WorldWideScience

Sample records for reported biological effects

  1. Some Biological Effects Of Ditching Tidewater Marshes Research Report 19

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Studies conducted over a 12-year period, 1935-47, of the biological effects of ditching tidewater marshes in Delaware for mosquito control showed that marked...

  2. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  3. Biological effects of high strength electric fields. Second interim progress report, September 1976--March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, R.D.; Kaune, W.T.

    1977-05-01

    This report describes progress made on the Project during the period of September 9, 1976 to March 31, 1977 towards the determination of the biological effects of high strength electric fields on small laboratory animals. The efforts to date can be divided into five categories: (1) the design, construction, and testing of a prototype and special studies exposure system; (2) the design and construction of exposure systems for rats and mice; (3) dosimetry; (4) experiments to determine the maximum field strength which does not produce corona discharge, ozone formation, shocks to the animal, hair stimulation, or a behavioral preference by rats to avoid exposure to the field; and (5) preparations for the biological screening experiments.

  4. Biological effects of high strength electric fields on small laboratory animals. Annual report, April 1977--March 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    Progress is reported on studies of the biological effects on mice and rats of exposure to 60-Hz electric fields. Results are reported on the effects of 30-day and 60-day exposures to 100 kV/m, 60-Hz electric fields on hematologic values, blood chemistry, and organ weights. With the possible exception of elevated blood platelet counts following 60-day exposures, there were no pathological changes observed in either mice or rats.

  5. EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS ON BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1980-10-01

    Planning a rational energy future requires anticipating the environmental consequences of various technologies. This is difficult to do with precision as the effects of pollutants are often determined by interactions between and among complex physical (abiotic) and biological (biotic) systems. A given pollutant may affect human beings through direct exposure or indirectly through inducing changes to biological systems which humans need to utilize. The concentration of a toxin in the food chain or the destruction of organisms necessary for the maintenance of high quality water are examples of indirect effects. Pollutants can be transformed and/or degraded as they establish residence in various components of an ecosystem. Anticipation and amelioration of pollutant effects involves the integration of a vast range of data. This data includes: (1) physical and chemical characterization cf the pollutant as it enters the environment; (2) determining effects on the various components (biotic and abiotic) within the context of the functioning ecosystem of interest; (3) transformation in movements and/or degradation of the pollutant within that ecosystem and within specific organisms and physical components; and (4) determining a detailed biochemical and biological picture of the interactions of pollutants with particular organisms and/or their cellular components judged salient for various processes. The major programs described below are designed to answer parts of the above fundamental questions relevant to pollutants generated by energy related technologies. Their emphasis is on anticipating consequences to the biological components of various ecosystems. The work ranges from studies involving parts of a single cell (the membranes) to studies involving the whole ecosystem (in the pelagic zone of a lake). The programs take advantage of expertise and technical abilities present at LBL. Two small exploratory projects which were of brief duration and not related to

  6. Biological effects of high-strength electric fields on small laboratory animals. Interim report, March 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, R.D.; Anderson, L.E.; Kaune, W.T.

    1979-12-01

    Progress is described on a project assessing the biological effects of 60-Hz electric fields on small laboratory animals (rats and mice). The report includes sections on hematology and seram chemistry, immunology, pathology, metabolism, bone growth, endocrinology, cardiovascular function, neurophysiology, growth and development, and animal behavior. (ACR)

  7. Biological effects of high strength electric fields on small laboratory animals. Interim progress report, March 9, 1976--September 8, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, R.D.; Kaune, W.T.; Decker, J.R.; Hjeresen, D.L.

    1976-09-01

    Progress is reported on a broad and comprehensive series of biological experiments made under strictly controlled laboratory conditions to screen for possible effects of exposure to 60-Hz electric fields on small laboratory animals. Electric field strengths comparable to and exceeding those under existing and anticipated transmission line designs will be used. Dosimetry studies will complement the animal studies to establish the relationship between tissue dose and any observed biological effects. Information derived from this project will provide a better basis for evaluating potential hazards of exposure to 60-Hz electric fields and help define parameters to be studied in clinical evaluations on humans.

  8. Compilation and assessment of microwave bioeffects. Final report. A selective review of the literature on biological effects of microwaves in relation to the satellite power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justesen, D. R.; Ragan, H. A.; Rogers, L. E.; Guy, A. W.; Hjeresen, D. L.; Hinds, W. T.

    1978-05-01

    Potential biological and ecological problems are the focus of a review of the world's scientific literature on biological effects of microwave radiation. The emphasis is on recently reported data and on the 2450-MHz continuous-wave (CW) radiation that is envisioned for a Satellite Power System (SPS).

  9. The Effects of Biological Agents on Melanocytic Nevi: A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurşah Doğan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the changes of the melanocytic nevi during the biological agent therapy. Methods: For this purpose, 40 index nevi of 25 adult patients who were treated with infliximab, adalimumab, etanercept or rituximab were included in this study. All of the patients underwent clinical and dermoscopic evaluation before the beginning of the treatment, 6 months and 1 year after the beginning of the treatment. Among dermoscopic examination methods, pattern analysis, ABCD score system and three-point checklist were performed. Results: In terms of the diameter of the index nevi, there was no statistically significant difference between the first examination and that of the sixth month, but differences was observed between the first examination and that of the twelfth month. There was also no statistically significant difference in total dermoscopy scores calculated by ABCD score system application on 31 nevi at the times of assessment. At the end of the study, we detected 24 new nevi formation in 7 patients, whom all of were over 35 years of age, however no eruptive nevi or melanoma formation were observed. Conclusion: An increase in the diameters of the present nevi and formation of new nevi may be seen with biological agent therapy in one-year-follow-up.

  10. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Freshwater Biological Traits Database. This report discusses the development of a database of freshwater biological traits. The database combines several existing traits databases into an online format. The database is also...

  11. Status Report for Experiment AD-4/ACE Biological Effectiveness of Antiproton Annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Holzscheiter, M H; Angelopoulos, Angelo; Bassler, Niels; Beyer, Gerd; Currell, Fred; De Marco, John; Doser, Michael; Hajdukovic, Dragan; Hartley, Oliver; Kavanagh, Joy; Iwamoto, Kei; Jäkel, Oliver; Kantemiris, Ioannis; Knudsen, Helge; Kovacevic, Sandra; McBride, Bill; Møller, Søren Pape; Overgaard, Jens; Petersen, Jørgen; Ratib, Osman; Schettino, Giuseppe; Timson, David; Singers-Sørensen, Brita; Solberg, Timothy; Vranjes, Sanja; Wouters, Brad

    2009-01-01

    Status report for experiment AD-4/ACE showing recent progress in RBE measurements for V79 Chinese Hamster cells irradiated with antiprotons. Also discussed are initial test experiments using the H2AX assay to study DNA damage to cells and initial experiments using liquid ionization chambers.

  12. Banks Lake NWR: Biological Review Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers a biological review undertaken in 2007/08 at Banks Lake National Wildlife Refuge. On November 14-15, 2007, a Biological Review was conducted at...

  13. Quantum Effects in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Masoud; Omar, Yasser; Engel, Gregory S.; Plenio, Martin B.

    2014-08-01

    List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Quantum biology: introduction Graham R. Fleming and Gregory D. Scholes; 2. Open quantum system approaches to biological systems Alireza Shabani, Masoud Mohseni, Seogjoo Jang, Akihito Ishizaki, Martin Plenio, Patrick Rebentrost, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Jianshu Cao, Seth Lloyd and Robert Silbey; 3. Generalized Förster resonance energy transfer Seogjoo Jang, Hoda Hossein-Nejad and Gregory D. Scholes; 4. Multidimensional electronic spectroscopy Tomáš Mančal; Part II. Quantum Effects in Bacterial Photosynthetic Energy Transfer: 5. Structure, function, and quantum dynamics of pigment protein complexes Ioan Kosztin and Klaus Schulten; 6. Direct observation of quantum coherence Gregory S. Engel; 7. Environment-assisted quantum transport Masoud Mohseni, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Patrick Rebentrost, Alireza Shabani, Seth Lloyd, Susana F. Huelga and Martin B. Plenio; Part III. Quantum Effects in Higher Organisms and Applications: 8. Excitation energy transfer in higher plants Elisabet Romero, Vladimir I. Novoderezhkin and Rienk van Grondelle; 9. Electron transfer in proteins Spiros S. Skourtis; 10. A chemical compass for bird navigation Ilia A. Solov'yov, Thorsten Ritz, Klaus Schulten and Peter J. Hore; 11. Quantum biology of retinal Klaus Schulten and Shigehiko Hayashi; 12. Quantum vibrational effects on sense of smell A. M. Stoneham, L. Turin, J. C. Brookes and A. P. Horsfield; 13. A perspective on possible manifestations of entanglement in biological systems Hans J. Briegel and Sandu Popescu; 14. Design and applications of bio-inspired quantum materials Mohan Sarovar, Dörthe M. Eisele and K. Birgitta Whaley; 15. Coherent excitons in carbon nanotubes Leonas Valkunas and Darius Abramavicius; Glossary; References; Index.

  14. An Evaluation of the Teaching Effectiveness of PLATO in a First Level Biology Course. CERL Report X-32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenty, Richard P.; Kieffer, George H.

    This paper describes a study of the teaching effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction using the PLATO system at the University of Illinois in a first level biology course. College enrollment, class rank, final grade, and time study data of the control and experimental groups were obtained from master rosters. A questionnaire administered to…

  15. Quantum Effects in Biological Systems

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Since the last decade the study of quantum mechanical phenomena in biological systems has become a vibrant field of research. Initially sparked by evidence of quantum effects in energy transport that is instrumental for photosynthesis, quantum biology asks the question of how methods and models from quantum theory can help us to understand fundamental mechanisms in living organisms. This approach entails a paradigm change challenging the related disciplines: The successful framework of quantum theory is taken out of its low-temperature, microscopic regimes and applied to hot and dense macroscopic environments, thereby extending the toolbox of biology and biochemistry at the same time. The Quantum Effects in Biological Systems conference is a platform for researchers from biology, chemistry and physics to present and discuss the latest developments in the field of quantum biology. After meetings in Lisbon (2009), Harvard (2010), Ulm (2011), Berkeley (2012), Vienna (2013), Singapore (2014) and Florence (2015),...

  16. Biological Effectiveness of Antiproton Annihilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggiore, C.; Agazaryan, N.; Bassler, N.;

    2004-01-01

    from the annihilation of antiprotons produce an increase in ‘‘biological dose’’ in the vicinity of the narrow Bragg peak for antiprotons compared to protons. This experiment is the first direct measurement of the biological effects of antiproton annihilation. The background, description, and status...

  17. Biological Effects of Acoustic Cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    rectified diffusion. 56 III. STABLE CAVITATION A. Introduction There are manv areas associated with the biological effects of ultrasound in which the...used said as cavitation indicators. Further, if clinical ultrasound systems are found to be inducing cavitation , either stable or transient, it will...O BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ACOUSTIC CAVITATION by Lawrence A. Crum -- Physical Acoustics Research Laboratory Department of Physics and Astronomy ’ CTE

  18. The effect of exposure misclassification in spontaneous ADR reports on the time to detection of product-specific risks for biologicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, Niels S; Ebbers, Hans C; Straus, Sabine M J M;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The availability of accurate product-specific exposure information is essential in the pharmacovigilance of biologicals, because differences in the safety profile may emerge between products containing the same active substance. In spontaneous adverse drug reaction (ADR......) reports, drug exposure may, however, be misclassified, that is, attributed to the incorrect product. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of exposure misclassification on the time to detection of product-specific risks in spontaneous reporting systems. METHODS: We used data simulations...... reports may result in a delayed detection of product-specific risks, particularly in the detection of weak drug-event associations. Our findings can help inform the future implementation and refinement of product-specific and batch-specific signal detection procedures....

  19. Professional equity as reported by biology teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Claudia B.; Lakes Matyas, Marsha; Butler Kahle, Jane

    In 1982, the National Association of Biology Teachers surveyed its membership in order to assess the role and status of women in biology education. Items describing roles, salaries, assignments, professional activities, and sexual bias were included in the survey. This paper compares the responses of male and female biology educators, draws conclusions from the data, and suggests implications for the science education profession. Inequality in several professional areas was revealed. More women than men were single and reported no dependent children. Women exceeded men in both the lower and upper ends of the distribution of years of experience. However, the percentage of men exceeded that of women in most salary brackets beyond $20,000 and more men reported paid consulting opportunities. Men tended to teach at larger institutions and, at all academic levels, more men taught advanced classes. More men than women were involved with research activities. However, neither sex felt that the other one received preferential treatment in regard to salary and promotion. The majority of education administrators as well as science and biology faculties were male. However, the recent influx of women into science education positions may produce important changes. It is recommended that a comparative study be conducted in five years.

  20. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrì, M. A.; Di Luzio, Sr.; Di Luzio, S.

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays, concerns about hazards from electromagnetic fields represent an alarming source for human lives in technologically developed countries. We are surrounded by electromagnetic fields everywhere we spend our working hours, rest or recreational activities. The aim of this review is to summarize the biological effects due to these fields arising from power and transmission lines, electrical cable splices, electronic devices inside our homes and work-places, distribution networks and associated devices such as cellular telephones and wireless communication tower, etc. Special care has been reserved to study the biological effects of electromagnetic fields on cell lines of the mammalian immune system about which our research group has been working for several years.

  1. Preliminary study of the behavioral and biological effects of high-intensity 60-Hz electric fields. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldstone, C.S.

    1979-02-01

    This preliminary study develops and thoroughly tests the experimental protocols and apparatus that are planned for a major study of the behavioral and biological effects of high-intensity 60-Hz electric fields. The behavior of baboons will be observed before, during, and after exposure to the field at maximum intensity of 60 kV/m. Both individual performance (operant conditioning) and social behavior will be examined. The present report covers Week 25 through Week 36 of the project. Construction of the facility was nearly completed, the preliminary training of the individual behavior animals was brought close to completion, and the two sets of social animals were allowed to adapt to each other and to their environment. The report addresses the following major areas: the high-voltage exposure facility; the electric-field-probe accuracy; the holding cages for social-behavior subjects; the preliminary shaping facility; the shaping procedures; and the social-behavior subjects.

  2. Biology and Medicine Division annual report, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    Modern biology is characterized by rapid change. The development of new tools and the results derived from their application to various biological systems require significant shifts in our concepts and the strategies that are adopted to analyze and elucidate mechanisms. In parallel with exciting new scientific developments our organizational structure and programmatic emphases have altered. These changes and developments have enabled the life sciences at LBL to be better positioned to create and respond to new opportunities. The work summarized in this annual report reflects a vital multifaceted research program that is in the vanguard of the areas represented. We are committed to justifying the confidence expressed by LBL through the new mission statement and reorganizational changes designed to give greater prominence to the life sciences.

  3. The impact of biology on risk assessment -- Workshop of the National Research Council`s board on radiation effects research. Meeting report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R.J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Grosovsky, A. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Hanawalt, P.C. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Jostes, R.F. [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States). Board on Radiation Effects Research; Little, J.B. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Cancer Biology; Morgan, W.F. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Oleinick, N.L. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Ullrich, R.L. [Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States). Dept. of Radiation Therapy

    1997-12-31

    The linear, nonthreshold extrapolation from a dose-response relationship for ionizing radiation derived at higher doses to doses for which regulatory standards are proposed is being challenged by some scientists and defended by others. It appears that the risks associated with exposures to doses of interest are below the risks that can be measured with epidemiologic studies. Therefore, many have looked to biology to provide information relevant to risk assessment. The workshop reported here, ``The Impact of biology on Risk Assessment,`` was planned to address the need for further information by bringing together scientists who have been working in key fields of biology and others who have been contemplating the issues associated specifically with this question. The goals of the workshop were to summarize and review the status of the relevant biology, to determine how the reported biologic data might influence risk assessment, and to identify subjects on which more data is needed.

  4. Biological effectiveness of antiproton annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Holzscheiter, Michael H.; Bassler, Niels; Beyer, Gerd; De Marco, John J.; Doser, Michael; Ichioka, Toshiyasu; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; Knudsen, Helge V.; Landua, Rolf; Maggiore, Carl; McBride, William H.; Møller, Søren Pape; Petersen, Jorgen; Smathers, James B.; Skarsgard, Lloyd D.; Solberg, Timothy D.; Uggerhøj, Ulrik I.; Withers, H.Rodney; Vranjes, Sanja; Wong, Michelle; Wouters, Bradly G.

    2004-01-01

    We describe an experiment designed to determine whether or not the densely ionizing particles emanating from the annihilation of antiprotons produce an increase in “biological dose” in the vicinity of the narrow Bragg peak for antiprotons compared to protons. This experiment is the first direct measurement of the biological effects of antiproton annihilation. The experiment has been approved by the CERN Research Board for running at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD) as AD-4/ACE (Antiproton Cell Experiment) and has begun data taking in June of 2003. The background, description and the current status of the experiment are given.

  5. Biological effectiveness of antiproton annihilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzscheiter, M.H.; Agazaryan, N.; Bassler, Niels

    2004-01-01

    We describe an experiment designed to determine whether or not the densely ionizing particles emanating from the annihilation of antiprotons produce an increase in ‘‘biological dose’’ in the vicinity of the narrow Bragg peak for antiprotons compared to protons. This experiment is the first direct...... measurement of the biological effects of antiproton annihilation. The experiment has been approved by the CERN Research Board for running at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD) as AD-4/ACE (Antiproton Cell Experiment) and has begun data taking in June of 2003. The background, description and the current...

  6. Biological effects of electric fields: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L.E.; Phillips, R.D.

    1983-11-01

    An overview of the literature suggests tha electric-field exposure is an environmental agent/influence of relatively low potential toxicity to biological systems. Generally, many of the biological effects which have been reported are quite subtle and differences between exposed and unexposed subjects may be masked by normal biological variations. However, several recent reports indicate possibly more serious consequences from chronic exposure, emphasizing the need for more research in epidemiology and laboratory experiments. This paper presents a cursory overview of investigations on the biological consequences of exposure to ELF electromagnetic fields. Three important topics are discussed, including: 1) the general methodology of exposure experiments, including those elements which are critical for definitive studies in biological systems; 2) a brief discussion of epidemiological and clinical studies conducted to date; and 3) a somewhat more extensive examination of animal experiments representing major areas of investigation (behavior, biological rhythms, nervous and endocrine systems, bone growth and repair, cardiovascular system and blood chemistry, immunology, reproduction, growth and development mortality and pathology, cellular and membrane studies, and mutagenesis). A discussion of current concepts, possible mechanisms and future directions of research is presented. 110 references.

  7. Biological effectiveness of neutrons: Research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casarett, G.W.; Braby, L.A.; Broerse, J.J.; Elkind, M.M.; Goodhead, D.T.; Oleinick, N.L.

    1994-02-01

    The goal of this report was to provide a conceptual plan for a research program that would provide a basis for determining more precisely the biological effectiveness of neutron radiation with emphasis on endpoints relevant to the protection of human health. This report presents the findings of the experts for seven particular categories of scientific information on neutron biological effectiveness. Chapter 2 examines the radiobiological mechanisms underlying the assumptions used to estimate human risk from neutrons and other radiations. Chapter 3 discusses the qualitative and quantitative models used to organize and evaluate experimental observations and to provide extrapolations where direct observations cannot be made. Chapter 4 discusses the physical principles governing the interaction of radiation with biological systems and the importance of accurate dosimetry in evaluating radiation risk and reducing the uncertainty in the biological data. Chapter 5 deals with the chemical and molecular changes underlying cellular responses and the LET dependence of these changes. Chapter 6, in turn, discusses those cellular and genetic changes which lead to mutation or neoplastic transformation. Chapters 7 and 8 examine deterministic and stochastic effects, respectively, and the data required for the prediction of such effects at different organizational levels and for the extrapolation from experimental results in animals to risks for man. Gaps and uncertainties in this data are examined relative to data required for establishing radiation protection standards for neutrons and procedures for the effective and safe use of neutron and other high-LET radiation therapy.

  8. Decavanadate effects in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureliano, Manuel; Gândara, Ricardo M C

    2005-05-01

    Vanadium biological studies often disregarded the formation of decameric vanadate species known to interact, in vitro, with high-affinity with many proteins such as myosin and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump and also to inhibit these biochemical systems involved in energy transduction. Moreover, very few in vivo animal studies involving vanadium consider the contribution of decavanadate to vanadium biological effects. Recently, it has been shown that an acute exposure to decavanadate but not to other vanadate oligomers induced oxidative stress and a different fate in vanadium intracellular accumulation. Several markers of oxidative stress analyzed on hepatic and cardiac tissue were monitored after in vivo effect of an acute exposure (12, 24 h and 7 days), to a sub-lethal concentration (5 mM; 1 mg/kg) of two vanadium solutions ("metavanadate" and "decavanadate"). It was observed that "decavanadate" promote different effects than other vanadate oligomers in catalase activity, glutathione content, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial superoxide anion production and vanadium accumulation, whereas both solutions seem to equally depress reactive oxygen species (ROS) production as well as total intracellular reducing power. Vanadium is accumulated in mitochondria in particular when "decavanadate" is administered. These recent findings, that are now summarized, point out the decameric vanadate species contributions to in vivo and in vitro effects induced by vanadium in biological systems.

  9. Biological effects of power line fields: New York State Power Lines Project Scientific Advisory Panel: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlbom, A.; Albert, E.N.; Fraser-Smith, A.C.; Grodzinsky, A.J.; Marron, M.T.; Martin, A.O.; Persinger, M.A.; Shelanski, M.L.; Wolpow, E.R.

    1987-07-01

    The New York State Power Lines Project was established to conduct research and to review the scientific literature to determine whether health hazards of electric and magnetic fields are possible. Particular attention was directed to the fields generated by 765-kV overhead transmission lines. The research program provided support to 16 research groups studying human, animal and isolated cell sensitivity to electric and magnetic fields. No effects were found on reproduction, growth or development. Several studies showed no evidence of genetic or chromosomal damage that might lead to inherited effects or cause cancer. While most measurements of behavior and brain function did not demonstrate changes, some did show changes that were small but consistent. Some of these appear to result from changes in body rhythms, and might interfere with normal sleep patterns. There were also changes in pain responses and in the ability of rats to learn. A more serious concern comes from a study of cancer in children suggesting that children with leukemia and brain cancer are more likely to live in homes where there are elevated 60-Hz magnetic field levels. Although much more research is needed before the question whether the magnetic fields actually cause or promote cancer can be resolved, the basis for such an hypothesis is now established. 159 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Quantum Effects in Biological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sisir

    2014-07-01

    The debates about the trivial and non-trivial effects in biological systems have drawn much attention during the last decade or so. What might these non-trivial sorts of quantum effects be? There is no consensus so far among the physicists and biologists regarding the meaning of "non-trivial quantum effects". However, there is no doubt about the implications of the challenging research into quantum effects relevant to biology such as coherent excitations of biomolecules and photosynthesis, quantum tunneling of protons, van der Waals forces, ultrafast dynamics through conical intersections, and phonon-assisted electron tunneling as the basis for our sense of smell, environment assisted transport of ions and entanglement in ion channels, role of quantum vacuum in consciousness. Several authors have discussed the non-trivial quantum effects and classified them into four broad categories: (a) Quantum life principle; (b) Quantum computing in the brain; (c) Quantum computing in genetics; and (d) Quantum consciousness. First, I will review the above developments. I will then discuss in detail the ion transport in the ion channel and the relevance of quantum theory in brain function. The ion transport in the ion channel plays a key role in information processing by the brain.

  11. US-USSR space biology report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, R.

    1972-01-01

    The recommendations of the Joint Working Group on Space Biology and Medicine are reported. The exchange of information for the U.S. included the pre- and postflight medical requirements and flight crew health stabilization program for Apollo 16. The U.S.S.R. presentations detailed the medical findings of the Soyuz/Salyut mission, including the postflight autopsy results. The causes of death of the cosmonauts were the occurrence of hypoxia and gaseous embolism. A significant development resulting from the meeting was the agreement that the Joint Working Group strive toward the development of common pre- and postflight medical examination procedures for flight crews for direct comparison of U.S. and U.S.S.R. data.

  12. Biology and Medicine Division annual report, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-04-01

    This book briefly describes the activities of the Biology and Medicine Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. During the past year the Donner Pavilion program on the treatment of arteriovenous malformations in the brain has chalked up very significant successes. The disease control rate has been high and objective measures of success using cerebral angiography have been established. The new high resolution positron emitting tomographic imager has been demonstrated to operate successfully. In the Radiation Biophysics program, the availability of higher mass ions up to uranium has allowed us cell and tissue studies in a radiation domain that is entirely new. Using uranium beams, investigators have already made new and exciting findings that are described in the body of the report.

  13. Estimation of Biological Effects of Tritium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umata, Toshiyuki

    Nuclear fusion technology is expected to create new energy in the future. However, nuclear fusion requires a large amount of tritium as a fuel, leading to concern about the exposure of radiation workers to tritium beta radiation. Furthermore, countermeasures for tritium-polluted water produced in decommissioning of the reactor at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station may potentially cause health problems in radiation workers. Although, internal exposure to tritium at a low dose/low dose rate can be assumed, biological effect of tritium exposure is not negligible, because tritiated water (HTO) intake to the body via the mouth/inhalation/skin would lead to homogeneous distribution throughout the whole body. Furthermore, organically-bound tritium (OBT) stays in the body as parts of the molecules that comprise living organisms resulting in long-term exposure, and the chemical form of tritium should be considered. To evaluate the biological effect of tritium, the effect should be compared with that of other radiation types. Many studies have examined the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritium. Hence, we report the RBE, which was obtained with radiation carcinogenesis classified as a stochastic effect, and serves as a reference for cancer risk. We also introduce the outline of the tritium experiment and the principle of a recently developed animal experimental system using transgenic mouse to detect the biological influence of radiation exposure at a low dose/low dose rate.

  14. Biological studies of radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.H.

    1949-11-16

    This paper discusses procedures for research on biological effects of radiation, using mouse tissue: activation trace analysis including methods and proceedures for handling samples before during and after irradiation; methods and procedures for ion exchange study; method of separation and recovery of copper, iron, zinc, cobalt, pubidium and cesium. Also included are studies of trace elements with radioactive isotopes: the distribution of cobalt 60, zinc 65, and copper 64 in the cytoplasm and nuclei of normal mice and those with tumors. 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. [Biological effects of electromagnetic fields (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, J

    1979-08-01

    This résumé deals with thermal and nonthermal effects of electromagnetic fields on man. In consideration of two aspects a limitation is necessary. Firstly, there will be discussed only direct and immediate influences on biological cells and tissues, secondly, the treatment is limited to such phenomena, for which biophysical aproximations, based on experimental data, could be developed. Hazards for the human being may occur only by thermal effects within the microwave range. Regarding frequencies below approximately 30 kHz, excitation processes cannot be excluded in exceptional cases. Thermal effects are predominant, between 30 kHz and 100 kHz, before excitations can appear. Furthermore, by comparing the electrically and magnetically induced currents with the naturally flowing currents in man caused by the brain's and heart's electrical activity, a "lower boundaryline" was estimated. Regarding electric or magnetic field strengths undercutting this boundary-line, direct effects on the central nervous system may be excluded; other mechanisms should be responsible for demonstrated biological effects. The paper closes referring to some reports--presently discussed--on experimental findings of biological effects, which are observed as a result of the influence of electromagnetic fields of small field strengths.

  16. Meeting Report: Synthetic Biology Jamboree for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    The field of synthetic biology (the name is derived from an analogy to synthetic chemistry) has recognized itself as a "field" only since about 2002. Synthetic biology has gotten some high-profile attention recently, but most people are not aware the field even exists. Synthetic biologists apply engineering principles to genomic circuits to…

  17. Meeting Report: Synthetic Biology Jamboree for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    The field of synthetic biology (the name is derived from an analogy to synthetic chemistry) has recognized itself as a "field" only since about 2002. Synthetic biology has gotten some high-profile attention recently, but most people are not aware the field even exists. Synthetic biologists apply engineering principles to genomic circuits to…

  18. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 15: A Third Compilation of Technical Reports on the Biological Effects and the Public Health Aspects of Atmospheric Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Ten papers were translated: Maximum permissible concentrations of noxious substances in the atmospheric air of populated areas; Some aspects of the biological effect of microconcentrations of two chloroisocyanates; The toxicology of low concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons; Chronic action of low concentrations of acrolein in air on the…

  19. Biological effects data: Fluoride and sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMechan, K.J. (ed.); Holton, R.L.; Ulbricht, R.J.; Morgan , J.B.

    1975-04-01

    The Alumax Pacific Aluminum Corporation has proposed construction of an aluminum reduction facility near Youngs Bay at Warrenton, Oregon. This report comprises one part of the final report to Alumax on a research project entitled, Physical, Chemical and Biological Studies of Youngs Bay.'' It presents data pertaining to the potential biological effects of fluoride and sulfur dioxide, two potentially hazardous plant-stack emissions, on selected aquatic species of the area. Companion volumes provide a description of the physical characteristics the geochemistry, and the aquatic animals present in Youngs Bay and adjacent ecosystems. An introductory volume provides general information and maps of the area, and summarizes the conclusions of all four studies. The data from the two phases of the experimental program are included in this report: lethal studies on the effects of selected levels of fluoride and sulfur dioxide on the survival rate of eleven Youngs Bay faunal species from four phyla, and sublethal studies on the effects of fluoride and sulfur dioxide on the rate of primary production of phytoplankton. 44 refs., 18 figs., 38 tabs.

  20. [Biological effect of wood dust].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewska, A; Wojtczak, J; Bielichowska-Cybula, G; Domańska, A; Dutkiewicz, J; Mołocznik, A

    1993-01-01

    The biological effect of exposure to wood dust depends on its composition and the content of microorganisms which are an inherent element of the dust. The irritant and allergic effects of wood dust have been recognised for a long time. The allergic effect is caused by the wood dust of subtropical trees, e.g. western red cedar (Thuja plicata), redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), obeche (Triplochiton scleroxylon), cocabolla (Dalbergia retusa) and others. Trees growing in the European climate such as: larch (Larix), walnut (Juglans regia), oak (Quercus), beech (Fagus), pine (Pinus) cause a little less pronounced allergic effect. Occupational exposure to irritative or allergic wood dust may lead to bronchial asthma, rhinitis, alveolitis allergica, DDTS (Organic dust toxic syndrome), bronchitis, allergic dermatitis, conjunctivitis. An increased risk of adenocarcinoma of the sinonasal cavity is an important and serious problem associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. Adenocarcinoma constitutes about half of the total number of cancers induced by wood dust. An increased incidence of the squamous cell cancers can also be observed. The highest risk of cancer applies to workers of the furniture industry, particularly those dealing with machine wood processing, cabinet making and carpentry. The cancer of the upper respiratory tract develops after exposure to many kinds of wood dust. However, the wood dust of oak and beech seems to be most carcinogenic. It is assumed that exposure to wood dust can cause an increased incidence of other cancers, especially lung cancer and Hodgkin's disease. The adverse effects of microorganisms, mainly mould fungi and their metabolic products are manifested by alveolitis allergica and ODTS. These microorganisms can induce aspergillomycosis, bronchial asthma, rhinitis and allergic dermatitis.

  1. Biological effects of drilling wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranford, P. J. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Bedford Inst. of Oceanography

    2000-07-01

    An argument is made for the point of view that economic realities require that a sustainable fishery must co-exist with the offshore petroleum industry, and therefore to sustain the fishery comprehensive studies are needed to identify and minimize the impact of operational drilling wastes on fishery resources. Moreover, laboratory and field studies indicate that operational drilling platforms impact on fisheries at great distances, therefore studies should not be limited to the immediate vicinity of drilling sites. Studies on long-term exposure of resident organisms to low level contaminants and the chronic lethal and sublethal biological effects of production drilling wastes must be conducted under environmentally relevant conditions to ensure the validity of the results. Studies at the Bedford Institute of Oceanography on sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus) shows them to be highly sensitive to impacts from drilling wastes. Results of these studies, integrated with toxicity data and information on the distribution and transport of drilling wastes have been used by regulatory agencies and industrial interests to develop scientifically sound and justifiable regulations. They also led to the development of practical, sensitive and cost-effective technologies that use resident resource species to detect environmental impacts at offshore production sites. 1 fig.

  2. Biology and Medicine Division: Annual report 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-04-01

    The Biology and Medicine Division continues to make important contributions in scientific areas in which it has a long-established leadership role. For 50 years the Division has pioneered in the application of radioisotopes and charged particles to biology and medicine. There is a growing emphasis on cellular and molecular applications in the work of all the Division's research groups. The powerful tools of genetic engineering, the use of recombinant products, the analytical application of DNA probes, and the use of restriction fragment length polymorphic DNA are described and proposed for increasing use in the future.

  3. Biology Division. Progress report, August 1, 1982-September 30, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The Biology Division is the component of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory that investigates the potential adverse health effects of energy-related substances. The body of this report provides summaries of the aims, scope and progress of the research of groups of investigators in the Division during the period of August 1, 1982, through September 30, 1983. At the end of each summary is a list of publications covering the same period (published or accepted for publication). For convenience, the summaries are assembled under Sections in accordance with the current organizational structure of the Biology Division; each Section begins with an overview. It will be apparent, however, that currents run throughout the Division and that the various programs support and interact with each other.

  4. Report on the 5th International Bio-logging Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson...LONG-TERM GOALS Bio-logging originated in the marine (polar) realm, which explains why marine mammals remain today the main biological models in...www.animalbiotelemetry.com/) and Movement Ecology (http://www.movementecologyjournal.com/). A book on Bio-logging, commissioned on Springer will be

  5. Biological effects of high LET radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masami [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    1997-03-01

    Biological effect of radiation is different by a kind of it greatly. Heavy ions were generally more effective in cell inactivation, chromosome aberration induction, mutation induction and neoplastic cell transformation induction than {gamma}-rays in SHE cells. (author)

  6. Compilation and assessment of microwave bioeffects. Final report. A selective review of the literature on biological effects of microwaves in relation to the Satellite Power System (SPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justesen, D.R.; Ragan, H.A.; Rogers, L.E.; Guy, A.W.; Hjeresen, D.L.; Hinds, W.T.; Phillips, R.D.

    1978-05-01

    One of many alternate sources of electrical energy that are being considered by the Department of Energy is a microwave-mediated Satellite Power System (SPS). Once inserted into geosynchronous orbit at an altitude of more than 40,000 kilometers, a satellite would collect then convert the sun's energy to 2450-MHz microwaves, which would be beamed to the Earth's surface, where a rectifying antenna (rectenna) would convert the microwaves to electrical current suitable for industrial and domestic use. The expanse of each rectenna (about 10 by 13 kilometers), the power density of the continuous-wave microwave beam (approx. 23 mW/cm/sup 2/ at center, with fall off to 1 mW/cm/sup 2/ or less at the periphery of the rectenna), and the possibility that 20 or more satellite systems will eventually be operating, creates two sets of interrelated problems for biological/ecological assessment. These are 1) the effects of microwave fields of higher intensity on airborne biota (including human beings in aircraft) that may traffic the area above the rectenna and 2) the effects of virtually perpetual fields of much lower intensity on all forms of life at and beyond the rectennae's zone of exclusion. In this review, the scientific literature is examined, not only for biological effects that are pertinent to assessment of SPS, but for hiatuses of knowledge that will have to be filled before SPS can be vouched for operational safety.

  7. Correlation Effects in Biological Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Bagdasaryan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of the complex network theory is presented and classification of such networks in accordance with the main statistical characteristics is considered. For the adjacency matrix of a real neural network the shortest distances for each pair of nodes as well as the node degree distribution and cluster coefficients are calculated. Comparison of the main statistical parameters with the random network is performed, and based on this, the conclusions about the correlation phenomena in biological system are made.

  8. Preliminary study of the behavioral and biological effects of high intensity 60 HZ electric fields. Interim technical progress report No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldstone, C.; Spiegel, R.J.; Winters, W.; Polonis, J.J.

    1980-03-01

    Progress is reported in studies of the effects of high intensity 60 Hz electric fields on baboon behavior - both individual performance (operant conditioning) and natural (social) behavior. The result of the study should be either a clear indication of the electric field intensity which produces deleterious effects in the baboon or an indication that the highest field intensity of practical interest (analogous to the highest intensity that can be encountered by man under power lines) produces no deleterious effects. The generalization of results to man will be futher aided by the development of models relating the physical effects of electric fields on man to the physical effects on the baboon. (LCL)

  9. Biological effects of exposure to magnetic resonance imaging: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Formica Domenico; Silvestri Sergio

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The literature on biological effects of magnetic and electromagnetic fields commonly utilized in magnetic resonance imaging systems is surveyed here. After an introduction on the basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging and the electric and magnetic properties of biological tissues, the basic phenomena to understand the bio-effects are described in classical terms. Values of field strengths and frequencies commonly utilized in these diagnostic systems are reported in order to a...

  10. Annual Biology Report for Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This outlines the results of biological efforts at Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge in 2005. The report covers water management, waterfowl breeding and counts,...

  11. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual technical report 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, M.W. (ed.)

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes research during 1982 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Carcinogenesis address mechanisms of chemical and radiation carcinogenesis including the processes of tumor initiation and promotion. The studies employ rat liver and mouse skin models as well as human rodent cell culture systems. The use of liposomes for metal mobilization is also explored. Low Level Radiation studies include delineation of the hematopoietic and other responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiation. Molecular Biology research develops two-dimensional electrophoresis systems for diagnosis and detection of cancer and other diseases. Fundamental structural and biophysical investigations of immunoglobulins and other key proteins are included, as are studies of cell growth, and of molecular and cellular effects of solar uv light. Research in Toxicology uses cellular, physiological, whole animal, and chronobiological end points and chemical separations to elucidate mechanisms and evaluate hazards of coal conversion by-products, actinides, and toxic metals. The final sections cover support facilities, educational activities, seminars, staff talks, staff, and funding agencies.

  12. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual report 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, M.W. (ed.)

    1978-01-01

    The research during 1978 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory, is summarized. Studies related to nuclear energy include responses of beagles to continuous low-level /sup 60/Co gamma radiation, and development of leukemic indicators; comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low-level neutron and /sup 60/Co gamma radiation; genetic effects of high LET radiations; and metabolic and therapeutic studies of heavy metals. Studies of nonnuclear energy sources deal with characterization and toxicological evaluation of effluents of fluidized bed combustion and coal gasification; electrical storage systems; electric fields associated with energy transmission; and development of population projection models and assessment of human risk. Basic research studies include fundamental structural and biophysical investigations; circadian rhythms; mutagenesis in bacteria and mammalian cells; cell killing, damage, and repair in mammalian cells; carcinogenesis and cocarcinogenesis; the use of liposomes as biological carriers; and studies of environmental influences on life-span, physiological performance, and circadian cycles. In the area of medical development, proteins in urine and tissues of normal and diseased humans are analyzed, and advanced analytical procedures for use of stable isotopes in clinical research and diagnosis are developed and applied. The final sections of the report cover support facilities, educational activities, the seminar program, staff talks, and staff publications.

  13. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual technical report, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, M.W. (ed.)

    1982-06-01

    This report summarizes research during 1981 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Low Level Radiation include comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, delineation of the responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, elucidation of mechanisms of radiation damage and repair in mammalian cells, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiations. Carcinogenesis research addresses mechanisms of tumor initiation and promotion in rat liver, chemical carcinogenesis in cultured mammalian cells, and molecular and genetic mechanisms of chemical and ultraviolet mutagenesis in bacteria. Research in Toxicology uses a variety of cellular, whole animal, and chronobiological end points, chemical separations, and statistical models to evaluate the hazards and mechanisms of actions of metals, coal gasification by products, and other energy-related pollutants. Human Protein Index studies develop two-dimensional electrophoresis systems for diagnosis and detection of cancer and other disease. Biophysics research includes fundamental structural and biophysical investigations of immunoglobulins and key biological molecules using NMR, crystallographic, and x-ray and neutron small-angle scattering techniques. The final sections cover support facilities, educational activities, seminars, staff talks, staff, and funding agencies.

  14. Yucca Mountain biological resources monitoring program; Annual report FY92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a potential site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG&G/EM) during fiscal year 1992 (FY92) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  15. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program; Annual report, FY91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the Yucca Mountain area, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and to ensure that activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments during fiscal year 1991 (FY91) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Activities Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  16. Biology Division progress report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This Progress Report summarizes the research endeavors of the Biology Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory during the period October 1, 1993, through September 30, 1995. The report is structured to provide descriptions of current activities and accomplishments in each of the Division`s major organizational units. Lists of information to convey the entire scope of the Division`s activities are compiled at the end of the report. Attention is focused on the following research activities: molecular, cellular, and cancer biology; mammalian genetics and development; genome mapping program; and educational activities.

  17. Quarterly report of Biological and Medical Research Division, April 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brues, A.M.

    1955-04-01

    This report is a compilation of 48 investigator prepared summaries of recent progress in individual research programs of the Biology and Medical Division of the Argonne National Laboratory for the quarterly period ending April,1955. Individual reports are about 3-6 pages in length and often contain research data.

  18. UC Merced Center for Computational Biology Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colvin, Michael; Watanabe, Masakatsu

    2010-11-30

    Final report for the UC Merced Center for Computational Biology. The Center for Computational Biology (CCB) was established to support multidisciplinary scientific research and academic programs in computational biology at the new University of California campus in Merced. In 2003, the growing gap between biology research and education was documented in a report from the National Academy of Sciences, Bio2010 Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists. We believed that a new type of biological sciences undergraduate and graduate programs that emphasized biological concepts and considered biology as an information science would have a dramatic impact in enabling the transformation of biology. UC Merced as newest UC campus and the first new U.S. research university of the 21st century was ideally suited to adopt an alternate strategy - to create a new Biological Sciences majors and graduate group that incorporated the strong computational and mathematical vision articulated in the Bio2010 report. CCB aimed to leverage this strong commitment at UC Merced to develop a new educational program based on the principle of biology as a quantitative, model-driven science. Also we expected that the center would be enable the dissemination of computational biology course materials to other university and feeder institutions, and foster research projects that exemplify a mathematical and computations-based approach to the life sciences. As this report describes, the CCB has been successful in achieving these goals, and multidisciplinary computational biology is now an integral part of UC Merced undergraduate, graduate and research programs in the life sciences. The CCB began in fall 2004 with the aid of an award from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), under its Genomes to Life program of support for the development of research and educational infrastructure in the modern biological sciences. This report to DOE describes the research and academic programs

  19. Biological Opinion Compliance Report and Permit Activity Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    T.W. Custer. 1986. Hatching Success of Caspian Terns Nesting on the Lower Laguna Madre , Texas , USA. Colonial Birds. 9(1). Pp 86-89. Persons working with...U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on November 14,’ 1 990. Initial District implementation of that Biological Opinion began in 1 992, following the...known as the "Red Book." The Red Book was reviewed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and approved for implementation by the Missouri River Division

  20. Biological effects of thyroid hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Saatov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the findings from the study on multifunctional effects of thyroid hormones in relation to normal and malignantly transformed tissues and cells. Both “rapid” and «slow» effects of thyroid hormones including calorigenic effects and effects over adenylate cyclase – cAMP system have been described. Thyroxin (Т4 has been established capable to inhibit proliferation and to induce apoptosis of cells carrying Т4 receptors on their membranes as well as to change course of metabolic processes under its effect. Spectrum of Т4 targets is quite broad to include not only cells of hormone-producing organs, to name those of the breast and the colon, but also other types of cells to name melanin-containing ones; Т4 effects resulting in reconstruction of presentation of regulatory proteins on the cell membrane surface to ultimately activate the process of cell apoptosis. Our findings help determine alternative paths for hormonal regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis of cells of hormone-dependent tumors, breast cancer, in particular, upon impossibility to regulate the processes by conventional methods. This facilitates understanding mechanisms for activation of signal system of the breast cancer’s cells by hormones upon changes in expression of receptors on the cells’ surface, making possible development of novel strategy for replacement therapy of hormone-dependent tumors upon low efficacy of drug therapy.

  1. Biologic width and crown lengthening: case reports and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Se-Lim

    2010-01-01

    The biologic width includes both the connective tissue attachment and the junctional epithelium and has a mean dimension of approximately 2 mm. Invading the biologic width with a restoration can result in localized crestal bone loss, gingival recession, localized gingival hyperplasia, or a combination of these three. When restoring teeth that have subgingival caries or fractures below the gingival attachment, a clinical crown-lengthening procedure is needed to establish the biologic width. This article presents three case reports that utilized crown-lengthening procedures.

  2. Biology Division progress report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, F.C.; Cook, J.S.

    1993-10-01

    This Progress Report summarizes the research endeavors of the Biology Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory during the period October 1, 1991, through September 30, 1993. The report is structured to provide descriptions of current activities and accomplishments in each of the Division`s major organizational units. Lists of information to convey the entire scope of the Division`s activities are compiled at the end of the report.

  3. Chemical and biological nonproliferation program. FY99 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This document is the first of what will become an annual report documenting the progress made by the Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (CBNP). It is intended to be a summary of the program's activities that will be of interest to both policy and technical audiences. This report and the annual CBNP Summer Review Meeting are important vehicles for communication with the broader chemical and biological defense and nonproliferation communities. The Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program Strategic Plan is also available and provides additional detail on the program's context and goals. The body of the report consists of an overview of the program's philosophy, goals and recent progress in the major program areas. In addition, an appendix is provided with more detailed project summaries that will be of interest to the technical community.

  4. Technology Rich Biology Labs: Effects of Misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuech, Robert; Zogg, Gregory; Zeeman, Stephan; Johnson, Mark

    This paper describes a study conducted on the lab sections of the general biology course for non-science majors at the University of New England, and reports findings of student misconceptions about photosynthesis and the mass/carbon uptake during plant growth. The current study placed high technology analytic tools in the hands of introductory…

  5. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G. [SENES Oak Ridge Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Theodorakis, C.W.; Shugart, L.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division

    1996-12-31

    Natural populations have always been exposed to background levels of ionizing radiation; however, with the event of the nuclear age, studies about the effects of higher-than-background levels of ionizing radiation on individuals or populations of organisms became important. Originally, concern was focused on survival after large, acute radiation doses, and numerous studies document the somatic and genetic effects of acute ionizing radiation. However, there is a growing realization that chronic long-term exposure to higher-than-background levels of environmental radiation is more likely than is large acute exposure. Less than 10% of the literature on ionizing radiation effects deals with chronic long-term effects, and very few studies involve natural populations. In 1977, mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis, were experimentally introduced into a 0,45 ha, decommissioned, radioactive waste pond where the measured dose at the sediment-water interface was 1,150 rad/year. One year later, the fecundity of the population had not changed significantly. Eighteen years later, studies of the fish showed an inverse correlation between DNA strand breakage and fecundity in the contaminated pond. More recent studies have provided evidence that genetic diversity of the fish has increased in the contaminated site. These fish also have a greater prevalence of certain DNA banding patterns. Individuals displaying these banding patterns have a higher fecundity and lower degree of DNA strand breakage than individuals with less common banding patterns. Gambusia affinis has apparently adapted to the high background radiation, successfully surviving for approximately 50 generations. 31 refs, 5 figs.

  6. Effects of wood ash on the biologic diversity of the soil fauna. Final report; Effekter av vedaska paa biologisk maangfald hos markfaunan. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Tryggve; Ahlstroem, Kerstin; Lindberg, Niklas [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Vindeln (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research

    2005-06-01

    The aim was to assess long-term effects of wood-ash and lime application on the soil fauna diversity. The study was made at three sites, Oeringe and Torup in the county of Halland and Asa in the county of Smaaland, 20, 14 and 10 years after treatment, respectively. The soil fauna groups reported here are Enchytraeidae, Tardigrada and Oribatida. Different kinds of wood ash results in very different effects on soil pH despite similar dose. Non-hardened fresh ash increased pH as indicated by the liming potential (ca. 2 tonnes of CaCO{sub 3} correspond to 2,4 tonnes of loose ash). Hardened wood ash (at Asa) had a smaller effect on pH than corresponding amount of lime, and ca. 6 tonnes of ash/ha were needed to obtain the same effects as 3 tonnes of lime. Granulated wood ash (at Torup) had an even smaller effect on pH than the hardened ash at Asa. A preliminary estimate is that 6 tonnes/ha granulated ash correspond to 3 tonnes/ha of hardened ash, 1.5 tonnes/ha of non-hardened loose ash and 1 tonne/ha of CaCO{sub 3}. The results with regard to soil fauna show that individual numbers, species numbers and single species of Enchytraeidae and Oribatid mites are strongly dependent on the ash/lime effect on pH in the topsoil layer. Lime and ash appear to have similar effect on these animal groups provided that the pH effect is similar. Therefore, it is possible to extrapolate conclusions from liming trials to ash trials, provided that the pH effect is known. The Tardigrades did not seem to react on the treatments. We conclude that the effect of wood ash on the diversity of soil fauna investigated depends on the solubility of the wood ash and its effect on soil pH. Depending on the effect on pH, ash application results in (a) decreasing densities but increasing species numbers of enchytraeids, (b) decreasing densities but no change in species numbers of oribatid mites and (c) a strong change in the community structure of both enchytraeids and oribatid mites.

  7. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS ON THE SOURCE OF GEONEUTRINOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleep, Norman H.; Bird, Dennis K.; Rosing, Minik T.

    2013-01-01

    its bulk earth value of similar to 4; Pb isotope measurements on mantle-derived rocks yield low Th/U values, effectively averaged over geological time. The physics of the modern biological process is complicated, but the net effect is that much of the U in the mantle comes from subducted marine...

  8. Biological Effects of Low-Dose Exposure

    CERN Document Server

    Komochkov, M M

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of the two-protection reaction model an analysis of stochastic radiobiological effects of low-dose exposure of different biological objects has been carried out. The stochastic effects are the results published in the last decade: epidemiological studies of human cancer mortality, the yield of thymocyte apoptosis of mice and different types of chromosomal aberrations. The results of the analysis show that as dependent upon the nature of biological object, spontanous effect, exposure conditions and radiation type one or another form dose - effect relationship is realized: downwards concave, near to linear and upwards concave with the effect of hormesis included. This result testifies to the incomplete conformity of studied effects of 1990 ICRP recomendations based on the linear no-threshold hypothesis about dose - effect relationship. Because of this the methodology of radiation risk estimation recomended by ICRP needs more precisian and such quantity as collective dose ought to be classified into...

  9. Biological Effect of Magnetic Field in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Wei ZENG

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the biological effect of magnetic field in mice bodies. Method: With a piece of permanent magnet embeded in mice bodies beside the femoral artery and vein to measure the electrophoretic velocity(um/s). Result: The magnetic field in mice bodies on the experiment group that the electrophoretic velocity is faster more than control and free group.Conclusion:The magnetic field in animal's body can raise the negative electric charges on the surface of erythrocyte to improve the microcirculation, this is the biological effect of magnetic field.

  10. Standard reporting requirements for biological samples in metabolomics experiments: Microbial and in vitro biology experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, M.J. van der; Takors, R.; Smedsgaard, J.; Nielsen, J.; Ferenci, T.; Portais, J.C.; Wittmann, C.; Hooks, M.; Tomassini, A.; Oldiges, M.; Fostel, J.; Sauer, U.

    2007-01-01

    With the increasing use of metabolomics as a means to study a large number of different biological research questions, there is a need for a minimal set of reporting standards that allow the scientific community to evaluate, understand, repeat, compare and re-investigate metabolomics studies. Here w

  11. The effect of exposure misclassification in spontaneous ADR reports on the time to detection of product-specific risks for biologicals : A simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, Niels S.; Ebbers, Hans C.; Straus, Sabine M J M; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Egberts, Toine C G; De Bruin, Marie L.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: The availability of accurate product-specific exposure information is essential in the pharmacovigilance of biologicals, because differences in the safety profile may emerge between products containing the same active substance. In spontaneous adverse drug reaction (ADR) re

  12. Preliminary study of the behavioral and biological effects of high intensity 60 Hz electric fields. Quarterly technical progress report, No. 1. [Development and testing of experimental protocols and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-01

    The major objective of this preliminary study is to develop and thoroughly test the experimental protocols and apparatus, which are planned for a major study of the behavioral and biological effects of high intensity 60 Hz electric fields. The behavior of baboons will be observed before, during, and after exposure to 60 Hz electric fields at a maximum intensity of 60 kV/m. Both individual performance (operant conditioning) and social behavior will be examined. The preliminary study will differ from the planned major study as follows: subjects will be used as their own controls; a smaller number of subjects will be run; field intensity will not be varied; the electric field should be non-uniform; the preliminary study exposure facility will be basically an outdoor facility; to avoid deterioration of plastic materials, the high intensity fields will not be turned on during or just after rainfall; and in the preliminary study the biological work will be restricted to the clinical determination of the health of subjects before and after exposure. The present report is the first of three quarterly technical progress reports. It covers approximately the first two and one-half months of activity and, therefore, consists primarily of plans. The report addresses four major areas: the high intensity field exposure facility; the field measurement instrumentation; the operation conditioning equipment; and experimental methods including experimental design and data analysis.

  13. Lunar biological effects and the magnetosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevington, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The debate about how far the Moon causes biological effects has continued for two millennia. Pliny the Elder argued for lunar power "penetrating all things", including plants, fish, animals and humans. He also linked the Moon with tides, confirmed mathematically by Newton. A review of modern studies of biological effects, especially from plants and animals, confirms the pervasive nature of this lunar force. However calculations from physics and other arguments refute the supposed mechanisms of gravity and light. Recent space exploration allows a new approach with evidence of electromagnetic fields associated with the Earth's magnetotail at full moon during the night, and similar, but more limited, effects from the Moon's wake on the magnetosphere at new moon during the day. The disturbance of the magnetotail is perhaps shown by measurements of electric fields of up to 16V/m compared with the usual effects on some sensitive organisms. Similar intensities found in sferics, geomagnetic storms, aurora disturbance, sensations of a 'presence' and pre-seismic electromagnetic radiation are known to affect animals and 10-20% of the human population. There is now evidence for mechanisms such as calcium flux, melatonin disruption, magnetite and cryptochromes. Both environmental and receptor variations explain confounding factors and inconsistencies in the evidence. Electromagnetic effects might also account for some evolutionary changes. Further research on lunar biological effects, such as acute myocardial infarction, could help the development of strategies to reduce adverse effects for people sensitive to geomagnetic disturbance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. II. Biological studies of radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.H.

    1948-05-24

    With the completion of the 184 inch cyclotron in Berkeley and the successful construction of a deflector system, it was possible to bring the 190 Mev deuteron and the 380 Mev alpha beams out into the air and to begin a study of the effects of high-energy deuteron beams by direct irradiation of biological specimens. The direct biological use of deuteron beams was attempted earlier in Berkeley by Marshak, MacLeish, and Walker in 1940. These and other investigators have been aware for some time of the potential usefulness of high energy particle beams for radio-biological studies and their suitability for biological investigations. R.R. Wilson advanced the idea of using fast proton beams to deliver radiation and intervening tissues. R.E. Zirkle pointed out that such particle beams may be focused or screened until a cross-section of the beam is small enough to study effects of irradiation under the microscope on single cells or on parts of single cells. This article gives an overview of the radiological use of high energy deuteron beams, including the following topics: potential uses of high energy particle beams; experiments on the physical properties of the beam; lethal effect of the deuteron beam on mice.

  15. Report of the matrix of biological knowledge workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morowitz, H.J.; Smith, T.

    1987-10-30

    Current understanding of biology involves complex relationships rooted in enormous amounts of data. These data include entries from biochemistry, ecology, genetics, human and veterinary medicine, molecular structure studies, agriculture, embryology, systematics, and many other disciplines. The present wealth of biological data goes beyond past accumulations now include new understandings from molecular biology. Several important biological databases are currently being supported, and more are planned; however, major problems of interdatabase communication and management efficiency abound. Few scientists are currently capable of keeping up with this ever-increasing wealth of knowledge, let alone searching it efficiently for new or unsuspected links and important analogies. Yet this is what is required if the continued rapid generation of such data is to lead most effectively to the major conceptual, medical, and agricultural advances anticipated over the coming decades in the United States. The opportunity exists to combine the potential of modern computer science, database management, and artificial intelligence in a major effort to organize the vast wealth of biological and clinical data. The time is right because the amount of data is still manageable even in its current highly-fragmented form; important hardware and computer science tools have been greatly improved; and there have been recent fundamental advances in our comprehension of biology. This latter is particularly true at the molecular level where the information for nearly all higher structure and function is encoded. The organization of all biological experimental data coordinately within a structure incorporating our current understanding - the Matrix of Biological Knowledge - will provide the data and structure for the major advances foreseen in the years ahead.

  16. The Biological Effects of Bilirubin Photoisomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasprova, Jana; Dal Ben, Matteo; Vianello, Eleonora; Goncharova, Iryna; Urbanova, Marie; Vyroubalova, Karolina; Gazzin, Silvia; Tiribelli, Claudio; Sticha, Martin; Cerna, Marcela; Vitek, Libor

    2016-01-01

    Although phototherapy was introduced as early as 1950's, the potential biological effects of bilirubin photoisomers (PI) generated during phototherapy remain unclear. The aim of our study was to isolate bilirubin PI in their pure forms and to assess their biological effects in vitro. The three major bilirubin PI (ZE- and EZ-bilirubin and Z-lumirubin) were prepared by photo-irradiation of unconjugated bilirubin. The individual photoproducts were chromatographically separated (TLC, HPLC), and their identities verified by mass spectrometry. The role of Z-lumirubin (the principle bilirubin PI) on the dissociation of bilirubin from albumin was tested by several methods: peroxidase, fluorescence quenching, and circular dichroism. The biological effects of major bilirubin PI (cell viability, expression of selected genes, cell cycle progression) were tested on the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line. Lumirubin was found to have a binding site on human serum albumin, in the subdomain IB (or at a close distance to it); and thus, different from that of bilirubin. Its binding constant to albumin was much lower when compared with bilirubin, and lumirubin did not affect the level of unbound bilirubin (Bf). Compared to unconjugated bilirubin, bilirubin PI did not have any effect on either SH-SY5Y cell viability, the expression of genes involved in bilirubin metabolism or cell cycle progression, nor in modulation of the cell cycle phase. The principle bilirubin PI do not interfere with bilirubin albumin binding, and do not exert any toxic effect on human neuroblastoma cells.

  17. Biological Sciences and Bioelectromagnetics in Europe: Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-26

    ankylosing spondylitis , osteoporosis, low levels of EM energy are capable of pseudoarthrosis, and nonunions can ap- eliciting a response from a...engineering, radiation physics , Early in 1984, I reported on the radiation biology, and bioelectromagnet- International Center for Genetic Engi- ice...biomaterials in are to be considered biomaterials. therapy . There are fewer roadblocks be- First, and most importantly, the materi- tween development and

  18. Mechanistic Effects of Calcitriol in Cancer Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Díaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides its classical biological effects on calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, calcitriol, the active vitamin D metabolite, has a broad variety of actions including anticancer effects that are mediated either transcriptionally and/or via non-genomic pathways. In the context of cancer, calcitriol regulates the cell cycle, induces apoptosis, promotes cell differentiation and acts as anti-inflammatory factor within the tumor microenvironment. In this review, we address the different mechanisms of action involved in the antineoplastic effects of calcitriol.

  19. Biological and chemical technologies research. FY 1995 annual summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1995 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program. This BCTR program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1995 (ASR 95) contains the following: program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives); program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1995; detailed descriptions of individual projects; a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work; patents; and awards arising from work supported by the BCTR.

  20. Adaptation hypothesis of biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudritsky, Yu.K.; Georgievsky, A.B.; Karpov, V.I.

    1993-12-31

    The adoptation hypothesis of biological effectiveness of ionizing radiations is based on the recognition of the invariability of general biological laws for radiobiology and on the comprehension of life evolution regularities and axiomatic principles of environment and biota unity. The ionizing radiation factor is essential for life which could not exist beyond the radiation field. The possibility of future development of the adaptation hypothesis serves as a basis for it`s transformation into the theoretical foundation of radiobiology. This report discusses the aspects of the adaptation theory.

  1. 21 CFR 600.14 - Reporting of biological product deviations by licensed manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of biological product deviations by... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Establishment Standards § 600.14 Reporting of biological product deviations by licensed manufacturers. (a) Who must report...

  2. Biological effects from electromagnetic field exposure and public exposure standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Lennart; Sage, Cindy

    2008-02-01

    During recent years there has been increasing public concern on potential health risks from power-frequency fields (extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields; ELF) and from radiofrequency/microwave radiation emissions (RF) from wireless communications. Non-thermal (low-intensity) biological effects have not been considered for regulation of microwave exposure, although numerous scientific reports indicate such effects. The BioInitiative Report is based on an international research and public policy initiative to give an overview of what is known of biological effects that occur at low-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMFs) exposure. Health endpoints reported to be associated with ELF and/or RF include childhood leukaemia, brain tumours, genotoxic effects, neurological effects and neurodegenerative diseases, immune system deregulation, allergic and inflammatory responses, breast cancer, miscarriage and some cardiovascular effects. The BioInitiative Report concluded that a reasonable suspicion of risk exists based on clear evidence of bioeffects at environmentally relevant levels, which, with prolonged exposures may reasonably be presumed to result in health impacts. Regarding ELF a new lower public safety limit for habitable space adjacent to all new or upgraded power lines and for all other new constructions should be applied. A new lower limit should also be used for existing habitable space for children and/or women who are pregnant. A precautionary limit should be adopted for outdoor, cumulative RF exposure and for cumulative indoor RF fields with considerably lower limits than existing guidelines, see the BioInitiative Report. The current guidelines for the US and European microwave exposure from mobile phones, for the brain are 1.6 W/Kg and 2 W/Kg, respectively. Since use of mobile phones is associated with an increased risk for brain tumour after 10 years, a new biologically based guideline is warranted. Other health impacts associated with exposure to

  3. Lead exposures and biological responses in military weapons systems: Aerosol characteristics and acute lead effects among US Army artillerymen: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Stebbings, J.H.; Peterson, D.P.; Johnson, S.A.; Kumar, R.; Goun, B.D.; Janssen, I.; Trier, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    This study was to determine the concentration and chemical nature of lead (Pb) aerosols produced during the firing of artillery and to determine the exposures and biological responses of crew members exposed to lead aerosols during such firing. The concentrations of lead-containing aerosols at crew positions depended on wind conditions, with higher concentrations when firing into a head wind. Aerosol concentrations were highest in the muzzle blast zone. Concentrations of lead in the blood of crew members rose during the first 12 days of exposure to elevated airborne lead concentrations and then leveled off. There was no rapid decrease in blood lead concentrations after completion of firing. Small decreases in hematocrit and small increases in free erythrocyte porphyrin were correlated with increasing exposure to airborne lead. These changes were reversed by seven weeks after firing. Changes in nerve conduction velocity had borderline statistical significance to airborne lead exposure. In measuring nerve conduction velocity, differences in skin temperature must be taken into account.

  4. Lead exposures and biological responses in military weapons systems: Aerosol characteristics and acute lead effects among US Army artillerymen: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Stebbings, J.H.; Peterson, D.P.; Johnson, S.A.; Kumar, R.; Goun, B.D.; Janssen, I.; Trier, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    This study was to determine the concentration and chemical nature of lead (Pb) aerosols produced during the firing of artillery and to determine the exposures and biological responses of crew members exposed to lead aerosols during such firing. The concentrations of lead-containing aerosols at crew positions depended on wind conditions, with higher concentrations when firing into a head wind. Aerosol concentrations were highest in the muzzle blast zone. Concentrations of lead in the blood of crew members rose during the first 12 days of exposure to elevated airborne lead concentrations and then leveled off. There was no rapid decrease in blood lead concentrations after completion of firing. Small decreases in hematocrit and small increases in free erythrocyte porphyrin were correlated with increasing exposure to airborne lead. These changes were reversed by seven weeks after firing. Changes in nerve conduction velocity had borderline statistical significance to airborne lead exposure. In measuring nerve conduction velocity, differences in skin temperature must be taken into account.

  5. The Biological Effects of Bilirubin Photoisomers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Jasprova

    Full Text Available Although phototherapy was introduced as early as 1950's, the potential biological effects of bilirubin photoisomers (PI generated during phototherapy remain unclear. The aim of our study was to isolate bilirubin PI in their pure forms and to assess their biological effects in vitro. The three major bilirubin PI (ZE- and EZ-bilirubin and Z-lumirubin were prepared by photo-irradiation of unconjugated bilirubin. The individual photoproducts were chromatographically separated (TLC, HPLC, and their identities verified by mass spectrometry. The role of Z-lumirubin (the principle bilirubin PI on the dissociation of bilirubin from albumin was tested by several methods: peroxidase, fluorescence quenching, and circular dichroism. The biological effects of major bilirubin PI (cell viability, expression of selected genes, cell cycle progression were tested on the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line. Lumirubin was found to have a binding site on human serum albumin, in the subdomain IB (or at a close distance to it; and thus, different from that of bilirubin. Its binding constant to albumin was much lower when compared with bilirubin, and lumirubin did not affect the level of unbound bilirubin (Bf. Compared to unconjugated bilirubin, bilirubin PI did not have any effect on either SH-SY5Y cell viability, the expression of genes involved in bilirubin metabolism or cell cycle progression, nor in modulation of the cell cycle phase. The principle bilirubin PI do not interfere with bilirubin albumin binding, and do not exert any toxic effect on human neuroblastoma cells.

  6. Protein synthesis and its regulation: a background study related to the biological effects of radiation. Progress report, July 1, 1976--August 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, P.C.

    1977-06-01

    Results of studies are reported on delineation of the steps involved in protein synthesis and the role of transfer and messenger RNAs in the translation process. During the past year we have studied the mechanisms by which an oncogenic RNA virus modifies the growth process, and have begun to elucidate the role a novel dinucleotide, discovered in these laboratories, plays in rapidly growing cells in tissue culture.

  7. BCTR: Biological and Chemical Technologies Research 1994 annual summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G.

    1995-02-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1994 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). Although the OIT was reorganized in 1991 and AICD no longer exists, this document reports on efforts conducted under the former structure. The annual summary report for 1994 (ASR 94) contains the following: program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives); program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1994; detailed descriptions of individual projects; a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work; patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

  8. Examining the nature of retrocausal effects in biology and psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossbridge, Julia

    2017-05-01

    Multiple laboratories have reported physiological and psychological changes associated with future events that are designed to be unpredictable by normal sensory means. Such phenomena seem to be examples of retrocausality at the macroscopic level. Here I will discuss the characteristics of seemingly retrocausal effects in biology and psychology, specifically examining a biological and a psychological form of precognition, predictive anticipatory activity (PAA) and implicit precognition. The aim of this examination is to offer an analysis of the constraints posed by the characteristics of macroscopic retrocausal effects. Such constraints are critical to assessing any physical theory that purports to explain these effects. Following a brief introduction to recent research on PAA and implicit precognition, I will describe what I believe we have learned so far about the nature of these effects, and conclude with a testable, yet embryonic, model of macroscopic retrocausal phenomena.

  9. Method for photo-altering a biological system to improve biological effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Richard A.; Doiron, Daniel R.; Crean, David H.

    2000-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a new adjunctive therapy for filtration surgery that does not use chemotherapy agents or radiation, but uses pharmacologically-active sensitizing compounds to produce a titratable, localized, transient, post operative avascular conjunctiva. A photosensitizing agent in a biological system is selectively activated by delivering the photosensitive agent to the biological system and laser activating only a spatially selected portion of the delivered photosensitive agent. The activated portion of the photosensitive agent reacts with the biological system to obtain a predetermined biological effect. As a result, an improved spatial disposition and effectuation of the biological effect by the photosensitive agent in the biological system is achieved.

  10. The Biological Effects of Combining Metals in a Posterior Spinal Implant: In Vivo Model Development Report of the First Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine L. Farnsworth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Design. Combinations of metal implants (stainless steel (SS, titanium (Ti, and cobalt chrome (CC were placed in porcine spines. After 12 months, tissue response and implant corrosion were compared between mixed and single metal junctions. Objective. Model development and an attempt to determine any detriment of combining different metals in posterior spinal instrumentation. Methods. Yucatan mini-pigs underwent instrumentation over five unfused lumbar levels. A SS rod and a Ti rod were secured with Ti and SS pedicle screws, SS and Ti crosslinks, SS and CC sublaminar wires, and Ti sublaminar cable. The resulting 4 SS/SS, 3 Ti/Ti, and 11 connections between dissimilar metals per animal were studied after 12 months using radiographs, gross observation, and histology (foreign body reaction (FBR, metal particle count, and inflammation analyzed. Results. Two animals had constructs in place for 12 months with no complications. Histology of tissue over SS/SS connections demonstrated 11.1 ± 7.6 FBR cells, 2.1 ± 1.7 metal particles, and moderate to extensive inflammation. Ti/Ti tissue showed 6.3 ± 3.8 FBR cells, 5.2 ± 6.7 particles, and no to extensive inflammation (83% extensive. Tissue over mixed components had 14.1 ± 12.6 FBR cells and 13.4 ± 27.8 particles. Samples surrounding wires/cables versus other combinations demonstrated FBR (12.4 ± 13.5 versus 12.0 ± 9.6 cells, P = 0.96, particles (19.8 ± 32.6 versus 4.3 ± 12.7, P = 0.24, and inflammation (50% versus 75% extensive, P = 0.12. Conclusions. A nonfusion model was developed to study corrosion and analyze biological responses. Although no statistical differences were found in overlying tissue response to single versus mixed metal combinations, galvanic corrosion between differing metals is not ruled out. This pilot study supports further investigation to answer concerns when mixing metals in spinal constructs.

  11. Isoflavones: estrogenic activity, biological effect and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Daniela Cristina; Piazza, Cateno; Melilli, Barbara; Drago, Filippo; Salomone, Salvatore

    2013-03-01

    Isoflavones are phytoestrogens with potent estrogenic activity; genistein, daidzein and glycitein are the most active isoflavones found in soy beans. Phytoestrogens have similarity in structure with the human female hormone 17-β-estradiol, which can bind to both alpha and beta estrogen receptors, and mimic the action of estrogens on target organs, thereby exerting many health benefits when used in some hormone-dependent diseases. Numerous clinical studies claim benefits of genistein and daidzein in chemoprevention of breast and prostate cancer, cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis as well as in relieving postmenopausal symptoms. The ability of isoflavones to prevent cancer and other chronic diseases largely depends on pharmacokinetic properties of these compounds, in particular absorption and distribution to the target tissue. The chemical form in which isoflavones occur is important because it influences their bioavailability and, therefore, their biological activity. Glucose-conjugated isoflavones are highly polar, water-soluble compounds. They are hardly absorbed by the intestinal epithelium and have weaker biological activities than the corresponding aglycone. Different microbial families of colon can transform glycosylated isoflavones into aglycones. Clinical studies show important differences between the aglycone and conjugated forms of genistein and daidzein. The evaluation of isoflavone metabolism and bioavailability is crucial to understanding their biological effects. Lipid-based formulations such as drug incorporation into oils, emulsions and self-microemulsifying formulations have been introduced to increase bioavailability. Complexation with cyclodextrin also represent a valid method to improve the physicochemical characteristics of these substances in order to be absorbed and distributed to target tissues. We review and discuss pharmacokinetic issues that critically influence the biological activity of isoflavones.

  12. Evaluation of the Biological Effects of the Northwest Power Conservation Council's Mainstem Amendment on the Fisheries Upstream and Downstream of Libby Dam, Montana, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylvester, Ryan; Stephens, Brian; Tohtz, Joel [Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks

    2009-04-03

    A new project began in 2005 to monitor the biological and physical effects of improved operations of Hungry Horse and Libby Dams, Montana, called for by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC) Mainstem Amendment. This operating strategy was designed to benefit resident fish impacted by hydropower and flood control operations. Under the new operating guidelines, July through September reservoir drafts will be limited to 10 feet from full pool during the highest 80% of water supply years and 20 feet from full pool during the lowest 20% of water supply (drought) years. Limits were also established on how rapidly discharge from the dams can be increased or decreased depending on the season. The NPCC also directed the federal agencies that operate Libby and Hungry Horse Dams to implement a new flood control strategy (VARQ) and directed Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks to evaluate biological responses to this operating strategy. The Mainstem Amendment operating strategy has not been fully implemented at the Montana dams as of June 2008 but the strategy will be implemented in 2009. This report highlights the monitoring methods used to monitor the effects of the Mainstem Amendment operations on fishes, habitat, and aquatic invertebrates upstream and downstream of Libby Dam. We also present initial assessments of data and the effects of various operating strategies on physical and biological components of the systems upstream and downstream of Libby Dam. Annual electrofishing surveys in the Kootenai River and selected tributaries, along with gill net surveys in the reservoir, are being used to quantify the impacts of dam operations on fish populations upstream and downstream of Libby Dam. Scales and otoliths are being used to determine the age structure and growth of focal species. Annual population estimates and tagging experiments provide estimates of survival and growth in the mainstem Kootenai River and selected tributaries. Radio telemetry will be used to

  13. Removal design report for the 108-F Biological Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Most of the 100-F facilities were deactivated with the reactor and have since been demolished. Of the dozen or so reactor-related structures, only the 105-F Reactor Building and the 108-F Biology Laboratory remain standing today. The 108-F Biology Laboratory was intended to be used as a facility for the mixing and addition of chemicals used in the treatment of the reactor cooling water. Shortly after F Reactor began operation, it was determined that the facility was not needed for this purpose. In 1949, the building was converted for use as a biological laboratory. In 1962, the lab was expanded by adding a three-story annex to the original four-story structure. The resulting lab had a floor area of approximately 2,883 m{sup 2} (main building and annex) that operated until 1973. The building contained 47 laboratories, a number of small offices, a conference room, administrative section, lunch and locker rooms, and a heavily shielded, high-energy exposure cell. The purpose of this removal design report is to establish the methods of decontamination and decommissioning and the supporting functions associated with facility removal and disposal.

  14. Early steps in protein synthesis and their regulation: a background study related to the biological effects of radiation. Progress report, July 1, 1975--June 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, P.C.

    1976-03-01

    This is a continuing study of protein synthesis, involving a search for the role of Ap/sub 4/A and other unusual nucleotides in growth regulation; studies of the mechanism of action of aminoacyl-tRNA ligases and the effect thereof on protein synthesis; a search for new regulators of the translation step, in cell-free systems; and an effort to improve the sensitivity and quantitation of chemical sequencing at the 3'-end of messenger RNA.

  15. Xenon preconditioning: molecular mechanisms and biological effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wenwu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Xenon is one of noble gases and has been recognized as an anesthetic for more than 50 years. Xenon possesses many of the characteristics of an ideal anesthetic, but it is not widely applied in clinical practice mainly because of its high cost. In recent years, numerous studies have demonstrated that xenon as an anesthetic can exert neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects in different models. Moreover, xenon has been applied in the preconditioning, and the neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects of xenon preconditioning have been investigated in a lot of studies in which some mechanisms related to these protections are proposed. In this review, we summarized these mechanisms and the biological effects of xenon preconditioning.

  16. Biology Division progress report, October 1, 1984-September 30, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The body of this report provides summaries of the aims, scope and progress of the research by groups of investigators in the Division during the period of October 1, 1984, through September 30, 1985. At the end of each summary is a list of publications covering the same period. For convenience, the summaries are assembled under Sections in accordance with the current organizational structure of the Biology Division; each Section begins with an overview. It will be apparent, however, tha crosscurrents run throughout the Division and that the various programs support and interact with each other. In addition, this report includes information on the Division's educational activities, Advisory Committee, seminar program, and international interactions, as well as extramural activities of staff members, abstracts for technical meetings, and funding and personnel levels.

  17. Biological conversion of synthesis gas. Topical report: Bioreactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, R.; Klasson, K.T.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the proposed research is to develop a technically and economically feasible process for biologically producing H{sub 2} from synthesis gas while, at the same time, removing harmful sulfur gas compounds. Six major tasks are being studied: culture development, where the best cultures are selected and conditions optimized for simultaneous hydrogen production and sulfur gas removal; mass transfer and kinetic studies in which equations necessary for process design are developed; bioreactor design studies, where the cultures chosen in Task 1 are utilized in continuous reaction vessels to demonstrate process feasibility and define operating conditions; evaluation of biological synthesis gas conversion under limiting conditions in preparation for industrial demonstration studies; process scale-up where laboratory data are scaled to larger-size units in preparation for process demonstration in a pilot-scale unit; and economic evaluation, where process simulations are used to project process economics and identify high cost areas during sensitivity analyses. The purpose of this report is to present results from bioreactor studies involving H{sub 2} production by water gas shift and H{sub 2}S removal to produce elemental sulfur. Many of the results for H{sub 2} production by Rhodospirillum rubrum have been presented during earlier contracts. Thus, this report concentrates mainly on H{sub 2}S conversion to elemental sulfur by R. rubrum.

  18. Effects of Mine Waste Contamination on Fish and Wildlife Habitat at Multiple Levels of Biological Organization in the Methow River, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peplow, Dan; Edmonds, Robert.

    2002-06-01

    A three-year multidisciplinary study was conducted on the relationship between mine waste contamination and the effects on aquatic and terrestrial habitats in the Methow River below abandoned mines near Twisp in Okanogan County, Washington (U.S.A.). Ore deposits in the area were mined for gold, silver, copper and zinc until the early 1950's. An above-and-below-mine approach was used to study potentially impacted sites. Although the dissolved metal content of water in the Methow River was below the limits of detection, eleven chemicals of potential environmental concern were identified in the tailings, mine effluents, groundwater, streamwater and sediments (Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se and Zn). The potential for ecosystem level impacts was reflected in the risk of contamination in the mine waste to communities and populations that are valued for their functional properties related to energy storage and nutrient cycling. Dissolved and sediment metal contamination changed the benthic insect community structure in a tributary of the Methow River below Alder Mine, and at the population level, caddisfly larval development in the Methow River was delayed. Arsenic accumulation in bear hair and Cd in fish liver suggest top predators are effected. In situ exposure of juvenile triploid trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to conditions at the downstream site resulted in reduced growth and increased mortality among exposed individuals. Histopathological studies of their tissues revealed extensive glycogen inclusions suggesting food is being converted into glycogen and stored in the liver but the glycogen is not being converted back normally into glucose for distribution to other tissues in the body. Subcellular observations revealed mitochondrial changes including a decrease in the number and increase in the size of electron-dense metrical granules, the presence of glycogen bodies in the cytoplasm, and glycogen nuclei in exposed trout hepatocytes, which are signs that

  19. Funding the New Biologics – CCOHTA Report on the Cost Effectiveness of Infliximab for Crohn’s Disease: Pearls and Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K Marshall

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Coordinating Office for Health Technology Assessment (CCOHTA published an economic analysis, using a Markov model, of infliximab therapy for Crohn’s disease that is refractory to other treatments. This was the first fully published economic analysis that addresses this treatment option. Health state transitions were based on data from Olmsted County, Minnesota, health state resource profiles were created using expert opinion and a number of assumptions were made when designing the model. The analysis was rigorous, the best available efficacy and safety data were used, state-of-the art sensitivity analyses were undertaken and an ‘acceptability curve‘ was constructed. The model found that infliximab was effective in increasing quality-adjusted life years when offered in a variety of protocols, but it was associated with high incremental cost utility ratios compared with usual care. The results should be interpreted, however, in view of a number of limitations. The time horizon for the analysis was short (one year, because of a lack of longer-term efficacy data, and might have led to an underestimation of the benefits from averting surgery. Because the analysis was performed from the perspective of a Canadian provincial ministry of health, only direct medical costs were considered. Patients with active Crohn’s disease are likely to incur significant indirect costs, which could be mitigated by this medication. The analysis should be updated as new data become available. Moreover, small changes in the cost of the medication could make the treatment cost effective, according to this model. Economic analyses, such as the one undertaken by the CCOHTA, cannot by themselves solve dilemmas in the allocation of limited health care resources, and other considerations must be included when formulating policy. This is especially important for patients with severe Crohn’s disease, who have significant disability and for whom few

  20. Identifying features in biological sequences: Sixth workshop report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burks, C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Myers, E. [Univ. of Arizona (United States); Pearson, W.R. [Univ. of Virginia (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This report covers the sixth of an annual series of workshops held at the Aspen Center for Physics concentrating particularly on the identification of features in DNA sequence, and more broadly on related topics in computational molecular biology. The workshop series originally focused primarily on discussion of current needs and future strategies for identifying and predicting the presence of complex functional units on sequenced, but otherwise uncharacterized, genomic DNA. We addressed the need for computationally-based, automatic tools for synthesizing available data about individual consensus sequences and local compositional patterns into the composite objects (e.g., genes) that are -- as composite entities -- the true object of interest when scanning DNA sequences. The workshop was structured to promote sustained informal contact and exchange of expertise between molecular biologists, computer scientists, and mathematicians.

  1. Systems biology and bioinformatics in aging research: a workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuellen, Georg; Dengjel, Jörn; Hoeflich, Andreas; Hoeijemakers, Jan; Kestler, Hans A; Kowald, Axel; Priebe, Steffen; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Schmeck, Bernd; Schmitz, Ulf; Stolzing, Alexandra; Sühnel, Jürgen; Wuttke, Daniel; Vera, Julio

    2012-12-01

    In an "aging society," health span extension is most important. As in 2010, talks in this series of meetings in Rostock-Warnemünde demonstrated that aging is an apparently very complex process, where computational work is most useful for gaining insights and to find interventions that counter aging and prevent or counteract aging-related diseases. The specific topics of this year's meeting entitled, "RoSyBA: Rostock Symposium on Systems Biology and Bioinformatics in Ageing Research," were primarily related to "Cancer and Aging" and also had a focus on work funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). The next meeting in the series, scheduled for September 20-21, 2013, will focus on the use of ontologies for computational research into aging, stem cells, and cancer. Promoting knowledge formalization is also at the core of the set of proposed action items concluding this report.

  2. Biological effects of space radiation and development of effective countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-04-01

    As part of a program to assess the adverse biological effects expected from astronauts' exposure to space radiation, numerous different biological effects relating to astronauts' health have been evaluated. There has been major focus recently on the assessment of risks related to exposure to solar particle event (SPE) radiation. The effects related to various types of space radiation exposure that have been evaluated are: gene expression changes (primarily associated with programmed cell death and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling), oxidative stress, gastrointestinal tract bacterial translocation and immune system activation, peripheral hematopoietic cell counts, emesis, blood coagulation, skin, behavior/fatigue (including social exploration, submaximal exercise treadmill and spontaneous locomotor activity), heart functions, alterations in biological endpoints related to astronauts' vision problems (lumbar puncture/intracranial pressure, ocular ultrasound and histopathology studies), and survival, as well as long-term effects such as cancer and cataract development. A number of different countermeasures have been identified that can potentially mitigate or prevent the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to space radiation.

  3. Biological effects of exposure to magnetic resonance imaging: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Formica Domenico

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The literature on biological effects of magnetic and electromagnetic fields commonly utilized in magnetic resonance imaging systems is surveyed here. After an introduction on the basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging and the electric and magnetic properties of biological tissues, the basic phenomena to understand the bio-effects are described in classical terms. Values of field strengths and frequencies commonly utilized in these diagnostic systems are reported in order to allow the integration of the specific literature on the bio-effects produced by magnetic resonance systems with the vast literature concerning the bio-effects produced by electromagnetic fields. This work gives an overview of the findings about the safety concerns of exposure to static magnetic fields, radio-frequency fields, and time varying magnetic field gradients, focusing primarily on the physics of the interactions between these electromagnetic fields and biological matter. The scientific literature is summarized, integrated, and critically analyzed with the help of authoritative reviews by recognized experts, international safety guidelines are also cited.

  4. Controlling the biological effects of spermine using a synthetic receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, Laurent; Ludlow, R Frederick; Leclaire, Julien; Pérez-Fernandez, Ruth; Otto, Sijbren

    2006-08-09

    Polyamines play an important role in biology, yet their exact function in many processes is poorly understood. Artificial host molecules capable of sequestering polyamines could be useful tools for studying their cellular function. However, designing synthetic receptors with affinities sufficient to compete with biological polyamine receptors remains a huge challenge. Binding affinities of synthetic hosts are typically separated by a gap of several orders of magnitude from those of biomolecules. We now report that a dynamic combinatorial selection approach can deliver a synthetic receptor that bridges this gap. The selected receptor binds spermine with a dissociation constant of 22 nM, sufficient to remove it from its natural host DNA and reverse some of the biological effects of spermine on the nucleic acid. In low concentrations, spermine induces the formation of left-handed DNA, but upon addition of our receptor, the DNA reverts back to its right-handed form. NMR studies and computer simulations suggest that the spermine complex has the form of a pseudo-rotaxane. The spermine receptor is a promising lead for the development of therapeutics or molecular probes for elucidating spermine's role in cell biology.

  5. Examining the Effect of Multiple Writing Tasks on Year 10 Biology Students' Understandings of Cell and Molecular Biology Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Brian; Hohenshell, Liesl; Prain, Vaughan

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that examined the cumulative effects on students' learning of science, and perceptions of the role of writing in learning, when the students engaged in multiple writing tasks with planning strategy support. The study was conducted with Year 10 biology students who completed two consecutive units on Cells and Molecular…

  6. The biologically effective dose in inhalation nanotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Ken; Schinwald, Anja; Murphy, Fiona; Cho, Wan-Seob; Duffin, Rodger; Tran, Lang; Poland, Craig

    2013-03-19

    In all branches of toxicology, the biologically effective dose (BED) is the fraction of the total dose of a toxin that actually drives any toxic effect. Knowledge of the BED has a number of applications including in building structure-activity relationships, the selection of metrics, the design of safe particles, and the determination of when a nanoparticle (NP) can be considered to be "new" for regulatory purposes. In particle toxicology, we define the BED as "the entity within any dose of particles in tissue that drives a critical pathophysiogically relevant form of toxicity (e.g., oxidative stress, inflammation, genotoxicity, or proliferation) or a process that leads to it." In conventional chemical toxicology, researchers generally use the mass as the metric to describe dose (such as mass per unit tissue or cells in culture) because of its convenience. Concentration, calculated from mass, may also figure in any description of dose. In the case of a nanoparticle dose, researchers use either the mass or the surface area. The mass of nanoparticles is not the only driver of their activity: the surfaces of insoluble particles interact with biological systems, and soluble nanoparticles can release factors that interact with these systems. Nanoparticle shape can modify activity. In this Account, we describe the current knowledge of the BED as it pertains to different NP types. Soluble toxins released by NPs represent one potential indicator of BED for wholly or partially soluble NPs composed of copper or zinc. Rapid dissolution of these NPs into their toxic ions in the acidic environment of the macrophage phagolysosome causes those ions to accumulate, which leads to lysosome destabilization and inflammation. In contrast, soluble NPs that release low toxicity ions, such as magnesium oxide NPs, are not inflammogenic. For insoluble NPs, ζ potential can serve as a BED measurement because the exposure of the particle surface to the acidic milieu of the phagolysosome and

  7. Chemical and Biological Defense Program Annual Report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    state public health systems, to expand existing biosurveillance efforts, and to fund research on medical countermeasures against potential bioterror...Detection System (JBSDS) • Joint Portal Shield • Biological Identification System (BIDS) • Dry Filter Units (DFUs) Table 2-3 Biological Defense...Detection System (BIDS) • Joint Portal Shield Network Sensor System • Automated biological remote detection and early warning capabilities

  8. Cell Biology of Thiazide Bone Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamba, Gerardo; Riccardi, Daniela

    2008-09-01

    The thiazide-sensitive Na+:Cl- cotransporter (NCC) is the major pathway for salt reabsorption in the mammalian kidney. The activity of NCC is not only related to salt metabolism, but also to calcium and magnesium homeostasis due to the inverse relationship between NCC activity and calcium reabsorption. Hence, the thiazide-type diuretics that specifically block NCC have been used for years, not only for treatment of hypertension and edematous disease, but also for the management of renal stone disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic thiazide treatment is associated with higher bone mineral density and reduced risk of bone fractures, which can only partly be explained in terms of their effects on the kidney. In this regard, we have recently shown that NCC is expressed in bone cells and that inhibition of NCC in bone, either by thiazides or by reduction of NCC protein with specific siRNA, is associated with increased mineralization in vitro. These observations open a field of study to begin to understand the cell biology of the beneficial effects of thiazides in bone.

  9. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with biologics may exacerbate HTLV-1-associated conditions: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Yukiko; Kamoi, Koju; Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko; Miyata, Kazunori; Yamano, Chinami; Coler-Reilly, Ariella; Yamano, Yoshihisa

    2017-02-01

    There are roughly 5 to 10 million persons infected with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) worldwide, and the safety of treating this population with biologics remains poorly understood. An HTLV-1-infected 66-year-old female with HTLV-1 uveitis (HU) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Her HU had been in remission and her HAM/TSP symptoms had been managed effectively with oral steroids for years. However, she developed severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after failing to respond well to conventional anti-rheumatic agents. She was administered two intravenous 8mg/kg doses of the biologic tocilizumab. Subsequently, her RA symptoms resolved, but she suffered a recurrence of HU and exacerbation of HAM/TSP symptoms. When she was switched back to steroid-based treatment, HU and HAM symptoms both improved, but RA symptoms again worsened. Finally, an attempt to substitute the biologic abatacept and reduce the steroids failed when HAM/TSP symptoms again became aggravated. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first report worldwide of a biologic aggravating HTLV-1-associated conditions. This report suggests that caution is advised when using biologics to treat HTLV-1-infected patients, though further research is required to clarify the situation.

  10. Arsenic in the aquatic environment - speciation and biological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landner, L. [Swedish Environmental Research Group (MFG)

    1998-03-01

    The present report is a contribution to EC Commission`s undertaking to review existing EC provisions on the substances for which Sweden has been granted transitional provisions. The provisions imply that Sweden may maintain more stringent regulations on four substances until the end of 1998. The present report deals with speciation and biological effects of arsenic in three types of aquatic environments - marine water, estuarine or brackish water and freshwater. The similarity between arsenate and phosphate and the interference in phosphorylation reactions is discussed. It is clear that in Scandinavian inland waters the concentration of phosphorous is on average lower than in most inland waters in continental Europe. However, in most inland waters phosphorus is the limiting factor for phytoplankton development and eutrophication, which means that there is a clear risk for detrimental effects in the great majority of inland waters, also eutrophic waters 167 refs, 27 figs, 12 tabs. Exemption Substances Project (Directive 89/677/EEC)

  11. What Makes Biology Learning Difficult and Effective: Students' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimer, Atilla

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to determine the biological topics that students have difficulties learning, the reasons why secondary school students have difficulties in learning biology, and ways to improve the effectiveness of students' biology learning. For these purposes, a self-administered questionnaire including three open-ended questions was…

  12. Chemotherapy-induced enterocutaneous fistula after perineal hernia repair using a biological mesh: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksen MH

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MH Eriksen, O Bulut Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Hvidovre University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Abstract: This is the first reported case of an enterocutaneous fistula as a late complication to reconstruction of the pelvic floor with a Permacol™ mesh after a perineal hernia. A 70-year-old man had a reconstruction of the pelvic floor with a biological mesh because of a perineal hernia after laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection. Nine months after the perineal hernia operation, the patient had multiple metastases in both lungs and liver. The patient underwent chemotherapy, including bevacizumab, irinotecan, calcium folinate, and fluorouracil. Six weeks into chemotherapy, the patient developed signs of sepsis and complained of pain from the right buttock. Ultrasound examination revealed an abscess, which was drained, guided by ultrasound. A computed tomography scan showed a subcutaneous abscess cavity located in the right buttock with communication to the small bowel. Operative findings confirmed a perineal fistula from the distal ileum to perineum. A resection of the small bowel with primary anastomosis was performed. The postoperative course was complicated by fluid and electrolyte disturbances, but the patient was stabilized and finally discharged to a hospice for terminal care after 28 days of hospital stay. It seems that hernia repairs with biological meshes have lower erosion and infection rates compared with synthetic meshes, and so far, evidence suggests that biological grafts are safe and effective in the treatment of pelvic floor reconstruction. There have been no reports of enteric fistulas after pelvic reconstruction with biological meshes. However, the development of intestinal fistulas after chemotherapy with bevacizumab has been described in the literature. Our case report supports this association between bevacizumab and fistula formation among rectal cancer patients, as symptoms of a

  13. Biologically based multistage modeling of radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Hazelton; Suresh Moolgavkar; E. Georg Luebeck

    2005-08-30

    This past year we have made substantial progress in modeling the contribution of homeostatic regulation to low-dose radiation effects and carcinogenesis. We have worked to refine and apply our multistage carcinogenesis models to explicitly incorporate cell cycle states, simple and complex damage, checkpoint delay, slow and fast repair, differentiation, and apoptosis to study the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation in mouse intestinal crypts, as well as in other tissues. We have one paper accepted for publication in ''Advances in Space Research'', and another manuscript in preparation describing this work. I also wrote a chapter describing our combined cell-cycle and multistage carcinogenesis model that will be published in a book on stochastic carcinogenesis models edited by Wei-Yuan Tan. In addition, we organized and held a workshop on ''Biologically Based Modeling of Human Health Effects of Low dose Ionizing Radiation'', July 28-29, 2005 at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington. We had over 20 participants, including Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff as keynote speaker, talks by most of the low-dose modelers in the DOE low-dose program, experimentalists including Les Redpath (and Mary Helen), Noelle Metting from DOE, and Tony Brooks. It appears that homeostatic regulation may be central to understanding low-dose radiation phenomena. The primary effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are cell killing, delayed cell cycling, and induction of mutations. However, homeostatic regulation causes cells that are killed or damaged by IR to eventually be replaced. Cells with an initiating mutation may have a replacement advantage, leading to clonal expansion of these initiated cells. Thus we have focused particularly on modeling effects that disturb homeostatic regulation as early steps in the carcinogenic process. There are two primary considerations that support our focus on homeostatic regulation. First, a number of

  14. Biological Effects on the Source of Geoneutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, Norman H.; Bird, Dennis K.; Rosing, Minik T.

    2013-11-01

    Detection of antineutrinos from U and Th series decay within the Earth (geoneutrinos) constrains the absolute abundance of these elements. Marine detectors will measure the ratio over the mantle beneath the site and provide spatial averaging. The measured mantle Th/U may well be significantly below its bulk earth value of 4; Pb isotope measurements on mantle-derived rocks yield low Th/U values, effectively averaged over geological time. The physics of the modern biological process is complicated, but the net effect is that much of the U in the mantle comes from subducted marine sediments and subducted upper oceanic crust. That is, U subducts preferentially relative to Th. Oxygen ultimately from photosynthesis oxidizes U(IV) to U(VI), which is soluble during weathering and sediment transport. Dissolved U(VI) reacts with FeO in the oceanic crust and organic carbon within sediments to become immobile U(IV). These deep marine rocks are preferentially subducted relative to Th(IV)-bearing continental margin rocks. Ferric iron from anoxygenic photosynthesis and oxygen in local oases likely mobilized some U during the Archean Era when there was very little O2 in the air. Conversely, these elements behave similarly in the absence of life, where the elements occur as U(IV) and Th(IV), which do not significantly fractionate during igneous processes. Neither do they fractionate during weathering, as they are essentially insoluble in water in surface environments. Th(IV) and U(IV) remain in solid clay-sized material. Overall, geoneutrino data constrain the masses of mantle chemical and isotopic domains recognized by studies of mantle-derived rocks and show the extent of recycling into the mantle over geological time.

  15. Effects of biological sex on the pathophysiology of the heart

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fazal, Loubina; Azibani, Feriel; Vodovar, Nicolas; Cohen Solal, Alain; Delcayre, Claude; Samuel, Jane‐Lise

    2014-01-01

    .... While the effects of biological sex on cardiovascular pathophysiology have long been known, the sex-specific mechanisms mediating these processes have been further elucidated over recent years...

  16. Biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure; Biologische Wirkungen niedriger Dosen ionisierender Strahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinoehl-Kompa, Sabine; Baldauf, Daniela; Heller, Horst (comps.)

    2009-07-01

    The report on the meeting of the Strahlenschutzkommission 2007 concerning biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure includes the following contributions: Adaptive response. The importance of DNA damage mechanisms for the biological efficiency of low-energy photons. Radiation effects in mammography: the relative biological radiation effects of low-energy photons. Radiation-induced cataracts. Carcinomas following prenatal radiation exposure. Intercellular apoptosis induction and low-dose irradiation: possible consequences for the oncogenesis control. Mechanistic models for the carcinogenesis with radiation-induced cell inactivation: application to all solid tumors in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Microarrays at low radiation doses. Mouse models for the analysis of biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation. The bystander effect: observations, mechanisms and implications. Lung carcinoma risk of Majak workers - modeling of carcinogenesis and the bystander effect. Microbeam studies in radiation biology - an overview. Carcinogenesis models with radiation-induced genomic instability. Application to two epidemiological cohorts.

  17. SIX2 Effects on Wilms Tumor Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janene Pierce

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wilms tumor (WT blastema retains gene expression profiles characteristic of the multipotent nephron progenitor pool, or cap mesenchyme (CM, in the developing kidney. As a result, WT blastema and the CM are believed to represent contextual analogues of one another. Sine oculis homeobox 2 (SIX2 is a transcription factor expressed specifically in the CM, provides a critical mechanism for CM self-renewal, and remains persistently active in WT blastema, although its purpose in this childhood malignancy remains unclear. We hypothesized that SIX2, analogous to its function in development, confers a survival pathway to blastema, the putative WT stem cell. To test its functional significance in WT biology, wild-type SIX2 was overexpressed in the human WT cell line, WiT49. After validating this model, SIX2 effects on anchorage-independent growth, proliferation, invasiveness, canonical WNT pathway signaling, and gene expression of specific WNT pathway participants were evaluated. Relative to controls, WiT49 cells overexpressing SIX2 showed significantly enhanced anchorage-independent growth and early-passage proliferation representing surrogates of cell survival. Interestingly, overexpression of SIX2 generally repressed TCF/LEF-dependent canonical WNT signaling, which activates and coordinates both differentiation and stem pathways, but significantly heightened canonical WNT signaling through the survivin promoter, a mechanism that exclusively maintains the stem state. In summary, when overexpressed in a human WT cell line, SIX2 enhances cell survival and appears to shift the balance in WNT/β-catenin signaling away from a differentiation path and toward a stem cell survival path.

  18. A New Biology for the 21st Century; Ensuring the United States Leads the Coming Biology Revolution. Final committee report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-05-10

    In July, 2008, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Science Foundation (NSF), and Department of Energy (DOE) asked the National Research Council’s Board on Life Sciences to convene a committee to examine the current state of biological research in the United States and recommend how best to capitalize on recent technological and scientific advances that have allowed biologists to integrate biological research findings, collect and interpret vastly increased amounts of data, and predict the behavior of complex biological systems. From September 2008 through July of 2009, a committee of 16 experts from the fields of biology, engineering and computational science undertook to delineate those scientific and technological advances and come to a consensus on how the U.S. might best capitalize on them. This report, authored by the Committee on a New Biology for the 21st Century, describes the committee’s work and conclusions.

  19. Factors Influencing Agreement between Self-Reports and Biological Measures of Smoking among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolcini, M. Margaret; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reviews 28 studies comparing adolescent self-report of smoking with biological indicators. Identifies four factors limiting agreement: biases in self-report due to limitations of biological measures; limitations of self-report measures; social desirability; and analytic and statistical issues. Concludes that, with optimal measurement, self-report…

  20. FY05 LDRD Final Report, A Revolution in Biological Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, H N; Bajt, S; Balhorn, R; Barty, A; Barsky, D; Bogan, M; Chung, S; Frank, M; Hau-Riege, S; Ishii, H; London, R; Marchesini, S; Noy, A; Segelke, B; Szoke, A; Szoke, H; Trebes, J; Wootton, A; Hajdu, J; Bergh, M; Caleman, C; Huldt, G; Lejon, S; der Spoel, D v; Howells, M; He, H; Spence, J; Nugent, K; Ingerman, E

    2006-01-20

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) are currently under development and will provide a peak brightness more than 10 orders of magnitude higher than modern synchrotrons. The goal of this project was to perform the fundamental research to evaluate the possibility of harnessing these unique x-ray sources to image single biological particles and molecules at atomic resolution. Using a combination of computational modeling and experimental verification where possible, they showed that it should indeed be possible to record coherent scattering patterns from single molecules with pulses that are shorter than the timescales for the degradation of the structure due to the interaction with those pulses. They used these models to determine the effectiveness of strategies to allow imaging using longer XFEL pulses and to design validation experiments to be carried out at interim ultrafast sources. They also developed and demonstrated methods to recover three-dimensional (3D) images from coherent diffraction patterns, similar to those expected from XFELs. The images of micron-sized test objects are the highest-resolution 3D images of any noncrystalline material ever formed with x-rays. The project resulted in 14 publications in peer-reviewed journals and four records of invention.

  1. Molecular biological enhancement of coal biodesulfurization. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litchfield, J.H.; Zupancic, T.J.; Kittle, J.D. Jr.; Baker, B.; Palmer, D.T.; Traunero, C.G.; Wyza, R.E.; Schweitzer, A.; Conkle, H.N. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Chakravarty, L.; Tuovinen, O.H. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1992-10-08

    Progress is reported in understanding Thiobacillus molecular biology, specifically in the area of vector development. At the initiation of this program, the basic elements needed for performing genetic engineering in T. ferrooxidans were either not yet developed. Improved techniques are described which will make it easier to construct and analyze the genetic structure and metabolism of recombinant T. ferrooxidans. The metabolism of the model organic sulfur compound dibenzothiophene (DBT) by certain heterotrophic bacteria was confirmed and characterized. Techniques were developed to analyze the metabolites of DBT, so that individual 4S pathway metabolites could be distinguished. These techniques are expected to be valuable when engineering organic sulfur metabolism in Thiobacillus. Strain isolation techniques were used to develop pure cultures of T. ferrooxidans seven of which were assessed as potential recombinant hosts. The mixotrophic strain T. coprinus was also characterized for potential use as an electroporation host. A family of related Thiobacillus plasmids was discovered in the seven strains of P. ferrooxidans mentioned above. One of these plasmids, pTFI91, was cloned into a pUC-based plasmid vector, allowing it to propagate in E. coli. A key portion of the cloned plasmid was sequenced. This segment, which is conserved in all of the related plasmids characterized, contains the vegetative origin of DNA replication, and fortuitously, a novel insertion sequence, designated IS3091. The sequence of the DNA origin revealed that these Thiobacillus plasmids represent a unique class of replicons not previously described. The potentially useful insertion sequence IS3091 was identified as a new member of a previously undefined family of insertion sequences which include the E. coli element IS30.

  2. Refuge land acquisition biological reconnaissance report Franklin Lake Nevada ( proposed addition to Ruby Lake NWR )

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes the history and general description, biological characteristics, recreational use, acquisition and development potential, proposed development...

  3. [Some case reports which suggest correlation between biologics and leprosy, Mini-symposium on problems on leprosy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Biologics are relatively new drugs developed through modern monoclonal antibody techniques and became more familiar to some disease treatments such as Rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, ankylosing spondylitis, ulcerative colitis, malignant lymphoma, SLE and lupus nephritis. Some case reports shows development of leprosy during/after biolo- gics treatment and success treatment of ENL with biologics. Collection of reports was done through web search by using document retrieval engine such as Pub-med and ProQuest. 7 cases of development of leprosy with biologics and 2 cases of ENL treatment with biologics and they were reported in the mini-symposium of Annual academic meeting of Japan Leprosy association. The widespread use of biologics reminds us of development of some infectious diseases as a side-effect and leprosy might be one of them. Because number of the reports was still very limited, we cannot go to further discussion at this moment. Accu- mulation of reported cases will lead the detailed information about correlation between biologics and leprosy, either on effectiveness or on adverse ones.

  4. Effects of Individualized Assignments on Biology Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Philip L.

    1983-01-01

    Compared detailed (favoring field dependence and induction) and nondetailed (favoring field dependence and deduction) assignments on biology achievement of grade 10 male students (N=95) over a seven-month period. Detailed assignments, employing pictorial and verbal block diagrams and high structure, significantly enhanced learning among some…

  5. The Biological Effects of Nonionizing Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-29

    surrounding C-12-81 normal tissues. According to N.W. Bleehan, this was the method used by Hippocrates , with the aid of a hot iron. Hippocrates , by the way, is...temporal pattern of desired increases of tempera - ture in the body; (2) the biological consequences of doing this must be established and evaluated

  6. Nanosilver – Harmful effects of biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Świdwińska-Gajewska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanosilver, also identified as colloidal silver, has been known and used for ages to combat diseases or prolong food freshness. It usually occurs in the form of a suspension consisting of particles of size < 100 nm. Due to its specific properties, silver nanoparticles are used in many technologies to produce medical devices, textiles, conductive materials or photovoltaic cells. The growing popularity of nanosilver applications increases the number of people occupationally exposed to this substance. Potential exposure routes for silver nanoparticles are through dermal, oral and inhalation pathways. Silver nanoparticles may be absorbed through the lungs, intestine, and through the skin into circulation and thus may reach such organs as the liver, kidney, spleen, brain, heart and testes. Nanosilver may cause mild eyes and skin irritations. It can also act as a mild skin allergen. Inhalation of silver nanoparticles mainly affects the lungs and liver. It has been demonstrated that silver nanoparticles may be genotoxic to mammalian cells. There are some alarming reports on the adverse effects of silver nanoparticles on reproduction of experimental animals. Exposure to silver nanoparticles may exert a neurotoxic effect and affect cognitive functions, causing the impairment of short-term and working memory. Maximum admissible concentration (MAC for the inhalable fraction of silver of 0.05 mg/m3 is currently binding in Poland. In light of toxicological studies of silver nanoparticles it seems reasonable to update the hygiene standards for silver with nanoparticles as a separate fraction. Med Pr 2014;65(6:831–845

  7. NCI first International Workshop on the biology, prevention, and treatment of relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: report from the committee on the biological considerations of hematological relapse following allogeneic stem cell transplantation unrelated to graft-versus-tumor effects: state of the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Mitchell S; Jordan, Craig T; Maley, Carlo C; Chao, Clifford; Melnick, Ari; Armstrong, Scott A; Shlomchik, Warren; Molldrem, Jeff; Ferrone, Soldano; Mackall, Crystal; Zitvogel, Laurence; Bishop, Michael R; Giralt, Sergio A; June, Carl H

    2010-06-01

    Hematopoietic malignant relapse still remains the major cause of death following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Although there has been a large focus on the immunologic mechanisms responsible for the graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect or lack thereof, there has been little attention paid to investigating the biologic basis of hematologic malignant disease relapse following allogeneic HSCT. There are a large number of factors that are responsible for the biologic resistance of hematopoietic tumors following allogeneic HSCT. We have focused on 5 major areas including clonal evolution of cancer drug resistance, cancer radiation resistance, genomic basis of leukemia resistance, cancer epigenetics, and resistant leukemia stem cells. We recommend increased funding to pursue 3 broad areas that will significantly enhance our understanding of the biologic basis of malignant relapse after allogeneic HSCT, including: (1) genomic and epigenetic alterations, (2) cancer stem cell biology, and (3) clonal cancer drug and radiation resistance.

  8. Agreements and Discrepancies between FDA Reports and Journal Papers on Biologic Agents Approved for Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarilyo, Gil; Furst, Daniel E; Woo, Jennifer M P

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sponsors that seek to commercialize new drugs apply to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which independently analyzes the raw data and reports the results on its website. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine if there are differences between the FDA assessments and journal...... reports on biologic agents developed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: Available data on FDA-approved drugs were extracted from the website, and a systematic literature search was conducted to identify matching studies in peer-reviewed medical journals. Outcome measures were the American...... College of Rheumatology response criteria ACR20 (efficacy) and withdrawal due to adverse events (safety). As effect size odds ratios were estimated for each active trial arm vs. control arm (i.e. for both sources: FDA and journal report), followed by calculation of the ratios of the FDA and journal report...

  9. Systems Biology Knowledgebase for a New Era in Biology A Genomics:GTL Report from the May 2008 Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregurick, S.; Fredrickson, J. K.; Stevens, R.

    2009-03-01

    Biology has entered a systems-science era with the goal to establish a predictive understanding of the mechanisms of cellular function and the interactions of biological systems with their environment and with each other. Vast amounts of data on the composition, physiology, and function of complex biological systems and their natural environments are emerging from new analytical technologies. Effectively exploiting these data requires developing a new generation of capabilities for analyzing and managing the information. By revealing the core principles and processes conserved in collective genomes across all biology and by enabling insights into the interplay between an organism's genotype and its environment, systems biology will allow scientific breakthroughs in our ability to project behaviors of natural systems and to manipulate and engineer managed systems. These breakthroughs will benefit Department of Energy (DOE) missions in energy security, climate protection, and environmental remediation.

  10. Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology. This report describes new approaches that are faster, less resource intensive, and more robust that can help ...

  11. Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology. This report describes new approaches that are faster, less resource intensive, and more robust that can help ...

  12. 76 FR 59407 - Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... ``Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and Information... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and Information on Non-Standardized Allergenic Extracts in the Diagnosis...

  13. Biology, Medicine, and the Bill of Rights. Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    The rapid progress in the biological sciences has resulted in many social, ethical, and legal issues. In medical practice, public health programs, research laboratories, law enforcement, insurance, the patenting process, agriculture, genetic counseling, and other fields, legal controversies and public policy debates have developed. Some of these…

  14. [Biologically borderline neoplasms: epithelial hemangioendothelioma. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, A M; Barbera, A; Fedele, F; Broccio, M; Lepore, V; Ciccolo, A

    2000-01-01

    The case of a patient affected by an epithelial hemangioendothelioma of the arm is described. A definitive diagnosis was possible only by histologic examination. The difficulty to reliably predict the biological behaviour of these tumors is emphasized and therefore the necessity of a follow-up of the patient for many years is stressed, even in the case of a histologically benign tumor.

  15. Plant Biology and Biogeochemistry Department annual report 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kossmann, J.; Gissel Nielsen, G.; Nielsen, K.K.;

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Plant Biology and Biogeochemistry is engaged in basic and applied research to improve the scientific basis for developing new methods and technology for an environmentally benign industrial and agricultural production in the future. TheDepartment's expertise covers a wide range...

  16. Electromagnetic field induced biological effects in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszuba-Zwoińska, Jolanta; Gremba, Jerzy; Gałdzińska-Calik, Barbara; Wójcik-Piotrowicz, Karolina; Thor, Piotr J

    2015-01-01

    or be derived from a combination of many sources. Reported symptoms associated with electromagnetic fields are characterized by the overlapping effect with other individuals with these symptoms exhibited a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, related to exposure to a single or multiple sources of EMF. The phenomenon of electromagnetic hypersensitivity in the form of dermatological disease is associated with mastocytosis. The biopsies taken from skin lesions of patients with EHS indicated on infiltration of the skin layers of the epidermis with mastocytes and their degranulation, as well as on release anaphylactic reaction mediators such as histamine, chymase and tryptase. The number of people suffering from EHS in the world is growing describing themselves as severely dysfunctional, showing multi organ non-specific symptoms upon exposure to low doses of electromagnetic radiation, often associated with hypersensitivity to many chemical agents (Multiple Chemical Sensitivity-MCS) and/or other environmental intolerances (Sensitivity Related Illness-SRI).

  17. Non-Thermal Effects Mobile Phones at Biological Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Ladislav Balogh

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with non-thermal effects of mobile phones on biological objects. Even though these effects are observed for longer period, there are not so far unequivocal results on obtained biological and biophysical results in this field. Biologicaleffects of electromagnetic field (EMF) depend on its character, its duration as well as on features of organism. As the receptors offield are not known (e.g. inputs of EMF into organism), its effects are judged only by non-specific reaction of...

  18. Investigation on inhibition of biological effects of endothelin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田青; 赵东; 张继峰; 高连如; 刘胜昔; 杨军; 苏静怡; 张肇康; 汤健; 唐朝枢

    1996-01-01

    The effects of a series of substances on the biological function of endothelin (ET) are reported. The substances used are: synthetic inhibitors of endothelium derived relaxing factors (EDRFs), inhibitor of big-endothelin converting enzyme phosphoramidon, antiserum of endothelin, antagonists of endothelin A receptor BQ123 and JKC301, and two Chinese anti-snake venom herb medicines Lobelia radians Thumb and Taris polyphylla Smith var. chinensis (Franch) Hara. The results showed that inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO) could stimulate ET release from vascular endothelium, elevate plasma ET and increase blood pressure. These changes could be reversed by L-arginine (L-Arg), the substrate of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). The amount of ET released by arterial endothelium could be increased or inhibited by inhibiting or stimulating the synthesis of prostacyclin (PGI2). The plasma ET level and blood pressure in both SHR and WKY rats could be decreased by giving phosphoramidon (PhR). The above results i

  19. [The biological effect of fireproof ceramic fibers--literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnow, A

    1996-01-01

    The work presents reports, selected from the world literature, on the studies of biological effect of refractory ceramic fibres, carried out on experimental animals. The discrepancy between the results of studies performed may originate from differences in the distribution of fibre sizes or the durability of fibres in the organism and their surface properties which, in turn, depend on the chemical composition of fibres. In all studies discussed, ceramic fibres generally activated macrophages and they were characterised by a moderate fibrotic activity. A statistically significant increase in the incidence of tumor (mesothelioma) observed in several very important experimental studies may suggest that some types of refractory ceramic fibres show a similar carcinogenic potential to that of natural asbestos: crocidolite or chrysotile.

  20. Effect of Antimicrobial Peptide-Amide: Indolicidin on Biological Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Gergely Végh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Indolicidin, a cationic antimicrobial tridecapeptide amide, is rich in proline and tryptophan residues. Its biological activity is intensively studied, but the details how indolicidin interacts with membranes are not fully understood yet. We report here an in situ atomic force microscopic study describing the effect of indolicidin on an artificial supported planar bilayer membrane of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC and on purple membrane of Halobacterium salinarum. Concentration dependent interaction of the peptide and membranes was found in case of DPPC resulting the destruction of the membrane. Purple membrane was much more resistant against indolicidin, probably due to its high protein content. Indolicidin preferred the border of membrane disks, where the lipids are more accessible. These data suggest that the atomic force microscope is a powerful tool in the study of indolicidin-membrane interaction.

  1. Refuge Land Acquisition Biological Reconnaissance Report Lake Umbagog 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes a 15,600-acre area called Lake Umbagog. The focus of the report is on the lake shore, marsh, swamp, and uplands, predominately on the lake's...

  2. Topical Day on Biological Effects of Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baatout, S.; Jacquet, P.

    1997-05-15

    The topical day has been focussed on the potential effects of ionizing radiation on human health. A general overview on molecular and biophysical aspects of radiation, its effects on cells and organisms, and the contribution of radiobiology to radiation protection and risk assessment is given. The genetic effects of radiation and its effects on the developing organism, the effects of radiation on the cell cycle and the mechanisms of radiation induced apoptosis were also discussed.

  3. Plant Biology and Biogeochemistry Department annual report 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A.; Gissel Nielsen, G.; Giese, H.;

    2000-01-01

    The Department of Plant Biology and Biogeochemistry is engaged in basic and applied research to improve the scientific knowledge of developing new methods and technology for the future environmentally benign industrial and agricultural production, thusexerting less stress and strain on the enviro......The Department of Plant Biology and Biogeochemistry is engaged in basic and applied research to improve the scientific knowledge of developing new methods and technology for the future environmentally benign industrial and agricultural production, thusexerting less stress and strain...... summarizes and highlights our results and achievements to give an idea of the research directions in theDepartment. Some 160 persons, including staff, undergraduate students, post-graduate scientists and visiting scientists from all over the world, address our research goals....

  4. Linking exposure to environmental pollutants with biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Mette; Autrup, Herman; Møller, Peter; Hertel, Ole; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Vinzents, Peter; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Loft, Steffen

    2003-11-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with cancer. Ambient air contains a complex mixture of toxics, including particulate matter (PM) and benzene. Carcinogenic effects of PM may relate both to the content of PAH and to oxidative DNA damage generated by transition metals, benzene, metabolism and inflammation. By means of personal monitoring and biomarkers of internal dose, biologically effective dose and susceptibility, it should be possible to characterize individual exposure and identify air pollution sources with relevant biological effects. In a series of studies, individual exposure to PM(2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and benzene has been measured in groups of 40-50 subjects. Measured biomarkers included 1-hydroxypyrene, benzene metabolites (phenylmercapturic acid (PMA) and trans-trans-muconic acid (ttMA)), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in urine, DNA strand breaks, base oxidation, 8-oxodG and PAH bulky adducts in lymphocytes, markers of oxidative stress in plasma and genotypes of glutathione transferases (GSTs) and NADPH:quinone reductase (NQO1). With respect to benzene, the main result indicates that DNA base oxidation is correlated with PMA excretion. With respect to exposure to PM, biomarkers of oxidative damage showed significant positive association with the individual exposure. Thus, 8-oxodG in lymphocyte DNA and markers of oxidative damage to lipids and protein in plasma associated with PM(2.5) exposure. Several types of DNA damage showed seasonal variation. PAH adduct levels, DNA strand breaks and 8-oxodG in lymphocytes increased significantly in the summer period, requiring control of confounders. Similar seasonal effects on strand breaks and expression of the relevant DNA repair genes ERCC1 and OGG1 have been reported. In the present setting, biological effects of air pollutants appear mainly related to oxidative stress via personal exposure and not to urban background levels. Future developments include personal time

  5. Biological upgrading of coal-derived synthesis gas: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S.; Johnson, E.R.; Ko, C.W.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1986-10-01

    The technical feasibility of the biological conversion of coal synthesis gas to methane has been demonstrated in the University of Arkansas laboratories. Cultures of microorganisms have been developed which achieve total conversion in the water gas shift and methanation reactions in either mixed or pure cultures. These cultures carry out these conversions at ordinary temperatures and pressures, without sulfur toxicity. Several microorganisms have been identified as having commercial potential for producing methane. These include a mixed culture of unidentified bacteria; P. productus which produces acetate, a methane precursor; and Methanothrix sp., which produces methane from acetate. These cultures have been used in mixed reactors and immobilized cell reactors to achieve total CO and H/sub 2/ conversion in a retention time of less than two hours, quite good for a biological reactor. Preliminary economic projections indicate that a biological methanation plant with a size of 5 x 10/sup 10/ Btu/day can be economically attractive. 42 refs., 26 figs., 86 tabs.

  6. Critical appraisal: dental amalgam update--part II: biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Michael J; Swift, Edward J

    2013-12-01

    Dental amalgam restorations have been controversial for over 150 years. In Part I of this Critical Appraisal, the clinical efficacy of dental amalgam was updated. Here in Part II, the biological effects of dental amalgam are addressed.

  7. Iron diminishes the in vitro biological effect of vanadium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanistic pathways underlying inflammatory injury following exposures to vanadium-containing compounds are not defined. We tested the postulate that the in vitro biological effect of vanadium results from its impact on iron homeostasis. Human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells ex...

  8. Effect of grain splitting on biology and development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of grain splitting on biology and development of Callosobruchus Maculatus ... Data on oviposition, adult eclosion and weights of emergent adults were ... for C. maculatus at F1, F2 and F3 generations on spilt compared to whole grains.

  9. Distinguishing between "function" and "effect" in genome biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, W Ford; Brunet, Tyler D P; Linquist, Stefan; Gregory, T Ryan

    2014-05-09

    Much confusion in genome biology results from conflation of possible meanings of the word "function." We suggest that, in this connection, attention should be paid to evolutionary biologists and philosophers who have previously dealt with this problem. We need only decide that although all genomic structures have effects, only some of them should be said to have functions. Although it will very often be difficult or impossible to establish function (strictly defined), it should not automatically be assumed. We enjoin genomicists in particular to pay greater attention to parsing biological effects. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  10. Hormesis [Biological Effects of Low Level Exposures (Belle)] and Dermatology

    OpenAIRE

    Thong, Haw-Yueh; Maibach, Howard I.

    2008-01-01

    Hormesis, or biological effects of low level exposures (BELLE), is characterized by nonmonotonic dose response which is biphasic, displaying opposite effects at low and high dose. Its occurrence has been documented across a broad range of biological models and diverse type of exposure. Since hormesis appears to be a relatively common phenomenon in many areas, the objective of this review is to explore its occurrence related to dermatology and its public health and risk assessment implication....

  11. Biological Effects of the Great Oxidation Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.

    2012-12-01

    Fossil evidence of photoautotrophy, documented in Precambrian sediments by stromatolites, stromatolitic microfossils, and carbon isotopic data consistent with autotrophic CO2-fixation, extends to ~3,500 Ma. Such data, however, are insufficient to establish the time of origin of O2-producing (cyanobacterial) photosynthesis from its anoxygenic, photosynthetic bacterial, evolutionary precursor. The oldest (Paleoarchean) stromatolites may have been formed by anoxygenic photoautotrophs, rather than the cyanobacteria that dominate Proterozoic and modern stromatolites. Unlike the cyanobacteria of Proterozoic microbial assemblages, the filamentous and coccoidal microfossils of Archean deposits may represent remnants of non-O2-producing prokaryotes. And although the chemistry of Archean organic matter shows it to be biogenic, its carbon isotopic composition is insufficient to differentiate between oxygenic and anoxygenic sources. Though it is well established that Earth's ecosystem has been based on autotrophy since its early stages and that O2-producing photosynthesis evolved earlier, perhaps much earlier, than the increase of atmospheric oxygen in the ~2,450 and ~2,320 Ma Great Oxidation Event (GOE), the time of origin of oxygenic photoautotrophy has yet to be established. Recent findings suggest that Earth's ecosystem responded more or less immediately to the GOE. The increase of atmospheric oxygen markedly affected ocean water chemistry, most notably by increasing the availability of biologically usable oxygen (which enabled the development of obligate aerobes, such as eukaryotes), and of nitrate, sulfate and hydrogen sulfide (the increase of H2S being a result of microbial reduction of sulfate), the three reactants that power the anaerobic basis of sulfur-cycling microbial sulfuretums. Fossil evidence of the earliest eukaryotes (widely accepted to date from ~1800 Ma and, arguably, ~2200 Ma) fit this scenario, but the most telling example of life's response to the GOE

  12. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment Final Report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher W.; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Geist, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Abbe, Timothy; Barton, Chase [Herrera Environmental Consultants, Inc.

    2008-02-04

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  13. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment, 2006 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher; Geist, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-04-01

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  14. Biology Division progress report, June 1, 1980-July 31, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-12-01

    Highlights of progress for the period June 1980 through July 1982 are summarized. Discussions of projects are presented under the following headings: molecular and cellular sciences; cellular and comparative mutagenesis; mammalian genetics and teratology; toxicology; and carcinogenesis. In addition this report includes an outline of educational activities. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual technical reports for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (RJC)

  15. Low power laser therapy — an introduction and a review of some biological effects

    OpenAIRE

    Thiel, Haymo

    1986-01-01

    This report gives a brief introduction to the characteristics of therapeutic low power laser devices. Absorption, tissue penetration and physiological mechanisms of laser irradiation are discussed. The biological effects of low power laser light are reviewed in the areas of collagen metabolism, woundhealing, inflammation and pain control. Contraindications, precautions and side effects of low power laser irradiation are discussed.

  16. Biology and Medicine Division annual report, 1982-1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-04-01

    This annual report presents brief summaries of research activities during 1982 to 1983. Program activities have been individually entered into EDB. They include research medicine, radiosurgery, environmental physiology, radiation biophysics, and structural biophysics. (ACR)

  17. Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge Biological report: May - August, 1942

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge is an annual summary of species occurrence assessments (inlcuding wading birds, waterfowl, raptors, upland game...

  18. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual report, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, M W [ed.

    1975-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 sections of the report. Educational activities, outside lectures by divisional staff, seminars, and publications are also listed. An organizational chart and author index are included. (HLW)

  19. Systems biology in the frontier of cancer research:a report of the Second International Workshop of Cancer Systems Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Cui; Yan-Chun Liang; Ying Xu

    2012-01-01

    The report summarizes the Second International Workshop of Cancer Systems Biology held on July 5-6,2012 in Changchun,China.The goal of the workshop was to bring together cancer researchers with different backgrounds to share their views about cancer and their experiences in fighting against cancer,and to gain new and systems-level understanding about cancer formation,progression,diagnosis,and treatment through exchanging ideas.

  20. Support of the IMA summer program molecular biology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, A.

    1995-08-01

    The revolutionary progress in molecular biology within the last 30 years opens the way to full understanding of the molecular structures and mechanisms of living organisms. The mathematical sciences accompany and support much of the progress achieved by experiment and computation, as well as provide insight into geometric and topological properties of biomolecular structure and processes. The 4 week program at the IMA brought together biologists and mathematicians leading researchers, postdocs, and graduate students. It focused on genetic mapping and DNA sequencing, followed by biomolecular structure and dynamics. High-resolution linkage maps of genetic marker were discussed extensively in relation to the human genome project. The next level of DNA mapping is physical mapping, consisting of overlapping clones spanning the genome. These maps are extremely useful for genetic analysis. They provide the material for less redundant sequencing and for detailed searches for a gene among other things. This topic was also extensively studied by the participants. From there, the program moved to consider protein structure and dynamics; this is a broad field with a large array of interesting topics. It is of key importance in answering basic scientific questions about the nature of all living organisms, and has practical biomedical applications. The major subareas of structure prediction and classification, techniques and heuristics for the simulation of protein folding, and molecular dynamics provide a rich problem domain where mathematics can be helpful in analysis, modeling, and simulation. One of the important problems in molecular biology is the three-dimensional structure of proteins, DNA and RNA in the cell, and the relationship between structure and function. The program helped increased the understanding of the topology of cellular DNA, RNA and proteins and the various life-sustaining mechanisms used by the cell which modify this molecular topology.

  1. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment, 2006 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher; Geist, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-04-01

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  2. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment Final Report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher W.; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Geist, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Abbe, Timothy; Barton, Chase [Herrera Environmental Consultants, Inc.

    2008-02-04

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  3. Biological effects of fruit and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, L. O.; Krath, B.; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2006-01-01

    , enzyme inducers, apoptosis inducers etc. In human intervention studies the dose levels achieved tend to be lower than the levels found to be effective in animals and sampling from target organs is often not possible. A controlled dietary human intervention study was performed with forty-three volunteers...... and vegetables tends to increase the stability of lipids towards oxidative damage. Markers of oxidative enzymes indicate a steady increase in glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) activity in erythrocytes during intervention with fruit and vegetables but there is no effect on GPX1 transcription levels in leucocytes....... No change occurs in glutathione-conjugating or -reducing enzyme activities in erythrocytes or plasma, and there are no effects on the transcription of genes involved in phase 2 enzyme induction or DNA repair in leucocytes. Fruit and vegetable intake decreases the level of total cholesterol and LDL...

  4. 76 FR 78661 - Correction for Draft Vieques Report: An Evaluation of Environmental, Biological, and Health Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... Draft Vieques Report: An Evaluation of Environmental, Biological, and Health Data From the Island of....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This report's principal focus is to review updated environmental data... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Correction for Draft Vieques Report:...

  5. 76 FR 77234 - Availability of Draft Vieques Report: An Evaluation of Environmental, Biological, and Health Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... availability of the Draft Vieques Report: An Evaluation of Environmental, Biological, and Health Data from the... environmental data on Vieques air, water, soil, seafood, and locally grown foods. In addition, this report.... This notice announces the availability of the draft Vieques Report: An Evaluation of...

  6. Predicting Drug Use at Electronic Music Dance Events: Self-Reports and Biological Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert A.; Miller, Brenda A.; Holder, Harold D.

    2009-01-01

    Most information on the prevalence of drug use comes from self-report surveys. The sensitivity of such information is cause for concern about the accuracy of self-report measures. In this study, self-reported drug use in the last 48 hr is compared to results from biological assays of saliva samples from 371 young adults entering clubs. The…

  7. [Quarterly Biological narrative report for November 1940 - January 1941 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, raptors, upland game birds,...

  8. [Quarterly Biological narrative report for May - July 1941 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, raptors, upland game birds,...

  9. Winter report on biological projects : Des Lacs and Lostwood Migratory Bird Refuge : 1935-1936

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report on biological projects taking place during the winter of 1935-1936 on Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge and Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge. Activities...

  10. [Quarterly Biological narrative report for February - April 1941 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, raptors, upland game birds,...

  11. [Quarterly Biological narrative report for August - October 1939 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, raptors, upland game birds,...

  12. [Quarterly Biological narrative report for August - October 1941 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, raptors, upland game birds,...

  13. [Quarterly Biological narrative report for February - April 1940 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, raptors, upland game birds,...

  14. [Quarterly Biological narrative report for February - April 1942 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, raptors, upland game birds,...

  15. [Quarterly Biological narrative report for August - October 1938 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, raptors, upland game birds,...

  16. [Quarterly Biological narrative report for August - October 1940 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, raptors, upland game birds,...

  17. Biological and therapeutical effects of Radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deetjen, P. [Institute of Physiologie and Balneologie, University of Innsbruck (Austria)

    1998-12-31

    In spas with a somewhat elevated Radon{sup 222} (Rn) activity (between 300 and 3000 Bq/l), the empirical medicine ended - in all parts of the world - with the same list of indications. It mainly includes the more painful rheumatic diseases such as deformation or degeneration of the joints and non bacterial inflammation of muscles, tendons or joints; Morbus Bechterew and other diseases of the vertebral column like spondylosis, spondylarthrosis or osteochondrosis. While informer times these effects were seldom documented in an objective manner, in recent years several prospective randomized double-blind studies proved the pain reducing efficacy of Radon therapy in patients with cervical pain syndromes, with chronic polyarthritis or with Morbus Bechterew. Studies in experimental animal models have accumulated remarkable data in organs, tissue and cultured cells that provide a rationale to explain the observed effects of Radon therapy in patients. (author)

  18. Palytoxin and Analogs: Biological and Ecological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Ramos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Palytoxin (PTX is a potent marine toxin that was originally found in soft corals from tropical areas of the Pacific Ocean. Soon after, its occurrence was observed in numerous other marine organisms from the same ecological region. More recently, several analogs of PTX were discovered, remarkably all from species of the dinoflagellate genus Ostreopsis. Since these dinoflagellates are also found in other tropical and even in temperate regions, the formerly unsuspected broad distribution of these toxins was revealed. Toxicological studies with these compounds shows repeatedly low LD50 values in different mammals, revealing an acute toxic effect on several organs, as demonstrated by different routes of exposure. Bioassays tested for some marine invertebrates and evidences from environmental populations exposed to the toxins also give indications of the high impact that these compounds may have on natural food webs. The recognition of its wide distribution coupled with the poisoning effects that these toxins can have on animals and especially on humans have concerned the scientific community. In this paper, we review the current knowledge on the effects of PTX and its analogs on different organisms, exposing the impact that these toxins may have in coastal ecosystems.

  19. Acid-stress effects on stream biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, J. (Kalmar Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Natural Sciences); Degerman, E. (Inst. of Freshwater Research, Drottningholm (Sweden)); Gerhardt, A. (Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology); Johansson, Catarina (Statistics Sweden, Stockholm (Sweden)); Lingdell, P.E. (Gunilbo, Skinnskatteberg (Sweden)); Muniz, I. (Norvegian Inst. for Nature Research (NINA), Oslo (Norway))

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports and discusses the results of Swedish freshwater acidification research, for the period 1988.1993 and earlier. Changed biotic patterns are exemplified by increased occurrence of those green algae that indicate an increase in nutrients, reduced species richness of invertebrates, a general shift in proportion from invertebrate grazers towards shredders, decreasing populations of fish. Impact on birds appears less validated. The mechanisms for the changes in individual, population and community levels include elevated hydrogen, aluminium and cadmium concentrations that affect ion balance and respiration in fish and invertebrates, but also various behavior patterns, and development stages. Al can ameliorate low pH temporarily but does not biomagnify along food chains, and neither predatory insects nor flycatchers seem to accumulate Al. Iron precipitation can affect feeding ability and respiration of mayfly nymphs. That humic substances may mitigate metals still seems uncertain for fish and invertebrates. Generally, most changes in the biotic patterns of streams seem to be related to abiotic impact routes. Relevant and sufficient knowledge seems to be lacking in three research fields of acidification impact on streams; viz. increasing occurrence of green algae in acidified streams; role of invertebrates in decomposition of leaves in acid waters; and recovery processes of fish and invertebrates after liming. (94 refs., 4 figs.)

  20. Biological production of ethanol from coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Due to the abundant supply of coal in the United States, significant research efforts have occurred over the past 15 years concerning the conversion of coal to liquid fuels. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have concentrated on a biological approach to coal liquefaction, starting with coal-derived synthesis gas as the raw material. Synthesis gas, a mixture of CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and sulfur gases, is first produced using traditional gasification techniques. The CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} are then converted to ethanol using a bacterial culture of Clostridium 1jungdahlii. Ethanol is the desired product if the resultant product stream is to be used as a liquid fuel. However, under normal operating conditions, the ``wild strain`` produces acetate in favor of ethanol in conjunction with growth in a 20:1 molar ratio. Research was performed to determine the conditions necessary to maximize not only the ratio of ethanol to acetate, but also to maximize the concentration of ethanol resulting in the product stream.

  1. Biological effects of stellar collapse neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Collar, J I

    1996-01-01

    Massive stars in their final stages of collapse radiate most of their binding energy in the form of MeV neutrinos. The recoil atoms that they produce in elastic scattering off nuclei in organic tissue create a radiation damage which is highly effective in the production of irreparable DNA harm, leading to cellular mutation, neoplasia and oncogenesis. Using a conventional model of the galaxy and of the collapse mechanism, the periodicity of nearby stellar collapses and the radiation dose are calculated. The possible contribution of this process to the paleontological record of mass extinctions is examined.

  2. Biological effects of fruit and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, L. O.; Krath, B.; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2006-01-01

    , providing 600hairspg fruit and vegetables/d or in the controls a carbohydrate-rich drink to balance energy intake. Surrogate markers of oxidative damage to DNA, protein and lipids, enzymic defence and lipid metabolism were determined in blood and urine. It was found that a high intake of fruit......, enzyme inducers, apoptosis inducers etc. In human intervention studies the dose levels achieved tend to be lower than the levels found to be effective in animals and sampling from target organs is often not possible. A controlled dietary human intervention study was performed with forty-three volunteers...

  3. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  4. Dosimetry using environmental and biological materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskell, E.; Kenner, G.; Hayes, R.

    1998-02-01

    This report summarizes a five year effort to improve the sensitivity and reliability of retrospective dosimetry methods, to collaborate with laboratories engaged in related research and to share the technology with startup laboratories seeking similar capabilities. This research program has focused on validation of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) as a dosimetry tool and on optimization of the technique by reducing the lower limits of detection, simplifying the process of sample preparation and analysis and speeding analysis to allow greater throughput in routine measurement situations. The authors have investigated the dosimetric signal of hard tissues in enamel, deorganified dentin, synthetic carbonated apatites and synthetic hydroxyapatite. This research has resulted in a total of 27 manuscripts which have been published, are in press, or have been submitted for publication. Of these manuscripts, 14 are included in this report and were indexed separately for inclusion in the data base.

  5. Biological effect of radiation on human

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Sil; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Su Jae [and others

    2000-04-01

    1. Adaptive response when 0.01 Gy was preirradiated before high challenging dose is induced in normal cell types such normal lymphocytes, primary keratinocytes, and L929 fibroblast cells but not in neoplastic cells such as L5178Y lymphoma cells, EL-4 lymphoma cells and 308 papilloma cells. 2. Heat shock protein (HSP) 25 and inducible HSP70 is responsible for the induction of adaptive response and radioresistance - cell cycle regulation, antiapoptotic molecule and PKC activation were involved. 3. Apoptosis was induced at most 5. hrs after irradiation in primary keratinocytes, in v-rasHa transformed keratinocytes, the maximum interval was 16 hrs, and in 308 papilloma cells, the maximum was 48 hrs. 4. PKC response by radiation is correlated with induction of apoptosis. 5. Rapid induction PKCdelta in primary keratinocytes and no response of PKC epsilon may involved in radiation induced apoptosis. 6. The rate of resorption was increased when radiation was given at 2.5 days after gestation. Early death including foetal death were highly expressed when radiation was given at 7.5 days after gestation. There are no difference in incidence of late death including embryonic death. 7. 2 Gy is the most effective dose in radiation induced teratogenesis in mouse model. 8. Growth retardation and small head was present when radiation was given at 5.5, 7.5, 11.5 and 15.5 days after gestation and small head showed high incidence at 11.5 days after gestation. 9. External malformation, internal malformation and skeletal malformation was induced when radiation was given at 7.5 days after gestation. 10. OGG1-mutated cells induced radiosensitive by G2/M cell cycle arrest. 11. Radiation induced G2/M phase cell cycle and correlated with radiosensitivity. 12. PKCalpha induced differentiation. 13. Radiation exposed cells showed carcinogenic effect. 14. Organ specific radiosensitivity was shown and protein expression was involved.

  6. Radioecology of natural systems. Fifteenth annual progress report, August 1, 1976--July 31, 1977. [Plutonium transport in terrestrial ecosystems at Rocky Flats Plant with emphasis on biological effects on mule deer and coyotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, F.W.

    1977-08-01

    This report summarizes project activities during the period August 1, 1976 through July 31, 1977. Four major areas of effort are reported, namely plutonium behavior in a terrestrial ecosystem at Rocky Flats, mule deer and coyote studies at Rocky Flats, ecological consequences of transuranics in the terrestrial environment, and lead geochemistry of an alpine lake ecosystem. Much of the first area of effort involved the synthesis of data and preparation of manuscripts, although some new data are reported on plutonium levels in small mammals, plant uptake of plutonium from contaminated soil, and plutonium deposition rates on macroplot 1. The mule deer studies generated a substantial body of new information which will permit quantitative assessment of plutonium dispersion by deer that utilize contaminated areas. These studies involve population dynamics, movement and use patterns, food habits, ingestion rates of contaminated soil and vegetation and plutonium burdens of deer tissues. A related study of coyote food habits in summer at Rocky Flats is reported. A manuscript dealing with the question of ecological effects of transuranics was prepared. This manuscript incorporates data from Rocky Flats on characteristics of natural populations which occupy ecologically similar areas having differing levels of plutonium contamination. The lead geochemistry studies continued to generate new data but the data are not yet reported.

  7. Dosimetry using environmental and biological materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskell, E.; Kenner, G.; Hayes, R.

    1996-09-01

    Although theoretical models have been the traditional tool for assessment of doses delivered by nuclear accidents, their use is now accompanied by increasing political and scientific demand for physical measurements which provide site specific dose information related directly to the original events, can be used to verify and augment the theoretical models, and can be performed and reflicated by independent laboratories. This report details a four year effort to improve the sensitivity and reliability of retrospective methods, to collaborate with laboratories engaged in related research, and to share the technology with startup laboratories seeking similar capabilities.

  8. Amchitka Island, Alaska, Biological Monitoring Report 2011 Sampling Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    The Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) Amchitka Island sites describes how LM plans to conduct its mission to protect human health and the environment at the three nuclear test sites located on Amchitka Island, Alaska. Amchitka Island, near the western end of the Aleutian Islands, is approximately 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. Amchitka is part of the Aleutian Island Unit of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Since World War II, Amchitka has been used by multiple U.S. government agencies for various military and research activities. From 1943 to 1950, it was used as a forward air base for the U.S. Armed Forces. During the middle 1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) used a portion of the island as a site for underground nuclear tests. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the U.S. Navy constructed and operated a radar station on the island. Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island. DOD, in conjunction with AEC, conducted the first nuclear test (named Long Shot) in 1965 to provide data that would improve the United States' capability of detecting underground nuclear explosions. The second nuclear test (Milrow) was a weapons-related test conducted by AEC in 1969 as a means to study the feasibility of detonating a much larger device. Cannikin, the third nuclear test on Amchitka, was a weapons-related test detonated on November 6, 1971. With the exception of small concentrations of tritium detected in surface water shortly after the Long Shot test, radioactive fission products from the tests remain in the subsurface at each test location As a continuation of the environmental monitoring that has taken place on Amchitka Island since before 1965, LM in the summer of 2011 collected biological

  9. Third eye, the biological effects; 3. oeil, les effets biologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-02-01

    The discovery of a third kind of photo-receptor cell in the human eye has permitted to better understand the biological effects of lighting, not only on the vision, but also on some nervous processes, like emotion, mood, stress, biological clock, etc.. This additional dimension has led the engineers of Philips Lighting company to launch a new indoor lighting concept named 'Carpe Diem'. This concept adapts both the illuminance and the color of a lighting system according to the type of work and to the expected stimulating effect. (J.S.)

  10. Biological effect of penetration controlled irradiation with ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Shimizu, Takashi; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Yamashita, Takao

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the effect of local irradiation with ion beams on biological systems, technique for penetration controlled irradiation has been established. The range in a target was controlled by changing the distance from beam window in the atmosphere, and could be controlled linearly up to about 31 {mu}m in biological material. In addition, the effects of the penetration controlled irradiations with 1.5 MeV/u C and He ions were examined using tobacco pollen. The increased frequency of leaky pollen produced by ion beams suggests that the efficient pollen envelope damages would be induced at the range-end of ion beams. (author)

  11. Fall 1998 200 East area biological vector contamination report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONNELL, D.J.

    1999-03-17

    The purpose of this report is to document the investigation into the cause of the spread of radioactive contamination in September and October 1998 at the Hanford Site's 200 East Area and its subsequent spread to the City of Richland Landfill; identify the source of the contamination; and present corrective actions. The focus and thrust of managing the incident was based on the need to accomplish the following, listed in order of importance: (1) protect the health and safety of the Site workers and the public; (2) contain and control the spread of contamination; (3) identify the source of contamination and the pathways for its spread; and (4) identify the causal factors enabling the contamination.

  12. Plant Biology and Biogeochemistry Department annual project report 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A.; Gissel Nielsen, G.; Giese, H.

    2000-01-01

    project summarizes and highlights our results and achievements to give an idea of the researchdirections in the Department. Some 160 persons, including staff, undergraduate students, postgraduate scientists and visiting scientists from all over the world, address our research goals. The Department...... on the environment. This knowledge will lead to a greater prosperity and welfare for agriculture, industry and consumers in Denmark. The research approach in the Department is mainly experimental and the projects areorganized in six research programmes: 1. Plant-Microbe Symbioses, 2. Plant Products and Recycling......’s contribution to education and training ispresented. Lists of publications, papers accepted for publications, guest lecturers, exchange of scientists and lectures and poster presentations at meetings are included in the report. Names of the scientific, technical and administrative staff members...

  13. Biological Effects of Laser Radiation. Volume II. Review of Our Studies on Biological Effects of Laser Radiation-1965-1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-17

    Ben Fine. 8. W.T. Ham,Jr., R.C. Williams, H.A. Mueller, Du Pont Guerry,III, A.M. Clarke and W.J. Geeraets, Effects of Laser Radiation on the Mammalian...and Applications course, Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn Graduate Center, September, 1969 35. S. Fine and E. Klein, "Biological Effects of Laser

  14. Biological effectiveness of neutron irradiation on animals and man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straume, T.

    1982-11-01

    Neutron experiments on a highly radiosensitive in vivo system - oocytes in mice - provide new insight into the nature of the radiosensitive targets of these important cells. With the radiobiological literature as background, neutron data from animals and humans are integrated, and the controversial question of radiation protection standards for neutrons is addressed. Oocyte killing in juvenile mice by 0.43-MeV, /sup 252/Cf-fission, and 15 MeV neutrons, compared with that by /sup 60/Co gamma rays, yields unusually low neutron RBEs (relative biological effectiveness). At 0.1 rad of 0.43-MeV neutrons the RBE is only 1.8, contrasting greatly with values of 100 or more reported at low-doses for other endpoints. In mice just prior to birth, however, when oocytes are less radiosensitive, the neutron RBE is much higher, similar to values for most other mammalian endpoints. This dramatic change in neutron RBE with mouse age (occurring within 2 to 3 days) can be explained as the result of a shift from a less radiosensitive target (presumably nuclear DNA) to a much more radiosensitive one (probably the oocyte plasma membrane). Using various approaches, a value for the neutron Quality Factor (Q, a radiation protection standard) is estimated as 17 (+-100%), much lower than 100 which has been suggested. With the large uncertainty, 17 is not markedly different from the value of 10 presently in general use.

  15. Molecular biological enhancement of coal desulfurization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, S.

    1994-12-31

    During the period from 1986 through 1993 the prospect of bacterial desulfurization of fossil fuel was transformed from a theoretically appealing concept to a demonstrable laboratory phenomenon. Results from several laboratories confirmed that there was not one but, rather, several metabolic bases of selectively removing sulfur from the carbon frame of sulfur-containing organic compounds characteristic of fossil fuels. Results in this report relate solely to the so-called ``4S`` pathway (named for the four sulfur-containing compounds in the sequence: (l) dibenzothiophene [DBT] {yields} (2) dibenzothiophene sulfoxide [DBTO] {yields} (3) dibenzosulfone [DBTO{sup 2}] {yields} (4) dibenzosulfonate {yields} monohydroxybiphenyl [OH-BP] + SO{sub 4}{sup =}. [An additional desulfurized product, biphenyl, has been hypothesized and another, o,o{prime}-biphenyl, observed.]) The following subjects are discussed: isolating bacteria with a DbtS{sup +} phenotype; confirming the production of a desulfurized product; determining the identity of the isolates; determining the growth characteristics of the isolates in batch and continuous cultures; determining the kinetics and yields of product in batch and continuous cultures.

  16. Genetics and molecular biology of methanogen genes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konisky, J.

    1997-10-07

    Adenylate kinase has been isolated from four related methanogenic members of the Archaea. For each the optimum temperature for enzyme activity was similar to the temperature for optimal microbial growth and was approximately 30 C for Methanococcus voltage, 70 C for Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus, 80 C for Methanococcus igneus and 80--90 C for Methanococcus jannaschii. The enzymes were sensitive to the adenylate kinase inhibitor, Ap{sub 5}A [P{sup 1}, P{sup 5}-di(adenosine-5{prime}) pentaphosphate], a property that was exploited to purify the enzymes by CIBACRON Blue affinity chromatography. The enzymes had an estimated molecular weight (approximately 23--25 kDa) in the range common for adenylate kinases. Each of the enzymes had a region of amino acid sequence close to its N-terminus that was similar to the canonical P-loop sequence reported for all adenylate kinases. However, the methanogen sequences lacked a lysine residue that has previously been found to be invariant in adenylate kinases including an enzyme isolated from the Archeon, Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. If verified as a nucleotide binding domain, the methanogen sequence would represent a novel nucleotide binding motif. There was no correlation between amino acid abundance and the optimal temperature for enzyme activity.

  17. Molecular biological enhancement of coal desulfurization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, S.

    1994-12-31

    During the period from 1986 through 1993 the prospect of bacterial desulfurization of fossil fuel was transformed from a theoretically appealing concept to a demonstrable laboratory phenomenon. Results from several laboratories confirmed that there was not one but, rather, several metabolic bases of selectively removing sulfur from the carbon frame of sulfur-containing organic compounds characteristic of fossil fuels. Results in this report relate solely to the so-called ``4S`` pathway (named for the four sulfur-containing compounds in the sequence: (l) dibenzothiophene [DBT] {yields} (2) dibenzothiophene sulfoxide [DBTO] {yields} (3) dibenzosulfone [DBTO{sup 2}] {yields} (4) dibenzosulfonate {yields} monohydroxybiphenyl [OH-BP] + SO{sub 4}{sup =}. [An additional desulfurized product, biphenyl, has been hypothesized and another, o,o{prime}-biphenyl, observed.]) The following subjects are discussed: isolating bacteria with a DbtS{sup +} phenotype; confirming the production of a desulfurized product; determining the identity of the isolates; determining the growth characteristics of the isolates in batch and continuous cultures; determining the kinetics and yields of product in batch and continuous cultures.

  18. Methods for studying and criteria for evaluating the biological effects of electric fields of industrial frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savin, B.M.; Shandala, M.G.; Nikonova, K.V.; Morozov, Yu.A.

    1978-10-01

    Data are reviewed from a number of USSR research studies on the biological effects of electric power transmission lines of 1150 Kv and above. Effects on man, plants, animals, and terrestrial ecosystems are reported. Existing health standards in the USSR for the exposure of personnel working in electric fields are included. It is concluded that high-voltage electric fields have a harmful effect on man and his environment.

  19. Plasma effects in electromagnetic field interaction with biological tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R. P.; Batra, Karuna; Excell, Peter S.

    2011-02-01

    Theoretical analysis is presented of the nonlinear behavior of charge carriers in biological tissue under the influence of varying low-intensity electromagnetic (EM) field. The interaction occurs because of the nonlinear force arising due to the gradient of the EM field intensity acting on free electrons in the conduction band of proteins in metabolically active biological cell membrane receptors leading to a redistribution of charge carriers. Field dependence of the resulting dielectric constant is investigated by a suitable modification to include an additional electronic contribution term to the three-term Debye model. The exogenous EM field propagating in this nonlinear cellular medium satisfies the nonlinear Schrödinger equation and can be affected significantly. Resulting field effect can be substantially augmented and effective rectification/demodulation can occur. Possible implications of this modification on biological processes in white and grey matter are discussed.

  20. Bullying Prevention: a Summary of the Report of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine : Committee on the Biological and Psychosocial Effects of Peer Victimization: Lessons for Bullying Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Daniel J; Todres, Jonathan; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Amar, Angela Frederick; Graham, Sandra; Hatzenbuehler, Mark; Masiello, Matthew; Moreno, Megan; Sullivan, Regina; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Le Menestrel, Suzanne M; Rivara, Frederick

    2016-11-01

    Long tolerated as a rite of passage into adulthood, bullying is now recognized as a major and preventable public health problem. The consequences of bullying-for those who are bullied, the perpetrators of bullying, and the witnesses-include poor physical health, anxiety, depression, increased risk for suicide, poor school performance, and future delinquent and aggressive behavior. Despite ongoing efforts to address bullying at the law, policy, and programmatic levels, there is still much to learn about the consequences of bullying and the effectiveness of various responses. In 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine published a report entitled Preventing Bullying Through Science, Policy and Practice, which examined the evidence on bullying, its impact, and responses to date. This article summarizes the report's key findings and recommendations related to bullying prevention.

  1. IPCC workshop on impacts of ocean acidification on marine biology and ecosystems. Workshop report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, C.B.; Barros, V.; Stocker, T.F.; Dahe, Q.; Mach, K.J.; Plattner, G.-K.; Mastrandrea, M.D.; Tignor, M.; Ebi, K.L.

    2011-09-15

    Understanding the effects of increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on ocean chemistry, commonly termed ocean acidification, as well as associated impacts on marine biology and ecosystems, is an important component of scientific knowledge about global change. The Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) will include comprehensive coverage of ocean acidification and its impacts, including potential feedbacks to the climate system. To support ongoing AR5 assessment efforts, Working Group II and Working Group I (WGII and WGI) of the IPCC held a joint Workshop on Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Marine Biology and Ecosystems in Okinawa, Japan, from 17 to 19 January 2011. The workshop convened experts from the scientific community, including WGII and WGI AR5 authors and review editors, to synthesise scientific understanding of changes in ocean chemistry due to increased CO{sub 2} and of impacts of this changing chemistry on marine organisms, ecosystems, and ecosystem services. This workshop report summarises the scientific content and perspectives presented and discussed during the workshop. It provides syntheses of these perspectives for the workshop's core topics: (i) the changing chemistry of the oceans, (ii) impacts of ocean acidification for individual organisms, and (iii) scaling up responses from individual organisms to ecosystems. It also presents summaries of workshop discussions of key cross-cutting themes, ranging from detection and attribution of ocean acidification and its impacts to understanding ocean acidification in the context of other stressors on marine systems. Additionally, the workshop report includes extended abstracts for keynote and poster presentations at the workshop. (Author)

  2. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program; Progress report, October 1992--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, a program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG&G/EM) from October 1992 through December 1993 for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the environmental program for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP): Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  3. Report on the Biological Monitoring Program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1992--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Hinzman, R.L.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1995-06-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The goals of BMP are to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, characterize potential health and environmental impacts, document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota, and recommend any program improvements that would increase effluent treatability. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, bioaccumulation studies, and ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report includes ESD activities occurring from December 1992 to December 1993, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  4. Biology and Medicine Division annual report, 1981-1982. [Lead abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-04-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 61 research reports in the 1981-1982 annual report for the Biology and Medicine Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Programs reviewed include research medicine, Donner Pavilion, environmental physiology, radiation biophysics and structural biophysics. (KRM)

  5. The Effects of Using Concept Mapping for Improving Advanced Level Biology Students' Lower- and Higher-Order Cognitive Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on teachers' use of concept mapping as an alternative assessment strategy in advanced level biology classes and its effects on students' cognitive skills on selected biology concepts. Using a mixed methods approach, the study employed a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design involving 156 students and 8 teachers from…

  6. Challenges in Analyzing the Biological Effects of Resveratrol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdogan, Cihan Süleyman; Vang, Ole

    2016-01-01

    The suggested health effects (e.g., disease prevention) of dietary bioactive compounds such as resveratrol are challenging to prove in comparison to man-made drugs developed for therapeutic purposes. Dietary bioactive compounds have multiple cellular targets and therefore have a variety of biolog...

  7. Dentinoameloblastoma with ghost cells: A rare case report with emphasis on its biological behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastomas are regarded as a homogeneous group of neoplasms with locally invasive character. They generally do not show induction of dental hard tissue formation except in few cases. Biological behavior and histogenesis of these tumors is still unexplored as there is lack of relevant studies and long follow-up of these patients. So, we aimed to report this rare case of dentinoameloblastoma with unique presence of ghost cells in middle-aged female involving maxilla with emphasis on its biological behavior. We conclude that although histogenesis of this tumor is not clear but biological potential is similar to conventional ameloblastoma requiring wider excision.

  8. Effect of biologic agents on radiographic progression of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel J Tobón

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Gabriel J Tobón1, Alain Saraux1,2, Valérie Devauchelle-Pensec1,21Immunology Laboratory, Morvan Hospital, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest, France; 2Rheumatology Unit, Hôpital de la Cavale Blanche, CHU Brest, FranceAbstract: The treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA has benefited over the last few years from the introduction of biologic agents whose development was based on new insights into the immunological factors involved in the pathogenesis of RA and the development of joint damage. These biological agents have been proven effective in RA patients with inadequate responses to synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs. Preventing joint damage is now the primary goal of RA treatment, and guidelines exist for the follow-up of joint abnormalities. Most biologic agents produced high clinical and radiological response rates in patients with established or recent-onset RA. Thus, for the first time, obtaining a remission is a reasonable treatment goal in RA patients. Factors that are crucial to joint damage control are: early initiation of DMARDs, use of intensive treatments including biological agents, and close monitoring of clinical disease activity and radiographic progression. However, some patients remain unresponsive to all available treatments and continue to experience joint damage progression. A major objective now is to identify patients at high risk for severe joint damage, in order to tailor the treatment regimen to their specific needs.Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, radiographic progression, biologics

  9. III. Biological effects of radiation from external and internal sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, R.S.

    1948-05-24

    This report focuses on the hemotological effects of total body irradiation from external and internal sources observed in patients treated for arthritis with radioactive phosphorus administered intravenously.

  10. Predictive modeling of nanomaterial exposure effects in biological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu X

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Xiong Liu,1 Kaizhi Tang,1 Stacey Harper,2 Bryan Harper,2 Jeffery A Steevens,3 Roger Xu1 1Intelligent Automation, Inc., Rockville, MD, USA; 2Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, School of Chemical, Biological, and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA; 3ERDC Environmental Laboratory, Vicksburg, MS, USA Background: Predictive modeling of the biological effects of nanomaterials is critical for industry and policymakers to assess the potential hazards resulting from the application of engineered nanomaterials. Methods: We generated an experimental dataset on the toxic effects experienced by embryonic zebrafish due to exposure to nanomaterials. Several nanomaterials were studied, such as metal nanoparticles, dendrimer, metal oxide, and polymeric materials. The embryonic zebrafish metric (EZ Metric was used as a screening-level measurement representative of adverse effects. Using the dataset, we developed a data mining approach to model the toxic endpoints and the overall biological impact of nanomaterials. Data mining techniques, such as numerical prediction, can assist analysts in developing risk assessment models for nanomaterials. Results: We found several important attributes that contribute to the 24 hours post-fertilization (hpf mortality, such as dosage concentration, shell composition, and surface charge. These findings concur with previous studies on nanomaterial toxicity using embryonic zebrafish. We conducted case studies on modeling the overall effect/impact of nanomaterials and the specific toxic endpoints such as mortality, delayed development, and morphological malformations. The results show that we can achieve high prediction accuracy for certain biological effects, such as 24 hpf mortality, 120 hpf mortality, and 120 hpf heart malformation. The results also show that the weighting scheme for individual biological effects has a significant influence on modeling the overall impact of

  11. Oxidative metabolism of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and biologically active oxygenated metabolites of DHEA and epiandrosterone (EpiA)--recent reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kihel, Laïla

    2012-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a multifunctional steroid with a broad range of biological effects in humans and animals. DHEA can be converted to multiple oxygenated metabolites in the brain and peripheral tissues. The mechanisms by which DHEA exerts its effects are not well understood. However, evidence that the effects of DHEA are mediated by its oxygenated metabolites has accumulated. This paper will review the panel of oxygenated DHEA metabolites (7, 16 and 17-hydroxylated derivatives) including a number of 5α-androstane derivatives, such as epiandrosterone (EpiA) metabolites. The most important aspects of the oxidative metabolism of DHEA in the liver, intestine and brain are described. Then, this article reviews the reported biological effects of oxygenated DHEA metabolites from recent findings with a specific focus on cancer, inflammatory and immune processes, osteoporosis, thermogenesis, adipogenesis, the cardiovascular system, the brain and the estrogen and androgen receptors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Linking exposure to environmental pollutants with biological effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Autrup, Herman; Møller, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with cancer. Ambient air contains a complex mixture of toxics, including particulate matter (PM) and benzene. Carcinogenic effects of PM may relate both to the content of PAH and to oxidative DNA damage generated by transition metals, benzene......, metabolism and inflammation. By means of personal monitoring and biomarkers of internal dose, biologically effective dose and susceptibility, it should be possible to characterize individual exposure and identify air pollution sources with relevant biological effects. In a series of studies, individual...... breaks, base oxidation, 8-oxodG and PAH bulky adducts in lymphocytes, markers of oxidative stress in plasma and genotypes of glutathione transferases (GSTs) and NADPH:quinone reductase (NQO1). With respect to benzene, the main result indicates that DNA base oxidation is correlated with PMA excretion...

  13. Linking exposure to environmental pollutants with biological effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Autrup, Herman; Møller, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with cancer. Ambient air contains a complex mixture of toxics, including particulate matter (PM) and benzene. Carcinogenic effects of PM may relate both to the content of PAH and to oxidative DNA damage generated by transition metals, benzene......, metabolism and inflammation. By means of personal monitoring and biomarkers of internal dose, biologically effective dose and susceptibility, it should be possible to characterize individual exposure and identify air pollution sources with relevant biological effects. In a series of studies, individual....... With respect to exposure to PM, biomarkers of oxidative damage showed significant positive association with the individual exposure. Thus, 8-oxodG in lymphocyte DNA and markers of oxidative damage to lipids and protein in plasma associated with PM(2.5) exposure. Several types of DNA damage showed seasonal...

  14. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program 2007 Calendar Yeare Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M.J.; Greeley, M. S. Jr.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryan, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2008-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located

  15. Evaluating AE Reporting of Two Off-Patent Biologics to Inform Future Biosimilar Naming and Reporting Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiopoulos, Stella; Getz, Kenneth

    2015-08-01

    Historical studies of voluntary, spontaneous drug reports show poor attribution of adverse events to generic versions of commonly prescribed medications. As biosimilars enter the market place, it may be similarly difficult to accurately attribute adverse events to their respective reference products. At this time, lack of global consensus with regard to biosimilar naming conventions may result in drug reporting confusion, misattribution of adverse events and insufficient active monitoring of safety signals. Now, with the first biosimilar approval in the USA and many biosimilars expected to be launched globally in the near future, US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance on biosimilar naming conventions will be essential. To inform the FDA and the global drug development community, the Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development (Tufts CSDD) examined primary suspect reports sent to the FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) from US reporters for two biologics that have lost patent exclusivity--somatropin and human insulin--and extracted 4703 insulin reports and 6487 somatropin reports from FAERS. The results show that reporting practices are inconsistent between the two biologics that were evaluated and that manufacturer identifiability and traceability are lacking. Ways to improve biosimilar naming conventions and improve reporting practices are suggested.

  16. Biologic diversity, forest fuels and silviculture: Effects of biomass harvesting in deciduous tree stands. Final report; Biologisk maangfald, skogsbraensle och skoetsel av bestaand: effekter av biomassauttag i loevskog. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norden, Bjoern [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Botanical Inst.; Goetmark, Frank [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Zoology

    2005-06-01

    This report concerns a research project studying biodiversity effects of partial cutting for biofuel harvest in temperate deciduous forest dominated by oaks (abandoned woodland pastures). Partial cutting (30%) resulted in fewer species of wood-decay fungi and bryophytes, but increase of vascular plants. It did not increase survival of oak seedlings in the short term. For epixylic bryophytes and lichens, wood-decay fungi, beetles and mycetophilids, area of valuable forest patches at the landscape level increased local species species richness, but not the number of red-listed and indicator species of vascular plants. We recommend that partial cutting for biofuel is not applied indiscriminantly, and a share of at least 25% of stands should be left as no intervention forests when oak grows mixed with other trees. More caution should be taken in regional areas rich in old deciduous forest, and in south-eastern Sweden.

  17. Biologically Hazardous Agents at Work and Efforts to Protect Workers' Health: A Review of Recent Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Taek Rim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Because information on biological agents in the workplace is lacking, biological hazard analyses at the workplace to securely recognize the harmful factors with biological basis are desperately needed. This review concentrates on literatures published after 2010 that attempted to detect biological hazards to humans, especially workers, and the efforts to protect them against these factors. It is important to improve the current understanding of the health hazards caused by biological factors at the workplace. In addition, this review briefly describes these factors and provides some examples of their adverse health effects. It also reviews risk assessments, protection with personal protective equipment, prevention with training of workers, regulations, as well as vaccinations.

  18. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring And Abatement Program 2008 Calendar Year Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M. J.; Greeley Jr., M. S.; Mathews, T. J.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2009-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located off

  19. Biological effects of exposure to static electric fields in humans and vertebrates: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Anne-Kathrin; Schmiedchen, Kristina; Stunder, Dominik; Dechent, Dagmar; Kraus, Thomas; Bailey, William H; Driessen, Sarah

    2017-04-17

    High-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines are the technology of choice for the transport of large amounts of energy over long distances. The operation of these lines produces static electric fields (EF), but the data reviewed in previous assessments were not sufficient to assess the need for any environmental limit. The aim of this systematic review was to update the current state of research and to evaluate biological effects of static EF. Using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) recommendations, we collected and evaluated experimental and epidemiological studies examining biological effects of exposure to static EF in humans (n = 8) and vertebrates (n = 40). There is good evidence that humans and animals are able to perceive the presence of static EF at sufficiently high levels. Hair movements caused by electrostatic forces may play a major role in this perception. A large number of studies reported responses of animals (e.g., altered metabolic, immunologic or developmental parameters) to a broad range of static EF strengths as well, but these responses are likely secondary physiological responses to sensory stimulation. Furthermore, the quality of many of the studies reporting physiological responses is poor, which raises concerns about confounding. The weight of the evidence from the literature reviewed did not indicate that static EF have adverse biological effects in humans or animals. The evidence strongly supported the role of superficial sensory stimulation of hair and skin as the basis for perception of the field, as well as reported indirect behavioral and physiological responses. Physical considerations also preclude any direct effect of static EF on internal physiology, and reports that some physiological processes are affected in minor ways may be explained by other factors. While this literature does not support a level of concern about biological effects of exposure to static EF, the conditions

  20. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1993 to December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A. [ed.

    1996-05-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The PGDP BMP was implemented in 1987 by the University of Kentucky. Research staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) served as reviewers and advisers to the University of Kentucky. Beginning in fall 1991, ESD added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The goals of BMP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota, and (4) recommend any program improvements that would increase effluent treatability. In September 1992, a renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permit was issued to PGDP. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report includes ESD activities occurring from December 1993 to December 1994, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  1. Advances in the biological effects of terahertz wave radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Hao, Yan-Hui; Peng, Rui-Yun

    2014-01-01

    The terahertz (THz) band lies between microwave and infrared rays in wavelength and consists of non-ionizing radiation. Both domestic and foreign research institutions, including the army, have attached considerable importance to the research and development of THz technology because this radiation exhibits both photon-like and electron-like properties, which grant it considerable application value and potential. With the rapid development of THz technology and related applications, studies of the biological effects of THz radiation have become a major focus in the field of life sciences. Research in this field has only just begun, both at home and abroad. In this paper, research progress with respect to THz radiation, including its biological effects, mechanisms and methods of protection, will be reviewed.

  2. Advances in the biological effects of terahertz wave radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhao; Yan-Hui Hao; Rui-Yun Peng

    2014-01-01

    The terahertz (THz) band lies between microwave and infrared rays in wavelength and consists of non-ionizing radiation. Both domestic and foreign research institutions, including the army, have attached considerable importance to the research and development of THz technology because this radiation exhibits both photon-like and electron-like properties, which grant it considerable application value and potential. With the rapid development of THz technology and related applications, studies of the biological effects of THz radiation have become a major focus in the field of life sciences. Research in this field has only just begun, both at home and abroad. In this paper, research progress with respect to THz radiation, including its biological effects, mechanisms and methods of protection, will be reviewed.

  3. On Quantum Effects in a Theory of Biological Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Delgado, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    We construct a descriptive toy model that considers quantum effects on biological evolution starting from Chaitin's classical framework. There are smart evolution scenarios in which a quantum world is as favorable as classical worlds for evolution to take place. However, in more natural scenarios, the rate of evolution depends on the degree of entanglement present in quantum organisms with respect to classical organisms. If the entanglement is maximal, classical evolution turns out to be more favorable. PMID:22413059

  4. On quantum effects in a theory of biological evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Delgado, M A

    2012-01-01

    We construct a descriptive toy model that considers quantum effects on biological evolution starting from Chaitin's classical framework. There are smart evolution scenarios in which a quantum world is as favorable as classical worlds for evolution to take place. However, in more natural scenarios, the rate of evolution depends on the degree of entanglement present in quantum organisms with respect to classical organisms. If the entanglement is maximal, classical evolution turns out to be more favorable.

  5. Effect of Ceramic Scaffold Architectural Parameters on Biological Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariboldi, Maria Isabella; Best, Serena M

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the optimization of ceramic architectures to fulfill a variety of scaffold functional requirements and improve biological response. Conventional fabrication techniques, however, do not allow for the production of geometrically controlled, reproducible structures and often fail to allow the independent variation of individual geometric parameters. Current developments in additive manufacturing technologies suggest that 3D printing will allow a more controlled and systematic exploration of scaffold architectures. This more direct translation of design into structure requires a pipeline for design-driven optimization. A theoretical framework for systematic design and evaluation of architectural parameters on biological response is presented. Four levels of architecture are considered, namely (1) surface topography, (2) pore size and geometry, (3) porous networks, and (4) macroscopic pore arrangement, including the potential for spatially varied architectures. Studies exploring the effect of various parameters within these levels are reviewed. This framework will hopefully allow uncovering of new relationships between architecture and biological response in a more systematic way as well as inform future refinement of fabrication techniques to fulfill architectural necessities with a consideration of biological implications.

  6. Effect of Ceramic Scaffold Architectural Parameters on Biological Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabella eGariboldi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have focused on the optimization of ceramic architectures to fulfill a variety of scaffold functional requirements and improve biological response. Conventional fabrication techniques, however, do not allow for the production of geometrically controlled, reproducible structures and often fail to allow the independent variation of individual geometric parameters. Current developments in additive manufacturing technologies suggest that 3D printing will allow a more controlled and systematic exploration of scaffold architectures. This more direct translation of design into structure requires a pipeline for design-driven optimization. A theoretical framework for systematic design and evaluation of architectural parameters on biological response is presented. Four levels of architecture are considered, namely (1 surface topography, (2 pore size and geometry, (3 porous networks and (4 macroscopic pore arrangement, including the potential for spatially varied architectures. Studies exploring the effect of various parameters within these levels are reviewed. This framework will hopefully allow uncovering of new relationships between architecture and biological response in a more systematic way, as well as inform future refinement of fabrication techniques to fulfill architectural necessities with a consideration of biological implications.

  7. Effect of pH on biological phosphorus uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serralta, J; Ferrer, J; Borrás, L; Seco, A

    2006-12-05

    An anaerobic aerobic laboratory scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated to study the effect of pH on enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Seven steady states were achieved under different operating conditions. In all of them, a slight variation in the pH value was observed during anaerobic phase. However, pH rose significantly during aerobic phase. The increase observed was due to phosphorus uptake and carbon dioxide stripping. When pH was higher than 8.2-8.25 the phosphorus uptake rate clearly decreased. The capability of Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) and Biological Nutrient Removal Model No. 1 (BNRM1) to simulate experimental results was evaluated. Both models successfully characterized the enhanced biological phosphorus removal performance of the SBR. Furthermore, BNRM1 also reproduced the pH variations observed and the decrease in the phosphorus uptake rate. This model includes a switch function in the kinetic expressions to represent the pH inhibition in biological processes. The pH inhibition constants related to polyphosphate storage process were obtained by adjusting model predictions to measured phosphorus concentrations. On the other hand, pH inhibition should be included in ASM2d to accurately simulate experimental phosphorus evolution observed in an A/O SBR.

  8. Intuitive biological thought: Developmental changes and effects of biology education in late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, John D; Arenson, Melanie; Xu, Yian; Tanner, Kimberly D

    2017-02-01

    A large body of cognitive research has shown that people intuitively and effortlessly reason about the biological world in complex and systematic ways. We addressed two questions about the nature of intuitive biological reasoning: How does intuitive biological thinking change during adolescence and early adulthood? How does increasing biology education influence intuitive biological thinking? To do so, we developed a battery of measures to systematically test three components of intuitive biological thought: anthropocentric thinking, teleological thinking and essentialist thinking, and tested 8th graders and university students (both biology majors, and non-biology majors). Results reveal clear evidence of persistent intuitive reasoning among all populations studied, consistent but surprisingly small differences between 8th graders and college students on measures of intuitive biological thought, and consistent but again surprisingly small influence of increasing biology education on intuitive biological reasoning. Results speak to the persistence of intuitive reasoning, the importance of taking intuitive knowledge into account in science classrooms, and the necessity of interdisciplinary research to advance biology education. Further studies are necessary to investigate how cultural context and continued acquisition of expertise impact intuitive biology thinking.

  9. National inventory of selected biological monitoring programs. Summary report of current or recently completed projects, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, H. T.

    1976-10-01

    The Inventory has resulted in establishment of a series of data bases containing biological monitoring information of varying types, namely, directory of investigators, record of projects received from mail questionnaire, detailed description of selected biomonitoring projects, and bibliographic citations supporting the projects received. This report contains detailed descriptions of selected biomonitoring projects organized on a state-by-state basis and with appropriate indices.

  10. IFPA meeting 2016 workshop report I: Genomic communication, bioinformatics, trophoblast biology and transport systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Christiane; Baker, Julie C; Blundell, Cassidy; Chavez, Shawn L; Carbone, Lucia; Chamley, Larry; Hannibal, Roberta L; Illsley, Nick; Kurre, Peter; Laurent, Louise C; McKenzie, Charles; Morales-Prieto, Diana; Pantham, Priyadarshini; Paquette, Alison; Powell, Katie; Price, Nathan; Rao, Balaji M; Sadovsky, Yoel; Salomon, Carlos; Tuteja, Geetu; Wilson, Samantha; O'Tierney-Ginn, P F

    2017-01-11

    Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting as they allow for discussion of specialized topics. At IFPA meeting 2016 there were twelve themed workshops, four of which are summarized in this report. These workshops covered innovative technologies applied to new and traditional areas of placental research: 1) genomic communication; 2) bioinformatics; 3) trophoblast biology and pathology; 4) placental transport systems.

  11. Biological effects of low level exposures to chemicals and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, E.J. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    In May 1990 a group of scientists representing several federal agencies, the International Society of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, the private sector, and academia met to develop a strategy to encourage the study of the biological effects of low level exposures (BELLE) to chemical agents and radioactivity. A workshop was held in 1991 with seven invited speakers focusing on the toxicological implications of biological adaptations. The selection of topics and speakers was designed to consider critically the concept of hormesis, not only in a broad, conceptual manner, but also at the molecular and biochemical levels. These presentations offered a complementary perspective on the diverse range of molecular mechanisms that can become activated at low levels of toxicant exposure. In addition to chemical toxicology research, an overview of current research on Effects of low-dose radiation on the immune response' was presented as well as Cellular adaptation as an important response during chemical carcinogenesis'. The final presentation was devoted to biostatistical considerations when designing studies that address issues associated with the biological responses to low doses of chemicals and radiation, as well as issues in interpretation of the findings from such studies.

  12. Biological effects of pulsating magnetic fields: role of solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Brizhik, Larissa

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze biological effects produced by magnetic fields in order to elucidate the physical mechanisms, which can produce them. We show that there is a chierarchy of such mechanisms and that the mutual interplay between them can result in the synergetic outcome. In particular, we analyze the biological effects of magnetic fields on soliton mediated charge transport in the redox processes in living organisms. Such solitons are described by nonlinear systems of equations and represent electrons that are self-trapped in alpha-helical polypeptides due to the moderately strong electron-lattice interaction. They represent a particular type of disssipativeless large polarons in low-dimensional systems. We show that the effective mass of solitons in the is different from the mass of free electrons, and that there is a resonant effect of the magnetic fields on the dynamics of solitons, and, hence, on charge transport that accompanies photosynthesis and respiration. These effects can result in non-therm...

  13. Cumulative and Synergistic Effects of Physical, Biological, and Acoustic Signals on Marine Mammal Habitat Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    seasonal breakup of the ice has begun. The bowhead whales detections finally disappear as these mammals begin their annual migration to the Arctic Ocean...Final Report Cumulative and Synergistic Effects of Physical, Biological, and Acoustic Signals on Marine Mammal Habitat Use Jeffrey A Nystuen...signals impact marine mammal habitat use. This is especially critical in areas like the Bering Sea where global climate change can lead to rapid changes

  14. Postmarketing safety reports for human drug and biological products; electronic submission requirements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending its postmarketing safety reporting regulations for human drug and biological products to require that persons subject to mandatory reporting requirements submit safety reports in an electronic format that FDA can process, review, and archive. FDA is taking this action to improve the Agency's systems for collecting and analyzing postmarketing safety reports. The change will help the Agency to more rapidly review postmarketing safety reports, identify emerging safety problems, and disseminate safety information in support of FDA's public health mission. In addition, the amendments will be a key element in harmonizing FDA's postmarketing safety reporting regulations with international standards for the electronic submission of safety information.

  15. New insights into an old organelle: meeting report on biology of cilia and flagella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Piali; Barr, Maureen M

    2014-06-01

    The rising interest of the scientific community in cilia biology was evident from the fact that registration for the third FASEB conference on 'The Biology of Cilia and Flagella' closed out before the early bird deadline. Cilia and flagella are organelles of profound medical importance; defects in their structure or function result in a plethora of human diseases called ciliopathies. 240 clinicians and basic scientists from around the world gathered from 23 June 2013 to 28 June 2013 at Sheraton at the Falls, Niagara Falls, NY to present and discuss their research on this intensely studied subcellular structure. The meeting was organized by Gregory Pazour (University of Massachusetts Medical School), Bradley Yoder (University of Alabama-Birmingham), and Maureen Barr (Rutgers University) and was sponsored by the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB). Here, we report highlights, points of discussion, and emerging themes from this exciting meeting.

  16. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A. [ed.; Konetsky, B.K.; Peterson, M.J.; Petrie, R.B.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1997-06-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous diffusion Plant (PGDP). The PGDP BMP was conducted by the University of Kentucky Between 1987 and 1992 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 to present. The goals of BMP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, and (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report focuses on ESD activities occurring from January 1996 to December 1996, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  17. Development of Biological Coal Gasification (MicGAS Process). Topical report, July 1991--February 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, K.C.

    1993-06-01

    Laboratory and bench scale reactor research carried out during the report period confirms the feasibility of biomethanation of Texas lignite (TxL) and some other low-rank coals to methane by specifically developed unique anaerobic microbial consortia. The data obtained demonstrates specificity of a particular microbial consortium to a given lignite. Development of a suitable microbial consortium is the key to the success of the process. The Mic-1 consortium was developed to tolerate higher coal loadings of 1 and 5% TxL in comparison to initial loadings of 0.01% and 0.1% TxL. Moreover, the reaction period was reduced from 60 days to 14 to 21 days. The cost of the culture medium for bioconversion was reduced by studying the effect of different growth factors on the biomethanation capability of Mic-1 consortium. Four different bench scale bioreactor configurations, namely Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC), Upflow Fluidized Bed Reactor (UFBR), Trickle Bed Reactor (TBR), and Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) were evaluated for scale up studies. Preliminary results indicated highest biomethanation of TxL by the Mic-1 consortium in the CSTR, and lowest in the trickle bed reactor. However, highest methane production and process efficiency were obtained in the RBC.

  18. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program. Progress report, January 1994--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential geological repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, a program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM) from January 1994 through December 1994 for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the environmental program for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP): Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  19. The Biological Effects of Ivabradine in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziano Riccioni

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A large number of studies in healthy and asymptomatic subjects, as well as patients with already established cardiovascular disease (CAD have demonstrated that heart rate (HR is a very important and major independent cardiovascular risk factor for prognosis. Lowering heart rate reduces cardiac work, thereby diminishing myocardial oxygen demand. Several experimental studies in animals, including dogs and pigs, have clarified the beneficial effects of ivabradine associated with HR lowering. Ivabradine is a selective inhibitor of the hyperpolarisation activated cyclic-nucleotide-gated funny current (If involved in pacemaker generation and responsiveness of the sino-atrial node (SAN, which result in HR reduction with no other apparent direct cardiovascular effects. Several studies show that ivabradine substantially and significantly reduces major risks associated with heart failure when added to guideline-based and evidence-based treatment. However the biological effect of ivabradine have yet to be studied. This effects can appear directly on myocardium or on a systemic level improving endothelial function and modulating immune cell migration. Indeed ivabradine is an ‘open-channel’ blocker of human hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated channels of type-4 (hHCN4, and a ‘closed-channel’ blocker of mouse HCN1 channels in a dose-dependent manner. At endothelial level ivabradine decreased monocyte chemotactin protein-1 mRNA expression and exerted a potent anti-oxidative effect through reduction of vascular NADPH oxidase activity. Finally, on an immune level, ivabradine inhibits the chemokine-induced migration of CD4-positive lymphocytes. In this review, we discuss the biological effects of ivabradine and highlight its effects on CAD.

  20. Current research on biological effects of low-level exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagan, L.A.

    1994-12-31

    Rather substantial numbers of industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and radiation display U-shaped or seemingly paradoxical dose-response relationships. A limited listing of studies providing examples of data fitting the U-shaped curve has been published. This array suggests that the U-shaped response is broadly generalizable and therefore potentially of considerable significance in the toxicological and public health domains. In fact, in 1992 and 1993, three conferences (Japan, United States, and China) were held exclusively on the topic of the biological effects of low doses of chemicals and radioactivity with articular emphasis on U-shaped curves. Substantial efforts have been made at understanding this observation.

  1. Hydrodynamic collective effects of active proteins in biological membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Koyano, Yuki; Mikhailov, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    Lipid bilayers forming biological membranes are known to behave as viscous 2D fluids on submicrometer scales; usually they contain a large number of active protein inclusions. Recently, it has been shown [Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 112, E3639 (2015)] that such active proteins should in- duce non-thermal fluctuating lipid flows leading to diffusion enhancement and chemotaxis-like drift for passive inclusions in biomembranes. Here, a detailed analytical and numerical investigation of such effects is performed. The attention is focused on the situations when proteins are concentrated within lipid rafts. We demonstrate that passive particles tend to become attracted by active rafts and are accumulated inside them.

  2. Biological activity of selected plants with adaptogenic effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine biological activity of plants with adaptogenic effect: Panax ginseng Mayer., Withania somnifera L., Eleuterococcus senticosus Rupr. et Maxim., Astragallus membranaceus Fisch. and Codonopsis pilosulae Franch. The antioxidant activity was detected by DPPH and phosphomolybdenum method, total polyphenol content with Folin – Ciocalteu reagent, flavonoids content by aluminium chloride method. The detection of antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion method against three species of Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807, Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and two Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus thuringiensis CCM 19, Stapylococcus aureus subsp. aureus CCM 2461. Results showed that plants with adaptogenic effect are rich for biologically active substances. The highest antioxidant activity by DPPH method was determined in the sample of Eleuterococcus senticosus (3.15 mg TEAC – Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity per g of sample and by phosphomolybdenum method in the sample of Codonopsis pilosulae (188.79 mg TEAC per g of sample. In the sample of Panax ginseng was measured the highest content of total polyphenols (8.10 mg GAE – galic acid equivalent per g of sample and flavonoids (3.41 μg QE – quercetin equivalent per g of sample. All samples also showed strong antimicrobial activity with the best results in Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera in particular for species Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807. The analyzed species of plant with high value of biological activity can be used more in the future, not only in food, but also in cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.

  3. Conjugated linoleic acid isomers: differences in metabolism and biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churruca, Itziar; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Portillo, Maria Puy

    2009-01-01

    The term conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a mixture of linoleic acid positional and geometric isomers, characterized by having conjugated double bonds, not separated by a methylene group as in linoleic acid. CLA isomers appear as a minor component of the lipid fraction, found mainly in meat and dairy products from cows and sheep. The most abundant isomer is cis-9,trans-11, which represents up to 80% of total CLA in food. These isomers are metabolized in the body through different metabolic pathways, but important differences, that can have physiological consequences, are observed between the two main isomers. The trans-10,cis-12 isomer is more efficiently oxidized than the cis-9,trans-11 isomer, due to the position of its double bounds. Interest in CLA arose in its anticarcinogenic action but there is an increasing amount of specific scientific literature concerning the biological effects and properties of CLA. Numerous biological effects of CLA are due to the separate action of the most studied isomers, cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12. It is also likely that some effects are induced and/or enhanced by these isomers acting synergistically. Although the cis-9,trans-11 isomer is mainly responsible for the anticarcinogenic effect, the trans-10,cis-12 isomer reduces body fat and it is referred as the most effective isomer affecting blood lipids. As far as insulin function is concerned, both isomers seem to be responsible for insulin resistance in humans. Finally, with regard to the immune system it is not clear whether individual isomers of CLA could act similarly or differently.

  4. Hafnium oxide nanoparticles: toward an in vitro predictive biological effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marill, Julie; Anesary, Naeemunnisa Mohamed; Zhang, Ping; Vivet, Sonia; Borghi, Elsa; Levy, Laurent; Pottier, Agnes

    2014-06-30

    Hafnium oxide, NBTXR3 nanoparticles were designed for high dose energy deposition within cancer cells when exposed to ionizing radiation. The purpose of this study was to assess the possibility of predicting in vitro the biological effect of NBTXR3 nanoparticles when exposed to ionizing radiation. Cellular uptake of NBTXR3 nanoparticles was assessed in a panel of human cancer cell lines (radioresistant and radiosensitive) by transmission electron microscopy. The radioenhancement of NBTXR3 nanoparticles was measured by the clonogenic survival assay. NBTXR3 nanoparticles were taken up by cells in a concentration dependent manner, forming clusters in the cytoplasm. Differential nanoparticle uptake was observed between epithelial and mesenchymal or glioblastoma cell lines. The dose enhancement factor increased with increase NBTXR3 nanoparticle concentration and radiation dose. Beyond a minimum number of clusters per cell, the radioenhancement of NBTXR3 nanoparticles could be estimated from the radiation dose delivered and the radiosensitivity of the cancer cell lines. Our preliminary results suggest a predictable in vitro biological effect of NBTXR3 nanoparticles exposed to ionizing radiation.

  5. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF MICROWAVE RADIATION ON BRAIN TISSUE IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Đinđić

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to microwave radiation induces multiple organ dysfunctions, especially in CNS.The aim of this work was investigation of biological effects of microwave radiation on rats' brain and determination of increased oxidative stress as a possible pathogenetic's mechanism.Wis tar rats 3 months old were divided in experimental (4 female and 4 male animal and control group (5 female and 4 male. This experimental group was constantly exposed to a magnetic field of 5 mG. We simulated using of mobile phones 30 min every day. The source of NIR emitted MF that was similar to mobile phones at 900 MHz. The rats were killed after 2 months. Biological effects were determined by observation of individual and collective behavior and body mass changes. Lipid per oxidation was determined by measuring quantity of malondialdehyde (MDA in brain homogenate.The animals in experimental group exposed to EMF showed les weight gain. The most important observations were changing of basic behavior models and expression of aggressive or panic behavior. The content of MDA in brain tissue is singificantly higher (1.42 times in rats exposed to electromagnetic fields (3,82±0.65 vs. control 2.69±0.42 nmol/mg proteins, p<0.01.Increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation after exposition in EM fields induced disorders of function and structure of brain.

  6. Is ground cover vegetation an effective biological control enhancement strategy against olive pests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paredes

    Full Text Available Ground cover vegetation is often added or allowed to generate to promote conservation biological control, especially in perennial crops. Nevertheless, there is inconsistent evidence of its effectiveness, with studies reporting positive, nil or negative effects on pest control. This might arise from differences between studies at the local scale (e.g. orchard management and land use history, the landscape context (e.g. presence of patches of natural or semi-natural vegetation near the focal orchard, or regional factors, particularly climate in the year of the study. Here we present the findings from a long-term regional monitoring program conducted on four pest species (Bactrocera oleae, Prays oleae, Euphyllura olivina, Saissetia oleae in 2,528 olive groves in Andalusia (Spain from 2006 to 2012. Generalized linear mixed effect models were used to analyze the effect of ground cover on different response variables related to pest abundance, while accounting for variability at the local, landscape and regional scales. There were small and inconsistent effects of ground cover on the abundance of pests whilst local, landscape and regional variability explained a large proportion of the variability in pest response variables. This highlights the importance of local and landscape-related variables in biological control and the potential effects that might emerge from their interaction with practices, such as groundcover vegetation, implemented to promote natural enemy activity. The study points to perennial vegetation close to the focal crop as a promising alternative strategy for conservation biological control that should receive more attention.

  7. Is ground cover vegetation an effective biological control enhancement strategy against olive pests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Daniel; Cayuela, Luis; Gurr, Geoff M; Campos, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Ground cover vegetation is often added or allowed to generate to promote conservation biological control, especially in perennial crops. Nevertheless, there is inconsistent evidence of its effectiveness, with studies reporting positive, nil or negative effects on pest control. This might arise from differences between studies at the local scale (e.g. orchard management and land use history), the landscape context (e.g. presence of patches of natural or semi-natural vegetation near the focal orchard), or regional factors, particularly climate in the year of the study. Here we present the findings from a long-term regional monitoring program conducted on four pest species (Bactrocera oleae, Prays oleae, Euphyllura olivina, Saissetia oleae) in 2,528 olive groves in Andalusia (Spain) from 2006 to 2012. Generalized linear mixed effect models were used to analyze the effect of ground cover on different response variables related to pest abundance, while accounting for variability at the local, landscape and regional scales. There were small and inconsistent effects of ground cover on the abundance of pests whilst local, landscape and regional variability explained a large proportion of the variability in pest response variables. This highlights the importance of local and landscape-related variables in biological control and the potential effects that might emerge from their interaction with practices, such as groundcover vegetation, implemented to promote natural enemy activity. The study points to perennial vegetation close to the focal crop as a promising alternative strategy for conservation biological control that should receive more attention.

  8. Information on biological health effects of ionizing radiation and radionuclides: the rule of a web site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comte, A.; Gaillard-Lecanu, E.; Flury-Herard, A. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses, 92 (France); Ourly, F. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Hemidy, P.; Lallemand, J. [Electricite de France (EDF), Service de Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide a source of information on biological and health effects of radionuclides and ionizing radiation in an easy to use format. Reported work is made up of two distinct parts: data sheets for selected radionuclides and a web file. Data sheets: Specific radiation data sheets provide an overview of the properties, the environmental behaviour, the different pathways of human exposure and the biological and health consequences of selected radionuclides. Radionuclides that have been selected are those commonly dealt with in nuclear industry (and in other areas such as medicine) and released to the environment or naturally occurring (plutonium, tritium, carbon 14). Data sheets corresponding to the different radionuclides are based on the main sources of scientific information in dosimetry, epidemiology, radiobiology and radiation protection. These data sheets are intended for radiation protection specialists and physicians. They include: main physical and chemical characteristics, main radiation protection data: dose coefficients (public, workers), dose limits sources, total released estimate (nuclear industry, atmospheric tests, main pathway of human exposure and biological behaviour, biological and health effects, medical supervision, treatment a list of the main references, appendix providing accurate information. Web file: http://www-dsv.cea.fr/doc/carmin{sub e}xt/fond.php This web file provides a source of information on biological and health effects of ionizing radiation and biological basic knowledge of radiation protection. Available for consultation via Internet, compiled information provides, in a same file, subjects as varied as biological mechanisms, ionizing radiations action, biological and health effects, risk assessment This file is mainly intended to assist in informing and training of non-specialist readership (students, teaching on radiation protection basic knowledge. This electronic document is divided in three

  9. Modeling of biological doses and mechanical effects on bone transduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rieger, Romain; Jennane, Rachid; 10.1016/j.jtbi.2011.01.003

    2012-01-01

    Shear stress, hormones like parathyroid and mineral elements like calcium mediate the amplitude of stimulus signal which affects the rate of bone remodeling. The current study investigates the theoretical effects of different metabolic doses in stimulus signal level on bone. The model was built considering the osteocyte as the sensing center mediated by coupled mechanical shear stress and some biological factors. The proposed enhanced model was developed based on previously published works dealing with different aspects of bone transduction. It describes the effects of physiological doses variations of Calcium, Parathyroid Hormone, Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin E2 on the stimulus level sensed by osteocytes in response to applied shear stress generated by interstitial fluid flow. We retained the metabolic factors (Parathyroid Hormone, Nitric Oxide, and Prostaglandin E2) as parameters of bone cell mechanosensitivity because stimulation/inhibition of induced pathways stimulates osteogenic response in vivo. We t...

  10. Biological effects of Echinacea purpurea on human blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joksić, Gordana; Petrović, Sandra; Joksić, Ivana; Leskovac, Andreja

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate radioprotective properties of Echinacea purpurea tablets in vivo. We analysed lymphocyte chromosome aberrations (CA), micronuclei (MN), apoptosis of leukocytes and haematological parameters in a group of radiation workers who were identified as carrying dicentric chromosomes in their lymphocytes. All radiation workers were taking two 275 mg Echinacea tablets b.i.d., according to a pharmacist's recommendation. All parameters were analysed before and after the two-week treatment. At the end of the treatment lymphocyte CA frequency dropped significantly, and the number of apoptotic cells increased. The inverse lymphocyte-to-granulocyte ratio at the beginning of the study changed to normal at its end. In conclusion, biological effects observed after administration of Echinacea purpurea preparation suggest that it may be beneficial for the prevention of adverse health effects in workers exposed to ionising radiation.

  11. OPTIONS FOR REPORTING OF DEPRECIATION OF FIXED BIOLOGICAL ASSETS ACCORDING TO IAS 41

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Georgieva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An important element of the accounting policies of enterprises, operating in the agricultural sector, is the organization of accountability of fixed biological assets. With the recent changes in the provisions of International Accounting Standards, effective 01.01.2016, bearer plants were removed from the scope of IAS 41 Agriculture and included within the scope of IAS 16 Property, plant and equipment. The aim of the study is to analyze the impact of changes on the accounting policies of agricultural enterprises, in particular the assessment of fixed biological assets and capabilities for charging depreciation. An important aspect is the synchronization of accounting and tax legislation regarding possibilities for the recognition of depreciation of fixed biological assets.

  12. Quarterly Progress Report on the Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Cicerone, D.S.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Hill, W.R.; Kszos, L.A.

    1996-12-30

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program ( BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  13. Late biological effects from internal and external exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    Information on late biological effects of radiation was obtained from the long-term medical followup of a small population of Marshallese accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout from a thermonuclear test in 1954. Endocrine data are compatible with a sequence of nonstochastic radiation effects. The ingestion of radioisotopes of iodine produced clinical thyroid hypofunction in children, biochemical evidence of thyroid dysfunction in some adults, thyroid adenomatous module formation, and, as a possible indirect effect of thyroid damage, at least two cases of pituitary adenoma. In contrast, the only evidence of a stochastic effect has been a real increase in thyroid cancers among the more highly exposed people of Rongelap, none of whom have evidence of residual disease. While three nonthyroidal cancers which are known to be inducible in humans by external irradiation have been documented in the exposed population, three similar cancers have occurred in an unexposed comparison population of Marshallese. Nonstochastic effects of radiation exposure may be common but subtle. In the Marshallese experience the morbidity of delayed nonstochastic effects far exceeds that of the stochastic. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Effect of Organic Loading on Rotating Biological Contactor Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kossay K. Al-Ahmady

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic loading (weight per unit time per volume is useful for the design of rotating biological contactors (RBC and for comparison with the other processes such as activated sludge or oxidation ponds. The present study puts emphasis on the significance of this control or design parameter because it allows direct comparison of the RBC system's performance when operated under various circumstances and with different kinds of wastewater. The results of the paper proved that, the COD removal in rotating biological contactor systems is a function of the organic loading rate. However, each of the wastewater concentration and flow rate are also influence on the system efficiency but theirs impact can be combined by the effect of organic loading. The majority of COD removal (40-85 % of the total removal depending on the organic loading applied occurs in the first stages of the system. There is a strong correlation between the organic loading and the concentration of the suspended solids in the rotating biological contactor basin. At higher loadings higher concentrations noted. At a loading of about, (24 g/m2.d suspended solids were 225, 125, 35, and 25 mg/L in the first, second, third and, the fourth stage respectively. To achieve an effluent quality of (BOD < 25 mg/L, COD < 60 mg/L, the system must be operated on organic loadings of about (22 gBOD/m2.d and 65 gCOD/m2.d respectively. For nitrification process, the system must be designed to operate at organic loading of about (10 g/m2.d or less and, the reactor or basin volume should be designed to achieve a hydraulic loading of about (40 L/m2.d or less.

  15. Safety of biological therapies for psoriasis: effects on reproductive potential and outcomes in male and female patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Z Z N; Griffiths, C E M; Warren, R B

    2014-09-01

    The effects of biological therapies for psoriasis on pregnancy outcomes and lactation, and male fertility and mutagenicity are common concerns in the clinical setting. There is relatively little evidence to guide the clinician and patient. Here, we review the safety profile of the commonly used biological therapies for psoriasis in individuals of reproductive potential. Safety data were derived from large-scale registries, adverse event reporting databases, clinical trials and case reports. We assessed the effect of each therapy on adverse pregnancy outcomes including congenital malformations, and lactation with maternal administration, and male fertility and potential mutagenicity with paternal administration. We provide applicable guidance to inform clinician and patient before and after conception.

  16. SysBioMed report: advancing systems biology for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkenhauer, O; Fell, D; De Meyts, P; Blüthgen, N; Herzel, H; Le Novère, N; Höfer, T; Schürrle, K; van Leeuwen, I

    2009-05-01

    The following report selects and summarises some of the conclusions and recommendations generated throughout a series of workshops and discussions that have lead to the publication of the Science Policy Briefing (SPB) Nr. 35, published by the European Science Foundation. (Large parts of the present text are directly based on the ESF SPB. Detailed recommendations with regard to specific application areas are not given here but can be found in the SPB. Issues related to mathematical modelling, including training and the need for an infrastructure supporting modelling are discussed in greater detail in the present text.)The numerous reports and publications about the advances within the rapidly growing field of systems biology have led to a plethora of alternative definitions for key concepts. Here, with 'mathematical modelling' the authors refer to the modelling and simulation of subcellular, cellular and macro-scale phenomena, using primarily methods from dynamical systems theory. The aim of such models is encoding and testing hypotheses about mechanisms underlying the functioning of cells. Typical examples are models for molecular networks, where the behaviour of cells is expressed in terms of quantitative changes in the levels of transcripts and gene products. Bioinformatics provides essential complementary tools, including procedures for pattern recognition, machine learning, statistical modelling (testing for differences, searching for associations and correlations) and secondary data extracted from databases.Dynamical systems theory is the natural language to investigate complex biological systems demonstrating nonlinear spatio-temporal behaviour. However, the generation of experimental data suitable to parameterise, calibrate and validate such models is often time consuming and expensive or not even possible with the technology available today. In our report, we use the term 'computational model' when mathematical models are complemented with information

  17. Final report for Conference Support Grant "From Computational Biophysics to Systems Biology - CBSB12"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansmann, Ulrich H.E.

    2012-07-02

    This report summarizes the outcome of the international workshop From Computational Biophysics to Systems Biology (CBSB12) which was held June 3-5, 2012, at the University of Tennessee Conference Center in Knoxville, TN, and supported by DOE through the Conference Support Grant 120174. The purpose of CBSB12 was to provide a forum for the interaction between a data-mining interested systems biology community and a simulation and first-principle oriented computational biophysics/biochemistry community. CBSB12 was the sixth in a series of workshops of the same name organized in recent years, and the second that has been held in the USA. As in previous years, it gave researchers from physics, biology, and computer science an opportunity to acquaint each other with current trends in computational biophysics and systems biology, to explore venues of cooperation, and to establish together a detailed understanding of cells at a molecular level. The conference grant of $10,000 was used to cover registration fees and provide travel fellowships to selected students and postdoctoral scientists. By educating graduate students and providing a forum for young scientists to perform research into the working of cells at a molecular level, the workshop adds to DOE's mission of paving the way to exploit the abilities of living systems to capture, store and utilize energy.

  18. New applications of biological monitoring for environmental exposure and susceptibility monitoring. Report of the 7th International Symposium on Biological Monitoring in Occupational and Environmental Health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Heussen, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    Validated biological monitoring methods are used in large-scale monitoring programmes involving determination of ubiquitous environmental pollutants such as metals and pesticides. Some programmes focus on children's exposure, and policies to prevent adverse health effects. Most of these initiatives

  19. New applications of biological monitoring for environmental exposure and susceptibility monitoring. Report of the 7th International Symposium on Biological Monitoring in Occupational and Environmental Health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Heussen, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    Validated biological monitoring methods are used in large-scale monitoring programmes involving determination of ubiquitous environmental pollutants such as metals and pesticides. Some programmes focus on children's exposure, and policies to prevent adverse health effects. Most of these initiatives

  20. Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal: Metabolic Insights and Salinity Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welles, L.

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is a biological process for efficient phosphate removal from wastewaters through intracellular storage of polyphosphate by polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) and subsequent removal of PAO from the system through wastage of sludge. In comparison

  1. Inflammatory/infectious cutaneous side effects of biological drugs in patients with psoriasis: a general review with personal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongioletti, F; Burlando, M; Parodi, A

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, the use of biologic drugs has greatly changed the therapy of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, but they have some adverse effects. In particular, skin lesions induced by anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and anti-interleukin (IL) 12/23 drug (ustekinumab) have been reported with an increased incidence, highlighting the importance of the skin as a major target of the side effects of these drugs. There is a wide spectrum of skin lesions of different morphology and etiology that includes skin lesions directly related to drug administration, the development of cutaneous immune-mediated conditions and cutaneous infections. The aim of this review is to revisit the literature data on inflammatory/infectious skin adverse effects of biologics both anti-TNF-α inhibitors and anti-IL 12/23 antagonists and to report and update our personal data on inflammatory/infectious side effects in patients with psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis treated with biologics.

  2. Biological effects due to weak magnetic field on plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyavskaya, N. A.

    2004-01-01

    magnetic field may cause different biological effects at the cellular, tissue and organ levels. They may be functionally related to systems that regulate plant metabolism including the intracellular Ca 2+ homeostasis. However, our understanding of very complex fundamental mechanisms and sites of interactions between weak magnetic fields and biological systems is still incomplete and still deserve strong research efforts.

  3. [DIRECTIONALITY OF THE BIOLOGICAL EFFECT OF DRINKING WATER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, K K; Karasev, A K; Marasanov, A V; Stekhin, A A; Iakovleva, G V

    2015-01-01

    There have been performed the studies of the dimensional parameters of peroxide associates in drinking water, per- forming regulatory functions in cellular metabolism, that determine the character of the biological response of the human body to drinking water The direction of action of peroxide associates type Σ [(HO2-(*) ... OH-(*) (H2O) tp)]q, (where (H2O) tp is an associate with the tetragonal structure (Walrafen pentamer Is ice VI), q is the degree of association p--parameter of ion coordination) on the cellular structures of the organism is associated with their quantum properties, determining the macroscopic parameters of the electron wave packets. Research has confirmed the addressness of the nonlocal entering electron to certain cellular structures of the body, which is determined by the structural similarity of centers of condensation of electrons in the cells of systems and organs of the body with the parameters of the electron wave packets in the associates. Methodology for the estimation of the orientation of biological effect of the drinking water to the systems of the body on the base of the analysis of variations in heart rhythm under non-contact influence of water on the human body and its relationship with the dimensional parameters and peroxide activity of associates in drinking water can be suggested for the implementation of screening tests for drinking water quality, taking into account both the individualfeatures of responses of body systems to drinking water and its group action.

  4. Biological vs. physical mixing effects on benthic food web dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Braeckman

    Full Text Available Biological particle mixing (bioturbation and solute transfer (bio-irrigation contribute extensively to ecosystem functioning in sediments where physical mixing is low. Macrobenthos transports oxygen and organic matter deeper into the sediment, thereby likely providing favourable niches to lower trophic levels (i.e., smaller benthic animals such as meiofauna and bacteria and thus stimulating mineralisation. Whether this biological transport facilitates fresh organic matter assimilation by the metazoan lower part of the food web through niche establishment (i.e., ecosystem engineering or rather deprives them from food sources, is so far unclear. We investigated the effects of the ecosystem engineers Lanice conchilega (bio-irrigator and Abra alba (bioturbator compared to abiotic physical mixing events on survival and food uptake of nematodes after a simulated phytoplankton bloom. The (13C labelled diatom Skeletonema costatum was added to 4 treatments: (1 microcosms containing the bioturbator, (2 microcosms containing the bio-irrigator, (3 control microcosms and (4 microcosms with abiotic manual surface mixing. Nematode survival and subsurface peaks in nematode density profiles were most pronounced in the bio-irrigator treatment. However, nematode specific uptake (Δδ(13C of the added diatoms was highest in the physical mixing treatment, where macrobenthos was absent and the diatom (13C was homogenised. Overall, nematodes fed preferentially on bulk sedimentary organic material rather than the added diatoms. The total C budget (µg C m(-2, which included TO(13C remaining in the sediment, respiration, nematode and macrobenthic uptake, highlighted the limited assimilation by the metazoan benthos and the major role of bacterial respiration. In summary, bioturbation and especially bio-irrigation facilitated the lower trophic levels mainly over the long-term through niche establishment. Since the freshly added diatoms represented only a limited food

  5. Systems Biology Brings Life Sciences Closer--Report on the China-UK Systems Biology Workshop 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Chen

    2005-01-01

    @@ The China-UK Systems Biology Workshop 2005 was held during June 20-21 in the National Science Park of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. It was organized by the Institute of Bioinformatics, Zhejiang University, and was initiated by Prof. Dr. Jun Zhu (Zhejiang University) and Prof. Dr. John Findlay (University of Leeds, UK). The workshop was part of the program called UK-China Partners in Science, a one-year campaign that was initiated by the British government to explore more collaborations between UK and China on science and technology. It was attended also by a representative of this program, Mr.Frank Yuan, senior science & innovation officer. The idea of the workshop was to bring together experts with specialists in systems biology in order to promote the "natural partnership" between scientists from the two countries. The most important items of systems biology considered at the workshop were: (1) New technologies and advances in systems biology; (2) Research developments in genomics and proteomics; (3) New methodologies and software in computational biology; (4) Research collaboration on systems biology between China and UK.

  6. Meeting report from the first meetings of the Computational Modeling in Biology Network (COMBINE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Novère, Nicolas; Hucka, Michael; Anwar, Nadia; Bader, Gary D; Demir, Emek; Moodie, Stuart; Sorokin, Anatoly

    2011-11-30

    The Computational Modeling in Biology Network (COMBINE), is an initiative to coordinate the development of the various community standards and formats in computational systems biology and related fields. This report summarizes the activities pursued at the first annual COMBINE meeting held in Edinburgh on October 6-9 2010 and the first HARMONY hackathon, held in New York on April 18-22 2011. The first of those meetings hosted 81 attendees. Discussions covered both official COMBINE standards-(BioPAX, SBGN and SBML), as well as emerging efforts and interoperability between different formats. The second meeting, oriented towards software developers, welcomed 59 participants and witnessed many technical discussions, development of improved standards support in community software systems and conversion between the standards. Both meetings were resounding successes and showed that the field is now mature enough to develop representation formats and related standards in a coordinated manner.

  7. Reactive Carbonyl Species In Vivo: Generation and Dual Biological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halyna M. Semchyshyn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive carbonyls are widespread species in living organisms and mainly known for their damaging effects. The most abundant reactive carbonyl species (RCS are derived from oxidation of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. Chemical modification of proteins, nucleic acids, and aminophospholipids by RCS results in cytotoxicity and mutagenicity. In addition to their direct toxicity, modification of biomolecules by RCS gives rise to a multitude of adducts and cross links that are increasingly implicated in aging and pathology of a wide range of human diseases. Understanding of the relationship between metabolism of RCS and the development of pathological disorders and diseases may help to develop effective approaches to prevent a number of disorders and diseases. On the other hand, constant persistence of RCS in cells suggests that they perform some useful role in living organisms. The most beneficial effects of RCS are their establishment as regulators of cell signal transduction and gene expression. Since RCS can modulate different biological processes, new tools are required to decipher the precise mechanisms underlying dual effects of RCS.

  8. Hydrodynamic collective effects of active proteins in biological membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyano, Yuki; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Mikhailov, Alexander S.

    2016-08-01

    Lipid bilayers forming biological membranes are known to behave as viscous two-dimensional fluids on submicrometer scales; usually they contain a large number of active protein inclusions. Recently, it was shown [A. S. Mikhailov and R. Kapral, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, E3639 (2015), 10.1073/pnas.1506825112] that such active proteins should induce nonthermal fluctuating lipid flows leading to diffusion enhancement and chemotaxislike drift for passive inclusions in biomembranes. Here, a detailed analytical and numerical investigation of such effects is performed. The attention is focused on the situations when proteins are concentrated within lipid rafts. We demonstrate that passive particles tend to become attracted by active rafts and are accumulated inside them.

  9. Effect of Computer Animations Upon Student's Achievement of Biology Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet YAKIŞAN

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The prime purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of computer animation supported biology education upon students’ academic achievement. The study was participated by 97 pre service teachers studying in the first year of university. The data were collected by “Cell Achievement Test” There were control and experimental groups formed and the experimental group was taught with computer animations related with diffusion, osmosis, active transport, protein synthesis, mitosis and meiosis phenomena taking place in cell while the control group was taught with traditional method based on question and answer process. The data obtained were evaluated by t- test and represented by tables and graphs. The results of the study indicated significant differences between the academic achievements of control and experimental groups. The difference is in the favor of the experimental group which revealed the fact the computer animations caused a significant increase in the academic achievements of the students.

  10. Biological Effects on Fruit Fly by N+ ion Beam Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Mutation induced by low energy ion beam implantation has beenapplied widely both in plants and microbes. However, due to the vacuum limitation, such ion implantation into animals was never studied except for silkworm. In this study, Pupae of fruit fly were irradiated with different dosage N+ ions at energy 20 KeV to study the biological effect of ion beam on animal. The results showed a saddle-like curve exists between incubate rate and dosage. Damage of pupae by ion beam implantation was observed using scanning electron microscope. Some individuals with incomplete wing were obtained after implantation but no similar character was observed in their offspring. Furthermore, about 5.47% mutants with wide variation appeared in M1 generation. Therefore, ion beam implantation could be widely used for mutation breeding.

  11. Biological effects and equivalent doses in radiotherapy: a software solution

    CERN Document Server

    Voyant, Cyril; Roustit, Rudy; Biffi, Katia; Marcovici, Celine Lantieri

    2013-01-01

    The limits of TDF (time, dose, and fractionation) and linear quadratic models have been known for a long time. Medical physicists and physicians are required to provide fast and reliable interpretations regarding the delivered doses or any future prescriptions relating to treatment changes. We therefore propose a calculation interface under the GNU license to be used for equivalent doses, biological doses, and normal tumor complication probability (Lyman model). The methodology used draws from several sources: the linear-quadratic-linear model of Astrahan, the repopulation effects of Dale, and the prediction of multi-fractionated treatments of Thames. The results are obtained from an algorithm that minimizes an ad-hoc cost function, and then compared to the equivalent dose computed using standard calculators in seven French radiotherapy centers.

  12. Effect of choline carboxylate ionic liquids on biological membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengstl, Doris; Kraus, Birgit; Van Vorst, Matthew; Elliott, Gloria D; Kunz, Werner

    2014-11-01

    Choline carboxylates, ChCm, with m=2-10 and choline oleate are known as biocompatible substances, yet their influence on biological membranes is not well-known, and the effect on human skin has not previously been investigated. The short chain choline carboxylates ChCm with m=2, 4, 6 act as hydrotropes, solubilizing hydrophobic compounds in aqueous solution, while the longer chain choline carboxylates ChCm with m=8, 10 and oleate are able to form micelles. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of choline carboxylates was tested using HeLa and SK-MEL-28 cells. The influence of these substances on liposomes prepared from dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) was also evaluated to provide insights on membrane interactions. It was observed that the choline carboxylates with a chain length of m>8 distinctly influence the bilayer, while the shorter ones had minimal interaction with the liposomes.

  13. Behavioural biology: an effective and relevant conservation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Richard

    2007-08-01

    'Conservation behaviour' is a young discipline that investigates how proximate and ultimate aspects of the behaviour of an animal can be of value in preventing the loss of biodiversity. Rumours of its demise are unfounded. Conservation behaviour is quickly building a capacity to positively influence environmental decision making. The theoretical framework used by animal behaviourists is uniquely valuable to elucidating integrative solutions to human-wildlife conflicts, efforts to reintroduce endangered species and reducing the deleterious effects of ecotourism. Conservation behaviourists must join with other scientists under the multidisciplinary umbrella of conservation biology without giving up on their focus: the mechanisms, development, function and evolutionary history of individual differences in behaviour. Conservation behaviour is an increasingly relevant tool in the preservation of nature.

  14. Interaction mechanisms and biological effects of static magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1994-06-01

    Mechanisms through which static magnetic fields interact with living systems are described and illustrated by selected experimental observations. These mechanisms include electrodynamic interactions with moving, ionic charges (blood flow and nerve impulse conduction), magnetomechanical interactions (orientation and translation of molecules structures and magnetic particles), and interactions with electronic spin states in charge transfer reactions (photo-induced electron transfer in photosynthesis). A general summary is also presented of the biological effects of static magnetic fields. There is convincing experimental evidence for magnetoreception mechanisms in several classes of lower organisms, including bacteria and marine organisms. However, in more highly evolved species of animals, there is no evidence that the interactions of static magnetic fields with flux densities up to 2 Tesla (1 Tesla [T] = 10{sup 4} Gauss) produce either behavioral or physiolocical alterations. These results, based on controlled studies with laboratory animals, are consistent with the outcome of recent epidemiological surveys on human populations exposed occupationally to static magnetic fields.

  15. 21 CFR 601.26 - Reclassification procedures to determine that licensed biological products are safe, effective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... licensed biological products are safe, effective, and not misbranded under prescribed, recommended, or... Reclassification procedures to determine that licensed biological products are safe, effective, and not misbranded... for the reclassification of all biological products that have been classified into Category IIIA....

  16. Biological effects due to weak magnetic fields on plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyavskaya, N.

    In the evolution process, living organisms have experienced the action of the Earth's magnetic field (MF) that is a natural component of our environment. It is known that a galactic MF induction does not exceed 0.1 nT, since investigations of weak magnetic field (WMF) effects on biological systems have attracted attention of biologists due to planning long-term space flights to other planets where the magnetizing force is near 10-5 Oe. However, the role of WMF and its influence on organisms' functioning are still insufficiently investigated. A large number of experiments with seedlings of different plant species placed in WMF has found that the growth of their primary roots is inhibited during the early terms of germination in comparison with control. The proliferation activity and cell reproduction are reduced in meristem of plant roots under WMF application. The prolongation of total cell reproductive cycle is registered due to the expansion of G phase in1 different plant species as well as of G phase in flax and lentil roots along with2 relative stability of time parameters of other phases of cell cycle. In plant cells exposed to WMF, the decrease in functional activity of genome at early prereplicate period is shown. WMF causes the intensification in the processes of proteins' synthesis and break-up in plant roots. Qualitative and quantitative changes in protein spectrum in growing and differentiated cells of plant roots exposed to WMF are revealed. At ultrastructural level, there are observed such ultrastructural peculiarities as changes in distribution of condensed chromatin and nucleolus compactization in nuclei, noticeable accumulation of lipid bodies, development of a lytic compartment (vacuoles, cytosegresomes and paramural bodies), and reduction of phytoferritin in plastids in meristem cells of pea roots exposed to WMF. Mitochondria are the most sensitive organelle to WMF application: their size and relative volume in cells increase, matrix is electron

  17. Orofino Creek Passage Project Biological and Engineering Feasibility Report: Completion Report 1988.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, Charles W.

    1988-10-01

    If implemented, the Orofino Creek Passage Project will provide adult fish passage at barrier waterfalls on Orofino Creek, Idaho, and give anadromous salmonids access to upstream habitat. Anadromous fish are currently blocked at Orofino Falls, 8.3 km above the stream's confluence with the Clearwater River. This report summarizes results of a study to determine the potential for increasing natural production of summer steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) and spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) in the Orofino Creek drainage by enhancing adult fish passage. Data on fish habitat, migration barriers, stream temperatures and fish populations in the drainage were collected during 1987 and provided a basis for estimating the potential for self-sustaining anadromous salmonid production above Orofino Falls. Between 84.7 and 103.6 km of currently inaccessible streams would be available to anadromous fish following project implementation, depending on the level of passage enhancement above Orofino Falls. These streams contain habitat of poor to good quality for anadromous salmonids. Low summer flows and high water temperatures reduce habitat quality in lower mainstem Orofino Creek. Several streams in the upper watershed have habitat that is dominated by brook trout and may be poorly utilized by steelhead or salmon. 32 refs., 20 figs., 22 tabs.

  18. Effect of a biological activated carbon filter on particle counts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-hua WU; Bing-zhi DONG; Tie-jun QIAO; Jin-song ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Due to the importance of biological safety in drinking water quality and the disadvantages which exist in traditional methods of detecting typical microorganisms such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia,it is necessary to develop an alternative.Particle counts is a qualitative measurement of the amount of dissolved solids in water.The removal rate of particle counts was previously used as an indicator of the effectiveness of a biological activated carbon(BAC)filter in removing Cryptosporidium and Giardia.The particle counts in a BAC filter effluent over one operational period and the effects of BAC filter construction and operational parameters were investigated with a 10 m3/h pilot plant.The results indicated that the maximum particle count in backwash remnant water was as high as 1296 count/ml and it needed about 1.5 h to reduce from the maximum to less than 50 count/ml.During the standard filtration period,particle counts stay constant at less than 50 count/ml for 5 d except when influ-enced by sand filter backwash remnant water.The removal rates of particle counts in the BAC filter are related to characteristics of the carbon.For example,a columned carbon and a sand bed removed 33.3% and 8.5% of particles,respectively,while the particle counts in effluent from a cracked BAC filter was higher than that of the influent.There is no significant difference among particle removal rates with different filtration rates.High post-ozone dosage(>2 mg/L)plays an important role in particle count removal;when the dosage was 3 mg/L,the removal rates by carbon layers and sand beds decreased by 17.5% and increased by 9.5%,respectively,compared with a 2 mg/L dosage.

  19. The effect of air supply on nitrogen removal using a biological filter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of air supply on nitrogen removal using a biological filter proposed for ventilated pit latrines. ... In this research the nitrogen was removed in a biological filter using a combination of nitrification and denitrification ... Article Metrics.

  20. Biologically effective doses of postoperative radiotherapy in the prevention of keloids. Dose-effect relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kal, H.B.; Veen, R.E. [University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiotherapy

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: To review the recurrence rates of keloids after surgical excision followed by radiotherapy, and to answer the question whether after normalization of the dose, a dose-effect relationship could be derived. Material and Methods: A literature search was performed to identify studies dealing with the efficacy of various irradiation regimes for the prevention of keloids after surgery. Biologically effective doses (BEDs) of the various irradiation regimens were calculated using the linear-quadratic concept. A distinction between recurrence rates of keloids in the face and neck region and those in other parts of the body was made. Results: 31 reports were identified with PubMed with the search terms keloids, surgery, radiation therapy, radiotherapy. 13 reports were excluded, because no link could be found between recurrence rate and dose, or if less than ten patients per dose group. The recurrence rate for surgery only was 50-80%. For BED values >10 Gy the recurrence rate decreased as a function of BED. For BED values >30 Gy the recurrence rate was <10%. For a given dose, the recurrence rates of keloids in the sites with high stretch tension were not significantly higher than in sites without stretch tension. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that for effectively treating keloids postoperatively, a relatively high dose must be applied in a short overall treatment time. The optimal treatment probably is an irradiation scheme resulting in a BED value of at least 30 Gy. A BED value of 30 Gy can be obtained with, for instance, a single acute dose of 13 Gy, two fractions of 8 Gy two fractions of 8 Gy or three fractions of 6 Gy, or a single dose of 27 Gy at low dose rate. The radiation treatment should be administered within 2 days after surgery. (orig.)

  1. Anorexia nervosa and gender identity disorder in biologic males: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Anthony P; Acharya, Sudha; Chaudhuri, Shreemantee; Fellowes, Lynette

    2004-07-01

    Gender identity disorder is a rare disorder of uncertain etiology. The emphasis on body shape in this disorder suggests that there may be an association with anorexia nervosa. We report two cases of anorexia nervosa and gender identity disorder in biologic males who presented to an eating disorders service. One was treated successfully as an outpatient and subsequently underwent gender reassignment surgery. The other patient required admission and prolonged psychotherapy. Differences between the two cases are discussed. Issues of gender identity should be considered in the assessment of male patients presenting with anorexia nervosa. Copyright 2004 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Mutagenic Effects of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on Biological Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Niluka M; Current, Kelley M; Obare, Sherine O

    2015-09-30

    In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the design and use of iron oxide materials with nanoscale dimensions for magnetic, catalytic, biomedical, and electronic applications. The increased manufacture and use of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in consumer products as well as industrial processes is expected to lead to the unintentional release of IONPs into the environment. The impact of IONPs on the environment and on biological species is not well understood but remains a concern due to the increased chemical reactivity of nanoparticles relative to their bulk counterparts. This review article describes the impact of IONPs on cellular genetic components. The mutagenic impact of IONPs may damage an organism's ability to develop or reproduce. To date, there has been experimental evidence of IONPs having mutagenic interactions on human cell lines including lymphoblastoids, fibroblasts, microvascular endothelial cells, bone marrow cells, lung epithelial cells, alveolar type II like epithelial cells, bronchial fibroblasts, skin epithelial cells, hepatocytes, cerebral endothelial cells, fibrosarcoma cells, breast carcinoma cells, lung carcinoma cells, and cervix carcinoma cells. Other cell lines including the Chinese hamster ovary cells, mouse fibroblast cells, murine fibroblast cells, Mytilus galloprovincialis sperm cells, mice lung cells, murine alveolar macrophages, mice hepatic and renal tissue cells, and vero cells have also shown mutagenic effects upon exposure to IONPs. We further show the influence of IONPs on microorganisms in the presence and absence of dissolved organic carbon. The results shed light on the OPEN ACCESS Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16 23483 transformations IONPs undergo in the environment and the nature of the potential mutagenic impact on biological cells.

  3. Systematic review of biological effects of exposure to static electric fields. Part II: Invertebrates and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedchen, Kristina; Petri, Anne-Kathrin; Driessen, Sarah; Bailey, William H

    2017-09-27

    The construction of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines for the long-distance transport of energy is becoming increasingly popular. This has raised public concern about potential environmental impacts of the static electric fields (EF) produced under and near HVDC power lines. As the second part of a comprehensive literature analysis, the aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of static EF exposure on biological functions in invertebrates and plants and to provide the basis for an environmental impact assessment of such exposures. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was used to guide the methodological conduct and reporting. Thirty-three studies - 14 invertebrate and 19 plant studies - met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. The reported behavioral responses of insects and planarians upon exposure strongly suggest that invertebrates are able to perceive the presence of a static EF. Many other studies reported effects on physiological functions that were expressed as, for example, altered metabolic activity or delayed reproductive and developmental stages in invertebrates. In plants, leaf damage, alterations in germination rates, growth and yield, or variations in the concentration of essential elements, for example, have been reported. However, these physiological responses and changes in plant morphology appear to be secondary to surface stimulation by the static EF or caused by concomitant parameters of the electrostatic environment. Furthermore, all of the included studies suffered from methodological flaws, which lowered credibility in the results. At field levels encountered from natural sources or HVDC lines (effects of static EF on other biological functions in invertebrates and plants. At far higher field levels (> 35kV/m), adverse effects on physiology and morphology, presumably caused by corona-action, appear to be more likely. Higher quality studies are needed to

  4. Third report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    As a condition of the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch or K-1700 stream). On October 1, 1992, a renewed NPDES permit was issued for the K-25 Site. A biological monitoring plan was submitted for Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, Poplar Creek Embayment of the Clinch River and any unnamed tributaries of these streams. The objectives of BMAP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life and (2) document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities, including the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator. The BMAP consists of four tasks: (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring; (3) assessment of fish health; and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document, the third in a series, reports on the results of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site BMAP; it describes studies that were conducted over various periods of time between June 1990 and December 1993, although monitoring conducted outside this time period is included, as appropriate.

  5. Second report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.G. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Hinzman, R.L.; Kszos, L.A.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Crumby, W.D. [Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    On September 11, 1986, a modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site), a former uranium-enrichment production facility. As required in Part III of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) and submitted for approval to the US EPA and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The plan described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. The objectives of the BMAP are to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, and to document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities. The BMAP consists of four tasks: ambient toxicity testing; bioaccumulation studies; biological indicator studies; and ecological surveys of stream communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document is the second in a series of reports presenting the results of the studies that were conducted over various periods of time between August 1987 and June 1990.

  6. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1992--November 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1993-05-01

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood ``biological fingerprint`` of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

  7. The effect of green tea on radiation-induced late biological effect in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Kim, Se Ra; Lee, Hae June; Jo, Sung Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of Green tea on the late biological effect of mice irradiated with 3 Gy of gamma-radiation. There were various findings including hematopoietic and lymphoid tumor, lung cancer, ovarian cancer and cancer of other lesions. Further studies are needed to characterize better the protective nature of active compounds.

  8. Deciphering the biological effects of acupuncture treatment modulating multiple metabolism pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aihua; Yan, Guangli; Sun, Hui; Cheng, Weiping; Meng, Xiangcai; Liu, Li; Xie, Ning; Wang, Xijun

    2016-02-16

    Acupuncture is an alternative therapy that is widely used to treat various diseases. However, detailed biological interpretation of the acupuncture stimulations is limited. We here used metabolomics and proteomics technology, thereby identifying the serum small molecular metabolites into the effect and mechanism pathways of standardized acupuncture treatments at 'Zusanli' acupoint which was the most often used acupoint in previous reports. Comprehensive overview of serum metabolic profiles during acupuncture stimulation was investigated. Thirty-four differential metabolites were identified in serum metabolome and associated with ten metabolism pathways. Importantly, we have found that high impact glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, ether lipid metabolism were acutely perturbed by acupuncture stimulation. As such, these alterations may be useful to clarify the biological mechanism of acupuncture stimulation. A series of differentially expressed proteins were identified and such effects of acupuncture stimulation were found to play a role in transport, enzymatic activity, signaling pathway or receptor interaction. Pathway analysis further revealed that most of these proteins were found to play a pivotal role in the regulation of multiple metabolism pathways. It demonstrated that the metabolomics coupled with proteomics as a powerful approach for potential applications in understanding the biological effects of acupuncture stimulation.

  9. Biological Effects of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Radiation. Volume V, Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    7 Hz: field estimates were shorter than no-field killing fungi and retarding the fermentation of must. estimates. The differences were in the same...a photodiode detector association of t-caprolactam in cyclohexane. the The signal is processed and displayed as a digital association of n- butanol in... acetone effects c! Jirect current magnetic fields on E. coliare every second day) to induce skin cancer, and then much le..s than those reported by

  10. New Scientific Pearl about Biologic Effect of Ionizing Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Alamdaran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Soon after the discovery of X-ray by Rontgen in 1895, it became evident that radiation can cause some somatic damage to tissues. The hazards of X-ray exposure were clearly known when many large hospitals had radiology departments. The greatest increased in knowledge about X-ray risks had accrued from the dropping of the two atomic bombs in Japan in 1945 and some other atomic accident. For example, among the Japanese bomb survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, there have been about 400 extra cancer deaths. These were the origin of radiology personnel and people fear from radiation exposure and resistant in against simple X-ray exam (radiophobia. However, new scientific data on the effects radiation on survivors, especially about biologic effect of ionizing rays, background radiation exposure, amount of endogenous radiation, hormosis phenomenon and comparison radiation risk with other risk over lifetime are still being continuously revised and risk estimates updated. Fundamentally, this risk is much"nlower than whatever already estimated and it is insignificant in diagnostic domain. Better perception of physician from these instances help to prevent of false radiophobia and to make proper use of diagnostic and therapeutic advantages of ionizing beam.

  11. Effect of Sedimentation on Treated Greywater Through Rotating Biological Contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaque Ahmed Pathan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to study the effect of sedimentation on effluent of a pilot scale Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC. The treated greywater was given three hours sedimentation period and samples were analyzed to observe the effect of sedimentations under variousflow rates. Greywater was separated from the black water and collected in the collection tank and then it was pumped to an overhead tank. This tank supplied a regulated continuous flow of greywater into the RBC chamber at the required flow rate ranging between 0.28 to 1.89 l/min. A pilot scale RBC simulator was developed and placed outside a hall of residence at National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, Sindh University, Jamshoro. The simulator was operated at the rotational speed of discs of 1.7 rpm. The disks were uneven and textured so as to encourage growth of bacteria on them. These discs were immersed about 40 percent in the greywater.The simulator produced effluent of significant quality and was found efficient in removal of BOD5, COD and TSS as 85%, 68% and 95% respectively.

  12. [Effects of decitabine on biological behavior of U266 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Fang; Yang, Lin-Hua; Dong, Chun-Xia; Zhang, Rui-Juan; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Guo, Zhi-Ping; Chen, Jian-Fang; Zhagn, Li; Feng, Da-Wei

    2011-08-01

    This study was aimed to explore the effects of decitabine on the biological behaviour of U266 cells in vitro so as to provide a new thinking and experiment basis, as well as new evidences for the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma. MTT and colony formation assays were used to evaluate the impact of decitabine on the ability of proliferation of U266 cells; flow cytometry was used to analyze the cell distribution in cell cycle; transwell chamber and matrigel assays were used to observe the ability of migration and invasion. The results indicated that decitabine could significantly suppress the proliferation of U266 cells in time-and dose-dependent manners. The flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the cells in G(0)-G(1) phase significantly increased while the cells in S and G(2)/M phase decreased. The migration and matrigel invading tests showed that the number of cells moving into under chamber of transwell decreased after U266 cells treated with decitabine. It is concluded that decitabine may act as an effective drug for MM by inhibiting the proliferation, migration and invasion ability, and the specific mechanism needs to be deeply explored.

  13. Effects of Web Based Inquiry Science Environment on Cognitive Outcomes in Biological Science in Correlation to Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoj, T. I.; Devanathan, S.

    2010-01-01

    This research study is the report of an experiment conducted to find out the effects of web based inquiry science environment on cognitive outcomes in Biological science in correlation to Emotional intelligence. Web based inquiry science environment (WISE) provides a platform for creating inquiry-based science projects for students to work…

  14. Effectiveness of Biology-Based Methods for Inhibiting Orthodontic Tooth Movement. A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenas de Llano-Pérula, M; Yañez-Vico, R M; Solano-Reina, E; Palma-Fernandez, J C; Iglesias-Linares, A

    2017-09-22

    Several experimental studies in the literature have tested different biology-based methods for inhibiting or decreasing orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) in humans. This systematic review investigated the effects of these interventions on the rate of tooth movement. Electronic [MedLine; SCOPUS; Cochrane Library; OpenGrey;Web of Science] and manual searches were conducted up to January 26th, 2016 in order to identify publications of clinical trials that compared the decreasing or inhibiting effects of different biology-based methods over OTM in humans. A primary outcome (rate of OTM deceleration/inhibition) and a number of secondary outcomes were examined (clinical applicability, orthodontic force used, possible side effects). Two reviewers selected the studies complying with the eligibility criteria (PICO format) and assessed risk of bias [Cochrane Collaboration's tool]. Data collection and analysis were performed following the Cochrane recommendations. From the initial electronic search, 3726 articles were retrieved and 5 studies were finally included. Two types of biology-based techniques used to reduce the rate of OTM in humans were described: pharmacological and low-level laser therapy. In the first group, human Relaxin was compared to a placebo and administered orally. It was described as having no effect on the inhibition of OTM in humans after 32 days, while the drug tenoxicam, injected locally, inhibited the rate of OTM by up to 10% in humans after 42 days. In the second group, no statistically significant differences were reported, compared to placebo, for the rate of inhibition of OTM in humans after 90 days of observation when a 860 nm continuous wave GaAlA slow-level laser was used. The currently available data do not allow us to draw definitive conclusions about the use of various pharmacological substances and biology-based therapies in humans able to inhibit or decrease the OTM rate. There is an urgent need for more sound well-designed randomized

  15. The Cost-Effectiveness of Biologics for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joensuu, Jaana T.; Huoponen, Saara; Aaltonen, Kalle J.; Konttinen, Yrjö T.; Nordström, Dan; Blom, Marja

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Economic evaluations provide information to aid the optimal utilization of limited healthcare resources. Costs of biologics for Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are remarkably high, which makes these agents an important target for economic evaluations. This systematic review aims to identify existing studies examining the cost-effectiveness of biologics for RA, assess their quality and report their results systematically. Methods A literature search covering Medline, Scopus, Cochrane library, ACP Journal club and Web of Science was performed in March 2013. The cost-utility analyses (CUAs) of one or more available biological drugs for the treatment of RA in adults were included. Two independent investigators systematically collected information and assessed the quality of the studies. To enable the comparison of the results, all costs were converted to 2013 euro. Results Of the 4890 references found in the literature search, 41 CUAs were included in the current systematic review. While considering only direct costs, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) ranged from 39,000 to 1 273,000 €/quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained in comparison to conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (cDMARDs) in cDMARD naïve patients. Among patients with an insufficient response to cDMARDs, biologics were associated with ICERs ranging from 12,000 to 708,000 €/QALY. Rituximab was found to be the most cost-effective alternative compared to other biologics among the patients with an insufficient response to TNFi. Conclusions When 35,000 €/QALY is considered as a threshold for the ICER, TNFis do not seem to be cost-effective among cDMARD naïve patients and patients with an insufficient response to cDMARDs. With thresholds of 50,000 to 100,000 €/QALY biologics might be cost-effective among patients with an inadequate response to cDMARDs. Standardization of multiattribute utility instruments

  16. The cost-effectiveness of biologics for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana T Joensuu

    Full Text Available Economic evaluations provide information to aid the optimal utilization of limited healthcare resources. Costs of biologics for Rheumatoid arthritis (RA are remarkably high, which makes these agents an important target for economic evaluations. This systematic review aims to identify existing studies examining the cost-effectiveness of biologics for RA, assess their quality and report their results systematically.A literature search covering Medline, Scopus, Cochrane library, ACP Journal club and Web of Science was performed in March 2013. The cost-utility analyses (CUAs of one or more available biological drugs for the treatment of RA in adults were included. Two independent investigators systematically collected information and assessed the quality of the studies. To enable the comparison of the results, all costs were converted to 2013 euro.Of the 4890 references found in the literature search, 41 CUAs were included in the current systematic review. While considering only direct costs, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of the tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi ranged from 39,000 to 1,273,000 €/quality adjusted life year (QALY gained in comparison to conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (cDMARDs in cDMARD naïve patients. Among patients with an insufficient response to cDMARDs, biologics were associated with ICERs ranging from 12,000 to 708,000 €/QALY. Rituximab was found to be the most cost-effective alternative compared to other biologics among the patients with an insufficient response to TNFi.When 35,000 €/QALY is considered as a threshold for the ICER, TNFis do not seem to be cost-effective among cDMARD naïve patients and patients with an insufficient response to cDMARDs. With thresholds of 50,000 to 100,000 €/QALY biologics might be cost-effective among patients with an inadequate response to cDMARDs. Standardization of multiattribute utility instruments and a validated standard conversion method

  17. The BIOSCI electronic newsgroup network for the biological sciences. Final report, October 1, 1992--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, D.; Mack, D.

    1996-10-01

    This is the final report for a DOE funded project on BIOSCI Electronic Newsgroup Network for the biological sciences. A usable network for scientific discussion, major announcements, problem solving, etc. has been created.

  18. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1990 to November 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A. [ed.

    1994-03-01

    On September 23, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Beginning in fall 1991, the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The BMP has been continued because it has proven to be extremely valuable in identifying those effluents with the potential for adversely affecting instream fauna, assessing the ecological health of receiving streams, guiding plans for remediation, and protecting human health. In September 1992, a renewed permit was issued which requires toxicity monitoring of continuous and intermittent outfalls on a quarterly basis. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities. This report includes ESD/ORNL activities occurring from December 1990 to November 1992.

  19. Biological and Chemical Technologies Research at OIT: Annual Summary Report, FY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1 997 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program. This BCTR program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1997 (ASR 97) contains the following: program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives); program structure and organization; selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1 997; detailed descriptions of individual projects; and a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by the program.

  20. AICD -- Advanced Industrial Concepts Division Biological and Chemical Technologies Research Program. 1993 Annual summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G.; Bair, K.; Ross, J. [eds.

    1994-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1993 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1993 (ASR 93) contains the following: A program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives), program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1993, detailed descriptions of individual projects, a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

  1. Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal: Metabolic Insights and Salinity Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welles, L.

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is a biological process for efficient phosphate removal from wastewaters through intracellular storage of polyphosphate by polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) and subsequent removal of PAO from the system through wastage of sludge. In comparison t

  2. Monthly Biological report and report of other activities from November 1, 1936 to December 1, 1936 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, upland game birds, mammals, law...

  3. Monthly Biological report and report of other activities from December 1, 1936 to December 31, 1936 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, raptors, upland game birds,...

  4. The biological effects of ionising radiation on Crustaceans: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Neil; Lerebours, Adélaïde [Institute of Marine Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Ferry Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO4 9LY (United Kingdom); Smith, Jim T. [School of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO1 3QL (United Kingdom); Ford, Alex T., E-mail: alex.ford@port.ac.uk [Institute of Marine Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Ferry Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO4 9LY (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We comprehensively review the effects of ionising radiation in crustaceans. • Current environmental radioprotection levels found to be inadequate in some cases. • Mutation is shown to be a sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure. • Lowest observed effect dose rate varies by orders of magnitude. - Abstract: Historic approaches to radiation protection are founded on the conjecture that measures to safeguard humans are adequate to protect non-human organisms. This view is disparate with other toxicants wherein well-developed frameworks exist to minimise exposure of biota. Significant data gaps for many organisms, coupled with high profile nuclear incidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima, have prompted the re-evaluation of our approach toward environmental radioprotection. Elucidating the impacts of radiation on biota has been identified as priority area for future research within both scientific and regulatory communities. The crustaceans are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, comprising greater than 66,000 species of ecological and commercial importance. This paper aims to assess the available literature of radiation-induced effects within this subphylum and identify knowledge gaps. A literature search was conducted pertaining to radiation effects on four endpoints as stipulated by a number of regulatory bodies: mortality, morbidity, reproduction and mutation. A major finding of this review was the paucity of data regarding the effects of environmentally relevant radiation doses on crustacean biology. Extremely few studies utilising chronic exposure durations or wild populations were found across all four endpoints. The dose levels at which effects occur was found to vary by orders of magnitude thus presenting difficulties in developing phyla-specific benchmark values and reference levels for radioprotection. Based on the limited data, mutation was found to be the most sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure, with mortality the least sensitive

  5. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January--December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1998-03-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). A plan for the biological monitoring of the receiving streams was implemented in 1987 and consisted of ecological surveys, toxicity monitoring of effluents and receiving streams, evaluation of bioaccumulation of trace contaminants in biota, and supplemental chemical characterization of effluents. Beginning in fall 1991, the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The BMP has been continued because it has proven to be extremely valuable in (1) identifying those effluents with the potential for adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assessing the ecological health of receiving streams, and (3) guiding plans for remediation and protecting human health. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of benthic macroinvertebrate communities and fish. With the exception of the benthic macroinvertebrate community surveys, this report focuses on activities from January to December 1997.

  6. The effect of network biology on drug toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Laurent; Taboureau, Olivier; Audouze, Karine Marie Laure

    2013-01-01

    it with bioinformatics. With this approach, the assessment of chemical safety can be done across multiple scales of complexity from molecular to cellular and system levels in human health. Network biology can be used at several levels of complexity. Areas covered: This review describes the strengths and limitations......Introduction: The high failure rate of drug candidates due to toxicity, during clinical trials, is a critical issue in drug discovery. Network biology has become a promising approach, in this regard, using the increasingly large amount of biological and chemical data available and combining...... of network biology. The authors specifically assess this approach across different biological scales when it is applied to toxicity. Expert opinion: There has been much progress made with the amount of data that is generated by various omics technologies. With this large amount of useful data, network...

  7. Nanogold – Biological effects and occupational exposure levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Świdwińska-Gajewska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanogold has different properties and biological activity compared to metallic gold. It can be applied in many fields, such as medicine, laboratory diagnostics and electronics. Studies on laboratory animals show that nanogold can be absorbed by inhalation and ingestion. It can penetrate deep into the epidermis and dermis, but there is no evidence that it is absorbed through the skin. Gold nanoobjects accumulate mainly in the liver and spleen, but they can also reach other internal organs. Nanogold can cross the blood–brain and blood–placenta barriers. Toxicokinetics of nanogold depends on the particle size, shape and surface charge. In animals exposure to gold nanoparticles via inhalation induces slight changes in the lungs. Exposure to nanogold by the oral route does not cause adverse health effects in rodents. In animals after injection of gold nanoobjects changes in the liver and lungs were observed. Nanogold induced genotoxic effects in cells, but not in animals. No adverse effects on the fetus or reproduction were found. There are no carcinogenicity studies on gold nanoparticles. The mechanism of toxicity may be related to the interaction of gold nanoobjects with proteins and DNA, and it leads to the induction of oxidative stress and genetic material damage. The impact of nanostructures on human health has not yet been fully understood. The person, who works with nanomaterials should exercise extreme caution and apply existing recommendations on the evaluation of nanoobjects exposure. The risk assessment should be the basis for taking appropriate measures to limit potential exposure to nanometals, including nanogold. Med Pr 2017;68(4:545–556

  8. Occurrence and Potential Biological Effects of Amphetamine on Stream Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sylvia S; Paspalof, Alexis M; Snow, Daniel D; Richmond, Erinn K; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J; Kelly, John J

    2016-09-06

    The presence of pharmaceuticals, including illicit drugs in aquatic systems, is a topic of environmental significance because of their global occurrence and potential effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health, but few studies have examined the ecological effects of illicit drugs. We conducted a survey of several drug residues, including the potentially illicit drug amphetamine, at 6 stream sites along an urban to rural gradient in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. We detected numerous drugs, including amphetamine (3 to 630 ng L(-1)), in all stream sites. We examined the fate and ecological effects of amphetamine on biofilm, seston, and aquatic insect communities in artificial streams exposed to an environmentally relevant concentration (1 μg L(-1)) of amphetamine. The amphetamine parent compound decreased in the artificial streams from less than 1 μg L(-1) on day 1 to 0.11 μg L(-1) on day 22. In artificial streams treated with amphetamine, there was up to 45% lower biofilm chlorophyll a per ash-free dry mass, 85% lower biofilm gross primary production, 24% greater seston ash-free dry mass, and 30% lower seston community respiration compared to control streams. Exposing streams to amphetamine also changed the composition of bacterial and diatom communities in biofilms at day 21 and increased cumulative dipteran emergence by 65% and 89% during the first and third weeks of the experiment, respectively. This study demonstrates that amphetamine and other biologically active drugs are present in urban streams and have the potential to affect both structure and function of stream communities.

  9. Determining environmental causes of biological effects: the need for a mechanistic physiological dimension in conservation biology

    OpenAIRE

    Seebacher, Frank; Craig E. Franklin

    2012-01-01

    The emerging field of Conservation Physiology links environmental change and ecological success by the application of physiological theory, approaches and tools to elucidate and address conservation problems. Human activity has changed the natural environment to a point where the viability of many ecosystems is now under threat. There are already many descriptions of how changes in biological patterns are correlated with environmental changes. The next important step is to determine the causa...

  10. Relative Biological Effectiveness and Peripheral Damage of Antiproton Annihilation

    CERN Multimedia

    Kavanagh, J N; Kaiser, F; Tegami, S; Schettino, G; Kovacevic, S; Hajdukovic, D; Currell, F J; Toelli, H T; Doser, M; Holzscheiter, M; Herrmann, R; Timson, D J; Alsner, J; Landua, R; Knudsen, H; Comor, J; Moller, S P; Beyer, G

    2002-01-01

    The use of ions to deliver radiation to a body for therapeutic purposes has the potential to be significant improvement over the use of low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation because of the improved energy deposition profile and the enhanced biological effects of ions relative to photons. Proton therapy centers exist and are being used to treat patients. In addition, the initial use of heavy ions such as carbon is promising to the point that new treatment facilities are planned. Just as with protons or heavy ions, antiprotons can be used to deliver radiation to the body in a controlled way; however antiprotons will exhibit additional energy deposition due to annihilation of the antiprotons within the body. The slowing down of antiprotons in matter is similar to that of protons except at the very end of the range beyond the Bragg peak. Gray and Kalogeropoulos estimated the additional energy deposited by heavy nuclear fragments within a few millimeters of the annihilation vertex to be approximately 30 MeV (...

  11. Effects of Simulated Rare Earth Recycling Wastewaters on Biological Nitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yoshiko; Barnes, Joni; Eslamimanesh, Ali; Lencka, Malgorzata M; Anderko, Andrzej; Riman, Richard E; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-08-18

    Increasing rare earth element (REE) supplies by recycling and expanded ore processing will result in generation of new wastewaters. In some cases, disposal to a sewage treatment plant may be favored, but plant performance must be maintained. To assess the potential effects of such wastewaters on biological treatment, model nitrifying organisms Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi were exposed to simulated wastewaters containing varying levels of yttrium or europium (10, 50, and 100 ppm), and the extractant tributyl phosphate (TBP, at 0.1 g/L). Y and Eu additions at 50 and 100 ppm inhibited N. europaea, even when virtually all of the REE was insoluble. Provision of TBP with Eu increased N. europaea inhibition, although TBP alone did not substantially alter activity. For N. winogradskyi cultures, Eu or Y additions at all tested levels induced significant inhibition, and nitrification shut down completely with TBP addition. REE solubility was calculated using the previously developed MSE (Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte) thermodynamic model. The model calculations reveal a strong pH dependence of solubility, typically controlled by the precipitation of REE hydroxides but also likely affected by the formation of unknown phosphate phases, which determined aqueous concentrations experienced by the microorganisms.

  12. Stochastic Effects in Computational Biology of Space Radiation Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Pluth, Janis; Harper, Jane; O'Neill, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Estimating risk from space radiation poses important questions on the radiobiology of protons and heavy ions. We are considering systems biology models to study radiation induced repair foci (RIRF) at low doses, in which less than one-track on average transverses the cell, and the subsequent DNA damage processing and signal transduction events. Computational approaches for describing protein regulatory networks coupled to DNA and oxidative damage sites include systems of differential equations, stochastic equations, and Monte-Carlo simulations. We review recent developments in the mathematical description of protein regulatory networks and possible approaches to radiation effects simulation. These include robustness, which states that regulatory networks maintain their functions against external and internal perturbations due to compensating properties of redundancy and molecular feedback controls, and modularity, which leads to general theorems for considering molecules that interact through a regulatory mechanism without exchange of matter leading to a block diagonal reduction of the connecting pathways. Identifying rate-limiting steps, robustness, and modularity in pathways perturbed by radiation damage are shown to be valid techniques for reducing large molecular systems to realistic computer simulations. Other techniques studied are the use of steady-state analysis, and the introduction of composite molecules or rate-constants to represent small collections of reactants. Applications of these techniques to describe spatial and temporal distributions of RIRF and cell populations following low dose irradiation are described.

  13. The biological effects of five feline IFN-alpha subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Susan L; Powell, Tim D; Sellins, Karen S; Radecki, Steven V; Cohen, J John; Milhausen, Michael J

    2004-06-01

    IFN-alpha has been shown to induce both antiviral and antiproliferative activities in animals. This report describes the biological activity of five recently identified feline IFN-alpha subtypes expressed in the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line (rfeIFN-alpha1[CHO], rfeIFN-alpha2[CHO], rfeIFN-alpha3[CHO], rfeIFN-alpha5[CHO] and rfeIFN-alpha6[CHO]) and the feIFN-alpha6 subtype expressed in and purified from Pichia pastoris (rfeIFN-alpha6[P. pastoris]). The rfeIFN-alpha[CHO] subtypes were tested for antiviral activity against either Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) or feline calicivirus (FCV) infected feline embryonic fibroblast cell line (AH927) or Crandell feline kidney cell line (CRFK). Antiviral activity was induced against both VSV and FCV infected AH927 cells and VSV infected CRFK cells by all five of the rfeIFN-alpha[CHO] subtypes and rfeIFN-alpha6[P. pastoris]. In addition, the IFN-alpha inducible Mx gene (associated with antiviral activity) was upregulated in vivo 24 h following treatment with rfeIFN-alpha6[P. pastoris], compared to baseline levels seen prior to treatment. All of the rfeIFN-alpha[CHO] subtypes and rfeIFN-alpha6[P. pastoris] exhibited antiproliferative activity in the FeT-J cell line (an IL-2 independent feline T-cell line). Both necrosis and apoptosis were observed in rfeIFN-alpha6[P. pastoris]-treated FeT-J cells. The rfeIFN-alpha3[CHO] subtype consistently exhibited lower antiviral and antiproliferative activity compared to that observed with the other four rfeIFN-alpha[CHO] subtypes. In summary, this paper demonstrates that five previously described feIFN-alpha subtypes induce both antiviral and antiproliferative activities in vitro and are capable of upregulating the feMx gene in vivo.

  14. The Consumer Reports Effectiveness Score: What Did Consumers Report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Stevan Lars; Smart, David W.; Isakson, Richard L.; Worthen, Vaughn E.; Gregersen, Ann T.; Lambert, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    From readers' ratings of satisfaction, problem resolution, and perceived emotional change during treatment, Consumer Reports magazine (CR, 1995) concluded both that psychotherapy is effective and that longer, more intensive therapy is more effective. The authors compared prospectively gathered 45-Item Outcome Questionnaire scores (OQ-45; M. J.…

  15. Systems Biology and Biomarkers of Early Effects for Occupational Exposure Limit Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBord, D Gayle; Burgoon, Lyle; Edwards, Stephen W; Haber, Lynne T; Kanitz, M Helen; Kuempel, Eileen; Thomas, Russell S; Yucesoy, Berran

    2015-01-01

    In a recent National Research Council document, new strategies for risk assessment were described to enable more accurate and quicker assessments. This report suggested that evaluating individual responses through increased use of bio-monitoring could improve dose-response estimations. Identification of specific biomarkers may be useful for diagnostics or risk prediction as they have the potential to improve exposure assessments. This paper discusses systems biology, biomarkers of effect, and computational toxicology approaches and their relevance to the occupational exposure limit setting process. The systems biology approach evaluates the integration of biological processes and how disruption of these processes by chemicals or other hazards affects disease outcomes. This type of approach could provide information used in delineating the mode of action of the response or toxicity, and may be useful to define the low adverse and no adverse effect levels. Biomarkers of effect are changes measured in biological systems and are considered to be preclinical in nature. Advances in computational methods and experimental -omics methods that allow the simultaneous measurement of families of macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins in a single analysis have made these systems approaches feasible for broad application. The utility of the information for risk assessments from -omics approaches has shown promise and can provide information on mode of action and dose-response relationships. As these techniques evolve, estimation of internal dose and response biomarkers will be a critical test of these new technologies for application in risk assessment strategies. While proof of concept studies have been conducted that provide evidence of their value, challenges with standardization and harmonization still need to be overcome before these methods are used routinely.

  16. Racial/ethnic differences in self-reported and biologic measures of chronic stress in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, A E B; Wolfe, K; Qadir, S; Kim, K-Y; Holl, J; Grobman, W

    2015-08-01

    Racial differences in chronic maternal stress may contribute to disparities in pregnancy outcomes. The objective is to identify racial and ethnic differences in self-reported and biologic measures of stress between non-Hispanic black (NHB) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) pregnant women. NHB and NHW pregnant women were enrolled before 23 weeks of gestation in this prospective cohort study. Equal numbers of women were recruited with public vs private insurance in each racial group. Self-reported stress was measured and blood samples collected in the second and third trimesters were analyzed for serum Epstein-Barr virus antibody, C-reactive protein (CRP), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). One hundred and twelve women were enrolled. NHW women reported more buffers against stress (P=0.04) and neighborhood satisfaction (P=0.02). NHB women reported more discrimination (Pstress were identified between NHB and NHW pregnant women with similar economic characteristics. Future studies should investigate mechanisms underlying these differences and their relationship to pregnancy outcomes.

  17. Chemical and biological oxidative effects of carbon black nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Eiko; Kobayashi, Takahiro

    2006-11-01

    Several studies show that ultrafine particles have a larger surface area than coarse particles, thus causing a greater inflammatory response. In this study, we investigated chemical and biological oxidative effects of nanoparticles in vitro. Carbon black (CB) nanoparticles with mean aerodynamic diameters of 14, 56, and 95nm were examined. The innate oxidative capacity of the CB nanoparticles was measured by consumption of dithiothreitol (DTT) in cell-free system. The expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in rat alveolar type II epithelial cell line (SV40T2) and alveolar macrophages (AM) exposed to CB nanoparticles was measured by ELISA. DTT consumption of 14nm CB was higher than that of other CB nanoparticles having the same particle weight. However, DTT consumption was directly proportional to the particle surface area. HO-1 protein in SV40T2 cells was significantly increased by the 14nm and 56nm CB, however, 95nm CB did not affect. HO-1 protein in AM was significantly increased by the 14, 56, and 95nm CB. The increase in HO-1 expression was diminished by N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) treatment of each CB nanoparticles before exposure although the difference between the effects of NAC-treated and untreated 14nm CB did not achieve significant. In conclusion, CB nanoparticles have innate oxidative capacity that may be dependent on the surface area. CB nanoparticles can induce oxidative stress in alveolar epithelial cells and AM that is more prominent with smaller particles. The oxidative stress may, at least partially, be mediated by surface function of particles.

  18. Tea polyphenols, their biological effects and potential molecular targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D; Milacic, V; Chen, M S; Wan, S B; Lam, W H; Huo, C; Landis-Piwowar, K R; Cui, Q C; Wali, A; Chan, T H; Dou, Q P

    2008-04-01

    Tea is the most popular beverage in the world, second only to water. Tea contains an infusion of the leaves from the Camellia sinensis plant rich in polyphenolic compounds known as catechins, the most abundant of which is (-)-EGCG. Although tea has been consumed for centuries, it has only recently been studied extensively as a health-promoting beverage that may act to prevent a number of chronic diseases and cancers. The results of several investigations indicate that green tea consumption may be of modest benefit in reducing the plasma concentration of cholesterol and preventing atherosclerosis. Additionally, the cancer-preventive effects of green tea are widely supported by results from epidemiological, cell culture, animal and clinical studies. In vitro cell culture studies show that tea polyphenols potently induce apoptotic cell death and cell cycle arrest in tumor cells but not in their normal cell counterparts. Green tea polyphenols were shown to affect several biological pathways, including growth factor-mediated pathway, the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-dependent pathway, and ubiquitin/proteasome degradation pathways. Various animal studies have revealed that treatment with green tea inhibits tumor incidence and multiplicity in different organ sites such as skin, lung, liver, stomach, mammary gland and colon. Recently, phase I and II clinical trials have been conducted to explore the anticancer effects of green tea in humans. A major challenge of cancer prevention is to integrate new molecular findings into clinical practice. Therefore, identification of more molecular targets and biomarkers for tea polyphenols is essential for improving the design of green tea trials and will greatly assist in a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying its anti-cancer activity.

  19. Track Structure and the Biological Effectiveness of Accelerated Particles for the Induction of Chromosome Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, K.; Hada, M.; Chappell, L.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    Track structure models predict that at a fixed value of LET, particles with lower charge number, Z will have a higher biological effectiveness compared to particles with a higher Z. In this report we investigated how track structure effects induction of chromosomal aberration in human cells. Human lymphocytes were irradiated in vitro with various energies of accelerated iron, silicon, neon, or titanium ions and chromosome damage was assessed in using three color FISH chromosome painting in chemically induced PCC samples collected a first cell division post irradiation. The LET values for these ions ranged from 30 to195 keV/micron. Of the particles studied, Neon ions have the highest biological effectiveness for induction of total chromosome damage, which is consistent with track structure model predictions. For complex-type exchanges 64 MeV/ u Neon and 450 MeV/u Iron were equally effective and induced the most complex damage. In addition we present data on chromosomes exchanges induced by six different energies of protons (5 MeV/u to 2.5 GeV/u). The linear dose response term was similar for all energies of protons suggesting that the effect of the higher LET at low proton energies is balanced by the production of nuclear secondaries from the high energy protons.

  20. New insight into the molecular mechanisms of the biological effects of DNA minor groove binders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbo Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bisbenzimides, or Hoechst 33258 (H258, and its derivative Hoechst 33342 (H342 are archetypal molecules for designing minor groove binders, and widely used as tools for staining DNA and analyzing side population cells. They are supravital DNA minor groove binders with AT selectivity. H342 and H258 share similar biological effects based on the similarity of their chemical structures, but also have their unique biological effects. For example, H342, but not H258, is a potent apoptotic inducer and both H342 and H258 can induce transgene overexpression in in vitro studies. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Hoechst dyes induce apoptosis and enhance transgene overexpression are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine the molecular mechanisms underlying different biological effects between H342 and H258, microarray technique coupled with bioinformatics analyses and multiple other techniques has been utilized to detect differential global gene expression profiles, Hoechst dye-specific gene expression signatures, and changes in cell morphology and levels of apoptosis-associated proteins in malignant mesothelioma cells. H342-induced apoptosis occurs in a dose-dependent fashion and is associated with morphological changes, caspase-3 activation, cytochrome c mitochondrial translocation, and cleavage of apoptosis-associated proteins. The antagonistic effect of H258 on H342-induced apoptosis indicates a pharmacokinetic basis for the two dyes' different biological effects. Differential global gene expression profiles induced by H258 and H342 are accompanied by unique gene expression signatures determined by DNA microarray and bioinformatics software, indicating a genetic basis for their different biological effects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A unique gene expression signature associated with H342-induced apoptosis provides a new avenue to predict and classify the therapeutic class of minor groove binders in the drug

  1. Effectiveness of a biological control agent Palexorista gilvoides in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences by National Agricultural Research Organisation is licensed under a ... gilvoides as a potential biological control agent for G. podocarpi. Field and .... are related to stress factors and are considered ...

  2. Age and Socioeconomic Gradients of Health of Indian Adults: An Assessment of Self-Reported and Biological Measures of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Uttamacharya; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes overall socioeconomic gradients and the age patterns of socioeconomic gradients of health of Indian adults for multiple health indicators encompassing the multiple aspects of health. Cross-sectional data on 11,230 Indians aged 18 years and older from the WHO-SAGE India Wave 1, 2007 were analyzed. Multivariate logit models were estimated to examine effects of socioeconomic status (education and household wealth) and age on four health domains: self-rated health, self-reported functioning, chronic diseases, and biological health measures. Results show that socioeconomic status (SES) was negatively associated with prevalence of each health measure but with considerable heterogeneity across age groups. Results for hypertension and COPD were inconclusive. SES effects are significant while adjusting for background characteristics and health risk factors. The age patterns of SES gradient of health depict divergence with age, however, no conclusive age pattern emerged for biological markers. Overall, results in this paper dispelled the conclusion of negative SES-health association found in some previous Indian studies and reinforced the hypothesis of positive association of SES with health for Indian adults. Higher prevalence of negative health outcomes and SES disparities of health outcomes among older age-groups highlight need for inclusive and focused health care interventions for older adults across socioeconomic spectrum.

  3. Sex matters: The effects of biological sex on adipose tissue biology and energy metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa G. Valencak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is a complex and multi-faceted organ. It responds dynamically to internal and external stimuli, depending on the developmental stage and activity of the organism. The most common functional subunits of adipose tissue, white and brown adipocytes, regulate and respond to endocrine processes, which then determine metabolic rate as well as adipose tissue functions. While the molecular aspects of white and brown adipose biology have become clearer in the recent past, much less is known about sex-specific differences in regulation and deposition of adipose tissue, and the specific role of the so-called pink adipocytes during lactation in females. This review summarises the current understanding of adipose tissue dynamics with a focus on sex-specific differences in adipose tissue energy metabolism and endocrine functions, focussing on mammalian model organisms as well as human-derived data. In females, pink adipocytes trans-differentiate during pregnancy from subcutaneous white adipocytes and are responsible for milk-secretion in mammary glands. Overlooking biological sex variation may ultimately hamper clinical treatments of many aspects of metabolic disorders.

  4. First annual report on the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J. M. [ed.; Adams, S. M.; Blaylock, B. G.; Boston, H. L.; Frank, M. L.; Garten, C. T.; Houston, M. A.; Kimmel, B. L.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.; Stewart, A. J.; Walton, B. T.; Berry, J. B.; Talmage, S. S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Amano, H. [JAERI, Tokai Res., Establishment, Ibari-Ken (Japan); Jimenez, B. D. [School of Pharmacy, Univ. of Puerto Rico (San Juan); Kitchings, J. T. [ERCE, Denver, CO (United States); Meyers-Schoene, L. [Advanced Sciences, Inc., Fernald, OH (United States); Mohrbacher, D. A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Olsen, C. R. [USDOE Office of Energy Research, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Health and Environmental Research

    1992-08-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the first of a series of annual reports presenting the results of BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from March through December 1986.

  5. Acetylated Triterpene Glycosides and Their Biological Activity from Holothuroidea Reported in the Past Six Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Yadollah; Franco, Christopher M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers have been valued for many centuries as a tonic and functional food, dietary delicacies and important ingredients of traditional medicine in many Asian countries. An assortment of bioactive compounds has been described in sea cucumbers. The most important and abundant secondary metabolites from sea cucumbers are triterpene glycosides (saponins). Due to the wide range of their potential biological activities, these natural compounds have gained attention and this has led to their emergence as high value compounds with extended application in nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, medicinal and pharmaceutical products. They are characterized by bearing a wide spectrum of structures, such as sulfated, non-sulfated and acetylated glycosides. Over 700 triterpene glycosides have been reported from the Holothuroidea in which more than 145 are decorated with an acetoxy group having 38 different aglycones. The majority of sea cucumber triterpene glycosides are of the holostane type containing a C18 (20) lactone group and either Δ7(8) or Δ9(11) double bond in their genins. The acetoxy group is mainly connected to the C-16, C-22, C-23 and/or C-25 of their aglycone. Apparently, the presence of an acetoxy group, particularly at C-16 of the aglycone, plays a significant role in the bioactivity; including induction of caspase, apoptosis, cytotoxicity, anticancer, antifungal and antibacterial activities of these compounds. This manuscript highlights the structure of acetylated saponins, their biological activity, and their structure-activity relationships. PMID:27527190

  6. Biological degradation and microbial function effect of norfloxacin in a soil under different conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji-Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Shan; Zhou, Li-Jun; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Tao, Ran; Peng, Ping-An

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigated the degradation kinetics of norfloxacin in a soil, and its effects on soil respiration and nitrogen transformation under different conditions. Compared to the sterile control, the degradation rates of norfloxacin in the non-sterile soil were greatly enhanced, suggesting that microorganisms played a major role in the degradation. Accelerated degradation for norfloxacin in the soil was observed with decreasing concentrations (30 mg/kg to 5 mg/kg) with its half-life decreasing from 62 days to 31 days. Amending swine manure into the soil and increasing the soil moisture level enhanced the biological degradation of norfloxacin. No obvious inhibition of norfloxacin on soil respiration was observed in the soil, while only slight effect on nitrogen transformation was found. The results suggested that norfloxacin at the reported environmental concentrations (<100 mg/kg) would have little effect on microbial activity and functions in the soils.

  7. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S. jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-07-18

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and

  8. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-10-18

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and

  9. The Effects of Ultrasound on Biological Systems: Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Karmi, Anan M.

    vs. 18 minutes). This demonstrates that the biological effects of ultrasound are influenced by Ca^ {2+}. The larger increases in G _{rm t} and the time constants confirm other studies addressing the role of Ca ^{2+} in potentiating lipid peroxidation by free radicals, and the role of calcium ions in the formation of tight junctions.

  10. Penetration and propagation into biological matter and biological effects of high-power ultra-wideband pulses: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunck, Thérèse; Bieth, François; Pinguet, Sylvain; Delmote, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Systems emitting ultra-wideband high power microwave (HP/UWB) pulses are developed for military and civilian applications. HP/UWB pulses typically have durations on the order of nanoseconds, rise times of picoseconds and amplitudes around 100 kV m(-1). This article reviews current research on biological effects from HP/UWB exposure. The different references were classified according to endpoints (cardiovascular system, central nervous system, behavior, genotoxicity, teratology …). The article also reviews the aspects of mechanisms of interactions and tissue damage as well as the numerical work that has been done for studying HP/UWB pulse propagation and pulse energy deposition inside biological tissues. The mechanisms proposed are the molecular conformation change, the modification of chemical reaction rates, membrane excitation and breakdown and direct electrical forces on cells or cell constituents, and the energy deposition. As regards the penetration of biological matter and the deposited energy, mainly computations were published. They have shown that the EM field inside the biological matter is strongly modified compared to the incident EM field and that the energy absorption for HP/UWB pulses occurs in the same way as for continuous waves. However, the energy carried by a HP/UWB pulse is very low and the deposited energy is low. The number of published studies dealing with the biological effects is small and only a few pointed out slight effects. It should be further noted that the animal populations used in the studies were not always large, the statistical analyses not always relevant and the teams involved in this research rather limited in number.

  11. Application of molecular biology at the approach of Bartter's syndrome: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Geisilaine Soares Dos; Miranda, Débora Marques de; Pereira, Paula Cristina de Barros; Sarubi, Helena Cunha; Rodrigues, Luciana Bastos; Marco, Luiz Armando Cunha de; Silva, Ana Cristina Simões E

    2012-03-01

    This paper aims to show the utility of molecular biology for diagnose Bartter syndrome (BS) by the case report of two sisters and to propose a diagram for the molecular approach of this syndrome. The two reported cases presented prematurity, pregnancy complicated with polyhydramnio and low birth weight. During the first year of life, children exhibited polyuria, polydipsia and failure to thrive, leading to the investigation of renal tubular diseases and innate errors of metabolism. The laboratorial exams suggested BS, but the definitive diagnostic was only obtained by the detection of homozygous mutation on the exon 5 of the gene KCNJ1, resulting in a substitution of the aminoacid alanin for valin on codon 214 (A214V) in both DNA stripes in the two sisters and a heterozygous mutation in their parents. The definitive diagnostic of BS is frequently very difficult to be obtained. Consequently, considering the reported cases, we showed the utility of molecular techniques for the definitive diagnostic of BS and we proposed a diagram for the rational use of these techniques.

  12. Relative Biological Effectiveness of HZE Particles for Chromosomal Exchanges and Other Surrogate Cancer Risk Endpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao, Eliedonna; Hada, Megumi; Saganti, Premkumar B.; George, Kerry A.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2016-01-01

    The biological effects of high charge and energy (HZE) particle exposures are of interest in space radiation protection of astronauts and cosmonauts, and estimating secondary cancer risks for patients undergoing Hadron therapy for primary cancers. The large number of particles types and energies that makeup primary or secondary radiation in HZE particle exposures precludes tumor induction studies in animal models for all but a few particle types and energies, thus leading to the use of surrogate endpoints to investigate the details of the radiation quality dependence of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors. In this report we make detailed RBE predictions of the charge number and energy dependence of RBE’s using a parametric track structure model to represent experimental results for the low dose response for chromosomal exchanges in normal human lymphocyte and fibroblast cells with comparison to published data for neoplastic transformation and gene mutation. RBE’s are evaluated against acute doses of γ-rays for doses near 1 Gy. Models that assume linear or non-targeted effects at low dose are considered. Modest values of RBE (10) are predicted at low doses <0.1 Gy. The radiation quality dependence of RBE’s against the effects of acute doses γ-rays found for neoplastic transformation and gene mutation studies are similar to those found for simple exchanges if a linear response is assumed at low HZE particle doses. Comparisons of the resulting model parameters to those used in the NASA radiation quality factor function are discussed. PMID:27111667

  13. Relative Biological Effectiveness of HZE Particles for Chromosomal Exchanges and Other Surrogate Cancer Risk Endpoints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliedonna Cacao

    Full Text Available The biological effects of high charge and energy (HZE particle exposures are of interest in space radiation protection of astronauts and cosmonauts, and estimating secondary cancer risks for patients undergoing Hadron therapy for primary cancers. The large number of particles types and energies that makeup primary or secondary radiation in HZE particle exposures precludes tumor induction studies in animal models for all but a few particle types and energies, thus leading to the use of surrogate endpoints to investigate the details of the radiation quality dependence of relative biological effectiveness (RBE factors. In this report we make detailed RBE predictions of the charge number and energy dependence of RBE's using a parametric track structure model to represent experimental results for the low dose response for chromosomal exchanges in normal human lymphocyte and fibroblast cells with comparison to published data for neoplastic transformation and gene mutation. RBE's are evaluated against acute doses of γ-rays for doses near 1 Gy. Models that assume linear or non-targeted effects at low dose are considered. Modest values of RBE (10 are predicted at low doses <0.1 Gy. The radiation quality dependence of RBE's against the effects of acute doses γ-rays found for neoplastic transformation and gene mutation studies are similar to those found for simple exchanges if a linear response is assumed at low HZE particle doses. Comparisons of the resulting model parameters to those used in the NASA radiation quality factor function are discussed.

  14. Biological Glue Application in Repair of Atrioventricular Groove Rupture: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Baris-Durukan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Atrioventricular groove rupture is a rare, albeit mortal, complication following mitral valve surgery. Avoidance is the best strategy but it cannot fully prevent the occurrence of this complication. Several repair techniques have been described with varying success rates; however, the rarity of the complication precludes consensus about the safest technique.Here we report two cases of posterior atrioventricular groove rupture. Both cases were diagnosed immediately after the cessation of cardiopulmonary bypass. Repair was performed successfully with a technique involving the use of biological glue. The postoperative course was uneventful for both of them. Both cases are well with normally functioning mitral prostheses; one with a follow-up time of 5.5 years and the other 10 months. We believe that the glue provides additional hemostasis and support to the repaired area.

  15. Final Report - Phylogenomic tools and web resources for the Systems Biology Knowledgebase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjolander, Kimmen [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-12-08

    The major advance during this last reporting period (8/15/12 to present) is our release of data on the PhyloFacts website: phylogenetic trees, multiple sequence alignments and other data for protein families are now available for download from http://phylogenomics.berkeley.edu/data/. This project as a whole aimed to develop high-throughput functional annotation systems that exploit information from protein 3D structure and evolution to provide highly precise inferences of various aspects of gene function, including molecular function, biological process, pathway association, Pfam domains, cellular localization and so on. We accomplished these aims by developing and testing different systems on a database of protein family trees: the PhyloFacts Phylogenomic Encyclopedia (at http://phylogenomics.berkeley.edu/phylofacts/ ).

  16. Final Report - Phylogenomic tools and web resources for the Systems Biology Knowledgebase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjolander, Kimmen

    2014-11-07

    The major advance during this last reporting period (8/15/12 to present) is our release of data on the PhyloFacts website: phylogenetic trees, multiple sequence alignments and other data for protein families are now available for download from http://phylogenomics.berkeley.edu/data/. This project as a whole aimed to develop high-throughput functional annotation systems that exploit information from protein 3D structure and evolution to provide highly precise inferences of various aspects of gene function, including molecular function, biological process, pathway association, Pfam domains, cellular localization and so on. We accomplished these aims by developing and testing different systems on a database of protein family trees: the PhyloFacts Phylogenomic Encyclopedia (at http://phylogenomics.berkeley.edu/phylofacts/ ).

  17. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann

    The hypothesis being evaluated in this research program is that control of radiation induced oxidative stress will reduce the risk of radiation induced adverse biological effects occurring as a result of exposure to the types of radiation encountered during space travel. As part of this grant work, we have evaluated the protective effects of several antioxidants and dietary supplements and observed that a mixture of antioxidants (AOX), containing L-selenomethionine, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid, vitamin E succinate, and alpha-lipoic acid, is highly effective at reducing space radiation induced oxidative stress in both in vivo and in vitro systems, space radiation induced cytotoxicity and malignant transformation in vitro [1-7]. In studies designed to determine whether the AOX formulation could affect radiation induced mortality [8], it was observed that the AOX dietary supplement increased the 30-day survival of ICR male mice following exposure to a potentially lethal dose (8 Gy) of X-rays when given prior to or after animal irradiation. Pretreatment of animals with antioxidants resulted in significantly higher total white blood cell and neutrophil counts in peripheral blood at 4 and 24 hours following exposure to doses of 1 Gy and 8 Gy. Antioxidant treatment also resulted in increased bone marrow cell counts following irradiation, and prevented peripheral lymphopenia following 1 Gy irradiation. Supplementation with antioxidants in irradiated animals resulted in several gene expression changes: the antioxidant treatment was associated with increased Bcl-2, and decreased Bax, caspase-9 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression in the bone marrow following irradiation. These results suggest that modulation of apoptosis may be mechanistically involved in hematopoietic system radioprotection by antioxidants. Maintenance of the antioxidant diet was associated with improved recovery of the bone marrow following sub-lethal or potentially lethal irradiation. Taken together

  18. Essential Oils from Thyme (Thymus vulgaris): Chemical Composition and Biological Effects in Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetvicka, Vaclav; Vetvickova, Jana

    2016-12-01

    Thymus species are popular spices and contain volatile oils as main chemical constituents. Recently, plant-derived essential oils are gaining significant attention due to their significant biological activities. Seven different thymus-derived essential oils were compared in our study. First, we focused on their chemical composition, which was followed up by testing their effects on phagocytosis, cytokine production, chemotaxis, edema inhibition, and liver protection. We found limited biological activities among tested oils, with no correlation between composition and biological effects. Similarly, no oils were effective in every reaction. Based on our data, the tested biological use of these essential oils is questionable.

  19. Effect of Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry Learning on Non-majors Biology Students' Understanding of Biological Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Breann M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of process-oriented guided-inquiry learning (POGIL) on non-majors college biology students' understanding of biological classification. This study addressed an area of science instruction, POGIL in the non-majors college biology laboratory, which has yet to be qualitatively and quantitatively researched. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods approach was used. Students' understanding of biological classification was measured in two areas: scores on pre and posttests (consisting of 11 multiple choice questions), and conceptions of classification as elicited in pre and post interviews and instructor reflections. Participants were Minnesota State University, Mankato students enrolled in BIOL 100 Summer Session. One section was taught with the traditional curriculum (n = 6) and the other section in the POGIL curriculum (n = 10) developed by the researcher. Three students from each section were selected to take part in pre and post interviews. There were no significant differences within each teaching method (p vs. M = 7.330 +/- .330; z =-1.729, p = .084) and the traditional group may have scored higher on the pretest than the posttest (M = 8.333 +/- .333 vs M = 7.333 +/- .333; z = -1.650 , p = .099). Two themes emerged after the interviews and instructor reflections: 1) After instruction students had a more extensive understanding of classification in three areas: vocabulary terms, physical characteristics, and types of evidence used to classify. Both groups extended their understanding, but only POGIL students could explain how molecular evidence is used in classification. 2) The challenges preventing students from understanding classification were: familiar animal categories and aquatic habitats, unfamiliar organisms, combining and subdividing initial groupings, and the hierarchical nature of classification. The POGIL students were the only group to surpass these challenges after the teaching intervention. This

  20. Radon exposure of the skin: I. Biological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, M W [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-15

    Radon progeny can plate out on skin and give rise to exposure of the superficial epidermis from alpha emitters Po-218 (7.7 MeV, range {approx}66 {mu}m) and Po-214 (6 MeV, range {approx}44 {mu}m). Dose rates from beta/gamma emitters Pb-214 and Bi-214 are low and only predominate at depths in excess of the alpha range. This paper reviews the evidence for a causal link between exposure from radon and its progeny, and deterministic and stochastic biological effects in human skin. Radiation induced skin effects such as ulceration and dermal atrophy, which require irradiation of the dermis, are ruled out for alpha irradiation from radon progeny because the target cells are considerably deeper than the range of alpha particles. They have not been observed in man or animals. Effects such as erythema and acute epidermal necrosis have been observed in a few cases of very high dose alpha particle exposures in man and after acute high dose exposure in animals from low energy beta radiations with similar depth doses to radon progeny. The required skin surface absorbed doses are in excess of 100 Gy. Such effects would require extremely high levels of radon progeny. They would involve quite exceptional circumstances, way outside the normal range of radon exposures in man. There is no definitive identification of the target cells for skin cancer induction in animals or man. The stem cells in the basal layer which maintain the epidermis are the most plausible contenders for target cells. The majority of these cells are near the end of the range of radon progeny alpha particles, even on the thinnest body sites. The nominal depth of these cells, as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), is 70 {mu}m. There is evidence however that some irradiation of the hair follicles and/or the deeper dermis, as well as the inter-follicular epidermis, is also necessary for skin cancer induction. Alpha irradiation of rodent skin that is restricted to the

  1. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Adams, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Black, M.C. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)] [and others

    1993-06-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NDPES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a Water Pollution Control Program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing; (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic (bottom-dwelling) macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the second in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted between July 1986 and July 1988, although additional data collected outside this time period are included, as appropriate.

  2. First report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Black, M.C. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)); Gatz, A.J. Jr. (Ohio Wesleyan Univ., Delaware, OH (United States)); Hinzman, R.L. (Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)); Jimenez, B.D. (Puerto Rico Univ.,

    1992-07-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of the BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE)], and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. The BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the first in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from May 1985 through September 1986.

  3. Radioprotection, biological effects of the radiations and security in the handling of radioactive material

    CERN Document Server

    Teran, M

    2000-01-01

    The development of the philosophy of the radioprotection is dependent on the understanding of the effects of the radiation in the man. Behind the fact that the radiation is able to produce biological damages there are certain factors with regard to the biological effects of the radiations that determine the boarding of the radioprotection topics.

  4. IFPA meeting 2015 workshop report III: nanomedicine applications and exosome biology, xenobiotics and endocrine disruptors and pregnancy, and lipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, C; Caniggia, I; Clifton, V; Göhner, C; Harris, L; Hemmings, D; Jawerbaum, A; Johnstone, E; Jones, H; Keelan, J; Lewis, R; Mitchell, M; Murthi, P; Powell, T; Saffery, R; Smith, R; Vaillancourt, C; Wadsack, C; Salomon, C

    2016-12-01

    Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting, as they allow for discussion of specialized topics. At the IFPA meeting 2015 there were twelve themed workshops, three of which are summarized in this report. These workshops were related to various aspects of placental biology but collectively covered areas of pregnancy pathologies and placental metabolism: 1) nanomedicine applications and exosome biology; 2) xenobiotics and endocrine disruptors and pregnancy; 3) lipid mediators and placental function.

  5. Biological monitoring of non-thermal effects of mobile phone radiation: recent approaches and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaestel, Matthias

    2010-08-01

    This review describes recent developments in analysing the influence of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs ) on biological systems by monitoring the cellular stress response as well as overall gene expression. Recent data on the initiation and modulation of the classical cellular stress response by RF-EMFs, comprising expression of heat shock proteins and stimulation of stress-activated protein kinases, are summarised and evaluated. Since isothermic RF-EMF exposure is assumed rather than proven there are clear limitations in using the stress response to describe non-thermal effects of RF-EMFs. In particular, further experiments are needed to characterise better the threshold of the thermal heat shock response and the homogeneity of the cellular response in the whole sample for each biological system used. Before then, it is proposed that the absence of the classical stress response can define isothermal experimental conditions and qualifies other biological effects of RF-EMFs detected under these conditions to be of non-thermal origin. To minimise the probability that by making this assumption valuable insights into the nature of biological effects of RF-EMFs could be lost, proteotoxic non-thermal RF-EMF effects should also be monitored by measuring activities of labile intracellular enzymes and/or levels of their metabolites before the threshold for the heat shock response is reached. In addition, non-thermal induction of the stress response via promoter elements distinct from the heat shock element (HSE) should be analysed using HSE-mutated heat shock promoter reporter constructs. Screening for non-thermal RF-EMF effects in the absence of a classical stress response should be performed by transcriptomics and proteomics. Recent approaches demonstrate that due to their high-throughput characteristics, these methods inherently generate false positive results and require statistical evaluation based on quantitative expression analysis from a sufficient

  6. Biological upgrading of coal liquids. Quarterly report, October--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    Culture screening and performance studies were performed with a variety of cultures in removing nitrogen compounds from coal liquid. Two cultures were shown to be effective in removing 17 and 26 percent of the nitrogen in coal liquid as determined by elemental analysis. Experiments will continue in an effort to find additional cultures and isolates able to degrade nitrogen, as well as oxygen and sulfur as heteroatom compounds, from coal liquids. A biological process for upgrading of coal liquids would offer significant advantages, such as operation at ordinary temperature and pressure with better energy efficiency. Of greater importance is the fact that microorganisms do not require an external supply of hydrogen for heteroatom removal, obtaining required hydrogen from water. Furthermore, the biocatalysts are continuously regenerated by growth on the heteroatom compounds. Ring structures are degraded as the heteroatoms are removed. The heteroatoms are in an inocuous form, such as NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. Therefore, there is significant potential for the development of an economical biological process for upgrading of coal liquids.

  7. Reflection Imaging X-Ray Laser Microscope (RIXRALM) and its biological applications. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suckewer, S.

    1998-07-01

    The main stimulus for the development of the proposed microscope (RIXRALM) is the possibility to view the surface and near surface structure of biological materials, such as cell membranes at much higher resolution than an optical (confocal) microscope. Although the prediction resolution of RIXRALM was lower than a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), the possibility to obtain images of cells (membranes) in a more natural, hydrated state and, in many cases, without staining, made the idea of a reflection X-ray microscope very attractive. The specimen can be in an H{sub 2}O saturated He atmosphere at atmospheric pressure. As the image can be obtained quickly (nsec exposure, occurring within seconds of insertion into such an environment), the cell surface can be seen in a state which is very close to its natural condition. Besides, the short exposure time eliminates the effect of motional blurring on the images. Their X-ray reflection microscope fit well in the very large gap in the size of biological objects studied in light microscopy (sub-micron size) and electron microscope (down to a few nanometers size).

  8. Controlling the Biological Effects of Spermine Using a Synthetic Receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vial, Laurent; Ludlow, R. Frederick; Leclaire, Julien; Pérez-Fernández, Ruth; Otto, Sijbren

    2006-01-01

    Polyamines play an important role in biology, yet their exact function in many processes is poorly understood. Artificial host molecules capable of sequestering polyamines could be useful tools for studying their cellular function. However, designing synthetic receptors with affinities sufficient to

  9. Biological and technological effects of some mulberry varieties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    egyptian hak

    Approaches for improving the nutritional wellbeing of humans such as food diversification, supplementation with capsules or syrups, molecular biology and industrial food ... To record growth, yield attributes and yields of corn, five plants were randomly selected ..... FAO (1996) Human vitamin and mineral requirements. No.

  10. Effect of sulphide on enhanced biological phosphorus removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubio Rincon, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    The enhanced biological removal of phosphorus (EBPR) is a popular process due to high removal efficiency, low operational costs, and the possibility of phosphorus recovery. Nevertheless, the stability of the EBPR depends on different factors such as: temperature, pH, and the presence of toxic

  11. Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation. Volume II, Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    produce meat cubes and similar ingredients f or p ies , ready meals , and Alan H. Barrett and Philip C. Meyers of MIT have de— canned products. It can also...area and may cause hormonal and biochemical Cross e , Wisc.) and A. Prieto , Jr. Biologic and Cli~— changes . A series of p i l o t hormonal screening

  12. Emerging from the fog: hypotheses and paradigms in developmental biology--the Society for Developmental Biology 2005 Annual Meeting Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Barolo, Scott; Bilder, David; Montgomery, Mary; Sinha, Neelima

    2006-01-15

    The Society for Developmental Biology 64th annual meeting took place by the beautiful San Francisco Bay from July 27th to August 1st, 2005. Organized under the leadership of Judith Kimble (SDB President, U. Wisconsin-Madison), the meeting attracted over one thousand developmental biologists from all over the world. They gathered to present data, exchange ideas and enjoy basking in the warm sun on the piers. Strong themes emerged from the diverse subjects discussed at the meeting, demonstrating exciting trends towards the unifying goal of understanding the progression from a single cell to an adult organism. Cell and Tissue Polarity was a recurring topic at the meeting. Questions like "is there polarity", "how is it achieved" and "how is it linked to stem cell maintenance" were discussed. Post-transcriptional regulation involving protein degradation and microRNA (miRNA) modulation of gene expression was featured in the context of transition between meiosis to mitosis and asymmetries in the embryo. It is apparent that Evolutionary Developmental Biology, once a major driving influence in the early days of the field, continues to enjoy a renaissance as researchers familiar with traditional model organisms are increasingly attracted to the field and as modern genetic and molecular approaches are applied to an increasingly varied assortment of organisms. The attention is beginning to pay off as laboratories are starting to generate significant results shedding light into how developmental programs are altered to generate morphological diversity. In the Satellite Symposium on Plant Development held on July 27th, 2005, the overriding theme was on the identity and maintenance of Stem Cells in Plants. Finally, researchers working on diverse organisms have shown a strong effort to address Developmental Coordination: on the subcellular, cellular and tissue levels. Advanced imaging techniques are combined with traditional genetic methods to scrutinize and compare dynamic

  13. Report on maloine, a new alkaloid discovered from G. maloi: Structural characterization and biological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çela, Dorisa; Nepravishta, Ridvan; Lazari, Diamanto; Gaziano, Roberta; Moroni, Gabriella; Pica, Francesca; Paci, Maurizio; Abazi, Sokol

    2017-02-01

    Gymnospermium maloi Kit Tan, & Shuka is a new endemic species of the genus Gymnospermium Spach which has been described recently from the southern part of Albania. The members of this genus are poorly studied for what it concern the secondary metabolites in general and the class of alkaloids in particular. In fact from Gymnospermium genus, there are only few alkaloids characterized, (namely albertramine, albertidine, and albertine) isolated from G. albertii. Until now the chemical composition and the structure elucidation of other possible secondary metabolites, especially alkaloids, remain largely unknown. Here we report, for the first time, the structure of a new alkaloid isolated from G. maloi, designated by us as maloine, and obtained by the use of 2D homonuclear and heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy, FTIR, UV, Fluorescence and HPLC/MS spectra. The biological activity of the crude extract of Gymnospermium maloi and of its alkaloid maloine, was evaluated in vitro on human chronic myeloid leukemia cell line K562 and results herewith reported.

  14. K-shell ionization and biological effects; Ionisation en couche K et effet biologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L' Hoir, A.; Herve du Penhoat, M.A.; Champion, C.; Fayard, B.; Touati, A.; Abel, F.; Politis, M.F.; Chetioui, A. [Paris-7 Univ., 75 (France); Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France); Despiney-Bailly, I. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France); Sabatier, L. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Direction des Sciences du Vivant

    1998-04-01

    Initial steps of radiation action mechanism on biological targets are still unknown. The strong correlation observed between inactivation cross sections by heavy ions and K-vacancy production cross sections has drawn the attention on this process. Although quite minor in the energy deposition of these particles, the K-ionization process gives rise to quite efficient ionization clusters. Values of K-ionization biological effectivenesses extracted from measured relative biological efficiencies of ultra soft X-rays support the idea of a major -may be a dominant- contribution of the K-vacancy process to the biological effect of heavy ions. (authors)

  15. Effects of Department of Defense Instruction 5000.02 on Joint Program Executive Office Chemical Biological Defense (JPEO-CBD) Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Table 6 (continued) LRIP Quantity 2015 X X 2008 X Market Research 2015 X X X 2008 X X OTA Report of OT&E Results...JOINT PROGRAM EXECUTIVE OFFICE – CHEMICAL BIOLOGICAL DEFENSE (JPEO-CBD) EFFECTIVENESS September 2016 By: Emily C. Whaley Advisors...Michael Boudreau Kate Ong Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE

  16. Correlation of Biological Characteristics of Smolts with Survival and Travel Time, 1987 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Beeman, John W.; Free, Mary E. (Seattle National Fishery Research Center, Columbia River Field Station, Cook, WA)

    1988-06-01

    The biological characteristics of smolts were examined to determine their effect on estimates of survival in the Columbia and Snake rivers. Freeze branded groups of steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) from Lyons Ferry State Fish Hatchery (SFH) and Wells SFH and spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from Winthrop National Fish Hatchery (NFH) were used to estimate survival. Past estimates of survival, using a ratio of test and control fish recaptured at McNary Dam, have resulted in estimates > 100%, presumably due to some unknown bias. Study objectives were to determine if stress and descaling, degree of smoltification, and prevalence of bacterial kidney disease (BKD) differed among test and control groups of fish, thereby biasing survival estimates. 19 refs., 20 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Biological Effects of Listeriolysin O: Implications for Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Hernández-Flores

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeriolysin O (LLO is a thiol-activated cholesterol-dependent pore-forming toxin and the major virulence factor of Listeria monocytogenes (LM. Extensive research in recent years has revealed that LLO exerts a wide array of biological activities, during the infection by LM or by itself as recombinant antigen. The spectrum of biological activities induced by LLO includes cytotoxicity, apoptosis induction, endoplasmic reticulum stress response, modulation of gene expression, intracellular calcium oscillations, and proinflammatory activity. In addition, LLO is a highly immunogenic toxin and the major target for innate and adaptive immune responses in different animal models and humans. Recently, the crystal structure of LLO has been published in detail. Here, we review the structure-function relationship for this fascinating microbial molecule, highlighting the potential uses of LLO in the fields of biomedicine and biotechnology, particularly in vaccination.

  18. Dehydroepiandrosterone biosynthesis, metabolism, biological effects, and clinical use (analytical review)

    OpenAIRE

    Goncharov, N. P.; G. V. Katsiya

    2015-01-01

    The review presents the fundamental information on the metabolism of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), its biological role and possibilities of its use for replacement therapy. There were studied species differences in the synthesis of DHEA in the adrenal cortex. It was found that DHEA and DHEA-sulfate are produced only by the adrenal glands of humans and monkeys, including lower monkeys. Their biosynthesis involves the following steps: cholesterol → pregnenolone → 17-hydroxypregnenolone → DHEA....

  19. Resurrecting the body: Has portmodernism had any effect on biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, S F

    1995-01-01

    While postmodernism has had very little influence in biology (for reasons discussed in the paper), it can provide a framework for discussing the context in which biology is done. Here, four biological views of the body/self are contrasted: the neural, immunological, genetic, and phenotypic bodies. Each physical view of the body extrapolates into a different model of the body politic, and each posits a different relationship between bodies of knowledge. The neural view of the body models a body politic wherein society is defined by its culture and laws. The genetic view privileges views of polities based on ethnicity and race. The immune body extrapolates into polities that can defend themselves against other such polities. The phenotypic view of the body politic stands in opposition to these three major perspectives and integrates them without giving any predominance. The view of science as a "neural" body of knowledge contends that science is aperspectival and objective. The perspective of the "immune" body is that science exists to defend the interests of its creataors. The genetic view of science is that science is the basis of all culture. The extrapolation of the phenotypic body to science insists upon the utilitarian rationale for scientific interprises. In all instances, the genetic view of the body/body politic/body of science is presently in ascendance.

  20. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S. M.; Christensen, S. W.; Greeley, M.S. jr; McCracken, M.K.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth G. R.; Stewart, A. J.

    2001-01-19

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (formerly the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant). As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Complex on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the

  1. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S. M.; Christensen, S. W.; Greeley, M.S. jr; McCracken, M.K.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth G. R.; Stewart, A. J.

    2001-01-19

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (formerly the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant). As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Complex on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the

  2. International and National Expert Group Evaluations: Biological/Health Effects of Radiofrequency Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalaxmi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The escalated use of various wireless communication devices, which emit non-ionizing radiofrequency (RF fields, have raised concerns among the general public regarding the potential adverse effects on human health. During the last six decades, researchers have used different parameters to investigate the effects of in vitro and in vivo exposures of animals and humans or their cells to RF fields. Data reported in peer-reviewed scientific publications were contradictory: some indicated effects while others did not. International organizations have considered all of these data as well as the observations reported in human epidemiological investigations to set-up the guidelines or standards (based on the quality of published studies and the “weight of scientific evidence” approach for RF exposures in occupationally exposed individuals and the general public. Scientists with relevant expertise in various countries have also considered the published data to provide the required scientific information for policy-makers to develop and disseminate authoritative health information to the general public regarding RF exposures. This paper is a compilation of the conclusions, on the biological effects of RF exposures, from various national and international expert groups, based on their analyses. In general, the expert groups suggested a reduction in exposure levels, precautionary approach, and further research.

  3. Biologic effects of fenbendazole in rats and mice: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, David; Cray, Carolyn; Zaias, Julia; Altman, Norman H

    2007-11-01

    This review summarizes findings from toxicologic, carcinogenic, immunologic, and metabolic studies on fenbendazole (FBZ). Currently, FBZ is used to treat or prevent pinworm outbreaks in laboratory rodents. Because antiparasitic treatments usually are not part of experimental designs, interactions from the medication on the outcomes of ongoing experiments are a concern. At therapeutic levels, FBZ does not alter the total content of cytochromes P450 but does induce certain hepatic cytochrome P450 isoforms, namely 1A1, 1A2, and 2B1. Although expressed constitutively at low or undetectable levels, these isoforms particularly are known for bioactivating a number of procarcinogens. Lifetime studies in rats have shown that FBZ is not a carcinogen but that it may behave as a tumor promoter when given after certain initiators. Unlike in other animal species, FBZ treatment-associated myelosuppression has not been reported to occur in rodents. The few currently available immunologic studies in mice, including an autoimmune model, have not shown effects on selected immune responses. However, data from other animal species suggest that the ability of B and T lymphocytes to proliferate in the secondary immune response may be suppressed during treatment with FBZ.

  4. Bioaccumulation and biological effects of cigarette litter in marine worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephanie L.; Rowe, Darren; Reid, Malcolm J.; Thomas, Kevin V.; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2015-01-01

    Marine debris is a global environmental issue. Smoked cigarette filters are the predominant coastal litter item; 4.5 trillion are littered annually, presenting a source of bioplastic microfibres (cellulose acetate) and harmful toxicants to marine environments. Despite the human health risks associated with smoking, little is known of the hazards cigarette filters present to marine life. Here we studied the impacts of smoked cigarette filter toxicants and microfibres on the polychaete worm Hediste diversicolor (ragworm), a widespread inhabitant of coastal sediments. Ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter toxicants in seawater at concentrations 60 fold lower than those reported for urban run-off exhibited significantly longer burrowing times, >30% weight loss, and >2-fold increase in DNA damage compared to ragworms maintained in control conditions. In contrast, ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter microfibres in marine sediment showed no significant effects. Bioconcentration factors for nicotine were 500 fold higher from seawater than from sediment. Our results illustrate the vulnerability of organisms in the water column to smoking debris and associated toxicants, and highlight the risks posed by smoked cigarette filter debris to aquatic life. PMID:26369692

  5. Optimization of biological phosphorus and ammonia removal in a combined fixed and suspended growth wastewater treatment system: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This project was conducted to optimize design and operational criteria for enhanced biological phosphorus removal and nitrification of ammonia in the fixed growth reactor-suspended growth reactor (FGR-SGR) process. The research completed the investigation of optimum hydraulic retention times for biological phosphorus removal in both the unaerated and aerated phases of the suspended growth components of the FGR-SGR system, including an assessment of the possibility of reducing suspended growth aeration requirements by using oxidized forms of nitrogen rather than dissolved oxygen for biological phosphorus uptake; investigated the effects on biological phosphorus removal and nitrification of varying the internal recycle flow rates; and investigated the optimum solids retention time, or the optimum operating mixed liquor suspended solids concentration, in the suspended growth component of the system for biological phosphorus removal and nitrification-denitrification.

  6. Simulations on the Teaching of Molecular Biology: Experience’s Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.S. Silva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The comprehension of techniques used in Molecular Biology neither always is easy.Therefore, the objective of this work was to apply simulations in Molecular Biology for graduating students of a Pharmacy course froma private educational institution, to allow them to practice the apparent difficult protocols. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three groups of students (50 each were evaluated. Two of them were submitted to different simulatory activities,such as: a visiting the virtual laboratory of Utah University (USA to understand gel electrophoresis and polymerasechain reaction (PCR techniques, b extracting DNA from oral mucosa by means of a homemade protocol, c investigating simulatory paternity tests, d proposing their own microarrays by painting them on paper and then interpreted the results according to the colors, e designing primers (small fragments of DNA to PCR with the free software Primer3 and testing them in silico PCR. The third group of students was only submitted to oral theoretical classes about all these themes. The progress of the understanding was qualitatively evaluated and compared by the analysis of questionnaires. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The groups submitted to the virtual classes were responsive during the development of activities and had a better performance in the examinations than the group that had only theoretical classes, showing better comprehension about the themes. Their greatest difficult was the limitation in the English language to interact with the websites (they often asked about an alternative site in Portuguese. CONCLUSION: The didactical sequence involving exercises in websites by using freeware and recreational activities in classroom with graduating students of Pharmacy proved to be an effective tool in the learning of some of the techniques in Molecular Biology, mainly when a lab and some equipment are not available to perform practical activities

  7. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1993--November 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1994-05-01

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a blend of physics, chemistry and biology and epitomizes the multidisciplinary approach towards understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. To an increasing extent, the focus of attention is on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights from the past year are briefly described.

  8. Biological effects of fucoidan isolated from Fucus vesiculosus on thrombosis and vascular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kyu-Won; Cho, Kil-Sang; Hahn, Ok-Jin; Lee, Kwang-Hyung; Lee, Boo-Yong; Ko, Jung-Jae; Chung, Kwang-Hoe

    2010-03-01

    Fucoidan is a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan, which has a molecular structure similar to that of heparin. The antithrombotic effects of fucoidan in vitro have been widely reported, but its antithrombotic effects in vivo as well as its other biological properties in vitro have not been well investigated. This study investigated the effects and mechanism of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus on thrombosis both in vitro and in vivo. A ferric chloride-induced mouse carotid artery thrombosis model was used to determine the antithrombotic effects of fucoidan in vivo. Additionally, changes in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were examined in vascular cells treated with fucoidan. In vivo studies employing a ferric chloride-induced mouse carotid artery thrombosis model indicated that fucoidan had a stronger antithrombotic activity than heparin. Further, vascular cells treated with fucoidan demonstrated a decrease in proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production as well as inhibition of proliferation. The major findings of this study showed that fucoidan has a stronger antithrombotic effect than heparin in vivo and that fucoidan has an inhibitory effect on proinflammatory cytokine production and proliferation of vascular cells.

  9. Integrated Network Analysis and Effective Tools in Plant Systems Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eFukushima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the ultimate goals in plant systems biology is to elucidate the genotype-phenotype relationship in plant cellular systems. Integrated network analysis that combines omics data with mathematical models has received particular attention. Here we focus on the latest cutting-edge computational advances that facilitate their combination. We highlight (1 network visualization tools, (2 pathway analyses, (3 genome-scale metabolic reconstruction, and (4 the integration of high-throughput experimental data and mathematical models. Multi-omics data that contain the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome and mathematical models are expected to integrate and expand our knowledge of complex plant metabolisms.

  10. Biological influences on hydrogen effects in steel in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edyvean, R.G.J.; Benson, J.; Thomas, C.J. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical and Process Engineering; Beech, I.B. [Univ. of Portsmouth (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Videla, H.A. [Univ. of La Plata (Argentina). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-08-01

    Conditions conducive to the enhancement of corrosion-fatigue crack growth and of hydrogen embrittlement can be generated by the activity of sulfate-reducing bacterial. However, while the presence of bacteria encourages more hydrogen entry into susceptible metals when compared to similar levels of sulfide generated abiotically, corrosion-fatigue crack growth rates are slower in biological environments than the equivalent abiological environment. These results are discussed in the light of recent findings on the enhancement and inhibition of surface corrosion by bacterial biofilms.

  11. Effects of outside air temperature on the preparation of antineoplastic drug solutions in biological safety cabinets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Masayuki; Itoh, Akio; Ando, Yuichi; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Wakiya, Yoshifumi; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

    2015-08-01

    In Japan, biological safety cabinets are commonly used by medical staff to prepare antineoplastic agents. At the Division of Chemotherapy for Outpatients, Nagoya University Hospital, a class II B2 biological safety cabinet is used. The temperature inside this biological safety cabinet decreases in winter. In this study, we investigated the effect of low outside air temperature on the biological safety cabinet temperature, time required to admix antineoplastic agents, and accuracy of epirubicin weight measurement. Studies were conducted from 1 January to 31 March 2008 (winter). The outside air temperature near the biological safety cabinet intake nozzle was compared with the biological safety cabinet temperature. The correlation between the outside air temperature and the biological safety cabinet temperature, time for cyclophosphamide and gemcitabine solubilization, and accuracy of epirubicin weight measurement were investigated at low and high biological safety cabinet temperatures. The biological safety cabinet temperature correlated with the outside air temperature of 5-20℃ (p antineoplastic agents. We suggest that a decrease in biological safety cabinet temperature may increase the time required to admix antineoplastic agents, thereby increasing the time for which outpatients must wait for chemotherapy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Gender Inequality in Biology Classes in China and Its Effects on Students' Short-Term Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Neuhaus, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated gender inequality in biology lessons and analysed the effects of the observed inequality on students' short-term knowledge achievement, situational interest and students' evaluation of teaching (SET). Twenty-two biology teachers and 803 7th-grade students from rural and urban classrooms in China participated in the study.…

  13. A Study of the Probe Effect on the Apparent Image of Biological Atomic Force Microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The probe effect on the apparent image of biological atomic force microscopy was explored in this study, and the potential of AFM in conformational study of gene related biological processes was illustrated by the specific nanostructural information of a new antitumor drug binding to DNA.

  14. Indirect ecological effects in invaded landscapes: Spillover and spillback from biological control agents to native analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control remains an effective option for managing large-scale weed problems in natural areas. The predation or parasitism of biological control agents by other species present in the introduced range (biotic resistance) is well studied and is often cited as the cause for a lack of establis...

  15. Adverse effects of biologics: a network meta-analysis and Cochrane overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, J. A.; Wells, G. A.; Christensen, Robin Daniel Kjersgaard

    2011-01-01

    Background Biologics are used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and many other conditions. While the efficacy of biologics has been established, there is uncertainty regarding the adverse effects of this treatment. Since serious risks such as tuberculosis (TB) reactivation, serious infect...

  16. Biological Effects of TMPRSS2/ERG Fusion Isoforms in Human Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    TITLE: Biological Effects of TMPRSS2/ERG Fusion Isoforms in Human Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jianghua Wang, M.D...6 JAN 2009 / / /4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Biological Effects of TMPRSS2/ERG Fusion Isoforms in Human Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH...quantitative RT-PCR arrays we have identified candidate mediators of these phenotypic effects . We propose to extend these studies to primary prostate epithelial

  17. Electromagnetic effects on the biological tissue surrounding a transcutaneous transformer for an artificial anal sphincter system*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Peng; Yang, Bang-hua; Shao, Yong; Yan, Guo-zheng; Liu, Hua

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the electromagnetic effects on the biological tissue surrounding a transcutaneous transformer for an artificial anal sphincter. The coupling coils and human tissues, including the skin, fat, muscle, liver, and blood, were considered. Specific absorption rate (SAR) and current density were analyzed by a finite-length solenoid model. First, SAR and current density as a function of frequency (10–107 Hz) for an emission current of 1.5 A were calculated under different tissue thickness. Then relations between SAR, current density, and five types of tissues under each frequency were deduced. As a result, both the SAR and current density were below the basic restrictions of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The results show that the analysis of these data is very important for developing the artificial anal sphincter system. PMID:21121071

  18. Biological actions and molecular effects of resveratrol, pterostilbene, and 3′-hydroxypterostilbene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Yun Tsai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stilbenes are a class of polyphenolic compounds, naturally found in a wide variety of dietary sources such as grapes, berries, peanuts, red wine, and some medicinal plants. There are several well-known stilbenes including trans-resveratrol, pterostilbene, and 3′-hydroxypterostilbene. The core chemical structure of stilbene compounds is 1,2-diphenylethylene. Recently, stilbenes have attracted extensive attention and interest due to their wide range of health-beneficial effects such as anti-inflammation, -carcinogenic, -diabetes, and -dyslipidemia activities. Moreover, accumulating in vitro and in vivo studies have reported that stilbene compounds act as inducers of multiple cell-death pathways such as apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and autophagy for chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents in several types of cancer cells. The aim of this review is to highlight recent molecular findings and biological actions of trans-resveratrol, pterostilbene, and 3′-hydroxypterostilbene.

  19. Effect of cobalt supplementation and fractionation on the biological response in the biomethanization of Olive Mill Solid Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Ibieta, F; Serrano, A; Jeison, D; Borja, R; Fermoso, F G

    2016-07-01

    Due to the low trace metals concentration in the Olive Mill Solid Waste (OMSW), a proposed strategy to improve its biomethanization is the supplementation of key metals to enhance the microorganism activity. Among essential trace metals, cobalt has been reported to have a crucial role in anaerobic degradation. This study evaluates the effect of cobalt supplementation to OMSW, focusing on the connection between fractionation of cobalt in the system and the biological response. The highest biological responses was found in a range from 0.018 to 0.035mg/L of dissolved cobalt (0.24-0.65mg total cobalt/L), reaching improvements up to 23% and 30% in the methane production rate and the methane yield coefficient, respectively. It was found that the dissolved cobalt fraction is more accurately related with the biological response than the total cobalt. The total cobalt is distorted by the contribution of dissolved and non-dissolved inert fractions.

  20. Biological determinants of photobioreactor design. Final report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palsson, B.; Brown, G.G.

    1997-04-01

    Microalgae is being considered for the capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from power-plant flue-gases. High productivity of microalgae is necessary to make this process cost effective compared to the conventional methods used for reducing CO{sub 2} levels in the atmosphere. This obviates the need for large-scale cultivation technologies and proper photobioreactor technology. The physical factors that influence the performance of a photoautotrophic microalgal culture are the quality and composition of light, inlet carbon dioxide concentration, nutrients, and secondary metabolites at high cell densities. In developing photobioreactor technology, balancing of biological processes to the physical rate process becomes important. The effect of various light compositions on the culture kinetics was studied. To determine the optimal composition, six wavelengths 470, 555, 560, 570, 580 and 605 nm, each supplemented with 680 nm of red light, were used to cultivate cultures. Based on the results obtained, it is concluded that a monochromatic red light of 680 nm is sufficient to obtain maximum capacity.

  1. The Effects of Using Concept Mapping for Improving Advanced Level Biology Students' Lower- and Higher-Order Cognitive Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports on teachers' use of concept mapping as an alternative assessment strategy in advanced level biology classes and its effects on students' cognitive skills on selected biology concepts. Using a mixed methods approach, the study employed a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design involving 156 students and 8 teachers from intact classes. A researcher-constructed Biology Cognitive Skills Test was used to collect the quantitative data. Qualitative data were collected through interviews and students' personal documents. The data showed that the participants utilized concept mapping in various ways and they described positive experiences while being engaged in its use. The main challenge cited by teachers was the limited time available for more consistent use. The results showed that the use of concept mapping in advanced level biology can lead to learning gains that exceed those achieved in classes where mainly traditional methods are used. The students in the concept mapping experimental groups performed significantly better than their peers in the control group on both the lower-order (F(1) = 21.508; p < .001) and higher-order (F(1) = 42.842, p < .001) cognitive items of the biology test. A mean effect size of .56 was calculated representing the contribution of treatment to the students' performance on the test items.

  2. Radiation effects analysis in a group of interventional radiologists using biological and physical dosimetry methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, M., E-mail: WEMLmirapas@iqn.upv.e [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Montoro, A.; Almonacid, M. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain); Ferrer, S. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Barquinero, J.F. [Biological Dosimetry Service, Unit of Anthropology, Department of Animal and Vegetable Biology and Ecology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) (Spain); Tortosa, R. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain); Verdu, G. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Rodriguez, P. [Biological Dosimetry Service, Unit of Anthropology, Department of Animal and Vegetable Biology and Ecology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) (Spain); Barrios, L.L. [Department of Physiology and Cellular Biology, Unit of Cellular Biology (UAB) (Spain); Villaescusa, J.I. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    Interventional radiologists and staff members are frequently exposed to protracted and fractionated low doses of ionizing radiation, which extend during all their professional activities. These exposures can derive, due to the effects of direct and scattered radiation, in deterministic effects (radiodermitis, aged skin, cataracts, telangiectasia in nasal region, vasocellular epitelioms, hands depilation) and/or stochastic ones (cancer incidence). A methodology has been proposed for estimating the radiation risk or detriment from a group of six exposed interventional radiologists of the Hospital Universitario La Fe (Valencia, Spain), which had developed general exposition symptoms attributable to deterministic effects of ionizing radiation. Equivalent doses have been periodically registered using TLD's and wrist dosimeters, H{sub p}(10) and H{sub p}(0.07), respectively, and estimated through the observation of translocations in lymphocytes of peripheral blood (biological methods), by extrapolating the yield of translocations to their respective dose-effect curves. The software RADRISK has been applied for estimating radiation risks in these occupational radiation exposures. This software is based on transport models from epidemiological studies of population exposed to external sources of ionizing radiation, such as Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors [UNSCEAR, Sources and effects of ionizing radiation: 2006 report to the general assembly, with scientific annexes. New York: United Nations; 2006]. The minimum and maximum average excess ratio for skin cancer has been, using wrist physical doses, of [1.03x10{sup -3}, 5.06x10{sup -2}], concluding that there is not an increased risk of skin cancer incidence. The minimum and maximum average excess ratio for leukemia has been, using TLD physical doses, of [7.84x10{sup -2}, 3.36x10{sup -1}], and using biological doses, of [1.40x10{sup -1}, 1.51], which is considerably higher than incidence rates, showing an

  3. BIOLOGICAL AND HEALTH EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD FROM MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao TAKI

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile communication devices are sources of radiofrequency (RF electromagnetic field (EMF that are common in daily life and can cause strong exposure to the head. Possible adverse health effects, especially on brain functions, have been of great concern among the general public since the explosive penetration of this technology began in the 1990's. The exposure complies with current safety guidelines. The established knowledge of biological effects of RF does not provide any evidence for anecdotally reported effects such as memory loss or causing brain tumors. However, there is no way to prove the absolute absence of such effects. The enormous efforts have been made to search for such unknown effects and ascertain the safety of this technology. Recent research on the possible effects of RF-EMF on the brain is briefly summarized here to show what is known and what remains unknown. The evidence reported so far indicates few effects that could possibly damage human health seriously. Only slight changes in physiological function in the brain may exist, but variation of the data is too great to believe that the exposure actually has the potential to affect function. The health risk, if any, at an individual level, would be very low in consideration of the available evidence. However, if mobile phone fields were actually hazardous, the very large number of mobile phone users could mean that, even if the individual risk were very low, the impact on public health could be considerable. This is the most important reason why so many efforts are being made in this issue.

  4. Report from the 2nd Summer School in Computational Biology organized by the Queen's University of Belfast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Emmert-Streib

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a meeting report for the 2nd Summer School in Computational Biology organized by the Queen's University of Belfast. We describe the organization of the summer school, its underlying concept and student feedback we received after the completion of the summer school.

  5. IFPA meeting 2015 workshop report III : nanomedicine applications and exosome biology, xenobiotics and endocrine disruptors and pregnancy, and lipid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, C.; Caniggia, I.; Clifton, V.; Göhner, C; Harris, L.; Hemmings, D.; Jawerbaum, A.; Johnstone, E.; Jones, H.; Keelan, J.; Lewis, R.; Mitchell, M.; Murthi, P.; Powell, T.; Saffery, R.; Smith, R.; Vaillancourt, C.; Wadsack, C.; Salomon, C.

    2016-01-01

    Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting, as they allow for discussion of specialized topics. At the IFPA meeting 2015 there were twelve themed workshops, three of which are summarized in this report. These workshops were related to various aspects of placental biology but collecti

  6. EULAR points to consider when establishing, analysing and reporting safety data of biologics registers in rheumatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixon, William G; Carmona, Loreto; Finckh, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of biological therapies for the treatment of rheumatic diseases has drawn attention to the limitations of traditional means of assessing drug safety. Consequently, a series of European academic biologics registers dedicated to this task have been established. Increasing reliance ...

  7. Metropolitan Programs in Applied Biological and Agricultural Occupations; A Need and Attitude Study. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Hollie B.; And Others

    To establish the feasibility of implementing applied biological and agricultural occupations programs in the metropolitan area of Chicago, four populations were surveyed by means of mailed questionnaires or interest inventories to determine: (1) the employment opportunities in the applied biological and agricultural industries, (2) the interests…

  8. 2012 Gordon Research Conference on Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology, Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, Judith [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2012-06-22

    The Gordon Research Conference on Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology was held at Holderness School, Holderness New Hampshire, June 17 - 22, 2012. The 2012 Gordon Conference on Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology (CMFB) will present the latest, cutting-edge research on the exciting and growing field of molecular and cellular aspects of fungal biology. Topics will range from yeast to filamentous fungi, from model systems to economically important organisms, and from saprophytes and commensals to pathogens of plants and animals. The CMFB conference will feature a wide range of topics including systems biology, cell biology and morphogenesis, organismal interactions, genome organisation and regulation, pathogenesis, energy metabolism, biomass production and population genomics. The Conference was well-attended with 136 participants. Gordon Research Conferences does not permit publication of meeting proceedings.

  9. Effects of Magnetic Field on Biological Cells and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Jen

    2001-03-01

    While there has been extensive research performed in the physics of magnetic fields and the physics and chemistry in life sciences, independent of each other, there has been a paucity of scientific research and development investigating the possible applications of magnetic fields in life sciences. The focus of this presentation is to present the stimulation mechanism by which magnetic fields affect (a) yeast cells (b) plant cells and (c) mammalian normal and cancer cells. Recently we have found that the Saccharomyces Cerevsa yeast growth increases by about 30to a 1 tesla field and the production of CO2 increases by about 30of yeast metabolism may be due to an increase in intercellular interaction and protein channel alignment, the introduction of an alteration in the DNA from the magnetic field exposure or a combination of these mechanisms. We also have found that the application of high magnetic fields (1 tesla and above) can have marked effects on the germination and growth of plants, especially corn, beans and peas. This finding has opened up the possibility of technology developments in botanical growth systems to accelerate seed germination and crop harvesting. Most recently we have investigated the application of high magnetic fields on leukemia, CaCoII and HEP G2 cancer cell lines. We found that when leukemia are exposed to a 12 tesla field for 2 hours has an increase in cell death by about 30that were not exposed to the magnetic field. Viability of CaCoII cells sandwiched between permanent magnets of maximum strength of 1.2 tesla was measured. A decrease in viable cells by 33unexposed cells. HSP 70 was measured for HEPG2 cells that were exposed to permanent magnetic field of 1.2 tesla for 40 minutes and for unexposed cells. It was found that the exposed cells produce 19 times more HSP70 compared to unexposed cells. Our results together with other investigators report suggest a strong evidence of a reduction in the cell growth rate for cancer cells when

  10. Successful adalimumab treatment of a psoriasis vulgaris patient with hemodialysis for renal failure: A case report and a review of the previous reports on biologic treatments for psoriasis patients with hemodialysis for renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusakari, Yoshiyuki; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Takahashi, Toshiya; Tsuchiyama, Kenichiro; Shimada-Omori, Ryoko; Nasu-Tamabuchi, Mei; Aiba, Setsuya

    2015-07-01

    The efficacy and safety of biologic treatments have been established in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis, but there are few reports on biologic therapy for patients with psoriasis complicated by end-stage renal failure on hemodialysis (HD). In this report, we demonstrated the efficacy and safety of adalimumab for patients with severe psoriasis on HD. A 46-year-old Japanese man with a 14-year history of psoriasis was referred to our clinic in September 2009. He had developed hypertension and renal failure during a 7-year history of cyclosporin treatment. With the infliximab treatment, he achieved 75% improvement of the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score within 3 months from the PASI of 42.3 before the treatment. However, his renal failure gradually deteriorated, and HD was initiated at 1 year after the introduction of infliximab. Because of hydration during the i.v. injection of infliximab, he developed pulmonary edema with every infliximab treatment after starting HD. We switched to ustekinumab treatment, but his psoriasis was not improved. Then, we switched to adalimumab and achieved a PASI-100 response within 2 months. The patient received adalimumab treatment for more than a year without any adverse effects. In addition to our case, five articles reported cases of psoriasis patients with renal failure on HD who were treated with biologics. The psoriatic lesions were improved by biologics in these cases, and no severe adverse effects on the renal function were reported. Thus, biologics are a reasonable treatment option for patients with severe psoriasis with renal failure on HD.

  11. Biological effects of an impulse current according to laboratory researches of electroshock devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoryev О.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The federal law "About Weapons" permits the use of electroshock devices if they are safe for people. We developed requirements for the procedure medical-biological testing on the safety of electroshock devices. We did an experimental study assessing medical-biological safety of electroshock devices. The assessment is based on a point system, which use ranges of biological effects. The experiments were performed in rabbits. We used 13 electroshock devices with different characteristics. Electroshock devices were made in Russia. We found that the response of a biological object to inrush current included convulsions, respiratory and cardiac activity. We analyzed the biological effects of pulsed current electroshock device obtained in experimental conditions. It is concluded that the characteristic clinical and physiological response to the action of electric current is pulsepolyparametric and depending on a combination of characteristics and condition of the electric impulse influence object.

  12. Biological methanogenesis and the CO2 greenhouse effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, P. D.

    1986-01-01

    It is well established that plants tend to increase net photosynthesis under increased carbon dioxide. It is also well established that a large fraction of atmospheric methane is produced by microbial metabolism of organic sediments in paddies and freshwater wetlands, where a major source of organic debris is local plant growth. As CO2 increases, it may lead to increased methane production and a resulting enhancement of the expected greenhouse warming. A rough estimate of the present rate of this biologically mediated feedback on the climate system indicates that it might account for as much as 30 percent of the observed methane increase and speed up the greenhouse forcing by as much as 15 percent.

  13. Effects of Oxidative Stress on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells present in most fetal and adult tissues. Ex vivo culture-expanded MSCs are being investigated for tissue repair and immune modulation, but their full clinical potential is far from realization. Here we review the role of oxidative stress in MSC biology, as their longevity and functions are affected by oxidative stress. In general, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibit MSC proliferation, increase senescence, enhance adipogenic but reduce osteogenic differentiation, and inhibit MSC immunomodulation. Furthermore, aging, senescence, and oxidative stress reduce their ex vivo expansion, which is critical for their clinical applications. Modulation of sirtuin expression and activity may represent a method to reduce oxidative stress in MSCs. These findings have important implications in the clinical utility of MSCs for degenerative and immunological based conditions. Further study of oxidative stress in MSCs is imperative in order to enhance MSC ex vivo expansion and in vivo engraftment, function, and longevity. PMID:27413419

  14. Dehydroepiandrosterone biosynthesis, metabolism, biological effects, and clinical use (analytical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Goncharov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The review presents the fundamental information on the metabolism of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, its biological role and possibilities of its use for replacement therapy. There were studied species differences in the synthesis of DHEA in the adrenal cortex. It was found that DHEA and DHEA-sulfate are produced only by the adrenal glands of humans and monkeys, including lower monkeys. Their biosynthesis involves the following steps: cholesterol → pregnenolone → 17-hydroxypregnenolone → DHEA. The adrenal glands of other species, including rats and mice do not synthesize DHEA. At the same time, in certain brain structures not only in man and monkey, but also in other animals DHEA and its precursors are synthesized de novo which are denoted as neurosteroids. It was demonstrated that Purkinje cells which play an important role in memory formation and learning are mainly place neurosteroid formation in mammals and other vertebrates. To establish the relationship of age and the level of DHEA and other steroids we studied the dynamics of their levels at different periods of postnatal development of people. Peak concentration DHEA observed in aged 25–30 years. In the interval from 20 to 90 years in humans the level falls approximately for 90 %. Cortisol levels in blood does not vary with age, leading to an imbalance in the ratio of cortisol/DHEA. Proved a major role of DHEA as a source (precursor for the synthesis of biologically active sex steroids – testosterone, estradiol and estrone in peripheral tissues. This review presents the bioavailability of DHEA in various physiological and pathological processes in humans and animals. In animal experiments has shown a higher bioavailability of DHEA in transdermal administration as compared with oral administration as in this case there is no steroid rapid inactivation in the liver during its first passage. According to recent studies there is a pronounced dependence of bioavailability of DHEA

  15. Dehydroepiandrosterone biosynthesis, metabolism, biological effects, and clinical use (analytical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Goncharov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The review presents the fundamental information on the metabolism of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, its biological role and possibilities of its use for replacement therapy. There were studied species differences in the synthesis of DHEA in the adrenal cortex. It was found that DHEA and DHEA-sulfate are produced only by the adrenal glands of humans and monkeys, including lower monkeys. Their biosynthesis involves the following steps: cholesterol → pregnenolone → 17-hydroxypregnenolone → DHEA. The adrenal glands of other species, including rats and mice do not synthesize DHEA. At the same time, in certain brain structures not only in man and monkey, but also in other animals DHEA and its precursors are synthesized de novo which are denoted as neurosteroids. It was demonstrated that Purkinje cells which play an important role in memory formation and learning are mainly place neurosteroid formation in mammals and other vertebrates. To establish the relationship of age and the level of DHEA and other steroids we studied the dynamics of their levels at different periods of postnatal development of people. Peak concentration DHEA observed in aged 25–30 years. In the interval from 20 to 90 years in humans the level falls approximately for 90 %. Cortisol levels in blood does not vary with age, leading to an imbalance in the ratio of cortisol/DHEA. Proved a major role of DHEA as a source (precursor for the synthesis of biologically active sex steroids – testosterone, estradiol and estrone in peripheral tissues. This review presents the bioavailability of DHEA in various physiological and pathological processes in humans and animals. In animal experiments has shown a higher bioavailability of DHEA in transdermal administration as compared with oral administration as in this case there is no steroid rapid inactivation in the liver during its first passage. According to recent studies there is a pronounced dependence of bioavailability of DHEA

  16. Biological Effects of Laser Radiation. Volume I. Review of the Literature on Biological Effects of Laser Radiation-to 1965.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-17

    Microbeam 51 7. Embryology 82 8. Studies on Normal Animals 91 9. Tumor Studies 159 10. Clinical Studies 188 11. Ophthalmology 232 12. Dental Studies 263...o f e:xnosures 7wacs cad st. Cn3 side of the lesion was Mnainted w-ith 1 7=ns blue. I-oia=io wsCarried out in a fch.eck-er- boar-d ditiuinZt 1...ocular structures. Abstr. - Biological sessions - Boston laser conference, Northeastern University, Boston, Mass. Aug 5-7, 1964. 53. Polyak , S.L.: The

  17. A biological/chemical process for reduced waste and energy consumption: caprolactam production. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    A biological/chemical process for converting cyclohexane into caprolactam was investigated: microorganisms in a bioreactor would be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone followed by chemical synthesis of caprolactam using ammonia. Four microorganisms were isolated from natural soil and water, that can utilize cyclohexane as a sole source of C and energy for growth. They were shown to have the correct metabolic intermediates and enzymes to convert cyclohexane into cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, and caprolactone. Genetic techniques to create and select for caprolactone hydrolase negative-mutants were developed; those are used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone but, because of the block, are unable to metabolize the caprolactone further. Because of a new nylon carpet reycle process and the long time frame for a totally new bioprocess, a limited study was done to evaluate whether a simplified bioprocess to convert cyclohexanol into cyclohexanone or caprolactone was feasible; growth rates and key enzyme levels were measured in a collection of microorganisms that metabolize cyclohexanol to determine if the bioactivity is high enough to support an economical cyclohexanol bioprocess. Although these microorganisms had sufficient bioactivity, they could tolerate only low levels (<1%) of cyclohexanol and thus are not suitable for developing a cost effective bioprocess because of the high cost of dilute product recovery.

  18. Risk of serious adverse effects of biological and targeted drugs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Simon; Eric Furst, Daniel; Boers, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine possible differences in serious adverse effects among the 10 currently approved biological and targeted synthetic DMARDs (b/ts-DMARDs) for RA. METHODS: Systematic review in bibliographic databases, trial registries and websites of regulatory agencies identified randomized...

  19. Sequestration of mitochondrial iron by silica particles initiates a biological effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary Inhalation of particulate matter has presented a challenge to human health for thousands of years. The underlying mechanism for biological effect following particle exposure is incompletely understood. We tested the postulate that particle sequestration of cell and mit...

  20. Effects of cage fish culture on water quality and selected biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of cage fish culture on water quality and selected biological ... varied spatially and temporally but were generally within safe ranges for freshwater habitats. ... and depressed zooplankton diversity at WC suggested impacts from the fish ...

  1. Professional development strategies for teaching urban biology teachers to use concept maps effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor Petgrave, Dahlia M.

    Many teachers are not adequately prepared to help urban students who have trouble understanding conceptual ideas in biology because these students have little connection to the natural world. This study explored potential professional development strategies to help urban biology teachers use concept maps effectively with various topics in the biology curriculum. A grounded theory approach was used to develop a substantive professional development model for urban biology teachers. Qualitative data were collected through 16 semi-structured interviews of professional developers experienced in working with concept maps in the urban context. An anonymous online survey was used to collect quantitative data from 56 professional developers and teachers to support the qualitative data. The participants were from New York City, recruited through the NY Biology-Chemistry Professional Development Mentor Network and the NY Biology Teachers' Association. According to the participants, map construction, classroom applications, lesson planning, action research, follow-up workshops, and the creation of learning communities are the most effective professional development strategies. The interviewees also proposed English language learning strategies such as picture maps, native word maps, and content reading materials with underlined words. This study contributes to social change by providing a professional development model to use in planning workshops for urban teachers. Urban teachers improve their own conceptual understanding of biology while learning how to implement concept mapping strategies in the classroom. Students whose teachers are better prepared to teach biology in a conceptual manner have the potential of growing into more scientifically literate citizens.

  2. Biologic plausibility, cellular effects, and molecular mechanisms of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borow, Kenneth M; Nelson, John R; Mason, R Preston

    2015-09-01

    Residual cardiovascular (CV) risk remains in dyslipidemic patients despite intensive statin therapy, underscoring the need for additional intervention. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is incorporated into membrane phospholipids and atherosclerotic plaques and exerts beneficial effects on the pathophysiologic cascade from onset of plaque formation through rupture. Specific salutary actions have been reported relating to endothelial function, oxidative stress, foam cell formation, inflammation, plaque formation/progression, platelet aggregation, thrombus formation, and plaque rupture. EPA also improves atherogenic dyslipidemia characterized by reduction of triglycerides without raising low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Other beneficial effects of EPA include vasodilation, resulting in blood pressure reductions, as well as improved membrane fluidity. EPA's effects are at least additive to those of statins when given as adjunctive therapy. In this review, we present data supporting the biologic plausibility of EPA as an anti-atherosclerotic agent with potential clinical benefit for prevention of CV events, as well as its cellular effects and molecular mechanisms of action. REDUCE-IT is an ongoing, randomized, controlled study evaluating whether the high-purity ethyl ester of EPA (icosapent ethyl) at 4 g/day combined with statin therapy is superior to statin therapy alone for reducing CV events in high-risk patients with mixed dyslipidemia. The results from this study are expected to clarify the role of EPA as adjunctive therapy to a statin for reduction of residual CV risk.

  3. Conference Report: ESF-COST High-Level Research Conference Natural Products Chemistry, Biology and Medicine III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catino, Arthur

    2010-12-01

    Natural Products Chemistry, Biology and Medicine III was the third conference in a series of events sponsored by the European Science Foundation (ESF) and the European Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST). Scientists came together from within and outside the EU to present cutting-edge developments in chemical synthesis. Research areas included the synthesis of natural products, methods development, isolation/structural elucidation and chemical biology. As our capacity to produce new chemotherapeutic agents relies on chemical synthesis, this year's conference has never been so timely. This report highlights several of the scientific contributions presented during the meeting.

  4. Effectiveness and biological compatibility of different generations of dentin adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, João M F; Rodrigues, José R; Camargo, Carlos H R; Fernandes, Virgilio Vilas Boas; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Schweikl, Helmut; Schmalz, Gottfried

    2014-01-01

    Besides possessing good mechanical properties, dental materials should present a good biological behavior and should not injure the involved tissues. Bond strength and biocompatibility are both highly significant properties of dentin adhesives. For that matter, these properties of four generations of adhesive systems (Multi-Purpose/Single Bond/SE Plus/Easy Bond) were evaluated. Eighty bovine teeth had their dentin exposed (500- and 200-μm thickness). Adhesive was applied on the dentin layer of each specimen. Following that, the microshearing test was performed for all samples. A dentin barrier test was used for the cytotoxicity evaluation. Cell cultures (SV3NeoB) were collected from testing materials by means of 200- or 500-μm-thick dentin slices and placed in a cell culture perfusion chamber. Cell viability was measured 24 h post-exposition by means of a photometrical test (MTT test). The best bonding performance was shown by the single-step adhesive Easy Bond (21 MPa, 200 μm; 27 MPa, 500 μm) followed by Single Bond (15.6 MPa, 200 μm; 23.4 MPa, 500 μm), SE Plus (18.2 MPa, 200 μm; 20 MPa, 500 μm), and Multi-Purpose (15.2 MPa, 200 μm; 17.9 MPa, 500 μm). Regarding the cytotoxicity, Multi-Purpose slightly reduced the cell viability to 92% (200 μm)/93% (500 μm). Single Bond was reasonably cytotoxic, reducing cell viability to 71% (200 μm)/64% (500 μm). The self-etching adhesive Scotchbond SE decreased cell viability to 85% (200 μm)/71% (500 μm). Conversely, Easy Bond did not reduce cell viability in this test, regardless of the dentin thickness. Results showed that the one-step system had the best bond strength performance and was the least toxic to pulp cells. In multiple-step systems, a correct bonding technique must be done, and a pulp capping strategy is necessary for achieving good performance in both properties. The study showed a promising system (one-step self-etching), referring to it as a good alternative for specific cases, mainly due to its

  5. The role of biological rates in the simulated warming effect on oceanic CO2 uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Long; Zhang, Han

    2017-05-01

    Marine biology plays an important role in the ocean carbon cycle. However, the effect of warming-induced changes in biological rates on oceanic CO2 uptake has been largely overlooked. We use an Earth system model of intermediate complexity to investigate the effect of temperature-induced changes in biological rates on oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO2 and compare it with the effects from warming-induced changes in CO2 solubility and ocean mixing and circulation. Under the representative CO2 concentration pathway RCP 8.5 and its extension, by year 2500, relative to the simulation without warming effect on the ocean carbon cycle, CO2-induced warming reduces cumulative oceanic CO2 uptake by 469 Pg C, of which about 20% is associated with the warming-induced change in marine biological rates. In our simulations, the bulk effect of biological-mediated changes on CO2 uptake is smaller than that mediated by changes in CO2 solubility and ocean mixing and circulation. However, warming-induced changes in individual biological rates, including phytoplankton growth, phytoplankton mortality, and detritus remineralization, are found to affect oceanic CO2 uptake by an amount greater than or comparable to that caused by changes in CO2 solubility and ocean physics. Our simulations, which include only a few temperature-dependent biological processes, demonstrate the important role of biological rates in the oceanic CO2 uptake. In reality, many more complicated biological processes are sensitive to temperature change, and their responses to warming could substantially affect oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO2.

  6. Bioaccumulation and biological effects in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to natural and depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovanetti, Anna, E-mail: anna.giovanetti@enea.i [ENEA, Institute of Radiation Protection, CR Casaccia Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Fesenko, Sergey [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Cozzella, Maria L. [ENEA, National Institute for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation, CR Casaccia Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Asencio, Lisbet D. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales, Carretera a Castillo de Jagua, CP. 59350 C. Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba); Sansone, Umberto [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2010-06-15

    The accumulations of both natural (U) and depleted (DU) uranium in the earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were studied to evaluate corresponding biological effects. Concentrations of metals in the experimental soil ranged from 1.86 to 600 mg kg{sup -1}. Five biological endpoints: mortality, animals' weight increasing, lysosomal membrane stability by measuring the neutral red retention time (the NRRT), histological changes and genetic effects (Comet assay) were used to evaluate biological effects in the earthworms after 7 and 28 days of exposure. No effects have been observed in terms of mortality or weight reduction. Cytotoxic and genetic effects were identified at quite low U concentrations. For some of these endpoints, in particular for genetic effects, the dose (U concentration)-effect relationships have been found to be non-linear. The results have also shown a statistically significant higher level of impact on the earthworms exposed to natural U compared to depleted U.

  7. Clinostats and centrifuges: Their use, value, and limitations in gravitational biological research; Symposium, Washington, Oct. 19, 1991, Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Thora W. (Editor); Todd, Paul (Editor); Powers, Janet V. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present volume addresses physical phenomena and effects associated with clinostat and centrifuge operations as well as their physiological effects. Particular attention is given to the simulation of the gravity conditions on the ground, the internal dynamics of slowly rotating biological systems, and qualitative and quantitative aspects of the fast-rotating clinostat as a research tool. Also discussed are the development and use of centrifuges in gravitational biology, the use of centrifuges in plant gravitational biology and a comparison of ground-based and flight experiment results, the ability of clinostat to mimic the effect of microgravity on plant cells and organs, and the impact of altered gravity conditions on early EGF-induced signal transduction in human epidermal A431 cells.

  8. A cost-effective self-sensing biosensor for detection of biological species at ultralow concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faegh, Samira; Jalili, Nader; Yavuzcetin, Ozgur; Nagesha, Dattatri; Kumar, Rajiv; Sridhar, Srinivas

    2013-06-01

    Detection of ultrasmall masses and identification of biological molecules have been made possible as a result of advances in nanotechnology. Development of biosensing tools has significantly contributed to high-throughput diagnosis and analytical sensing exploiting high affinity of biomolecules. MicroCantilever (MC)-based detection has emerged as a promising biosensing tool for offering label-free and cost-effective sensing capabilities. One of the main criteria determining the success of each biosensor is the capability of the sensing platform to operate in aqueous media. Although being characterized with high sensitivity and simplicity, MCs do not provide an effective tool for measurement of marker proteins in liquid media due to large hydrodynamic damping and losses in the surrounding liquid. In this study, we describe two approaches to high sensitivity biomolecular detection using piezoelectric microcantilevers. (i) Immobilized Mass Detection in Air using electro-mechanical resonance: a unique self-sensing measurement technique is reported utilizing a self-sensing circuit consisting of a piezoelectric MC to address the mentioned limitation. The capability of the self-sensing measurement technique was first verified by detecting ultrasmall biological masses immobilized over the surface of MC by monitoring the shift in fundamental mechanical resonance frequency of the system in air and comparing it with optical-based measurement. This was further utilized for calibration of mass detection in liquid media. (ii) Immobilized Mass Detection in Liquid using the electrical self-sensing circuit's resonance: Once the capability to detect adsorbed mass was verified, the self-sensing platform was implemented to detect different concentrations of target molecule (glucose in this study) in liquid media by adopting the highly sensitive resonance frequency of the whole circuit instead of the mechanical response of MC. Molecular binding occurring over the surface of MC changes

  9. North Mississippi Refuges Complex Biological Program 'Pulse-Check' Review - DRAFT REPORT

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Biological review for the three refuges of the North Mississippi Refuges Complex is presented. Review is based on an assessment of addressing goals and objectives...

  10. Soil degradation effect on biological activity in Mediterranean calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Pérez, L.; Alcover-Sáez, S.; Mormeneo, S.; Boluda, R.

    2009-04-01

    Soil degradation processes include erosion, organic matter decline, compaction, salinization, landslides, contamination, sealing and biodiversity decline. In the Mediterranean region the climatological and lithological conditions, together with relief on the landscape and anthropological activity are responsible for increasing desertification process. It is therefore considered to be extreme importance to be able to measure soil degradation quantitatively. We studied soil characteristics, microbiological and biochemical parameters in different calcareous soil sequences from Valencia Community (Easter Spain), in an attempt to assess the suitability of the parameters measured to reflect the state of soil degradation and the possibility of using the parameters to assess microbiological decline and soil quality. For this purpose, forest, scrubland and agricultural soil in three soil sequences were sampled in different areas. Several sensors of the soil biochemistry and microbiology related with total organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, soil respiration, microorganism number and enzyme activities were determined. The results show that, except microorganism number, these parameters are good indicators of a soil biological activity and soil quality. The best enzymatic activities to use like indicators were phosphatases, esterases, amino-peptidases. Thus, the enzymes test can be used as indicators of soil degradation when this degradation is related with organic matter losses. There was a statistically significant difference in cumulative O2 uptake and extracellular enzymes among the soils with different degree of degradation. We would like to thank Spanish government-MICINN for funding and support (MICINN, project CGL2006-09776).

  11. Trident Biological Surveys: Naval Submarine Base Bangor, Washington (1979, 1980 & 1981) Summary Report. Supplement 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-15

    Relationships in the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) to Detect Heavy Metal Pollution, Water Research, vol 7, p 451 -460, 1973 43Jenkins, DW...Metal Pollution, Water Research, vol 7, p 451 -460, 1973. 86 43. Jenkins, DW, Biological Monitoring of Toxic Trace Metals: Biological Monitoring and...when water temperatures are favorably warm (usually about 67 degrees Farenheit ). For normal growth of oyster larvae during the fast several weeks of

  12. Current status and recommendations for the future of research, teaching, and testing in the biological sciences of radiation oncology: report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Paul E; Anscher, Mitchell S; Barker, Christopher A; Bassetti, Michael; Bristow, Robert G; Cha, Yong I; Dicker, Adam P; Formenti, Silvia C; Graves, Edward E; Hahn, Stephen M; Hei, Tom K; Kimmelman, Alec C; Kirsch, David G; Kozak, Kevin R; Lawrence, Theodore S; Marples, Brian; McBride, William H; Mikkelsen, Ross B; Park, Catherine C; Weidhaas, Joanne B; Zietman, Anthony L; Steinberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report.

  13. Current Status and Recommendations for the Future of Research, Teaching, and Testing in the Biological Sciences of Radiation Oncology: Report of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force, Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, Paul E., E-mail: pwallner@theabr.org [21st Century Oncology, LLC, and the American Board of Radiology, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Anscher, Mitchell S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia (United States); Barker, Christopher A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bassetti, Michael [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bristow, Robert G. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Biophysics, Princess Margaret Cancer Center/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Cha, Yong I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Norton Cancer Center, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Formenti, Silvia C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University, New York, New York (United States); Graves, Edward E. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania (United States); Hei, Tom K. [Center for Radiation Research, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Kimmelman, Alec C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Kozak, Kevin R. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan (United States); Marples, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oakland University, Oakland, California (United States); and others

    2014-01-01

    In early 2011, a dialogue was initiated within the Board of Directors (BOD) of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) regarding the future of the basic sciences of the specialty, primarily focused on the current state and potential future direction of basic research within radiation oncology. After consideration of the complexity of the issues involved and the precise nature of the undertaking, in August 2011, the BOD empanelled a Cancer Biology/Radiation Biology Task Force (TF). The TF was charged with developing an accurate snapshot of the current state of basic (preclinical) research in radiation oncology from the perspective of relevance to the modern clinical practice of radiation oncology as well as the education of our trainees and attending physicians in the biological sciences. The TF was further charged with making suggestions as to critical areas of biological basic research investigation that might be most likely to maintain and build further the scientific foundation and vitality of radiation oncology as an independent and vibrant medical specialty. It was not within the scope of service of the TF to consider the quality of ongoing research efforts within the broader radiation oncology space, to presume to consider their future potential, or to discourage in any way the investigators committed to areas of interest other than those targeted. The TF charge specifically precluded consideration of research issues related to technology, physics, or clinical investigations. This document represents an Executive Summary of the Task Force report.

  14. Medical-biological aspects of radiation effects in Daphnia magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapultseva, E.; Uskalova, D.; Savina, N.; Ustenko, K.

    2017-01-01

    We have shown that γ-irradiation at doses of 100 and 1000 mGy significantly compromised fecundity and reproductive success of the directly exposed D. magna. These effects were also observed among the non-exposed first-generation progeny of irradiated parents, thus implying the manifestation of transgenerational effects in Daphnia. We have also shown that compromised viability of irradiated D. magna can be attributed cytotoxic effects of irradiation. It would therefore appear that the compromised viability may be attributed to the cytotoxic effects resulted from epigenetic changes affecting some metabolic pathways involved in detoxification of free-radicals. Additionally we have analyzed more distant progeny of irradiated at doses of 10, 100 and 1000 mGy Daphnia. Our data demonstrated that multicellular crustacean D. magna represent a very useful experimental model for analyse of long-term effects of ionising radiation at the organismal level.

  15. Investigational new drug safety reporting requirements for human drug and biological products and safety reporting requirements for bioavailability and bioequivalence studies in humans. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations governing safety reporting requirements for human drug and biological products subject to an investigational new drug application (IND). The final rule codifies the agency's expectations for timely review, evaluation, and submission of relevant and useful safety information and implements internationally harmonized definitions and reporting standards. The revisions will improve the utility of IND safety reports, reduce the number of reports that do not contribute in a meaningful way to the developing safety profile of the drug, expedite FDA's review of critical safety information, better protect human subjects enrolled in clinical trials, subject bioavailability and bioequivalence studies to safety reporting requirements, promote a consistent approach to safety reporting internationally, and enable the agency to better protect and promote public health.

  16. Sensitivity analysis of the relative biological effectiveness predicted by the local effect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, T; Grün, R; Scholz, U; Elsässer, T; Durante, M; Scholz, M

    2013-10-07

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is a central quantity in particle radiobiology and depends on many physical and biological factors. The local effect model (LEM) allows one to predict the RBE for radiobiologic experiments and particle therapy. In this work the sensitivity of the RBE on its determining factors is elucidated based on monitoring the RBE dependence on the input parameters of the LEM. The relevance and meaning of all parameters are discussed within the formalism of the LEM. While most of the parameters are fixed by experimental constraints, one parameter, the threshold dose Dt, may remain free and is then regarded as a fit parameter to the high LET dose response curve. The influence of each parameter on the RBE is understood in terms of theoretic considerations. The sensitivity analysis has been systematically carried out for fictitious in vitro cell lines or tissues with α/β = 2 Gy and 10 Gy, either irradiated under track segment conditions with a monoenergetic beam or within a spread out Bragg peak. For both irradiation conditions, a change of each of the parameters typically causes an approximately equal or smaller relative change of the predicted RBE values. These results may be used for the assessment of treatment plans and for general uncertainty estimations of the RBE.

  17. Biological and technological effects of some mulberry varieties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    egyptian hak

    Plant growth, yield attributes, yield and net ... nutrient cycle in agro-ecosystems, and could be utilized along with chemical fertilizers. ..... Choudhury ATMA & Khanif YM (2001) Evaluation of the effects of nitrogen and magnesium fertilization on ...

  18. MICROWAVE SYSTEM FOR RESEARCH BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS ON LABORATORY ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    Kopylov, Alexei; Kruglik, Olga; Khlebopros, Rem

    2014-01-01

    This research is concerned with development of the microwave system for research the radiophysical microwave radiation effects on laboratory animals. The frequency was 1 GHz. The results obtained demonstrate the metabolic changes in mice under the electromagnetic field influence.

  19. Radioprotective effect and other biological benefits associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fields including military, medicine, agriculture and industry. As a result, humans ... plant stems, leaves, and fruits, and generally exist in the plant ... effects of bailcalein on DNA damage in irradiated mice. The study ..... electric current production.

  20. Psychological Effects towards Humans Living in the Environment Made of Biological Concrete in Malaysia at 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirreza Talaiekhozani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In day-to-day life concrete become a compulsory material in the construction field as to make it a real concern among researchers for producing concrete with improved properties. Biological method is one of the new methods to improve concrete properties. Although, much research about biological concrete has been carried out, but till now nobody has not studied for the psychological effects of using a house or offices made up of biological concrete. The aim of this study is to investigate and find out the person's opinion about staying in a house or offices made up of biological concrete. In this study, a questionnaire containing eight questions was prepared and distributed among 21 persons in Malaysia University of Technology including students, academic and non-academic staffs among which few of them was an expert in the field of biological concrete and others did not have any knowledge about the bioconcrete. Finally, the results obtained from the questionnaires were analyzed. The results showed that 81% of participants in this study would like to stay in a house or office made up of biological concrete. However, 38% of participants believe that staying in a house or office made of biological concrete can cause health related problems. The current research paper can be considered significant for architects and civil engineers to have the insight to look into the psychological aspects of using biological concrete for various applications in the field of construction.

  1. Examining the effects of students' classroom expectations on undergraduate biology course reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kristi Lyn

    In this dissertation, I perform and compare three studies of introductory biology students' classroom expectations -- what students expect to be the nature of the knowledge that they are learning, what they think they should be (or are) doing in order to learn, and what they think they should be (or are) doing in order to be successful. Previous work has shown that expectations can impact how students approach learning, yet biology education researchers have been reluctant to acknowledge or address the effects of student expectations on curricular reform (NRC, 2012). Most research in biology education reform has focused on students' conceptual understandings of biology and the efficacy of specific changes to content and pedagogy. The current research is lacking a deeper understanding of how students perceive the classroom environment and how those perceptions can shape students' interactions with the content and pedagogy. For present and future reforms in biology to reach their full potential, I argue that biology education should actively address the different ways students think about and approach learning in biology classes. The first study uses a Likert-scale instrument, adapted from the Maryland Physics Expectations Survey (Redish, Saul, & Steinberg, 1998). This new survey, the Maryland Biology Expectations Survey (MBEX) documents two critical results in biology classrooms: (i) certain student-centered pedagogical contexts can produce favorable changes in students' expectations, and (ii) more traditional classroom contexts appear to produce negative epistemological effects. The second study utilizes a modified version of the MBEX and focuses on students' interdisciplinary views. This study documents that: (i) biology students have both discipline-specific and context-specific classroom expectations, (ii) students respond more favorably to interdisciplinary content in the biology courses we surveyed (as opposed to biology content introduced into the physics

  2. Biological effects of in vitro THz radiation exposure in human foetal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Amicis, Andrea; Sanctis, Stefania De; Cristofaro, Sara Di; Franchini, Valeria; Lista, Florigio; Regalbuto, Elisa; Giovenale, Emilio; Gallerano, Gian Piero; Nenzi, Paolo; Bei, Roberto; Fantini, Massimo; Benvenuto, Monica; Masuelli, Laura; Coluzzi, Elisa; Cicia, Cristina; Sgura, Antonella

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, terahertz (THz) radiation has been widely used in a variety of applications: medical, security, telecommunications and military areas. However, few data are available on the biological effects of this type of electromagnetic radiation and the reported results, using different genetic or cellular assays, are quite discordant. This multidisciplinary study focuses on potential genotoxic and cytotoxic effects, evaluated by several end-points, associated with THz radiation. For this purpose, in vitro exposure of human foetal fibroblasts to low frequency THz radiation (0.1-0.15THz) was performed using a Compact Free Electron Laser. We did not observe an induction of DNA damage evaluated by Comet assay, phosphorylation of H2AX histone or telomere length modulation. In addiction, no induction of apoptosis or changes in pro-survival signalling proteins were detected. Moreover, our results indicated an increase in the total number of micronuclei and centromere positive micronuclei induction evaluated by CREST analysis, indicating that THz radiation could induce aneugenic rather than clastogenic effects, probably leading to chromosome loss. Furthermore, an increase of actin polymerization observed by ultrastructural analysis after THz irradiation, supports the hypothesis that an abnormal assembly of spindle proteins could lead to the observed chromosomal malsegregation.

  3. Workshop Report on the European Bone Sarcoma Networking Meeting: Integration of Clinical Trials with Tumor Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David M; Wilhelm, Miriam; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Dirksen, Uta; Entz-Werlé, Natacha; Gelderblom, Hans; Hassan, Bass; Jürgens, Heribert; Koster, Jan; Kovar, Heinrich; Lankester, Arjan C; Lewis, Ian J; Myklebost, Ola; Nathrath, Michaela H M; Picci, Piero; Whelan, Jeremy S; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Bielack, Stefan S

    2011-09-01

    A key workshop was held in The Netherlands in June 2011, hosted by several European bone sarcoma networks and with a broad range of stakeholders from Europe and Australia. The purpose of the meeting was to identify the strengths and weaknesses in current clinical trials for bone sarcomas and to make recommendations as to how to accelerate progress in this field. Two areas of particular interest were discussed. First, all participants agreed upon the importance of tumor biology to understanding clinical responses for all types of bone sarcoma. Various barriers to biobanking tumor and germline specimens were canvassed and are outlined in this paper. Second, there was consideration of the particular challenges of dealing with adolescent and young adult cancers, exemplified by bone sarcomas. Participants recommended greater engagement of both pediatric and adult sarcoma trial organizations to address this issue. Specific opportunities were identified to develop biological sub-studies within osteosarcoma, focused on understanding germ line risk and pharmacogenomics defining toxicity and biological responses. In Ewing sarcoma, it was harder to define opportunities for biological insights. There was agreement that the results for insulin-like growth factor pathway inhibition in Ewing family tumors were disappointing, but represented a clear indication of the need for companion biologic studies to develop predictive biomarkers. The meeting ended with broad commitment to working together to make progress in this rare but important subgroup of cancers.

  4. A theoretical framework for biological control of soil-borne plant pathogens: Identifying effective strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunniffe, Nik J; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2011-06-07

    We develop and analyse a flexible compartmental model of the interaction between a plant host, a soil-borne pathogen and a microbial antagonist, for use in optimising biological control. By extracting invasion and persistence thresholds of host, pathogen and biological control agent, performing an equilibrium analysis, and numerical investigation of sensitivity to parameters and initial conditions, we determine criteria for successful biological control. We identify conditions for biological control (i) to prevent a pathogen entering a system, (ii) to eradicate a pathogen that is already present and, if that is not possible, (iii) to reduce the density of the pathogen. Control depends upon the epidemiology of the pathogen and how efficiently the antagonist can colonise particular habitats (i.e. healthy tissue, infected tissue and/or soil-borne inoculum). A sharp transition between totally effective control (i.e. eradication of the pathogen) and totally ineffective control can follow slight changes in biologically interpretable parameters or to the initial amounts of pathogen and biological control agent present. Effective biological control requires careful matching of antagonists to pathosystems. For preventative/eradicative control, antagonists must colonise susceptible hosts. However, for reduction in disease prevalence, the range of habitat is less important than the antagonist's bulking-up efficiency.

  5. Biological effects of lysophosphatidic acid in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisca, Frisca; Sabbadini, Roger A; Goldshmit, Yona; Pébay, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid that regulates a broad range of cellular effects in various cell types, leading to a variety of responses in tissues, including in the nervous system. LPA and its receptors are found in the nervous system, with different cellular and temporal profiles. Through its ability to target most cells of the nervous system and its induction of pleiotropic effects, LPA mediates events during neural development and adulthood. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the effects of LPA in the nervous system, during development and adulthood, and in various pathologies of the nervous system. We also explore potential LPA intervention strategies for anti-LPA therapeutics.

  6. Which chemicals drive biological effects in wastewater and recycled water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Janet Y M; Busetti, Francesco; Charrois, Jeffrey W A; Escher, Beate I

    2014-09-01

    Removal of organic micropollutants from wastewater during secondary treatment followed by reverse osmosis and UV disinfection was evaluated by a combination of four in-vitro cell-based bioassays and chemical analysis of 299 organic compounds. Concentrations detected in recycled water were below the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling. Thus the detected chemicals were considered not to pose any health risk. The detected pesticides in the wastewater treatment plant effluent and partially advanced treated water explained all observed effects on photosynthesis inhibition. In contrast, mixture toxicity experiments with designed mixtures containing all detected chemicals at their measured concentrations demonstrated that the known chemicals explained less than 3% of the observed cytotoxicity and less than 1% of the oxidative stress response. Pesticides followed by pharmaceuticals and personal care products dominated the observed mixture effects. The detected chemicals were not related to the observed genotoxicity. The large proportion of unknown toxicity calls for effect monitoring complementary to chemical monitoring.

  7. SynTec Final Technical Report: Synthetic biology for Tailored Enzyme cocktails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Janine [Novozymes, Inc., Davis, CA (United States); Teter, Sarah [Novozymes, Inc., Davis, CA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Using a novel enzyme screening method inspired by synthetic biology, Novozymes developed new technology under SynTec which allows for more rapidly tailoring of enzyme cocktails. The methodology can be applied to specific feedstocks, and or coupled to address a specific hydrolytic conversion process context. Using combinatorial high throughput screening of libraries of enzyme domains, we can quickly assess which combination of catalytic modules delivers the best performance for a specific condition. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the screening process, we measured performance of the output catalytic cocktail compared to CTec3/HTec3. SynTec benchmark cocktail - blend of Cellic® CTec3 and HTec3. The test substrate was - ammonia fiber expansion pretreated corn stover (AFEX™ PCS).CTec3/HTec3 was assayed at the optimal pH and temperature, and also in the absence of any pH adjustment. The new enzyme cocktail discovered under SynTec was assayed in the absence of any pH adjustment and at the optimal temperature. Conversion is delivered by SynTec enzyme at significant dose reduction relative to CTec3/HTec3 at the controlled pH optimum, and without titrant required to maintain pH, which delivers additional cost savings relative to current state of the art process. In this 2.5 year $4M project, the team delivered an experimental cocktail that significantly outperformed CTec3/HTec3 for a specific substrate, and for specific hydrolysis conditions. As a means of comparing performance improvement delivered per research dollar spent, we note that SynTec delivered a similar performance improvement to the previous award, in a shorter time and with fewer resources than for the previously successful DOE project DECREASE, a 3.5 year, $25M project, though this project focused on a different substrate and used different hydrolysis conditions. The newly implemented technology for rapid sourcing of new cellulases and hemicellulases from nature is an example of Novozymes

  8. Some features of irradiated chitosan and its biological effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hai, Le; Hien, Nguyen Quoc; Luan, Le Quang; Hanh, Truong Thi; Man, Nguyen Tan; Ha, Pham Thi Le; Thuy, Tran Thi [Nuclear Research Institute, VAEC, Dalat (Viet Nam); Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Preparation of chitosan oligomer by radiation degradation was carried out on the gamma Co-60 source. The radiation degradation yield (G{sub d}) of the chitosan was found to be of 1.03. The oligochitosan with 50% of dp>8 fraction was obtained by irradiating the 10% (w/v) chitosan solution in 5% acetic acid at 45 kGy for the chitosan having the initial viscometric average molecular weight, Mv=60,000. Irradiated chitosan showed higher antifungal effect than that of unirradiated one. Furthermore, the irradiated chitosan also showed the growth-promotion effect for plants. (author)

  9. Electrical and Biological Effects of Transmission Lines: A Review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jack M.

    1989-06-01

    This review describes the electrical properties of a-c and d-c transmission lines and the resulting effects on plants, animals, and people. Methods used by BPA to mitigate undesirable effects are also discussed. Although much of the information in this review pertains to high-voltage transmission lines, information on distribution lines and electrical appliances is included. The electrical properties discussed are electric and magnetic fields and corona: first for alternating-current (a-c) lines, then for direct current (d-c).

  10. Effect of solids retention time and wastewater characteristics on biological phosphorus removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens; Aspegren, H.; Jansen, J.l.C.

    2002-01-01

    The paper deals with the effect of wastewater, plant design and operation in relation to biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal and the possibilities to model the processes. Two Bio-P pilot plants were operated for 2.5 years in parallel receiving identical wastewater. The plants had SRT of 4...... with time which has importance in relation to modelling. The overall conclusion of the comparison between the two plants is that the biological phosphorus removal efficiency under practical operating conditions is affected by the SRT in the plant and the wastewater composition. Thus great care should...... in verification of models for Nitrogen and Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal....

  11. Luciferase Genes as Reporter Reactions: How to Use Them in Molecular Biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevenini, L; Calabretta, M M; Calabria, D; Roda, A; Michelini, E

    2016-01-01

    : The latest advances in molecular biology have made available several biotechnological tools that take advantage of the high detectability and quantum efficiency of bioluminescence (BL), with an ever-increasing number of novel applications in environmental, pharmaceutical, food, and forensic fields. Indeed, BL proteins are being used to develop ultrasensitive binding assays and cell-based assays, thanks to their high detectability and to the availability of highly sensitive BL instruments. The appealing aspect of molecular biology tools relying on BL reactions is their general applicability in both in vitro assays, such as cell cultures or purified proteins, and in vivo settings, such as in whole-animal BL imaging. The aim of this chapter is to provide the reader with an overview of state-of-the-art bioluminescent tools based on luciferase genes, highlighting molecular biology strategies that have been applied so far, together with some selected examples.

  12. Biological effects of ionizing radiations; Effets biologiques des rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenot, J.C. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire]|[Commission Internationale de protection radiologique (France)]|[Association Internationale de Radiopathologie (France)

    1999-01-01

    Since ten years the ionizing radiations are more and more often used in various domains as medical, industrial or research sector. In the same way, these radiation impacts on the environment and the living organisms, have been studied intensively. The effects mechanism knowledge improved considerably and allowed to better protect the workers and the public. (A.L.B.)

  13. Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Cellular Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Beheshte; Wilson, James; Masood, Samina

    2012-10-01

    The interaction of organisms with environmental magnetic fields at the cellular level is well documented, yet not fully understood. We review the existing experimental results to understand the physics behind the effects of ambient magnetic fields on the growth, metabolism, and proliferation of in vitro cell cultures. Emphasis is placed on identifying the underlying physical principles responsible for alterations to cell structure and behavior.

  14. Biological and technological effects of some mulberry varieties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    egyptian hak

    albino rats over two and five days, and also the effects of a two-week recovery period. Methomyl ... rabbits at a dose of 10 mg/kg body wt for seven days produced significant decrease in red blood cell ... role of vitamins on Japanese quails.

  15. Biological and technological effects of some mulberry varieties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    egyptian hak

    The effect of light intensities (1500-6000 lux) and temperature (20-40 ... harvested in the exponential phase of growth by pelleting at high speed (8000 rpm) for 20 .... Figure 3: Biocidal activity (measured as zone of inhibition) of crude extract of ...

  16. Nanoscaled biological gated field effect transistors for cytogenetic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Dimaki, Maria; Andersen, Karsten Brandt;

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis is the study of chromosome structure and function, and is often used in cancer diagnosis, as many chromosome abnormalities are linked to the onset of cancer. A novel label free detection method for chromosomal translocation analysis using nanoscaled field effect transistors...

  17. Resource Letter BELFEF-1: Biological effects of low-frequency electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafemeister, David

    1996-08-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the interaction of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF/EMF) interactions with biological matter, and on the possibility that such interactions could have a harmful effect on human health. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: ELF/EMF theoretical interactions with biological cells, organs and organisms, magnetic dipole interactions, sensing by animals, biomedical-biophysical experiments, epidemiology, and litigation-mitigation risk issues.

  18. High school and college biology: A multi-level model of the effects of high school biology courses on student academic performance in introductory college biology courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehr, John Francis

    The issue of student preparation for college study in science has been an ongoing concern for both college-bound students and educators of various levels. This study uses a national sample of college students enrolled in introductory biology courses to address the relationship between high school biology preparation and subsequent introductory college biology performance. Multi-Level Modeling was used to investigate the relationship between students' high school science and mathematics experiences and college biology performance. This analysis controls for student demographic and educational background factors along with factors associated with the college or university attended. The results indicated that high school course-taking and science instructional experiences have the largest impact on student achievement in the first introductory college biology course. In particular, enrollment in courses, such as high school Calculus and Advanced Placement (AP) Biology, along with biology course content that focuses on developing a deep understanding of the topics is found to be positively associated with student achievement in introductory college biology. On the other hand, experiencing high numbers of laboratory activities, demonstrations, and independent projects along with higher levels of laboratory freedom are associated with negative achievement. These findings are relevant to high school biology teachers, college students, their parents, and educators looking beyond the goal of high school graduation.

  19. Biological activities and health effects of terpenoids from marine fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Li, Yong-Xin

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed by the consumers toward natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in the nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and pharmaceutical products due to their various health beneficial effects. Hence, it can be suggested that bioactive functional ingredients from marine bioresources and their by-products are alternative sources for synthetic ingredients that can contribute to consumer's well-being, as a part of nutraceuticals and functional foods. Marine-derived fungi produce a vast array of secondary metabolites including terpenes, steroids, polyketides, peptides, alkaloids, and polysaccharides. These secondary metabolites serve many biopharmaceutical purposes. This chapter discusses about marine fungi-derived terpenoids and presents an overview of their beneficial health effects.

  20. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF TNF-BINDING VARIOLAVIRUS RECOMBINANT PROTEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Orlovskaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This review presents a summary of our data concerning in vivo and in vitro effects of recombinant TNF-binding protein from variola virus (VARVCrmB upon TNF-induced functional changes of human and murine cells. VARV-CrmB protein blocks TNF-induced production of IL-1β and IL-6 by human mononuclear cells, and their in vitro oxidation-related metabolic (OM activity. VARV-CrmB protein restores TNF-induced reduction of BFU-E+CFU-E colony-forming activity and normalizes TNF-induced effects upon CFU-GM formation in a colony-forming model of human and murine bone morrow cells (BMC. VARV-CrmB protein displays a pronounced in vivo alleviation of LPS-induced endotoxic shock symptoms in SPF BALB/C mice thus significantly increasing survival of experimental animals. Moreover, VARV-CrmBprotein decreases intensity of collagen-induced arthritis at early terms. Application of VARV-CrmB protein results in normalization of TNF-induced increase of migratory and OM activity of murine leukocytes, and exerts corrective effects upon colony-forming ability of murine hematopoietic precursors. Skin application of VARV-CrmB protein decreases leukocyte migration from a skin scrap in afferent phase of DNCB-induced contact reaction, as well as “ear oedema” index. Our results demonstrate TNF-blocking properties of VARVCrmB protein. In summary, our data allow to consider a recombinant variola virus VARV-CrmB as a new potential TNF-antagonist. Its effects can be explained by its ability of neutralizing TNF-induced activation of oxidation-related metabolic, cytokine-producing and migratory functions of effector cells in therapy of pathological inflammatory processes.

  1. Biologic Effects of Dopamine on Tumor Vasculature in Ovarian Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrthala Moreno-Smith

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic sympathetic nervous system activation results in increased angiogenesis and tumor growth in orthotopic mouse models of ovarian carcinoma. However, the mechanistic effects of such activation on the tumor vasculature are not well understood. Dopamine (DA, an inhibitory catecholamine, regulates the functions of normal and abnormal blood vessels. Here, we examined whether DA, an inhibitory catecholamine, could block the effects of chronic stress on tumor vasculature and tumor growth. Exogenous administration of DA not only decreased tumor microvessel density but also increased pericyte coverage of tumor vessels following daily restraint stress in mice. Daily restraint stress resulted in significantly increased tumor growth in the SKOV3ip1 and HeyA8 ovarian cancer models. DA treatment blocked stress-mediated increases in tumor growth and increased pericyte coverage of tumor endothelial cells. Whereas the antiangiogenic effect of DA is mediated by dopamine receptor 2 (DR2, our data indicate that DA, through DR1, stimulates vessel stabilization by increasing pericyte recruitment to tumor endothelial cells. DA significantly stimulated migration of mouse 10T1/2 pericyte-like cells in vitro and increased cyclic adenosine mono-phosphate (cAMP levels in these cells. Moreover, DA or the DR1 agonist SKF 82958 increased platinum concentration in SKOV3ip1 tumor xenografts following cisplatin administration. In conclusion, DA stabilizes tumor blood vessels through activation of pericyte cAMP-protein kinase A signaling pathway by DR1. These findings could have implications for blocking the stimulatory effects of chronic stress on tumor growth.

  2. A Study to Determine the Biological Feasibility of a New Fish Tagging System: Annual Report, 1985-1986.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prentice, Earl F.; Park, D.L.; Flagg, T.A.; McCutcheon, S.

    1986-12-01

    An ongoing cooperative project between the Bonneville Power Administration and the National Marine Fisheries Service was initiated in 1983 to evaluate the technical and biological feasibility of adapting a new identification system to salmonids. The system is based upon the passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag. This report discusses the work completed in 1985 and is divided into laboratory and field studies. All studies were conducted with the tag implanted into the body cavity of the test fish via a 12-gauge hypodermic needle.

  3. [Effects and Biological Response on Bioremediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Wu, Man-li; Nie, Mai-qian; Wang, Ting-ting; Zhang, Ming-hui

    2015-05-01

    Bioaugmentation and biostimulation were used to remediate petroleum-contaminated soil which were collected from Zichang city in North of Shaanxi. The optimal bioremediation method was obtained by determining the total petroleum hydrocarbon(TPH) using the infrared spectroscopy. During the bioremediation, number of degrading strains, TPH catabolic genes, and soil microbial community diversity were determined by Most Probable Number (MPN), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined agarose electrophoresis, and PCR-denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE). The results in different treatments showed different biodegradation effects towards total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). Biostimulation by adding N and P to soils achieved the best degradation effects towards TPH, and the bioaugmentation was achieved by inoculating strain SZ-1 to soils. Further analysis indicated the positive correlation between catabolic genes and TPH removal efficiency. During the bioremediation, the number of TPH and alkanes degrading strains was higher than the number of aromatic degrading strains. The results of PCR-DGGE showed microbial inoculums could enhance microbial community functional diversity. These results contribute to understand the ecologically microbial effects during the bioremediation of petroleum-polluted soil.

  4. Biological Effects of Culture Substrates on Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Hayashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, as human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs have been commonly cultured in feeder-free conditions, a number of cell culture substrates have been applied or developed. However, the functional roles of these substrates in maintaining hPSC self-renewal remain unclear. Here in this review, we summarize the types of these substrates and their effect on maintaining hPSC self-renewal. Endogenous extracellular matrix (ECM protein expression has been shown to be crucial in maintaining hPSC self-renewal. These ECM molecules interact with integrin cell-surface receptors and transmit their cellular signaling. We discuss the possible effect of integrin-mediated signaling pathways on maintaining hPSC self-renewal. Activation of integrin-linked kinase (ILK, which transmits ECM-integrin signaling to AKT (also known as protein kinase B, has been shown to be critical in maintaining hPSC self-renewal. Also, since naïve pluripotency has been widely recognized as an alternative pluripotent state of hPSCs, we discuss the possible effects of culture substrates and integrin signaling on naïve hPSCs based on the studies of mouse embryonic stem cells. Understanding the role of culture substrates in hPSC self-renewal and differentiation enables us to control hPSC behavior precisely and to establish scalable or microfabricated culture technologies for regenerative medicine and drug development.

  5. Radioactivity in the ocean: laws and biological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsaker, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes the literature on US laws and international agreements, experimental and monitoring data, and ongoing studies to provide background information for environmental assessment and regulatory compliance activities for ocean dumping of low-level radioactive waste. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act is the major US legislation governing ocean disposal of radioactive waste. The major international agreement on ocean dumping is the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and other Matter. The United States ended its ocean dumping of radioactive wastes in 1970, but other countries have continued ocean dumping under international supervision in the northeast Atlantic. Monitoring of former US disposal sites has neither revealed significant effects on marine biota nor indicated a hazard to human health. Also, no effects on marine organisms have been found that could be attributed to routine discharges into the Irish Sea from the Windscale reprocessing plant. We must improve our ability to predict the oceanic carrying capacity and the fate and effects of ionizing radiation in the marine environment.

  6. Potential biological and ecological effects of flickering artificial light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Inger

    Full Text Available Organisms have evolved under stable natural lighting regimes, employing cues from these to govern key ecological processes. However, the extent and density of artificial lighting within the environment has increased recently, causing widespread alteration of these regimes. Indeed, night-time electric lighting is known significantly to disrupt phenology, behaviour, and reproductive success, and thence community composition and ecosystem functioning. Until now, most attention has focussed on effects of the occurrence, timing, and spectral composition of artificial lighting. Little considered is that many types of lamp do not produce a constant stream of light but a series of pulses. This flickering light has been shown to have detrimental effects in humans and other species. Whether a species is likely to be affected will largely be determined by its visual temporal resolution, measured as the critical fusion frequency. That is the frequency at which a series of light pulses are perceived as a constant stream. Here we use the largest collation to date of critical fusion frequencies, across a broad range of taxa, to demonstrate that a significant proportion of species can detect such flicker in widely used lamps. Flickering artificial light thus has marked potential to produce ecological effects that have not previously been considered.

  7. Neutron Exposures in Human Cells: Bystander Effect and Relative Biological Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Isheeta; Schwartz, Jeffrey L.; Stewart, Robert D.; Emery, Robert; Joiner, Michael C.; Tucker, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Bystander effects have been observed repeatedly in mammalian cells following photon and alpha particle irradiation. However, few studies have been performed to investigate bystander effects arising from neutron irradiation. Here we asked whether neutrons also induce a bystander effect in two normal human lymphoblastoid cell lines. These cells were exposed to fast neutrons produced by targeting a near-monoenergetic 50.5 MeV proton beam at a Be target (17 MeV average neutron energy), and irradiated-cell conditioned media (ICCM) was transferred to unirradiated cells. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay was used to quantify genetic damage in radiation-naïve cells exposed to ICCM from cultures that received 0 (control), 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3 or 4 Gy neutrons. Cells grown in ICCM from irradiated cells showed no significant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei or nucleoplasmic bridges compared to cells grown in ICCM from sham irradiated cells for either cell line. However, the neutron beam has a photon dose-contamination of 5%, which may modulate a neutron-induced bystander effect. To determine whether these low doses of contaminating photons can induce a bystander effect, cells were irradiated with cobalt-60 at doses equivalent to the percent contamination for each neutron dose. No significant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei or bridges was observed at these doses of photons for either cell line when cultured in ICCM. As expected, high doses of photons induced a clear bystander effect in both cell lines for micronuclei and bridges (pbystander effect in these cells. Finally, neutrons had a relative biological effectiveness of 2.0±0.13 for micronuclei and 5.8±2.9 for bridges compared to cobalt-60. These results may be relevant to radiation therapy with fast neutrons and for regulatory agencies setting standards for neutron radiation protection and safety. PMID:24896095

  8. Neutron exposures in human cells: bystander effect and relative biological effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Isheeta; Schwartz, Jeffrey L; Stewart, Robert D; Emery, Robert; Joiner, Michael C; Tucker, James D

    2014-01-01

    Bystander effects have been observed repeatedly in mammalian cells following photon and alpha particle irradiation. However, few studies have been performed to investigate bystander effects arising from neutron irradiation. Here we asked whether neutrons also induce a bystander effect in two normal human lymphoblastoid cell lines. These cells were exposed to fast neutrons produced by targeting a near-monoenergetic 50.5 MeV proton beam at a Be target (17 MeV average neutron energy), and irradiated-cell conditioned media (ICCM) was transferred to unirradiated cells. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay was used to quantify genetic damage in radiation-naïve cells exposed to ICCM from cultures that received 0 (control), 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3 or 4 Gy neutrons. Cells grown in ICCM from irradiated cells showed no significant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei or nucleoplasmic bridges compared to cells grown in ICCM from sham irradiated cells for either cell line. However, the neutron beam has a photon dose-contamination of 5%, which may modulate a neutron-induced bystander effect. To determine whether these low doses of contaminating photons can induce a bystander effect, cells were irradiated with cobalt-60 at doses equivalent to the percent contamination for each neutron dose. No significant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei or bridges was observed at these doses of photons for either cell line when cultured in ICCM. As expected, high doses of photons induced a clear bystander effect in both cell lines for micronuclei and bridges (pbystander effect in these cells. Finally, neutrons had a relative biological effectiveness of 2.0 ± 0.13 for micronuclei and 5.8 ± 2.9 for bridges compared to cobalt-60. These results may be relevant to radiation therapy with fast neutrons and for regulatory agencies setting standards for neutron radiation protection and safety.

  9. Biological and psychosocial effects of space travel: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Robert Edward Tien Ming

    This dissertation interviewed a single astronaut to explore psychosocial issues relevant to long-duration space travel and how these issues relate to the astronaut's training. It examined the psychological impact of isolation, crew interaction, and the experience of microgravity with the goal of increasing understanding of how to foster crew survivability and positive small group interactions in space (Santy, 1994). It also focused on how to develop possible treatments for crews when they transition back to Earth from the extreme environment of space missions. The astronaut's responses agreed with the literature and the predictions for long-duration space missions except the participant reported no temporary or permanent cognitive or memory deficits due to microgravity exposure. The dissertation identified five frequently endorsed themes including communication, environmental stressors, personal strengths, un-researched problems, and other. The agreement found between the literature and astronaut's responses offer a strong foundation of questions and data that needs to be further studied before conducting research in space or long-duration space missions.

  10. Laboratory studies of biological effects of sulfur oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalbey, W. E.

    1979-01-01

    Selected results from exposures of laboratory animals to airborne sulfur oxides were briefly summarized. The main observation during acute exposures was reflex bronchoconstriction and a resultant increase in pulmonary resistance. The increase in resistance due to sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) was potentiated by simultaneous exposure to aerosols under conditions which would increase the transfer of sulfur oxides into the respiratory tract and promote transformation to a higher oxidation state, especially one that is acid. Sulfate aerosols, particularly sulfuric acid aerosols, were more potent than SO/sub 2/ in causing bronchoconstriction. Chronic exposure to high concentrations (400 to 650 ppM) of SO/sub 2/ resulted in experimental bronchitis in several species. Longterm exposure to more realistic concentrations of SO/sub 2/ produced little or no changes in respiratory function or morphology. Significant alterations in both pulmonary function and morphology have been reported after chronic exposure to sulfuric acid aerosols. Recent data indicate that changes in the lung may progress after cessation of such exposures.

  11. The Dominance Behavioral System and Psychopathology: Evidence from Self-Report, Observational, and Biological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Leedom, Liane J.; Muhtadie, Luma

    2012-01-01

    The dominance behavioral system (DBS) can be conceptualized as a biologically based system that guides dominance motivation, dominant and subordinate behavior, and responsivity to perceptions of power and subordination. A growing body of research suggests that problems with the DBS are evident across a broad range of psychopathologies. We begin by…

  12. Guidelines for Marine Biological Reference Collections. Unesco Reports in Marine Sciences, No. 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hureau, J. C.; Rice, A. L.

    This manual provides practical advice on the appropriation, conservation, and documentation of a marine biological reference collection, in response to needs expressed by Mediterranean Arab countries. A reference collection is defined as a working museum containing a series of specimens with which biologists are able to compare their own material.…

  13. Biological effect of non-ionizing radiations on microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Takayoshi [Osaka Univ., Radioisotope Research Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Nakaoka, Yasuo [Osaka Univ., Graduate School of Engineering Science, Department of Biophysical Engineering, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    We studied the effect of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) of 60-Hz and 500 mT on the growth and the mutation frequency of the budding yeast S.cerevisiae and on the behavior of the ciliate Paramecium multimicronucleatum. The growth rate and mutation frequencies of several strains of S.cerevisiae (wild type and radiation sensitive mutants, rad or rev) were examined but no significant difference was observed. Moreover, the behavior of P.multimicronucleatum under the ELF-MF was examined. When exposed to a vertical field of 0.6 T, the cells accumulated at the upper end of the cuvette. (author)

  14. Behavioral and Biological Effects of Resonant Electromagnetic Absorption in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    C) -c C) C) C) tj~ C) C) -c C -C C C’: k ~ ~f jt~ - 39 - anesthetized wits Nembuta] 𔃿 mg/kg). !he LCOF temperature probe1 0 " ] a,, 7 : t. ’on.. enI...Animals with and wit ,.hout Ground Effects", to be submitted for publication to IEEEr Trcznsac -ions or IMior’clave Theory and T,,chriques. 2. 0. P. G... B17 ... .- .- 20 Value for various regions of the leg * aValue for various regions of the arm 10 Ci a U 6 *\\ , c0 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.5 3.0 2 Cross

  15. Deforestation effects on biological and other important soil properties in an upland watershed of Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.M. Sirajul Haque; Sanatan Das Gupta; Sohag Miah

    2014-01-01

    Deforestation occurs at an alarming rate in upland watersheds of Bangladesh and has many detrimental effects on the environment. This study reports the effects of deforestation on soil biological proper-ties along with some important physicochemical parameters of a southern upland watershed in Bangladesh. Soils were sampled at 4 paired sites, each pair representing a deforested site and a forested site, and having similar topographical characteristics. Significantly fewer (p≤0.001) fungi and bacteria, and lower microbial respiration, active microbial biomass, metabolic and microbial quotients were found in soils of the deforested sites. Soil physical properties such as moisture content, water holding capacity, and chemical properties such as organic matter, total N, avail-able P and EC were also lower in deforested soils. Bulk density and pH were significantly higher in deforested soils. Available Ca and Mg were inconsistent between the two land uses at all the paired sites. Re-duced abundance and biomass of soil mesofauna were recorded in defor-ested soils. However, soil anecic species were more abundant in defor-ested soils than epigeic and endogeic species, which were more abundant in forested soils than on deforested sites.

  16. Synergistic effect of carbon monoxide with other biologically active injurious factors on the organism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankow, D.; Ponsold, W.

    1974-09-01

    The combined effects on biological organisms are reported for carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sodium nitrite, hydrocyanic acid, carbon disulfide, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, ethanol, trichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, methane, benzene, iodine acetate, cholesterol, benzpyrene, hexobarbitol, zoxazolamine, nembutal, luminal, morphine, adrenalin, persantin, cytochrome c, aldrin, carbaryl, cyclodiene epoxide; and physical influences such as ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, ionizing radiation, noise, and vibration. A literature review shows that with increasing CO/sub 2/ and decreasing oxygen concentration in the inhalation air, the toxicity of CO increased in experiments with mice and canaries. Oxides of nitrogen enhance the toxic effect of CO in an additive way and at times synergistically. At 500 m from a metallurgical plant in the USSR the maximum allowable immission concentrations for CO and SO/sub 2/ were exceeded. In children residing there a higher normal erythrocyte number, hemoglobin content, and catalase activity were found in the blood along with higher concentrations of coproporphyrin and 17-ketosteroids. All values returned to normal after an 8-week stay of these children away from the metallurgical plant.

  17. Effect of biologic therapy on radiological progression in rheumatoid arthritis: what does it add to methotrexate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Graeme Jones, Erica Darian-Smith, Michael Kwok, Tania WinzenbergMenzies Research Institute, University of Tasmania, Tasmania, AustraliaAbstract: There have been substantial advances in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in recent years. Traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs have been shown to have small effects on the progression of radiographic damage. This quantitative overview summarizes the evidence for biologic DMARDS and radiographic damage either alone or in combination with methotrexate. Two outcomes were used (standardized mean difference and odds of progression. A total of 21 trials were identified of which 18 had useable data. For biologic monotherapy, tocilizumab, adalimumab, and etanercept were significantly better than methotrexate, with tocilizumab ranking first in both outcomes while golimumab was ineffective in both outcomes. For a biologic in combination with methotrexate compared with methotrexate alone, most therapies studied (etanercept, adalimumab, infliximab, certolizumab, tocilizumab, and rituximab were effective at slowing X-ray progression using either outcome, with infliximab ranking first in both outcomes. The exceptions to this were golimumab (no effect on standardized mean difference and abatacept (no effect on odds of progression. This effect was additional to methotrexate; thus, the overall benefit is moderate to large in magnitude, which is clearly of major clinical significance for sufferers of rheumatoid arthritis and supports the use of biologic DMARDs in those with a poor disease prognosis.Keywords: rheumatoid, trials, meta-analysis, radiographs, biologic, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, DMARDs

  18. EFFECTS OF 5E LEARNING CYCLE ON STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENT IN BIOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Osawaru Ajaja,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The major purpose of this study was to determine the effects of learning cycle as an instructional strategy on biology andchemistry students achievement. To guide this study, six research hypotheses were stated and tested at 0.05 level ofsignificance. The design of this study was 2x2x3x6 Pre-test Post-test non-equivalent control group quasi experimental design.These included two instructional groups (experimental and control groups, sex (male and female, repeated testing (Pre,Post and follow-up tests, and six weeks of experience. The samples of the study included six senior secondary schools, 112science students, and 12 biology and chemistry teachers. The instruments used for this study were: teacher’s questionnaireon knowledge and use of learning cycle (KULC; and Biology and Chemistry Achievement Test (BCAT. The data collected wereanalyzed with simple percentage, Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA and student t-test statistics. The major findings of thestudy included that only 30.43% and 26.31% of biology and chemistry teachers have the knowledge that learning cycle is aninstructional method; all the biology and chemistry teachers sampled have never used learning cycle as an instructionalmethod; learning cycle had a significant effect on students achievement in biology and chemistry; students taught withlearning cycle significantly achieved better in biology/chemistry Post-test than those taught with lecture method; the posttestscores of students in the learning cycle group increased over the period of experience; non-significant difference in Posttestscores between males and females taught with learning cycle; non-significant interaction effect between method andsex on achievement; and a significant higher retention of biology and chemistry knowledge by students taught with learningcycle than those taught with lecture method. It was concluded that the method seems an appropriate instructional modelthat could be used to solve the problems of

  19. Foldit Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-31

    Report 8/1/2013-7/31/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Foldit Biology NOOO 14-13-C-0221 Sb. GRANT NUMBER N/A Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Include area code) Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified (206) 616-2660 Zoran Popović Foldit Biology (Task 1, 2, 3, 4) Final Report...Period Covered by the Report August 1, 2013 – July 31, 2015 Date of Report: July 31, 2015 Project Title: Foldit Biology Contract Number: N00014-13

  20. Catalytically and noncatalytically treated automobile exhaust: biological effects in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, G.P. (Univ. of Cincinnati); Lewkowski, J.P.; Hastings, L.; Malanchuk, M.

    1977-12-01

    Chronic exposure to catalytically treated or noncatalytically treated automobile exhaust significantly depressed the spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) of rats. Exposure to H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ alone or CO at comparable levels did not alter the SLA. Exposure to noncatalytically treated exhaust resulted in significant reductions in growth rate and food and water intake. However, these effects were not evident in the exposure to catalytically treated exhaust or in the control H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and CO exposures. Blood acid-base analyses indicated that exposure to either catalytically treated exhaust or H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ elicits a metabolic alkalosis, while exposure to CO alone results in a metabolic acidosis. All acid-base parameters were within the normal range several weeks after the termination of exposure.

  1. Oil spills: Biological effects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological and ecological effects of oil spills. Citations discuss effects on microorganisms, plants, and animals. Damage assessment, ecological modeling, and environmental impact statements are included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Biological effect markers for exposure to carcinogenic compound and their relevance for risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delft, J.H.M. van; Baan, R.A.; Roza, L.

    1998-01-01

    In this review data are summarized on biomarkers that are used for biological effect monitoring of human populations exposed to genotoxic carcinogens. The biomarkers are DNA and protein adducts and cytogenetic effects. Most of these biomarkers are relevant for the process of carcinogenesis. Emphasis

  3. The First Time Ever I Saw Your Feet: Inversion Effect in Newborns' Sensitivity to Biological Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardi, Lara; Regolin, Lucia; Simion, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Inversion effect in biological motion perception has been recently attributed to an innate sensitivity of the visual system to the gravity-dependent dynamic of the motion. However, the specific cues that determine the inversion effect in naïve subjects were never investigated. In the present study, we have assessed the contribution of the local…

  4. The effects of question types in textual reading upon retention of biology concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, William H.; Lowery, Lawrence F.

    recall and factual questions (Watts & Anderson, 1971; Falker, 1974; Rickards, 1974, 1976). The effect of placing questions directly within textual narrative has been much less researched than the issue of placing questions before or after the reading passage. The effect of this interspersed questioning strategy as part of science textbooks is apparently unresearched to date. The purpose of the research reported here was to determine the relative effects of certain question types when these questions were interspersed throughout the reading passage in textual materials for students in university introductory biology. It was hypothesized for experimental purposes that students reading a passage in biology concepts with specific types of interspersed questions would comprehend and retain no more of that passge than students reading the same passage without interspersed questions.

  5. Approaching magnetic field effects in biology using the radical pair mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Jeffrey Michael

    1997-11-01

    The overall goal of this thesis has been to explain any of the reported magnetic field effects in biology (magnetic orientation of many species and/or health effects, such as cancer, due to man-made electromagnetic fields) using the radical pair mechanism, a quantum mechanical mechanism known for over 20 years that lets singlet-to-triplet yields (which can be related to reaction rates) of radical pair reactions depend on applied magnetic fields. This goal seems reasonable considering the known roles of many biological free radicals in cancer, disease, aging, development, and cellular signaling, the constant reminders in the media to take anti-oxidant vitamins to protect against certain deleterious free radicals, and the success of the radical pair mechanism in explaining magnetic field effects in photosynthetic reaction centers. To approach the above goal, this thesis develops several methods (using perturbation theory and other techniques in the Schrodinger and Liouville formalisms) for calculating singlet-to-triplet yields in combinations of steady and oscillating fields (some of these algorithms are more versatile or efficient while others give more insight, and all serve as cross-checks on each other) and uses these tools to explore and explain a number of interesting phenomena such as yields sensitive to the magnitude and orientation of earth-strength (0.5 G) steady fields as well as the magnitude, orientation, and frequency of very weak (7 mG or less) oscillating fields. In particular, this thesis examines such effects in several coenzyme B12 systems, systems long studied by EPR (Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, the chief method for determining the spin Hamiltonians, spin relaxation rates, and other parameters needed for calculations) in which organometallic cobalt-carbon bonds are often cleaved homolytically to form radical pairs. Among the B12-dependent enzymes are ribonucleotide reductase (which converts RNA to DNA nucleotides), methyl malonyl CoA mutase

  6. [Adipogenic function and other biologic effects of insulin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankov, Y A

    2016-01-01

    Studies on experimental animals with knockout of the insulin receptor gene Insr (in the whole body or in certain tissues) and/or related genes encoding proteins involved in realization of insulin signal transduction in target cells, have made an important contribution to the elucidation of insulin regulation of metabolism, particularly fat metabolism. Since the whole insulin secreted by b-cells, together with the products of gastrointestinal tract digestion of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates reach the liver, the latter is the first organ on which this hormone acts. The liver employs released amino acids for synthesis of proteins, including apoproteins for various lipoproteins. Glucose is used for synthesis of glycogen, fatty acids, and triglycerides, which enter all the organs in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). The LIRKO mice with knockout of the Insr gene in the liver demonstrated inhibition of synthesis of macromolecular compounds from amino acids, glucose, and fatty acids. Low molecular weight substances demonstrated increased entry to circulation, and together with other disorders induced hyperglycemia. In LIRKO mice blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance demonstrated time-dependent normalization and at later stages the increase in glucose levels was replaced by hypoglycemia. These changes can be well explained if we take into consideration that one of the main functions of insulin consists in stimulation of energy accumulation by means of activation of triglyceride deposition in adipose tissue. FIRKO mice with selective knockout of adipose tissue Insr were characterized by decreased uptake of glucose in adipocytes, and its transformation into lipids. However, the level of body fat in animals remained normal, possibly due to preserved insulin receptor in the liver and insulin-induced activation of triglyceride production which maintained normal levels of body fat stores, the effective functioning of adipose tissue and secretion of leptin by

  7. Lake Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge : Biological narrative report : Period August 1, to October 31, 1941

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Lake Bowdoin NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from August through October of 1941. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  8. Lake Bowdoin Migratory Waterfowl Refuge : Biological narrative report : Period February 1 to April 30, 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Lake Bowdoin Migratory Waterfowl Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from February through April of 1939. The report begins by...

  9. Preliminary report of the biological development of the Des Lacs, Upper Souris, and Lostwood Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Preliminary report on the development of Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, and Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge. This report...

  10. Lake Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge : Biological narrative report : Period February 1, 1941 to April 30, 1941

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Lake Bowdoin NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from February through April of 1941. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  11. Biological report: National Bison Range: Second quarter: August 1 , 1939 to October 31, 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for National Bison Range outlines Refuge accomplishments from August through October of 1939. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  12. [Biological narrative report: National Bison Range: February 1, 1941 to April 30, 1941

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for National Bison Range outlines Refuge accomplishments from February through April of 1941. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  13. Biology Division progress report, October 1, 1978-May 31, 1980. [Lead abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the four sections into which this progress report has been divided. The report also contains sections related to interdivision activities and educational activities. (ERB)

  14. Biological narrative report: May 1, 1939 to July 31, 1939: [National Bison Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for National Bison Range outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through July of 1939. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  15. [Quality of interior air: biological contaminants and their effects on health; bioaerosols and gathering techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bălan, Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    Indoor Air Quality: biological contaminants and health effects; airborne organisms and sampling instruments. Biological contaminants include bacteria, molds, viruses, animal dander and cat saliva, house dust, mites, cockroaches and pollen. Symptoms of health problems caused by biological pollutants include sneezing, watery eyes, coughing, shortness of breath, dizziness, lethargy, fevers. Children, elderly people with breathing problems, allergies and lung diseases are particularly susceptible to disease-causing biological agents in the indoor air. It is convenient to consider microbiological samplers for collecting organisms in air as falling into several broad categories. Many popular microbiological air samplers use the principle of impaction to trap the organisms by impacting them directly on to agar. Further distinct groups are the impingers, which operate by impinging organisms into liquid.

  16. Biological effects of exposure to intermediate neutron and repair mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utsumi, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Masao [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Onishi, Takeo; Onizuka, Masahiko

    2000-01-01

    An investigation was made on cytotoxic effects of neutron capture using chicken B-cell line mutants, DT40, KURO{sup -/-}, RAD54 {sup -/-} and KU70{sup -/-} / RAD54{sup -/-}. Suspensions of these cells were exposed to two times X-radiation at various doses and the cell surviving was evaluated. The sensitivity to radiation was highest in the double defective mutant, KU70{sup -/-} / RAD54{sup -/-} and followed by that of RAD54 {sup -/-}, a homologous recombination mutant, whereas KURO {sup -/-} cell, a non-homologous end-joining mutant showed a peculiar surviving curve composed of two phases and the cell was highly sensitive to a low-dose radiation. This indicates that there are two different DNA repair systems for double-strand breaks and the system for non-homologous end-joining repair can be involved in all phases of cell cycle, but the system for the homologous one is involved only in S-phase. Therefore, it was thought that variation of sensitivity to radiation exposure depending to the phase of cell cycle might explain the alternation of repair system depending to the phase progressing of cell cycle. It was thus likely that the recovery from radiation injury, which is still a black box might be explained with the double strand breaks of DNA. (M.N.)

  17. The biological effect and medical functions of the Infrared Rays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Xiao-feng

    2001-01-01

    The quantum vibrational energy-spectra including high excited states of the protein molecules have been calculated by new theory of bio-energy transport along the protein molecules and its dynamic equation, discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation, appropriate to the protein molecules on the basis of the level of molecular structure. This energy-spectra obtained are basically consistent with the experimental values by infrared absorption and radiated measurement of person's hands and laser-Raman spectrum from metabolically active E. Coli.. From this energy-spectra we know that the infrared lights with (1-3)x1000nm and (5-7)x1000nm wavelength can be absorbed by the protein molecules in the living systems.In accordance with the non-linear theory of the bio-energy transport we know that the energy of the infrared light absorbed by the proteins can result in vibrations of amide-I in amino acids and can facilitate the bio-energy transport along the protein molecular chains from one place to other for the growth of living bodies. This processe is non-thermal. This is just non-thermal effect of the infrared lights. According to the mechanism we explained further the medical functions of the infrared lights absorbed.

  18. Cardiometabolic risk in psoriasis: differential effects of biologic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana J Kaplan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mariana J KaplanDepartment of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USAAbstract: Psoriasis is associated to an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV complications. Overall, the pathogenic mechanisms involved in premature CV complications in psoriasis appear to be complex and multifactorial, with traditional and nontraditional risk factors possibly contributing to the increased risk. Based on what is known about the pathogenesis of psoriasis and extrapolating the current knowledge on CV complications in other inflammatory diseases, studies are needed to investigate if appropriate control of the inflammatory, immunologic and metabolic disturbances present in psoriasis can prevent the development of this potentially lethal complication. It is clear that there is a great need for heightened awareness of the increased risk for vascular damage in patients with psoriasis. It is also crucial to closely monitor patients with psoriasis for CV risk factors including obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. Whether treatment regimens that effectively manage systemic inflammation will lead to prevention of CV complications in psoriasis needs to be investigated. Clearly, studies should focus on establishing the exact mechanisms that determine CV risk in psoriasis so that appropriate preventive strategies and treatment guidelines can be established.Keywords: psoriasis, atherosclerosis, inflammation, vascular

  19. Biological effective doses in the intracavitary high dose rate brachytherapy of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Sobita Devi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the decrease of biological equivalent dose and its correlation withlocal/loco-regional control of tumour in the treatment of cervical cancer when the strength of the Ir-192 high dose rate(HDR brachytherapy (BT source is reduced to single, double and triple half life in relation to original strength of10 Ci (~ 4.081 cGy x m2 x h–1. Material and methods: A retrospective study was carried out on 52 cervical cancer patients with stage II and IIItreated with fractionated HDR-BT following external beam radiation therapy (EBRT. International Commission onRadiation Units and Measurement (ICRU points were defined according to ICRU Report 38, using two orthogonal radiographimages taken by Simulator (Simulix HQ. Biologically effective dose (BED was calculated at point A for diffe -rent Ir-192 source strength and its possible correlation with local/loco-regional tumour control was discussed. Result: The increase of treatment time per fraction of dose due to the fall of dose rate especially in HDR-BT of cervicalcancer results in reduction in BED of 2.59%, 7.02% and 13.68% with single, double and triple half life reduction ofsource strength, respectively. The probabilities of disease recurrence (local/loco-regional within 26 months are expectedas 0.12, 0.12, 0.16, 0.39 and 0.80 for source strength of 4.081, 2.041, 1.020, 0.510 and 0.347 cGy x m2 x h–1, respectively.The percentages of dose increase required to maintain the same BED with respect to initial BED were estimated as1.71, 5.00, 11.00 and 15.86 for the dose rate of 24.7, 12.4, 6.2 and 4.2 Gy/hr at point A, respectively. Conclusions: This retrospective study of cervical cancer patients treated with HDR-BT at different Ir-192 sourcestrength shows reduction in disease free survival according to the increase in treatment time duration per fraction.The probable result could be associated with the decrease of biological equivalent dose to point A. Clinical

  20. Effective Teaching Practices. Research Watch. E&R Report No. 10.01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, Glenda

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the overall findings of research on effective teaching practices in Wake County Public Schools (WCPSS). It is a cross-case analysis of five earlier studies (Biology, Algebra I, U.S. History, middle school Algebra I, and English I). Despite subject implementation differences, four common themes were found: (1) high academic…

  1. (Development and applications of photosensitive device systems to biological studies). Three year progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1978-01-01

    The research has been directed to the two areas of x-ray diffraction and bioluminescence, with emphasis in the area of x-ray detection. Interest in x-ray image intensification techniques for biological and medical applications is long standing, and more and more utilized each year. During the past year, as the result of publications and participation in several workshops, the demonstrated advantages of our system over fast scan TV systems and multiwire chambers have become recognized, and several groups have requested us to supply them with a similar system. This is particularly true for use at the synchrotron x-ray sources. Although in recent years less effort has been spent in bioluminescence studies, results have been numerous, both in instrumentation development and experimental results. Bioluminescence is not only of interest in itself, but is a powerful tool for nondestructive study of other biological processes.

  2. Third international conference on intelligent systems for molecular biology (ISMB-95): Summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The specific aims of the Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB-95) were to: convene a critical mass of researchers applying advanced computational techniques to problems in molecular biology; promote interchange of problems and solutions between computer scientists and molecular biologists; create education opportunities in this cross-disciplinary field for students and senior researchers wishing to either apply or benefit from these techniques; produce an archival proceedings as a forum for rapid dissemination of new results in a peer-reviewed manner; produce a set of tutorial materials for education and training of researchers interested in this field; maintain the momentum generated by the highly successful previous conferences in the series, and establish a regular event that will help to solidify the field; and foster the involvement of women and minorities in the field.

  3. Department of Defense Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Defense Program, Annual Report to Congress, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    using a Gaussian puff methodology transport and dispersion engine called SCIPUFF to drive specific nuclear, biological or chemical event applications...3D) hazard environment as a function of hazard delivery system (source term), meteorological conditions and complex (3D) terrain. The DTRA SCIPUFF ...The NCBR’s modular, scalable architecture supports integration of other hazard models (an earlier-generation NCBR included DTRA’s SCIPUFF

  4. (Genetics and molecular biology of Robertson's Mutator: A workshop series): Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckner, B.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of the Workshop Series on the Genetics and Molecular Biology of Robertson's Mutator were to assess and consolidate interpretations of current Mutator research and to recognize and honor the outstanding contributions of Donald S. Robertson. To this end, a program of lectures, workshops, posters and opportunities for informal interaction was planned and carried out as indicated in the enclosed registration booklet. Within the context of the workshops, several topics were discussed. These discussions are summarized in abstract form.

  5. Biological and biochemical methane reactions. Annual report, March 1987-February 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, H.; Willse, A.R.G.; Pienkos, P.T.; Stirling, D.I.

    1988-05-01

    This project is aimed at determining those features of the enzyme methane monooxygenase that contribute to its catalytic conversion of methane to methanol. Biological and biochemical efforts identified the essential nature of the bi-metal center at the active site of the enzyme, solubilized its more active copper-dependent form, and found and screened many new methanotrophs that function in widely different chemical and physical environments.

  6. Chemical analysis and biological testing of materials from the EDS coal liquefaction process: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Later, D.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

    1984-05-01

    Representative process materials were obtained from the EDS pilot plant for chemical and biological analyses. These materials were characterized for biological activity and chemical composition using a microbial mutagenicity assay and chromatographic and mass spectrometric analytical techniques. The two highest boiling distillation cuts, as well as process solvent (PS) obtained from the bottoms recycle mode operation, were tested for initiation of mouse skin tumorigenicity. All three materials were active; the crude 800/sup 0 +/F cut was substantially more potent than the crude bottoms recycle PS or 750 to 800/sup 0/F distillate cut. Results from chemical analyses showed the EDS materials, in general, to be more highly alkylated and have higher hydroaromatic content than analogous SRC II process materials (no in-line process hydrogenation) used for comparison. In the microbial mutagenicity assays the N-PAC fractions showed greater activity than did the aliphatic hydrocarbon, hydroxy-PAH, or PAH fractions, although mutagenicity was detected in certain PAH fractions by a modified version of the standard microbial mutagenicity assay. Mutagenic activities for the EDS materials were lower, overall, than those for the corresponding materials from the SRC II process. The EDS materials produced under different operational modes had distinguishable differences in both their chemical constituency and biological activity. The primary differences between the EDS materials studied here and their SRC II counterparts used for comparison are most likely attributable to the incorporation of catalytic hydrogenation in the EDS process. 27 references, 28 figures, 27 tables.

  7. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic Bight: Phytoplankton response. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verity, P.G.; Yoder, J.A.

    1992-03-10

    This study addressed shelf-wide processes and nearshore (coastal boundary zone) processes occurring in the southeastern. Coastal boundary zone (CBZ) US continental shelf dynamics involve studies of circulation and of biological and chemical transformations. Continental shelf processes affect the removal of material from the coastal boundary zone into areas where the material no longer interacts with or influences concentrations in the CBZ. The two arbitrarily separate components are, in fact, unified. The CBZ typically extends about 300 km along-shore and about 20 km offshore from its center off Savannah, Georgia, where most runoff occurs. The rates of biological and chemical transformations are controlled by proximity to the bottom and the amounts of fine suspended organic matter originating from rivers and salt marshes. Once material is removed from this zone, either by a long-shelf or cross-shelf advection to regions where the materials are no longer in contact with the bottom, the suite of factors governing the rates of chemical and biological transformations changes. The determination of contrasting rates in these two environments was one of the central focuses of the South Atlantic Bight program.

  8. The ARBITER 6-HALTS Trial (Arterial Biology for the Investigation of the Treatment Effects of Reducing Cholesterol 6-HDL and LDL Treatment Strategies in Atherosclerosis): final results and the impact of medication adherence, dose, and treatment duration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Villines, Todd C; Stanek, Eric J; Devine, Patrick J; Turco, Mark; Miller, Michael; Weissman, Neil J; Griffen, Len; Taylor, Allen J

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the final results of the ARBITER 6-HALTS (Arterial Biology for the Investigation of the Treatment Effects of Reducing Cholesterol 6-HDL and LDL Treatment Strategies in Atherosclerosis) trial...

  9. How Clean is Safe? Improving the Effectiveness of Decontamination of Structures and People Following Chemical and Biological Incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt (Sorensen), B.M.

    2003-04-03

    This report describes a U.S. Department of Energy, (DOE) Chemical and Biological National Security Program project that sought to establish what is known about decontamination of structures, objects, and people following an exposure to chemical or biological materials. Specifically we sought to identify the procedures and protocols used to determine when and how people or buildings are considered ''clean'' following decontamination. To fulfill this objective, the study systematically examined reported decontamination experiences to determine what procedures and protocols are currently employed for decontamination, the timeframe involved to initiate and complete the decontamination process, how the contaminants were identified, the factors determining when people were (or were not) decontaminated, the problems encountered during the decontamination process, how response efforts of agencies were coordinated, and the perceived social psychological effects on people who were decontaminated or who participated in the decontamination process. Findings and recommendations from the study are intended to aid decision-making and to improve the basis for determining appropriate decontamination protocols for recovery planners and policy makers for responding to chemical and biological events.

  10. Allee effects in tritrophic food chains: some insights in pest biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Michel Iskin da S; Dos Anjos, Lucas

    2016-12-01

    Release of natural enemies to control pest populations is a common strategy in biological control. However, its effectiveness is supposed to be impaired, among other factors, by Allee effects in the biological control agent and by the fact that introduced pest natural enemies interact with some native species of the ecosystem. In this work, we devise a tritrophic food chain model where the assumptions previously raised are proved correct when a hyperpredator attacks the introduced pest natural enemy by a functional response type 2 or 3. Moreover, success of pest control is shown to be related to the release of large amounts (i.e., inundative releases) of natural enemies.

  11. Study of complex matrix effect on solid phase microextraction for biological sample analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ruifen; Xu, Jianqiao; Zhu, Fang; Luan, Tiangang; Zeng, Feng; Shen, Yong; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2015-09-11

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) has become a useful tool for in vivo monitoring the behavior of environmental organic pollutants in biological species due to its simplicity, relatively non-invasive, and cost-effective manner. However, the complex matrices in biological samples could significantly influence the extraction kinetic, and bias the quantification result. In this study, we investigated the effect of complex matrix on the extraction kinetic of SPME for biological sample analysis. Two sample matrices, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and agarose gel with BSA were used to simulate the biological fluid and tissue. Results showed that the addition of BSA significantly enhanced the mass transfer of organic compounds onto SPME fiber in both PBS buffer and gel sample. Enhancement factors ranging from 1.3 to 27, and 2.0 to 80 were found for all selected polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PBS buffer and agarose gel with BSA concentration of 0.1-5%, respectively. Then, an improved theoretical model was applied to quantify the observed enhancement effect, and the result showed that the predicted sampling time constant agreed well with the experimental one in complex matrix. Furthermore, a simplified equation was proposed for the real biological sample analysis.

  12. Efficacy of Regulated 12-Session Matrix Model on restraining methamphetamine-dependence: Biological evidence and self-reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Amiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Substance abuse is accompanied by a wide range of psychological, social, and economic adverse outcomes and damages. Methamphetamine (abuse is dangerous because of its wide range adverse outcomes and hazardous sustaining side effects. Moreover, Methamphetamine-dependence is usually treatment-resistant. This study evaluated the Regulated 12-Session Matrix Model in treatment of outpatient ethamphetamine-dependent individuals. Method: 24 individuals were chosen according to inclusion/exclusion criteria of the study and randomly assigned to equal experimental (age range 19-41; mean age: 46.9 and control groups (age range: 21-42; mean age: 27.8. Experimental group members partook Regulated 12-Session Matrix Model once a week in 12 consecutive weeks, while control group members remained at waitlist. Results:Independent t-test in 12th week showed that experimental group had lower methamphetamine use, comparing to control group (p<.05.Phillai’s Trace, Wilk’sLambda,Hotelling-Lawley's trace, and Roy's largest root showed that there are significant association between experimental and control groups in reduction of methamphetamine-use lapse (p<.05.Within-subject F ratio revealed that “methamphetamine use” was significantly reduced in experimental group after clinical intervention (p<.001. Urine test showed significant difference in results of negative responses by the end of intervention (p<.05 in experimental group, compared to control group, which was also significant from the results of both groups in pre-test (p<.001. Discussion and conclusion: Efficacy of Regulated 12-Session Matrix Model in craving control and reduction of lapse and substance (abuse in methamphetamine-dependent patients was approved with self-reports and biological indicators. Regulated 12-Session Matrix Model has been proved to be beneficial in methamphetaminedependencetreatment in Iran and other alike cultural and social atmospheres. Limitations and future

  13. Biological test methods for the ecotoxicological characterization of wastes. Final report; Biologische Testerverfahren zur oekotoxikologischen Charakterisierung von Abfaellen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Roland [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung, Berlin (Germany); Donnevert, Gerhild [Fachhochschule Giessen-Friedberg (Germany). FB MNI; Roembke, Joerg [ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH, Floersheim am Main (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    battery the acceptance rate varied between 74.1% (Algae test) and 92.6% (Daphnia test). Methodologically, no problems occurred but further guidance on moisture determination in the terrestrial tests as well as details concerning reference testing and data evaluation for several tests are needed. Independently which test system is considered, SOI always caused the lowest effects and WOO was most toxic, while the EC50 values of INC show an intermediate toxicity. Among the aquatic tests, daphnids and one algal species were the most sensitive ones, while plants were always more sensitive than earthworms in the solid waste samples. Based on the test results from additional tests proposals for the modification of the existing basic test battery could be made. For example, the earthworm acute test could be replaced by another soil invertebrate test with higher sensitivity. Further work performed in parallel to the ring test improves waste testing considerably (e.g. the use of artificial soil as control substrate). A comparison of the ring test results with literature data published so far revealed a good agreement. The results of this ring test support confirm that a combination of a battery of biological tests and chemical residue analysis is needed for an ecotoxicological characterization of wastes. With small modifications proposed in this report the basic test battery is considered to be well suitable for the hazard and risk assessment of wastes. Further, probably multi-variate evaluation of the ring test results will improve the identification of those tests most qualified for the ecotoxicological characterization of wastes. Finally, the experiences made in the ring test support also the proposals made in CEN guideline 14735 (2005) concerning the performance of such tests. (orig.)

  14. Nonlinear effects of the finite amplitude ultrasound wave in biological tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Nonlinear effects will occur during the transmission of the finite amplitude wave in biological tissues.The theoretical prediction and experimental demonstration of the nonlinear effects on the propagation of the finite amplitude wave at the range of biomedical ultrasound frequency and intensity are studied.Results show that the efficiency factor and effective propagation distance will decrease while the attenuation coefficient increases due to the existence of nonlinear effects.The experimental results coincided quite well with the theory.This shows that the effective propagation distance and efficiency factor can be used to describe quantitatively the influence of nonlinear effects on the propagation of the finite amplitude sound wave in biological tissues.

  15. ICBEN review of research on the biological effects of noise 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Brink, Mark; Bristow, Abigail; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Finegold, Lawrence; Hong, Jiyoung; Janssen, Sabine A; Klaeboe, Ronny; Leroux, Tony; Liebl, Andreas; Matsui, Toshihito; Schwela, Dieter; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    The mandate of the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN) is to promote a high level of scientific research concerning all aspects of noise-induced effects on human beings and animals. In this review, ICBEN team chairs and co-chairs summarize relevant findings, publications, developments, and policies related to the biological effects of noise, with a focus on the period 2011-2014 and for the following topics: Noise-induced hearing loss; nonauditory effects of noise; effects of noise on performance and behavior; effects of noise on sleep; community response to noise; and interactions with other agents and contextual factors. Occupational settings and transport have been identified as the most prominent sources of noise that affect health. These reviews demonstrate that noise is a prevalent and often underestimated threat for both auditory and nonauditory health and that strategies for the prevention of noise and its associated negative health consequences are needed to promote public health.

  16. Effective identification of conserved pathways in biological networks using hidden Markov models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Qian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The advent of various high-throughput experimental techniques for measuring molecular interactions has enabled the systematic study of biological interactions on a global scale. Since biological processes are carried out by elaborate collaborations of numerous molecules that give rise to a complex network of molecular interactions, comparative analysis of these biological networks can bring important insights into the functional organization and regulatory mechanisms of biological systems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this paper, we present an effective framework for identifying common interaction patterns in the biological networks of different organisms based on hidden Markov models (HMMs. Given two or more networks, our method efficiently finds the top matching paths in the respective networks, where the matching paths may contain a flexible number of consecutive insertions and deletions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on several protein-protein interaction (PPI networks obtained from the Database of Interacting Proteins (DIP and other public databases, we demonstrate that our method is able to detect biologically significant pathways that are conserved across different organisms. Our algorithm has a polynomial complexity that grows linearly with the size of the aligned paths. This enables the search for very long paths with more than 10 nodes within a few minutes on a desktop computer. The software program that implements this algorithm is available upon request from the authors.

  17. Waist circumference as a mediator of biological maturation effect on the motor coordination in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo G.O. Luz

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The present study aimed to: 1 examine the association of biological maturation effect on performance at a motor coordination battery and 2 to assess whether the association between biological maturation and scores obtained in motor coordination tests is mediated by some anthropometric measurement. Methods: The convenience sample consisted of 73 male children aged 8 years old. Anthropometric data considered the height, body mass, sitting height, waist circumference, body mass index, fat mass and fat-free mass estimates. Biological maturation was assessed by the percentage of the predicted mature stature. Motor coordination was tested by the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. A partial correlation between anthropometric measurements, z-score of maturation and the motor coordination tests were performed, controlling for chronological age. Finally, causal mediation analysis was performed. Results: Height, body mass, waist circumference and fat mass showed a slight to moderate inverse correlation with motor coordination. Biological maturation was significantly associated with the balance test with backward walking (r=-0.34. Total mediation of the waist circumference was identified in the association between biological maturation and balance test with backward walking (77%. Conclusions: We identified an association between biological maturation and KTK test performance in male children and also verified that there is mediation of waist circumference. It is recommended that studies be carried out with female individuals and at other age ranges.

  18. A Study Assessing the Potential of Negative Effects in Interdisciplinary Math–Biology Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madlung, Andreas; Bremer, Martina; Himelblau, Edward; Tullis, Alexa

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing enthusiasm for teaching approaches that combine mathematics and biology. The call for integrating more quantitative work in biology education has led to new teaching tools that improve quantitative skills. Little is known, however, about whether increasing interdisciplinary work can lead to adverse effects, such as the development of broader but shallower skills or the possibility that math anxiety causes some students to disengage in the classroom, or, paradoxically, to focus so much on the mathematics that they lose sight of its application for the biological concepts in the center of the unit at hand. We have developed and assessed an integrative learning module and found disciplinary learning gains to be equally strong in first-year students who actively engaged in embedded quantitative calculations as in those students who were merely presented with quantitative data in the context of interpreting biological and biostatistical results. When presented to advanced biology students, our quantitative learning tool increased test performance significantly. We conclude from our study that the addition of mathematical calculations to the first year and advanced biology curricula did not hinder overall student learning, and may increase disciplinary learning and data interpretation skills in advanced students. PMID:21364099

  19. Waist circumference as a mediator of biological maturation effect on the motor coordination in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Leonardo G.O.; Seabra, André; Padez, Cristina; Duarte, João P.; Rebelo-Gonçalves, Ricardo; Valente-dos-Santos, João; Luz, Tatiana D.D.; Carmo, Bruno C.M.; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The present study aimed to: 1) examine the association of biological maturation effect on performance at a motor coordination battery and 2) to assess whether the association between biological maturation and scores obtained in motor coordination tests is mediated by some anthropometric measurement. Methods: The convenience sample consisted of 73 male children aged 8 years old. Anthropometric data considered the height, body mass, sitting height, waist circumference, body mass index, fat mass and fat-free mass estimates. Biological maturation was assessed by the percentage of the predicted mature stature. Motor coordination was tested by the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. A partial correlation between anthropometric measurements, z-score of maturation and the motor coordination tests were performed, controlling for chronological age. Finally, causal mediation analysis was performed. Results: Height, body mass, waist circumference and fat mass showed a slight to moderate inverse correlation with motor coordination. Biological maturation was significantly associated with the balance test with backward walking (r=-0.34). Total mediation of the waist circumference was identified in the association between biological maturation and balance test with backward walking (77%). Conclusions: We identified an association between biological maturation and KTK test performance in male children and also verified that there is mediation of waist circumference. It is recommended that studies be carried out with female individuals and at other age ranges. PMID:26972616

  20. Waist circumference as a mediator of biological maturation effect on the motor coordination in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Leonardo G O; Seabra, André; Padez, Cristina; Duarte, João P; Rebelo-Gonçalves, Ricardo; Valente-Dos-Santos, João; Luz, Tatiana D D; Carmo, Bruno C M; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to: 1) examine the association of biological maturation effect on children's performance at a motor coordination battery and 2) to assess whether the association between biological maturation and scores obtained in motor coordination tests is mediated by some anthropometric measurement. The convenience sample consisted of 73 male children aged 8 years old. Anthropometric data considered the height, body mass, sitting height, waist circumference, body mass index, fat mass and fat-free mass estimates. Biological maturation was assessed by the percentage of the predicted mature stature. Motor coordination was tested by the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. A partial correlation between anthropometric measurements, z-score of maturation and the motor coordination tests were performed, controlling for chronological age. Finally, causal mediation analysis was performed. Height, body mass, waist circumference and fat mass showed a slight to moderate inverse correlation with motor coordination. Biological maturation was significantly associated with the balance test with backward walking (r=-0.34). Total mediation of the waist circumference was identified in the association between biological maturation and balance test with backward walking (77%). We identified an association between biological maturation and KTK test performance in male children and also verified that there is mediation of waist circumference. It is recommended that studies be carried out with female individuals and at other age ranges. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.