexual abuse only', 'multiple maltreatment' (2 or more types of maltreatment), 'physical abuse only' have a significant increase in depressive symptoms (75.1%, 61.6%, and 40.5% respectively) compared to those without maltreatment; and (2) place of residence, exposure to violence, and mental disorders were significant risk factors. When developing psychosocial interventions, professionals should particularly focus on youth who report past lifetime experience with child maltreatment. Particular attention should be given to children living in the Bronx, New York and similar urban low-income areas who report past lifetime experience with multiple types of child maltreatment and who present symptoms or a diagnosis of co-occurring mental health problems.

  2. Child maltreatment and risk behaviors: The roles of callous/unemotional traits and conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Matthew; Oshri, Assaf; Kwon, Josephine

    2015-12-01

    Child maltreatment poses significant risk to the development of callous/unemotional traits as well as risk behaviors such as engaging in violence, having sex with strangers, and binge drinking. In the current study, the indirect pathway from child maltreatment to risk behaviors was examined via callous/unemotional traits; whereas the conscientious personality trait was tested as a moderator of this indirect pathway. Young adults and parents (N=361; Mage=19.14, SD=1.44) completed questionnaires on child maltreatment histories, callousness/unemotional traits, personality characteristics, and risk behaviors. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypothesized direct, indirect and conditional indirect effects. Findings showed indirect links between the child maltreatment latent factor and physical fighting, having sex with strangers, and binge drinking via callous/unemotional traits. Furthermore, the conscientiousness personality type significantly buffered the connection between callous/unemotional traits and physical fighting, supporting a conditional indirect effects. Callous/unemotional traits are important factors in the underlying mechanism between child maltreatment and risk behaviors among young adults, and conscientiousness serves as a protective factor against violence. Preventive intervention programs and clinicians may benefit from focusing in addressing callous/unemotional traits among youth who report childhood maltreatment experiences as well as targeting conscientiousness as a protective factor.

  3. Child Maltreatment in the World: A Review Article

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    Maryam Ajilian Abbasi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is a recognized public health and social problem worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, child abuse includes all forms of physical and/or emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect and negligent treatment and exploitation. Child maltreatment is a global problem with serious life-long consequences. In spite of recent national surveys in several low- and middle-income countries, data from many countries are still lacking. Estimates of child maltreatment indicate that nearly a quarter of adults (22.6% worldwide suffered physical abuse as a child, 36.3% experienced emotional abuse and 16.3% experienced physical neglect, with no significant differences between boys and girls. However, the lifetime prevalence rate of childhood sexual abuse indicates more marked differences by sex – 18% for girls and 7.6% for boys.  The lifelong consequences of child maltreatment include impaired physical and mental health, poorer school performance, and job and relationship difficulties. Ultimately, child maltreatment can contribute to slowing a country's economic and social development. We conclude that child maltreatment is a widespread, global phenomenon affecting the lives of millions of children all over the world, which is in sharp contrast with the United Nation's Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  4. Attributing Responsibility for Child Maltreatment when Domestic Violence Is Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, Miriam J.; Hartley, Carolyn Copps

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine factors that influence how child welfare workers attribute responsibility for child maltreatment and child safety in cases involving domestic violence. Methods: The study used a factorial survey approach, combining elements of survey research with an experimental design. Case vignettes were…

  5. Promotion of children's rights and prevention of child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, Richard; Bissell, Susan; Goldhagen, Jeffrey; Harwin, Judith; Masson, Judith; Moynihan, Sian; Parton, Nigel; Pais, Marta Santos; Thoburn, June; Webb, Elspeth

    2009-01-24

    In medical literature, child maltreatment is considered as a public-health problem or an issue of harm to individuals, but less frequently as a violation of children's human rights. Public-health approaches emphasise monitoring, prevention, cost-effectiveness, and population strategies; protective approaches concentrate on the legal and professional response to cases of maltreatment. Both approaches have been associated with improvement in outcomes for children, yet maltreatment remains a major global problem. We describe how children's rights provide a different perspective on child maltreatment, and contribute to both public-health and protective responses. Children's rights as laid out in the UN convention on the rights of the child (UNCRC) provide a framework for understanding child maltreatment as part of a range of violence, harm, and exploitation of children at the individual, institutional, and societal levels. Rights of participation and provision are as important as rights of protection. The principles embodied in the UNCRC are concordant with those of medical ethics. The greatest strength of an approach based on the UNCRC is that it provides a legal instrument for implementing policy, accountability, and social justice, all of which enhance public-health responses. Incorporation of the principles of the UNCRC into laws, research, public-health policy, and professional training and practice will result in further progress in the area of child maltreatment.

  6. Does Quantitative Research in Child Maltreatment Tell the Whole Story? The Need for Mixed-Methods Approaches to Explore the Effects of Maltreatment in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Samuel; Gajwani, Ruchika; Turner-Halliday, Fiona

    Background and Aims. Research on child maltreatment has largely overlooked the under-five age group and focuses primarily on quantitative measurement. This mixed-methods study of maltreated children (N = 92) entering care (age 6-60 months) combines a quantitative focus on the associations between care journey characteristics and mental health outcomes with a qualitative exploration of maltreatment in four different families. Methods. Care journey data was obtained from social care records; mental health and attachment assessments were carried out following entry to care; qualitative data comprised semistructured interviews with professionals, foster carers, and parents. Results. Significant associations were found between suspected sexual abuse and increased DAI inhibited attachment symptoms (p = 0.001) and between reported domestic violence and decreased DAI inhibited (p = 0.016) and disinhibited (p = 0.004) attachment symptoms. Qualitative results: two themes demonstrate the complexity of assessing maltreatment: (1) overlapping maltreatment factors occur in most cases and (2) maltreatment effects may be particularly challenging to isolate. Conclusions. Qualitative exploration has underscored the complexity of assessing maltreatment, indicating why expected associations were not found in this study and posing questions for the quantitative measurement of maltreatment in general. We therefore suggest a new categorisation of maltreatment and call for the complimentary research lenses of further mixed-methods approaches.

  7. Does Quantitative Research in Child Maltreatment Tell the Whole Story? The Need for Mixed-Methods Approaches to Explore the Effects of Maltreatment in Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Glass

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Research on child maltreatment has largely overlooked the under-five age group and focuses primarily on quantitative measurement. This mixed-methods study of maltreated children (N=92 entering care (age 6–60 months combines a quantitative focus on the associations between care journey characteristics and mental health outcomes with a qualitative exploration of maltreatment in four different families. Methods. Care journey data was obtained from social care records; mental health and attachment assessments were carried out following entry to care; qualitative data comprised semistructured interviews with professionals, foster carers, and parents. Results. Significant associations were found between suspected sexual abuse and increased DAI inhibited attachment symptoms (p=0.001 and between reported domestic violence and decreased DAI inhibited (p=0.016 and disinhibited (p=0.004 attachment symptoms. Qualitative results: two themes demonstrate the complexity of assessing maltreatment: (1 overlapping maltreatment factors occur in most cases and (2 maltreatment effects may be particularly challenging to isolate. Conclusions. Qualitative exploration has underscored the complexity of assessing maltreatment, indicating why expected associations were not found in this study and posing questions for the quantitative measurement of maltreatment in general. We therefore suggest a new categorisation of maltreatment and call for the complimentary research lenses of further mixed-methods approaches.

  8. Examination of the Relationship Between Parental Satisfaction and Child Maltreatment Potential While Considering Social Desirability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Kelsey Michael; Donohue, Brad; Cross, Chad; Urgelles, Jessica; Allen, Daniel N

    2011-11-01

    Parental dissatisfaction with children appears to be associated with child maltreatment. However, little is known regarding the specific domains of parental dissatisfaction that may increase child maltreatment potential, particularly in perpetrators of child maltreatment where substance abuse is present. In this study, responses to the Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) and a scale measuring parental satisfaction in 11 domains were examined in a sample of 82 mothers who were referred for treatment of substance abuse and child neglect by the local child protective service agency. Results indicated that mothers were relatively most satisfied with their children overall, and least satisfied in domains that were relevant to discipline (i.e., following house rules, compliance, reaction to redirection and punishment, completion of chores). Five of the 11 areas of parental satisfaction that were assessed evidenced negative correlations with child abuse potential, indicating that as satisfaction increased, abuse potential decreased. However, when correlation analyses excluded participants with elevated CAPI Lie scale scores (a measure of social desirability), only overall happiness demonstrated a significant negative correlation with child abuse potential. These results suggest that while associations are present among measures of parental satisfaction and child abuse potential, these associations are moderated to some extent by social desirability, which may help explain some of the inconsistencies reported in prior studies of parental satisfaction and child maltreatment potential.

  9. Cultural considerations and child maltreatment: in search of universal principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolhatkar, Gauri; Berkowitz, Carol

    2014-10-01

    Cultural diversity poses challenges within the health care setting, particularly regarding the question of how health professionals can resolve the tension between respecting cultural norms or child-rearing practices and the importance of determining what constitutes harm and child maltreatment. Cultural competency and respect for cultural diversity does not imply universal tolerance of all practices. The United Nations provides a standard of universal child rights, protecting them from harmful practices. Pediatric providers must respect cross-cultural differences while maintaining legal and ethical standards of safety and wellbeing for children, promoting evidence-based prevention of maltreatment, and advocating for child wellness across all cultures.

  10. Cumulative risk hypothesis: Predicting and preventing child maltreatment recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, David; Åsberg, Kia; Peer, Samuel; Prince, Gwendolyn

    2016-08-01

    Although Child Protective Services (CPS) and other child welfare agencies aim to prevent further maltreatment in cases of child abuse and neglect, recidivism is common. Having a better understanding of recidivism predictors could aid in preventing additional instances of maltreatment. A previous study identified two CPS interventions that predicted recidivism: psychotherapy for the parent, which was related to a reduced risk of recidivism, and temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody, which was related to an increased recidivism risk. However, counter to expectations, this previous study did not identify any other specific risk factors related to maltreatment recidivism. For the current study, it was hypothesized that (a) cumulative risk (i.e., the total number of risk factors) would significantly predict maltreatment recidivism above and beyond intervention variables in a sample of CPS case files and that (b) therapy for the parent would be related to a reduced likelihood of recidivism. Because it was believed that the relation between temporary removal of a child from the parent's custody and maltreatment recidivism is explained by cumulative risk, the study also hypothesized that that the relation between temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody and recidivism would be mediated by cumulative risk. After performing a hierarchical logistic regression analysis, the first two hypotheses were supported, and an additional predictor, psychotherapy for the child, also was related to reduced chances of recidivism. However, Hypothesis 3 was not supported, as risk did not significantly mediate the relation between temporary removal and recidivism.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of child maltreatment among migrant families in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yunjiao; Atkinson-Sheppard, Sally; Liu, Xing

    2017-03-01

    Although cases of child abuse among migrant families are often reported by social media, the issue of child maltreatment among migrant families in China has received little empirical attention. This study investigated both the prevalence of child maltreatment by parents among migrant families, and the individual, family and community-level risk factors associated with child abuse in this context. A survey was conducted with 667 migrant and 496 local adolescents in Shenzhen, South China, with a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to compare the prevalence of maltreatment between migrant and local adolescents, and also to explore risk factors associated with the psychological and physical maltreatment in both groups. The results showed that parent-to-child abuse was more prevalent among migrant than local adolescents, with migrant adolescents 1.490 and 1.425 times more likely to be psychologically and physically abused by their parents than their local counterparts. Low academic performance, delinquent behavior, family economic adversity and low parent attachment put migrant adolescents at increased risk of both psychological and physical maltreatment, and neighborhood disorganization was significantly related to psychological aggression among migrant adolescents. The findings confirm that child abuse perpetuated by parents is a serious problem in Mainland China, especially among migrant families, and implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  12. The Healthy Immigrant Paradox and Child Maltreatment: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Lina S

    2016-10-01

    Prior studies suggest that foreign-born individuals have a health advantage, referred to as the Healthy Immigrant Paradox, when compared to native-born persons of the same socio-economic status. This systematic review examined whether the immigrant advantage found in health literature is mirrored by child maltreatment in general and its forms in particular. The author searched Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, CINAHL PLUS, Family and Society Studies Worldwide, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Social Work Abstracts, and SocINdex for published literature through December 2015. The review followed an evidence-based Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist. The author identified 822 unique articles, of which 19 met the inclusion criteria. The reviewed data showed strong support for the healthy immigrant paradox for a general form of maltreatment and physical abuse. The evidence for emotional and sexual abuse was also suggestive of immigrant advantage though relatively small sample size and lack of multivariate controls make these findings tentative. The evidence for neglect was mixed: immigrants were less likely to be reported to Child Protective Services; however, they had higher rates of physical neglect and lack of supervision in the community data. The study results warrant confirmation with newer data possessing strong external validity for immigrant samples.

  13. Symposium on cross national comparisons: Youth population surveys about child maltreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Larsen, Helmer Bøving

    Cross National Comparisons: Youth Population Surveys About Child Maltreatment In this multi-session track, researchers will present the results concerning the epidemiology of child maltreatment from over one dozen general population surveys of youth, covering four continents and portions...

  14. Measuring child maltreatment using multi-informant survey data: a higher-order confirmatory factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni A. Salum

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the validity and reliability of a multi-informant approach to measuring child maltreatment (CM comprising seven questions assessing CM administered to children and their parents in a large community sample. Methods Our sample comprised 2,512 children aged 6 to 12 years and their parents. Child maltreatment (CM was assessed with three questions answered by the children and four answered by their parents, covering physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse and sexual abuse. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare the fit indices of different models. Convergent and divergent validity were tested using parent-report and teacher-report scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Discriminant validity was investigated using the Development and Well-Being Assessment to divide subjects into five diagnostic groups: typically developing controls (n = 1,880, fear disorders (n = 108, distress disorders (n = 76, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 143 and oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (n = 56. Results A higher-order model with one higher-order factor (child maltreatment encompassing two lower-order factors (child report and parent report exhibited the best fit to the data and this model's reliability results were acceptable. As expected, child maltreatment was positively associated with measures of psychopathology and negatively associated with prosocial measures. All diagnostic category groups had higher levels of overall child maltreatment than typically developing children. Conclusions We found evidence for the validity and reliability of this brief measure of child maltreatment using data from a large survey combining information from parents and their children.

  15. Associations between body mass index, post-traumatic stress disorder, and child maltreatment in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Alexis E; Sartor, Carolyn E; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A; Eschenbacher, Michaela A; Diemer, Elizabeth W; Nelson, Elliot C; Waldron, Mary; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine interrelationships between child maltreatment, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and body mass index (BMI) in young women. We used multinomial logistic regression models to explore the possibility that PTSD statistically mediates or moderates the association between BMI category and self-reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA), physical abuse (CPA), or neglect among 3,699 young women participating in a population-based twin study. Obese women had the highest prevalence of CSA, CPA, neglect, and PTSD (pchild maltreatment were significantly, positively associated with overweight and obesity in unadjusted models, only CSA was significantly associated with obesity after adjusting for other forms of maltreatment and covariates (OR=2.21, 95% CI: 1.63, 3.00). CSA and neglect, but not CPA, were associated with underweight in unadjusted models; however, after adjusting for other forms of maltreatment and covariates, the associations were no longer statistically significant (OR=1.43, 95% CI: 0.90-2.28 and OR=2.16, 95% CI: 0.90-5.16 for CSA and neglect, respectively). Further adjustment for PTSD generally resulted in modest attenuation of effects across associations of child maltreatment forms with BMI categories, suggesting that PTSD may, at most, be only a weak partial mediator of these associations. Future longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms linking CSA and obesity and to further evaluate the role of PTSD in associations between child maltreatment and obesity.

  16. It should not hurt to be a child : prevalence of child maltreatment across the globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltenborgh, Marije

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we describe, combine and compare results of a series of meta-analyses on the prevalence of child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and of physical and emotional neglect, including 244 publications and 577 prevalence rates for the various types of maltreatment. Child maltreatment

  17. It should not hurt to be a child : prevalence of child maltreatment across the globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltenborgh, Marije

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we describe, combine and compare results of a series of meta-analyses on the prevalence of child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and of physical and emotional neglect, including 244 publications and 577 prevalence rates for the various types of maltreatment. Child maltreatment r

  18. It should not hurt to be a child : prevalence of child maltreatment across the globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltenborgh, Marije

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we describe, combine and compare results of a series of meta-analyses on the prevalence of child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and of physical and emotional neglect, including 244 publications and 577 prevalence rates for the various types of maltreatment. Child maltreatment r

  19. Invisible child maltreatment and long-term social harm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    Research questions Research on child maltreatment has suggested that children exposed to abuse and neglect exhibit various social, cognitive and emotional developmental problems. The paper explores long-term consequences and addresses the following questions: how many is exposed to child...... and hospital wards. While 5.6 percent of the birth cohort experienced physical abuse only 1.1 percent of a birth cohort was known to the local authorities, and only 0.1 percent of a birth cohort registered at a hospital ward. Less than half of child maltreatment known to the local authorities was reduced...... factors. The study confirms that social support is statistical mediator between child maltreatment (abuse and neglect) and later PTSD reactions among young adults....

  20. Invisible child maltreatment and long-term social harm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    Research questions Research on child maltreatment has suggested that children exposed to abuse and neglect exhibit various social, cognitive and emotional developmental problems. The paper explores long-term consequences and addresses the following questions: how many is exposed to child...... and hospital wards. While 5.6 percent of the birth cohort experienced physical abuse only 1.1 percent of a birth cohort was known to the local authorities, and only 0.1 percent of a birth cohort registered at a hospital ward. Less than half of child maltreatment known to the local authorities was reduced...... factors. The study confirms that social support is statistical mediator between child maltreatment (abuse and neglect) and later PTSD reactions among young adults....

  1. A prospective investigation of the relationship between child maltreatment and indicators of adult psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenkohl, Todd I; Klika, J Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C; Russo, M Jean; Dee, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    The study of psychological well-being will advance understanding of child maltreatment effects and resilience processes. In this study, the mean level of anger in adulthood was significantly higher for those identified three decades earlier as having been maltreated. Mean levels of self-esteem, autonomy, purpose in life, perceived (fewer) constraints, and happiness and satisfaction were lower for those who were maltreated according to child welfare reports. Officially recorded child maltreatment was moderately (r self-esteem, autonomy, and happiness/life satisfaction after accounting for childhood socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and other sources of data on child abuse and neglect. Parent-reported abusive disciplining also uniquely predicted several outcomes, as did a measure of observed child neglect to a lesser extent.

  2. Distinguishing between Poor/Dysfunctional Parenting and Child Emotional Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, David A.; McIsaac, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This paper was intended to distinguish between poor parenting and child emotional maltreatment (CEM), to inform child welfare and public health policymakers of the need for differentiated responses. Methods: Scientific literature was integrated with current practice and assumptions relating to poor/dysfunctional parenting and child…

  3. Child maltreatment and mediating influences of childhood personality types on the development of adolescent psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children (N = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on California Child Q-Set items representative of ego resiliency and ego control personality dimensions (Block & Block, 1969/1980 ) was derived at Wave 1 (age range = 10-12). The typology, composed of Resilient, Overcontrolled, and Undercontrolled profiles, was evaluated for associations with previous child maltreatment, and for its utility in predicting adolescent psychopathology (age range = 15-18). Maltreated children were significantly more likely than nonmaltreated children to be classified into the overcontrolled (Odds Ratio = 1.847) and undercontrolled profiles (Odds Ratio = 2.101), compared to the Resilient profile. The undercontrolled profile reported higher cannabis symptoms and externalizing problems in adolescence than the other two profiles. The overcontrolled group showed the highest levels of internalizing and lowest levels of alcohol problems compared to the other profiles. Person-centered mediation analyses showed that the overcontrolled and the undercontrolled profiles significantly and differentially mediated the link between number of child maltreatment subtypes and the development of adolescent psychopathology. Child maltreatment is a potent environmental stressor that potentiates compromised personality development, eventuating in heightened psychopathology in adolescence. These findings have important implications for prevention and intervention of psychopathology and substance abuse among low income and maltreated youth.

  4. Primary Care Pediatricians' Experience, Comfort and Competence in the Evaluation and Management of Child Maltreatment: Do We Need Child Abuse Experts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Wendy G.; Dubowitz, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the self-reported experience, comfort and competence of primary care pediatricians in evaluating and managing child maltreatment (CM), in rendering opinions regarding the likelihood of CM, and in providing court testimony. We examined pediatricians' need for expert consultation when evaluating possible maltreatment. Methods:…

  5. Violence by Parents Against Their Children: Reporting of Maltreatment Suspicions, Child Protection, and Risk in Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Miranda; Friedman, Susan Hatters

    2016-12-01

    Psychiatrists are mandated to report suspicions of child abuse in America. Potential for harm to children should be considered when one is treating parents who are at risk. Although it is the commonly held wisdom that mental illness itself is a major risk factor for child abuse, there are methodologic issues with studies purporting to demonstrate this. Rather, the risk from an individual parent must be considered. Substance abuse and personality disorder pose a separate risk than serious mental illness. Violence risk from mental illness is dynamic, rather than static. When severe mental illness is well-treated, the risk is decreased. However, these families are in need of social support.

  6. Child maltreatment: pathway to chronic and long-term conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Lazenbatt, Anne; Soliman, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    The manifesto Start Well, Live Better by the UK Faculty of Public Health (Start Well, Live Better-A Manifesto for the Public's Health. London: UK Faculty of Public Health, 2014) sets out 12 compelling priorities for the protection of people's health. The focus of this document is preventative, calling for a comprehensive strategy to target a wide-ranging set of challenges to public health; however, it fails to mention child maltreatment and its negative impact on long-term health outcomes. In this article, we explore the long-term negative consequences of child maltreatment and how these can be conceptually aligned with four different characteristics of long-term health conditions. We suggest that situating child maltreatment within a long-term conditions framework could have significant advantages and implications for practice, policy and research, by strengthening a commitment across disciplines to apply evidence-based principles linked with policy and evaluation and recognizing the chronic effects of maltreatment to concentrate public, professional and government awareness of the extent and impact of the issue. We argue that a public health approach is the most effective way of focusing preventative efforts on the long-term sequelae of child maltreatment and to foster cooperation in promoting children's rights to grow and develop in a safe and caring environment free from violence and abuse. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Why are suspected cases of child maltreatment referred by educators so often unsubstantiated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Colin B; Scott, Katreena L

    2014-01-01

    School professionals have a unique vantage point for identifying child maltreatment and they are a frequent source of referral to child protective services. Disturbingly, past studies have found that maltreatment concerns reported by educators go unsubstantiated by child protective services at much higher rates than suspected maltreatment reported by other professionals. This study explores whether there are systematic differences in the characteristics of cases reported by educators as compared to other professionals and examines whether such variation might account for differences in investigation outcome. Analyses were based on 7,725 cases of suspected maltreatment referred by professionals to child protective services from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect - 2003 a national database on the characteristics of children and families investigated by child protective services. School professionals were responsible for 35.8% of professional referrals. Reports by educators were much more likely to be unsubstantiated (45.3%) than those by other professionals (28.4%) in subsequent child protective investigation. Cases reported by educators were found to contain significantly more child risk factors (e.g., child emotional and behavioural problems) and fewer caregiver and family risk factors (e.g., caregiver mental health problem, single parent family) than cases reported by other professionals. Even controlling for these differences, educator-reported concerns were still 1.84, 95% CI [1.41, 2.40] times as likely to be unsubstantiated as reports from other professionals. Contrary to the notion that educators are mostly reporting non-severe cases, suspected/substantiated cases reported by school professionals were more likely to be judged as chronic and more likely to involve families with a previous child protection history. Results are concerning for the capacity of the education and child protection systems to work together to meet their

  8. Psychiatric symptom typology in a sample of youth receiving substance abuse treatment services: associations with self-reported child maltreatment and sexual risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Tubman, Jonathan G; Jaccard, James

    2011-11-01

    Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to classify 394 adolescents undergoing substance use treatment, based on past year psychiatric symptoms. Relations between profile membership and (a) self-reported childhood maltreatment experiences and (b) current sexual risk behavior were examined. LPA generated three psychiatric symptom profiles: Low-, High- Alcohol-, and High- Internalizing Symptoms profiles. Analyses identified significant associations between profile membership and childhood sexual abuse and emotional neglect ratings, as well as co-occurring sex with substance use and unprotected intercourse. Profiles with elevated psychiatric symptom scores (e.g., internalizing problems, alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms) and more severe maltreatment histories reported higher scores for behavioral risk factors for HIV/STI exposure. Heterogeneity in psychiatric symptom patterns among youth receiving substance use treatment services, and prior histories of childhood maltreatment, have significant implications for the design and delivery of HIV/STI prevention programs to this population.

  9. Elevated risk of child maltreatment in families with stepparents but not with adoptive parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Euser, Eveline M; Prinzie, Peter; Juffer, Femmie; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2009-11-01

    Does child maltreatment occur more often in adoptive and stepfamilies than in biological families? Data were collected from all 17 Dutch child protective services (CPS) agencies on 13,538 cases of certified child maltreatment in 2005. Family composition of the maltreated children was compared to a large national representative sample of the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study (NKPS). Larger families, one-parent families, and families with a stepparent showed elevated risks for child maltreatment. Adoptive families, however, showed significantly less child maltreatment than expected. The findings are discussed in the context of parental investment theory that seems to be applicable to stepparents but not to adoptive parents.

  10. Transitions and Turning Points: Examining the Links between Child Maltreatment and Juvenile Offending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Anna; Livingston, Michael; Dennison, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The links between child maltreatment and juvenile offending are well established. However, the majority of maltreated children do not offend. The research presented in this paper examines the impact that timing and chronicity of child maltreatment have on juvenile offending. Methods: Administrative data were obtained on all children who…

  11. Child maltreatment in numbers : a multimethod study of year prevalence rates and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euser, Saskia

    2013-01-01

    How often does child maltreatment occur in the Netherlands and which factors increase the risk of child maltreatment? In this thesis we describe the findings of two epidemiological studies aimed at answering these questions. First, in the Netherlands’ Prevalence study on Maltreatment of children and

  12. An Intervention to Improve the Comfort And Satisfaction of Nurses in the Telephone Triage of Child Maltreatment Calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Nurses are mandated reporters of actual or suspected child maltreatment or the threat thereof. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to determine the knowledge and comfort of nurses in telephone triage in pediatric clinics when dealing with suspected or actual child abuse calls. Nurses (N = 17) from three pediatric primary care clinics and one specialty care orthopedic clinic were surveyed. Based on results of the survey showing a lack of knowledge and adequate referral resources perceived by the nursing staff, resources and staff education were developed, along with a script for guiding maltreatment calls toward standardization of care. Following the intervention, nurses reported an increased comfort level when doing telephone triage for child maltreatment calls, an increase in knowledge of risk factors for county resources. Further, they reported a substantial shift in opinion about the need for a standardized script when responding to child maltreatment telephone calls. Nurses undertaking telephone triage of high-risk child maltreatment calls can improve their comfort and knowledge through a survey of their needs and directed education and resource development for the management of child maltreatment telephone triage.

  13. Child Maltreatment History among Newlywed Couples: A Longitudinal Study of Marital Outcomes and Mediating Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLillo, David; Peugh, James; Walsh, Kate; Panuzio, Jillian; Trask, Emily; Evans, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Participants included 202 newlywed couples who reported retrospectively about child maltreatment experiences (sexual abuse, physical abuse, psychological abuse, and neglect) and whose marital functioning was assessed 3 times over a 2-year period. Decreased marital satisfaction at T1 was predicted by childhood physical abuse, psychological abuse,…

  14. Child Maltreatment Prevention and the Scope of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, John N

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment is one of the most deleterious known influences on the mental health and development of children. This article briefly reviews a complement of methods that are ready to incorporate into child and adolescent psychiatric practice, by having been validated either with respect to the prevention of child maltreatment or with respect to adverse outcomes associated with maltreatment (and primarily focused on enhancing the caregiving environment); they are feasible for integration into clinical decision making, and most importantly, can be included in the training of the next generation of clinicians.

  15. Evaluation and Referral for Child Maltreatment in Pediatric Poisoning Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joanne N.; Pecker, Lydia H.; Russo, Michael E.; Henretig, Fred; Christian, Cindy W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although the majority of poisonings in young children are due to exploratory ingestions and might be prevented through improved caregiver supervision, the circumstances that warrant evaluation for suspected maltreatment and referral to Child Protective Services (CPS) are unclear. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine…

  16. Child Maltreatment and Adult Socioeconomic Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Little empirical research has examined the impact that child maltreatment may have on victims' long-term socioeconomic well-being. The current study sought to address this gap by exploring the relationship between childhood experiences of abuse and neglect and several indicators of socioeconomic well-being in adulthood. Method: Data…

  17. Administrative Data Linkage as a Tool for Child Maltreatment Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Marni D.; Jutte, Douglas P.

    2013-01-01

    Linking administrative data records for the same individuals across services and over time offers a powerful, population-wide resource for child maltreatment research that can be used to identify risk and protective factors and to examine outcomes. Multistage de-identification processes have been developed to protect privacy and maintain…

  18. Identification of ICD Codes Suggestive of Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Patricia G.; Slusher, Paula L.; Kruse, Robin L.; Tarleton, Molly M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In order to be reimbursed for the care they provide, hospitals in the United States are required to use a standard system to code all discharge diagnoses: the International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9). Although ICD-9 codes specific for child maltreatment exist, they do not identify all…

  19. Development of a prediction model for child maltreatment recurrence in Japan: A historical cohort study using data from a Child Guidance Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Hiroyuki; Suguimoto, S Pilar; Musumari, Patou Masika; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    To develop a prediction model for the first recurrence of child maltreatment within the first year after the initial report, we carried out a historical cohort study using administrative data from 716 incident cases of child maltreatment (physical abuse, psychological abuse, or neglect) not receiving support services, reported between April 1, 1996 through March 31, 2011 to Shiga Central Child Guidance Center, Japan. In total, 23 items related to characteristics of the child, the maltreatment, the offender, household, and other related factors were selected as predictive variables and analyzed by multivariate logistic regression model for association with first recurrence of maltreatment. According to the stepwise selection procedure six factors were identified that include 9-13year age of child (AOR=3.43/95%CI=1.52-7.72), maltreatment during childhood (AOR=2.56/95%CI=1.31-4.99), household financial instability or poverty (AOR=1.64/95%CI=1.10-2.45), absence of someone in the community who could watch over the child (AOR=1.68/95%CI=1.16-2.44), and the organization as the referral source (AOR=2.21/95%CI=1.24-3.93). Using these six predictors, we generated a linear prediction model with a sensitivity and specificity of 45.2% and 82.4%, respectively. The model may be useful to assess the risk of further maltreatment and help the child and family welfare administrations to develop preventive strategies for recurrence.

  20. Experience with suspecting child maltreatment in the Norwegian public dental health services, a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattabø, Ingfrid Vaksdal; Iversen, Anette Christine; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug; Bjørknes, Ragnhild

    2016-11-01

    Detecting and responding to child-maltreatment is a serious challenge and public health concern. In Norway, public dental health personnel (PDHP) have a mandatory obligation to report to child welfare services (CWS) if they suspect child-maltreatment. This study aimed to assess PDHP's frequency of reporting and failing to report to CWS and whether the frequencies varied according to personal, organizational and external characteristics. An electronic questionnaire was sent to 1542 public dental hygienists and dentists in Norway, 1200 of who responded (77.8%). The majority 60.0%, reported having sent reports of concern to CWS throughout their career, 32.6% had suspected child-maltreatment but failed to report it in their career and 42.5% had sent reports during the three-year period from 2012 to 2014. The reporting frequency to CWS was influenced by PDHP's personal, organizational and external characteristics, while failure to report was influenced by personal characteristics. Compared to international studies, PDHP in Norway sends reports of concern and fails to report to CWS at relatively high rates. PDHP's likelihood of reporting was influenced by age, working experience, number of patients treated, size of the municipality and geographical region, while failure to report to CWS was influenced by working experience.

  1. Child maltreatment and substance abuse among U.S. Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Deborah A; Martin, Sandra L; Johnson, Ruby E; Rentz, E Danielle; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Hardison, Jennifer

    2008-08-01

    Although substance abuse has consistently been linked to child maltreatment, no study to date has described the extent of substance abuse among child maltreatment offenders within the military. Analysis of U.S. Army data on all substantiated incidents of parental child maltreatment committed between 2000 and 2004 by active duty soldiers found that 13% of offenders were noted to have been abusing alcohol or illicit drugs at the time of their child maltreatment incident. The odds of substance abuse were increased for offenders who committed child neglect or emotional abuse, but were reduced for child physical abuse. The odds of offender substance abuse nearly tripled in child maltreatment incidents that also involved co-occurring spouse abuse. Findings include a lack of association between offender substance abuse and child maltreatment recurrence, possibly because of the increased likelihood of removal of offenders from the home when either substance abuse or spouse abuse were documented.

  2. Child maltreatment in enlisted soldiers' families during combat-related deployments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Deborah A; Martin, Sandra L; Kupper, Lawrence L; Johnson, Ruby E

    2007-08-01

    Parental stress is believed to play a critical role in child maltreatment, and deployment is often stressful for military families. To examine the association between combat-related deployment and rates of child maltreatment in families of enlisted soldiers in the US Army who had 1 or more substantiated reports of child maltreatment. Descriptive case series of substantiated incidents of parental child maltreatment in 1771 families of enlisted US Army soldiers who experienced at least 1 combat deployment between September 2001 and December 2004. Conditional Poisson regression models were used to estimate rate ratios (RRs) that compare rates of substantiated child maltreatment incidents during periods of deployment and nondeployment. A total of 1858 parents in 1771 different families maltreated their children. In these families, the overall rate of child maltreatment was higher during the times when the soldier-parents were deployed compared with the times when they were not deployed (942 incidents and 713 626 days at risk during deployments vs 2392 incidents and 2.6 million days at risk during nondeployment; RR, 1.42 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.31-1.54]). During deployment, the rates of moderate or severe maltreatment also were elevated (638 incidents and 447 647 days at risk during deployments vs 1421 incidents and 1.6 million days at risk during nondeployment; RR, 1.61 [95% CI, 1.45-1.77]). The rates of child neglect were nearly twice as great during deployment (761 incidents and 470 657 days at risk during deployments vs 1407 incidents and 1.6 million days at risk during nondeployment; RR, 1.95 [95% CI, 1.77-2.14]); however, the rate of physical abuse was less during deployments (97 incidents and 80 033 days at risk during deployments vs 451 incidents and 318 326 days at risk during nondeployment; RR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.58-0.93]). Among female civilian spouses, the rate of maltreatment during deployment was more than 3 times greater (783 incidents and 382 480

  3. Is elevated risk of child maltreatment in immigrant families associated with socioeconomic status? Evidence from three sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alink, Lenneke R A; Euser, Saskia; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2013-01-01

    In this study we tested whether children from Dutch-immigrant families are at increased risk for maltreatment, and if so, what factors could explain this risk. Three data sources from the second Netherlands Prevalence Study of Maltreatment of Youth (NPM-2010) were used to answer these questions. First, 1127 professionals from various occupational branches (sentinels) were asked to report each child (including some background information on the child and family) for whom they suspected child maltreatment during a period of three months. Second, we included the 2010 data from the Dutch Child Protective Services and third, 1759 high school students aged 11-17 years filled out a questionnaire on their experiences of maltreatment in the past year. We found that children from traditional immigrant families with a relatively long migration history in the Netherlands (Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese, and Antillean) and from nontraditional immigrant families (African [except Morocco], Eastern European, Central Asian, and South and Central American; often refugees) were at increased risk for child maltreatment compared to native Dutch families. However, in the professionals' and CPS data this risk disappeared for the traditional immigrant families after correction for educational level of the parents and for step-parenthood. Within the group of families with low education or step-parents, the risk for child maltreatment was similar for traditional immigrant families as for native Dutch families. Nontraditional families remained at increased risk after correction for sociodemographic and family factors. In conclusion, we found that children from both traditional and nontraditional immigrant families are at increased risk for maltreatment as compared to children from native Dutch families. For the traditional immigrants this risk could partially be explained by socioeconomic status. This implies that socioeconomic factors should be taken into account when outlining policies to

  4. [Child maltreatment due to alcohol abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuná Salcedo, Lucia Julieta; Carvalho, Ana Maria Pimenta

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the occurrence of maltreatment in children abused by alcohol users. Authors looked at the records of children hospitalized from 2000 to 2003 at the Children Hospital "Dr. Ovidio Aliga Uria". Findings showed that among the total of hospitalizations, 0.62% were due to maltreatment. Considering them, 57.9% involved alcohol users. Approximately 12.9% of them died as a consequence of brain trauma. The characterization of the aggressors showed that they are abusive drinkers with no dependence; with age varying from 20 to 30 years, are members of the children's family; finished primary school, do not have a job and are drug users. Although the low percentage of cases, there is a need to take care of this situation aiming at protecting the children and respecting their rights as well as at providing care to the adult that also experiences stressing conditions.

  5. The effects of child maltreatment on early signs of antisocial behavior: genetic moderation by tryptophan hydroxylase, serotonin transporter, and monoamine oxidase A genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Thibodeau, Eric L

    2012-08-01

    Gene-environment interaction effects in predicting antisocial behavior in late childhood were investigated among maltreated and nonmaltreated low-income children (N = 627, M age = 11.27). Variants in three genes were examined: tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1), serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) upstream variable number tandem repeat. In addition to child maltreatment status, we considered the impact of maltreatment subtypes, developmental timing of maltreatment, and chronicity. Indicators of antisocial behavior were obtained from self-, peer, and adult counselor reports. In a series of analyses of covariance, child maltreatment and its parameters demonstrated strong main effects on early antisocial behavior as assessed by all report forms. Genetic effects operated primarily in the context of gene-environment interactions, moderating the impact of child maltreatment on outcomes. Across the three genes, among nonmaltreated children no differences in antisocial behavior were found based on genetic variation. In contrast, among maltreated children specific polymorphisms of TPH1, 5-HTTLPR, and MAOA were each related to heightened self-report of antisocial behavior; the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and developmental timing of maltreatment also indicated more severe antisocial outcomes for children with early onset and recurrent maltreatment based on genotype. TPH1 and 5-HTTLPR interacted with maltreatment subtype to predict peer reports of antisocial behavior; genetic variation contributed to larger differences in antisocial behavior among abused children. The TPH1 and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms also moderated the effects of maltreatment subtype on adult reports of antisocial behavior; again, the genetic effects were strongest for children who were abused. In addition, TPH1 moderated the effect of developmental timing of maltreatment and chronicity on adult reports of antisocial behavior. The findings elucidate how genetic

  6. Evaluation of an Intensive In-Home Services Program Aimed at Parents with Substance Abuse Issues Reported for Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Martha Morrison

    This paper discusses the results of a study that investigated the effectiveness of a demonstration program designed to provide in-home intervention with parents and children in families with substance abuse issues. The goals of the program were to prevent further child abuse or neglect, prevent family breakdown and child placement, and facilitate…

  7. Child maltreatment and allostatic load: consequences for physical and mental health in children from low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogosch, Fred A; Dackis, Melissa N; Cicchetti, Dante

    2011-11-01

    Child maltreatment and biomarkers of allostatic load were investigated in relation to child health problems and psychological symptomatology. Participants attended a summer research day camp and included 137 maltreated and 110 nonmaltreated low-income children, who were aged 8 to 10 years (M = 9.42) and racially and ethnically diverse; 52% were male. Measurements obtained included salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandosterone, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, and blood pressure; these indicators provided a composite index of allostatic load. Child self-report and camp adult-rater reports of child symptomatology were obtained; mothers provided information on health problems. The results indicated that higher allostatic load and child maltreatment status independently predicted poorer health outcomes and greater behavior problems. Moderation effects indicated that allostatic load was related to somatic complaints, attention problems, and thought problems only among maltreated children. Risks associated with high waist-hip ratio, low morning cortisol, and high morning dehydroepiandosterone also were related to depressive symptoms only for maltreated children. The results support an allostatic load conceptualization of the impact of high environmental stress and child abuse and neglect on child health and behavioral outcomes and have important implications for long-term physical and mental health.

  8. The Linkages among Childhood Maltreatment, Adolescent Mental Health, and Self-Compassion in Child Welfare Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masako; Wekerle, Christine; Schmuck, Mary Lou; Paglia-Boak, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Childhood maltreatment is a robust risk factor for poor physical and mental health. Child welfare youths represent a high-risk group, given the greater likelihood of severe or multiple types of maltreatment. This study examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment and self-compassion--a concept of positive acceptance of…

  9. Intergenerational Continuity in Child Maltreatment: Mediating Mechanisms and Implications for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Lisa J.; Appleyard, Karen; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    In the interest of improving child maltreatment prevention, this prospective, longitudinal, community-based study of 499 mothers and their infants examined (a) direct associations between mothers' experiences of childhood maltreatment and their offspring's maltreatment, and (b) mothers' mental health problems, social isolation, and social…

  10. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Application to Maltreating Parent-Child Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, S.G.; Urquiza, A.J.; Zebell, N.M.; McGrath, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: Parent-Child Interaction Training (PCIT), which uses a social learning framework, is a dyadic intervention that is designed to alter specific patterns of interaction found in parent-child relationships. Previous research suggests that maladaptive and high-risk characteristics found in maltreating parent-child dyads may be responsive to…

  11. Can social networking be used to promote engagement in child maltreatment prevention programs? Two pilot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards-Gaura, Anna; Whitaker, Daniel; Self-Brown, Shannon

    2014-08-01

    Child maltreatment is one of the United States' most significant public health problems. In efforts to prevent maltreatment experts recommend use of Behavioral Parent Training Programs (BPTs), which focus on teaching skills that will replace and prevent maltreating behavior. While there is research to support the effectiveness of BPTs in maltreatment prevention, the reach of such programs is still limited by several barriers, including poor retention of families in services. Recently, new technologies have emerged that offer innovative opportunities to improve family engagement. These technologies include smartphones and social networking; however, very little is known about the potential of these to aid in maltreatment prevention. The primary goal of this study was to conduct 2 pilot exploratory projects. The first project administered a survey to parents and providers to gather data about at-risk parents' use of smartphones and online social networking technologies. The second project tested a social networking-enhanced brief parenting program with 3 intervention participants and evaluated parental responses. Seventy-five percent of parents surveyed reported owning a computer that worked. Eighty-nine percent of parents reported that they had reliable Internet access at home, and 67% said they used the Internet daily. Three parents participated in the intervention with all reporting improvement in parent-child interaction skills and a positive experience participating in the social networking-enhanced SafeCare components. In general, findings suggest that smartphones, social networking, and Facebook, in particular, are now being used by individuals who show risk factors for maltreatment. Further, the majority of parents surveyed in this study said that they like Facebook, and all parents surveyed said that they use Facebook and have a Facebook account. As well, all saw it as a potentially beneficial supplement for future parents enrolling in parenting programs.

  12. Borderline personality disorder features and history of childhood maltreatment in mothers involved with child protective services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepletchikova, Francheska; Ansell, Emily; Axelrod, Seth

    2012-05-01

    This study examines the history of childhood maltreatment and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) symptoms in mothers whose children were removed from the home by Child Protective Services (CPS) to identify potential targets for future intervention efforts. Forty-one mothers of children removed from the home due to abuse and/or neglect and 58 community-control mothers without CPS involvement were assessed for history of childhood maltreatment, alcohol and drug use, and BPD features. CPS-involved mothers scored significantly higher on measures of childhood maltreatment history and BPD features than did control mothers. The highest BPD scores were associated with the most severe histories of mothers' childhood maltreatment. In total, 50% of CPS-involved mothers reported elevated BPD features, compared with 15% of control mothers. Further, 19% of CPS-involved mothers had self-reported scores consistent with a BPD diagnosis, compared with 4% of control mothers. BPD features rather than maltreatment history per se predicted maternal involvement with CPS, controlling for alcohol and drug use predictors. The present data suggest that evidence-based treatments to address BPD symptoms may be indicated for some CPS-involved parents.

  13. Child maltreatment entrenched by poverty: how financial need is linked to poorer outcomes in family preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escaravage, Jody Hearn

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional secondary data analysis examined the ecological factors influencing the outcomes of families receiving services from a local department of social services to address child maltreatment risk and incidence. The results indicated that families that experienced repeated maltreatment also experienced greater poverty and material need than families with more successful outcomes. This study highlights the responsibility of the child welfare system to address deep-seated poverty issues of families experiencing child maltreatment risk and incidence.

  14. Recognizing Child Maltreatment in Bangladesh. Brief Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naila Z.; Lynch, Margaret A.

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the range of cases of child abuse and neglect already being identified by professionals in Bangladesh. Also discusses the larger paradoxes revolving around child protection related to sociocultural practices and economic factors, including early marriage of girls, domestic child workers, and child labor in export factories. (CR)

  15. Child/Pet Maltreatment: Adolescents' Ratings of Parent and Owner Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Bruce; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Results from an investigation of 614 adolescents' ratings of forms of child and pet maltreatment indicated that adolescents were highly critical of acts which constitute maltreatment, more critical of abusive than neglectful acts, less tolerant of child abuse than pet abuse, but more tolerant of physical force directed toward a child if they had…

  16. A Better Start: Child Maltreatment Prevention as a Public Health Priority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Francie; Mercy, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Child abuse prevention programs have historically focused on individual and family dynamics rather than community-based or societal strategies to prevent child maltreatment. Recently, there has been a growing recognition of the importance of communitywide efforts to prevent child maltreatment before abuse or neglect occurs by offering a continuum…

  17. Child maltreatment and risk patterns among participants in a child abuse prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Jennifer Y; Hughes, Marcia; Asnes, Andrea G; Leventhal, John M

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between risk factors and Child Protective Services (CPS) outcomes in families who participate in home visiting programs to prevent abuse and neglect and who are reported to CPS is largely unknown. We examined the relationship between parental risk factors and the substantiation status and number of CPS reports in families in a statewide prevention program. We reviewed CPS reports from 2006 to 2008 for families in Connecticut's child abuse prevention program. Six risk factors (histories of CPS, domestic violence [DV], mental health, sexual abuse, substance abuse, and criminal involvement) and the number of caregivers were abstracted to create risk scores for each family member. Maltreatment type, substantiation, and number of reports were recorded. Odds ratios were calculated. Of 1,125 families, 171 (15.6%) had at least one CPS report, and reports of 131 families were available for review. Families with a substantiated (25.2%) versus unsubstantiated (74.8%) first report had a high number of paternal risk factors (OR=6.13, 95% CI [1.89, 20.00]) and were more likely to have a history of maternal DV (OR=8.47, 95% CI [2.96, 24.39]), paternal DV (OR=11.23, 95% CI [3.33, 38.46]), and maternal criminal history (OR=4.55; 95% CI [1.32, 15.60]). Families with >1 report (34.4%) versus 1 report (65.6%) were more likely to have >3 caregivers, but this was not statistically significant (OR=2.53, 95% CI [0.98, 6.54]). In a prevention program for first-time families, DV, paternal risk, maternal criminal history, and an increased number of caregivers were associated with maltreatment outcomes. Targeting parental violence may impact child abuse prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cognitive Modeling for Agent-Based Simulation of Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaolin; Puddy, Richard

    This paper extends previous work to develop cognitive modeling for agent-based simulation of child maltreatment (CM). The developed model is inspired from parental efficacy, parenting stress, and the theory of planned behavior. It provides an explanatory, process-oriented model of CM and incorporates causality relationship and feedback loops from different factors in the social ecology in order for simulating the dynamics of CM. We describe the model and present simulation results to demonstrate the features of this model.

  19. The extent of evidence-based information about child maltreatment fatalities in social science textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Emily M; Serino, Patricia J

    2013-10-01

    Previous research has established that child welfare workers lack important information about child maltreatment fatalities and risk factors leading to death. Further, training has not been associated with improvements in knowledge. The authors assessed the presence of evidence-based information about child maltreatment fatalities and risk factors for death in 24 social science textbooks about child abuse and neglect or child welfare. The results indicate that basic information, such as definitions and incidence rates of child maltreatment fatalities are routinely included in social science textbooks, but information about child, parent, and household risk factors are not, and that inaccurate information is often included. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  20. Child maltreatment in Kenya, Zambia, and the Netherlands : a cross-cultural comparison of prevalence, psychopathological sequelae, and mediation by PTSS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbagaya, Catherine Vuhya

    2010-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a global phenomenon affecting a significant number of the world’s children. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported childhood maltreatment among university students in Kenya, Zambia, and The Netherlands. We also sought to compare the psychopatho

  1. Addendum to "Population-Based Prevention of Child Maltreatment: The U.S. Triple P System Population Trial".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Ronald J; Sanders, Matthew R; Shapiro, Cheri J; Whitaker, Daniel J; Lutzker, John R

    2016-04-01

    A previous article published several years ago (Prinz et al. Prevention Science, 10, 1-12, 2009) described the main results of a place-randomized-design study focused on the prevention of child-maltreatment-related outcomes at a population level through the implementation of a multilevel system of parenting and family support (the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program). The current report, prepared at the encouragement of the journal, provides additional details about procedures, measures, and design-related decisions, presents an additional analysis of the main outcome variables, and poses questions about the study and its implications. We also offer guidance about how the field can move forward to build on this line of research. From the outset, the three designated primary child maltreatment outcomes were county-wide rates for substantiated child maltreatment cases, out-of-home placements, and hospital-treated child maltreatment injuries, derived from independent data sources available through administrative archival records. Baseline equivalence between the two intervention conditions was reaffirmed. The additional analysis, which made use of a 5-year baseline (replacing a 1-year baseline) and ANCOVA, yielded large effect sizes for all three outcomes that converged with those from the original analyses. Overall, the study underscored the potential for community-wide parenting and family support to produce population-level preventive impact on child maltreatment. Issues addressed included (1) the need for replication of population-oriented maltreatment prevention strategies like the one tested in this randomized experiment, (2) the need to demonstrate that a parenting-based population approach to maltreatment prevention can also impact children's adjustment apart from child abuse, and (3) the role of implementation science for achieving greater population reach and maintenance over time.

  2. Universal violence and child maltreatment prevention programs for parents: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Rachel Pisani Altafim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to review recent literature on universal violence and child maltreatment prevention programs for parents. The following databases were used: Web of Science, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO. The keywords included the following: (Parenting Program or Parent Training or Parent Intervention and (Maltreatment or Violence or Violence Prevention. For inclusion in this review, the programs had to be structured, working in groups of parents aiming to improve parenting practices. Twenty-three studies were included, and 16 different types of parenting programs were identified. Ninety-one percent of the studies were conducted in developed countries. All the programs focused on the prevention of violence and maltreatment by promoting positive parenting practices. Only seven studies were randomized controlled trials. All studies that evaluated parenting strategies (n = 18, reported after the interventions. The programs also effectively improved child behavior in 90% of the studies that assessed this outcome. In conclusion, parenting educational programs appear to be an important strategy for the universal prevention of violence and maltreatment against children. Future studies should assess the applicability and effectiveness of parenting programs for the prevention of violence against children in developing countries. Further randomized control trials are also required.

  3. Explicating the Social Mechanisms Linking Alcohol Use Behaviors and Ecology to Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget; Holmes, Megan R

    2012-12-01

    This paper begins to describe and explicate the specific mechanisms by which alcohol use and the alcohol use environment contribute to specific types of child maltreatment. These mechanisms relating alcohol outlet densities to child maltreatment described here include effects on social disorganization, parent's drinking behaviors, and parental supervision. By investigating potential mechanisms, new information could be obtained on the importance and role of alcohol and their availability in the etiology of child maltreatment. This knowledge can be used to further tailor interventions to those conditions most likely to prevent and reduce maltreatment.

  4. Direct and Indirect Effects of Maltreatment and Social Support on Children's Social Competence Across Reporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Graff, Laura E; Howell, Kathryn H; Martinez-Torteya, Cecilia; Grein, Katherine

    2016-11-22

    Children's social competence is a key characteristic of resilience, yet little research has assessed contributing factors to this construct. The objectives of this study were to examine direct and indirect effects of maltreatment on children's social competence, the promotive role of child and caregiver social support, and factors contributing to reports of child social competence across informants. Structural equation modeling evaluated the influence of CPS report history, child adjustment, and child and caregiver social support on child social competence in n = 783 caregiver-child dyads. CPS report history (age 0-8) was indirectly related to low social competence through child adjustment problems. Social support was a significant promotive factor of child social competence, with caregiver social supports predicting higher levels of parent-reported child social competence. Child social support predicted self-reported child social competence. Findings reinforce the assertion that both caregiver and child social support networks are critical to promoting child well-being after adversity.

  5. Predicting criminality from child maltreatment typologies and posttraumatic stress symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Armour, Cherie

    2013-01-01

    The associations between childhood abuse and subsequent criminality and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are well known. However, a major limitation of research related to childhood abuse and its effects is the focus on one particular type of abuse at the expense of others. Recent work has...... established that childhood abuse rarely occurs as a one-dimensional phenomenon. Therefore, a number of studies have investigated the existence of abuse typologies. Methods: The study is based on a Danish stratified random probability survey including 2980 interviews of 24-year-old people. The sample...... was constructed to include an oversampling of child protection cases. Building on a previous latent class analysis of four types of childhood maltreatment, three maltreatment typologies were used in the current analyses. A criminality scale was constructed based on seven types of criminal behavior. PTSD symptoms...

  6. Predicting criminality from child maltreatment typologies and posttraumatic stress symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Armour, Cherie

    2013-01-01

    The associations between childhood abuse and subsequent criminality and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are well known. However, a major limitation of research related to childhood abuse and its effects is the focus on one particular type of abuse at the expense of others. Recent work has...... established that childhood abuse rarely occurs as a one-dimensional phenomenon. Therefore, a number of studies have investigated the existence of abuse typologies. Methods: The study is based on a Danish stratified random probability survey including 2980 interviews of 24-year-old people. The sample...... was constructed to include an oversampling of child protection cases. Building on a previous latent class analysis of four types of childhood maltreatment, three maltreatment typologies were used in the current analyses. A criminality scale was constructed based on seven types of criminal behavior. PTSD symptoms...

  7. Child maltreatment, bullying in school and social support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    The study focuses on the individual and the group to explain how the suicidal thoughts, and suicidal threats or attempts of individuals are influenced by other people. The research questions are: Why have some children, who are or have been exposed to maltreatment, developed resilience, while other...... children haven’t? The study is based on standardized personal interview with a national sample of 3,000 young people, supplemented with prospective longitudinal register data. The hypotheses are that the adolescents who have experienced child maltreatment during childhood but also had experienced...... supportive significant others have developed resilience with a strengthened self. The study confirms that social support for a great many of the young adults reduces the risk of low self-esteem and suicidal ideations even when they have experienced poor parenting with the destructiveness of psychological...

  8. Assessing Child Maltreatment in Children Born to Mothers Who Used Methamphetamine during Pregnancy at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patcharoros, Nontima; Chulakadabba, Sudsabuy; Na Manorom, Nattawadee; Boon-Yasidhi, Vitharon

    2014-01-01

    Studies on maltreatment of children born to methamphetamine abusing mothers are lacking. This cross-sectional study examined child maltreatment among children born at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, to mothers who used methamphetamines during pregnancy. During the study period between July 2011 and January 2012, 34 caretakers of these children were interviewed using the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Parent Version (ICAST-P) to assess their disciplinary actions. The associations between child's and caretaker's characteristics and child maltreatment behaviors were analyzed. More than 90% of caretakers were female with age ranging from 18 to 35 years and about 60% were biological mothers. The children's age ranged from 1 to 9 years. Disciplinary acts and child rearing practices that were considered to be child maltreatment behaviors were reported as follows: psychological discipline 82.4%, physical discipline 79.4%, and neglect 29.4%. No associations between the child's or the caretaker's characteristics and child maltreatment behaviors were found. In conclusion, child maltreatment behaviors were frequent in caretakers of children born to mothers who used methamphetamine during pregnancy. Supervision on child rearing and careful monitoring are needed for this population.

  9. Hypermasculinity, intimate partner violence, sexual aggression, social support, and child maltreatment risk in urban, heterosexual fathers taking parenting classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez Guerrero, Desi Alonzo

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between hypermasculinity, sexual aggression, intimate partner violence, social support, and child maltreatment risk among heterosexual fathers completing parenting classes. Hypermasculinity scores were found to be significant predictors of study participants' reported verbal, physical, and sexual aggression toward their intimate partners. Only lack of social support, operationalized as the reported frequency of participants' conversations with friends, relatives, or neighbors about their problems, was found to be a significant predictor of child maltreatment risk. Alcohol frequency, education, and monthly income were not found to be unique, significant predictors of any dependent variables. Implications for clinical practice and research as well as limitations to the current study are discussed.

  10. Can Social Networking Be Used to Promote Engagement in Child Maltreatment Prevention Programs? Two Pilot Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Edwards-Gaura

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Child maltreatment is one of the United States’ most significant public health problems. In efforts to prevent maltreatment experts recommend use of Behavioral Parent Training Programs (BPTs, which focus on teaching skills that will replace and prevent maltreating behavior. While there is research to support the effectiveness of BPTs in maltreatment prevention, the reach of such programs is still limited by several barriers, including poor retention of families in services. Recently, new technologies have emerged that offer innovative opportunities to improve family engagement. These technologies include smartphones and social networking; however, very little is known about the potential of these to aid in maltreatment prevention. The primary goal of this study was to conduct 2 pilot exploratory projects. Methods: The first project administered a survey to parents and providers to gather data about at-risk parents’ use of smartphones and online social networking technologies. The second project tested a social networking-enhanced brief parenting program with 3 intervention participants and evaluated parental responses. Results: Seventy-five percent of parents surveyed reported owning a computer that worked. Eighty-nine percent of parents reported that they had reliable Internet access at home, and 67% said they used the Internet daily. Three parents participated in the intervention with all reporting improvement in parent-child interaction skills and a positive experience participating in the social networking-enhanced SafeCare components. Conclusion: In general, findings suggest that smartphones, social networking, and Facebook, in particular, are now being used by individuals who show risk factors formal treatment. Further, the majority of parents surveyed in this study said that they like Facebook, and all parents surveyed said that they use Facebook and have a Facebook account. As well, all saw it as a potentially

  11. Child maltreatment and educational attainment in young adulthood: results from the Ontario Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masako; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for the adverse effects of child maltreatment on academic performance; however, most of these studies used selective samples and did not account for potential confounding or mediating factors. We examined the relationship between child physical abuse (PA; severe and non-severe) and sexual abuse (SA) and educational attainment (years of education, failure to graduate from high school) with a Canadian community sample. We used data from the Ontario Child Health Study (N = 1,893), a province-wide longitudinal survey. Potential confounding variables (family socio-demographic and parental capacity) and child-level characteristics were assessed in 1983, and child abuse was determined in 2000-2001 based on retrospective self-report. Results showed that PA and SA were associated with several factors indicative of social disadvantage in childhood. Multilevel regression analyses for years of education revealed a significant estimate for severe PA based on the unadjusted model (-0.60 years, 95% CI = [-0.45, -0.76]); estimates for non-severe PA (0.05 years, CI = [-0.15, 0.26]) and SA (-0.25 years, CI = [-0.09, -0.42]) were not significant. In the adjusted full model, the only association to reach significance was between severe PA and reduced years of education (-0.31 years, CI = [-0.18, -0.44]). Multilevel regression analyses for failure to graduate from high school showed significant unadjusted estimates for severe PA (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = [1.21, 2.58]) and non-severe PA (OR = 1.61, CI = [1.01, 2.57]); SA was not associated with this outcome (OR = 1.40, CI = [0.94, 2.07]). In the adjusted full models, there were no significant associations between child abuse variables and failure to graduate. The magnitude of effect of PA on both outcomes was reduced largely by child individual characteristics. These findings generally support earlier research, indicating the adverse effects of child maltreatment on educational attainment. Of particular note

  12. Predicting the Accuracy of Facial Affect Recognition: The Interaction of Child Maltreatment and Intellectual Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E.; Putnam, Frank W.; Noll, Jennie G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that both child maltreatment and intellectual performance contribute uniquely to the accurate identification of facial affect by children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to extend this research by examining whether child maltreatment affects the accuracy of facial recognition differently at varying…

  13. The Economic Burden of Child Maltreatment in the United States and Implications for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangming; Brown, Derek S.; Florence, Curtis S.; Mercy, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To present new estimates of the average lifetime costs per child maltreatment victim and aggregate lifetime costs for all new child maltreatment cases incurred in 2008 using an incidence-based approach. Methods: This study used the best available secondary data to develop cost per case estimates. For each cost category, the paper used…

  14. Early Childhood Intervention Programs: Opportunities and Challenges for Preventing Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asawa, Lindsay E.; Hansen, David J.; Flood, Mary Fran

    2008-01-01

    Due to the destructive impact of child maltreatment and limited available funding to address its consequences, the value of preventive measures is evident. Early Childhood Intervention Programs (ECIPs) provide excellent opportunities to prevent and identify cases of child maltreatment, among other varied objectives. These programs are typically…

  15. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Mental Health Problems in a Large Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Ryan; Scott, James; Alati, Rosa; O'Callaghan, Michael; Najman, Jake M.; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether notified child maltreatment is associated with adverse psychological outcomes in adolescence, and whether differing patterns of psychological outcome are seen depending on the type of maltreatment. Methods: The participants were 7,223 mother and child pairs enrolled in a population-based birth cohort study in…

  16. Effects of Child Maltreatment and Inherited Liability on Antisocial Development: An Official Records Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Presnall, Ned; Drake, Brett; Fox, Louis; Bierut, Laura; Reich, Wendy; Kane, Phyllis; Todd, Richard D.; Constantino, John N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evidence is steadily accumulating that a preventable environmental hazard, child maltreatment, exerts causal influences on the development of long-standing patterns of antisocial behavior in humans. The relationship between child maltreatment and antisocial outcome, however, has never previously been tested in a large-scale study in…

  17. How Neighborhoods Influence Child Maltreatment: A Review of the Literature and Alternative Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulton, Claudia J.; Crampton, David S.; Irwin, Molly; Spilsbury, James C.; Korbin, Jill E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on the relationships between neighborhoods and child maltreatment and identify future directions for research in this area. Method: A search of electronic databases and a survey of experts yielded a list of 25 studies on the influence of geographically defined neighborhoods on child maltreatment. These studies…

  18. Predicting the Accuracy of Facial Affect Recognition: The Interaction of Child Maltreatment and Intellectual Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E.; Putnam, Frank W.; Noll, Jennie G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that both child maltreatment and intellectual performance contribute uniquely to the accurate identification of facial affect by children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to extend this research by examining whether child maltreatment affects the accuracy of facial recognition differently at varying…

  19. A public health response to data interoperability to prevent child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Loc H

    2014-11-01

    The sharing of data, particularly health data, has been an important tool for the public health community, especially in terms of data sharing across systems (i.e., interoperability). Child maltreatment is a serious public health issue that could be better mitigated if there were interoperability. There are challenges to addressing child maltreatment interoperability that include the current lack of data sharing among systems, the lack of laws that promote interoperability to address child maltreatment, and the lack of data sharing at the individual level. There are waivers in federal law that allow for interoperability to prevent communicable diseases at the individual level. Child maltreatment has a greater long-term impact than a number of communicable diseases combined, and interoperability should be leveraged to maximize public health strategies to prevent child maltreatment.

  20. Transitions and turning points revisited: A replication to explore child maltreatment and youth offending links within and across Australian cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurren, Emily; Stewart, Anna; Dennison, Susan

    2017-03-01

    In this study we examined the consistency of life-course child maltreatment trajectories and youth offending links across birth cohorts. In so doing we demonstrated the value of replication studies for maltreatment research. We applied the methodology of Stewart et al. (2008) and linked population-based (1990 birth cohort) child protection and youth justice administrative data from Queensland, Australia. We performed a group based trajectory analysis to identify distinct maltreatment trajectory groups distinguishable by maltreatment timing and frequency across the life-course. We explored group-based youth offending outcomes with consideration of variations in maltreatment chronicity, timing, and frequency, multi-type maltreatment, gender and race (Indigenous Australian versus non-Indigenous Australian youths). To determine the consistency of maltreatment trajectories and offending links across cohorts (1983/84 versus 1990) we compared our results with those of Stewart et al. (2008). Consistent with Stewart et al. (2008): (1) We identified six distinct maltreatment trajectory groups; (2) Trajectory groups characterised by chronic maltreatment and/or adolescent maltreatment had the largest proportion of young offenders; and (3) Maltreatment frequency commonly peaked at transition points. Extending beyond Stewart et al. (2008) we noted considerable overlap between maltreatment dimensions and a potential impact of race and multi-type maltreatment on maltreatment and offending links. We endorse replication studies as a valuable tool to advance child maltreatment policy and practice and recommend further research on interactions between maltreatment dimensions, gender, race, and youth offending.

  1. Maternal Elaborative Reminiscing Mediates the Effect of Child Maltreatment on Behavioral and Physiological Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Kristin; Hibel, Leah C; Cummings, E. Mark; Nuttall, Amy K.; Comas, Michelle; McDonnell, Christina G.

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical evidence suggest that the way in which parents discuss everyday emotional experiences with their young children (i.e., elaborative reminiscing) has significant implications for child cognitive and socio-emotional functioning, and that maltreating parents have a particularly difficult time in engaging in this type of dialogue. This dyadic interactional exchange, therefore, has the potential to be an important process variable linking child maltreatment to developmental outcomes at multiple levels of analysis. The current investigation evaluated the role of maternal elaborative reminiscing in associations between maltreatment and child cognitive, emotional, and physiological functioning. Participants included 43 maltreated and 49 nonmaltreated children (aged 3–6) and their mothers. Dyads participated in a joint reminiscing task about four past emotional events, and children participated in assessments of receptive language and emotion knowledge. Child salivary cortisol was also collected from children three times a day (waking, midday, and bedtime) on two consecutive days to assess daily levels and diurnal decline. Results indicated that maltreating mothers engaged in significantly less elaborative reminiscing than nonmaltreating mothers. Maternal elaborative reminiscing mediated associations between child maltreatment and child receptive language and child emotion knowledge. Additionally, there was support for an indirect pathway between child maltreatment and child cortisol diurnal decline through maternal elaborative reminiscing. Directions for future research are discussed and potential clinical implications are addressed. PMID:26535941

  2. Forensic medical evaluations of child maltreatment: a proposed research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Howard; Christian, Cindy W; Hymel, Kent; Kellogg, Nancy D

    2014-11-01

    Physicians play an important role in the forensic evaluation of suspected child abuse and neglect. There has been considerable progress in the medical field, helping distinguish findings related to maltreatment from other conditions or circumstances. Nevertheless, important questions remain. This article covers several of these questions and proposes a research agenda concerning five main topics: sexual abuse, neglect, fractures, abusive head trauma, and physicians work in interdisciplinary settings. The suggestions are hardly inclusive, but offer suggestions the authors think are priorities, and ones that research could reasonably address. By providing some background to gaps in our knowledge, this paper should be of interest to a broader audience than just medical professionals.

  3. Impact of Child Maltreatment on Attachment and Social Rank Systems: Introducing an Integrated Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloman, Leon; Taylor, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment is a prevalent societal problem that has been linked to a wide range of social, psychological, and emotional difficulties. Maltreatment impacts on two putative evolved psychobiological systems in particular, the attachment system and the social rank system. The maltreatment may disrupt the child's ability to form trusting and reassuring relationships and also creates a power imbalance where the child may feel powerless and ashamed. The aim of the current article is to outline an evolutionary theory for understanding the impact of child maltreatment, focusing on the interaction between the attachment and the social rank system. We provide a narrative review of the relevant literature relating to child maltreatment and these two theories. This research highlights how, in instances of maltreatment, these ordinarily adaptive systems may become maladaptive and contribute to psychopathology. We identify a number of novel hypotheses that can be drawn from this theory, providing a guide for future research. We finally explore how this theory provides a guide for the treatment of victims of child maltreatment. In conclusion, the integrated theory provides a framework for understanding and predicting the consequences of maltreatment, but further research is required to test several hypotheses made by this theory.

  4. Witnessing intimate partner violence and child maltreatment in Ugandan children: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Karen M; Knight, Louise; Child, Jennifer C; Kyegombe, Nambusi; Hossain, Mazeda; Lees, Shelley; Watts, Charlotte; Naker, Dipak

    2017-02-28

    Existing evidence, mainly from high-income countries, shows children who witness intimate partner violence (IPV) at home are more likely to experience other forms of violence, but very little evidence is available from lower income countries. In this paper we aim to explore whether Ugandan children who witness IPV at home are also more likely to experience other forms of maltreatment, factors associated with witnessing and experiencing violence, and whether any increased risk comes from parents, or others outside the home. A representative cross-sectional survey of primary schools. 3427 non-boarding primary school students, aged about 11-14 years. Luwero District, Uganda, 2012. Exposure to child maltreatment was measured using the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect Child Abuse Screening Tool-Child Institutional, and 2 questions measured witnessing IPV. 26% of children reported witnessing IPV, but nearly all of these children had also experienced violence themselves. Only 0.6% of boys and 1.6% of girls had witnessed partner violence and not experienced violence. Increased risk of violence was from parents and also from other perpetrators besides parents. Both girls and boys who witnessed and experienced violence had between 1.66 (95% CI 0.96 to 2.87) and 4.50 (95% CI 1.78 to 11.33) times the odds of reporting mental health difficulties, and 3.23 (95% CI 1.99 to 5.24) and 8.12 (95% CI 5.15 to 12.80) times the odds of using physical or sexual violence themselves. In this sample, witnessing IPV almost never occurred in isolation-almost all children who witnessed partner violence also experienced violence themselves. Our results imply that children in Uganda who are exposed to multiple forms of violence may benefit from intervention to mitigate mental health consequences and reduce use of violence. IPV prevention interventions should be considered to reduce child maltreatment. Large numbers of children also experience maltreatment in

  5. Witnessing intimate partner violence and child maltreatment in Ugandan children: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Louise; Child, Jennifer C; Kyegombe, Nambusi; Hossain, Mazeda; Lees, Shelley; Watts, Charlotte; Naker, Dipak

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Existing evidence, mainly from high-income countries, shows children who witness intimate partner violence (IPV) at home are more likely to experience other forms of violence, but very little evidence is available from lower income countries. In this paper we aim to explore whether Ugandan children who witness IPV at home are also more likely to experience other forms of maltreatment, factors associated with witnessing and experiencing violence, and whether any increased risk comes from parents, or others outside the home. Design A representative cross-sectional survey of primary schools. Participants 3427 non-boarding primary school students, aged about 11–14 years. Setting Luwero District, Uganda, 2012. Measures Exposure to child maltreatment was measured using the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect Child Abuse Screening Tool-Child Institutional, and 2 questions measured witnessing IPV. Results 26% of children reported witnessing IPV, but nearly all of these children had also experienced violence themselves. Only 0.6% of boys and 1.6% of girls had witnessed partner violence and not experienced violence. Increased risk of violence was from parents and also from other perpetrators besides parents. Both girls and boys who witnessed and experienced violence had between 1.66 (95% CI 0.96 to 2.87) and 4.50 (95% CI 1.78 to 11.33) times the odds of reporting mental health difficulties, and 3.23 (95% CI 1.99 to 5.24) and 8.12 (95% CI 5.15 to 12.80) times the odds of using physical or sexual violence themselves. Conclusions In this sample, witnessing IPV almost never occurred in isolation—almost all children who witnessed partner violence also experienced violence themselves. Our results imply that children in Uganda who are exposed to multiple forms of violence may benefit from intervention to mitigate mental health consequences and reduce use of violence. IPV prevention interventions should be considered to reduce child

  6. Child maltreatment and foster care: unpacking the effects of prenatal and postnatal parental substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dana K; Johnson, Amber B; Pears, Katherine C; Fisher, Philip A; DeGarmo, David S

    2007-05-01

    Parental substance use is a well-documented risk for children. However, little is known about specific effects of prenatal and postnatal substance use on child maltreatment and foster care placement transitions. In this study, the authors unpacked unique effects of (a) prenatal and postnatal parental alcohol and drug use and (b) maternal and paternal substance use as predictors of child maltreatment and foster care placement transitions in a sample of 117 maltreated foster care children. Models were tested with structural equation path modeling. Results indicated that prenatal maternal alcohol use predicted child maltreatment and that combined prenatal maternal alcohol and drug use predicted foster care placement transitions. Prenatal maternal alcohol and drug use also predicted postnatal paternal alcohol and drug use, which in turn predicted foster care placement transitions. Findings highlight the potential integrative role that maternal and paternal substance use has on the risk for child maltreatment and foster care placement transitions.

  7. Child maltreatment, personality pathology, and stalking victimization among male and female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Kim S; Pincus, Aaron L

    2014-01-01

    Self-report college student surveys on childhood maltreatment, and borderline and narcissistic personality features are examined to determine their influence on stalking victimization vulnerability. Stalking victimization was measured using Spitzberg and Cupach's (2008) Obsessive Relational Intrusion scale. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models were run separately for men (N = 677) and women (N = 1,017). Results indicated childhood sexual maltreatment and borderline traits were associated with stalking victimization among both men and women. These were the only significant relationships for men (R2 = .10). For women, stalking victimization was also associated with narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability and with a child sexual abuse by borderline features interaction (R2 = .13), demonstrating women reporting prior sexual abuse and borderline personality pathology are especially vulnerable. Methodological and policy implications are discussed.

  8. Deployment Family Stress: Child Neglect and Maltreatment in U.S. Army Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    08-2-0189 TITLE: Deployment Family Stress: Child Neglect and Maltreatment in U.S. Army Families PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Stephen...10      4 | P a g e INTRODUCTION The Deployment Family Stress: Child Neglect and Maltreatment in the U.S. Army study...was conducted to identify the effects of child neglect within and around military installations. Data for this study was collected from clinical

  9. Using Evidence-Based Parenting Programs to Advance CDC Efforts in Child Maltreatment Prevention. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Linda Anne; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Lutzker, John R.; Filene, Jill H.; Wyatt, Jennifer M.; Cephas, Kendell C.; Hoover, D. Michele

    2004-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recognize child maltreatment as a serious public health problem with extensive short- and long-term health effects. In addition to the immediate physical and emotional effects of maltreatment, children who have experienced abuse and neglect are at increased risk of adverse health effects and…

  10. Maltreated Children in Schools: The Interface of School Social Work and Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Kim, Jiyoung; Barolak, Michael; Citerman, Barbara; Laudel, Cindy; Essma, Angie; Fezzi, Nancy; Green, Deborah; Kontak, Dot; Mueller, Nancy; Thomas, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Research has documented the educational difficulties that maltreated children face. No work exists, however, that examines how maltreated children are provided services by school social workers or how these services overlap and interface with services provided by child welfare. This article attempts to fill that gap by presenting data from the…

  11. Child Maltreatment and Mediating Influences of Childhood Personality Types on the Development of Adolescent Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children ("N" = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on…

  12. Experiential Avoidance and the Relationship between Child Maltreatment and PTSD Symptoms: Preliminary Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E.; Putnam, Frank W.; Noll, Jennie G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Not every adolescent exposed to child maltreatment develops symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), emphasizing the need to identify variables that explain how some maltreated children come to develop these symptoms. This study tested whether a set of variables, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and cortisol reactivity as…

  13. Child Maltreatment and Mediating Influences of Childhood Personality Types on the Development of Adolescent Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children ("N" = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on…

  14. Is the Families First Home Visiting Program Effective in Reducing Child Maltreatment and Improving Child Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Mariette J; Brownell, Marni D; Isaac, Michael R; Chateau, Dan; Nickel, Nathan C; Katz, Alan; Sarkar, Joykrishna; Hu, Milton; Taylor, Carole

    2017-05-01

    While home visiting programs are among the most widespread interventions to support at-risk families, there is a paucity of research investigating these programs under real-world conditions. The effectiveness of Families First home visiting (FFHV) was examined for decreasing rates of being in care of child welfare, decreasing hospitalizations for maltreatment-related injuries, and improving child development at school entry. Data for 4,562 children from home visiting and 5,184 comparison children were linked to deidentified administrative health, social services, and education data. FFHV was associated with lower rates of being in care by child's first, second, and third birthday (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 0.75, 0.79, and 0.81, respectively) and lower rates of hospitalization for maltreatment-related injuries by third birthday (aRR = 0.59). No differences were found in child development at kindergarten. FFHV should be offered to at-risk families to decrease child maltreatment. Program enhancements are required to improve child development at school entry.

  15. Accounting for the associations between child maltreatment and internalizing problems: The role of alexithymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shaquanna; Fite, Paula J; Stone, Katie; Bortolato, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Internalizing difficulties are one of the most widely documented consequences of child maltreatment. However, there is a need for studies delineating the factors that account for this association. Despite research showing that alexithymia is associated with both child maltreatment and internalizing problems, the role of alexithymia in the link between child maltreatment and internalizing problems has not received much attention in the literature. The current study evaluated whether a history of child maltreatment was associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and loneliness in emerging adulthood, and whether alexithymia partially accounted for these associations. Participants included 339 emerging adults ranging between 18 and 25 years of age (M=19.00, SD=1.26, 51.3% male). Exposure to child maltreatment (i.e., physical abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect) was positively associated with depression, anxiety, and loneliness symptoms. Tests of indirect effects suggested that associations between emotional neglect and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and loneliness were partially explained by alexithymia. However, alexithymia did not account for any other associations between the remaining four maltreatment types and internalizing problems. Findings highlight the need for further evaluation of the factors that might account for associations between child maltreatment and internalizing difficulties. Future directions and implications for interventions are reviewed.

  16. Reported maltreatment in childhood in relation to the personality features of Norwegian adult psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, Gunilla Klensmeden; Holen, Are

    2007-01-01

    To explore long-term associations between maltreatment in childhood and personality features in adulthood, 160 consecutive adult psychiatric outpatients completed self-administered questionnaires. Maltreatment was defined as either child abuse or neglect exerted by parents or other adults, coldness and overprotection by parents, or bullying by peers. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to detect childhood abuse by parents or other adults, while dimensions of parental coldness and overprotection were captured by the Parental Bonding Instrument. Bullying by peers was measured by an inventory used in schools. Personality variables were covered by the 5-PFa related to the "Big Five," The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Locus of Control of Behavior. Reports of bullying by peers were linked to poor self-esteem and external locus of control. Child maltreatment by parents or other adults were linked to the Big Five personality dimensions; bullying by peers was not.

  17. Child Maltreatment History and Response to CBT Treatment in Depressed Mothers Participating in Home Visiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, Robert T; Peugh, James L; Teeters, Angelique R; Putnam, Frank W; Van Ginkel, Judith B

    2016-03-01

    Child maltreatment contributes to depression in adults. Evidence indicates that such experiences are associated with poorer outcomes in treatment. Mothers in home visiting programs display high rates of depression and child maltreatment histories. In-Home Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (IH-CBT) was developed to treat maternal depression in home visiting. The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating effects of child maltreatment history on depression, social functioning, and parenting in mothers participating in a clinical trial of IH-CBT. Ninety-three depressed mothers in home visiting between 2 and 10 months postpartum were randomly assigned to IH-CBT (n = 47) plus home visiting or standard home visiting (SHV; n = 46). Mothers were identified via screening and then confirmation of major depressive disorder diagnosis. Measures of child maltreatment history, depression, social functioning, and parenting were administered at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up. Results indicated high rates of maltreatment in both conditions relative to the general population. Mixed model analyses found a number of main effects in which experiences of different types of trauma were associated with poorer functioning regardless of treatment condition. Evidence of a moderating effect of maltreatment on treatment outcomes was found for physical abuse and parenting and emotional abuse and social network size. Future research should focus on increasing the effectiveness of IH-CBT with depressed mothers who have experienced child maltreatment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Culture and context in understanding child maltreatment: Contributions of intersectionality and neighborhood-based research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadan, Yochay; Spilsbury, James C; Korbin, Jill E

    2015-03-01

    In the early 1990s, the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect commissioned a series of reviews that appeared as the edited volume, Protecting Children from Abuse and Neglect (Melton & Barry, 1994). Using the 1994 review "Sociocultural Factors in Child Maltreatment" (Korbin, 1994) as a background, this article reconsiders culture and context in child maltreatment work. Since 1994, conditions promoting research and practice attention in this area include immigration-driven global increases in diverse, multicultural societies where different beliefs and practices meet (and clash); expanding purview of the human rights discourse to children; and the disproportionate and disparate representation of cultural, ethnic, and racial groups in child-welfare systems. Although research on child maltreatment has advanced in many ways over 20 years, the complexity of child maltreatment leaves many critical questions demanding further attention, culture and context among them. To help address these questions, we propose two approaches for future maltreatment research: intersectionality - the simultaneous examination of multiple identities (such as gender, race, and socioeconomic status) - as a framework for understanding the complexity of cultural factors; and neighborhood-based research as a means for understanding the context of child maltreatment from the perspective of an ecological framework. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Child maltreatment and social connectedness among formerly institutionalized females: links with depression

    OpenAIRE

    van Delft, I.; Finkenauer, C.; Verbruggen, Janna

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of child maltreatment subtypes (physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and exposure to domestic violence) and cumulative child maltreatment on depressive symptoms in adulthood, and examine the protective effects of social connectedness in a sample of formerly institutionalized females. The sample consisted of 124 females who were institutionalized in a Dutch juvenile justice institution during adolescence and were followed-up when they were on average 3...

  20. Explicating the Social Mechanisms Linking Alcohol Use Behaviors and Ecology to Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Freisthler, Bridget; Holmes, Megan R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper begins to describe and explicate the specific mechanisms by which alcohol use and the alcohol use environment contribute to specific types of child maltreatment. These mechanisms relating alcohol outlet densities to child maltreatment described here include effects on social disorganization, parent’s drinking behaviors, and parental supervision. By investigating potential mechanisms, new information could be obtained on the importance and role of alcohol and their availability in t...

  1. Investigating the effects of child maltreatment and household dysfunction on child physical development in a British birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Denholm, R. E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests adverse childhood experiences (maltreatment and household dysfunction) may have long-term effects on adult health. One possible pathway is through physical development. This thesis investigated the prevalence of child maltreatment and household dysfunction in a population sample, and assessed their association with child-to-adult height and pubertal development. The 1958 British birth cohort includes all children (≈17,000) born in one week, March 1958, followed-up to ...

  2. Child maltreatment and ADHD symptoms in a sample of young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Sanderud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study investigated the relationship between different types of childhood maltreatment (emotional, sexual, overall abuse, and no abuse and the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in young adulthood. Method: Data were collected from a Danish national study conducted by The Danish National Centre for Social Research in 2008 and 2009. A sample of 4,718 young adults (24 years of age were randomly selected using the total birth cohort of children born in 1984. Structured interviews were conducted with a response rate of 63%, equating to a total sample size of 2,980 participants. Results: Chi-square analyses revealed significant relationships between child maltreatment groups and a probable diagnosis of ADHD using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the overall abuse class was more strongly associated with probable ADHD (OR=5.08, followed by emotional abuse (OR=3.09 and sexual abuse (OR=2.07. Conclusions: The results showed that childhood maltreatment was associated with increased risk of ADHD symptoms in young adulthood. The findings of this study are discussed within the existing literature and suggestions for future research are outlined in order to replicate these findings in other adult populations.

  3. Interactive Effect of Child Maltreatment and Substance Use on Depressed Mood among Adolescents Presenting to Community-Based Substance Use Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Judelysse; Becker, Sara; O’Brien, Kimberly; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents referred to community behavioral health centers (CBHC) for substance use (SU) problems report high rates of child maltreatment. Although SU and maltreatment are independent risk factors for adolescent depression, few studies have examined their interactive effects. This study examined the interactive effects of SU (alcohol and marijuana) and exposure to different types of trauma on depressed mood among 74 adolescents referred to a CBHC for SU. Hierarchical regressions controlling ...

  4. Child maltreatment among U.S. Air Force parents deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabenhorst, Mandy M; McCarthy, Randy J; Thomsen, Cynthia J; Milner, Joel S; Travis, Wendy J; Colasanti, Marie P

    2015-02-01

    This study examined child maltreatment perpetration among 99,697 active-duty U.S. Air Force parents who completed a combat deployment. Using the deploying parent as the unit of analysis, we analyzed whether child maltreatment rates increased postdeployement relative to predeployment. These analyses extend previous research that used aggregate data and extend our previous work that used data from the same period but used the victim as the unit of analysis and included only deploying parents who engaged in child maltreatment. In this study, 2% (n = 1,746) of deploying parents perpetrated child maltreatment during the study period. Although no overall differences were found in child maltreatment rates postdeployment compared to predeployment, several maltreatment-related characteristics qualified this finding. Rates for emotional abuse and mild maltreatment were lower following deployment, whereas child maltreatment rates for severe maltreatment were higher following deployment. The finding that rates of severe child maltreatment, including incidents involving alcohol use, were higher postdeployment suggests a need for additional support services for parents following their return from combat deployment, with a focus on returning parents who have an alcohol use problem.

  5. Intrusions of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting childhood emotional maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Spinhoven

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available During childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM negative attitudes are provided to the child (e.g., “you are worthless”. These negative attitudes may result in emotion inhibition strategies in order to avoid thinking of memories of CEM, such as thought suppression. However, thought suppression may paradoxically enhance occurrences (i.e., intrusions of these memories, which may occur immediately or sometime after active suppression of these memories.Until now, studies that examined suppressive coping styles in individuals reporting CEM have utilized self-report questionnaires. Therefore, it is unclear what the consequences will be of emotion inhibition styles on the intrusion of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting CEM.Using a thought suppression task, this study aimed to investigate the experience of intrusions during suppression of, and when no longer instructed to actively suppress, positive and negative autobiographical memories in individuals reporting Low, Moderate, and Severe CEM compared to No Abuse (total N = 83.We found no group differences during active suppression of negative and positive autobiographical memories. However, when individuals reporting Severe CEM were no longer instructed to suppress thinking about the memory, individuals reporting No Abuse, Low CEM, or Moderate CEM reported fewer intrusions of both positive and negative autobiographical memories than individuals reporting Severe CEM. Finally, we found that intrusions of negative memories are strongly related with psychiatric distress.The present study results provide initial insights into the cognitive mechanisms that may underlie the consequences of childhood emotional maltreatment and suggests avenues for successful interventions.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online

  6. Burden and consequences of child maltreatment in high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Ruth; Widom, Cathy Spatz; Browne, Kevin; Fergusson, David; Webb, Elspeth; Janson, Staffan

    2009-01-03

    Child maltreatment remains a major public-health and social-welfare problem in high-income countries. Every year, about 4-16% of children are physically abused and one in ten is neglected or psychologically abused. During childhood, between 5% and 10% of girls and up to 5% of boys are exposed to penetrative sexual abuse, and up to three times this number are exposed to any type of sexual abuse. However, official rates for substantiated child maltreatment indicate less than a tenth of this burden. Exposure to multiple types and repeated episodes of maltreatment is associated with increased risks of severe maltreatment and psychological consequences. Child maltreatment substantially contributes to child mortality and morbidity and has longlasting effects on mental health, drug and alcohol misuse (especially in girls), risky sexual behaviour, obesity, and criminal behaviour, which persist into adulthood. Neglect is at least as damaging as physical or sexual abuse in the long term but has received the least scientific and public attention. The high burden and serious and long-term consequences of child maltreatment warrant increased investment in preventive and therapeutic strategies from early childhood.

  7. Impulsivity as a moderator of the associations between child maltreatment types and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shaquanna; Mitchell, Tarrah B; Fite, Paula J; Bortolato, Marco

    2017-03-02

    Child maltreatment has emerged as an important risk factor for adult obesity (Danese & Tan, 2014; Hemmingsson et al., 2014). However, there is a need for research delineating the factors that play a role in this association. Impulsivity has been shown to be associated with both child maltreatment (Brodsky et al., 2001) and body mass index (BMI; Cortese et al., 2008; Thamotharan et al., 2013). Further, given previous research showing that adverse events interact with impulsivity to predict hazardous drinking behaviors (Fox et al., 2010), there is reason to hypothesize that child maltreatment might interact with impulsivity to predict other adverse health outcomes, such as elevated BMI. Accordingly, the current study examined whether impulsivity moderated the association between child maltreatment types (i.e., physical abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect) and BMI. The sample was comprised of 500 undergraduate students (49.6% male) between the ages of 18 and 25 years. Regression analyses suggested that maltreatment types and impulsivity were not uniquely associated with BMI. However, impulsivity moderated the association between childhood sexual abuse and adult BMI, such that BMI was highest at high levels of both sexual abuse and impulsivity. Impulsivity did not moderate the associations between the other child maltreatment types and BMI. Limitations, future directions, and clinical implications of this research are discussed.

  8. Child Maltreatment and Social Connectedness Among Formerly Institutionalized Females: Links With Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Delft, Ivanka; Finkenauer, Catrin; Verbruggen, Janna

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of child maltreatment subtypes (physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and exposure to domestic violence) and cumulative child maltreatment on depressive symptoms in adulthood, and examine the protective effects of social connectedness in a sample of formerly institutionalized females. The sample consisted of 124 females who were institutionalized in a Dutch juvenile justice institution during adolescence and were followed-up when they were on average 32 years old. Information about child maltreatment was extracted from treatment files. Retrospective data on social connectedness in young adulthood were established during interviews using a Life History Calendar. Relationship quality at follow-up was assessed with items derived from the Rochester Youth Development Study. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Scale for Depression (CES-D) was used to measure depressive symptoms in adulthood. Results showed that 85.5% of the females experienced child maltreatment, and co-occurrence of subtypes was high. Cumulative child maltreatment increased the risk of depression in adulthood. Furthermore, social connectedness, that is, more employment over time and the quality of the romantic relationship at follow-up, protected against the development of depression. However, social connectedness did not buffer the effect of maltreatment on depression. Our findings indicate that treatment of these girls should focus on improving the social-emotional development to promote positive interpersonal relationships and include educational and vocational components to guide these girls toward increased opportunities on the labor market.

  9. Child Maltreatment, Impulsivity, and Antisocial Behavior in African-American Children: Moderation Effects from a Cumulative Dopaminergic Gene Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Eric L.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2015-01-01

    A model examining the effects of an increasing number of maltreatment subtypes experienced on antisocial behavior, as mediated by impulsivity and moderated by a polygenic index of dopaminergic genotypes, was investigated. An African American sample of children (N = 1012, M age = 10.07) with and without maltreatment histories participated. Indicators of aggression, delinquency, and disruptive peer behavior were obtained from peer and counselor rated measures to form a latent variable of antisocial behavior; impulsivity was assessed by counselor report. Five genotypes in four dopaminergic genes (DRD4, DRD2, DAT1, and COMT) conferring heightened environmental sensitivity were combined into one polygenic index. Using SEM, a first-stage, moderated-mediation model was evaluated. Age and sex were entered as covariates, both as main effects and in interaction with maltreatment and the gene index. The model had excellent fit: χ2(32, N =1012) = 86..51, p<0.001; CFI = 0.982; TLI = 0.977; RMSEA = 0.041; SRMR = 0.022. The effect of maltreatment subtypes on antisocial behavior was partially mediated by impulsivity (β= 0.173, p<0.001), and these relations were moderated by the number of differentiating dopaminergic genotypes. Specifically, a significant GxE interaction (b = 0.016, p = 0.013) indicated that the relation between maltreatment and impulsivity was stronger as children evinced more differentiating genotypes, thereby strengthening the mediational effect of impulsivity on antisocial behavior. These findings elucidate the manner by which maltreated children develop early signs of antisocial behavior, and the genetic mechanisms involved in greater vulnerability for maladaptation in impulse-control within context of child maltreatment. PMID:26535948

  10. Child maltreatment, impulsivity, and antisocial behavior in African American children: Moderation effects from a cumulative dopaminergic gene index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Eric L; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A

    2015-11-01

    A model examining the effects of an increasing number of maltreatment subtypes experienced on antisocial behavior, as mediated by impulsivity and moderated by a polygenic index of dopaminergic genotypes, was investigated. An African American sample of children (N = 1,012, M age = 10.07) with and without maltreatment histories participated. Indicators of aggression, delinquency, and disruptive peer behavior were obtained from peer- and counselor-rated measures to form a latent variable of antisocial behavior; impulsivity was assessed by counselor report. Five genotypes in four dopaminergic genes (dopamine receptors D4, D2, known as DRD4, DRD2; dopamine active transporter 1, known as DAT1; and catechol-O-methyltransferase, known as COMT) conferring heightened environmental sensitivity were combined into one polygenic index. Using structural equation modeling, a first-stage, moderated-mediation model was evaluated. Age and sex were entered as covariates, both as main effects and in interaction with maltreatment and the gene index. The model had excellent fit: χ2 (32, N = 1,012) = 86.51, p impulsivity (β = 0.173, p impulsivity was stronger as children evinced more differentiating genotypes, thereby strengthening the mediational effect of impulsivity on antisocial behavior. These findings elucidate the manner by which maltreated children develop early signs of antisocial behavior, and the genetic mechanisms involved in greater vulnerability for maladaptation in impulse control within the context of child maltreatment.

  11. Addressing Child Maltreatment in New Zealand: Is Poverty Reduction Enough?

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    Dare, Tim; Vaithianathan, Rhema; De Haan, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Jonathan Boston provides an insightful analysis of the emergence and persistence of child poverty in New Zealand (Boston, 2014, "Educational Philosophy and Theory"). His remarks on why child poverty matters are brief but, as he reports, "there is a large and robust body of research on the harmful consequences of child poverty"…

  12. Addressing Child Maltreatment in New Zealand: Is Poverty Reduction Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Tim; Vaithianathan, Rhema; De Haan, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Jonathan Boston provides an insightful analysis of the emergence and persistence of child poverty in New Zealand (Boston, 2014, "Educational Philosophy and Theory"). His remarks on why child poverty matters are brief but, as he reports, "there is a large and robust body of research on the harmful consequences of child poverty"…

  13. Services and recurrence after psychological maltreatment confirmed by child protective services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palusci, Vincent J; Ondersma, Steven J

    2012-05-01

    Recurrence rates of psychological maltreatment (PM) and the services that may reduce those rates have not been systematically evaluated. The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System was used for 2003-2007 to study a cohort of children in 18 states with PM reports first confirmed by child protective services (CPS) during 2003. PM recurrence rates after counseling and other referrals were assessed while controlling for factors associated with service referral and other maltreatment. A total of 11,646 children had a first CPS-confirmed report with PM, and 9.2% of them had a second-confirmed PM report within 5 years. Fewer than one fourth of families were referred for services after PM, with service referrals being more likely for families with poverty, drug or alcohol problems, or other violence. Controlling for these factors, counseling referral was associated with a 54% reduction in PM recurrence, but other services were not associated with statistically significant reductions. Few families in which PM was confirmed receive any services, and most services provided were not associated with reductions in PM recurrence. Clarification of key services associated with efficacious prevention of PM is needed.

  14. Child Maltreatment as a Risk Factor for Opioid Dependence: Comparison of Family Characteristics and Type and Severity of Child Maltreatment with a Matched Control Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Elizabeth; Degenhardt, Louisa; Mattick, Richard P.; Nelson, Elliot C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence, characteristics and risk factors for child maltreatment among opioid-dependent persons compared to a community sample of similar social disadvantage. Method: The study employed a case-control design. Cases had a history of opioid pharmacotherapy. Controls were frequency matched to cases with regard to age, sex…

  15. Neighborhood informal social control and child maltreatment: A comparison of protective and punitive approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Clifton R; Trung, Hai Nguyen; Wu, Shali

    2015-03-01

    This paper introduces a new measure of informal social control of child maltreatment (henceforth ISC_CM) by neighbors. Research literature typically uses collective efficacy (Sampson, Raudenbush, & Earls, 1997) to examine neighborhood informal social control. We argue that double standards about the application of informal social control to family versus street crime requires a measure of informal social control specific to child maltreatment. We also argue that how neighbors intervene may matter as much as whether they intervene. Neighbors may engage in ISC_CM aimed at protecting the child and calming the parent, or more punitive ISC_CM aimed at deterring future abuse. We tested the relationship of both with very severe physical abuse and with abuse related child behavior problems. We used a random, 2-stage cluster design of Hanoi to collect the sample. Thirty Hanoi wards were randomly selected using probability proportional to size sampling. A simple random sample of families in each ward was then drawn using local government lists of ward residents. Based on power analysis, the target sample size was 300. Of 315 residents contacted, 293 participated, yielding a response rate of 93%. Random effects regression models (which estimate a random effect for each ward) were run in Stata11. We found that protective ISC_CM is associated with lower odds of very severe physical abuse and lower reported externalizing problems when abuse is present. Perceived collective efficacy and punitive ISC_CM is not associated with lower odds of very severe physical abuse. Implications for research, policy and practice are discussed. We conclude that further investigation of neighbor ISC_CM is needed to replicate the findings in other cultural contexts, ultimately followed by experimental manipulation of ISC_CM in a neighborhood context to examine the effects on child maltreatment. If further research corroborates the current findings, the development of neighborhood intervention

  16. Neighborhood-level social processes and substantiated cases of child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Beth E; Goerge, Robert M; Gilsanz, Paola; Hill, Andrea; Subramanian, S V; Holton, John K; Duncan, Dustin T; Beatriz, Elizabeth D; Beardslee, William R

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a preventable public health problem. Research has demonstrated that neighborhood structural factors (e.g. poverty, crime) can influence the proportion of a neighborhood's children who are victims of maltreatment. A newer strategy is the identification of potentially modifiable social processes at the neighborhood level that can also influence maltreatment. Toward this end, this study examines neighborhood-level data (maltreatment cases substantiated by Illinois' child protection agency, 1995-2005, social processes measured by the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, U.S. Census data, proportions of neighborhoods on public assistance, and crime data) that were linked across clusters of contiguous, relatively homogenous Chicago, IL census tracts with respect to racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition. Our analysis-an ecological-level, repeated cross-sectional design utilizing random-intercept logit models-with a sensitivity analysis using spatial models to control for spatial autocorrelation-revealed consistent associations between neighborhood social processes and maltreatment. Neighborhoods higher in collective efficacy, intergenerational closure, and social networks, and lower in disorder had lower proportions of neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse substantiated cases, controlling for differences in structural factors. Higher collective efficacy and social network size also predicted a lower proportion of substance-exposed infants. This research indicates that strategies to mobilize neighborhood-level protective factors may decrease child maltreatment more effectively than individual and family-focused efforts alone.

  17. Emotion dysregulation mediates the relationship between child maltreatment and psychopathology: A structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennissen, Simone; Holl, Julia; Mai, Hannah; Wolff, Sebastian; Barnow, Sven

    2016-12-01

    The present study investigated the mediating effects of emotion dysregulation on the relationship between child maltreatment and psychopathology. An adult sample (N=701) from diverse backgrounds of psychopathology completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the negative affect subscale of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in a cross-sectional online survey. Correlational analyses showed that all types of child maltreatment were uniformly associated with emotion dysregulation, and dimensions of emotion dysregulation were strongly related to psychopathology. Limited access to strategies for emotion regulation emerged as the most powerful predictor. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that emotion dysregulation partially mediated the relationship between child maltreatment and psychopathology, even after controlling for shared variance with negative affect. These findings emphasize the importance of emotion dysregulation as a possible mediating mechanism in the association between child maltreatment and later psychopathology. Additionally, interventions targeting specific emotion regulation strategies may be effective to reduce psychopathology in victims of child maltreatment.

  18. Understanding Child Maltreatment: Juvenile Delinquency. From Research to Effective Program, Practice, and Systemic Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, Janet; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    This monograph details the growing body of research showing the connection between child maltreatment and juvenile delinquency. In 2000, nearly 879,000 children were victims of child abuse and neglect. Although juvenile crime has declined recently, the level of crime committed by youth remains high. This monograph describes an array of program,…

  19. Methodological Issues and Practical Strategies in Research on Child Maltreatment Victims' Abilities and Experiences as Witnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yoojin; Goodman, Gail S.; Bederian-Gardner, Daniel; Lindsay, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Scientific studies of child maltreatment victims' memory abilities and court experiences have important legal, psychological, and clinical implications. However, state-of-the-art research on child witnesses is often hindered by methodological challenges. In this paper, we address specific problems investigators may encounter when attempting such…

  20. Understanding Risk and Protective Factors for Child Maltreatment: The Value of Integrated, Population-Based Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Needell, Barbara; Rhodes, Anne E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we argue for expanded efforts to integrate administrative data systems as a "practical strategy" for developing a richer understanding of child abuse and neglect. Although the study of child maltreatment is often critiqued for being atheoretical, we believe that a more pressing concern is the absence of population-based and…

  1. Collaborative Efforts to Improve System Response to Families Who Are Experiencing Child Maltreatment and Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Duren; Dutch, Nicole; Wang, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    The "Greenbook" demonstration initiative provided federal funding and other support to six communities to establish collaborations to plan and implement policy and practice changes in systems that serve families who are experiencing domestic violence and child maltreatment or child exposure to domestic violence. The demonstration sites established…

  2. Agreement on Child Maltreatment Decisions: A Nonrandomized Study on the Effects of Structured Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelink, C.; van Yperen, T. A.; ten Berge, I. J.; de Kwaadsteniet, L.; Witteman, C. L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Practitioners investigating cases of suspected child maltreatment often disagree whether a child is subject to or at risk of abuse or neglect in the family and, if so, what to do about such abuse or neglect. Structured decision-making is considered to be a solution to the problem of subjective judgments and decisions. Objective: This…

  3. Methodological Issues and Practical Strategies in Research on Child Maltreatment Victims' Abilities and Experiences as Witnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yoojin; Goodman, Gail S.; Bederian-Gardner, Daniel; Lindsay, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Scientific studies of child maltreatment victims' memory abilities and court experiences have important legal, psychological, and clinical implications. However, state-of-the-art research on child witnesses is often hindered by methodological challenges. In this paper, we address specific problems investigators may encounter when attempting such…

  4. Child Maltreatment and Children's Developmental Trajectories in Early to Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Sarah A.; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2015-01-01

    Associations between experiencing child maltreatment and adverse developmental outcomes are widely studied, yet conclusions regarding the extent to which effects are bidirectional, and whether they are likely causal, remain elusive. This study uses the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort of 4,898 children followed from birth…

  5. Prevalence, Trajectories, and Risk Factors for Depression among Caregivers of Young Children Involved in Child Maltreatment Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanueva, Cecilia; Cross, Theodore P.; Ringeisen, Heather; Christ, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines depression among caregivers of young children involved in investigations of child maltreatment, in terms of 12-month prevalence of depression across 5 to 6 years. Data were from the "National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being," a national probability study of 5,501 children investigated for maltreatment. The study…

  6. Child Maltreatment, Subsequent Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and the Mediating Roles of Dissociation, Alexithymia and Self-Blame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swannell, Sarah; Martin, Graham; Page, Andrew; Hasking, Penelope; Hazell, Philip; Taylor, Anne; Protani, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although child maltreatment is associated with later non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), the mechanism through which it might lead to NSSI is not well understood. The current retrospective case-control study examined associations between child maltreatment and later NSSI, and investigated the mediating roles of dissociation, alexithymia,…

  7. Child Maltreatment and Its Relationship to Drug Use in Latin America and the Caribbean: An Overview and Multinational Research Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman-Mills, Samantha; Gonzalez, Yolanda W.; Melendez, Marlon O.; Garcia, Monica R.; Gomez, Juan D.; Juarez, Cristina G.; Martinez, Eduardo A.; Penalba, Sobeyda J.; Pizzanelli, Miguel E.; Solorzano, Lucia I.; Wright, Gloria; Cumsille, Francisco; Sapag, Jaime; Wekerle, Christine; Hamilton, Hayley; Erickson, Patricia; Mann, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment and substance abuse are both international public health priorities. Research shows that child maltreatment increases the risk for substance use and problems. Thus, recognition of this relationship may have important implications for substance demand reduction strategies, including efforts to prevent and treat substance use and…

  8. Incidence of Hospitalization Due to Child Maltreatment in Taiwan, 1996-2007: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Wan-Lin; Huang, Yu-Tung; Feng, Jui-Ying; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Little is known regarding the epidemiology of child maltreatment in Asian countries. This study aimed to examine the incidence of hospitalization coded as due to child maltreatment in Taiwan. Methods: We used inpatient claims data of the National Health Insurance for the years 1996 through 2007 for estimation. Hospitalization of…

  9. Characteristics of Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Marijuana Use: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Howard; Thompson, Richard; Arria, Amelia M; English, Diana; Metzger, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B

    2016-02-01

    There has been increasing acceptance of marijuana use in the United States in recent years, and rates among adolescents have risen. At the same time, marijuana use during adolescence has been linked to an array of health and social problems. Maltreated children are at risk for marijuana use, but the relationships among characteristics of maltreatment and marijuana use are unclear. In this article, we examine how the type and the extent of maltreatment are related to the level of adolescent marijuana use. Data analyses were conducted on a subsample of maltreated adolescents (n = 702) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect project. Approximately half the sample had used marijuana, and maltreatment was associated with its use. Multivariate regression models showed that being male, extensive maltreatment, and peer marijuana use were associated with heavy use of marijuana. These findings suggest the importance of comprehensively assessing children's maltreatment experiences and their peers' drug use to help prevent or address possible marijuana use in these high-risk adolescents.

  10. The Limits of Child Effects: Evidence for Genetically Mediated Child Effects on Corporal Punishment but Not on Physical Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Sara R.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Polo-Tomas, Monica; Price, Thomas S.; Taylor, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Research on child effects has demonstrated that children's difficult and coercive behavior provokes harsh discipline from adults. Using a genetically sensitive design, the authors tested the limits of child effects on adult behavior that ranged from the normative (corporal punishment) to the nonnormative (physical maltreatment). The sample was a…

  11. Interactive Effect of Child Maltreatment and Substance Use on Depressed Mood Among Adolescents Presenting to Community-Based Substance Use Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Judelysse; Becker, Sara; O'Brien, Kimberly; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    Adolescents referred to community behavioral health centers (CBHC) for substance use (SU) problems report high rates of child maltreatment. Although SU and maltreatment are independent risk factors for adolescent depression, few studies have examined their interactive effects. This study examined the interactive effects of SU (alcohol and marijuana) and exposure to different types of trauma on depressed mood among 74 adolescents referred to a CBHC for SU. Hierarchical regressions controlling for sex and common adolescent comorbidities showed that sexual abuse had a stronger relationship with depressed mood than other types of maltreatment. Although SU was not independently related to depressed mood, consistent with the self-medication hypothesis, increased SU was associated with lower levels of depressed mood among adolescents with greater exposure to sexual abuse. Results suggest that teens presenting to CBHCs for SU should be assessed for multiple forms of maltreatment and for depressed mood.

  12. Association between child maltreatment and prospective and retrospective memory in adolescents: The mediatory effect of neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ping-Zhen; Bai, Hua-Yu; Sun, Ji-Wei; Guo, Wei; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Cao, Feng-Lin

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between child maltreatment and prospective and retrospective memory in children/adolescents by investigating the mediating role of neuroticism. In total, 662 children/adolescents aged 10-16 years were recruited from a middle school in China, and they completed questionnaires comprising the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire, and the Neuroticism subscale of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. The severity of maltreatment was positively associated with the severity of impairment of memory (prospective and retrospective considered together) in children/adolescents. Children/adolescents exposed to maltreatment tended to display higher levels of neuroticism. Neuroticism partially mediated the association between child maltreatment and memory in all the subjects. The results of multigroup analyses showed neuroticism fully mediated the relationship between child maltreatment and memory for boys, in which the effect size of indirect effect was 0.52, and partially mediated the association for girls with 0.44 effect size of indirect effect. Early intervention aimed to reduce neuroticism might contribute to a better prognosis in children/adolescences with poor memory function.

  13. Association of child maltreatment and psychiatric diagnosis in Brazilian children and adolescents

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    Luciana Burim Scomparini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between different types of child maltreatment and the presence of psychiatric disorders in highly vulnerable children and adolescents served by a multidisciplinary program. METHODS: In total, 351 patients with a mean age of 12.47, of whom 68.7% were male and 82.1% lived in shelters, underwent psychiatric evaluations based on the Kiddie-Sads-Present and Lifetime Version. Two different methods were used to evaluate maltreatment: medical records were reviewed to identify previous diagnoses related to socioeconomic and psychosocial circumstances, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to obtain a structured history of trauma. Bivariate associations were evaluated between psychiatric disorders and evidence of each type and the frequency of abuse. RESULTS: The most frequent psychiatric diagnoses were substance use disorders, affective disorders and specific disorders of early childhood, whereas 13.67% of the sample had no psychiatric diagnosis. All patients suffered neglect, and 58.4% experienced physical or sexual abuse. The presence of a history of multiple traumas was only associated with a diagnosis of substance use disorder. Mental retardation showed a strong positive association with reported physical abuse and emotional neglect. However, a negative correlation was found when we analyzed the presence of a history of multiple traumas and mental retardation. CONCLUSION: All children living in adverse conditions deserve careful assistance, but we found that physical abuse and emotional neglect were most strongly associated with mental retardation and multiple traumas with substance abuse.

  14. Long-term economic consequences of child maltreatment: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielen, Frederick W; Ten Have, Margreet; de Graaf, Ron; Cuijpers, Pim; Beekman, Aartjan; Evers, Silvia; Smit, Filip

    2016-12-01

    Child maltreatment is prognostically associated with long-term detrimental consequences for mental health. These consequences are reflected in higher costs due to health service utilization and productivity losses in adulthood. An above-average sense of mastery can have protective effects in the pathogenesis of mental disorders and thus potentially cushion adverse impacts of maltreatment. This should be reflected in lower costs in individuals with a history of child maltreatment and a high sense of mastery. The aims of the study were to prognostically estimate the excess costs of health service uptake and productivity losses in adults with a history of child maltreatment and to evaluate how mastery may act as an effect modifier. Data were used on 5618 individuals participating in the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS). We focussed on measures of child maltreatment (emotional neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse) and economic costs owing to health-care uptake and productivity losses when people with a history of abuse have grown into adulthood. We evaluated how mastery acted as an effect modifier. Estimates were adjusted for demographics and parental psychopathology. Post-stratification weights were used to account for initial non-response and dropout. Due to the non-normal distribution of the costs data, sample errors, 95 % confidence intervals, and p values were calculated using non-parametric bootstrapping (1000 replications). Exposure to child maltreatment occurs frequently (6.9-24.8 %) and is associated with substantial excess costs in adulthood. To illustrate, adjusted annual excess costs attributable to emotional neglect are €1,360 (95 % CI: 615-215) per adult. Mastery showed a significant effect on these figures: annual costs were €1,608 in those with a low sense of mastery, but only €474 in those with a firmer sense of mastery. Child maltreatment has profound mental health consequences and is associated with

  15. Identifying and Intervening in Child Maltreatment and Implementing Related National Guidelines by Public Health Nurses in Finland and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kayoko; Paavilainen, Eija; Helminen, Mika; Flinck, Aune; Hiroyama, Natsuko; Hirose, Taiko; Okubo, Noriko; Okamitsu, Motoko

    2017-01-01

    Aim. This study aimed to investigate how public health nurses identify, intervene in, and implement the guidelines on child maltreatment in Finland and Japan and to compare the data between the two countries. Method. This study employed a cross-sectional design. Public health nurses' knowledge and skills with respect to child maltreatment prevention were assessed using a questionnaire consisting of three categories: identification, intervention, and implementation of guidelines. Public health nurses working in the area of maternal and child health care in Finland (n = 193) and Japan (n = 440) were the participants. Results. A significantly higher percentage of Japanese public health nurses identified child maltreatment compared to Finnish public health nurses, while Finnish nurses intervened in child maltreatment better than their Japanese counterparts. In both countries, public health nurses who had read and used the guidelines dealt with child maltreatment better than those who did not. Conclusion. The results suggest that effective training on child maltreatment and the use of guidelines are important to increase public health nurses' knowledge and skills for identifying and intervening in child maltreatment.

  16. Identifying and Intervening in Child Maltreatment and Implementing Related National Guidelines by Public Health Nurses in Finland and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayoko Suzuki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study aimed to investigate how public health nurses identify, intervene in, and implement the guidelines on child maltreatment in Finland and Japan and to compare the data between the two countries. Method. This study employed a cross-sectional design. Public health nurses’ knowledge and skills with respect to child maltreatment prevention were assessed using a questionnaire consisting of three categories: identification, intervention, and implementation of guidelines. Public health nurses working in the area of maternal and child health care in Finland (n=193 and Japan (n=440 were the participants. Results. A significantly higher percentage of Japanese public health nurses identified child maltreatment compared to Finnish public health nurses, while Finnish nurses intervened in child maltreatment better than their Japanese counterparts. In both countries, public health nurses who had read and used the guidelines dealt with child maltreatment better than those who did not. Conclusion. The results suggest that effective training on child maltreatment and the use of guidelines are important to increase public health nurses’ knowledge and skills for identifying and intervening in child maltreatment.

  17. Child maltreatment: a survey of dentists in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sousa Azevedo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is a serious public health problem and affects the victims' physical and mental health and development. The aims of this study were two-fold: to assess the attitudes and perceptions of dentists regarding child abuse, and to investigate professional characteristics associated with the identification of suspected child abuse. A questionnaire was sent to the 276 dentists of Pelotas, RS, Brazil , and 187 (68.0% were returned. Demographic characteristics and profiles of the dentists, and information about their knowledge and attitudes regarding child abuse were collected. Descriptive analysis was performed, and associations were tested by chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. From all dentists surveyed, 123 (71.9% reported providing treatment for children. Most dentists believed they could detect cases of child abuse (78.7%, but 85.7% had never suspected it. Among those who did suspect, 76.0% did not report the cases to authorities. No differences were observed between sexes, years of graduation, types of licenses, and the frequency at which children were treated. A higher proportion of dentists working at university had suspected child abuse. Even though dentists considered themselves able to identify suspicious cases, only a small percentage reported those suspicions, indicating a lack of awareness by these professionals in the adoption of protective measures for victims of aggression. It is necessary that dental professionals receive interdisciplinary training to enhance their ability to care for and protect children.

  18. The burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A; Brown, Derek S; Mercy, James A; Dunne, Michael P; Butchart, Alexander R; Corso, Phaedra S; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M

    2015-04-01

    This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health risk behaviors attributable to child maltreatment were estimated using the most recent comparable Global Burden of Disease data. DALY losses were converted into monetary value by assuming that one DALY is equal to the sub-region's per capita GDP. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children as a percentage of GDP ranged from 1.24% to 3.46% across sub-regions defined by the World Health Organization. The estimated economic value of DALYs (in constant 2000 US$) lost to child maltreatment in the EAP region totaled US $151 billion, accounting for 1.88% of the region's GDP. Updated to 2012 dollars, the estimated economic burden totaled US $194 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the aggregate costs as a percentage of GDP range from 1.36% to 2.52%. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region is substantial, indicating the importance of preventing and responding to child maltreatment in this region. More comprehensive research into the impact of multiple types of childhood adversity on a wider range of putative health outcomes is needed to guide policy and programs for child protection in the region, and globally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A.; Brown, Derek S.; Mercy, James A.; Dunne, Michael P.; Butchart, Alexander R.; Corso, Phaedra S.; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health risk behaviors attributable to child maltreatment were estimated using the most recent comparable Global Burden of Disease data. DALY losses were converted into monetary value by assuming that one DALY is equal to the sub-region’s per capita GDP. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children as a percentage of GDP ranged from 1.24% to 3.46% across sub-regions defined by the World Health Organization. The estimated economic value of DALYs (in constant 2000 US$) lost to child maltreatment in the EAP region totaled US $151 billion, accounting for 1.88% of the region’s GDP. Updated to 2012 dollars, the estimated economic burden totaled US $194 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the aggregate costs as a percentage of GDP range from 1.36% to 2.52%. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region is substantial, indicating the importance of preventing and responding to child maltreatment in this region. More comprehensive research into the impact of multiple types of childhood adversity on a wider range of putative health outcomes is needed to guide policy and programs for child protection in the region, and globally. PMID:25757367

  20. A simple clinical coding strategy to improve recording of child maltreatment concerns: an audit study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Peter McGovern

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Recording concerns about child maltreatment, including minor concerns, is recommended by the General Medical Council (GMC and National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE but there is evidence of substantial under-recording.Aim To determine whether a simple coding strategy improved recording of maltreatment-related concerns in electronic primary care records.Design and Setting Clinical audit of rates of maltreatment-related coding before January 2010–December 2011 and after January–December 2012 implementation of a simple coding strategy in 11 English family practices. The strategy included encouraging general practitioners to use, always and as a minimum, the Read code ‘Child is cause for concern’. A total of 25,106 children aged 0–18 years were registered with these practices. We also undertook a qualitative service evaluation to investigate barriers to recording.Method Outcomes were recording of 1 any maltreatment-related codes, 2 child protection proceedings and 3 child was a cause for concern.Results We found increased recording of any maltreatment-related code (rate ratio 1.4; 95% CI 1.1–1.6, child protection procedures (RR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1–1.6 and cause for concern (RR 2.5; 95% CI 1.8–3.4 after implementation of the coding strategy. Clinicians cited the simplicity of the coding strategy as the most important factor assisting implementation.Conclusion This simple coding strategy improved clinician’s recording of maltreatment-related concerns in a small sample of practices with some ‘buy-in’. Further research should investigate how recording can best support the doctor–patient relationshipHow this fits in Recording concerns about child maltreatment, including minor concerns, is recommended by the General Medical Council (GMC and National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE, but there is evidence of substantial underrecording. We describe a simple clinical coding

  1. The Relationship Between Child Maltreatment and Partner Violence Victimization and Perpetration Among College Students: Focus on Auditory Status and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuiller Williams, LaVerne; Porter, Judy L

    2015-08-01

    Partner violence is a pervasive public health concern that has received significant attention over the past three decades. Although a number of studies have reported that college students who are Deaf or hard of hearing are at an increased risk of experiencing partner violence compared with their hearing counterparts, little is known about partner violence perpetration among college students who are Deaf or hard of hearing. Furthermore, beyond disability, studies examining partner violence among students with disabilities tend to ignore other potential risk factors that may increase the risk of partner violence as a victim and/or a perpetrator. This exploratory study examines the extent of partner violence among male and female college students by auditory status and the relationship between experiencing and perpetrating partner abuse (i.e., physical abuse and psychological abuse) and child maltreatment (i.e., witnessing abuse and experiencing child physical abuse). The study also examines gender differences in the relationship between child maltreatment and physical and psychological abuse victimization and perpetration. Data were collected from a sample of approximately 680 college students at a northeastern university. Findings indicate that having witnessed interparental abuse as a child was only significant for being an adult victim of physical abuse. Having been a child victim of parental abuse was not significant for any of the abuse measures. Gender was only significant for being an adult victim of physical abuse. Deaf students were significantly more likely to report all abuse measures. Implications and directions for further research are discussed.

  2. The role of child maltreatment and attachment style in adolescent relationship violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekerle, C; Wolfe, D A

    1998-01-01

    Utilizing attachment theory as a basis for conceptualizing close relationships among adolescents, this study investigated two important relationship risk factors (child maltreatment, and adolescent self-perceived insecure attachment style) as predictors of "offender" and "victim" experiences in youth relationships. In addition to considering the influence of these risk factors, we further considered their interaction in predicting conflict in close relationships. Of interest was the extent to which attachment styles may function as a moderator of the relationship between childhood abuse and current abuse in teen close relationships. High school students (N = 321) in grades 9 and 10 completed questionnaires tapping their histories of maltreatment, currently viewed styles of attachment, and conflict in close relationships over the past 6 months. Maltreatment alone emerged as the most consistent predictor, accounting for 13-18% of the variance in male's physically, sexually, and verbally abusive behaviors; in contrast, it was not highly predictive of female's abusive behaviors. Maltreatment was predictive of victimization experiences for both males and females. Attachment style did not substantially add to the prediction of relationship conflict beyond maltreatment; however, avoidant attachment style emerged repeatedly as a significant predictor of female abusiveness and victimization. Attachment self-ratings were found to function as a moderator of child maltreatment in predicting primarily male coercive behavior towards a relationship partner as well as predicting male's experience of coercion from a partner. Thus, the presence of childhood maltreatment and adolescent self-perceived insecure attachment style applies predominantly to male youth. The implication of these gender differences for understanding relationship violence is discussed.

  3. Nonprofit Organizations and Innovation: A Model of Neighborhood-Based Collaboration to Prevent Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulroy, Elizabeth A.; Shay, Sharon

    1997-01-01

    Outlines a theoretical and conceptual framework for neighborhood-based collaboration by nonprofit organizations. Analyzes the main concepts of innovation in the design and implementation of a collaboration to prevent child maltreatment in an undervalued neighborhood and draws implications for social policy, social work practice, and social work…

  4. Deciding on child maltreatment : A literature review on methods that improve decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelink, Cora; van Yperen, Tom A.; ten Berge, Ingrid J.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and decision-making in child maltreatment cases is difficult. Practitioners face many uncertainties and obstacles during their assessment and decision-making process. Research exhibits shortcomings in this decision-making process. The purpose of this literature review is to identify and d

  5. Girls in residential care: From child maltreatment to trauma-related symptoms in emerging adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, E.; Lanctôt, N.; Paquette, G.; Collin-Vezina, D.; Lemieux, A.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the association between child maltreatment and trauma-related symptoms in emerging adulthood - over and above the incidence of such symptoms and conduct problems during adolescence - among a sample of female adolescents in residential care. This study used data from a long

  6. Disentangling the Relationship between Child Maltreatment and Violent Delinquency: Using a Nationally Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ilhong; Ball, Jeremy D.; Lim, Hyeyoung

    2011-01-01

    This study uses the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescents (Add Health) data, a nationally representative sample of adolescents, to disentangle the relationship between child maltreatment and violent delinquency. Also examined are potential moderating effects of gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and religiosity on the association between…

  7. A Multidimensional Model for Child Maltreatment Prevention Readiness in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikton, Christopher; Mehra, Radhika; Butchart, Alexander; Addiss, David; Almuneef, Maha; Cardia, Nancy; Cheah, Irene; Chen, JingQi; Makoae, Mokhantso; Raleva, Marija

    2011-01-01

    The study's aim was to develop a multidimensional model for the assessment of child maltreatment prevention readiness in low- and middle-income countries. The model was developed based on a conceptual review of relevant existing models and approaches, an international expert consultation, and focus groups in six countries. The final model…

  8. The Mediated and Moderated Effects of Family Support on Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anne; Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has linked parents' social support to decreased child maltreatment, but questions remain surrounding the mechanisms explaining this association. Furthermore, it is unclear whether this association applies to support provided by family alone (and not friends), and whether it is moderated by the presence of neighborhood violence.…

  9. Care of Victims of Child Maltreatment: The School Nurse's Role. Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondeck, Lynnette; Combe, Laurie; Feeser, Cindy Jo; King, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that prevention, early recognition, intervention and treatment of child maltreatment are critical to the physical well-being and academic success of students. Registered professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) serve a vital role in the recognition…

  10. Head Injury Secondary to Suspected Child Maltreatment: Results of a Prospective Canadian National Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Susan; Ward, Michelle; Moreau, Katherine; Fortin, Gilles; King, Jim; MacKay, Morag; Plint, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine the incidence, clinical features, and demographic profile of head injury secondary to suspected child maltreatment (abuse or neglect) in Canada to help inform the development and evaluation of prevention programs for abusive head injuries. Methods: From March 1, 2005 to February 28, 2008, an average of 2,545…

  11. Psychological Abuse between Parents: Associations with Child Maltreatment from a Population-Based Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jen Jen; Theodore, Adrea D.; Martin, Sandra L.; Runyan, Desmond K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the association between partner psychological abuse and child maltreatment perpetration. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined a population-based sample of mothers with children aged 0-17 years in North and South Carolina (n = 1,149). Mothers were asked about the occurrence of potentially neglectful or abusive…

  12. Mediating and Moderating Processes in the Relation between Maltreatment and Psychopathology: Mother-Child Relationship Quality and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Cicchetti, Dante; Kim, Jungmeen; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated underlying processes of the effect of maltreatment on psychopathology (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems) in a group of 111 maltreated and 110 nonmaltreated 7-10 year-old children (60% boys). We tested the moderating and/or mediating roles of emotion regulation and the mother-child relationship quality…

  13. Symptom Trajectories Among Child Survivors of Maltreatment: Findings from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Dean; Armour, Cherie

    2016-02-01

    Very few studies have investigated the longitudinal trajectory of depression and anxiety related symptomatology among child victims of maltreatment or among those at risk for maltreatment. The current study examined latent class trajectories of anxiety/depression symptoms in a sample of 1354 (n = 657 boys, n = 697 girls) victimized or at risk children using data collected from the Longtitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). Four trajectory groups were identified labeled low-stable, moderate-stable, moderate-increasing, and high-decreasing. This study also sought to investigate predictors of group membership. Relative to the low-stable group, membership in the three more pathological groups (i.e., moderate-stable, moderate-increasing, and high-decreasing) was predicted by a greater number of maltreatment allegations, more visits to a primary care physician for psychological issues, less perceived support by primary maternal caregiver, and lower rated popularity of the child. Implications for early identification of child maltreatment victims in primary health care settings was discussed.

  14. Preventing child maltreatment: a meta-analysis and systematic review of parenting programs

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mengtong; 陈孟彤.

    2013-01-01

    Child maltreatment—a serious public health problem—is a global phenomenon. Parenting programs are considered effective approaches to preventing child maltreatment; however, comprehensive understanding is still lacking of the effectiveness of such programs in all areas of outcomes and the way parenting programs work. This thesis consists of two parts: a quantitative synthesis of high-level evidence about program effects and a qualitative integration of program process. The thesis employs t...

  15. Socioemotional, Personality, and Biological Development: Illustrations from a Multilevel Developmental Psychopathology Perspective on Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante

    2016-01-01

    Developmental theories can be affirmed, challenged, and augmented by incorporating knowledge about atypical ontogenesis. Investigations of the biological, socioemotional, and personality development in individuals with high-risk conditions and psychopathological disorders can provide an entrée into the study of system organization, disorganization, and reorganization. This article examines child maltreatment to illustrate the benefit that can be derived from the study of individuals subjected to nonnormative caregiving experiences. Relative to an average expectable environment, which consists of a species-specific range of environmental conditions that support adaptive development among genetically normal individuals, maltreating families fail to provide many of the experiences that are required for normal development. Principles gleaned from the field of developmental psychopathology provide a framework for understanding multilevel functioning in normality and pathology. Knowledge of normative developmental processes provides the impetus to design and implement randomized control trial (RCT) interventions that can promote resilient functioning in maltreated children.

  16. Investigating the effect of child maltreatment on early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P

    2014-01-01

    : Estimates from the mediation model indicated significant indirect effects of child physical abuse on sexual aggression via peer influence and insecure-hostile masculinity. No significant total effect of child sexual abuse and child neglect on sexual aggression was found. CONCLUSIONS: Findings of the present......OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between child maltreatment and severe early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression, using a multiple mediator model. METHODS: The study comprised 330 male Grade 9 students with a mean age of 14.9 years (SD=0.5). RESULTS...

  17. The family health, functioning, social support and child maltreatment risk of families expecting a baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepistö, Sari; Ellonen, Noora; Helminen, Mika; Paavilainen, Eija

    2017-08-01

    To describe the family health, functioning, social support and child maltreatment risk and associations between them in families expecting a baby. Finland was one of the first countries in banning corporal punishment against children over 30 years ago. Despite of this, studies have shown that parents physically abuse their children. In addition, professionals struggle in intervention of this phenomenon. Abusive parents should be recognised and helped before actual violent behaviour. A follow-up case-control study, with a supportive intervention in the case group (families with a heightened risk) in maternity and child welfare clinics. The baseline results of families are described here. Child maltreatment risk in families expecting a baby was measured by Child Abuse Potential Inventory. The health and functioning was measured by Family Health, Functioning and Social Support Scale. Data included 380 families. A total of 78 families had increased risk for child maltreatment. Heightened risk was associated with partners' age, mothers' education, partners' father's mental health problems, mothers' worry about partners' drinking and mothers' difficulties in talking about the family's problems. Risk was associated with family functioning and health. Families with risk received a less support from maternity clinics. Families with child maltreatment risk and related factors were found. This knowledge can be applied for supporting families both during pregnancy and after the baby is born. Professionals working with families in maternity clinics need tools to recognise families with risk and aid a discussion with them about the family life situation. The Child Abuse Potential, as a part of evaluating the family life situation, seems to prove a useful tool in identifying families at risk. The results offer a valid and useful tool for recognising families with risk and provide knowledge about high-risk family situations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Environmental and individual attributes associated with child maltreatment resulting in hospitalization or death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Holly; Freisthler, Bridget; Bell, Janice; Tancredi, Daniel; Romano, Patrick S; Miyamoto, Sheridan; Joseph, Jill G

    2017-03-02

    Maltreatment continues to be a leading cause of death for young children. Researchers are beginning to uncover which neighborhood attributes may be associated with maltreatment outcomes. However, few studies have been able to explore these influences while controlling for individual family attributes, and none have been able to parse out the most severe outcomes-injuries resulting in hospitalization or death. This study utilizes a retrospective, case-control design on a dataset containing both individual and environmental level attributes of children who have been hospitalized or died due to maltreatment to explore the relative influence of attributes inside and outside the household walls. Binary conditional logistic regression was used to model the outcome as a function of the individual and environmental level predictors. Separate analyses also separated the outcome by manner of maltreatment: abuse or neglect. Finally, a sub-analysis included protective predictors representing access to supportive resources. Findings indicate that neighborhood attributes were similar for both cases and controls, except in the neglect only model, wherein impoverishment was associated with higher odds of serious maltreatment. Dense housing increased risk in all models except the neglect only model. In a sub-analysis, distance to Family Resource Centers was inversely related to serious maltreatment. In all models, variables representing more extreme intervention and/or removal of the victim and/or perpetrator from the home (foster care or criminal court involvement) were negatively associated with the risk of becoming a case. Medi-Cal insurance eligibility of a child was also negatively associated with becoming a case. Government interventions may be playing a critical role in child protection. More research is needed to ascertain how these interventions assert their influence.

  19. Physical child abuse potential in adolescent girls: associations with psychopathology, maltreatment, and attitudes toward child-bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Kathleen A; Gardner, William; Lourie, Andrea; Chang, Chien-Ni; Wang, Wei; Currie, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    Adolescent mothers are at increased risk of mistreating their children. Intervening before they become pregnant would be an ideal primary prevention strategy. Our goal was to determine whether psychopathology, exposure to maltreatment, preparedness for child-bearing, substance use disorders (SUDs), IQ, race, and socioeconomic status were associated with the potential for child abuse in nonpregnant adolescent girls. The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) was administered to 195 nonpregnant girls (aged 15 to 16 years; 54% African American) recruited from the community. Psychiatric diagnoses from a structured interview were used to form 4 groups: conduct disorder (CD), internalizing disorders (INTs; that is, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, or both), CD + INTs, or no disorder. Exposure to maltreatment was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Childbearing Attitudes Questionnaire measured maternal readiness. CAPI scores were positively correlated with all types of psychopathology, previous exposure to maltreatment, and negative attitudes toward child-bearing. IQ, SUDs, and demographic factors were not associated. Factors associated with child abuse potential interacted in complex ways, but the abuse potential of CD girls was high, regardless of other potentially protective factors. Our study demonstrates that adolescent girls who have CD or INT are at higher risk of perpetrating physical child abuse when they have children. However, the core features of CD may put this group at a particularly high risk, even in the context of possible protective factors. Treatment providers should consider pre-pregnant counselling about healthy mothering behaviours to girls with CD.

  20. Child maltreatment, bullying in school and social support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    supportive significant others have developed resilience with a strengthened self. The study confirms that social support for a great many of the young adults reduces the risk of low self-esteem and suicidal ideations even when they have experienced poor parenting with the destructiveness of psychological...... maltreatment and sexual abuse. While being offer for bullying increases the risk of suicidal thoughts and low self-esteem, when accounted for other risk factors....

  1. Child maltreatment, inflammation, and internalizing symptoms: Investigating the roles of C-reactive protein, gene variation, and neuroendocrine regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Handley, Elizabeth D; Rogosch, Fred A

    2015-05-01

    Prior research has found inconsistent evidence regarding the association among childhood adversity, inflammation, and internalizing symptoms, perhaps because previous studies have yet to adequately integrate important factors such as the timing of the adversity, genetic variation, and other relevant processes such as neuroendocrine regulation. The aims of the present study were threefold: (a) to determine whether the effect of the timing of child maltreatment on C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker, varies by CRP gene variation; (b) to explore whether links between salivary CRP and childhood internalizing symptoms depend on the presence and timing of maltreatment experiences; and (c) to investigate the role of CRP in the relations between child neuroendocrine regulation and internalizing symptoms and examine whether these associations are moderated by the presence and timing of child maltreatment. Participants included a sample of 267 maltreated and 222 nonmaltreated children (M age = 9.72, SD = 0.99; 52.4% male; 66% African American) who attended a summer day camp research program designed for school-aged low-income children. Department of Human Services records were examined to determine the onset and recency of maltreatment for children in the maltreated group. The results indicated that among children with recent onset maltreatment, those with at least one A allele from CRP single nucleotide polymorphism rs1417938 evidenced significantly higher CRP levels compared to recently maltreated children carrying the TT genotype. Moreover, higher levels of CRP were associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms only for recently maltreated children. Finally, we did not find support for salivary CRP as a mechanism in the relation between neuroendocrine regulation and childhood internalizing symptoms. Our findings highlight the importance of the timing of child maltreatment and have important implications for characterizing variability in inflammation

  2. Prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment among high school students in Southern China: A large scale school based survey

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Child maltreatment can cause significant physical and psychological problems. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment in Guangzhou, China, where such issues are often considered a taboo subject. Methods A school-based survey was conducted in southern China in 2005. 24 high schools were selected using stratified random sampling strategy based on their districts and bandings. The self-administered validated Chinese version...

  3. Geographic variation in racial disparities in child maltreatment: The influence of county poverty and population density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire-Jack, Kathryn; Lanier, Paul; Johnson-Motoyama, Michelle; Welch, Hannah; Dineen, Michael

    2015-09-01

    There are documented disparities in the rates at which black children come into contact with the child welfare system in the United States compared to white children. A great deal of research has proliferated aimed at understanding whether systematic biases or differential rates of risk among different groups drive these disparities (Drake et al., 2011). In the current study, county rates of maltreatment disparity are compared across the United States and examined in relation to rates of poverty disparity as well as population density. Specifically, using hierarchical linear modeling with a spatially lagged dependent variable, the current study examined data from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) and found that poverty disparities were associated with rates of maltreatment disparities, and densely populated metropolitan counties tended to have the greatest levels of maltreatment disparity for both black and Hispanic children. A significant curvilinear relationship was also observed between these variables, such that in addition to the most densely populated counties, the most sparsely populated counties also tended to have higher rates of maltreatment disparity for black and Hispanic children.

  4. The role of timing of maltreatment and child intelligence in pathways to low symptoms of depression and anxiety in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpur, Lisa Jane; Polek, Ela; van Harmelen, Anne-Laura

    2015-09-01

    Research indicates that childhood maltreatment is strongly associated with high levels of adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms. Using LONGSCAN data and taking into account the range of family characteristics related to adversity (poverty, primary caregiver substance abuse) and protective factors (living with biological mother and father), the present study assessed the complex resilience process in which child intelligence (age 6) mediated the relationship between early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) and adolescent symptoms of depression and anxiety (age 14). We also assessed if mid (age 6-8) and late (age 10-12) childhood maltreatment moderated this mediation. We found that mid-childhood intelligence mediated the negative effect of early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) on anxiety symptoms (age 14), but not on depressive symptoms (age 14). We also found the effect of timing of maltreatment: early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) predicted more anxiety symptoms in adolescence, whereas late childhood/early adolescent (age 10-12) maltreatment predicted more symptoms of depression in adolescence. In addition, mid (age 6-8) and late (age 10-12) childhood maltreatment dampened the protective effect of IQ (age 6) against anxiety (age 14). In sum, current evidence shows that low anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescence following childhood maltreatment was achieved through different pathways, and that early and late childhood/early adolescence were more sensitive periods for development of psychopathology related to depression and anxiety in adolescence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Behavioral and musical characteristics of the children who are exposed to child maltreatment and poverty in South Korea: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinah; Kim, Kwanghyuk

    2014-06-01

    A preliminary survey was conducted on primary school aged children (N=302) between seven to twelve years of age, who attend the local Community Child Centers (CCC) in the economically deprived areas of Jeollabukdo in South Korea for the purpose of identifying the children who have been exposed to on-going child maltreatment and poverty, and their needs. Both standardized and non-standardized self-report types of surveys were carried out and completed by both the children and the teachers of the CCC. As would be expected, emotional and behavioral problems are more pronounced by the children who are exposed to child maltreatment and poverty compared to the children who were not exposed to these adversities, or who were not poor. The more severely abused children in terms of frequency and co-occurrence of different abuses appear to display more behavioral problems than less severely abused children. Teachers reported that the children who were able to play a musical instrument and had arts therapy experiences appear to have less behavioral problems, particularly delinquent and aggressive behavior in comparison to the children who did not have such ability and experiences. Through the survey, it was possible to identify the children in need of therapeutic intervention and discover clinically relevant information. Clinical implications will be discussed further.

  6. The child protection and juvenile justice nexus in Australia: A longitudinal examination of the relationship between maltreatment and offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvaso, Catia G; Delfabbro, Paul H; Day, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    There is convincing evidence that many young people who are in the justice system have had contact with child protection services and that victims of childhood maltreatment are at increased risk of subsequent youth justice involvement. In Australia, however, there have been few longitudinal studies that have examined these associations and relatively less is known in this area. This study examines the overlap between the child protection and youth justice involvement in South Australia, and determines how substantiated maltreatment and variations in these experiences (e.g., the type, timing and recurrence of maltreatment) relate to criminal convictions as a youth. The results show that although the majority of child-protection involved youth do not become convicted offenders, the odds of subsequent convictions are significantly greater both for those with notifications and substantiated maltreatment and for those who had been placed in out-of-home care. Multivariate analyses revealed that the strongest predictors for receiving a conviction among maltreated youth were: male gender, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander ethnicity, experiences of physical abuse and emotional abuse, a greater number of substantiations (recurrence), experiencing maltreatment that commenced in childhood and continued into adolescence, and placement in out-of-home care. The mechanisms through which maltreatment might be linked with behavior are then considered, along with directions for future research in this area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Multidimensional model to assess the readiness of Saudi Arabia to implement evidence based child maltreatment prevention programs at a large scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuneef, Maha A; Qayad, Mohamed; Noor, Ismail K; Al-Eissa, Majid A; Albuhairan, Fadia S; Inam, Sarah; Mikton, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    There has been increased awareness of child maltreatment in Saudi Arabia recently. This study assessed the readiness for implementing large-scale evidence-based child maltreatment prevention programs in Saudi Arabia. Key informants, who were key decision makers and senior managers in the field of child maltreatment, were invited to participate in the study. A multidimensional tool, developed by WHO and collaborators from several middle and low income countries, was used to assess 10 dimensions of readiness. A group of experts also gave an objective assessment of the 10 dimensions and key informants' and experts' scores were compared. On a scale of 100, the key informants gave a readiness score of 43% for Saudi Arabia to implement large-scale, evidence-based CM prevention programs, and experts gave an overall readiness score of 40%. Both the key informants and experts agreed that 4 of the dimensions (attitudes toward child maltreatment prevention, institutional links and resources, material resources, and human and technical resources) had low readiness scores (child maltreatment prevention, scientific data on child maltreatment prevention, and will to address child maltreatment problem) had high readiness scores (≥5) each. There was significant disagreement between key informants and experts on the remaining 3 dimensions. Overall, Saudi Arabia has a moderate/fair readiness to implement large-scale child maltreatment prevention programs. Capacity building; strengthening of material resources; and improving institutional links, collaborations, and attitudes toward the child maltreatment problem are required to improve the country's readiness to implement such programs.

  8. Priorities for research in child maltreatment, intimate partner violence and resilience to violence exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wathen, C Nadine; MacGregor, Jennifer C D; Hammerton, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment (CM) are major global public health problems. The Preventing Violence Across the Lifespan (PreVAiL) Research Network, an international group of over 60 researchers and national and international knowledge-user partners in CM and IPV, sought...... to identify evidence-based research priorities in IPV and CM, with a focus on resilience, using a modified Delphi consensus development process....

  9. Prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment among high school students in Southern China: A large scale school based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen WQ

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child maltreatment can cause significant physical and psychological problems. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment in Guangzhou, China, where such issues are often considered a taboo subject. Methods A school-based survey was conducted in southern China in 2005. 24 high schools were selected using stratified random sampling strategy based on their districts and bandings. The self-administered validated Chinese version of parent-child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC was used as the main assessment tool to measure the abusive experiences encountered by students in the previous six months. Results The response rate of this survey was 99.7%. Among the 6592 responding students, the mean age was 14.68. Prevalence of parental psychological aggression, corporal punishment, severe and very serve physical maltreatment in the past 6 months were 78.3%, 23.2%, 15.1% and 2.8% respectively. The prevalence of sexual abuse is 0.6%. The most commonly cited reasons for maltreatment included 'disobedience to parents', 'poor academic performance', and 'quarrelling between parents'. Age, parental education, places of origins and types of housing were found to be associated with physical maltreatments whereas gender and fathers' education level were associated with sexual abuse. Conclusion Though largely unspoken, child maltreatment is a common problem in China. Identification of significant determinants in this study can provide valuable information for teachers and health professionals so as to pay special attention to those at-risk children.

  10. The assessment of the readiness of five countries to implement child maltreatment prevention programs on a large scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikton, Christopher; Power, Mick; Raleva, Marija; Makoae, Mokhantso; Al Eissa, Majid; Cheah, Irene; Cardia, Nancy; Choo, Claire; Almuneef, Maha

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to systematically assess the readiness of five countries - Brazil, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, and South Africa - to implement evidence-based child maltreatment prevention programs on a large scale. To this end, it applied a recently developed method called Readiness Assessment for the Prevention of Child Maltreatment based on two parallel 100-item instruments. The first measures the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs concerning child maltreatment prevention of key informants; the second, completed by child maltreatment prevention experts using all available data in the country, produces a more objective assessment readiness. The instruments cover all of the main aspects of readiness including, for instance, availability of scientific data on the problem, legislation and policies, will to address the problem, and material resources. Key informant scores ranged from 31.2 (Brazil) to 45.8/100 (the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia) and expert scores, from 35.2 (Brazil) to 56/100 (Malaysia). Major gaps identified in almost all countries included a lack of professionals with the skills, knowledge, and expertise to implement evidence-based child maltreatment programs and of institutions to train them; inadequate funding, infrastructure, and equipment; extreme rarity of outcome evaluations of prevention programs; and lack of national prevalence surveys of child maltreatment. In sum, the five countries are in a low to moderate state of readiness to implement evidence-based child maltreatment prevention programs on a large scale. Such an assessment of readiness - the first of its kind - allows gaps to be identified and then addressed to increase the likelihood of program success.

  11. The relationship of gambling to intimate partner violence and child maltreatment in a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Brownridge, Douglas A; MacMillan, Harriet; Sareen, Jitender

    2010-04-01

    It has been suggested that family violence is associated with gambling problems. However, to date, this relationship has not been thoroughly investigated using representative data. The purpose of the current study was to analyze the relationship between gambling problems and the perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence (including dating and marital violence) and child maltreatment (including minor child assault and severe child abuse) using nationally representative data. Data were drawn from the US National Comorbidity Survey Replication (n=3334; 18years and older). Multiple logistic and multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the relationships between gambling and the perpetration and victimization of dating violence, marital violence, and child maltreatment. The results indicated that problem gambling was associated with increased odds of the perpetration of dating violence (Adjusted Odds Ratios (AORs) ranged from 2.2 to 4.2), while pathological gambling was associated with increased odds of the perpetration of dating violence (AORs ranged from 5.7 to 11.9), severe marital violence (AOR=20.4), and severe child abuse (AOR=13.2). Additionally, dating violence, marital violence, and severe child abuse victimization were associated with increased odds of gambling problems. The results were attenuated when adjusted for lifetime mental disorders. These findings can be used as evidence-based research to inform healthy public gambling polices and inform prevention and intervention efforts.

  12. Examination of Life Satisfaction, Child Maltreatment Potential and Substance Use in Mothers Referred for Treatment by Child Protective Services for Child Neglect and Substance Abuse: Implications for Intervention Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Christopher P; Donohue, Brad; Holland, Jason M

    2016-09-01

    There is evidence to suggest mothers who are served by child protective service agencies are relatively dissatisfied in their lives, leading some investigators to conclude life dissatisfaction may be associated with child maltreatment. To assist in better understanding this relationship the Life Satisfaction Scale for Caregivers (LSSC) was psychometrically developed in a sample of 72 mothers who were referred for behavioral treatment for child neglect and substance abuse by caseworkers from a local child protective service agency. The LSSC was developed to assess mothers' happiness in nine domains (family, friendships, employment/work, spirituality/religion, safety, sex life/dating, ability to avoid drugs, ability to avoid alcohol, control over one's own life). Results indicated two factors that appeared to be relevant to Social Satisfaction and Safety and Control Satisfaction. Higher satisfaction scores on both of these scales were negatively associated with child maltreatment potential and substance use at baseline (i.e., positive urinalysis test). Mothers who exposed their children to substances in utero or in infancy (a distinct type of child neglect) were found to report higher satisfaction scores on the LSSC than other types of child neglect. Hispanic-American, African-American, and Caucasian women reported similar levels of life satisfaction. Application of the LSSC as a non-stigmatizing, wellness-focused instrument is discussed within the context of intervention planning.

  13. Evaluation of child maltreatment in the emergency department setting: an overview for behavioral health providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leetch, Aaron N; Leipsic, John; Woolridge, Dale P

    2015-01-01

    Emergency providers are confronted with medical, social, and legal dilemmas with each case of possible child maltreatment. Keeping a high clinical suspicion is key to diagnosing latent abuse. Child abuse, especially sexual abuse, is best handled by a multidisciplinary team including emergency providers, nurses, social workers, and law enforcement trained in caring for victims and handling forensic evidence. The role of the emergency provider in such cases is to identify abuse, facilitate a thorough investigation, treat medical needs, protect the patient, provide an unbiased medical consultation to law enforcement, and provide an ethical testimony if called to court.

  14. Trajectories of maltreatment re-reports from ages 4 to 12:: evidence for persistent risk after early exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Laura J; Aarons, Gregory A; Dubowitz, Howard; English, Diana J; Lewis, Terri; Thompson, Richard; Hussey, Jon M; Litrownik, Alan J; Roesch, Scott C

    2012-08-01

    This study identified trajectories of maltreatment re-reports between ages 4 and 12 for children first referred to Child Protective Services (CPS) for maltreatment prior to age 4 and either removed from the home or assessed by a CPS intake worker as moderately or highly likely to be abused/neglected in the future, absent intervention. Participants (n = 501) were children from the Southwest and Northwest sites of the Consortium for Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). During the 8-year follow-up period, 67% of children were re-reported. Growth mixture modeling identified four trajectory classes: No re-report (33%), Continuous re-reports (10%), Intermittent re-reports (37%), and Early re-reports (20%). Membership in classes with relatively more re-reports was predicted by several factors assessed at age 4, including physical abuse; living with a biological/stepparent; caregiver alcohol abuse, depression, and lack of social support; receipt of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); and number of children in the home. For a subpopulation of high-risk children first reported in early childhood, risk for maltreatment re-reporting may persist longer than previously documented, continuing 8 to 12 years after the first report.

  15. Culture-specific views of child maltreatment and parenting styles in a Pacific-Island community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, A F; McClure, F H; Collier, J; Otto, C; Polloi, A

    1999-03-01

    Providing culturally sensitive definitions of child abuse is difficult as perceptions of what constitutes abuse can vary around the world. This study was undertaken to assess how teachers in the Republic of Palau perceived the severity of potentially abusive incidents and what types of recommendations, if any, they would have for situations judged as severely abusive. Attitudes about child rearing practices were also evaluated. Teachers (n = 141 ) were given: (1) a questionnaire consisting of 25 vignettes describing parent/child interactions that were potentially abusive and asked to rate the severity of abuse and recommended interventions for each vignette; and (2) a 40-item parenting styles questionnaires to evaluate attitudes about child-rearing practices. Teachers identified and recommended interventions for more severe forms of abuse at rates similar to other international samples. For less severe parental misconduct, teachers were reluctant to involve nonfamily and outside agencies. Sexual abuse was rated as the most serious type of abuse and when identified, intervention was highly recommended. Some traditional Palauan parenting practices that might be considered maltreatment by other cultures were not considered abusive. For parenting styles, older individuals were more likely to use guilt induction and less likely to use methods of acceptance. Aggressive parenting styles were negatively correlated with all forms of abuse, suggesting that teachers who used aggressive disciplinary styles were less likely to perceive abusive situations as harmful. These results indicate that cultural values and practices play important roles in shaping the definition and interpretation of child maltreatment.

  16. Early home visitation in families at risk for child maltreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester-Landweer, Merian Bride Rafael

    2006-01-01

    Raising a child is no easy task. Nevertheless Dutch parents do not get offered help with childrearing untill they ask for it or demonstrable problems have developed – at the expense of the child. Particularly parents with ‘excess bagage’ – for instance a troubled childhood, personal problems or a sm

  17. Mental Health and Behavioral Outcomes of Sexual and Nonsexual Child Maltreatment Among Child Welfare-Involved Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer E; White, Kevin; Wu, Qi; Killian-Farrell, Candace

    2016-07-01

    Our research team used the nationally representative National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II to explore the differences in mental health and behavioral outcomes between children who enter the child welfare system with substantiated sexual abuse and those who enter with exclusively nonsexual maltreatment. The sample included 380 children between the ages of 8 to 17.5 who were substantiated for maltreatment (sexual and nonsexual) and had the same caregivers at both wave 1 and 2 (n = 380). Results show that the average age of children in the sample was 11 years old, and the results corroborate literature that has indicated children and youth with histories of childhood sexual abuse experience significantly more post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms than children with histories of nonsexual maltreatment. This finding held after controlling for baseline trauma symptoms and all covariates, including race, age, placement type, and caregiver characteristics. Childhood sexual abuse was not significantly related to an increase in behavioral symptoms after controlling for covariates. Implications for research and practice are offered.

  18. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File data set consists of child-specific data of all reports of maltreatment to State child...

  19. Identification of Child Maltreatment in Iranian Children with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children with the Parent‑Child Conflict Tactics Scale. Esmaeili DZ, Vaezzadeh ... educational efforts to address norms, attitudes, and behaviors harmful to children .... concern toward their children's health as a symbolic act in the form of minor ...

  20. Preventing Early Child Maltreatment: Implications from a Longitudinal Study of Maternal Abuse History, Substance Use Problems, and Offspring Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, Karen; Berlin, Lisa J.; Rosanbalm, Katherine D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    In the interest of improving child maltreatment prevention science, this longitudinal, community based study of 499 mothers and their infants tested the hypothesis that mothers’ childhood history of maltreatment would predict maternal substance use problems, which in turn would predict offspring victimization. Mothers (35% White/non-Latina, 34% Black/non-Latina, 23% Latina, 7% other) were recruited and interviewed during pregnancy, and child protective services records were reviewed for the presence of the participants’ target infants between birth and age 26 months. Mediating pathways were examined through structural equation modeling and tested using the products of the coefficients approach. The mediated pathway from maternal history of sexual abuse to substance use problems to offspring victimization was significant (standardized mediated path [ab]=.07, 95% CI [.02, .14]; effect size=.26), as was the mediated pathway from maternal history of physical abuse to substance use problems to offspring victimization (standardized mediated path [ab]=.05, 95% CI [.01, .11]; effect size =.19). There was no significant mediated pathway from maternal history of neglect. Findings are discussed in terms of specific implications for child maltreatment prevention, including the importance of assessment and early intervention for maternal history of maltreatment and substance use problems, targeting women with maltreatment histories for substance use services, and integrating child welfare and parenting programs with substance use treatment. PMID:21240556

  1. The experiences and perspectives of Japanese substitute caregivers and maltreated children: a cultural-developmental approach to child welfare practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Sachiko

    2010-04-01

    This article describes the experiences and perspectives of child welfare workers and maltreated children living in Japanese state care. Japanese adults emphasize supporting children's emotional well-being and empowerment through developmentally and ecologically focused socialization strategies. One developmental goal articulated by caregivers of maltreated children has been for them to create their Ibasho--that is, a place where they feel peace, security, acceptance, and belonging. Adults support children's Ibasho creation, in part, through the socialization practice of mimamori--that is, watching over others as a protective figure. Through mimamori, adults may create an accepting and positive social-emotional context that provides children with opportunities for exploration, self-expression, and peer relationships, which are important for Ibasho creation. Understanding of how maltreated children secure their Ibasho and what facilitates their Ibasho creation can provide insights into possible protective factors that may be incorporated into caregivers' daily practice with maltreated children, therapeutic interventions, and innovation in child welfare services as a whole. Understanding of culturally embedded beliefs and practices that may support the resilience and well-being of maltreated children allows social workers to reflect and step outside of that which they take for granted to consider how differently they may serve maltreated children in their own society.

  2. Reports of Parental Maltreatment during Childhood in a United States Population-Based Survey of Homosexual, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, Heather L.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined childhood maltreatment among 2917 heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual adults. Homosexual/bisexual men reported higher rates than heterosexual men of childhood emotional and physical maltreatment by their mothers and major physical maltreatment by their fathers. Homosexual/bisexual women reported higher rates of major physical…

  3. Prevalence of maltreatment among youths in public sectors of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth A; Green, Amy E; Fettes, Danielle L; Aarons, Gregory A

    2011-08-01

    Few studies have investigated the prevalence of maltreatment among youths in public sectors of care despite the critical public health concern and the burden of suffering on such youths. The current study examined the prevalence of multiple types of maltreatment across five public sectors of care. Youths aged 11-18 (n = 1,135) enrolled in one of five public sectors of care reported on their maltreatment history using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Across all sectors, 78% of youth reported experiencing at least moderate levels of maltreatment with the majority (58%) reporting multiple types of maltreatment. The prevalence of maltreatment was highest for youths involved in the alcohol/drug (86%) and child welfare (85%) sectors, and lowest in the serious emotional disturbance sector (72%). Logistic regressions were conducted to examine differences in the likelihood of multiple types of maltreatment by sector affiliation, controlling for the effects of gender, race/ethnicity, and age. The results indicate that rates of maltreatment across sectors do not differ greatly from those in child welfare. The high incidence of maltreatment across all sectors, not solely child welfare, indicates that all youth in public sectors of care should be screened for a history of maltreatment when they enter into care.

  4. Gene by Environment Interaction and Resilience: Effects of Child Maltreatment and Serotonin, Corticotropin Releasing Hormone, Dopamine, and Oxytocin Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    In this investigation, gene-environment interaction effects in predicting resilience in adaptive functioning among maltreated and nonmaltreated low-income children (N = 595) were examined. A multi-component index of resilient functioning was derived and levels of resilient functioning were identified. Variants in four genes, 5-HTTLPR, CRHR1, DRD4 -521C/T, and OXTR, were investigated. In a series of ANCOVAs, child maltreatment demonstrated a strong negative main effect on children’s resilient functioning, whereas no main effects for any of the genotypes of the respective genes were found. However, gene-environment interactions involving genotypes of each of the respective genes and maltreatment status were obtained. For each respective gene, among children with a specific genotype, the relative advantage in resilient functioning of nonmaltreated compared to maltreated children was stronger than was the case for nonmaltreated and maltreated children with other genotypes of the respective gene. Across the four genes, a composite of the genotypes that more strongly differentiated resilient functioning between nonmaltreated and maltreated children provided further evidence of genetic variations influencing resilient functioning in nonmaltreated children, whereas genetic variation had a negligible effect on promoting resilience among maltreated children. Additional effects were observed for children based on the number of subtypes of maltreatment children experienced, as well as for abuse and neglect subgroups. Finally, maltreated and nonmaltreated children with high levels of resilience differed in their average number of differentiating genotypes. These results suggest that differential resilient outcomes are based on the interaction between genes and developmental experiences. PMID:22559122

  5. Gene × Environment interaction and resilience: effects of child maltreatment and serotonin, corticotropin releasing hormone, dopamine, and oxytocin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A

    2012-05-01

    In this investigation, gene-environment interaction effects in predicting resilience in adaptive functioning among maltreated and nonmaltreated low-income children (N = 595) were examined. A multicomponent index of resilient functioning was derived and levels of resilient functioning were identified. Variants in four genes (serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region, corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1, dopamine receptor D4-521C/T, and oxytocin receptor) were investigated. In a series of analyses of covariance, child maltreatment demonstrated a strong negative main effect on children's resilient functioning, whereas no main effects for any of the genotypes of the respective genes were found. However, gene-environment interactions involving genotypes of each of the respective genes and maltreatment status were obtained. For each respective gene, among children with a specific genotype, the relative advantage in resilient functioning of nonmaltreated compared to maltreated children was stronger than was the case for nonmaltreated and maltreated children with other genotypes of the respective gene. Across the four genes, a composite of the genotypes that more strongly differentiated resilient functioning between nonmaltreated and maltreated children provided further evidence of genetic variations influencing resilient functioning in nonmaltreated children, whereas genetic variation had a negligible effect on promoting resilience among maltreated children. Additional effects were observed for children based on the number of subtypes of maltreatment children experienced, as well as for abuse and neglect subgroups. Finally, maltreated and nonmaltreated children with high levels of resilience differed in their average number of differentiating genotypes. These results suggest that differential resilient outcomes are based on the interaction between genes and developmental experiences.

  6. Consequences of child maltreatment in society and implementation of new prevention policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat Kargin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Child maltreatment is a global societal concern with serious consequences for all the nations. While severe child maltreatment catches the attention of child protection services and is brought up to the courts for punishment, there are hidden forms of abuse that are difficult to notice and hence, the predators of such offenses continue to violate the innocence of children over a long period of time. Turkey has to work twice as hard on this issue not only because of the structure of the child protection agencies but also because of the policies and strategies that are in need of revising so that the abusers will get the punishment that they deserve. In order to prevent child abuse it is vital to have parent education programs. This is simply because in our society parents usually see “spare the rod and spoil the child” as a philosophy in the child’s upbringing. If the child is abused at home or by close relatives, a place of intervention might be the school environment. At child at school might exhibit aggressive behaviors or signs of abuse that should alert teachers and school administrators that abuse has taken place. If the educators suspect of abuse they should contact legal authorities to take legal action. Having an informed staff in school is only possible by having a school based intervention program. If the aim is to stop the abuse before it happens then the programs discussed in this paper is definitely a huge leap in the right direction.

  7. Barriers to physician identification and reporting of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Emalee G; Sege, Robert

    2005-05-01

    Physicians systematically underidentify and underreport cases of child abuse. These medical errors may result in continued abuse, leading to potentially severe consequences. We have reviewed a number of studies that attempt to explain the reasons for these errors. The findings of these various studies suggest several priorities for improving the identification and reporting of child maltreatment: Improve continuing education about child maltreatment. Continuing education should focus not only on the identification of maltreatment but also on management and outcomes. This education should include an explanation of the role of CPS investigator and the physician's role in an investigation. The education should provide physicians with a better understanding of the overall outcome for children reported to CPS to help physicians gain perspective on the small number of maltreated children they may care for in their practice. This education should emphasize that the majority of maltreated children will benefit from CPS involvement. New York is the only state that mandates all physicians, as well as certain other professionals, take a 2-hour course called Identification and Reporting of Child Abuse and Maltreatment prior to licensing. Cited studies in this article suggest that such a mandate might be expected to improve identification and reporting, thereby encouraging other states to adopt similar regulations. Give physicians the opportunity to debrief with a trained professional after detecting and reporting child abuse. The concept of child abuse and the gravity of the decision to report can be troubling to the reporter. The debriefing could include discussions of uncomfortable feelings physicians may experience related to their own countertransference reactions. Provide resources to assist physicians in making the difficult determination of suspected maltreatment. The role of accessible telephone consultation should be evaluated, along with formalized collaborations

  8. Genetic moderation of child maltreatment effects on depression and internalizing symptoms by serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) genes in African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A

    2014-11-01

    Genetic moderation of the effects of child maltreatment on depression and internalizing symptoms was investigated in a sample of low-income maltreated and nonmaltreated African American children (N = 1,096). Lifetime child maltreatment experiences were independently coded from Child Protective Services records and maternal report. Child depression and internalizing problems were assessed in the context of a summer research camp by self-report on the Children's Depression Inventory and adult counselor report on the Teacher Report Form. DNA was obtained from buccal cell or saliva samples and genotyped for polymorphisms of the following genes: serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), norepinephrine transporter, and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1. Analyses of covariance with age and gender as covariates were conducted, with maltreatment status and respective polymorphism as main effects and their Gene × Environment (G × E) interactions. Maltreatment consistently was associated with higher Children's Depression Inventory and Teacher Report Form symptoms. The results for child self-report symptoms indicated a G × E interaction for BDNF and maltreatment. In addition, BDNF and triallelic 5-HTTLPR interacted with child maltreatment in a G × G × E interaction. Analyses for counselor report of child anxiety/depression symptoms on the Teacher Report Form indicated moderation of child maltreatment effects by triallelic 5-HTTLPR. These effects were elaborated based on variation in developmental timing of maltreatment experiences. Norepinephrine transporter was found to further moderate the G × E interaction of 5-HTTLPR and maltreatment status, revealing a G × G × E interaction. This G × G × E was extended by consideration of variation in maltreatment subtype experiences. Finally, G × G × E effects were observed for the co-action of BDNF and the corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1

  9. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset among African American Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2010-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship…

  10. Unplanned Pregnancies, Family Planning Problems, and Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuravin, Susan J.

    1987-01-01

    Examined the relationship between contracepting problems, unplanned fertility, and both child abuse and neglect in 518 urban, single parent, public assistance mothers. Findings revealed that increasing numbers of unplanned conceptions increased the probability of both abuse and neglect and that the unplanned conceptions were due to both failure to…

  11. Is Child Maltreatment a Leading Cause of Delinquency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ira M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Explores the now popular assumption that delinquency is primarily caused by child abuse and neglect. Notes that existing studies are inconclusive or provide weak connections at best. In light of public concern over juvenile crime, calls for more funding to explore strategies to prevent and control serious juvenile crimes, especially violence. (TJQ)

  12. Factors Related to Sibling Removal after a Child Maltreatment Fatality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damashek, Amy; Bonner, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Many children who die from abuse or neglect are survived by siblings. However, little data are available about what happens to these siblings after the victim's death, such as whether they are removed from their home. Even less is known about how decisions are made regarding sibling removal following a child fatality. This study…

  13. Association between intimate partner violence and child maltreatment in a representative student sample in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2015-04-01

    The study examined the prevalence of the co-occurrence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment (CM) to determine whether IPV is a factor associated with the latter. A total of 5,841 students from a representative sample of schools in Hong Kong were surveyed. The results show that the lifetime and preceding-year co-occurrence rates of IPV and CM were 12.3% and 3.6%, respectively. IPV and parents' use of psychological aggression and corporal punishment led to increased odds of physical violence. This study suggests a need for the comprehensive assessment of IPV and CM.

  14. Children's reports of emotional, physical and sexual maltreatment by educational staff in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbenishty, Rami; Zeira, Anat; Astor, Ron Avi

    2002-08-01

    This paper reports on the first nationally representative study on the prevalence of emotional, physical, and sexual victimization of children by school staff in Israel. The study identifies groups of children that are at higher risk for such maltreatment. We examine the differences in staff-induced victimization by the children's gender, age group (junior high vs. high school), cultural groups (Jewish non-religious, Jewish-religious and Arab schools) and by socioeconomic status of the children's families. The study is based on a nationally representative sample of 10,410 Israeli students in Grades 7-11 in 161 schools across Israel. Students completed questionnaires during class. In addition, we obtained data on the socioeconomic status of the families of the students in each school. Overall, children reported high rates of victimization by staff members. Almost a quarter of all children participating in this study reported being emotionally maltreated by a staff member, almost a fifth (18.7%) reported being a victim of at least one type of physical forms of maltreatment, and 8.2% reported on at least one sexually inappropriate behavior by a staff member. The most vulnerable groups for all types of maltreatment were males, children in junior high schools, children in Arab schools, and children in schools with a high concentration of students coming from low-income and low-education families. The overall prevalence rates of staff maltreatment should be considered high and unacceptable. Although rates of physical and sexual maltreatment were lower than emotional maltreatment, they were still high and are worthy of greater attention. Both cultural beliefs and low family socioeconomic status increase vulnerability to staff maltreatment. We suggest conducting an educational campaign to reduce rates of staff maltreatment. We also recommend allocating more resources to support staff in low SES neighborhoods, to alleviate their stress and to provide them with the support

  15. Maltreatment, Child Welfare, and Recidivism in a Sample of Deep-End Crossover Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglivio, Michael T; Wolff, Kevin T; Piquero, Alex R; Bilchik, Shay; Jackowski, Katherine; Greenwald, Mark A; Epps, Nathan

    2016-04-01

    Although research has oft-documented a maltreatment-delinquency link, the effect of involvement in-and timing of-child welfare system involvement on offending has received less attention. We examine whether the timing of child welfare involvement has differential effects on recidivism of deep-end juvenile offenders (youth who have been adjudicated delinquent by the court and placed in juvenile justice residential programs). The current study uses a large, diverse sample of 12,955 youth completing juvenile justice residential programs between 1 January 2010 and 30 June 2013 in Florida (13 % female, 55 % Black, 11 % Hispanic). Additionally, we explore the direct effects of childhood traumatic events on delinquency, as well as their indirect effects through child welfare involvement using structural equation modeling. The findings indicate that adverse childhood experiences fail to exert a direct effect on recidivism, but do exhibit a significant indirect effect on recidivism through child welfare involvement, which is itself associated with recidivism. This means that while having exposures to more types of childhood traumatic events does not, in and of itself, increase the likelihood of re-offending, effects of such experiences operate through child welfare placement. Differences in the effects of maltreatment timing and of adverse childhood experiences are observed across sex and race/ethnicity subgroups. Across all racial subgroups, exposures to adverse childhood experiences have a significant effect on the likelihood of child welfare placement, yet child welfare placement exerts a significant effect on recidivism for White and Hispanic youth, but not for Black youth. Only Hispanic female and White male youth with overlapping child welfare and juvenile justice cases (open cases in both systems at the same time during the study period) were more likely to recidivate than their delinquent-only counterpart youth. Crossover status (child welfare and juvenile justice

  16. The relationship between child maltreatment and emotion recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Koizumi

    Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect affect the development of social cognition in children and inhibit social adjustment. The purpose of this study was to compare the ability to identify the emotional states of others between abused and non-abused children. The participants, 129 children (44 abused and 85 non-abused children, completed a children's version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET. Results showed that the mean accuracy rate on the RMET for abused children was significantly lower than the rate of the non-abused children. In addition, the accuracy rates for positive emotion items (e.g., hoping, interested, happy were significantly lower for the abused children, but negative emotion and neutral items were not different across the groups. This study found a negative relationship between child abuse and the ability to understand others' emotions, especially positive emotions.

  17. New Methods to Address Old Challenges: The Use of Administrative Data for Longitudinal Replication Studies of Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurren, Emily; Stewart, Anna; Dennison, Susan

    2017-09-15

    Administrative data are crucial to the "big data" revolution of social science and have played an important role in the development of child maltreatment research. These data are also of value to administrators, policy makers, and clinicians. The focus of this paper is the use of administrative data to produce and replicate longitudinal studies of child maltreatment. Child protection administrative data have several advantages. They are often population-based, and allow longitudinal examination of child maltreatment and complex multi-level analyses. They also allow comparison across subgroups and minority groups, remove burden from individuals to disclose traumatic experiences, and can be less biased than retrospective recall. Finally, they can be linked to data from other agencies to explore comorbidity and outcomes, and are comparatively cost and time effective. The benefits and challenges associated with the use of administrative data for longitudinal child maltreatment research become magnified when these data are used to produce replications. Techniques to address challenges and support future replication efforts include developing a biographical understanding of the systems from which the data are drawn, using multiple data sources to contextualize the data and research results, recognizing and adopting various approaches to replication, and documenting all data coding and manipulation processes. These techniques are illustrated in this paper via a case study of previous replication work.

  18. Child maltreatment, alcohol use and drinking consequences among male and female college students: An examination of drinking motives as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Abby L; Flett, Gordon L; Wekerle, Christine

    2010-06-01

    Although the relationship between child maltreatment and alcohol use and drinking problems is well established, the mechanisms involved in this relationship remain largely unknown and research has focused primarily on women. Using the Modified Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (M-DMQ-R; Grant, Stewart, O'Connor, Blackwell & Conrod, 2007), drinking motives were examined as mediators in the relationship between childhood maltreatment and alcohol consumption and consequences among male and female college student drinkers (N = 218, 60.6% women). Participants completed questionnaires assessing child maltreatment, drinking motives, alcohol consumption and alcohol consequences. Enhancement motives in particular mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and alcohol consequences for men, whereas coping-depression motives mediated this relationship for women. Implications of these findings for alcohol interventions and future research are discussed, along with limitations of the present study.

  19. Child Maltreatment and Women’s Adult Sexual Risk Behavior: Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Unique Risk Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated (a) whether childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was uniquely associated with adult sexual risk behavior, after controlling for other types of childhood maltreatment, and (b) whether there were additive or interactive effects of different types of maltreatment on adult sexual risk behavior. Participants were 414 women (M age = 28 years) attending a publicly-funded STD clinic. All women completed a computerized survey assessing childhood maltreatment (sexual, physical, psychological abuse, and neglect) and sexual risk behavior. Analyses showed that sexual abuse, physical abuse, psychological abuse, and neglect were associated with adult sexual risk behavior. Multivariate analyses that controlled for all other forms of child maltreatment showed that only CSA was uniquely associated with adult sexual risk behavior (i.e., percentage of episodes of unprotected sex in the past 3 months and number of lifetime partners). We found little support for an additive or an interactive model of the effects of different types of childhood maltreatment on adult sexual risk behavior; CSA alone was the best predictor of adult sexual risk behavior. Sexual risk reduction interventions are needed for women who were sexually abused as children. Continued research on the effects of multi-type maltreatment on adult sexual risk behavior is needed. PMID:20930181

  20. Inflammation in adult women with a history of child maltreatment: The involvement of mitochondrial alterations and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeck, Christina; Koenig, Alexandra Maria; Schury, Katharina; Geiger, Martha Leonie; Karabatsiakis, Alexander; Wilker, Sarah; Waller, Christiane; Gündel, Harald; Fegert, Jörg Michael; Calzia, Enrico; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2016-09-01

    The experience of maltreatment during childhood is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation in adulthood. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this pro-inflammatory phenotype remain unclear. Mitochondria were recently found to principally coordinate inflammatory processes via both inflammasome activation and inflammasome-independent pathways. To this end, we hypothesized that alterations in immune cell mitochondrial functioning and oxidative stress might be at the interface between the association of maltreatment experiences during childhood and inflammation. We analyzed pro-inflammatory biomarkers (levels of C-reactive protein, cytokine secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro, PBMC composition, lysophosphatidylcholine levels), serum oxidative stress levels (arginine:citrulline ratio, l-carnitine and acetylcarnitine levels) and mitochondrial functioning (respiratory activity and density of mitochondria in PBMC) in peripheral blood samples collected from 30 women (aged 22-44years) with varying degrees of maltreatment experiences in form of abuse and neglect during childhood. Exposure to maltreatment during childhood was associated with an increased ROS production, higher levels of oxidative stress and an increased mitochondrial activity in a dose-response relationship. Moreover, the increase in mitochondrial activity and ROS production were positively associated with the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by PBMC. Decreased serum levels of lysophosphatidylcholines suggested higher inflammasome activation with increasing severity of child maltreatment experiences. Together these findings offer preliminary evidence for the association of alterations in immune cell mitochondrial functioning, oxidative stress and the pro-inflammatory phenotype observed in individuals with a history of maltreatment during childhood. The results emphasize that the early prevention of child abuse and neglect warrants more attention, as the

  1. Developmental pathways to adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence: child maltreatment, emerging personality, and internalizing versus externalizing psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A; Burnette, Mandi L; Cicchetti, Dante

    2011-12-01

    Child maltreatment is strongly associated with adolescent psychopathology and substance abuse and dependence. However, developmental processes unfolding from childhood into adolescence that delineate this trajectory are not well understood. The current study used path analysis in a structural equation modeling framework to examine multiple mediator models, including ego control, ego resiliency, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms to investigate this developmental process. Participants were 415 children, assessed across 3 waves of data, (i.e., at ages 7 to 9, 10 to 12, and 13 to 15). The sample included maltreated (n = 259) and nonmaltreated (n = 156) children; groups were comparable in sociodemographic characteristics. Findings support an transactional-ecological model by revealing a developmental sequence in which severity of early childhood maltreatment potentiates less adaptive childhood personality functioning, followed by externalizing problems in preadolescence, and ultimately adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms. A developmental pathway from child maltreatment to adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms via personality and preadolescent internalizing problems was not supported. Understanding developmental pathways by which maltreatment experiences increase risk for substance abuse and dependence symptoms in youth has far-reaching implications for the treatment and prevention of substance use disorders.

  2. The Overlap of Witnessing Partner Violence with Child Maltreatment and Other Victimizations in a Nationally Representative Survey of Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamby, Sherry; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather; Ormrod, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the co-occurrence of witnessing partner violence with child maltreatment and other forms of victimization. Method: Data are from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV), a nationally representative telephone survey of the victimization experiences of 4,549 youth aged 0-17. Results: Witnessing partner…

  3. Analyzing the Relationship between Poverty and Child Maltreatment: Investigating the Relative Performance of Four Levels of Geographic Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Sarah B.; McCrowell, Jean; Moon, Alyson; Yamano, Ryoichi; Roark, Duston A.; Simmons, Monica; Tatanashvili, Zurab; Drake, Brett

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to compare four different levels of aggregation to assess their utility as areal units in child maltreatment research. The units examined are county, zip code, tract, and block group levels. Each of the four levels is analyzed to determine which show the strongest effects in modeling the correlation between poverty…

  4. Self-Esteem of Young Adults Experiencing Interparental Violence and Child Physical Maltreatment: Parental and Peer Relationships as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the joint impact of experiencing both interparental violence and child physical maltreatment on young adults' self-esteem. It also tested the hypothesis of parental and peer relationship qualities as mediators in the relationship between childhood histories of family violence and adult self-esteem. Data were collected from a…

  5. Exploring Child Maltreatment and Its Relationship to Alcohol and Cannabis Use in Selected Latin American and Caribbean Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman-Mills, S.; Gonzalez, W. Y.; Melendez, M. O.; Garcia, M. R.; Gomez, J. D.; Juarez, C. G.; Martinez, E. A.; Penalba, S. J.; Pizzanelli, E. M.; Solorzano, L. I.; Wright, M. G. M.; Cumsille, F.; De La Haye, W.; Sapag, J. C.; Khenti, A.; Hamilton, H. A.; Erickson, P. G.; Brands, B.; Flam-Zalcman, R.; Simpson, S.; Wekerle, C.; Mann, R. E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Research from developed countries shows that child maltreatment increases the risk for substance use and problems. However, little evidence on this relationship is available from developing countries, and recognition of this relationship may have important implications for substance demand reduction strategies, including efforts to…

  6. Self-Esteem of Young Adults Experiencing Interparental Violence and Child Physical Maltreatment: Parental and Peer Relationships as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the joint impact of experiencing both interparental violence and child physical maltreatment on young adults' self-esteem. It also tested the hypothesis of parental and peer relationship qualities as mediators in the relationship between childhood histories of family violence and adult self-esteem. Data were collected from a…

  7. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Child Maltreatment on Later Outcomes among High-Risk Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Johnson, Katherine A.; Brownridge, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    The current study longitudinally examines the effects of child maltreatment, parenting, and disadvantaged neighborhood on victimization, delinquency, and well-being via running away and school engagement among a sample of 360 high-risk adolescents. Results of a path analysis revealed that parenting was associated with school engagement, running…

  8. Children Exposed to Child Maltreatment and Intimate Partner Violence: A Study of Co-Occurrence among Hong Kong Chinese Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the co-occurrence of child maltreatment and intimate partner violence (IPV) and examined the association between them. Method: The cross-sectional study recruited a population-based sample of 1,094 children aged 12-17 years in Hong Kong. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from the children. The…

  9. From Child Maltreatment to Violent Offending: An Examination of Mixed-Gender and Gender-Specific Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topitzes, James; Mersky, Joshua P.; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that child maltreatment predicts juvenile violence, but it is uncertain whether the effects of victimization persist into adulthood or differ across gender. Furthermore, we know little about the mechanisms underlying the victim-perpetrator cycle for males and females. Consequently, this study analyzed associations between child…

  10. Bangladeshi school-age children's experiences and perceptions on child maltreatment: A qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiqul Haque, M; Janson, S; Moniruzzaman, S; Rahman, A K M F; Mashreky, S R; Eriksson, U-B

    2017-09-04

    Child maltreatment (CM) is a public health problem and is recognized as a huge barrier for child development. Most of the research and definitions on CM are from the perspective of high-income western countries. Because no major studies have been conducted on CM in Bangladesh, the aim of the current study was to explore the experiences of and perceptions on CM in school-age children in rural and urban Bangladesh in order to understand maltreatment in a local context and from a child perspective. Semistructured individual interviews with 24 children (13 boys and 11 girls), between the ages of 9 and 13 years of which 11 were schoolgoing and 13 non-schoolgoing, were conducted during July 2013 and analysed according to qualitative content analysis. CM was a common and painful experience with serious physical and emotional consequences but highly accepted by the society. Vulnerable groups were especially young children, girls, and poor children. The children's voices were not heard due to their low status and low position in their families, schools, and working places. The main theme that emerged in the analysis was children's subordination, which permeated the five categories: (a) perception of children's situation in society, (b) understanding children's development and needs, (c) CM associated to school achievement, (d) negative impact of CM, and (e) emotional responses. Different kinds of abuse are obviously common in Bangladesh, and the schools do not follow the law from 2011 prohibiting corporal punishment at school. The society has to take further steps to live up to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, which was ratified already in 1990, to protect the Bangladeshi children from CM. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Association of oxytocin level and less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history among healthy Japanese adults involved with child care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie eMizuki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxytocin (OT is known to play a role in stress regulation. The association between childhood maltreatment history and neuropeptide OT concentration is inconsistent due to the varying degrees of severity of childhood maltreatment, among other contributing factors. Less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history might enhance OT concentrations as a response to coping with social stress within the family. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history and OT concentrations among healthy adults.Method: Eighty-one adults (50 women and 31 men with 18- to 48-month-old children were recruited using a snowball sample in Tokyo, Japan. Urine samples were collected for OT measurement. Less severe (low and moderate childhood maltreatment history, including physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse, was assessed using the self-report questionnaire, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Results: Less severe physical abuse was significantly associated with higher OT concentration after adjusting for age (p=0.014. Also, less severe forms of physical abuse were independently significantly associated with higher OT concentration after controlling for other types of childhood maltreatment (p=0.027. A positive dose-response association between the number of less severe childhood maltreatment types and OT concentration was observed (p=0.031. Conclusion: A history of less severe forms of childhood physical abuse was associated with higher OT concentration in healthy adults. Poly-victimization of several types of less severe childhood maltreatment was also associated with higher OT concentrations. Less severe forms of childhood maltreatment might enhance OT concentrations in order to cope with social stress.

  12. Family-based risk factors for non-suicidal self-injury: Considering influences of maltreatment, adverse family-life experiences, and parent-child relational risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jodi; Bureau, Jean-François; Yurkowski, Kim; Fournier, Tania Renaud; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Cloutier, Paula

    2016-06-01

    The current investigation addressed the potential for unique influences of perceived childhood maltreatment, adverse family-life events, and parent-child relational trauma on the lifetime occurrence and addictive features of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Participants included 957 undergraduate students (747 females; M = 20.14 years, SD = 3.88) who completed online questionnaires regarding the key variables under study. Although self-injuring youth reported more experiences with each family-based risk factor, different patterns of association were found when lifetime engagement in NSSI or its addictive features were under study. Perceived parent-child relational trauma was uniquely linked with NSSI behavior after accounting for perceived childhood maltreatment; adverse family-life events had an additional unique association. In contrast, perceived paternal maltreatment was uniquely related with NSSI's addictive features. Findings underline the importance of studying inter-related family-based risk factors of NSSI simultaneously for a comprehensive understanding of familial correlates of NSSI behavior and its underlying features.

  13. Child Maltreatment; Types and effects: Series of six cases from a university hospital in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Al-Saadoon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Child maltreatment (CM is common worldwide, and can take many forms. It may even endanger the child’s life, especially when younger children are the victims. CM affects the child’s quality of life and consequently leads to long term issues to be dealt with by the child, family and community. This case series discusses six children who have been subjected to CM, and diagnosed by the child protection team of the departments of Child Health and Behavioural Medicine at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH, Oman. The aim of this case series is to increase the level of awareness of CM among Oman’s medical professionals and to highlight the difficulties encountered in diagnosing and providing optimal care for these children. Although treatment is provided in Oman’s health care system, it is clear that there are gaps in the existing system which affect the quality of child protection services provided to the children and their families.

  14. Relationship between Child Maltreatment and Alcohol Abuse - Findings from Adverse Childhood Experience Study in Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Filov; Marija Raleva; Dimitrinka Jordanova Peshevska; Dinesh Sethi; Gordana Ristevska-Dimitrоvska; Kadri Hazdi Hamza; Ana Poprizova

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to determine the relationship between of the problem of alcohol abuse and child maltreatment.  METHOD: The ACE study was administered by the University Clinic of Psychiatry, Department for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. The ACE study used a representative sample of students in year four of secondary school (aged 18 and above) and first- and second-year university students. The sample consisted of 664 secondary school students (258 males and 406 female...

  15. Child maltreatment among boy and girl probationers: Does type of maltreatment make a difference in offending behavior and psychosocial problems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.E. van der Put; N. Lanctot; C. de Ruiter; E. van Vugt

    2015-01-01

    This study examined differences in offending behavior and psychosocial problems between juvenile offenders who have been sexually abused (n = 231), physically abused (n = 1,568), neglected (n = 1,555), exposed to multiple forms of maltreatment (n = 1,767), and non-victims (n = 8,492). In addition, t

  16. Child maltreatment among boy and girl probationers: does type of maltreatment make a difference in offending behavior and psychosocial problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Put, Claudia E; Lanctôt, Nadine; de Ruiter, Corine; van Vugt, Eveline

    2015-08-01

    This study examined differences in offending behavior and psychosocial problems between juvenile offenders who have been sexually abused (n=231), physically abused (n=1,568), neglected (n=1,555), exposed to multiple forms of maltreatment (n=1,767), and non-victims (n=8,492). In addition, the moderating effect of gender in the association between type of maltreatment and offending behavior/psychosocial problems was examined. Results showed that violent offenses were more common in victims of physical abuse and victims of multiple forms of abuse than in non-victims, both in boys and girls. In boys, sexual offenses were far more common in victims of sexual abuse than in victims of other or multiple forms of maltreatment or in non-victims. In girls, no group differences were found in sexual offending behavior. For both boys and girls, externalizing problems were relatively common in victims of physical abuse and neglect whereas internalizing problems were relatively common in victims of sexual abuse. In victims of multiple forms of maltreatment, both internalizing and externalizing problems were relatively common. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

  17. A longitudinal study of child maltreatment, mother-child relationship quality and maladjustment: the role of self-esteem and social competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmeen; Cicchetti, Dante

    2004-08-01

    This study examined the concurrent and longitudinal relations of mother-child relationship quality, self-esteem, social competence, and maladjustment among maltreated (n = 206) and nonmaltreated (n = 139) school-aged children from low-income families. Results of the path analysis using structural equation modeling revealed that maltreatment at Time 1 was related to internalizing and externalizing symptomatology at Time 1, both directly as well as indirectly, through its influence on social competence at Time 1. Regardless of maltreatment status, secure mother-child relationship quality was negatively related to internalizing symptomatology at Time 1 and to internalizing and externalizing symptomatology at Time 2 via its influence on self-esteem at Time 1. The results are discussed as suggestive of the role of self-esteem and social competence as mediating mechanisms in the link between relational risks and children's maladjustment.

  18. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for sexual concerns of maltreated children: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brian; Timmer, Susan G; Urquiza, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    The current study examines whether an evidence-based treatment for externalizing behavior problems may reduce sexual concerns among children with maltreatment histories. An archival analysis identified 44 children between the ages of 3 and 8 exhibiting externalizing problems and co-morbid sexual concerns who were treated using Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). A second group of children receiving PCIT for externalizing behaviors without sexual concerns was included for comparison purposes (n=143). Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Tests indicated significant improvement among the group with sexual concerns, with 63.6% of children no longer displaying clinically significant sexual concerns at post-treatment. In addition, these children showed a decline in general externalizing problems comparable to that observed among the group of children receiving PCIT and not displaying sexual concerns. Lastly, logistic regression analyses showed that pre-treatment posttraumatic stress scores did not moderate improvement of sexual concerns, suggesting that posttraumatic stress-related sexual concerns may improve from PCIT treatment. These findings suggest that evidence-based parent training interventions, specifically PCIT, may successfully reduce sexual concerns among children who experienced maltreatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Symptoms of major depressive disorder subsequent to child maltreatment: Examining change across multiple levels of analysis to identify transdiagnostic risk pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E; Griffin, Amanda M; O'Donnell, Kieran J

    2015-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition in the child maltreatment population. However, not all children who have been maltreated will develop MDD or MDD symptoms, suggesting the presence of unique risk pathways that explain how certain children develop MDD symptoms when others do not. The current study tested several candidate risk pathways to MDD symptoms following child maltreatment: neuroendocrine, autonomic, affective, and emotion regulation. Female adolescents (N = 110; age range = 14-19) were recruited into a substantiated child maltreatment or comparison condition and completed a laboratory stressor, saliva samples, and measures of emotion regulation, negative affect, and MDD symptoms. MDD symptoms were reassessed 18 months later. Mediational modeling revealed that emotion regulation was the only significant indirect effect of the relationship between child maltreatment and subsequent MDD symptoms, demonstrating that children exposed to maltreatment had greater difficulties managing affective states that in turn led to more severe MDD symptoms. These results highlight the importance of emotion dysregulation as a central risk pathway to MDD following child maltreatment. Areas of future research and implications for optimizing prevention and clinical intervention through the direct targeting of transdiagnostic risk pathways are discussed.

  20. Child maltreatment and trajectories of personality and behavioral functioning: Implications for the development of personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal impact of maltreatment parameters on personality processes and maladjustment and prospective relationships between personality trajectory classes and subsequent maladjustment outcomes. The sample involved maltreated (n = 249) and nonmaltreated (n = 200) children followed longitudinally between ages 6 – 10. Growth mixture modeling indicated multifinality in personality development depending on the risk status (i.e., maltreated vs. nonmaltreated). Two tr...

  1. Parents and friendships: a longitudinal examination of interpersonal mediators of the relationship between child maltreatment and suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam B; Adams, Leah M; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Thompson, Richard; Proctor, Laura J

    2014-12-30

    This study examined parental relationship quality, friendship quality, and depression as mediators of the association between child maltreatment (CM) and adolescent suicidal ideation (SI). Participants were 674 adolescents (46% female; 55% African American) involved in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). Data were collected via youth self-report at ages 12, 16, and 18. CM before age 12 predicted poor parental relationships and depression, but not poor friendships, at age 16. Age 16 depression was negatively associated with parental relationship quality and positively associated with SI at age 18. An indirect path from CM to SI via depression was significant, suggesting that the early CM affects depression severity, which in turn is associated with SI. Strong friendship quality (age 16) was associated with SI at age 18; however, there was no significant indirect path from CM to SI via friendships. Results suggest that: 1) CM before age 12 affects parental relationships in adolescence; 2) depression and friendships are related to suicide ideation in later adolescence; and 3) depression partially mediates the association between CM and SI. Results highlight the importance of assessing for a history of CM, quality of interpersonal relationships, and depression severity among youth reporting SI.

  2. Relationship between Multiple Forms of Maltreatment by a Parent or Guardian and Adolescent Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Edwards, Erika; Heeren, Timothy; Amodeo, Maryann

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the co-occurrence of multiple categories of maltreatment on adolescent alcohol use. Data were from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health which used a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 14,078). Among those reporting any maltreatment, over one-third had experienced more than one type of maltreatment. Logistic regression models found that all types or combinations of types of maltreatment except physical-abuse-only were strongly associated with adolescent alcohol use, controlling for age, gender, race, and parental alcoholism. These results add to accumulating evidence that child maltreatment has a deleterious impact on adolescent alcohol use.

  3. Technology-Based Innovations in Child Maltreatment Prevention Programs: Examples from SafeCare®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Cowart-Osborne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Each year, hundreds of thousands of children in the U.S. are victims of child maltreatment. Experts recommend behavioral, skill-based parent training programs as a strategy for the prevention of child abuse and neglect. These programs can be enhanced using innovative technology strategies. This paper presents a brief history of the use of technology in SafeCare®, a home visiting program shown to prevent child neglect and physical abuse, and highlights current work that takes a technology-based hybrid approach to SafeCare delivery. With this unique approach, the provider brings a tablet computer to each session, and the parent interacts with the software to receive psychoeducation and modeling of target skills. The provider and parent then work together to practice the targeted skills until mastery is achieved. Initial findings from ongoing research of both of these strategies indicate that they show potential for improving engagement and use of positive parenting skills for parents and ease of implementation for providers. Future directions for technology enhancements in SafeCare are also presented.

  4. Decision making in child protection: An international comparative study on maltreatment substantiation, risk assessment and interventions recommendations, and the role of professionals' child welfare attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbenishty, Rami; Davidson-Arad, Bilha; López, Mónica; Devaney, John; Spratt, Trevor; Koopmans, Carien; Knorth, Erik J; Witteman, Cilia L M; Del Valle, Jorge F; Hayes, David

    2015-11-01

    Child welfare professionals regularly make crucial decisions that have a significant impact on children and their families. The present study presents the Judgments and Decision Processes in Context model (JUDPIC) and uses it to examine the relationships between three independent domains: case characteristic (mother's wish with regard to removal), practitioner characteristic (child welfare attitudes), and protective system context (four countries: Israel, the Netherlands, Northern Ireland and Spain); and three dependent factors: substantiation of maltreatment, risk assessment, and intervention recommendation. The sample consisted of 828 practitioners from four countries. Participants were presented with a vignette of a case of alleged child maltreatment and were asked to determine whether maltreatment was substantiated, assess risk and recommend an intervention using structured instruments. Participants' child welfare attitudes were assessed. The case characteristic of mother's wish with regard to removal had no impact on judgments and decisions. In contrast, practitioners' child welfare attitudes were associated with substantiation, risk assessments and recommendations. There were significant country differences on most measures. The findings support most of the predictions derived from the JUDPIC model. The significant differences between practitioners from different countries underscore the importance of context in child protection decision making. Training should enhance practitioners' awareness of the impact that their attitudes and the context in which they are embedded have on their judgments and decisions.

  5. Intergenerational violence in Burundi: Experienced childhood maltreatment increases the risk of abusive child rearing and intimate partner violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm Crombach

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Experiencing abuse during childhood affects the psychological well-being of individuals throughout their lives and may even influence their offspring by enhancing the likelihood of an intergenerational transmission of violence. Understanding the effects of childhood maltreatment on child-rearing practices and intimate partner violence might be of particular importance to overcome the consequences of violent conflicts in African societies. Objective: Using Burundi as an example, we aimed to explore the associations between childhood maltreatment, intimate partner violence, perceived partner intimidation, gender and the probability of violently acting out against one's own children or romantic partner. Methods: Amongst a sample of 141 men and 141 women in the capital of Burundi, we identified those who had biological children and those who lived or had lived in relationships. Using culturally appropriate instruments, we enquired about their exposure to childhood maltreatment and partner violence as well as their inclinations to act out violently. Results: We found that childhood maltreatment and perceived partner intimidation were strong predictors for the perpetration of violence against children. Moreover, we found that women were more likely to use violence against children if they experienced partner violence and less likely to resort to violence if they felt intimidated. Men were more likely to perpetrate violence against their partner. Childhood maltreatment was again a strong predictor. The more women experienced partner violence, the more they fought back. Conclusions: Childhood maltreatment is a strong predictor for domestic violence and has to be addressed to interrupt the cycle of violence in post-conflict countries.

  6. Child maltreatment and its victims. A comparison of physical and sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A H

    1988-12-01

    Although physical and sexual abuse are separate and distinct types of victimization, their impact on children is quite similar. Both of these forms of maltreatment involve the exploitation or misuse of a child by a parent or caretaker in the context of a pathologic family system. Physical and sexual abuse constitute an acute traumatic event for the child, generating phobic responses and anxiety-related symptoms including post-traumatic stress disorder. The long-term traumatic elements stemming from the chronic stigmatization and scapegoating contribute to problems of depression and low self-esteem and distortions in character formation. Betrayal by a primary caretaker leads to mistrust of others and difficulties with object relationships. Perhaps the most striking similarity between physical and sexual abuse of children is the tendency of the children to re-enact and recreate their victimization with others, leading to a transmission of violence in the next generation. Like their parents who were frequently victimized during childhood, they repeat and perpetuate an "aggressor-victim" interaction in their subsequent relationships. Both physical and sexual abuse are embedded in a deviant family structure, which adds to the psychopathology of the children. The contrast between physical and sexual abuse can be demonstrated by their specific impact on aggression and sexuality, respectively. The physically abused child has difficulty in experiencing and modulating aggressive impulses, whereas the victim of incest is often impaired in his ability to experience and integrate sexual feelings. The physically abused child is also at greater risk for cognitive and CNS impairment. Intervention with the abusing parents is the first step in protecting the children from further damage, but treatment of the child victims is necessary not only to diminish their psychopathology and emotional distress, but to prevent the cycle of violence in the next generation.

  7. The effect of VoorZorg, the Dutch nurse-family partnership, on child maltreatment and development: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Mejdoubi

    Full Text Available Child maltreatment is a great public health concern that has long-term mental and physical health consequences and can result in death. We studied the effect of a nurse home visiting program on child maltreatment among young disadvantaged families in The Netherlands. This study is the first to investigate the effects of this program outside of the United States.We conducted a single blind, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial that compared usual care with the nurse home visitation program, which began during pregnancy and continued until the children's second birthdays, in 460 disadvantaged women who were pregnant for the first time and <26 years of age. The primary outcome was the existence of a report about the child from a child protecting services agency (CPS reports. Secondary outcome measures included home environment and child behavior.Two hundred twenty-three participants were assigned to the control group, and 237 were assigned to the intervention group. Three years after birth, 19% of the children in the control group had a CPS report. The 11 percent of children in the intervention group with CPS files was significantly lower (relative risk 0.91, p-value 0.04. At 24 months, the intervention group scored significantly better on the IT-HOME. At 24 months after birth, the children in the intervention group exhibited a significant improvement in internalizing behavior (relative risk 0.56, p-value 0.04 but no evidence of a difference from the control group in externalizing behavior (relative risk 0.71, p-value 0.12.The number of CPS reports for the intervention group was significantly lower than that of the control group. Additionally, the long-term home environments were improved and internalizing behaviors of the children were lower in the intervention group.Dutch Trial Register NTR854.

  8. Exploring child maltreatment and its relationship to alcohol and cannabis use in selected Latin American and Caribbean countries

    OpenAIRE

    Juárez, Cristina Gloribel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Research from developed countries shows that child maltreatment increases the risk for substance use and problems. However, little evidence on this relationship is available from developing countries, and recognition of this relationship may have important implications for substance demand reduction strategies, including efforts to prevent and treat substance use and related problems. Latin America and the Caribbean is a rich and diverse region of the world with a l...

  9. Do early care and education services improve language development for maltreated children? Evidence from a national child welfare sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Darcey H; Klein, Sacha

    2015-01-01

    Young children under 6 years old are over-represented in the U.S. child welfare system (CWS). Due to their exposure to early deprivation and trauma, they are also highly vulnerable to developmental problems, including language delays. High quality early care and education (ECE) programs (e.g. preschool, Head Start) can improve children's development and so policymakers have begun calling for increased enrollment of CWS-supervised children in these programs. However, it is not a given that ECE will benefit all children who experience maltreatment. Some types of maltreatment may result in trauma-related learning and behavior challenges or developmental deficits that cause children to respond to ECE settings differently. The current study uses data from a nationally representative survey of children in the U.S. child welfare system, the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II, to assess whether young CWS-supervised children (N=1,652) who were enrolled in ECE had better language development outcomes 18 months later than those not enrolled in ECE. We also explore whether the type of maltreatment that brought children to the CWS' attention moderates the relationship between ECE and children's language development. After controlling for children's initial scores on the Preschool Language Scale (PLS-3), type(s) of maltreatment experienced, and child and caregiver demographics, we found that ECE participation predicted better PLS-3 scores at follow-up, with a positive interaction between ECE participation and supervisory neglect. ECE seems to be beneficial for CWS-involved children's early language development, especially for children referred to the CWS because they lack appropriate parent supervision at home. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comprehensive treatment for co-occurring child maltreatment and parental substance abuse: outcomes from a 24-month pilot study of the MST-Building Stronger Families program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Cindy M; Swenson, Cynthia Cupit; Tuerk, Elena Hontoria; Henggeler, Scott W

    2013-08-01

    This manuscript presents outcomes from a pilot study of Multisystemic Therapy-Building Stronger Families (MST-BSF), an integrated treatment model for the co-occurring problem of parental substance abuse and child maltreatment among families involved in the child welfare system. Participants were 25 mother-youth dyads who participated in MST-BSF and an additional 18 families with similar demographic and case characteristics who received Comprehensive Community Treatment (CCT). At post-treatment, mothers who received MST-BSF showed significant reductions in alcohol use, drug use, and depressive symptoms; they also significantly reduced their use of psychological aggression with the youth. Youth reported significantly fewer anxiety symptoms following MST-BSF treatment. Relative to families who received CCT, mothers who received MST-BSF were three times less likely to have another substantiated incident of maltreatment over a follow-up period of 24 months post-referral. The overall number of substantiated reabuse incidents in this time frame also was significantly lower among MST-BSF families, and youth who received MST-BSF spent significantly fewer days in out-of-home placements than did their CCT counterparts. These promising preliminary outcomes support the viability of a more rigorous (i.e., randomized) evaluation of the MST-BSF model.

  11. Impact of child maltreatment on meaning in life in psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Sébastien; Vidal, Sonia; Olié, Emilie; Hasler, Roland; Torriani, Catherine; Prada, Paco; Courtet, Philippe; Guillaume, Sébastien; Perroud, Nader; Huguelet, Philippe

    2017-05-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) worsens prognosis and quality of life in several psychiatric conditions. Meaning in life is a construct which relates to the sense of purpose that one can perceive in life, and is a key aspect of recovery in psychiatric patients. The lasting impact of CM on meaning in life and its mediating variables have not been studied in patients with chronic persistent psychiatric conditions. One hundred and sixty-six patients with bipolar disorder (N=35), psychotic disorder (N=73), anorexia nervosa (N=30) or borderline personality disorder (N=28) were assessed for meaning in life (revised version of the Life Regard Index (LRI-R)), for CM (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)) and for internalized/externalized psychopathology. CM was associated with a lower LRI score. Structural Equation Modeling showed that internalized psychopathology (depression, hopelessness and low self-esteem) was the main mediator of the impact of CM on meaning in life. The direct effect of CM on meaning in life was not significant. Having suffered from negligence or abuse during childhood is associated with lower meaning in life in adults with persistent and pervasive psychiatric disorders. Treating depressive symptoms and improving self-esteem may improve meaning in life in patients with severe mental disorders who were affected by CM.

  12. Child Maltreatment and Disaster Prevention: Qualitative Study of Community Agency Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Self-Brown

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Child maltreatment (CM is a significant public health problem that increases following natural disasters. Ecological approaches have been used to study these complex phenomena, and the current research fits within this perspective by conducting qualitative interviews with disaster response and family-serving community agencies. The purpose of the study was to identify whether or not community agencies identified CM as an issue that is relevant for disaster planning and response and their perspectives on risk and protective factors for CM risk following disaster. Methods: Agencies (n=16 from 2 geographical areas participated - one that recently experienced a natural disaster (Louisiana (LA, n=7 and one that had not (Georgia (GA, n=9. Agency representatives completed semi-structured telephone interviews (n=16 and follow up in person focus groups (n=14. Theory-driven, thematic analyses were completed. Results: Results suggested that community agencies agree that post-disaster environments increase the risk for CM and that CM prevention has a role in disaster response planning. Risk and protective factors were identified according to Bronfenbrenner’ s ecological framework. Conclusion: Study results support the need to include CM prevention efforts within disaster planning and provide guidance for future research to inform such efforts. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:402-408

  13. The relationships between harsh physical punishment and child maltreatment in childhood and intimate partner violence in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Mota, Natalie; Sareen, Jitender; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2017-05-23

    Physical punishment of children is an important public health concern. Yet, few studies have examined how physical punishment is related to other types of child maltreatment and violence across the lifespan. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to examine if harsh physical punishment (i.e., being pushed, grabbed, shoved, hit, and/or slapped without causing marks, bruises, or injury) is associated with an increased likelihood of more severe childhood maltreatment (i.e., physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect, emotional neglect, and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV)) in childhood and perpetration or victimization of IPV in adulthood. Data were drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions collected in 2004 to 2005 (n = 34,402, response rate = 86.7%), a representative United States adult sample. Harsh physical punishment was associated with increased odds of childhood maltreatment, including emotional abuse, sexual abuse, physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional neglect, and exposure to IPV after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, family history of dysfunction, and other child maltreatment types (range 1.6 to 26.6). Harsh physical punishment was also related to increased odds of experiencing IPV in adulthood (range 1.4 to 1.7). It is important for parents and professionals working with children to be aware that pushing, grabbing, shoving, hitting, or slapping children may increase the likelihood of emotional abuse, sexual abuse, physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional neglect, and exposure to IPV in childhood and also experiencing IPV victimization and/or perpetration in later adulthood.

  14. “The Prevalence of Confirmed Maltreatment Among American Children, 2004-2011”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildeman, Christopher; Emanuel, Natalia; Leventhal, John M.; Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Waldfogel, Jane; Lee, Hedwig

    2016-01-01

    Importance Child maltreatment is a risk factor for poor health throughout the life course. Existing estimates of the proportion of the U.S. population maltreated during childhood are based on retrospective self-reports. Records of officially confirmed maltreatment have been used to produce annual rather than cumulative counts of maltreated individuals. Objective To estimate the proportion of U.S. children who are substantiated or indicated for maltreatment by Child Protective Services (referred to as confirmed maltreatment) by age 18. Design, Setting, and Participants The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File includes information on all U.S. children with a confirmed report of maltreatment, totaling 5,689,900 children (2004-2011). We developed synthetic cohort life tables to estimate the cumulative prevalence of confirmed childhood maltreatment by age 18. Main Outcome Measure The cumulative prevalence of confirmed child maltreatment between birth and age 18 by race/ethnicity, sex, and year. Results At 2011 rates, 12.5% [95% CI: 12.5%, 12.6%] of U.S. children will experience a confirmed case of maltreatment by age 18. Girls have a higher cumulative prevalence than boys (13.0% [95% CI: 12.9%, 13.0%] vs. 12.0% [95% CI: 12.0%, 12.1%]). Black (20.9% [95% CI: 20.8%, 21.1%]), Native American (14.5% [95% CI: 14.2%, 14.9%]), and Hispanic (13.0% [95% CI: 12.9%, 13.1%]) children have higher prevalences than White (10.7% [95% CI: 10.6%, 10.8%]) or Asian/Pacific Islander (3.8% [95% CI: 3.7%, 3.8%]) children. The risk of maltreatment is highest in the first few years of life; 2.1% [95% CI: 2,1%, 2.1%] of children have confirmed maltreatment by age 1, and 5.8% [95% CI: 5.8%, 5.9%] have confirmed maltreatment by age 5. Estimates from 2011 were consistent with those from 2004-2010. Conclusions and Relevance Annual rates of confirmed child maltreatment dramatically understate the cumulative number of children confirmed as maltreated during childhood. Our

  15. Problem-specific racial/ethnic disparities in pathways from maltreatment exposure to specialty mental health service use for youth in child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jonathan I; Gudiño, Omar G; Lau, Anna S

    2013-05-01

    The authors examined racial/ethnic differences in pathways from maltreatment exposure to specialty mental health service use for youth in contact with the Child Welfare system. Participants included 1,600 non-Hispanic White, African American, and Latino youth (age 4-14) who were the subjects of investigations for alleged maltreatment and participated in the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Maltreatment exposure, internalizing, and externalizing problems were assessed at baseline and subsequent specialty mental health service use was assessed 1 year later. Maltreatment exposure predicted both internalizing and externalizing problems across all racial/ethnic groups, but non-Hispanic White youth were the only group for whom maltreatment exposure was linked with subsequent service use via both internalizing and externalizing problem severity. Only externalizing problems predicted subsequent service use for African American youth and this association was significantly stronger relative to non-Hispanic White youth. Neither problem type predicted service use for Latinos. Future research is needed to understand how individual-, family-, and system-level factors contribute to racial/ethnic differences in pathways linking maltreatment exposure to services via internalizing/externalizing problems.

  16. Child maltreatment and trajectories of personality and behavioral functioning: implications for the development of personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmeen; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Manly, Jody Todd

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal impact of maltreatment parameters on personality processes and maladjustment and prospective relationships between personality trajectory classes and subsequent maladjustment outcomes. The sample involved maltreated (n = 249) and nonmaltreated (n = 200) children followed longitudinally between ages 6 and 10. Growth mixture modeling indicated multifinality in personality development depending on the risk status (i.e., maltreated vs. nonmaltreated). Two trajectory classes of ego resiliency were identified for maltreated children: those who showed a declining trajectory exhibited greater maladjustment. In contrast, three trajectory classes of ego control were identified for nonmaltreated children; the subgroups showing increases in ego undercontrol or dramatic changes from high ego undercontrol to high ego overcontrol exhibited poor adjustment. Experiencing multiple maltreatment subtypes and physical/sexual abuse were related to higher levels of ego undercontrol and externalizing symptomatology, whereas early onset of maltreatment was associated with the low and decreasing trajectory of ego resiliency and higher levels of internalizing symptomatology. The findings suggest that ego resiliency and ego control, personality processes related to self-regulation, may be important factors in identifying distinct pathways to later personality disorders as well as pathways to resilient functioning.

  17. Can protective factors moderate the detrimental effects of child maltreatment on personality functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengartner, Michael P; Müller, Mario; Rodgers, Stephanie; Rössler, Wulf; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether, and if so, to what extent, education and coping strategies may reduce the detrimental effects of childhood maltreatment on personality functioning. We assessed dimensional trait-scores of all 10 DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs), childhood maltreatment, education and three coping styles in 511 subjects of the general population of Zurich, Switzerland, using data from the ZInEP Epidemiology Survey. Childhood maltreatment was associated with all 10 PDs. Low education was related to antisocial, borderline and histrionic PD. Low emotion-focused coping was associated with paranoid, schizoid, borderline, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive PD. Low problem-focused coping was related to schizoid PD and high problem-focused coping to histrionic PD. High dysfunctional coping was significantly related to all 10 PD dimensions. Obsessive-compulsive trait scores were significantly lower in maltreated subjects with high emotion-focused coping. Antisocial, borderline and narcissistic trait scores were significantly higher in maltreated subjects with high dysfunctional coping. Education and adaptive coping may have a protective effect on PD symptomatology. Promotion of adaptive coping and suppression of dysfunctional coping may additionally reduce PD symptoms specifically in maltreated subjects. Those findings have important clinical implications. Longitudinal research is needed to address questions of causality and to evaluate potential effects of treatment and intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Does the impact of child sexual abuse differ from maltreated but non-sexually abused children? A prospective examination of the impact of child sexual abuse on internalizing and externalizing behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Terri; McElroy, Erika; Harlaar, Nicole; Runyan, Desmond

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a significant problem with significant short and long term consequences. However, extant literature is limited by the reliance on retrospective recall of adult samples, single-time assessments, and lack of longitudinal data during the childhood and adolescent years. The purpose of this study was to compare internalizing and externalizing behavior problems of those with a history of sexual abuse to those with a history of maltreatment, but not sexual abuse. We examined whether gender moderated problems over time. Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) at ages 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 (N=977). The Child Behavior Checklist was used to assess internalizing and externalizing problems. Maltreatment history and types were obtained from official Child Protective Services (CPS) records. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to assess behavior problems over time by maltreatment group. Findings indicated significantly more problems in the CSA group than the maltreated group without CSA over time. Internalizing problems were higher for sexually abused boys compared to girls. For sexually abused girls internalizing problems, but not externalizing problems increased with age relative to boys. This pattern was similar among maltreated but not sexually abused youth. Further efforts are needed to examine the psychological effects of maltreatment, particularly CSA longitudinally as well as better understand possible gender differences in order to best guide treatment efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Commentary: The devastating effects of ignoring child maltreatment in psychiatry--a commentary on Teicher and Samson 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kolk, Bessel

    2016-03-01

    Despite the numerous studies over the past 30 years that have clarified the devastating effects of child maltreatment on mental and physical health, the role of trauma within the caregiving system remains unrecognized both in our diagnostic systems and in our dominant treatment paradigms. Research of people with histories of caregiver abuse and neglect consistently demonstrates problems with concentration, anger, panic, depression, food intake, drugs, and sleep, as well as decreased Heart RateVariability, higher levels of stress hormones, and reduced or impaired immune response. Their relationship between documented brain changes and psychopathology is complex. Traumatic life experiences during childhood and adolescence are far more common than expected. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that child maltreatment may be the most costly public health issue in the United States, Eradicating child abuse in America would reduce the overall rate of depression by more than half, alcoholism by two-thirds, and suicide, serious drug abuse, and domestic violence by three quarters. It would also have a significantly positive effect on workplace performance, and vastly decrease the need for incarceration. The current practice of applying multiple distinct comorbid diagnoses to traumatized children prevents a comprehensive treatment approach. Approaching their problems from a framework of memories of discreet traumatic ignores the fact that the damage affects the brain's neural circuitry and goes well beyond dealing with discrete painful events. Our great challenge is to learn to utilize the brain's neuroplasticity to reorganize defective brain circuits.

  20. Psychological distress as a mediator of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and sleep quality in adolescence: results from the Maltreatment and Adolescent Pathways (MAP) Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhie, Meghan L; Weiss, Jonathan A; Wekerle, Christine

    2014-12-01

    Childhood maltreatment represents an important public health concern, as it is often associated with a host of negative outcomes across development. In recent years, researchers have begun to examine the link between negative health-related behaviors and history of childhood maltreatment. The current study considers the relationship between history of childhood maltreatment and sleep disturbances in adolescence. Further, the role of psychological distress is considered as an explanatory link between childhood maltreatment and adolescent sleep disturbances. The current study is a secondary analysis using a subsample (N=73) of child welfare-involved youth who participated in the initial and 2-year time-point of the Maltreatment and Adolescent Pathways (MAP) Longitudinal Study on the variables of interest. Youth reported on lifetime maltreatment experiences, psychological distress, and sleep disturbances, in addition to the other measures administered as part of the larger MAP study protocol. More severe childhood maltreatment was related to increased sleep disturbances during adolescence, and psychological distress was a significant mediator of the childhood maltreatment-adolescent sleep disturbance association. The results demonstrate that a history of childhood maltreatment represents a risk factor for sleep disturbances in adolescence. The findings highlight the importance of inquiring about health-related behaviors in child welfare youth and the need to promote psychological well-being within this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Barriers to disclosure of child maltreatment among school-going adolescent girls of a semi-urban area of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daral, Shailaja; Khokhar, Anita; Pradhan, Shishir Kumar

    2016-06-14

    The study examines the barriers to disclosure of child maltreatment among adolescent girls. Stratified random sampling was done among classes 7 to 12 of government girls' schools of a semi-urban area of Delhi, and a total of 1060 adolescent girls participated. Almost 33% of victims of physical abuse, 50% of sexual abuse, 30% of emotional abuse, and 40% of neglect did not disclose their experiences to any support group. The most frequent confidante, in almost two-thirds of cases of all forms of abuse was a friend of the study participant. Among the study participants who did not disclose abuse, the most common reason for nondisclosure was a feeling of shame or embarrassment (40%-80% for physical abuse, 55%-80% for sexual abuse, and 55% for emotional abuse). Among the study participants who did not disclose neglect, 70% reported that they did not do so because they had no expectation of help from anyone.

  2. Implementation of evidence-based home visiting programs aimed at reducing child maltreatment: A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, Katherine L; Fauchier, Angèle; Derkash, Bridget T; Garrido, Edward F

    2016-03-01

    In recent years there has been an increase in the popularity of home visitation programs as a means of addressing risk factors for child maltreatment. The evidence supporting the effectiveness of these programs from several meta-analyses, however, is mixed. One potential explanation for this inconsistency explored in the current study involves the manner in which these programs were implemented. In the current study we reviewed 156 studies associated with 9 different home visitation program models targeted to caregivers of children between the ages of 0 and 5. Meta-analytic techniques were used to determine the impact of 18 implementation factors (e.g., staff selection, training, supervision, fidelity monitoring, etc.) and four study characteristics (publication type, target population, study design, comparison group) in predicting program outcomes. Results from analyses revealed that several implementation factors, including training, supervision, and fidelity monitoring, had a significant effect on program outcomes, particularly child maltreatment outcomes. Study characteristics, including the program's target population and the comparison group employed, also had a significant effect on program outcomes. Implications of the study's results for those interested in implementing home visitation programs are discussed. A careful consideration and monitoring of program implementation is advised as a means of achieving optimal study results.

  3. Children's reasoning about disclosing adult transgressions: effects of maltreatment, child age, and adult identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Thomas D; Ahern, Elizabeth C; Malloy, Lindsay C; Quas, Jodi A

    2010-01-01

    A total of two hundred ninety-nine 4- to 9-year-old maltreated and nonmaltreated children of comparable socioeconomic status and ethnicity judged whether children should or would disclose unspecified transgressions of adults (instigators) to other adults (recipients) in scenarios varying the identity of the instigator (stranger or parent), the identity of the recipient (parent, police, or teacher), and the severity of the transgression ("something really bad" or "something just a little bad"). Children endorsed more disclosure against stranger than parent instigators and less disclosure to teacher than parent and police recipients. The youngest maltreated children endorsed less disclosure than nonmaltreated children, but the opposite was true among the oldest children. Older maltreated children distinguished less than nonmaltreated children between parents and other types of instigators and recipients.

  4. Children with Sexual Behavior Problems: Clinical Characteristics and Relationship to Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Research examining children with sexual behavior problems (SBP) almost exclusively relies on caregiver reports. The current study, involving a sample of 1112 children drawn from a prospective study, utilizes child self-reports and teacher reports, as well caregiver-reports. First, analyses examined children displaying any SBP; a second set of analyses specifically examined children displaying interpersonal forms of SBP. Caregivers reported greater internalizing, externalizing, and social problems for children with general SBP and/or interpersonal SBP when compared to children without SBP. Caregiver concerns were rarely corroborated by teacher and child reports. Protective services records indicated that SBP was linked to childhood sexual abuse, but sexual abuse occurred in the minority of these cases. Physical abuse was more common among children with interpersonal forms of SBP. The data in the current study suggest the need for multiple reporters when assessing children presenting with SBP and that conventional views of these children may be misleading.

  5. Is childhood cruelty to animals a marker for physical maltreatment in a prospective cohort study of children?☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Fiona S.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Childhood cruelty to animals is thought to indicate that a child may have been maltreated. This study examined: (a) prevalence of cruelty to animals among 5- to 12-year-old children; (b) the association between cruelty to animals, child physical maltreatment, and adult domestic violence; and (c) whether cruelty to animals is a marker of maltreatment taking into account age, persistence of cruelty, and socioeconomic disadvantage. Data were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological representative cohort of 2,232 children living in the United Kingdom. Mothers reported on cruelty to animals when children were 5, 7, 10, and 12 years, on child maltreatment up to age 12, and adult domestic violence. Nine percent of children were cruel to animals during the study and 2.6% persistently (≥2 time-points). Children cruel to animals were more likely to have been maltreated than other children (OR = 3.32) although the majority (56.4%) had not been maltreated. Animal cruelty was not associated with domestic violence when maltreatment was controlled for. In disadvantaged families, 6 in 10 children cruel to animals had been maltreated. In other families, the likelihood of maltreatment increased with age (from 3 in 10 5-year-olds to 4.5 in 10 12-year-olds) and persistence (4.5 in 10 of those persistently cruel). Although childhood cruelty to animals is associated with maltreatment, not every child showing cruelty had been maltreated. The usefulness of cruelty to animals as a marker for maltreatment increases with the child's age, persistence of behavior, and poorer social background. PMID:24268376

  6. Child maltreatment, parent alcohol and drug-related problems, polydrug problems, and parenting practices: a test of gender differences and four theoretical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Thomas F; Newcomb, Michael

    2004-03-01

    The authors tested how adverse childhood experiences (child maltreatment and parent alcohol- and drug-related problems) and adult polydrug use (as a mediator) predict poor parenting in a community sample (237 mothers and 81 fathers). These relationships were framed within several theoretical perspectives, including observational learning, impaired functioning, self-medication, and parentification-pseudomaturity. Structural models revealed that child maltreatment predicted poor parenting practices among mothers. Parent alcohol- and drug-related problems had an indirect detrimental influence on mothers' parenting and practices through self-drug problems. Among fathers, emotional neglect experienced as a child predicted lack of parental warmth more parental neglect, and sexual abuse experienced as a child predicted a rejecting style of parenting.

  7. Child Maltreatment Profiles and Adjustment Problems in High-Risk Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Andrea L.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Roesch, Scott C.; Hough, Richard L.; Landsverk, John A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify profiles of maltreatment experiences in a sample of high-risk adolescents and to investigate the relationship between the derived profiles and psychological adjustment. Participants are 1,131 youth between the ages of 12 and 18 years involved with publicly funded mental health and social services.…

  8. Parental Compliance to Court-Ordered Treatment Interventions in Cases of Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famularo, Richard; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The study of 136 court cases representing 218 parents of abused or neglected children found parental compliance with court ordered treatment significantly lower in parents presenting with substance abuse and in parents who sexually and/or physically maltreated their children. (Author/DB)

  9. Child Maltreatment and Onset of Emergency Department Presentations for Suicide-Related Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Anne E.; Boyle, Michael H.; Bethell, Jennifer; Wekerle, Christine; Goodman, Deborah; Tonmyr, Lil; Leslie, Bruce; Lam, Kelvin; Manion, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether the rates of a first presentation to the emergency department (ED) for suicide-related behavior (SRB) are higher among children/youth permanently removed from their parental home because of substantiated maltreatment than their peers. To describe the health care settings accessed by these children/youth before a…

  10. The Measurement of Psychological Maltreatment: Early Data on the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Barbara; Becker-Lausen, Evvie

    1995-01-01

    The Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, a self-report measure yielding a quantitative index of the frequency and extent of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, was administered to 1,198 college students and 17 subjects with Multiple Personality Disorder. Results revealed the scale's strong internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and…

  11. Is the Physical Availability of Alcohol and Illicit Drugs Related to Neighborhood Rates of Child Maltreatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget; Needell, Barbara; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how the availability of alcohol and illicit drugs (as measured by alcohol outlet density and police incidents of drug sales and possessions) is related to neighborhood rates of child abuse and neglect, controlling for other neighborhood demographic characteristics. Method: Data from substantiated reports of child…

  12. The Relationship between Parental Substance Abuse and Child Maltreatment: Findings from the Ontario Health Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christine; MacMillan, Harriet L.; Jamieson, Ellen

    2003-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between reported exposure to child abuse and a history of parental substance abuse (alcohol and drugs) in a community sample in Ontario, Canada. Method: The sample consisted of 8,472 respondents to the Ontario Mental Health Supplement (OHSUP), a comprehensive population survey of mental health. The…

  13. The Measurement of Psychological Maltreatment: Early Data on the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Barbara; Becker-Lausen, Evvie

    1995-01-01

    The Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, a self-report measure yielding a quantitative index of the frequency and extent of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, was administered to 1,198 college students and 17 subjects with Multiple Personality Disorder. Results revealed the scale's strong internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and…

  14. Adversity, Maltreatment, and Resilience in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Howard; Thompson, Richard; Proctor, Laura; Metzger, Richard; Black, Maureen M; English, Diana; Poole, Gina; Magder, Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    Much of the research on children in high risk environments, particularly those who have been maltreated, has focused on negative outcomes. Yet, much can be learned from some of these children who fare relatively well. The objective was to examine resilience in high-risk preschoolers, and to probe contributors to their adaptive functioning. The sample of 943 families was from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect, a consortium of 5 sites, prospectively examining the antecedents and outcomes of maltreatment. Most of the families were at high risk for maltreatment, and many had been reported to Child Protective Services (CPS) by the time the children were aged 4 years. Standardized measures were used at ages 4 and 6 to assess the children's functioning in behavioral, social and developmental domains, and parental depressive symptoms and demographic characteristics. Maltreatment was determined on the basis of CPS reports. Logistic regressions were conducted to predict resilience, defined as competencies in all 3 domains, over time. Forty-eight percent of the sample appeared resilient. This was associated with no history of maltreatment (odds ratio = 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-2.20; P = .04), a primary caregiver reporting few depressive symptoms (odds ratio = 2.19; 95% CI, 1.63-2.94; P resilient during this important developmental period of transition to school. This enables clinicians to be cautiously optimistic in their work with high-risk children and their families. However, more than half the sample was not faring well. Child maltreatment and caregiver depressive symptoms were strongly associated with poor outcomes. These children and families deserve careful attention by pediatric practitioners and referral for prevention and early intervention services. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The association between childhood maltreatment experiences and the onset of maltreatment perpetration in young adulthood controlling for proximal and distal risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Vered; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett; Kohl, Patricia L

    2015-08-01

    The evidence for association between child maltreatment victimization and later maltreatment perpetration is both scant and mixed. The objective of the present study was to assess the association between childhood maltreatment experiences and later perpetration of maltreatment in young adulthood controlling for proximal young adult functioning, prior youth risk behaviors, and childhood poverty. The study included 6,935 low-income children with (n=4,470) or without (n=2,465) maltreatment reports prior to age 18 followed from ages 1.5 through 11 years through early adulthood (ages 18-26). Administrative data from multiple regional and statewide agencies captured reports of maltreatment, family poverty and characteristics, system contact for health, behavioral risks and mental health in adolescence, and concurrent adult functioning (crime, mental health and poverty). After controlling for proximal adult functioning, repeated instances of neglect or mixed type maltreatment remained associated with young adult perpetration. Females and subjects with adolescent history of runaway, violent behaviors or non-violent delinquency also had higher risk. Greater caregiver education remained associated with reduced risk. The study concludes that prevention of recurrent neglect and mixed forms of maltreatment may reduce risk of maltreatment for future generations. Intervening to increase parental education and decrease adolescent risk behaviors may offer additional benefit.

  16. A Comparison of Female Delinquents: The Impact of Child Maltreatment Histories on Risk and Need Characteristics among a Missouri Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Dannerbeck-Janku

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available While boys who offend have been a dominant majority and primary concern of the juvenile court since its earliest days, the population of delinquent girls has increased in recent years at a far higher rate in the U.S. The special challenges presented by females, however, continue to be generally overlooked by the justice system. Moreover, while a few specialized programs now serve these girls, the field tends to view young female offenders as a homogeneous group; what distinguishes particular female subpopulations and the characteristics associated with different criminal trajectories have gone largely unexplored. Employing data from the state of Missouri, this study examines girls who offend, identifying models that predict subsequent violent behavior that include indicators such as parental substance abuse and incarceration, and offender substance abuse, mental health, and school behavior. Special attention is given to the effects of child maltreatment, which we find significantly, but weakly correlated with violent behavior. The authors conclude by considering the possibility that maltreatment may be correlated with other criminogenic factors, and by discussing the implications of findings for future research and practice, especially services that take into account the trauma experienced by young women who come to the attention of state authorities.

  17. Mandatory Reporting? Issues to consider when developing legislation and policy to improve discovery of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Davies

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Article by Dr Emma Davies (School of Law, Liverpool John Moores University, Associate Professor Ben Mathews (School of Law, Queensland University of Technology and Professor John Read (Institute of Psychology, Health and Society, University of Liverpool. In the United Kingdom, recent investigations into child sexual abuse occurring within schools, the Catholic Church and the British Broadcasting Corporation, have intensified debate on ways to improve the discovery of child sexual abuse, and child maltreatment generally. One approach adopted in other jurisdictions to better identify cases of severe child maltreatment is the introduction of some form of legislative mandatory reporting to require designated persons to report known and suspected cases. The debate in England has raised the prospect of whether adopting a strategy of some kind of mandatory reporting law is advisable. The purpose of this article is to add to this debate by identifying fundamental principles, issues and complexities underpinning policy and even legislative developments in the interests of children and society. The article will first highlight the data on the hidden nature of child maltreatment and the background to the debate. Secondly, it will identify some significant gaps in knowledge that need to be filled. Thirdly, the article will summarise the barriers to reporting abuse and neglect. Fourthly, we will identify a range of options for, and clarify the dilemmas in developing, legislative mandatory reporting, addressing two key issues: who should be mandated to report, and what types of child maltreatment should they be required to report? Finally, we draw attention to some inherently different goals and competing interests, both between and within the various institutions involved in the safeguarding of children and the criminal prosecution of some offenders. Based on this analysis we offer some concluding observations that we hope contribute to informed and careful

  18. The Effects of Secret Instructions and Yes/no Questions on Maltreated and Non-maltreated Children's Reports of a Minor Transgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Elizabeth C; Stolzenberg, Stacia N; McWilliams, Kelly; Lyon, Thomas D

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the effects of secret instructions (distinguishing between good/bad secrets and encouraging disclosure of bad secrets) and yes/no questions (DID: "Did the toy break?" versus DYR: "Do you remember if the toy broke?") on 262 maltreated and non-maltreated children's (age range 4-9 years) reports of a minor transgression. Over two-thirds of children failed to disclose the transgression in response to free recall (invitations and cued invitations). The secret instruction increased disclosures early in free recall, but was not superior to no instruction when combined with cued invitations. Yes/no questions specifically asking about the transgression elicited disclosures from almost half of the children who had not previously disclosed, and false alarms were rare. DYR questions led to ambiguous responding among a substantial percentage of children, particularly younger children. The findings highlight the difficulties of eliciting transgression disclosures without direct questions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Examining the independent protective effect of subjective well-being on severe psychological distress among Canadian adults with a history of child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiden, Philip; Tarshis, Sarah; Antwi-Boasiako, Kofi; den Dunnen, Wendy

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the independent protective effect of subjective well-being on severe psychological distress among adult Canadians with a history of child maltreatment. Data for this study were obtained from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (CCHS-MH). A sample of 8126 respondents aged 20-69 years old who experienced at least one child maltreatment event was analyzed using binary logistic regression with severe psychological distress as the outcome variable. Of the 8126 respondents with a history of child maltreatment, 3.9% experienced severe psychological distress within the past month. Results from the multivariate logistic regression revealed that emotional and psychological well-being each had a significant effect on severe psychological distress. For each unit increase in emotional well-being, the odds of a respondent having severe psychological distress were predicted to decrease by a factor of 28% and for each unit increase in psychological well-being, the odds of a respondent having severe psychological distress were predicted to decrease by a factor of 10%, net the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, and health factors. Other factors associated with psychological distress included: younger age, poor self-perceived physical health, and chronic condition. Having post-secondary education, having a higher income, and being non-White predicted lower odds of severe psychological distress. Although, child maltreatment is associated with stressful life events later in adulthood, subjective well-being could serve as a protective factor against severe psychological distress among adults who experienced maltreatment when they were children.

  20. Pathways from childhood maltreatment to emerging adulthood: investigating trauma-mediated substance use and dating violence outcomes among child protective services-involved youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Breanne; Goldstein, Abby L; Wekerle, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal survey data were used to examine the relationship between two types of childhood maltreatment, abuse/neglect and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), and two outcomes, substance use and dating violence, within the past year. Participants were youth (N = 158, aged 16-19 at Time 3) involved with child protective services (CPS). A parallel multiple mediator model was used to test the hypothesis that trauma symptoms would mediate the relationship between both types of maltreatment and dating violence, marijuana, and alcohol use outcomes. Although both types of maltreatment were not directly associated with dating violence and substance use outcomes, the indirect effects of anxiety, anger, and dissociation on the relationship between maltreatment and substance use/dating violence were significant. Direct effects of both types of maltreatment on past year use of dating violence + alcohol use and dating violence + marijuana use were not significant, but results demonstrated a significant indirect effect for anger on the relationship between exposure to IPV and past year dating violence + marijuana use. No other indirect effects were significant. Findings highlight the negative effects of exposure to IPV and have implications for the development of prevention programming for youth transitioning out of CPS.

  1. SafeCare: Historical Perspective and Dynamic Development of an Evidence-Based Scaled-Up Model for the Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn M. Guastaferro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available SafeCare is an evidence-based parent-training program that reduces child maltreatment, particularly neglect. The risk of child maltreatment, a public health issue affecting millions of U.S. children each year, can be markedly reduced by interventions such as SafeCare that deliver in-home services. Drawing from applied behavioral analysis roots, SafeCare focuses on providing parents with concrete skills in three areas: health, home safety, and parent-child/-infant interaction. This paper will include an overview of the SafeCare model, an historical perspective of its history and dynamic development, description of the theoretical underpinnings of the model, a description of the program targets and content by describing its modules and delivery, an overview of program outcomes, and data discussion of dissemination and implementation.

  2. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  3. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  4. Multi-type maltreatment in childhood and psychological adjustment in adolescence: questionnaire study among adolescents in Western Herzegovina Canton

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sesar, Kristina; Zivcić-Bećirević, Ivanka; Sesar, Damir

    2008-01-01

    ...) aged between 15 and 20 (median age, 17). Data were collected using a sociodemographic questionnaire, Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales III, Child Maltreatment Questionnaire, Youth Self-Report, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale...

  5. Determining child maltreatment incidence in Saudi Arabia using the ICAST-CH: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eissa, Majid A; AlBuhairan, Fadia S; Qayad, Mohammed; Saleheen, Hassan; Runyan, Desmond; Almuneef, Maha

    2015-04-01

    Studies in other countries, including countries with mandated reporting by professionals and a long history of recognition of the problem, have found child abuse to be seriously under reported. This population-based pilot study was conducted to determine the magnitude of adolescents' exposure to CAN at home, and to identify ethical and methodological challenges to conducting a survey on a culturally sensitive subject. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Kharj city in 2011-2012. Through a stratified multistage cluster random sampling of schools, a sample of adolescents (15-18 years) were identified and invited to participate. The ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Child: Home version (ICAST-CH) was used for data collection. The previous year's incidence of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, neglect, and exposure to violence were assessed. A total of 2,043 students participated in the study (mean age, 16.6 years; 58%, female). The incidence of psychological abuse, physical abuse, exposure to violence, neglect, and sexual abuse were 74.9%, 57.5%, 50.7%, 50.2%, and 14.0%, respectively. Female participants were at higher risk for psychological and physical abuse, exposure to violence, and neglect, but not for sexual abuse. The rates and gender distribution of CAN at home differ from findings of health-based records. Our results are comparable to other regional population-based studies. Thus, population-based data are necessary to inform and guide professionals and decision makers for prevention policies and resource allocation. Insights to ethical and methodological challenges surrounding the sensitive nature of this type of study are discussed.

  6. The contribution of emotional maltreatment to alcohol dependence in a treatment-seeking sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthast, Nadine; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    Studies reporting a link between child maltreatment and addiction have typically focused on physical and sexual abuse. In contrast, emotional maltreatment has rarely been studied in substance-abusing samples although it is associated with a wide range of dysfunction. The current study aimed to determine the specific impact of different types of maltreatment and peer victimization on alcohol dependence and to examine the potentially mediating role of psychopathology. A sample of treatment seeking adults with alcohol dependence (N=72) underwent an extensive clinical examination including both a standardized interview and self-report measures. Child maltreatment, peer victimization, severity of alcohol dependence, and general psychopathology were assessed. Regression analyses revealed that emotional maltreatment was the strongest predictor of alcohol dependence severity whereas a unique contribution of peer victimization was not found. Our findings suggest that emotional maltreatment might have a major role in the etiology of AD that seems to exceed the contribution of other abuse and victimization experiences. Thereby, the study underscores the need for considering child maltreatment experiences in the prevention and treatment of AD.

  7. More than Poverty—Teen Pregnancy Risk and Reports of Child Abuse Reports and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Gerassi; Melissa, Jonson-Reid; Katie, Plax; Brett, Drake

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare risk for teen pregnancies between children living in poverty with no Child Protection Services (CPS) report history, and those in poverty with a history of CPS report. Methods Children selected from families in poverty, both with and without CPS report histories were prospectively followed from 1993–2009 using electronic administrative records from agencies including child protective services, emergency departments, Medicaid services and juvenile courts. A total of 3281 adolescent females were followed until age 18. Results For teens with history of poverty only, 16.8% had been pregnant at least once by age 17. In teens with history of both poverty and report of child abuse or neglect, 28.9% had been pregnant at least once by age 17. While multivariate survival analyses revealed several other significant factors at the family and youth services levels, a report of maltreatment remained significant (about a 66% higher risk). Conclusions Maltreatment is a significant risk factor for teen pregnancy among low income youth even after controlling for neighborhood disadvantage, other caregiver risks and indicators of individual emotional and behavioral problems. PMID:26206437

  8. Exploring opportunities for coordinated responses to intimate partner violence and child maltreatment in low and middle income countries: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchus, Loraine J; Colombini, Manuela; Contreras Urbina, Manuel; Howarth, Emma; Gardner, Frances; Annan, Jeannie; Ashburn, Kim; Madrid, Bernadette; Levtov, Ruti; Watts, Charlotte

    2017-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment (CM) by a parent or caregiver are prevalent and overlapping issues with damaging consequences for those affected. This scoping review aimed to identify opportunities for greater coordination between IPV and CM programmes in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Nine bibliographic databases were searched and grey literature was identified through the scoping review team. Eligible studies were published in English; described primary prevention programmes in LMIC that addressed IPV and CM, or addressed one form of violence, but reported outcomes for the other; reported IPV and CM outcomes; and evaluated with any study design. Six studies were identified published between 2013 and 2016 (four randomised controlled trials, one pre-post non-randomised study and one qualitative study). Programmes were based in South Africa (2), Uganda, (2), Liberia (1) and Thailand (1). All except one were delivered within parenting programmes. The emphasis on gender norms varied between programmes. Some parenting programmes addressed gender inequity indirectly by promoting joint decision-making and open communication between caregivers. Conclusions are tentative due to the small evidence base and methodological weaknesses. More robust evaluations are needed. Improved coherence between IPV and CM programmes requires equal attention to the needs of women and children, and the involvement of fathers when it is safe to do so.

  9. Childhood Maltreatment and Young Adulthood Hallucinations, Delusional Experiences, and Psychosis: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Kisely, Steve; Scott, James G; Williams, Gail; Clavarino, Alexandra; Strathearn, Lane; Najman, Jake Moses

    2017-09-01

    Child maltreatment is a widespread public health problem associated with a range of mental health disorders later in life. In order to effectively address these disorders, there is a need to understand more about the mental health consequences of different types of child maltreatment. This study examines the associations between prospectively substantiated child maltreatment (ages 0-14 y) and reports of hallucinations and delusional experiences at 21 years after birth. As well, we examined 12-month and lifetime psychotic disorders using data from a longitudinal birth cohort. The study comprised 3752 participants from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, a prospective Australian prebirth cohort study. Psychotic experiences and 12-month and lifetime psychosis were measured using the Achenbach Young Adults Self-Report, the Peter's Delusions Inventory, and Composite International Diagnostic Interview at the 21-year follow-up. In adjusted analyses, those children who had experienced any maltreatment and who were emotionally abused and neglected were more likely to report (1) hallucinations and lifetime delusional experiences and (2) more likely to experience lifetime psychosis than their nonabused counterparts. In expanded models, those exposed to multiple forms of maltreatment, in particular with emotional abuse and neglect, had an increased likelihood of hallucinations and delusional experiences. There is an association between child maltreatment, especially emotional abuse and neglect, and later hallucinations, delusional experiences, and psychosis. It is, however, relevant to note that the vast majority of children experiencing childhood maltreatment do not appear to develop psychotic experiences or psychotic disorder. Further research to determine the reasons for highly variable outcomes of child maltreatment is warranted. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights

  10. Identifying Potential Mediators and Moderators of the Association between Child Maltreatment and Bullying Perpetration and Victimization in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Allen-Meares, Paula

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of literature is demonstrating associations between childhood maltreatment and bullying involvement at school. In this literature review, four potential mediators (explanatory) and three potential moderators (mitigates or exacerbates) of the association between childhood maltreatment and school bullying are proposed. Mediators…

  11. Child Maltreatment, Adolescent Attachment Style, and Dating Violence: Considerations in Youths with Borderline-to-Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan A.; MacMullin, Jennifer; Waechter, Randall; Wekerle, Christine

    2011-01-01

    One of the most salient developmental tasks of adolescence is the entry into romantic relationship, which often involves developing attachments to partners. Adolescents with a history of maltreatment have been found to be at greater risk of insecure attachments to romantic partners than non-maltreated adolescents, and the interaction of…

  12. A Comparison of Willingness to Pay to Prevent Child Maltreatment Deaths in Ecuador and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Phaedra S.; Ingels, Justin B.; Roldos, M. Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Estimating the benefits of preventing child maltreatment (CM) is essential for policy makers to determine whether there are significant returns on investment from interventions to prevent CM. The aim of this study was to estimate the benefits of preventing CM deaths in an Ecuadorian population, and to compare the results to a similar study in a US population. The study used the contingent valuation method to elicit respondents’ willingness to pay (WTP) for a 1 in 100,000 reduction in the risk of CM mortality. After adjusting for differences in purchasing power, the WTP to prevent the CM mortality risk reduction in the Ecuador population was $237 and the WTP for the same risk reduction in the US population was $175. In the pooled analysis, WTP for a reduction in CM mortality was significantly impacted by country (p = 0.03), history of CM (p = 0.007), payment mechanism (p Ecuador, may be better served by developing their own benefits estimates for use in future benefit-cost analyses of interventions designed to prevent CM. PMID:23538730

  13. Coverage of child maltreatment in abnormal psychology textbooks: Reviewing the adequacy of the content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgus, Sam J; Packer, Mary M; Lile-King, Rachel; Miller-Perrin, Cindy L; Brand, Bethany L

    2016-03-01

    Abnormal psychology courses introduce undergraduate students to the range, causes, and treatments of psychological disorders. These courses present important opportunities to instruct students about disorders and treatments associated with childhood maltreatment (CM) as well as its prevalence. Little research has examined the adequacy with which abnormal psychology textbooks present information about CM. The present study reviewed the CM content of 10 abnormal psychology textbooks. The content was assessed in terms of the number of times CM was mentioned, the number of psychological disorders linked to CM, and the number of CM-related research citations. In addition, the authors conducted a content analysis to examine the significance, depth of detail, and organizational structure of the information provided within the sections of text addressing CM. There were significant differences in scores and the accuracy of coverage of CM across textbooks. Most of the textbooks lack key information on CM. The information presented in many textbooks is not consistent with current research and is overly focused on controversies. These findings are concerning because research has linked many psychological disorders and problematic outcomes to CM, but this information is not adequately conveyed to students via abnormal psychology textbooks. The authors make recommendations for improving the coverage of CM in abnormal psychology textbooks.

  14. Emotional but not physical maltreatment is independently related to psychopathology in subjects with various degrees of social anxiety: a web-based internet survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iffland Benjamin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies reported that social phobia is associated with a history of child maltreatment. However, most of these studies focused on physical and sexual maltreatment whilst little is known about the specific impact of emotional abuse and neglect on social anxiety. We examined the association between emotional maltreatment, including parental emotional maltreatment as well as emotional peer victimization, and social anxiety symptoms in subjects with various degrees of social anxiety. Methods The study was conducted as a web-based Internet survey of participants (N = 995 who had social anxiety symptoms falling within the high range, and including many respondents who had scores in the clinical range. The assessment included measures of child maltreatment, emotional peer victimization, social anxiety symptoms and general psychopathology. Results Regression and mediation analyses revealed that parental emotional maltreatment and emotional peer victimization were independently related to social anxiety and mediated the impact of physical and sexual maltreatment. Subjects with a history of childhood emotional maltreatment showed higher rates of psychopathology than subjects with a history of physical maltreatment. Conclusions Although our findings are limited by the use of an Internet survey and retrospective self-report measures, data indicated that social anxiety symptoms are mainly predicted by emotional rather than physical or sexual types of victimization.

  15. Reports of Child Abuse in India from Scientific Journals and Newspapers - An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nalini PR; Thirunavukarasu, MR; Dongre AR

    2014-01-01

    Background: Child abuse is a state of emotional, physical, economic and sexual maltreatment meted out to a person below the age of eighteen and is a globally prevalent phenomenon. A total of 33,098 cases of crimes against children were reported in India during 2011 as compared to 26,694 cases during 2010, suggesting a recent increase of 24 percent. Objectives: To explore the contents of the published articles/reports on child abuse in India from scientific journals and newspapers identifying ...

  16. Deployment Family Stress: Child Neglect and Maltreatment in U.S. Army Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    g use during pregnancy 1 2 3 38. other or unspecified medical neglect 1 2 3 FTP Dental = 304 details: 1 2 3 39. failure to receive routine...Children unplanned /unwanted 1. Yes 2. No C 171. Child medical problems 1. Yes 2. No p.5 VIII. 172. Children difficult or exceptional 1. Yes 2...218. Special needs child 219. Developmental challenges 220. Pregnancy 221. Stressful life events 222. History of abuse and/or injury ,223

  17. Family Maltreatment, Substance Problems, and Suicidality: Prevalence Surveillance and Ecological Risk/Protective Factors Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    secretive problems (family maltreatment , suicidality, and problematic alcohol /drug use) as 3 of the top 5 concerns. These problems are prevalent...algorithms:  Parent to Child Any Maltreatment  Any Substantiatable Family Maltreatment  Any Secretive Problem (1-17) KEY RESEARCH ACCOMPLISHMENTS...male emotional abuse, alcohol abuse, suicidal ideation, suicidal behavior, parent- child aggression, child physical abuse, child emotional abuse

  18. Prevalence and Determinants of Child Maltreatment among School-Going Adolescent Girls in a Semi-Urban Area of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daral, Shailaja; Khokhar, Anita; Pradhan, Shishir

    2016-06-01

    The study examines family characteristics that put adolescent girls at increased risk of abuse, mainly physical, sexual and emotional abuse and neglect. Stratified random sampling was done among classes 7th to 12th of government girls' schools of a semi-urban area of Delhi, and a total of 1060 adolescent girls participated. Majority were in mid-adolescence. Approximately 70% study subjects faced at least one form of maltreatment. Physical abuse was faced by 42.6%, sexual abuse by 26.6%, emotional abuse by 37.9% and neglect by 40.1% of study subjects. The most frequent perpetrator of physical and emotional abuse was mother, and of sexual abuse were friends, relatives or neighbours. No or low education of father increased odds of physical and emotional abuse, while odds of physical abuse and neglect were lower if mothers were housewives. Excessive arguments between parents and history of maltreatment in parents increased odds of child maltreatment in study subjects. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The role of children's appraisals on adjustment following psychological maltreatment: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, Fiona J; Nixon, Reginald D V

    2011-07-01

    Little is known about the cognitive mechanisms involved in the development of psychopathology following psychological maltreatment in children. This study therefore examined the role of thinking styles on children's outcomes following this subtype of maltreatment. Children who had experienced past maltreatment (n = 24) and a control group (n = 26) were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Maltreatment history, cognitive styles and psychological outcomes, such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and self-esteem were assessed. Parents/caregivers also completed a measure of child internalizing and externalizing behaviours. Psychological maltreatment made a significant contribution to children's self-reported depression and low self-esteem, and parent reported internalizing and externalizing problems, even after controlling for other abusive experiences. This was not the case for PTSD symptoms. Further, children's cognitive styles were associated with self-reported depression, self-esteem and PTSD. They did not, however, predict parent-rated emotional and behavioural problems. This study provides preliminary support for a cognitive model of adjustment following psychological maltreatment. The results indicate the need for enhanced community awareness about the impact of psychological maltreatment, and suggest a direction for therapeutic intervention.

  20. Automatic activation of alcohol cues by child maltreatment related words: a replication attempt in a different treatment setting

    OpenAIRE

    Potthast, Nadine; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Background A growing body of research attempts to clarify the underlying mechanisms of the association between emotional maltreatment and alcohol dependence (AD). In a preceding study, we found considerable support for a specific priming effect in subjects with AD and emotional abuse experiences receiving alcohol rehabilitation treatment. We concluded that maltreatment related cues can automatically activate an associative memory network comprising cues eliciting craving as well as alcoho...

  1. Differentiation, Self-Other Representations, and Rupture-Repair Processes: Predicting Child Maltreatment Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Kozlowski, JoEllen M.; Pincus, Aaron L.

    2010-01-01

    This set of studies was designed to examine the relational underpinnings of child abuse potential in a sample of 51 urban families. In Study 1, lower maternal differentiation of self--most notably, greater emotional reactivity and greater emotional cutoff--along with self-attacking introjects distinguished mothers at higher risk (vs. lower risk)…

  2. Promoting resilience in adults with experience of intimate partner violence or child maltreatment: a narrative synthesis of evidence across settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller-Saxone, Kristen; Davis, Elise; Stewart, Donna E; Diaz-Granados, Natalia; Herrman, Helen

    2015-03-01

    People who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) or child maltreatment (CM) are at risk of having lower resilience and adverse psychological outcomes. In keeping with the social and environmental factors that support resilience, there is a need to take a public health approach to its investigation and to identify existing initiatives in particular settings and populations that can guide its deliberate promotion. This narrative synthesis examines quantitative and qualitative studies of interventions with resilience-related outcomes in specified health and other settings. Clinical RCTs are excluded as beyond the scope of this review. Twenty studies were identified for review in several settings, consisting of 14 quantitative studies, 2 review studies, 2 qualitative studies and 2 mixed-methods studies. Three quantitative studies produced strong evidence to support: a home visitation program for at-risk mothers; a methadone program for women and a substance abuse program. This review reveals that few studies use specific resilience measures. The topic has been little studied despite high needs for public health interventions in countries of all types. Interventions and research studies that use specific resilience measures are likely to help measure and integrate what is currently a disparate area. The participation of people with IPV or CM history in program and research design and implementation is indicated to support advocacy, innovation and sustainable interventions. This is especially pertinent for interventions in LAMIC and indigenous settings where continuing programs are sorely needed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Child Welfare Outcomes Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — These annual reports to Congress are available on line at the Children's Bureau's website. They contain data from the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting...

  4. Quantity of documentation of maltreatment risk factors in injury-related paediatric hospitalisations

    OpenAIRE

    McKenzie Kirsten; Scott Debbie A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background While child maltreatment is recognised as a global problem, solid epidemiological data on the prevalence of child maltreatment and risk factors associated with child maltreatment is lacking in Australia and internationally. There have been recent calls for action to improve the evidence-base capturing and describing child abuse, particularly those data captured within the health sector. This paper describes the quantity of documentation of maltreatment risk factors in inju...

  5. Association between child maltreatment and constipation: a school-based survey using Rome III criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajindrajith, Shaman; Devanarayana, Niranga M; Lakmini, Chamila; Subasinghe, Vindya; de Silva, D G Harendra; Benninga, Marc A

    2014-04-01

    Child abuse leads to multiple physical and psychosomatic sequelae. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between child abuse and constipation among schoolchildren. Children 13 to 18 years of age were selected from 4 semiurban schools in Gampaha District, Sri Lanka. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Information regarding sociodemographic factors and gastrointestinal symptoms, child abuse, and somatisation were collected. Constipation was diagnosed using Rome III criteria. A total of 1792 children were included in the analysis (boys 975 [54.4%], mean age 14.4 years, standard deviation [SD] 1.3 years). One hundred thirty-eight (7.7%) fulfilled Rome III criteria for constipation. The number of children exposed to physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were, respectively, 438 (24.4%), 396 (22.1%), and 51 (2.8%). The prevalence of constipation was significantly higher in those exposed to sexual (5.8% vs 2.6% P = 0.03), emotional (40.9% vs 20.8%, P < 0.0001), and physical abuse (41.6% vs 23.2%, P < 0.0001). Mean somatisation score was higher in the total group of abused children with constipation (mean 18.6, SD 12.5) compared with those without (mean 13.9, SD 12.3; P = 0.027). Children with a history of abuse did not seek health care more often than children without this history. Patient-perceived severity of bowel symptoms was higher in children with physical abuse (23.7 vs 19.7 P = 0.001) and emotional abuse (25.4 vs 19.3 P < 0.0001). Childhood constipation shows a significant association with physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. Children with constipation complain of more somatic symptoms and bowel symptoms when they are exposed to abuse.

  6. Emotion Dysregulation and Academic Resilience in Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelble, Jenni L.; Franks, Bridget A.; Miller, M. David

    2010-01-01

    Maltreated children frequently experience academic difficulties. In the past, this has been attributed to placement instability, length of involvement with the child welfare system, and numerous other factors that disproportionately affect maltreated children. Maltreated children are also prone to emotion regulation (ER) difficulties and patterns…

  7. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Chronic Maltreatment on Children's Behavioral and Emotional Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, L.S.; Lemelin, J.P.; Lacharite, C.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present longitudinal study was to examine the links between chronicity of maltreatment and child behavioral and emotional problems. Method: Forty-nine maltreated children (32 victims of continuous, or chronic, maltreatment; 17 victims of transitory maltreatment) and their mothers were evaluated in their homes three times…

  8. Self-Reported Childhood Maltreatment and Traumatic Events among Israeli Patients Suffering from Fibromyalgia and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellou, Raneen; Brenner, Inbal; Buskila, Dan; Jacob, Giris; Elkayam, Ori; Aloush, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The association between Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) and childhood maltreatment and adversity has frequently been proposed but limited data exists regarding the transcultural nature of this association. Methods. 75 Israeli FMS patients and 23 Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients were compared. Childhood maltreatment was assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and potential depressive and anxiety disorders were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-4. FMS severity was assessed by the Widespread Pain Index (WPI), the Symptom Severity Score (SSS), and the FIQ. PTSD was diagnosed according to the DSM IV. RA severity was assessed by the RA Disease Activity Index. Health status was assessed by the SF-36. Results. Similar to reports in other countries, high levels of self-reported childhood adversity were reported by Israeli FMS patients. PTSD was significantly more common among FMS patients compared with RA patients, as well as childhood emotional abuse and physical and emotional neglect. Levels of depression and anxiety were significantly higher among FMS patients. Conclusion. The study demonstrated the cross cultural association between FMS and childhood maltreatment, including neglect, emotional abuse, and PTSD. Significant differences were demonstrated between FMS patients and patients suffering from RA, a model of an inflammatory chronic rheumatic disease. PMID:28167861

  9. Childhood maltreatment and post-traumatic stress disorder among incarcerated young offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Elizabeth; Gaskin, Claire; Indig, Devon

    2013-10-01

    Young offenders have a high prevalence of mental illness and a large proportion report experiencing a number of traumatic events during childhood, but there is little research exploring this association. This study describes the prevalence of, and association between, child maltreatment and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among young offenders. The study uses data collected as part of the 2009 NSW Young People in Custody Health Survey which was conducted in nine juvenile detention centers. This paper reports on findings from the baseline questionnaires and 18-months of re-offending data. The analysis included 291 participants who were assessed for PTSD and child maltreatment. The sample was 88% male, 48% Aboriginal, with an average age of 17 years (range 13-21 years). One in five (20%) participants were diagnosed with PTSD, with females significantly more likely to have PTSD than males (40% vs. 17%, pyoung offenders reported any child abuse or neglect, with females nearly 10 times more likely to report three or more kinds of severe child maltreatment than males. The main correlate for a diagnosis of PTSD was having three or more kinds of severe child maltreatment (OR=6.73, 95% CI: 1.06-42.92). This study provides evidence for the need to comprehensively assess child abuse and neglect among young offenders in order to provide appropriate treatment in custody and post-release.

  10. Interrelations of maternal expressed emotion, maltreatment, and separation/divorce and links to family conflict and children's externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Angela; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Toth, Sheree L

    2015-02-01

    Research has documented that maternal expressed emotion-criticism (EE-Crit) from the Five-Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) predicts family conflict and children's externalizing behavior in clinical and community samples. However, studies have not examined EE-Crit in maltreating or separated/divorced families, or whether these family risks exacerbate the links between EE-Crit and family conflict and externalizing behavior. The current study examined the associations between maternal EE-Crit, maltreatment, and separation/divorce, and whether maltreatment and separation/divorce moderated associations between EE-Crit and children's externalizing problems, and EE-Crit and family conflict. Participants included 123 children (M = 8.01 years, SD = 1.58; 64.2 % males) from maltreating (n = 83) or low-income, comparison (n = 40) families, and 123 mothers (n = 48 separated/divorced). Mothers completed the FMSS for EE-Crit and the Family Environment Scale for family conflict. Maltreatment was coded with the Maltreatment Classification System using information from official Child Protection Services (CPS) reports from the Department of Human Services (DHS). Trained summer camp counselors rated children's externalizing behavior. Maltreatment was directly associated with higher externalizing problems, and separation/divorce, but not maltreatment, moderated the association between EE-Crit and externalizing behavior. Analyses pertaining to family conflict were not significant. Findings indicate that maltreatment is a direct risk factor for children's externalizing behavior and separation/divorce is a vulnerability factor for externalizing behavior in family contexts with high maternal EE-Crit. Intervention, prevention, and policy efforts to promote resilience in high-risk families may be effective in targeting maltreating and critical parents, especially those with co-occurring separation/divorce. Key Words: expressed emotion, EE-Crit, Five-Minute Speech Sample; maltreatment, divorce

  11. Conceptualizing juvenile prostitution as child maltreatment: findings from the National Juvenile Prostitution Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Finkelhor, David; Wolak, Janis

    2010-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to identify the incidence (Study 1) and characteristics (Study 2) of juvenile prostitution cases known to law enforcement agencies in the United States. Study 1 revealed a national estimate of 1,450 arrests or detentions (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1,287-1,614) in cases involving juvenile prostitution during a 1-year period. In Study 2, exploratory data were collected from a subsample of 138 cases from police records in 2005. The cases are broadly categorized into three main types: (a) third-party exploiters, (b) solo prostitution, and (c) conventional child sexual abuse (CSA) with payment. Cases were classified into three initial categories based on police orientation toward the juvenile: (a) juveniles as victims (53%), (b) juveniles as delinquents (31%), and (c) juvenile as both victims and delinquents (16%). When examining the status of the juveniles by case type, the authors found that all the juveniles in CSA with payment cases were treated as victims, 66% in third-party exploiters cases, and 11% in solo cases. Findings indicate law enforcement responses to juvenile prostitution are influential in determining whether such youth are viewed as victims of commercial sexual exploitation or as delinquents.

  12. Dynamic adaptation process to implement an evidence-based child maltreatment intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarons Gregory A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adaptations are often made to evidence-based practices (EBPs by systems, organizations, and/or service providers in the implementation process. The degree to which core elements of an EBP can be maintained while allowing for local adaptation is unclear. In addition, adaptations may also be needed at the system, policy, or organizational levels to facilitate EBP implementation and sustainment. This paper describes a study of the feasibility and acceptability of an implementation approach, the Dynamic Adaptation Process (DAP, designed to allow for EBP adaptation and system and organizational adaptations in a planned and considered, rather than ad hoc, way. The DAP involves identifying core elements and adaptable characteristics of an EBP, then supporting implementation with specific training on allowable adaptations to the model, fidelity monitoring and support, and identifying the need for and solutions to system and organizational adaptations. In addition, this study addresses a secondary concern, that of improving EBP model fidelity assessment and feedback in real-world settings. Methods This project examines the feasibility, acceptability, and utility of the DAP; tests the degree to which fidelity can be maintained using the DAP compared to implementation as usual (IAU; and examines the feasibility of using automated phone or internet-enabled, computer-based technology to assess intervention fidelity and client satisfaction. The study design incorporates mixed methods in order to describe processes and factors associated with variations in both how the DAP itself is implemented and how the DAP impacts fidelity, drift, and adaptation. The DAP model is to be examined by assigning six regions in California (USA to either the DAP (n = 3 or IAU (n = 3 to implement an EBP to prevent child neglect. Discussion The DAP represents a data-informed, collaborative, multiple stakeholder approach to maintain intervention fidelity

  13. A national study on the prevalence of child abuse and neglect in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooij, Inger W; Nieuwendam, Josta; Bipat, Shandra; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J L; Graafsma, Tobi L G

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of child maltreatment in Suriname has never been subjected to a reliable assessment. The only data available include rough estimates of a range of internationally comparable indicators extrapolated from child protection and police corps statistics for offenses against children. This study aimed to provide a reliable estimate of the prevalence of all forms of child maltreatment in Suriname. One thousand three hundred and ninety-one (1,391) adolescents and young adults of different ethnicities completed a questionnaire about child maltreatment. The study sample, obtained by random probability sampling, consisted of students (ages 12 through 22) from five districts in Suriname. A significant proportion of Surinamese children experienced maltreatment. In total, 86.8% of adolescents and 95.8% of young adults reported having been exposed to at least one form of child maltreatment during their lives. Among the adolescents, 57.1% were exposed to child maltreatment in the past year. When the definition of the National Incidence Study was applied, 58.2% of adolescents and 68.8% of young adults had been exposed to at least one form of maltreatment. Among adolescents, 36.8% reported having experienced at least one form of maltreatment in the past year. The results indicate the (extremely) high lifetime and year prevalence of child maltreatment in Suriname. The serious and often lifelong consequences of such maltreatment indicate that a national approach to child abuse and neglect, including the development of a national strategic plan, a national surveillance system and changes to the state's programmatic and policy response, is urgently needed.

  14. Child abuse, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri M.T. Lubis

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is a pervasive social and medical problem that remains a major cause of disability and death among children. The annual incidence of abuse is estimated to be 15 to 42 cases per 1,000 children and appears to be increasing. Fractures are the second most common presentation of physical abuse after skin lesions, and approximately one third of abused children will eventually be seen by an orthopedic surgeon. We report a 7-month-old boy who was suspected to be abused. Our diagnosis was based on findings of multiple fractures, delay in seeking medical treatment and discrepancy between the history of illness and the clinical findings. He sustained multiple fractures in variety of healing, namely fractures on left supracondylar humeri, left radius and ulna, right radius and ulna, both femora, right tibia, and left tibia and fibula. Radiological examination was an important modality in revealing the possibility of abuse on this child. He had received medical treatment, protection, consultation team for the parents and an underway police investigation. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 59-65 Keywords: child, abuse

  15. Childhood maltreatment and threats with weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiano, Hygiea; Mota, Natalie; Afifi, Tracie O; Enns, Murray W; Sareen, Jitender

    2009-11-01

    The relationship between childhood maltreatment and future threats with weapons is unknown. We examined data from the nationally representative National Comorbidity Survey Replication (n = 5692) and conducted multiple logistic regression analyses to determine the association between childhood maltreatment and lifetime behavior of threatening others with a gun or other weapon. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and witnessing domestic violence were significantly associated with threats made with a gun (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] ranging between 3.38 and 4.07) and other weapons (AOR ranging between 2.16 and 2.83). The greater the number of types of maltreatment experienced, the stronger the association with lifetime threats made to others with guns and any weapons. Over 94% of respondents who experienced maltreatment and made threats reported that the maltreatment occurred prior to threatening others with weapons. Prevention efforts that reduce exposure to maltreatment may reduce violent behavior in later life.

  16. Early Intervention and Maltreated Children: A Current Look at the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and Part C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…

  17. Early Intervention and Maltreated Children: A Current Look at the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and Part C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…

  18. The relation of child maltreatment to shame and guilt among adolescents: psychological routes to depression and delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuewig, Jeffrey; McCloskey, Laura A

    2005-11-01

    In a longitudinal study of children followed for 8 years into adolescence, the authors investigated how different forms of maltreatment (i.e., harsh parenting, sexual abuse, witnessing domestic violence) in childhood and parenting during adolescence influenced adolescents' shame- and guilt-proneness. Furthermore, the authors examined whether diminished feelings of guilt or heightened feelings of shame were related to delinquent behavior or depression in late adolescence. Results showed that whereas harsh parenting in childhood was related to shame proneness in adolescence, this relationship was mediated by parental rejection in adolescence. Findings confirmed that youth with rejecting parents were more shame-prone and less guilt-prone than other youth. Furthermore, shame-proneness was associated with higher depression when measured 2 years later and guilt-proneness was linked to less delinquent behavior. Results suggest that, as mediators, shame and guilt may provide useful focal points for intervention and prevention efforts in reducing adolescent depression and delinquency.

  19. Trends in Child Poverty in Sweden: Parental and Child Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mood, Carina; Jonsson, Jan O

    We use several family-based indicators of household poverty as well as child-reported economic resources and problems to unravel child poverty trends in Sweden. Our results show that absolute (bread-line) household income poverty, as well as economic deprivation, increased with the recession 1991-96, then reduced and has remained largely unchanged since 2006. Relative income poverty has however increased since the mid-1990s. When we measure child poverty by young people's own reports, we find few trends between 2000 and 2011. The material conditions appear to have improved and relative poverty has changed very little if at all, contrasting the development of household relative poverty. This contradictory pattern may be a consequence of poor parents distributing relatively more of the household income to their children in times of economic duress, but future studies should scrutinze potentially delayed negative consequences as poor children are lagging behind their non-poor peers. Our methodological conclusion is that although parental and child reports are partly substitutable, they are also complementary, and the simultaneous reporting of different measures is crucial to get a full understanding of trends in child poverty.

  20. Interrelations of Maternal Expressed Emotion, Maltreatment, and Separation/Divorce and Links to Family Conflict and Children’s Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Angela; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.

    2014-01-01

    Research has documented that maternal expressed emotion-criticism (EE-Crit) from the Five-Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) predicts family conflict and children’s externalizing behavior in clinical and community samples. However, studies have not examined EE-Crit in maltreating or separated/divorced families, or whether these family risks exacerbate the links between EE-Crit and family conflict and externalizing behavior. The current study examined the associations between maternal EE-Crit, maltreatment, and separation/divorce, and whether maltreatment and separation/divorce moderated associations between EE-Crit and children’s externalizing problems, and EE-Crit and family conflict. Participants included 123 children (M = 8.01 years, SD = 1.58; 64.2% males) from maltreating (n = 83) or low-income, comparison (n = 40) families, and 123 mothers (n = 48 separated/divorced). Mothers completed the FMSS for EE-Crit and the Family Environment Scale for family conflict. Maltreatment was coded with the Maltreatment Classification System using information from official Child Protection Services (CPS) reports from the Department of Human Services (DHS). Trained summer camp counselors rated children’s externalizing behavior. Maltreatment was directly associated with higher externalizing problems, and separation/divorce, but not maltreatment, moderated the association between EE-Crit and externalizing behavior. Analyses pertaining to family conflict were not significant. Findings indicate that maltreatment is a direct risk factor for children’s externalizing behavior and separation/divorce is a vulnerability factor for externalizing behavior in family contexts with high maternal EE-Crit. Intervention, prevention, and policy efforts to promote resilience in high-risk families may be effective in targeting maltreating and critical parents, especially those with co-occurring separation/divorce. PMID:25037461

  1. Emotion Regulation Predicts Attention Bias in Maltreated Children At-Risk for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romens, Sarah E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Child maltreatment is associated with heightened risk for depression; however, not all individuals who experience maltreatment develop depression. Previous research indicates that maltreatment contributes to an attention bias for emotional cues, and that depressed individuals show attention bias for sad cues. Method: The present study…

  2. Linking childhood maltreatment and psychological symptoms in a Portuguese community sample : the hurtful potential of emotional abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dos Santos Dias, Aida; Sales, L.; van Hessen, D.J.; Kleber, Rolf

    Child maltreatment (CM) is associated with poor long-term health outcomes. However, knowledge about CM prevalence and related consequences is scarce among adults in South European countries. We examined the self-reported prevalence of five different forms of CM in a community sample of 1,200

  3. Linking childhood maltreatment and psychological symptoms in a Portuguese community sample : the hurtful potential of emotional abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dos Santos Dias, Aida; Sales, L.; van Hessen, D.J.; Kleber, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is associated with poor long-term health outcomes. However, knowledge about CM prevalence and related consequences is scarce among adults in South European countries. We examined the self-reported prevalence of five different forms of CM in a community sample of 1,200 Portugu

  4. Childhood maltreatment and the medical morbidity in bipolar disorder: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosang, Georgina M; Fisher, Helen L; Uher, Rudolf; Cohen-Woods, Sarah; Maughan, Barbara; McGuffin, Peter; Farmer, Anne E

    2017-09-07

    Childhood maltreatment (abuse and neglect) can have long-term deleterious consequences, including increased risk for medical and psychiatric illnesses, such as bipolar disorder in adulthood. Emerging evidence suggests that a history of childhood maltreatment is linked to the comorbidity between medical illnesses and mood disorders. However, existing studies on bipolar disorder have not yet explored the specific influence of child neglect and have not included comparisons with individuals without mood disorders (controls). This study aimed to extend the existing literature by examining the differential influence of child abuse and child neglect on medical morbidity in a sample of bipolar cases and controls. The study included 72 participants with bipolar disorder and 354 psychiatrically healthy controls (average age of both groups was 48 years), who completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and were interviewed regarding various medical disorders. A history of any type of childhood maltreatment was significantly associated with a diagnosis of any medical illness (adjusted OR = 6.28, 95% confidence intervals 1.70-23.12, p = 0.006) and an increased number of medical illnesses (adjusted OR = 3.77, 95% confidence intervals 1.34-10.57, p = 0.012) among adults with bipolar disorder. Exposure to child abuse was more strongly associated with medical disorders than child neglect. No association between childhood maltreatment and medical morbidity was detected among controls. To summarise, individuals with bipolar disorder who reported experiencing maltreatment during childhood, especially abuse, were at increased risk of suffering from medical illnesses and warrant greater clinical attention.

  5. The Utility and Challenges of Using ICD Codes in Child Maltreatment Research: A Review of Existing Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Debbie; Tonmyr, Lil; Fraser, Jenny; Walker, Sue; McKenzie, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of this article are to explore the extent to which the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) has been used in child abuse research, to describe how the ICD system has been applied, and to assess factors affecting the reliability of ICD coded data in child abuse research.…

  6. Priorities for research in child maltreatment, intimate partner violence and resilience to violence exposures: results of an international Delphi consensus development process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathen, C Nadine; MacGregor, Jennifer C D; Hammerton, Joanne; Coben, Jeffrey H; Herrman, Helen; Stewart, Donna E; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2012-08-21

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment (CM) are major global public health problems. The Preventing Violence Across the Lifespan (PreVAiL) Research Network, an international group of over 60 researchers and national and international knowledge-user partners in CM and IPV, sought to identify evidence-based research priorities in IPV and CM, with a focus on resilience, using a modified Delphi consensus development process. Review of existing empirical evidence, PreVAiL documents and team discussion identified a starting list of 20 priorities in the following categories: resilience to violence exposure (RES), CM, and IPV, as well as priorities that cross-cut the content areas (CC), and others specific to research methodologies (RM) in violence research. PreVAiL members (N = 47) completed two online survey rounds, and one round of discussions via three teleconference calls to rate, rank and refine research priorities. Research priorities were: to examine key elements of promising or successful programmes in RES/CM/IPV to build intervention pilot work; CC: to integrate violence questions into national and international surveys, and RM: to investigate methods for collecting and collating datasets to link data and to conduct pooled, meta and sub-group analyses to identify promising interventions for particular groups. These evidence-based research priorities, developed by an international team of violence, gender and mental health researchers and knowledge-user partners, are of relevance for prevention and resilience-oriented research in the areas of IPV and CM.

  7. Improving care quality and preventing maltreatment in institutional care – a feasibility study with caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharin eHermenau

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Institutionalized children in low-income countries often face maltreatment and inadequate caregiving. In addition to prior traumatization and other childhood adversities in the family of origin, abuse and neglect in institutional care are linked to various mental health problems. By providing a manualized training workshop for caregivers, we aimed at improving care quality and preventing maltreatment in institutional care. In Study 1, 29 participating caregivers rated feasibility and efficacy of the training immediately before, directly after, and three months following the training workshop. The results showed high demand, good feasibility, high motivation and acceptance of caregivers. They reported improvements in caregiver-child relationships, as well as in the children’s behavior. Study 2 assessed exposure to maltreatment and the mental health of 28 orphans living in one institution in which all caregivers had been trained. The children were interviewed 20 months before, one month before, and three months after the training. Children reported a decrease in physical maltreatment and assessments showed a decrease in mental health problems. Our approach seems feasible under challenging circumstances and provides first hints for its efficacy. These promising findings call for further studies testing the efficacy and sustainability of this maltreatment prevention approach.

  8. Child abuse and neglect: relations to adolescent binge drinking in the national longitudinal study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Edwards, Erika M; Heeren, Timothy

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between child maltreatment and adolescent binge drinking. Given that many victimized children have been maltreated in multiple ways, we examine the effects of co-occurrence of multiple types of maltreatment on adolescent binge drinking. We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth), which included a nationally representative sample of adolescents (n=12,748). Adolescent binge drinking was defined as five or more drinks in a row at least 2-3 times per month in the past year. Among those reporting any maltreatment, 12.4% reported binge drinking compared to 9.9% among those reporting no maltreatment. Logistic regression models found that child maltreatment is a robust risk factor for adolescent binge drinking controlling for parental alcoholism. In particular, all types of or combinations of types of maltreatment were strongly associated with adolescent binge drinking, controlling for age, gender, race, parental alcoholism and monitoring. Research examining the effect of childhood maltreatment on later alcohol abuse needs to recognize the clustering effects of multiple types of childhood maltreatment on alcohol problems.

  9. Teaching Strategies for Maltreated Children with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Because of the great amount of child maltreatment within the last decade in America, teachers are likely to have some of the children who are victims of abuse and neglect in the inclusive classes. It is important for educators to be informed about the negative effects of maltreatment on academic competence, which can exacerbate existing learning…

  10. Predictors of Resilience in Maltreated and Nonmaltreated Latino Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Elisa; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2005-01-01

    To date, few studies have sought to investigate the effects of child maltreatment and processes influencing maladaptation and resilience in Latino children. In the current investigation, multiple aspects of functioning, personal resources, and relationship features were examined in school-age maltreated and nonmaltreated Latino children.…

  11. El dibujo y la simbolización en algunos casos de maltrato infantil. // Drawing and symbolization in some cases of child maltreatment. A psychoanalytical look

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Uribe Aramburo.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article makes part of a research carried out within the framework of the Master in Psychoanalytical Research, which comes up from the analysis of clinical material obtained from psychotherapeutic work developed during more than three years with children coming to a psychology service of a non-profit institution located in one of Medellin's communes, mainly because of problems related to child maltreatment. In order to obtain such analysis material, we started from the psychoanalytical thesis of psychic determinism and the neutrality of the therapist. For that reason we invited some kids to draw and associate freely, expecting what they showed would be related to their maltreatment experiences. Consequently, the methodology used consisted not only in handing over to children but in leading them to use drawing. // Este artículo es parte de una investigación llevada a cabo en el marco de la Maestría en Investigación psicoanalítica, que surge del análisis del material clínico obtenido en el trabajo psicoterapéutico realizado por más de tres años con población infantil que acudía a un servicio de psicología de una institución sin ánimo de lucro ubicada en una de las comunas de la ciudad de Medellín, principalmente por problemáticas asociadas al maltrato infantil. Para obtener dicho material de análisis partimos de las tesis psicoanalíticas del determinismo psíquico y la neutralidad del terapeuta, razón por la cual invitamos a los niños a dibujar y asociar libremente con la expectativa que de que aquello que exteriorizaran tendría una relación con sus vivencias de maltrato. En consecuencia, la metodología utilizada no sólo consistió en darles la palabra a los niños, sino que también implicó inducirlos a usar el dibujo.

  12. Investigating the effect of child maltreatment on early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression: testing a multiple mediator model in a non-incarcerated sample of Danish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Holm Bramsen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between child maltreatment and severe early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression, using a multiple mediator model. Methods: The study comprised 330 male Grade 9 students with a mean age of 14.9 years (SD=0.5. Results: Estimates from the mediation model indicated significant indirect effects of child physical abuse on sexual aggression via peer influence and insecure-hostile masculinity. No significant total effect of child sexual abuse and child neglect on sexual aggression was found. Conclusions: Findings of the present study identify risk factors that are potentially changeable and therefore of value in informing the design of prevention programs aiming at early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression in at-risk youth.

  13. Perinatal Factors Associated with Infant Maltreatment

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    Takeo Fujiwara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between birth outcomes and child maltreatment remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to test whether infants without congenital or chronic disease who are low birth weight (LBW, preterm, or small for gestational age (SGA are at an increased risk of being maltreated.Methods: A hospital-based case-control study of infants without congenital or chronic diseases who visited the National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, between April 1, 2002 and March 31, 2005 was conducted. Cases (N = 35 and controls (N = 29 were compared on mean birth weight, gestational age, and z-score of birth weight.Results: SGA was significantly associated with infant maltreatment after adjusting for other risk factors (adjusted odds ratio: 4.45, 95% CI: 1.29–15.3. LBW and preterm births were not associated with infant maltreatment.Conclusion: Infants born as SGA are 4.5 times more at risk of maltreatment, even if they do not have a congenital or chronic disease. This may be because SGA infants tend to have poorer neurological development which leads them to be hard-to-soothe and places them at risk for maltreatment.

  14. Child Abuse: Focus on a Team Approach for School Teachers and Counsellors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akande, A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a selective review of child abuse and emphasizes the need for standard procedures for referral, medical provisions, and legal reporting. Based on review of issues of establishing the dimensions of child maltreatment, offers recommendations for integrating critical issues for the present and future development of child abuse into practica…

  15. Caregiver reports of serious injuries in children who remain at home after a child protective services investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Janet U; Leslie, Laurel K; Hurlburt, Michael S; Zhang, Jinjin; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2012-02-01

    The study objectives were to examine serious injuries requiring medical attention among children who remain at home after a child welfare/child protective services (CPS) maltreatment investigation in the US and to determine whether child/caregiver characteristics and ongoing CPS involvement are related to injuries requiring medical attention. Using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being, we analyzed data on the subsample of children who remained at home (N = 3,440). A multivariate logistic regression model included child characteristics, chronic illness and disability in the child, level of CPS involvement, subsequent foster care placement, caregiver characteristics, and caregiver/family psychological variables. Injuries requiring medical attention were identified in 10.6% of the in-home population over a 15-month period, with no differences in rates by age. Children with a chronic medical condition (OR = 2.07; 95% CI, 1.20-3.58) and children with depressed caregivers (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 1.45-3.58) were more likely to have an injury that required medical care. Older caregivers (>54 years) were less likely (OR = 0.15; 95% CI, 0.03-0.69) to have a child with an injury requiring care. Injuries were not related to further involvement with CPS after the initial maltreatment investigation. Children with chronic medical conditions who remained in their biological homes or whose caregivers were depressed were likely to experience an injury requiring medical attention. Older caregivers were less likely to report a child injury. Extending existing health policies for foster children to children who remain at home following referral to CPS may encourage more comprehensive injury prevention for this population.

  16. What parental characteristics can predict child maltreatment at the Emergency Department? Considering expansion of the Hague Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diderich, H.M.; Dechesne, M.; Fekkes, M.; Verkerk, P.H.; Buitendijk, S.E.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The Hague Protocol considers three parental characteristics of Emergency Department adult patients to identify child abuse: (a) domestic violence, (b) intoxication, and (c) suicide attempt or auto mutilation. This study investigated whether additional parental characteristics could be included to im

  17. What parental characteristics can predict child maltreatment at the Emergency Department? Considering expansion of the Hague Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diderich, H.M.; Dechesne, M.; Fekkes, M.; Verkerk, P.H.; Buitendijk, S.E.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The Hague Protocol considers three parental characteristics of Emergency Department adult patients to identify child abuse: (a) domestic violence, (b) intoxication, and (c) suicide attempt or auto mutilation. This study investigated whether additional parental characteristics could be included to im

  18. Working Children: A Report on Child Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    This report explains the applicability of the Fair Labor Standards Act to child labor. Statistics are provided on violations which occurred during fiscal year 1970, and individual cases are described. This document is a revision of ED 048 498. (BH)

  19. Self-Reported Childhood Maltreatment and Traumatic Events among Israeli Patients Suffering from Fibromyalgia and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hellou, Raneen; Häuser, Winfried; Brenner, Inbal; Buskila, Dan; Jacob, Giris; Elkayam, Ori; Aloush, Valerie; Ablin, Jacob N

    2017-01-01

      Objective. The association between Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) and childhood maltreatment and adversity has frequently been proposed but limited data exists regarding the transcultural nature of this association. Methods...

  20. Intervention Strategies for School Counselors in Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Kathleen

    School counselors and school personnel have a vital role in three areas of suspected child abuse and neglect: (1) as frontline professionals in the process of identification; (2) as persons required to report suspected abuse or neglect; and (3) as contributors to the treatment process. Signs of child maltreatment are described with reference to…

  1. Adult mental health consequences of peer bullying and maltreatment in childhood: two cohorts in two countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Copeland, William E; Costello, E Jane; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-06-01

    The adult mental health consequences of childhood maltreatment are well documented. Maltreatment by peers (ie, bullying) has also been shown to have long-term adverse effects. We aimed to determine whether these effects are just due to being exposed to both maltreatment and bullying or whether bullying has a unique effect. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in the UK (ALSPAC) and the Great Smoky Mountains Study in the USA (GSMS) longitudinal studies. In ALSPAC, maltreatment was assessed as physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, or severe maladaptive parenting (or both) between ages 8 weeks and 8·6 years, as reported by the mother in questionnaires, and being bullied was assessed with child reports at 8, 10, and 13 years using the previously validated Bullying and Friendship Interview Schedule. In GSMS, both maltreatment and bullying were repeatedly assessed with annual parent and child interviews between ages 9 and 16 years. To identify the association between maltreatment, being bullied, and mental health problems, binary logistic regression analyses were run. The primary outcome variable was overall mental health problem (any anxiety, depression, or self-harm or suicidality). 4026 children from the ALSPAC cohort and 1420 children from the GSMS cohort provided information about bullying victimisation, maltreatment, and overall mental health problems. The ALSPAC study started in 1991 and the GSMS cohort enrolled participants from 1993. Compared with children who were not maltreated or bullied, children who were only maltreated were at increased risk for depression in young adulthood in models adjusted for sex and family hardships according to the GSMS cohort (odds ratio [OR] 4·1, 95% CI 1·5-11·7). According to the ALSPAC cohort, those who were only being maltreated were not at increased risk for any mental health problem compared with children who were not maltreated or bullied. By contrast, those who were both maltreated and

  2. Estrategias de Autocuidado en Equipos Profesionales que Trabajan en Maltrato Infantil Self care Strategies in Professional Teams That Work in Child Maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Isabel Santana

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Trabajar profesionalmente en maltrato infantil, implica asumir múltiples impactos, asociados a la temática y a la organización de la tarea. Esto ha llevado a crear Estrategias de Autocuidado para enfrentar esta situación. El objeto del estudio fue identificar las estrategias de los profesionales, a nivel individual y de equipo, y conocer la percepción de efectividad de éstas. Se utilizó una metodología cualitativa. La muestra de este estudio estuvo conformada por equipos interdisciplinarios y profesionales. Se utilizaron entrevistas y el análisis de los datos se realizó según la Grounded Theory. Los participantes han desarrollado las siguientes estrategias: individuales extra-laborales y laborales; de equipo, recreativas y laborales. En la percepción de efectividad, éstas se reconocen efectivas en su mayoría. Aún cuando la percepción de ineficacia se sustenta en la autocrítica de éstas.Working professionally in child maltreatment, implies to assume multiple impacts, associate to the thematic and the organization of the task. This implies the creation of Self-care Strategies to face this situation. The aim of this study was to identify the strategies of professionals of this area, at individual and team level, and to investigate the perception of effectiveness of these. A qualitative methodology was used. The participants were professional teams. Interviews were used and the analysis of the data was carried out according to the Grounded Theory. They have developed the following strategies: individual extra-labor and labor strategies; team, recreational and labor strategies. Most of the strategies used are perceived as effective. However, the perception of inefficiency of these strategies is supported in the self-criticism of those.

  3. Integrating Substance Abuse Treatment and Child Welfare Services: Findings from the Illinois Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Waiver Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Marsh, Jeanne C.; Testa, Mark F.; Louderman, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug abuse is a major problem for children and families involved with public child welfare. Substance abuse compromises appropriate parenting practices and increases the risk of child maltreatment. A substantial proportion of substantiated child abuse and neglect reports involve parental substance abuse. Once in the system,…

  4. Evaluación psicológica del maltrato en la infancia Psychological assessment of child maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Antequera Jurado

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se ofrece una visión genérica de las características y los principales objetivos de la evaluación psicológica en el ámbito del maltrato en la infancia. Concretamente se examinan las técnicas utilizadas para la evaluación de los distintos tipos de maltrato, de las figuras parentales y las relaciones que se establecen entre padres e hijos, la evaluación del niño (analizando las técnicas destinadas a la evaluación de la sugestionabilidad y la veracidad del testimonio y de los aspectos ambientales y sociales.In this paper, we offer a generic approach of the characteristics and the main goals of the psychological assessment in the field of child abuse. Specifically, we examine the techniques used for the evaluation of the different child abuse types, the parental figures and the relationship established between parents and children, child evaluation (analyzing the techniques addressed to the evaluation of suggestion capacity and the truthfulness of testimony and the environmental and social aspects.

  5. Reports of Child Abuse in India from Scientific Journals and Newspapers - An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini PR

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child abuse is a state of emotional, physical, economic and sexual maltreatment meted out to a person below the age of eighteen and is a globally prevalent phenomenon. A total of 33,098 cases of crimes against children were reported in India during 2011 as compared to 26,694 cases during 2010, suggesting a recent increase of 24 percent. Objectives: To explore the contents of the published articles/reports on child abuse in India from scientific journals and newspapers identifying areas and gaps for further research and program development. Material and Methods: Published articles in scientific journals during the years 2007-2012 with free access and online versions of English newspapers (2007-2012 in India were searched using the search engines such as ‘PubMed’ and ‘Google’. The key words used were ‘child abuse in (on, about India. First two researchers independently reviewed the content of articles/newspaper reports and decided the categories emerging from the articles and reports. Later on, the quantification of these categories was done by identifying the number of times it was reported in the reports. Results: The nature and extent of reporting child abuse in scientific journal is different from that of newspapers. In Journals, our search provided us with 9 articles, of which prevalence studies were predominant (4 followed by case reports (3 and Knowledge, Attitude, Practice studies (2. The studies were mostly conducted in the hospital setting. We obtained 38 reports from newspapers. Child abuse was found more among girls. Among type of abuse, sexual abuse was more common (84.2%. About 52.6% of the abusers were members known to the victim. The maximum cases were reported from West India especially in Goa, followed by South region. Most reports reported legal action on accused. Little was reported on what happened to a victim, indicators of abuse and settings of the abuse. The motives and consequences of the abuses were

  6. The impact of childhood maltreatment: A review of neurobiological and genetic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamon eMcCrory

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment represents a significant risk factor for psychopathology. Recent research has begun to examine both the functional and structural neurobiological correlates of adverse care-giving experiences, including maltreatment, and how these might impact on a child's psychological and emotional development. The relationship between such experiences and risk for psychopathology has been shown to vary as a function of genetic factors. In this review we begin by providing a brief overview of neuroendocrine findings, which indicate an association between maltreatment and atypical development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress response, which may predispose to psychiatric vulnerability in adulthood. We then selectively review the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies that have investigated possible structural and functional brain differences in children and adults who have experienced childhood maltreatment. Differences in the corpus callosum identified by structural MRI have now been reliably reported in children who have experienced abuse, while differences in the hippocampus have been reported in adults with childhood histories of maltreatment. In addition, there is preliminary evidence from functional MRI studies of adults who have experienced childhood maltreatment of amygdala hyperactivity and atypical activation of frontal regions. These functional differences can be partly understood in the context of the information biases observed in event-related potential and behavioural studies of physically abused children. Finally we consider research that has indicated that the effect of environmental adversity may be moderated by genotype, reviewing pertinent studies pointing to gene by environment (GxE interactions. We conclude by exploring the extent to which the growing evidence base in relation to neurobiological and genetic research may be relevant to clinical practice and intervention.

  7. Suicidality among preadolescent maltreated children in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taussig, Heather N; Harpin, Scott B; Maguire, Sabine A

    2014-02-01

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts among 515 preadolescent (aged 9-11 years) maltreated children who entered foster care within the prior year. Over a quarter (26.4%) of the children had a history of suicidality according to their own and/or their caregiver's report, 4.1% of whom were imminently suicidal. In bivariate analyses, children at higher risk of suicidality tended to be younger, non-Hispanic, abused, and to have experienced multiple types of maltreatment, more referrals to child welfare, more household transitions, and a longer length of time in foster care. There were no gender differences. Multiple regression analyses found physical abuse and chronicity of maltreatment to be the most robust predictors of suicidality. It is critically important that these high-risk children are screened for suicidality before adolescence and that caregivers and professionals are informed of their risk status so that they may implement mental health treatment, monitoring, and harm reduction measures.

  8. A multilevel prediction of physiological response to challenge: Interactions among child maltreatment, neighborhood crime, endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (eNOS), and GABA(A) receptor subunit alpha-6 gene (GABRA6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael; Manly, Jody Todd; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-11-01

    Physiological response to stress has been linked to a variety of healthy and pathological conditions. The current study conducted a multilevel examination of interactions among environmental toxins (i.e., neighborhood crime and child maltreatment) and specific genetic polymorphisms of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (eNOS) and GABA(A) receptor subunit alpha-6 gene (GABRA6). One hundred eighty-six children were recruited at age 4. The presence or absence of child maltreatment as well as the amount of crime that occurred in their neighborhood during the previous year were determined at that time. At age 9, the children were brought to the lab, where their physiological response to a cognitive challenge (i.e., change in the amplitude of the respiratory sinus arrhythmia) was assessed and DNA samples were collected for subsequent genotyping. The results confirmed that complex Gene × Gene, Environment × Environment, and Gene × Environment interactions were associated with different patterns of respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity. The implications for future research and evidence-based intervention are discussed.

  9. Identification and Definition of Factors Causally Associated with Child Abuse and Neglect. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Univ. of New York, Brooklyn. Downstate Medical Center.

    The research objective of the study involving 240 low socioeconomic status mothers was validation of the prevailing multifactor theory of child abuse and neglect which states that maltreatment results from personality characteristics of parents, children "at risk" due to preexistent deviancy, and environmental stress. Ss were measured on 12…

  10. Psychological maltreatment and adolescents’ suicidal behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; DePanfilis, Diane

    2010-01-01

    as well as child abuse and neglect were analyzed on the basis of standardized questionnaires addressed to caseworkers assigned to these cases (N=1,055). Half of the children were exposed to abuse and neglect. More than one third of the children were exposed to psychological maltreatment. These children...

  11. Differential Effects of Psychological Maltreatment on Children of Mothers Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega, Ariadna; de la Osa, Nuria; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; Domenech, Josep Maria

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Psychological maltreatment (PM) is the most prevalent form of child abuse, and is the core component of most of what is considered as child maltreatment. The aim of this work was to explore differential adverse outcomes of the different types of PM in the mental health and functioning of children living in homes in which they are…

  12. Differential Effects of Psychological Maltreatment on Children of Mothers Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega, Ariadna; de la Osa, Nuria; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; Domenech, Josep Maria

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Psychological maltreatment (PM) is the most prevalent form of child abuse, and is the core component of most of what is considered as child maltreatment. The aim of this work was to explore differential adverse outcomes of the different types of PM in the mental health and functioning of children living in homes in which they are…

  13. Dissociative symptoms and academic functioning in maltreated children: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perzow, Sarah E D; Petrenko, Christie L M; Garrido, Edward F; Combs, Melody D; Culhane, Sara E; Taussig, Heather N

    2013-01-01

    Research has identified numerous negative sequelae of child maltreatment that may adversely impact academic functioning (AF). There is limited research, however, on the relationship between specific trauma symptoms, such as dissociation, and poor AF. This cross-sectional study examined the association between dissociative symptoms and multi-informant reports of AF in a sample of maltreated youth with a history of out-of-home care. Participants included 149 youth and their caregivers and teachers. Dissociative symptoms were measured based on youth report, whereas AF was assessed using (a) standardized measures of academic achievement, (b) youth-report measures of school membership and perceived academic competence, (c) caregiver reports of youths' performance in school, and (d) teacher reports of student grades. Results of multiple regression analyses suggested that dissociative symptoms were generally related to poorer AF after IQ, age, gender, and the total number of school and caregiver transitions were controlled. Implications for school personnel are discussed.

  14. Are there differential relationships between different types of childhood maltreatment and different types of adult personality pathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa Janet; Tanis, Thachell; Bhattacharjee, Reetuparna; Nesci, Christina; Halmi, Winter; Galynker, Igor

    2014-01-30

    While considerable data support the relationship between childhood trauma and adult personality pathology in general, there is little research investigating the specific relationships between different types of childhood maltreatment and adult personality disorders. The present study tested a model incorporating five a priori hypotheses regarding the association between distinct forms of childhood maltreatment and personality pathology in 231 psychiatric patients using multiple self-report measures (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4th Edition, Child Trauma Questionnaire, Conflict in Tactics Scale Parent-Child Child-Adult, and Multidimensional Neglectful Behavior Scale). Step-wise linear regressions supported three out of five hypotheses, suggesting independent relationships between: physical abuse and antisocial personality disorder traits; emotional abuse and Cluster C personality disorder traits; and maternal neglect and Cluster A personality disorder traits after controlling for co-occurring maltreatment types and personality disorder traits. Results did not support an independent relationship between sexual abuse and borderline personality traits nor between emotional abuse and narcissistic personality disorder traits. Additionally, there were three unexpected findings: physical abuse was independently and positively associated with narcissistic and paranoid traits and negatively associated with Cluster C traits. These findings can help refine our understanding of adult personality pathology and support the future development of clinical tools for survivors of childhood maltreatment. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Decision making in child protection : An international comparative study on maltreatment substantiation, risk assessment and interventions recommendations, and the role of professionals’ child welfare attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benbenishty, Rami; Davidson-Arad, Bilha; López, Mónica; Devaney, John; Spratt, Trevor; Koopmans, Carien; Knorth, Erik J.; Witteman, Cilia L.M.; Del Valle, Jorge F.; Hayes, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Child welfare professionals regularly make crucial decisions that have a significant impact on children and their families. The present study utilizes the Judgments and Decision Processes in Context model (JUDPIC) to examine the relationships between three independent factors: case charac

  16. Decision making in child protection: An international comparative study on maltreatment substantiation, risk assessment and interventions recommendations, and the role of professionals' child welfare attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benbenishty, R.; Davidson-Arad, B.; López, M.; Devaney, J.; Spratt, T.; Koopmans, C.; Knorth, E.J.; Witteman, C.L.M.; Del Valle, J.F.; Hayes, D.

    2015-01-01

    Child welfare professionals regularly make crucial decisions that have a significant impact on children and their families. The present study presents the Judgments and Decision Processes in Context model (JUDPIC) and uses it to examine the relationships between three independent domains: case chara

  17. Civil Liability for Failing to Report Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Neil J.

    1977-01-01

    The article examines the Landeros decision (which ruled that a doctor who fails to report a child abuse victim can be held liable for subsequent injuries inflicted on the child) and discusses three theories of proving civil liability for the failure to report child abuse victims. Addressed are the following topics: the problem of child abuse and…

  18. Las instituciones educativas y la comunidad frente al maltrato infantil: una experiencia de investigación acción participativa Educative institutions and the community faced with child maltreatment: an experience of participative action research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dilia Mieles Barrera

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La investigación "Diagnóstico del Maltrato Infantil en la Comuna 8 del Distrito de Santa Marta", financiada por el Fondo Patrimonial para el Desarrollo de la Investigación de la Universidad del Magdalena (Santa Marta, Colombia y desarrollada por el Grupo de Investigación en Educación Infantil, caracteriza las formas de maltrato infantil (MI más frecuentes en esta zona de la ciudad y describe el papel de las instituciones educativas y la comunidad frente a esta problemática. La metodología Investigación-Acción-Participativa (IAP permitió movilizar la sociedad civil, instituciones educativas y organizaciones gubernamentales para trabajar en el diagnóstico y prevención. Se encontraron todas las formas de maltrato caracterizadas y los principales maltratadores se reconocieron como pertenecientes al grupo familiar. Se identificaron factores protectores en las familias, la comunidad y el Estado. La extrema pobreza y el bajo nivel educativo propician el maltrato y originan condiciones de vida injustas para la infancia, violación de sus derechos y grave daño en su desarrollo integral. Se recomienda: i Desarrollar estrategias de formación y prevención con las familias y la comunidad para disminuir la violencia intrafamiliar y escolar; ii que las instituciones educativas intervengan con una activa función preventiva; iii organizar programas de apoyo social, económico y psicológico, que mejoren la calidad de vida de las familias y contribuyan a la protección de la infancia, con apoyo de universidades, organismos oficiales e institucionales, iv difundir ampliamente los resultados visualizando la preocupante presencia del maltrato infantil y concientizando sobre su prevención.The study entitled "Diagnostic of Child Maltreatment in Commune 8 of the District of Santa Marta" (Diagnóstico del Maltrato Infantil en la Comuna 8 del Distrito de Santa Marta sponsored by the Patrimonial Fund for the Development of Research of the University of

  19. The role of negative parental attributions in the associations between daily stressors, maltreatment history, and harsh and abusive discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckerman, Marieke; van Berkel, Sheila R; Mesman, Judi; Alink, Lenneke R A

    2017-02-01

    Negative parental attributions are related to parent and family stressors and are thought to be important predictors of subsequent disciplinary actions and, potentially, abusive parenting. We examined if negative parental attributions mediate the relation between daily stressors (i.e., low SES, parenting stress, partner-related stress) parents' own history of child maltreatment, and harsh and abusive parenting. Mothers (n=53) completed a computerized attribution task and reported on daily stressors, their own history of child maltreatment and their discipline strategies. Mothers' negative parental attributions mediated the association between parenting stress (but not the other stressors) and harsh and abusive discipline. These finding implicate that interventions to decrease (the risk of) child abuse should not only focus on reducing abuse-related stressors, but also target negative parental attributions.

  20. Training and Mandated Reporters' Confidence Levels: A Correlational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, Cathy S.

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a costly social issue, both financially and in terms of children's well-being. All 50 states and many countries have enacted mandatory reporting laws, but not all of them require mandated reporter training. A multitude of studies have shown that many mandated reporters do not report all of the cases of suspected child abuse…

  1. Does developmental timing of exposure to child maltreatment predict memory performance in adulthood? Results from a large, population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Erin C; Busso, Daniel S; Raffeld, Miriam R; Smoller, Jordan W; Nelson, Charles A; Doyle, Alysa E; Luk, Gigi

    2016-01-01

    Although maltreatment is a known risk factor for multiple adverse outcomes across the lifespan, its effects on cognitive development, especially memory, are poorly understood. Using data from a large, nationally representative sample of young adults (Add Health), we examined the effects of physical and sexual abuse on working and short-term memory in adulthood. We examined the association between exposure to maltreatment as well as its timing of first onset after adjusting for covariates. Of our sample, 16.50% of respondents were exposed to physical abuse and 4.36% to sexual abuse by age 17. An analysis comparing unexposed respondents to those exposed to physical or sexual abuse did not yield any significant differences in adult memory performance. However, two developmental time periods emerged as important for shaping memory following exposure to sexual abuse, but in opposite ways. Relative to non-exposed respondents, those exposed to sexual abuse during early childhood (ages 3-5), had better number recall and those first exposed during adolescence (ages 14-17) had worse number recall. However, other variables, including socioeconomic status, played a larger role (than maltreatment) on working and short-term memory. We conclude that a simple examination of "exposed" versus "unexposed" respondents may obscure potentially important within-group differences that are revealed by examining the effects of age at onset to maltreatment.

  2. The child anxiety impact scale: examining parent- and child-reported impairment in child anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Audra K; Falk, Avital; Peris, Tara; Wiley, Joshua F; Kendall, Philip C; Ginsburg, Golda; Birmaher, Boris; March, John; Albano, Ann Marie; Piacentini, John

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of both the Child and Parent version of the Child Anxiety Impact Scale (CAIS) using data obtained from the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (Walkup et al., 2008 ). The CAIS child and parent versions measure anxiety-related functional impairment in school, social, and family domains. Participants were 488 children ages 7 to 17 (M age = 10.7, SD = 2.8 years) enrolled as part of the CAMS study across 6 sites and their primary parent or caregiver. Families participated in a structured diagnostic interview and then completed the CAIS along with other measures. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the a priori three-factor structure (school, social, and home/family) for the CAIS parent- and CAIS child-report was a reasonable fit, with a comparative fit index of .88 and root mean square error of approximation of .05. Internal consistency was very good for total score and subscales of both versions of the scale (Cronbach's α = .70-.90). The CAIS total scores demonstrated good construct validity, showing predicted significant correlations with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Internalizing Scale, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) and Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) Total Scores, the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale, and the Children's Global Assessment Scale. In addition, CAIS Social and School subscales were significantly related to similar subscales on the CBCL, SCARED, and MASC. The results provide support that the CAIS is a reliable and valid measure for the assessment of the impact of anxiety on child and adolescent functioning.

  3. Parenting and Family Support for Families 'at risk' - Implications from Child Abuse Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Marie Halpenny

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of family experiences on children’s development and wellbeing has been widely documented. Yet, recent reports generated by inquiries into child abuse and neglect in the Irish context raise disturbing questions with regard to how the severe maltreatment of children can occur within the family context. It is imperative that the messages generated from these inquiries can effectively inform policy and practice in terms of protecting children from harm and providing support to families at-risk. The present paper draws together key issues for parenting and family support for families ‘at risk’ based on the Roscommon and Monageer inquiries with a view to gaining insight into key issues which need to be addressed in terms of protecting children from harm and providing support for parents experiencing adversity. A number of implications arising from these reports are outlined and discussed. Specifically, the need to amplify the focus on support for parenting in the context of poverty and substance abuse is highlighted with a particular emphasis on developing sensitive screening and assessment for parents who may be difficult to engage with due to chronic mental health issues. The importance of accessing the voice of children within the provision of family support is also underlined in these findings. A key recommendation from these reports is that the needs, wishes and feelings of each child must be considered as well as the totality of the family situation. Moreover, the need for staff in child welfare and protection services to have access to ongoing training and professional development to meet the complex and changing needs of the children and families they are working with is also highlighted. Specifically, ongoing training for frontline staff in understanding the effects of drug and alcohol dependency, and, in particular, the effects on parenting and parent-child relationships is underscored in findings from these reports.

  4. Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2014 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stephen; Fraga, Lynette; McCready, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Eleven million children younger than age five are in some form of child care in the United States. The "Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2014 Report" summarizes the cost of child care across the country, examines the importance of child care as a workforce support and as an early learning program, and explores the effect of high…

  5. Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2015 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Lynette; Dobbins, Dionne; McCready, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Eleven million children younger than age five are in some form of child care in the United States. The "Parents and the High Cost of Child Care: 2015 Report" summarizes the cost of child care across the country, examines the importance of child care as a workforce support and as an early learning program, and explores the effect of high…

  6. Resilience in the Context of Child Maltreatment: Connections to the Practice of Mandatory Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekerle, Christine

    2013-01-01

    A human rights perspective places the care for children in the obligation sphere. The duty to protect from violence is an outcome of having a declaration confirming inalienable human rights. Nationally, rights may be reflected in constitutions, charters, and criminal codes. Transnationally, the United Nation's (UN) Convention on the Rights of the…

  7. Childhood maltreatment, intervening variables, and adult psychological difficulties in women: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, John; Jordan, Carol E

    2009-10-01

    This article reviews the complex relationship between child maltreatment and later psychosocial difficulties among adult women. Specifically addressed are (a) the various forms of childhood maltreatment, (b) the range of potential long-term psychological outcomes, and (c) important contextual variables that mediate or add to these maltreatment-symptom relationships. Among the latter are characteristics of the abuse and/or neglect; effects of impaired parental functioning; premaltreatment and postmaltreatment psychobiology; qualities of the parent-child attachment; abuse and/or neglect-related affect dysregulation that may lead to further symptomatology; the extent to which the child responds with significant emotional or behavioral avoidance; and whether later traumas are also present. Also relevant are sociocultural contributors to both child maltreatment and maltreatment effects, especially poverty and marginalization. Clinical and research implications are considered.

  8. Beware Emotional Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Margaret A.; Janson, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    Emotional maltreatment is a less visible form of abuse that frequently occurs in schools, but is often ignored or dismissed as an acceptable form of discipline or sanctioned classroom-management practice. The impact of emotional maltreatment on children is significant and impacts personality development, relationships, and learning. Principals, as…

  9. Eliciting maltreated and nonmaltreated children's transgression disclosures: narrative practice rapport building and a putative confession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Thomas D; Wandrey, Lindsay; Ahern, Elizabeth; Licht, Robyn; Sim, Megan P Y; Quas, Jodi A

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the effects of narrative practice rapport building (asking open-ended questions about a neutral event) and a putative confession (telling the child an adult "told me everything that happened and he wants you to tell the truth") on 4- to 9-year-old maltreated and nonmaltreated children's reports of an interaction with a stranger who asked them to keep toy breakage a secret (n = 264). Only one third of children who received no interview manipulations disclosed breakage; in response to a putative confession, one half disclosed. Narrative practice rapport building did not affect the likelihood of disclosure. Maltreated children and nonmaltreated children responded similarly to the manipulations. Neither narrative practice rapport building nor a putative confession increased false reports.

  10. Social trauma : consequences of emotional maltreatment on physiological reactions to social rejection in subjects with social anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Iffland, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    A history of child maltreatment is associated with psychopathology, predominantly affective and anxiety disorders as well as substance abuse. In the past, research has primarily focused on the consequences of physical abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect or combinations of these types of maltreatment. However, besides physical and sexual transgressions, child maltreatment does also involve emotional abuse and emotional neglect. Although it was suggested that the consequences of emotional mal...

  11. Modeling risk for child abuse and harsh parenting in families with depressed and substance-abusing parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Lawrence, Hannah R; Milletich, Robert J; Hollis, Brittany F; Henson, James M

    2015-05-01

    Children with substance abusing parents are at considerable risk for child maltreatment. The current study applied an actor-partner interdependence model to examine how father only (n=52) and dual couple (n=33) substance use disorder, as well as their depressive symptomology influenced parents' own (actor effects) and the partner's (partner effects) overreactivity in disciplinary interactions with their children, as well as their risk for child maltreatment. Parents completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977), the overreactivity subscale from the Parenting Scale (Arnold, O'Leary, Wolff, & Acker, 1993), and the Brief Child Abuse Potential Inventory (Ondersma, Chaffin, Mullins, & LeBreton, 2005). Results of multigroup structural equation models revealed that a parent's own report of depressive symptoms predicted their risk for child maltreatment in both father SUD and dual SUD couples. Similarly, a parent's report of their own depressive symptoms predicted their overreactivity in disciplinary encounters both in father SUD and dual SUD couples. In all models, partners' depressive symptoms did not predict their partner's risk for child maltreatment or overreactivity. Findings underscore the importance of a parent's own level of depressive symptoms in their risk for child maltreatment and for engaging in overreactivity during disciplinary episodes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Childhood Maltreatment and Psychiatric Disorders Among Detained Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Devon C.; Abram, Karen M.; Romero, Erin G.; Washburn, Jason J.; Welty, Leah J.; Teplin, Linda A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This manuscript examines the prevalence of childhood maltreatment and the relationship between childhood maltreatment and current psychiatric disorder in detained youths. Methods Clinical research interviewers assessed history of childhood maltreatment with the Child Maltreatment Assessment Profile and psychiatric diagnosis with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children version 2.3 in a stratified, random sample of 1829 detained youths at the Cook Country Juvenile Temporary Detention Center; final n=1735. History of maltreatment was also ascertained from records from the Cook County Court Child Protection Division. Results Over three-quarters of females and over two-thirds of males had a history of physical abuse (moderate or severe). More than 40% of females and 10% of males had a history of sexual abuse. Females and non-Hispanic whites had the highest prevalence rates of childhood maltreatment. Among females, sexual abuse was associated with every type of psychiatric disorder. For example, females who experienced abuse were 2.6 to 10.7 times more likely to have any disorder compared with females who had no maltreatment. Among males, maltreatment was associated with every disorder except anxiety disorders (odds ratios ranged from 1.9–7.9). Among those who were sexually abused, abuse with force was associated with anxiety and affective disorders for females and attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD)/disruptive behavior and substance use disorders for males. Conclusions Psychiatrists and other mental health specialists must screen delinquent youth, not only for psychiatric disorders but also for past and ongoing maltreatment. Discharge planning should include protective and therapeutic services. Trauma-related mental health services should be available during incarceration. PMID:22193789

  13. Young Adults with Gambling Problems: The Impact of Childhood Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsher, Jennifer R.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina

    2010-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been thought to be a significant risk factor in the development of gambling problems. Incorporating a developmental psychopathology perspective, 1,324 adolescents and young adults, age 17-22 years completed self-report measures on gambling behaviors, gambling severity, and childhood maltreatment. Problem gamblers…

  14. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Reports Form 157 - YR 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of Child Support Enforcement's Annual Data Report from State agencies administering child support enforcement plans under Title IV-D of the Social...

  15. Child Support Enforcement Annual Data Report Form 157

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of Child Support Enforcement's Annual Data Report from State agencies administering child support enforcement plans under Title IV-D of the Social...

  16. Towards understanding child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Carreño

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is a contribution to the understanding of childhood andthe child maltreatment within the framework of the state of the art of the knowledge produced in the experiences of research / intervention carried out under the Specialization Program on Child Maltreatment Prevention of Javeriana University, between 2002 to 2006. The article recreates the outstanding of this concern in Colombia, offers reinterpretations to the speech built and poses some bases to analyze the child maltreatment from the perspective of the adult-child relationships.

  17. The different faces of impulsivity as links between childhood maltreatment and young adult crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunny H; Cook, Amy K; Morris, Nancy A; McDougle, Robyn; Groves, Lauren Peasley

    2016-07-01

    Crime is a major public health and safety threat. Many studies have suggested that early exposure to child maltreatment increases an individual's risk for persistent serious crime in adulthood. Despite these findings about the connection between child maltreatment and criminal behavior, there is a paucity of empirically-based knowledge about the processes or pathways that link child maltreatment to later involvement in crime. Using a community sample of 337 young adults (ages 18-25) in a U.S. metropolitan area, the present study examined the role of various facets of impulsivity in linking child maltreatment to crime. A series of factor analyses identified three types of crime including property crime, violent crime, and fraud. Structural equation modelings were conducted to examine the associations among childhood maltreatment, four facets of impulsivity, and criminal behavior, controlling for sociodemographic information, family income and psychological symptoms. The present study found that child emotional abuse was indirectly related to property crime and fraud through urgency while a lack of premeditation mediates the relationship between child neglect and property crime. Child physical abuse was directly related to all three types of crime. Personality traits of urgency and lack of premeditation may play a significant role in the maltreatment-crime link. Preventive interventions targeting impulsivity traits such as urgency and a lack of premeditation might have promising impacts in curbing criminal behavior among maltreatment victims.

  18. Early Childhood Education as a Resilience Intervention for Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenbogen, Stephen; Klein, Benjamin; Wekerle, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The profound injuries caused by child maltreatment are well documented in the neurological, attachment, cognitive, and developmental literature. In this review paper, we explore the potential of early childhood education (ECE) as a community-based resilience intervention for mitigating the impacts of child abuse and neglect and supporting families…

  19. The Association between Maltreatment and Obesity among Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Robert C.; Phillips, Shannon M.; Orzol, Sean M.; Burdette, Hillary L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether child maltreatment is associated with obesity in preschool children. Methods: Data were obtained from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of 4898 children born between 1998 and 2000 in 20 large US cities. At 3 years of age, 2412 of these children had their height and weight measured,…

  20. The Association between Maltreatment and Obesity among Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Robert C.; Phillips, Shannon M.; Orzol, Sean M.; Burdette, Hillary L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether child maltreatment is associated with obesity in preschool children. Methods: Data were obtained from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of 4898 children born between 1998 and 2000 in 20 large US cities. At 3 years of age, 2412 of these children had their height and weight measured,…

  1. The role of limbic system irritability in linking history of childhood maltreatment and psychiatric outcomes in low-income, high-risk women: moderation by FK506 binding protein 5 haplotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dackis, Melissa N; Rogosch, Fred A; Oshri, Assaf; Cicchetti, Dante

    2012-11-01

    Childhood maltreatment is associated with lasting changes in neuroendocrine regulation, alterations in brain structure and function, and symptoms of "limbic irritability." Limbic irritability symptoms include somatic, sensory, and behavioral phenomena and may stem from increased excitatory neurotransmission following maltreatment. We tested the hypotheses that child maltreatment is indirectly associated with depressive and dissociative symptomatology via indicators of limbic irritability and that variation within the FK506 binding protein 5 gene (FKBP5), a gene involved in glucorticoid receptor functioning, moderates these effects. The sample consisted of high-risk, low-income women (N = 236) living in an inner-city environment. Child maltreatment, limbic irritability, and symptoms of depression and dissociation were measured cross-sectionally using self-report assessments. Haplotype analyses were conducted across four FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphisms: rs3800373, rs9296158, rs1360870, and rs9470080. Path analysis using bootstrapping procedures was performed to test hypotheses regarding indirect and conditional indirect effects. We found significant indirect effects of maltreatment on depression (β = 0.088, p limbic irritability. In addition, variation within FKBP5 moderated these significant indirect effects. For individuals with one to two copies of the CATT haplotype, the indirect effects of maltreatment on depression (β = 0.137, p limbic irritability were significant, whereas the indirect paths were not significant for individuals with no copies of this haplotype (depression: β = 0.037, p > .05; dissociation: β = 0.002, p > .05). These results add to the growing evidence that child maltreatment may lead to symptoms of internalizing psychopathology through its impact on the limbic system. In addition, this study revealed a potential role of FKBP5 gene variants in contributing to risk for limbic system dysfunction.

  2. Social skills and psychopathic traits in maltreated adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ometto, Mariella; de Oliveira, Paula Approbato; Milioni, Ana Luiza; Dos Santos, Bernardo; Scivoletto, Sandra; Busatto, Geraldo F; Nunes, Paula V; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment has frequently been associated with impaired social skills and antisocial features, but there are still controversies about the effect of each type of maltreatment on social behaviour. The aim of this study was to compare the social functioning and psychopathic traits of maltreated adolescents (MTA) with a control group (CG) and to investigate what types of maltreatments and social skills were associated with psychopathic traits in both groups. The types and intensity of maltreatment were evaluated through the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 107 adolescents, divided into the MTA group (n = 66) and non-maltreated youths (n = 41), our CG. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) and a detailed inventory for evaluation of social skills in adolescents were also applied in all individuals. MTA presented more psychopathic traits than the CG, in all domains measured by PCL: YV, independently of IQ levels and the presence of psychiatric disorders. Interestingly, the groups did not differ significantly from each other on indicators of social skills. Multiple regression analysis revealed that emotional neglect was the only maltreatment subtype significantly associated with psychopathic traits, more specifically with the PCL: YV interpersonal factor (F1), and that some social skills (empathy, self-control and social confidence) were related to specific psychopathic factors. The results highlight that emotional neglect may be more detrimental to social behaviours than physical and sexual abuse, and that neglected children require more specific and careful attention.

  3. Opportunities for prevention and intervention with young children: lessons from the Canadian incidence study of reported child abuse and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallon Barbara

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most effective way to provide support to caregivers with infants in order to promote good health, social, emotional and developmental outcomes is the subject of numerous debates in the literature. In Canada, each province adopts a different approach which range from universal to targeted programs. Nonetheless, each year a group of vulnerable infants is identified to the child welfare system with concerns about their well-being and safety. This study examines maltreatment-related investigations in Canada involving children under the age of one year to identify which factors determine service provision at the conclusion of the investigation. Methods A secondary analysis of the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect CIS-2008 (PHAC, 2010 dataset was conducted. Multivariate analyses were conducted to understand the profile of investigations involving infants (n=1,203 and which predictors were significant in the decision to transfer a case to ongoing services at the conclusion of the investigation. Logistic Regression and Classification and Regression Trees (CART were conducted to examine the relationship between the outcome and predictors. Results The results suggest that there are three main sources that refer infants to the Canadian child welfare system: hospital, police, and non-professionals. Infant maltreatment-related investigations involve young caregivers who struggle with poverty, single-parenthood, drug/solvent and alcohol abuse, mental health issues, lack of social supports, and intimate partner violence. Across the three referral sources, primary caregiver risk factors are the strongest predictor of the decision to transfer a case to ongoing services. Conclusions Multivariate analyses indicate that the presence of infant concerns does not predict ongoing service provision, except when the infant is identified with positive toxicology at birth. The opportunity for early intervention and the

  4. Reactive attachment disorder in maltreated twins follow-up: from 18 months to 8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Sherryl Scott; Boris, Neil W; Fuselier, Sarah-Hinshaw; Page, Timothy; Koren-Karie, Nina; Miron, Devi

    2006-03-01

    The best means for the diagnosis and treatment of reactive attachment disorder of infancy and early childhood have not been established. Though some longitudinal data on institutionalized children is available, reports of maltreated young children who are followed over time and assessed with measures of attachment are lacking. This paper presents the clinical course of a set of maltreated fraternal twins who were assessed and treated from 19 months to 30 months of age and then seen in follow-up at 3 and 8 years of age. A summary of the early assessment and course is provided and findings from follow-up assessments of the cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal functioning of each child is analysed. Follow-up measures, chosen to capture social-cognitive processing of these children from an attachment perspective, are highlighted. Finally, findings from the case are discussed from nosological and theoretical perspectives.

  5. Childhood Maltreatment and Prospectively Observed Quality of Early Care as Predictors of Antisocial Personality Disorder Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhenyu; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Easterbrooks, M Ann; Zhao, Xudong; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the separate contributions of maltreatment and ongoing quality of parent-child interaction to the etiology of antisocial personality features using a prospective longitudinal design. 120 low-income young adults (aged 18-23) were assessed for extent of ASPD features on the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnosis-Axis II, for presence of maltreatment on the Conflict Tactics Scale, Traumatic Experiences Scale, and Adult Attachment Interview, and for referral in infancy to parent-infant clinical services. Fifty-six of these families had been studied longitudinally since the first year of life. In infancy, attachment disorganization and disrupted mother-infant interaction were assessed; in middle childhood, disorganized-controlling attachment behaviors were reliably rated. In kindergarten and second grade, behavior problems were assessed by teacher report. In cross-sectional analyses, maltreatment was significantly associated with ASPD features but did not account for the independent effect of early referral to parent-infant services on ASPD features. In longitudinal analyses, maternal withdrawal in infancy predicted the extent of ASPD features twenty years later, independently of childhood abuse. In middle childhood, disorganized attachment behavior and maladaptive behavior at school added to prediction of later ASPD features. Antisocial features in young adulthood have precursors in the minute-to-minute process of parent-child interaction beginning in infancy.

  6. The Protective Effects of Religiosity on Maladjustment among Maltreated and Nonmaltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmeen

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of child religiosity in the development of maladaptation among maltreated children. Methods: Data were collected on 188 maltreated and 196 nonmaltreated children from low-income families (ages 6-12 years). Children were assessed on religiosity and depressive symptoms, and were evaluated…

  7. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Adolescent Substance Use Disorder: The Moderating Role of Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Elizabeth D; Rogosch, Fred A; Guild, Danielle J; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-08-01

    The ecological-transactional model proposes that nested contexts interact to influence development. From this perspective, child maltreatment represents an individual-level risk factor posited to interact with numerous other nested contextual levels, such as the neighborhood environment, to affect development. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adolescents with maltreatment histories represent a vulnerable group for whom disadvantaged neighborhoods confer risk for substance use disorders. Participants were 411 adolescents (age 15-18; mean age = 16.24) from an investigation of the developmental sequelae of childhood maltreatment. Multiple-group structural equation models, controlling for family-level socioeconomic status, indicated that neighborhood disadvantage was associated with more marijuana-dependence symptoms among maltreated but not among non-maltreated adolescents. Moreover, among maltreated adolescents, those who experienced multiple subtypes of maltreatment were at greatest risk for problematic marijuana use in the context of neighborhood disadvantage. Interestingly, the direct effect of neighborhood disadvantage, but not the interaction with maltreatment, was related to adolescent alcohol-dependence symptoms. Results highlight the importance of considering multiple levels of influence when examining risk associated with child maltreatment.

  8. Parents' experiences of reporting child sexual abuse in urban Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisanga, Felix; Nyström, Lennarth; Hogan, Nora; Emmelin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    This article reports parental experiences of legally reporting child sexual abuse in Tanzania. Based on in-depth interviews, four types of sexual abuse incidents are portrayed. Each evokes different reactions from parents and the community. An incident characterized as the innocent child was associated with a determination to seek justice. The forced-sex youth elicited feelings of parental betrayal of their child. The consenting curious youth resulted in uncertainty of how to proceed, while the transactional-sex youth evoked a sense of parental powerlessness to control the child because of low economic status. Differentiating between types of sexual abuse incidents may increase awareness of the complexities of child sexual abuse reporting. Education on laws regulating sexual offenses and a functional national child protection system are needed to address child sexual abuse complexities and safeguard the rights of children in Tanzania.

  9. Identifying perinatal risk factors for infant maltreatment: an ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallisey Elaine J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child maltreatment and its consequences are a persistent problem throughout the world. Public health workers, human services officials, and others are interested in new and efficient ways to determine which geographic areas to target for intervention programs and resources. To improve assessment efforts, selected perinatal factors were examined, both individually and in various combinations, to determine if they are associated with increased risk of infant maltreatment. State of Georgia birth records and abuse and neglect data were analyzed using an area-based, ecological approach with the census tract as a surrogate for the community. Cartographic visualization suggested some correlation exists between risk factors and child maltreatment, so bivariate and multivariate regression were performed. The presence of spatial autocorrelation precluded the use of traditional ordinary least squares regression, therefore a spatial regression model coupled with maximum likelihood estimation was employed. Results Results indicate that all individual factors or their combinations are significantly associated with increased risk of infant maltreatment. The set of perinatal risk factors that best predicts infant maltreatment rates are: mother smoked during pregnancy, families with three or more siblings, maternal age less than 20 years, births to unmarried mothers, Medicaid beneficiaries, and inadequate prenatal care. Conclusion This model enables public health to take a proactive stance, to reasonably predict areas where poor outcomes are likely to occur, and to therefore more efficiently allocate resources. U.S. states that routinely collect the variables the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS defines for birth certificates can easily identify areas that are at high risk for infant maltreatment. The authors recommend that agencies charged with reducing child maltreatment target communities that demonstrate the perinatal risks

  10. Childhood Maltreatment and the Development of Relational and Physical Aggression: The Importance of a Gender-Informed Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullerton-Sen, Crystal; Cassidy, Adam R.; Murray-Close, Dianna; Cicchetti, Dante; Crick, Nicki R.; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation examined the associations between maltreatment and aggression using a gender-informed approach. Peer ratings, peer nominations, and counselor reports of aggression were collected on 211 maltreated and 199 nonmaltreated inner-city youth (M age = 9.9 years) during a summer day camp. Maltreatment was associated with aggressive…

  11. Childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy obesity: a comparison of obese, overweight, and normal weight pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagl, Michaela; Steinig, Jana; Klinitzke, Grit; Stepan, Holger; Kersting, Anette

    2016-04-01

    Pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity is associated with poor health outcomes for the mother and the child. General population studies suggest that childhood maltreatment is associated with obesity in adulthood. The aim of our study was to examine the association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and a history of childhood abuse or neglect including different stages of severity of abuse and neglect. Three hundred twenty-six normal weight, overweight, or obese pregnant women reported demographic data, height and weight, and general psychological distress at 18-22 weeks of gestation. Childhood maltreatment was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Associations were examined using logistic regression analyses and a reference group of normal weight women. Fifty percent reported a history of abuse or neglect. After adjusting for age, education, income, marital status, and the number of previous children, pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity were strongly associated with severe physical abuse (overweight: OR = 8.33, 95% CI 1.48-47.03; obesity: OR = 6.31, 95% CI 1.06-37.60). Women with severe physical neglect (OR = 4.25, 95% CI 1.23-14.74) were at increased risk of pregnancy overweight. We found a dose-response relationship between physical abuse and pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity. Whereas other studies report an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy obesity, this is the first study that found an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy overweight. Considering the severe health risks of pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and the long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment, affected women constitute a subgroup with special needs in prenatal care. Further research is needed to improve the understanding of the underlying mechanisms.

  12. School Counselors and Child Abuse Reporting: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jill K.

    2009-01-01

    A study was done to investigate school counselors' child abuse reporting behaviors and perceptions regarding the child abuse reporting process. Participants were randomly selected from the American School Counselor Association membership database with 193 school counselors returning questionnaires. Overall, school counselors indicated that they…

  13. Kindergarten Teachers' Experience with Reporting Child Abuse in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Huang, Tzu-Yi; Wang, Chi-Jen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objectives were to examine factors associated with reporting child abuse among kindergarten teachers in Taiwan based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Method: A stratified quota sampling technique was used to randomly select kindergarten teachers in Taiwan. The Child Abuse Intention Report Scale, which includes demographics,…

  14. Kindergarten Teachers' Experience with Reporting Child Abuse in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Huang, Tzu-Yi; Wang, Chi-Jen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objectives were to examine factors associated with reporting child abuse among kindergarten teachers in Taiwan based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Method: A stratified quota sampling technique was used to randomly select kindergarten teachers in Taiwan. The Child Abuse Intention Report Scale, which includes demographics,…

  15. School Counselors and Child Abuse Reporting: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jill K.

    2009-01-01

    A study was done to investigate school counselors' child abuse reporting behaviors and perceptions regarding the child abuse reporting process. Participants were randomly selected from the American School Counselor Association membership database with 193 school counselors returning questionnaires. Overall, school counselors indicated that they…

  16. Exploring the role of child sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in gay and bisexual men reporting compulsive sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Leah M; Muench, Fred; Morgenstern, Jon; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2012-05-01

    Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is an impairing yet understudied clinical phenomenon. The experience of child sexual abuse (CSA) has been implicated as an etiological factor in the development of some cases of CSB (Kuzma & Black, 2008); however, research regarding the role of CSA and related psychopathology in CSB symptomatology has been limited in the literature. The present study aimed to examine the uniqueness of the association of CSA with CSB as compared to other experiences of child maltreatment; the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology in CSB symptoms for individuals reporting CSA; and clinical differences between individuals with and without histories of CSA. Hypotheses were tested using data from a sample of 182 gay and bisexual men reporting CSB symptoms. CSA prevalence was high in the tested sample (39%). CSA severity was a unique predictor of CSB symptoms, above child physical and emotional abuse, and poly-victimization status was not significantly related to CSB symptoms. Contrary to hypotheses, PTSD symptoms did not significantly mediate the role of CSA severity, although PTSD symptoms explained additional variance in CSB symptoms, with the final model accounting for over a quarter of the variance in CSB symptoms (27%). Finally, men with a history of CSA reported more CSB, depressive, and anxious symptoms than those without a history of CSA. Findings from the present study support the hypothesis that CSA may be uniquely related to CSB symptoms, above other forms of child maltreatment, and indicate that men with a CSA history are likely to present more severe clinical comorbidities. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reducing sibling conflict in maltreated children placed in foster homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, L Oriana; Jimenez, Jessica; Nesci, Cristina; Pearson, Eva; Beller, Sarah; Edwards, Nancy; Levin-Rector, Alison

    2015-02-01

    Sibling aggression among maltreated children placed in foster homes is linked to other externalizing problems and placement disruption. The reduction of sibling conflict and aggression may be achieved via a multicomponent ecologically focused intervention for families in the foster care system. The focus of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and short-term effectiveness of a transtheoretical intervention model targeting sibling pairs and their foster parent that integrates family systems, social learning theory, and a conflict mediation perspective. In this pilot study, sibling pairs (N = 22) and their foster parent were randomized into a three-component intervention (n = 13) or a comparison (n = 9) group. Promoting Sibling Bonds (PSB) is an 8-week prevention intervention targeting maltreated sibling pairs ages 5-11 years placed together in a foster home. The siblings, parent, and joint components were delivered in a program package at the foster agency by a trained two-clinician team. Average attendance across program components was 73 %. Outcomes in four areas were gathered at pre- and postintervention: observed sibling interaction quality (positive and negative) including conflict during play, and foster parent reports of mediation strategies and sibling aggression in the foster home. At postintervention, adjusting for baseline scores and child age, intervention pairs showed higher positive (p Foster parents in the intervention group reported a higher number of conflict mediation strategies than those in the comparison group (p Foster parents in the intervention group reported lower sibling physical aggression from the older toward the younger child than those in the comparison group (p foster home.

  18. Blending Perspectives and Building Common Ground: A Report to Congress on Substance Abuse and Child Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    This report attempts to improve the capacity of teachers, counselors, and other professionals to serve families whose children are at risk due to substance abuse and maltreatment on the part of the caretakers. Any professional coming into contact with these children needs to be aware of the scope of the problem and understand what these children…

  19. 28 CFR 81.2 - Submission of reports; designation of agencies to receive reports of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies to receive reports of child abuse. 81.2 Section 81.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CHILD ABUSE AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY REPORTING DESIGNATIONS AND PROCEDURES § 81.2 Submission of reports; designation of agencies to receive reports of child abuse. Reports of child abuse required by 42...

  20. History of Childhood Maltreatment and College Academic Outcomes: Indirect Effects of Hot Execution Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn C. Welsh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available College students who report a history of childhood maltreatment may be at risk for poor outcomes. In the current study, we conducted an exploratory analysis to examine potential models that statistically mediate associations between aspects of maltreatment and aspects of academic outcome, with a particular focus on executive functions (EF. Consistent with contemporary EF research, we distinguished between relatively “cool” EF tasks (i.e., performed in a context relatively free of emotional or motivational valence and “hot” EF tasks that emphasize performance under more emotionally arousing conditions. Sixty-one male and female college undergraduates self-reported childhood maltreatment history (emotional abuse and neglect, physical abuse and neglect, and sexual abuse on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, and were given two EF measures: (1 Go-No-Go (GNG test that included a Color Condition (cool; Neutral Face Condition (warm; and Emotion Face condition (hot, and (2 Iowa Gambling Task (IGT, a measure of risky decision making that reflects hot EF. Academic outcomes were: (1 grade point average (GPA: first-semester, cumulative, and semester concurrent with testing, and (2 Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (SACQ. Correlational patterns suggested two EF scores as potential mediators: GNG reaction time (RT in the Neutral Face condition, and IGT Block 2 adaptive responding. Indirect effects analyses indicated that IGT Block 2 adaptive responding has an indirect effect on the relationship between CTQ Total score and 1st semester GPA, and between CTQ Emotional Abuse and concurrent GPA. Regarding college adaptation, we identified a consistent indirect effect of GNG Neutral Face RT on the relationship between CTQ Emotional Neglect and SACQ total, academic, social, and personal–emotional adaption scores. Our results demonstrate that higher scores on a child maltreatment history self-report negatively predict college academic