WorldWideScience

Sample records for reported behavioral evidence

  1. Self-reported versus behavioral self-handicapping: empirical evidence for a theoretical distinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, E R; Deppe, R K; Gordon, L J

    1991-12-01

    The present study was an investigation of how Ss would respond when given 2 self-handicapping options, 1 behavioral (withdrawal of practice effort) and 1 self-reported (reporting high levels of stress). Ss anticipating a diagnostic test of intellectual ability were given different instructions regarding the effects of stress and practice on test performance. Ss were told that (a) stress only, (b) practice only, (c) both stress and practice, or (d) neither stress nor practice affected test scores. Ss were then given the opportunity to self-report a handicap on a stress inventory and to behaviorally self-handicap by failing to practice before the test. High self-handicapping men and women showed evidence of self-reported handicapping, but only high self-handicapping men behaviorally self-handicapped. However, when both self-handicaps were viable, both high self-handicapping men and women preferred the self-reported over the behavioral self-handicap.

  2. Risk of Adverse Cognitive or Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders: Evidence Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Kelley J.; Williams, Thomas J.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Whitmire, Alexandra M.; Picano, James J.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Schmidt, Lacey L.; Shea, Camille

    2016-01-01

    In April 2010, President Obama declared a space pioneering goal for the United States in general and NASA in particular. "Fifty years after the creation of NASA, our goal is no longer just a destination to reach. Our goal is the capacity for people to work and learn and operate and live safely beyond the Earth for extended periods of time, ultimately in ways that are more sustainable and even indefinite." Thus NASA's Strategic Objective 1.1 emerged as "expand human presence into the solar system and to the surface of Mars to advance exploration, science, innovation, benefits to humanity, and international collaboration" (NASA 2015b). Any space flight, be it of long or short duration, occurs in an extreme environment that has unique stressors. Even with excellent selection methods, the potential for behavioral problems among space flight crews remain a threat to mission success. Assessment of factors that are related to behavioral health can help minimize the chances of distress and, thus, reduce the likelihood of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders arising within a crew. Similarly, countermeasures that focus on prevention and treatment can mitigate the cognitive or behavioral conditions that, should they arise, would impact mission success. Given the general consensus that longer duration, isolation, and confined missions have a greater risk for behavioral health ensuring crew behavioral health over the long term is essential. Risk, which within the context of this report is assessed with respect to behavioral health and performance, is addressed to deter development of cognitive and behavioral degradations or psychiatric conditions in space flight and analog populations, and to monitor, detect, and treat early risk factors, predictors and other contributing factors. Based on space flight and analog evidence, the average incidence rate of an adverse behavioral health event occurring during a space mission is relatively low for the

  3. The Dominance Behavioral System and Psychopathology: Evidence from Self-Report, Observational, and Biological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Leedom, Liane J.; Muhtadie, Luma

    2012-01-01

    The dominance behavioral system (DBS) can be conceptualized as a biologically-based system which guides dominance motivation, dominant and subordinate behavior, and responsivity to perceptions of power and subordination. A growing body of research suggests that problems with the DBS are evident across a broad range of psychopathologies. We begin by describing psychological, social, and biological correlates of the dominance behavioral system (DBS). Extensive research suggests that externalizing disorders, mania-proneness, and narcissistic traits are related to heightened dominance motivation and behaviors. Mania and narcissistic traits also appear related to inflated self-perceptions of power. Anxiety and depression are related to subordination and submissiveness, as well as a desire to avoid subordination. Models of the DBS have received support from research with humans and animals; from self-report, observational, and biological methods; and using naturalistic and experimental paradigms. Limitations of available research include the relative lack of longitudinal studies using multiple measures of the DBS and the absence of relevant studies using diagnosed samples to study narcissistic personality disorder and bipolar disorder. We provide suggestions for future research on the DBS and psychopathology, including investigations of whether the DBS can be used to differentiate specific disorder outcomes; the need for more sophisticated biological research; and the value of longitudinal dynamical research. Implications of using the DBS as a tool in clinical assessment and treatment are discussed. PMID:22506751

  4. The Dominance Behavioral System and Psychopathology: Evidence from Self-Report, Observational, and Biological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Leedom, Liane J.; Muhtadie, Luma

    2012-01-01

    The dominance behavioral system (DBS) can be conceptualized as a biologically based system that guides dominance motivation, dominant and subordinate behavior, and responsivity to perceptions of power and subordination. A growing body of research suggests that problems with the DBS are evident across a broad range of psychopathologies. We begin by…

  5. Research Base for Improved Classroom Learning: Brain or Behavior? Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 1, #9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruer, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Implicit in recent Evidence Speaks postings is the need to develop evidence-based interventions for improving student achievement. Comparative analysis of the education research literature versus the educational neuroscience literature suggests that education research, grounded in the behavioral and cognitive sciences, is currently the better…

  6. An Evidence-Driven, Solution-Focused Approach to Functional Behavior Assessment Report Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Ryan L.; Floyd, Randy G.

    2016-01-01

    School-based practitioners are to implement and report functional behavior assessments (FBAs) that are consistent with both the research literature and the law, both federal and state. However, the literature regarding how best to document the FBA process is underdeveloped. A review of applied behavior analytic and school psychology literature as…

  7. What does self-reported "dieting" mean? Evidence from a daily diary study of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Elizabeth; Smith, Jane Ellen; Serier, Kelsey; Smith, Jamie; Santistevan, Dominique; Simmons, Jeremiah

    2018-04-21

    Dieting is often recommended as a means of weight loss, yet research consistently shows that self-reported dieting does not result in weight loss. Toward resolving this discrepancy, this study assessed the daily dietary intake and weight control strategies of people who self-identified as dieting. College women (N = 266) provided a report of their eating pattern (dieting, "watching what I eat," and/or "eating healthy") followed by three daily diaries (24-hour recalls of dietary intake and weight control strategies) elicited on randomly selected days during a one-month period. Dieters were expected to report fewer daily calories, more daily exercise, and more weight control strategies than non-dieters. At baseline, 122 participants (45.9%) endorsed both "watching" and "eating healthy" ("Concerned Eaters") while 55 (20.7%) endorsed current dieting along with "watching" and "eating healthy" ("Dieters"). Just 3 (1.1%) endorsed dieting only, and 31 (11.7%) endorsed no eating pattern ("Unconcerned Eaters"). Dieters' mean BMI was in the overweight range; the mean BMIs of other groups were in the normal weight range. Dieters did not consistently endorse dieting across diaries. Nevertheless, Dieters reported fewer daily calories, and more overall weight control strategies, including more healthy weight control strategies, than Concerned Eaters. Across groups, participants' weights did not change significantly during the study. Dieters appear to engage in weight control strategies which could result in weight loss; however, their reports of whether they are dieting vary across days, suggesting a need for more consistent behavior. These results have clinical and research implications in the area of weight loss. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Reporting unethical research behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, N S; Korenman, S G; Berk, R; Liu, H

    1999-10-01

    Scientists, as professionals, have a responsibility to self-regulate. However, whistleblowing is rare. We investigated scientists' infrequent disclosure of unethical behavior by studying their responses to scenarios describing unethical research acts and compared their responses to those of research administrators. A cross-sectional survey was administered to National Science Foundation-funded principal investigators and their institutions' representatives (IRs) to the Office of Research Integrity. Both scientists and IRs proposed to respond to nearly all research behaviors that they rated as unethical. Scientists more often proposed responses limited to the research team (58% vs. 25% of cases, p unethical behavior were not. Scientists appear to perceive that they uphold their responsibility to respond to unethical behavior by disclosures within the research team, whereas administrators propose to report to externally accountable individuals, raising the question of whether scientists' behavior constitutes professional self-regulation or cover up.

  9. Evidence for Connections between Prosecutor-Reported Marijuana Case Dispositions and Community Youth Marijuana-Related Attitudes and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; McBride, Duane C.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; VanderWaal, Curtis J.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines relationships between local drug policy (as represented by prosecutor-reported case outcomes for first-offender juvenile marijuana possession cases) and youth self-reported marijuana use, perceived risk, and disapproval. Interviews with prosecutors and surveys of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students in the United States were…

  10. Enhancing the Evidence for Behavioral Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara, Carmela; Klesges, Lisa M.; Resnicow, Ken; Stone, Amy; Davidson, Karina W.

    2015-01-01

    U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) clinical guidelines at present rarely assign the highest grade recommendation to behavioral counseling interventions for chronic disease prevention or risk reduction because of concerns about the certainty and quality of the evidence base. As a result, the broad integration of behavioral counseling interventions in primary care remains elusive. Thus, there is an urgent need for novel perspectives on how to generate the highest-quality and -certainty evidence for primary care–focused behavioral counseling interventions. As members of the Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM)—a multidisciplinary scientific organization committed to improving population health through behavior change—we review the USPSTF mandate and current recommendations for behavioral counseling interventions, and provide a perspective for the future that calls for concerted and coordinated efforts among SBM, USPSTF, and other organizations invested in the rapid and wider uptake of beneficial, feasible, and referable primary care–focused behavioral counseling interventions. This perspective highlights five areas for further development, including: (1) behavioral counseling–focused practice-based research networks; (2) promotion of USPSTF evidence standards and the increased use of pragmatic RCT design; (3) quality control and improvement procedures for behavioral counseling training; (4) systematic research on effective primary care–based collaborative care models; and (5) methodologic innovations that capitalize on disruptive technologies and healthcare transformation. Collective efforts to improve the health of all Americans in the 21st century and beyond must ensure that effective, feasible, and referable behavioral counseling interventions are embedded in modern primary care practice. PMID:26296553

  11. Enhancing reporting of behavior change intervention evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, C.; Johnson, B.T.; de Bruin, M.; Luszczynska, A.

    2014-01-01

    Many behavior change interventions for the prevention and treatment of HIV have been evaluated, but suboptimal reporting of evaluations hinders the accumulation of evidence and the replication of interventions. In this article, we address 4 practices contributing to this problem. First, detailed

  12. Physical evidence of predatory behavior in Tyrannosaurus rex

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePalma, Robert A., II; Burnham, David A.; Martin, Larry D.; Rothschild, Bruce M.; Larson, Peter L.

    2013-07-01

    Feeding strategies of the large theropod, Tyrannosaurus rex, either as a predator or a scavenger, have been a topic of debate previously compromised by lack of definitive physical evidence. Tooth drag and bone puncture marks have been documented on suggested prey items, but are often difficult to attribute to a specific theropod. Further, postmortem damage cannot be distinguished from intravital occurrences, unless evidence of healing is present. Here we report definitive evidence of predation by T. rex: a tooth crown embedded in a hadrosaurid caudal centrum, surrounded by healed bone growth. This indicates that the prey escaped and lived for some time after the injury, providing direct evidence of predatory behavior by T. rex. The two traumatically fused hadrosaur vertebrae partially enclosing a T. rex tooth were discovered in the Hell Creek Formation of South Dakota.

  13. Behavioral Activation Is an Evidence-Based Treatment for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturmey, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Recent reviews of evidence-based treatment for depression did not identify behavioral activation as an evidence-based practice. Therefore, this article conducted a systematic review of behavioral activation treatment of depression, which identified three meta-analyses, one recent randomized controlled trial and one recent follow-up of an earlier…

  14. The effects of a disease management program on self-reported health behaviors and health outcomes: evidence from the "Florida: a healthy state (FAHS)" Medicaid program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisky, Donald E; Kominski, Gerald F; Afifi, Abdelmonem A; Kotlerman, Jenny B

    2009-06-01

    Premature morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases account for a major proportion of expenditures for health care cost in the United States. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of a disease management program on physiological and behavioral health indicators for Medicaid patients in Florida. A two-year prospective study of 15,275 patients with one or more chronic illnesses (congestive heart failure, hypertension, diabetes, or asthma) was undertaken. Control of hypertension improved from baseline to Year 1 (adjusted odds ratio = 1.60, p management program benefited in terms of controlling hypertension, asthma symptoms, and cholesterol and blood glucose levels.

  15. Management of REM sleep behavior disorder: An evidence based review

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Devnani; Racheal Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment behavior resulting from a loss of REM skeletal muscle atonia. The neurobiology of REM sleep and the characteristic features of REM atonia have an important basis for understanding the aggravating etiologies the proposed pharmacological interventions in its management. This review outlines the evidence for behavioral and therapeutic measures along with evidence-based guidelines for their implementation, ...

  16. Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Repetitive Behaviors in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Brian A.; McDonough, Stephen G.; Bodfish, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature…

  17. Behaviorism: Are reports of its death exaggerated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, W. Joseph; Hawkins, Robert P.; Davis, Pamela

    1986-01-01

    Despite reports that behaviorism is dead or dying, examination of the data indicates otherwise. The opinions of psychology historians, the number of professional associations devoted to behaviorism, and the increasing number of behavioral publications all support the conclusion that behaviorism is vital and growing. PMID:22478651

  18. Role of CSR Reporting. Evidence from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Wójcik-Jurkiewicz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Role of CSR Reporting. Evidence from Poland The paper addresses the issue of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR reporting. The concept of CSR reporting is increasingly being discussed among practitioners and academics. The main objective of the paper is to investigate the trends of CSR reporting in Poland and to try to implement them in WIG 30 companies. The research confirmed the existing information chaos in these disclosures of socially responsible issues in various reports. An analysis of domestic and foreign literature has been performed which pointed to the multidimensionality of actions taken by companies in the context of CSR reporting. The research points to the need to apply standards regarding the disclosure of non-financial information in the form of reports for public limited companies.

  19. Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks. 2015 Letter Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Conner, Carol E. H.; Masys, Daniel R.; Liverman, Catharyn T.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has requested a study from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to provide an independent review of more than 30 evidence reports on human health risks for long duration and exploration spaceflight. The evidence reports, which are publicly available, are categorized into five broad categories: (1) behavioral health and performance; (2) human health countermeasures (with a focus on bone metabolism and orthopedics, nutrition, immunology, and cardiac and pulmonary physiology); (3) radiation; (4) human factors issues; and (5) exploration medical capabilities. The reports are revised on an ongoing basis to incorporate new scientific information. In conducting this study, an IOM ad hoc committee will build on the 2008 IOM report Review of NASA's Human Research Program Evidence Books. That report provided an assessment of the process used for developing the evidence reports and provided an initial review of the evidence reports that had been completed at that time. Each year, NASA staff will identify a set of evidence reports for committee review. Over the course of the study all evidence reports will be reviewed. The committee will hold an annual scientific workshop to receive input on the evidence reports it is reviewing that year and an update on the recent literature. The committee will issue an annual letter report that addresses the following questions relevant to each evidence report: 1. Does the evidence report provide sufficient evidence, as well as sufficient risk context, that the risk is of concern for long-term space missions? 2. Does the evidence report make the case for the research gaps presented? 3. Are there any additional gaps in knowledge or areas of fundamental research that should be considered to enhance the basic understanding of this specific risk? 4. Does the evidence report address relevant interactions among risks? 5. Is input from additional disciplines needed? 6. Is the breadth of the cited literature sufficient? 7. What is the overall

  20. Ethnicity and parental report of postoperative behavioral changes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Michelle A; Tan, Edwin T; Mayes, Linda C; Wahi, Aditi; Rosenbaum, Abraham; Strom, Suzanne; Santistevan, Ricci; Kain, Zeev N

    2013-05-01

    To examine the role of ethnicity and language in parent report of children's postoperative behavioral recovery. To compare incidence of new onset negative behavior change in English- and Spanish-speaking White and Hispanic children following outpatient surgery. Postoperative behavioral change in children is common; however, it is unknown whether cultural variables including ethnicity and language may influence parent report of children's behavioral recovery. Participants included 288 parents (English-speaking White, English-speaking Hispanic, Spanish-speaking Hispanic parents) of children undergoing outpatient elective surgery. Parents completed the post-hospitalization behavior questionnaire (PHBQ) and parents' postoperative pain measure (PPPM) on postoperative days one, three, and seven at home. Most parents (83%) reported onset of new negative behavioral change in children postoperatively. Generalized estimating equations revealed significant group differences in overall behavior change [Wald χ(2)(12) = 375.69, P children compared to English-speaking White (ESW) parents (day 1: P children's postoperative behavioral recovery may be influenced by cultural variables, such as ethnicity and language. The present results contribute to a growing body of evidence that highlights the need for culturally sensitive assessment and care of families in the medical setting. The findings may reflect differences in cultural values such as stoicism; however, future studies would benefit from examination of the factors that may account for the differences in reported behavior change after surgery (i.e., report bias, cultural values). © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Models of Investor Forecasting Behavior — Experimental Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Bonetto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Different forecasting behaviors affect investors’ trading decisions and lead to qualitatively different asset price trajectories. It has been shown in the literature that the weights that investors place on observed asset price changes when forecasting future price changes, and the nature of their confidence when price changes are forecast, determine whether price bubbles, price crashes, and unpredictable price cycles occur. In this paper, we report the results of behavioral experiments involving multiple investors who participated in a market for a virtual asset. Our goal is to study investors’ forecast formation. We conducted three experimental sessions with different participants in each session. We fit different models of forecast formation to the observed data. There is strong evidence that the investors forecast future prices by extrapolating past price changes, even when they know the fundamental value of the asset exactly and the extrapolated forecasts differ significantly from the fundamental value. The rational expectations hypothesis seems inconsistent with the observed forecasts. The forecasting models of all participants that best fit the observed forecasting data were of the type that cause price bubbles and cycles in dynamical systems models, and price bubbles and cycles ended up occurring in all three sessions.

  2. Behavioral management for children and adolescents: assessing the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Melissa H; George, Preethy; Armstrong, Mary I; Lyman, D Russell; Dougherty, Richard H; Daniels, Allen S; Ghose, Sushmita Shoma; Delphin-Rittmon, Miriam E

    2014-05-01

    Behavioral management services for children and adolescents are important components of the mental health service system. Behavioral management is a direct service designed to help develop or maintain prosocial behaviors in the home, school, or community. This review examined evidence for the effectiveness of family-centered, school-based, and integrated interventions. Literature reviews and individual studies published from 1995 through 2012 were identified by searching PubMed, PsycINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress, the Educational Resources Information Center, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Authors chose from three levels of evidence (high, moderate, and low) based on benchmarks for the number of studies and quality of their methodology. They also described the evidence of service effectiveness. The level of evidence for behavioral management was rated as high because of the number of well-designed randomized controlled trials across settings, particularly for family-centered and integrated family- and school-based interventions. Results for the effectiveness of behavioral management interventions were strong, depending on the type of intervention and mode of implementation. Evidence for school-based interventions as an isolated service was mixed, partly because complexities of evaluating group interventions in schools resulted in somewhat less rigor. Behavioral management services should be considered for inclusion in covered plans. Further research addressing the mechanisms of effect and specific populations, particularly at the school level, will assist in bolstering the evidence base for this important category of clinical intervention.

  3. Autism as a contingency-shaped disorder of verbal behavior: Evidence obtained and evidence needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, Michael D

    2004-01-01

    Drash and Tudor's argument that autism is a contingency-shaped disorder of verbal behavior is logical and consistent with behavioral principles, but the argument's premises have no direct empirical support and some conflicting evidence. The quantity and quality of research needed to support such a theory is compared to that found in the area of antisocial behavior in children, which has considerable evidence for a contingency-shaped etiology. Even if autism is largely inherited, this does not weaken the necessity or importance of behavioral intervention. Drash and Tudor's paper may serve a useful function by outlining areas in need of further study because a great deal more research is needed on how the early environment shapes the language, cognitive, and behavioral development of children.

  4. The Evidence-Based Practice of Applied Behavior Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Timothy A; Detrich, Ronnie; Wilczynski, Susan M; Spencer, Trina D; Lewis, Teri; Wolfe, Katie

    2014-05-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a model of professional decision-making in which practitioners integrate the best available evidence with client values/context and clinical expertise in order to provide services for their clients. This framework provides behavior analysts with a structure for pervasive use of the best available evidence in the complex settings in which they work. This structure recognizes the need for clear and explicit understanding of the strength of evidence supporting intervention options, the important contextual factors including client values that contribute to decision making, and the key role of clinical expertise in the conceptualization, intervention, and evaluation of cases. Opening the discussion of EBP in this journal, Smith (The Behavior Analyst, 36, 7-33, 2013) raised several key issues related to EBP and applied behavior analysis (ABA). The purpose of this paper is to respond to Smith's arguments and extend the discussion of the relevant issues. Although we support many of Smith's (The Behavior Analyst, 36, 7-33, 2013) points, we contend that Smith's definition of EBP is significantly narrower than definitions that are used in professions with long histories of EBP and that this narrowness conflicts with the principles that drive applied behavior analytic practice. We offer a definition and framework for EBP that aligns with the foundations of ABA and is consistent with well-established definitions of EBP in medicine, psychology, and other professions. In addition to supporting the systematic use of research evidence in behavior analytic decision making, this definition can promote clear communication about treatment decisions across disciplines and with important outside institutions such as insurance companies and granting agencies.

  5. Behavioral and EEG evidence for auditory memory suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Elizabeth Cano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The neural basis of motivated forgetting using the Think/No-Think (TNT paradigm is receiving increased attention with a particular focus on the mechanisms that enable memory suppression. However, most TNT studies have been limited to the visual domain. To assess whether and to what extent direct memory suppression extends across sensory modalities, we examined behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG effects of auditory Think/No-Think in healthy young adults by adapting the TNT paradigm to the auditory modality. Behaviorally, suppression of memory strength was indexed by prolonged response times during the retrieval of subsequently remembered No-Think words. We examined task-related EEG activity of both attempted memory retrieval and inhibition of a previously learned target word during the presentation of its paired associate. Event-related EEG responses revealed two main findings: 1 a centralized Think > No-Think positivity during auditory word presentation (from approximately 0-500ms, and 2 a sustained Think positivity over parietal electrodes beginning at approximately 600ms reflecting the memory retrieval effect which was significantly reduced for No-Think words. In addition, word-locked theta (4-8 Hz power was initially greater for No-Think compared to Think during auditory word presentation over fronto-central electrodes. This was followed by a posterior theta increase indexing successful memory retrieval in the Think condition.The observed event-related potential pattern and theta power analysis are similar to that reported in visual Think/No-Think studies and support a modality non-specific mechanism for memory inhibition. The EEG data also provide evidence supporting differing roles and time courses of frontal and parietal regions in the flexible control of auditory memory.

  6. Behavioral and EEG Evidence for Auditory Memory Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Maya E; Knight, Robert T

    2016-01-01

    The neural basis of motivated forgetting using the Think/No-Think (TNT) paradigm is receiving increased attention with a particular focus on the mechanisms that enable memory suppression. However, most TNT studies have been limited to the visual domain. To assess whether and to what extent direct memory suppression extends across sensory modalities, we examined behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) effects of auditory TNT in healthy young adults by adapting the TNT paradigm to the auditory modality. Behaviorally, suppression of memory strength was indexed by prolonged response time (RTs) during the retrieval of subsequently remembered No-Think words. We examined task-related EEG activity of both attempted memory retrieval and inhibition of a previously learned target word during the presentation of its paired associate. Event-related EEG responses revealed two main findings: (1) a centralized Think > No-Think positivity during auditory word presentation (from approximately 0-500 ms); and (2) a sustained Think positivity over parietal electrodes beginning at approximately 600 ms reflecting the memory retrieval effect which was significantly reduced for No-Think words. In addition, word-locked theta (4-8 Hz) power was initially greater for No-Think compared to Think during auditory word presentation over fronto-central electrodes. This was followed by a posterior theta increase indexing successful memory retrieval in the Think condition. The observed event-related potential pattern and theta power analysis are similar to that reported in visual TNT studies and support a modality non-specific mechanism for memory inhibition. The EEG data also provide evidence supporting differing roles and time courses of frontal and parietal regions in the flexible control of auditory memory.

  7. PHOTOMETRIC EVIDENCE FOR THE OSMOTIC BEHAVIOR OF RAT LIVER MICROSOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, Henry; James, Joseph M.; Anthony, William

    1963-01-01

    Electron microscope observations are consistent with the interpretation that the elements of the endoplasmic reticulum are osmotically active in situ as well as after isolation. More recently, it has been reported that microsomal suspensions equilibrate almost completely with added C14-sucrose and that no osmotic behavior is evident from photometric data. These findings were considered at variance with the electron microscope data. However, equilibration with added label simply attests to a relatively high permeability, and, in addition, the photometric data need not be critical. Osmotic volume changes, measured photometrically, may be masked by concomitant events (e.g., changes in the refractive index of the test solutions at varying osmotic pressures, breakdown of the particles, and agglutination). For these reasons the photometric experiments were repeated. In this work, the reciprocal of optical density of microsomal suspensions was found to vary linearly with the reciprocal of concentration of the medium at constant refractive index. These changes probably correspond to osmotic volume changes, since the effect was found to be (a) independent of substance used and (b) osmotically reversible. The transmission of the suspension was found to vary with the refractive index of the medium, the concentration of particles, and the wavelength of incident light, according to relationships that are similar to or identical with those obtained for mitochondrial suspensions. PMID:14064105

  8. Social class and prosocial behavior: current evidence, caveats, and questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piff, Paul K; Robinson, Angela R

    2017-12-01

    This review synthesizes research on social class and prosocial behavior. Individuals of lower social class display increased attention to others and greater sensitivity to others' welfare compared to individuals of higher social class, who exhibit more self-oriented patterns of social cognition. As a result, lower-class individuals are more likely to engage in other-beneficial prosocial behavior, whereas higher-class individuals are more prone to engage in self-beneficial behavior. Although the extant evidence indicates that higher social class standing may tend to undermine prosocial impulses, we propose that the effects of social class on prosocial behavior may also depend on three crucial factors: motivation, identity, and inequality. We discuss how and why these factors may moderate class differences in prosociality and offer promising lines of inquiry for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Unaltered emotional experience in Parkinson's disease: Pupillometry and behavioral evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Rachel; Rothermich, Kathrin; Kotz, Sonja A; Pell, Marc D

    2018-04-01

    Recognizing emotions in others is a pivotal part of socioemotional functioning and plays a central role in social interactions. It has been shown that individuals suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) are less accurate at identifying basic emotions such as fear, sadness, and happiness; however, previous studies have predominantly assessed emotion processing using unimodal stimuli (e.g., pictures) that do not reflect the complexity of real-world processing demands. Dynamic, naturalistic stimuli (e.g., movies) have been shown to elicit stronger subjective emotional experiences than unimodal stimuli and can facilitate emotion recognition. In this experiment, pupil measurements of PD patients and matched healthy controls (HC) were recorded while they watched short film clips. Participants' task was to identify the emotion elicited by each clip and rate the intensity of their emotional response. We explored (a) how PD affects subjective emotional experience in response to dynamic, ecologically valid film stimuli, and (b) whether there are PD-related changes in pupillary response, which may contribute to the differences in emotion processing reported in the literature. Behavioral results showed that identification of the felt emotion as well as perceived intensity varies by emotion, but no significant group effect was found. Pupil measurements revealed differences in dilation depending on the emotion evoked by the film clips (happy, tender, sadness, fear, and neutral) for both groups. Our results suggest that differences in emotional response may be negligible when PD patients and healthy controls are presented with dynamic, ecologically valid emotional stimuli. Given the limited data available on pupil response in PD, this study provides new evidence to suggest that the PD-related deficits in emotion processing reported in the literature may not translate to real-world differences in physiological or subjective emotion processing in early-stage PD patients.

  10. Validity of Retrospective Reports of Eating Behavior from the Eating Disorder Examination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stone, Jay M

    1999-01-01

    .... The EDE relies on retrospective self-report to obtain eating behavior information. However, there is growing evidence that retrospective self-reports are prone to errors arising from autobiographical memory...

  11. Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Assessing the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez de Arellano, Michael A.; Jobe-Shields, Lisa; George, Preethy; Dougherty, Richard H.; Daniels, Allen S.; Ghose, Sushmita Shoma; Huang, Larke; Delphin-Rittmon, Miriam E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is a conjoint parent-child treatment developed by Cohen, Mannarino, and Deblinger that uses cognitive-behavioral principles and exposure techniques to prevent and treat posttraumatic stress, depression, and behavioral problems. This review defined TF-CBT, differentiated it from other models, and assessed the evidence base. Methods Authors reviewed meta-analyses, reviews, and individual studies (1995 to 2013). Databases surveyed were PubMed, PsycINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, PILOTS, the ERIC, and the CINAHL. They chose from three levels of research evidence (high, moderate, and low) on the basis of benchmarks for number of studies and quality of their methodology. They also described the evidence of effectiveness. Results The level of evidence for TF-CBT was rated as high on the basis of ten RCTs, three of which were conducted independently (not by TF-CBT developers). TF-CBT has demonstrated positive outcomes in reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, although it is less clear whether TF-CBT is effective in reducing behavior problems or symptoms of depression. Limitations of the studies include concerns about investigator bias and exclusion of vulnerable populations. Conclusions TF-CBT is a viable treatment for reducing trauma-related symptoms among some children who have experienced trauma and their nonoffending caregivers. Based on this evidence, TF-CBT should be available as a covered service in health plans. Ongoing research is needed to further identify best practices for TF-CBT in various settings and with individuals from various racial and ethnic backgrounds and with varied trauma histories, symptoms, and stages of intellectual, social, and emotional development. PMID:24638076

  12. Mathematics Instruction for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Best-Evidence Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Nicole C.; Benner, Gregory J.; Tsai, Shu-Fei; Riccomini, Paul J.; Nelson, J. Ron

    2014-01-01

    The authors report findings of a best-evidence synthesis of the effects of mathematics instruction on the mathematics skills of students with emotional and behavioral disorders. The goal of the synthesis was to extend previous research by (a) detailing independent variables, instructional components, and outcome measures for each study; (b)…

  13. Honesty Is the Best Policy–When There Is Money in It : Can Firms Promote Honest Reporting Behavior by Managers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jia, Y.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides experimental evidence on how incentive compensation, peer-group behavior, and audit (team) effectiveness influence managerial reporting behavior. Results show that an increase in incentive compensation intensity induces subjects to report less truthfully. High level of peer

  14. Genetic evidence for patrilocal mating behavior among Neandertal groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Rosas, Antonio; Estalrrich, Almudena

    2011-01-01

    The remains of 12 Neandertal individuals have been found at the El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain), consisting of six adults, three adolescents, two juveniles, and one infant. Archaeological, paleontological, and geological evidence indicates that these individuals represent all or part of a contem...... of the three adult females carried different mtDNA lineages. These findings provide evidence to indicate that Neandertal groups not only were small and characterized by low genetic diversity but also were likely to have practiced patrilocal mating behavior....

  15. Evidence of Validity of the Job Crafting Behaviors Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Silva de Carvalho Chinelato

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractJob crafting behavior refers to the changes made by workers in their job context for adjusting their activities to their preferences. We sought to adapt and collect validity evidences of the Job Crafting Behaviors Scale for the Brazilian context, in a sample of 491 workers, with a mean age of 26.7 years. Factor analysis revealed that the final instrument consisted of three dimensions (increasing structural job resources, increasing social job resources, increasing challenging job demands, which showed good internal consistency indexes. These dimensions showed low or moderate correlations with work engagement, positive psychological capital, positive job affect, and in-role performance. The scale showed evidence of validity, the use of which is recommended for future research on the changes that people make in their jobs.

  16. Management of REM sleep behavior disorder: An evidence based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devnani, Preeti; Fernandes, Racheal

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment behavior resulting from a loss of REM skeletal muscle atonia. The neurobiology of REM sleep and the characteristic features of REM atonia have an important basis for understanding the aggravating etiologies the proposed pharmacological interventions in its management. This review outlines the evidence for behavioral and therapeutic measures along with evidence-based guidelines for their implementation, impact on falls, and effect on polysomnography (PSG) while highlighting the non-motor, autonomic, and cognitive impact of this entity. PubMed databases were reviewed upto May 2013 in peer-reviewed scientific literature regarding the pathophysiology and management of RBD in adults. The literature was graded according to the Oxford centre of evidence-based Medicine Levels. An early intervention that helps prevent consequences such as falls and provides a base for intervention with neuroprotective mechanisms and allocates a unique platform that RBD portrays with its high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency. RBD provides a unique platform with its high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency, providing an opportunity for early intervention both to prevent consequences such as falls and provide a base for intervention with neuroprotective mechanisms.

  17. Management of REM sleep behavior disorder: An evidence based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Devnani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD is characterized by dream enactment behavior resulting from a loss of REM skeletal muscle atonia. The neurobiology of REM sleep and the characteristic features of REM atonia have an important basis for understanding the aggravating etiologies the proposed pharmacological interventions in its management. This review outlines the evidence for behavioral and therapeutic measures along with evidence-based guidelines for their implementation, impact on falls, and effect on polysomnography (PSG while highlighting the non-motor, autonomic, and cognitive impact of this entity. PubMed databases were reviewed upto May 2013 in peer-reviewed scientific literature regarding the pathophysiology and management of RBD in adults. The literature was graded according to the Oxford centre of evidence-based Medicine Levels. An early intervention that helps prevent consequences such as falls and provides a base for intervention with neuroprotective mechanisms and allocates a unique platform that RBD portrays with its high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency. RBD provides a unique platform with its high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency, providing an opportunity for early intervention both to prevent consequences such as falls and provide a base for intervention with neuroprotective mechanisms.

  18. Enhancing the Evidence for Behavioral Counseling: A Perspective From the Society of Behavioral Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara, Carmela; Klesges, Lisa M; Resnicow, Ken; Stone, Amy; Davidson, Karina W

    2015-09-01

    U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) clinical guidelines at present rarely assign the highest grade recommendation to behavioral counseling interventions for chronic disease prevention or risk reduction because of concerns about the certainty and quality of the evidence base. As a result, the broad integration of behavioral counseling interventions in primary care remains elusive. Thus, there is an urgent need for novel perspectives on how to generate the highest-quality and -certainty evidence for primary care-focused behavioral counseling interventions. As members of the Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM)--a multidisciplinary scientific organization committed to improving population health through behavior change--we review the USPSTF mandate and current recommendations for behavioral counseling interventions and provide a perspective for the future that calls for concerted and coordinated efforts among SBM, USPSTF, and other organizations invested in the rapid and wider uptake of beneficial, feasible, and referable primary care-focused behavioral counseling interventions. This perspective highlights five areas for further development, including (1) behavioral counseling-focused practice-based research networks; (2) promotion of USPSTF evidence standards and the increased use of pragmatic RCT design; (3) quality control and improvement procedures for behavioral counseling training; (4) systematic research on effective primary care-based collaborative care models; and (5) methodologic innovations that capitalize on disruptive technologies and healthcare transformation. Collective efforts to improve the health of all Americans in the 21st century and beyond must ensure that effective, feasible, and referable behavioral counseling interventions are embedded in modern primary care practice. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of Behavioral Genetic Evidence on the Adjudication of Criminal Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Appelbaum, Paul S.; Scurich, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in behavioral genetics suggest a modest relationship among certain gene variants, early childhood experiences, and criminal behavior. Although scientific research examining this link is still at an early stage, genetic data are already being introduced in criminal trials. However, the extent to which such evidence is likely to affect jurors’ decisions has not previously been explored. In the present study, a representative sample of the U.S. population (n=250) received a vigne...

  20. Emotion and Aging: Evidence from Brain and Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie eEbner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Emotions play a central role in every human life from the moment we are born until we die. They prepare the body for action, highlight what should be noticed and remembered, and guide decisions and actions. As emotions are central to daily functioning, it is important to understand how aging affects perception, memory, experience, as well as regulation of emotions. The Frontiers research topic Emotion and Aging: Evidence from Brain and Behavior takes a step into uncovering emotional aging considering both brain and behavioral processes. The contributions featured in this issue adopt innovative theoretical perspectives and use novel methodological approaches to target a variety of topics that can be categorized into three overarching questions: How do cognition and emotion interact in aging in brain and behavior? What are behavioral and brain-related moderators of emotional aging? Does emotion-regulatory success as reflected in brain and behavior change with age? In this perspective paper we discuss theoretical innovation, methodological approach, and scientific advancement of the thirteen papers in the context of the broader literature on emotional aging. We conclude by reflecting on topics untouched and future directions to take.

  1. Five roles for using theory and evidence in the design and testing of behavior change interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, L Kay; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2011-01-01

    The prevailing wisdom in the field of health-related behavior change is that well-designed and effective interventions are guided by theory. Using the framework of intervention mapping, we describe and provide examples of how investigators can effectively select and use theory to design, test, and report interventions. We propose five roles for theory and evidence about theories: a) identification of behavior and determinants of behavior related to a specified health problem (i.e., the logic model of the problem); b) explication of a causal model that includes theoretical constructs for producing change in the behavior of interest (i.e., the logic model of change); c) selection of intervention methods and delivery of practical applications to achieve changes in health behavior; d) evaluation of the resulting intervention including theoretical mediating variables; and e) reporting of the active ingredients of the intervention together with the evaluation results. In problem-driven applied behavioral or social science, researchers use one or multiple theories, empiric evidence, and new research, both to assess a problem and to solve or prevent a problem. Furthermore, the theories for description of the problem may differ from the theories for its solution. In an applied approach, the main focus is on solving problems regarding health behavior change and improvement of health outcomes, and the criteria for success are formulated in terms of the problem rather than the theory. Resulting contributions to theory development may be quite useful, but they are peripheral to the problem-solving process.

  2. Evidence Report: Risk of Renal Stone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.; Pietrzyk, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The formation of renal stones poses an in-flight health risk of high severity, not only because of the impact of renal colic on human performance but also because of complications that could potentially lead to crew evacuation, such as hematuria, infection, hydronephrosis, and sepsis. Evidence for risk factors comes from urine analyses of crewmembers, documenting changes to the urinary environment that are conducive to increased saturation of stone-forming salts, which are the driving force for nucleation and growth of a stone nidus. Further, renal stones have been documented in astronauts after return to Earth and in one cosmonaut during flight. Biochemical analysis of urine specimens has provided indication of hypercalciuria and hyperuricemia, reduced urine volumes, and increased urine saturation of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. A major contributor to the risk for renal stone formation is bone atrophy with increased turnover of the bone minerals. Dietary and fluid intakes also play major roles in the risk because of the influence on urine pH (more acidic) and on volume (decreased). Historically, specific assessments on urine samples from some Skylab crewmembers indicated that calcium excretion increased early in flight, notable by day 10 of flight, and almost exceeded the upper threshold for normal excretion (300mg/day in males). Other crewmember data documented reduced intake of fluid and reduced intake of potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, and citrate (an inhibitor of calcium stone formation) in the diet. Hence, data from both short-duration and long-duration missions indicate that space travel induces risk factors for renal stone formation that continue to persist after flight; this risk has been documented by reported kidney stones in crewmembers.

  3. Exercising during learning improves vocabulary acquisition: behavioral and ERP evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Kulka, Anna; Gunter, Thomas C; Rothermich, Kathrin; Kotz, Sonja A

    2010-09-20

    Numerous studies have provided evidence that physical activity promotes cortical plasticity in the adult brain and in turn facilitates learning. However, until now, the effect of simultaneous physical activity (e.g. bicycling) on learning performance has not been investigated systematically. The current study aims at clarifying whether simultaneous motor activity influences verbal learning compared to learning in a physically passive situation. Therefore the learning behavior of 12 healthy subjects (4 male, 19-33 years) was monitored over a period of 3 weeks. During that time, behavioral and electrophysiological responses to memorized materials were measured. We found a larger N400 effect and better performance in vocabulary tests when subjects were physically active during the encoding phase. Thus, our data indicate that simultaneous physical activity during vocabulary learning facilitates memorization of new items. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Culture and attention: evidence from brain and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketay, Sarah; Aron, Arthur; Hedden, Trey

    2009-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that our experiences, including the culture in which we are raised, shape how we attend to and perceive the world. Behavioral studies have found that individuals raised in Western cultures tend toward analytic processing and prefer tasks emphasizing independent contexts rather than tasks emphasizing interdependent contexts. The opposite is true for individuals raised in East Asian cultures, who tend toward holistic processing and prefer tasks emphasizing interdependent contexts. Recently, cognitive neuroscientists have extended these behavioral findings to examine the brain activity of individuals from different cultures during the performance of cognitive tasks. Results from these initial studies indicate that culture may shape how the brain processes even very abstract stimuli and may influence the features of the environment to which individuals attend. The present chapter reviews evidence that culture influences attention and related systems, which, in turn, impact other cognitive and social processes and their neural correlates.

  5. THE HERDING BEHAVIOR ON SMALL CAPITAL MARKETS: EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Pece

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of financial markets is influenced by the speculative bubbles and by the occurance of financial crisis. The speculative bubbles are formed on the markets when take place an unsustainable growth in the price of a financial asset, which leads to a high level of instability and to the rise of financial crashes. One of the cause of speculative bubbles is the herding behavior of investors characterized by trading in the same direction on the market, the same stocks, in the same period of time, or when they ignore the private information and trades similar with other investors, which may lead to incorrect trading decision. The aim of this paper is to test the existence of herding behavior on the Romanian stock market and the impact of the subprime financial crisis on the behavior of investors. We have analyzed the Romanian stock market on sector level by using firm level data. The statistical methodology used in this paper was proposed by Chang et al. (2000 and uses the cross sectional absolute deviation of returns (CSAD as a measure of return dispersion.The results indicate the existence of herding behavior of investors in various sectors, both for upper and lower markets. We also conclude that during the subprime crisis, is no evidence of herding, due to the fact that the impact of the crisis was transmitted globally.

  6. Authoritative knowledge, evidence-based medicine, and behavioral pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennell, J H

    1999-12-01

    Evidence-based medicine is the conscientious and judicious use of current best knowledge in making decisions about the care of individual patients, often from well-designed, randomized, controlled trials. Authoritative medicine is the traditional approach to learning and practicing medicine, but no one authority has comprehensive scientific knowledge. Archie Cochrane proposed that every medical specialty should compile a list of all of the randomized, controlled trials within its field to be available for those who wish to know what treatments are effective. This was done first for obstetrics by a group collecting and critically analyzing all of the randomized trials and then indicating procedures every mother should have and those that no mother should have. Support during labor was used as an example. Similar groups are now active in almost all specialties, with information available on the Internet in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Developmental-behavioral pediatrics should be part of this movement to evidence-based medicine.

  7. Reporting Intellectual Capital in Annual Reports: Evidence from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parulian Sihotang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This  exploratory  study  which  replicates  the  content  analysis  methodology  of  Guthrie et  all  (1999,  2004  towards  Intellectual  Capital  (IC  disclosures  in  the  annual  report  has set  several  objectives.  Primarily,  the  empirical  investigation  assesses  the  extent  to  which Indonesian  listed  companies  are  publicly  reporting  their  IC  both  the  amount  and  type  of information  being  reported.  Secondly,  the  investigation  also  examines  the  extent  to  which the various categories of IC are represented in the annual reports of the sample companies. Finally, the study explores the extent to which the level of IC disclosures could be related to companies' characteristics such as industry category, age, ownership structure and market capitalization.  The sample was Indonesia's 23 largest companies listed in the Jakarta Stock Exchange.    In  light  of  research  limitations,  the  preliminary  and  tentative  indings  of  this study  indicate  that  irst  of  all,  similar  to  indings  worldwide,  Indonesian  companies  have substantial intellectual capital and they do aware and disclose their intellectual capital in the annual reports. Secondly, IC that tends to be most often reported is relational capital, followed by human capital and organizational capital. Thirdly, even though the trend in IC disclosure as a whole is generally increasing, there is no conclusive and predictable pattern found.  Fourthly,  the  IC  identiied  and  reported  is  inconsistent  as  no  framework  available in  helping  the  companies  discloses  intellectual  capital.  Fifthly,  most  of  the  intellectual capital  components  identiied  are  in  qualitative  format.  Sixthly,  even  though  the  study  did not ind a conclusive evidence regarding the relationship between the level of  IC

  8. 7 CFR 1493.280 - Evidence of export report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of export report. 1493.280 Section 1493.280... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Facility Guarantee Program (FGP) Operations § 1493.280 Evidence of export report. (a) Report of export. The...

  9. Behavioral Variation in Gorillas: Evidence of Potential Cultural Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Martha M; Ando, Chieko; Fawcett, Katherine A; Grueter, Cyril C; Hedwig, Daniela; Iwata, Yuji; Lodwick, Jessica L; Masi, Shelly; Salmi, Roberta; Stoinski, Tara S; Todd, Angelique; Vercellio, Veronica; Yamagiwa, Juichi

    2016-01-01

    The question of whether any species except humans exhibits culture has generated much debate, partially due to the difficulty of providing conclusive evidence from observational studies in the wild. A starting point for demonstrating the existence of culture that has been used for many species including chimpanzees and orangutans is to show that there is geographic variation in the occurrence of particular behavioral traits inferred to be a result of social learning and not ecological or genetic influences. Gorillas live in a wide variety of habitats across Africa and they exhibit flexibility in diet, behavior, and social structure. Here we apply the 'method of exclusion' to look for the presence/absence of behaviors that could be considered potential cultural traits in well-habituated groups from five study sites of the two species of gorillas. Of the 41 behaviors considered, 23 met the criteria of potential cultural traits, of which one was foraging related, nine were environment related, seven involved social interactions, five were gestures, and one was communication related. There was a strong positive correlation between behavioral dissimilarity and geographic distance among gorilla study sites. Roughly half of all variation in potential cultural traits was intraspecific differences (i.e. variability among sites within a species) and the other 50% of potential cultural traits were differences between western and eastern gorillas. Further research is needed to investigate if the occurrence of these traits is influenced by social learning. These findings emphasize the importance of investigating cultural traits in African apes and other species to shed light on the origin of human culture.

  10. Behavioral Variation in Gorillas: Evidence of Potential Cultural Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Martha M.; Ando, Chieko; Fawcett, Katherine A.; Grueter, Cyril C.; Hedwig, Daniela; Iwata, Yuji; Lodwick, Jessica L.; Masi, Shelly; Salmi, Roberta; Stoinski, Tara S.; Todd, Angelique; Vercellio, Veronica; Yamagiwa, Juichi

    2016-01-01

    The question of whether any species except humans exhibits culture has generated much debate, partially due to the difficulty of providing conclusive evidence from observational studies in the wild. A starting point for demonstrating the existence of culture that has been used for many species including chimpanzees and orangutans is to show that there is geographic variation in the occurrence of particular behavioral traits inferred to be a result of social learning and not ecological or genetic influences. Gorillas live in a wide variety of habitats across Africa and they exhibit flexibility in diet, behavior, and social structure. Here we apply the ‘method of exclusion’ to look for the presence/absence of behaviors that could be considered potential cultural traits in well-habituated groups from five study sites of the two species of gorillas. Of the 41 behaviors considered, 23 met the criteria of potential cultural traits, of which one was foraging related, nine were environment related, seven involved social interactions, five were gestures, and one was communication related. There was a strong positive correlation between behavioral dissimilarity and geographic distance among gorilla study sites. Roughly half of all variation in potential cultural traits was intraspecific differences (i.e. variability among sites within a species) and the other 50% of potential cultural traits were differences between western and eastern gorillas. Further research is needed to investigate if the occurrence of these traits is influenced by social learning. These findings emphasize the importance of investigating cultural traits in African apes and other species to shed light on the origin of human culture. PMID:27603668

  11. Direct behavioral and neurophysiological evidence for retronasal olfaction in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R Rebello

    Full Text Available The neuroscience of flavor perception is hence becoming increasingly important to understand food flavor perception that guides food selection, ingestion and appreciation. We recently provided evidence that rats can use the retronasal mode of olfaction, an essential element of human flavor perception. We showed that in rats, like humans, odors can acquire a taste. We and others also defined how the input of the olfactory bulb (OB -not functionally imageable in humans- codes retronasal smell in anesthetized rat. The powerful awake transgenic mouse, however, would be a valuable additional model in the study of flavor neuroscience. We used a go/no-go behavioral task to test the mouse's ability to detect and discriminate the retronasal odor amyl acetate. In this paradigm a tasteless aqueous odor solution was licked by water-restricted head-fixed mice from a lick spout. Orthonasal contamination was avoided. The retronasal odor was successfully discriminated by mice against pure distilled water in a concentration-dependent manner. Bulbectomy removed the mice's ability to discriminate the retronasal odor but not tastants. The OB showed robust optical calcium responses to retronasal odorants in these awake mice. These results suggest that mice, like rats, are capable of smelling retronasally. This direct neuro-behavioral evidence establishes the mouse as a useful additional animal model for flavor research.

  12. Direct behavioral evidence for retronasal olfaction in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree Hari Gautam

    Full Text Available The neuroscience of flavor perception is becoming increasingly important to understand abnormal feeding behaviors and associated chronic diseases such as obesity. Yet, flavor research has mainly depended on human subjects due to the lack of an animal model. A crucial step towards establishing an animal model of flavor research is to determine whether the animal uses the retronasal mode of olfaction, an essential element of flavor perception. We designed a go- no go behavioral task to test the rat's ability to detect and discriminate retronasal odorants. In this paradigm, tasteless aqueous solutions of odorants were licked by water-restricted head-fixed rats from a lick spout. Orthonasal contamination was avoided by employing a combination of a vacuum around the lick-spout and blowing clean air toward the nose. Flow models support the effectiveness of both approaches. The licked odorants were successfully discriminated by rats. Moreover, the tasteless odorant amyl acetate was reliably discriminated against pure distilled water in a concentration-dependent manner. The results from this retronasal odor discrimination task suggest that rats are capable of smelling retronasally. This direct behavioral evidence establishes the rat as a useful animal model for flavor research.

  13. Can Mobile Phone Apps Influence People's Health Behavior Change? An Evidence Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Freeman, Becky; Li, Mu

    2016-10-31

    Globally, mobile phones have achieved wide reach at an unprecedented rate, and mobile phone apps have become increasingly prevalent among users. The number of health-related apps that were published on the two leading platforms (iOS and Android) reached more than 100,000 in 2014. However, there is a lack of synthesized evidence regarding the effectiveness of mobile phone apps in changing people's health-related behaviors. The aim was to examine the effectiveness of mobile phone apps in achieving health-related behavior change in a broader range of interventions and the quality of the reported studies. We conducted a comprehensive bibliographic search of articles on health behavior change using mobile phone apps in peer-reviewed journals published between January 1, 2010 and June 1, 2015. Databases searched included Medline, PreMedline, PsycINFO, Embase, Health Technology Assessment, Education Resource Information Center (ERIC), and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). Articles published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research during that same period were hand-searched on the journal's website. Behavior change mechanisms were coded and analyzed. The quality of each included study was assessed by the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. A total of 23 articles met the inclusion criteria, arranged under 11 themes according to their target behaviors. All studies were conducted in high-income countries. Of these, 17 studies reported statistically significant effects in the direction of targeted behavior change; 19 studies included in this analysis had a 65% or greater retention rate in the intervention group (range 60%-100%); 6 studies reported using behavior change theories with the theory of planned behavior being the most commonly used (in 3 studies). Self-monitoring was the most common behavior change technique applied (in 12 studies). The studies suggest that some features improve the effectiveness of apps, such as less time

  14. Can Mobile Phone Apps Influence People’s Health Behavior Change? An Evidence Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky; Li, Mu

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, mobile phones have achieved wide reach at an unprecedented rate, and mobile phone apps have become increasingly prevalent among users. The number of health-related apps that were published on the two leading platforms (iOS and Android) reached more than 100,000 in 2014. However, there is a lack of synthesized evidence regarding the effectiveness of mobile phone apps in changing people’s health-related behaviors. Objective The aim was to examine the effectiveness of mobile phone apps in achieving health-related behavior change in a broader range of interventions and the quality of the reported studies. Methods We conducted a comprehensive bibliographic search of articles on health behavior change using mobile phone apps in peer-reviewed journals published between January 1, 2010 and June 1, 2015. Databases searched included Medline, PreMedline, PsycINFO, Embase, Health Technology Assessment, Education Resource Information Center (ERIC), and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). Articles published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research during that same period were hand-searched on the journal’s website. Behavior change mechanisms were coded and analyzed. The quality of each included study was assessed by the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. Results A total of 23 articles met the inclusion criteria, arranged under 11 themes according to their target behaviors. All studies were conducted in high-income countries. Of these, 17 studies reported statistically significant effects in the direction of targeted behavior change; 19 studies included in this analysis had a 65% or greater retention rate in the intervention group (range 60%-100%); 6 studies reported using behavior change theories with the theory of planned behavior being the most commonly used (in 3 studies). Self-monitoring was the most common behavior change technique applied (in 12 studies). The studies suggest that some features improve the

  15. CSR REPORTING IN BANKS - THE ROMANIAN EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana-Loredana FRECEA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the financial markets and the significant interrelationships with broader concepts as globalization or sustainable development, have led in recent years to the development of a multidimensional approach of CSR. The credibility of the financial system is based on the financial institutions image given by representative stakeholders. They filter in an objective way the ethical responsibilities of the banks and the legal ones and give them the legitimacy to operate on the market. In order to obtain a realistic framework of CSR in Romanian banks, the article will focus on the transparency of CSR information. The confidence crisis manifested in the banking institutions can best be overcome through an authentic reporting system, which is able to fulfill a set of requirements, from credibility to completeness. This paper highlights the main characteristics of the CSR reports provided by the Romanian banking institutions, based on the stakeholder theory and using international reporting frameworks as Global Reporting Initiative.

  16. Barriers to implementing evidence-based practices in addiction treatment programs: comparing staff reports on Motivational Interviewing, Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach, Assertive Community Treatment, and Cognitive-behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, M; Lundgren, L; Cohen, A; Rose, D; Chassler, D; Beltrame, C; D'Ippolito, M

    2011-11-01

    This qualitative study explored barriers to implementing evidence-based practices (EBPs) in community-based addiction treatment organizations (CBOs) by comparing staff descriptions of barriers for four EBPs: Motivational Interviewing (MI), Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA), Assertive Community Treatment (ACT), and Cognitive-behavioral Therapy (CBT). The CBOs received CSAT/SAMHSA funding from 2003 to 2008 to deliver services using EBPs. Phone interview responses from 172 CBO staff directly involved in EBP implementation were analyzed using content analysis, a method for making inferences and developing themes from the systematic review of participant narratives (Berelson, 1952). Staff described different types of barriers to implementing each EBP. For MI, the majority of barriers involved staff resistance or organizational setting. For A-CRA, the majority of barriers involved specific characteristics of the EBP or client resistance. For CBT, the majority of barriers were associated with client resistance, and for ACT, the majority of barriers were associated with resources. EBP designers, policy makers who support EBP dissemination and funders should include explicit strategies to address such barriers. Addiction programs proposing to use specific EBPs must consider whether their programs have the organizational capacity and community capacity to meet the demands of the EBP selected. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of behavioral genetic evidence on the adjudication of criminal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S; Scurich, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in behavioral genetics suggest a modest relationship among certain gene variants, early childhood experiences, and criminal behavior. Although scientific research examining this link is still at an early stage, genetic data are already being introduced in criminal trials. However, the extent to which such evidence is likely to affect jurors' decisions has not been explored. In the present study, a representative sample of the U.S. population (n = 250) received a vignette describing an apparently impulsive homicide, accompanied by one of four explanations of the defendant's impulsivity: childhood abuse, genetic predisposition, childhood abuse and genetic predisposition, or simple impulsive behavior. The participants were asked to identify the crime that the defendant had committed and to select an appropriate sentence range. Evidence of genetic predisposition did not affect the crime of which the defendant was convicted or the sentence. However, participants who received the abuse or genetic + abuse explanation imposed longer prison sentences. Paradoxically, the genetic and genetic + abuse conditions engendered the greatest fear of the defendant. These findings should allay concerns that genetic evidence in criminal adjudications will be overly persuasive to jurors, but should raise questions about the impact of genetic attributions on perceptions of dangerousness.

  18. Economic theory and evidence on smoking behavior of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Frank A; Wang, Yang

    2008-11-01

    To describe: (i) three alternative conceptual frameworks used by economists to study addictive behaviors: rational, imperfectly rational and irrational addiction; (ii) empirical economic evidence on each framework and specific channels to explain adult smoking matched to the frameworks; and (iii) policy implications for each framework. A systematic review and appraisal of important theoretical and empirical economic studies on smoking. There is some empirical support for each framework. For rational and imperfectly rational addiction there is some evidence that anticipated future cigarette prices influence current cigarette consumption, and quitting costs are high for smokers. Smokers are more risk-tolerant in the financial domain than are others and tend to attach a lower value to being in good health. Findings on differences in rates of time preference by smoking status are mixed; however, short-term rates are higher than long-term rates for both smokers and non-smokers, a stylized fact consistent with hyperbolic discounting. The economic literature lends no empirical support to the view that mature adults smoke because they underestimate the probability of harm to health from smoking. In support of the irrationality framework, smokers tend to be more impulsive than others in domains not related directly to smoking, implying that they may be sensitive to cues that trigger smoking. Much promising economic research uses the imperfectly rational addiction framework, but empirical research based on this framework is still in its infancy.

  19. Evidence Report: Risk Factor of Inadequate Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.; Heer, Martina

    2015-01-01

    The importance of nutrition in exploration has been documented repeatedly throughout history, where, for example, in the period between Columbus' voyage in 1492 and the invention of the steam engine, scurvy resulted in more sailor deaths than all other causes of death combined. Because nutrients are required for the structure and function of every cell and every system in the body, defining the nutrient requirements for spaceflight and ensuring provision and intake of those nutrients are primary issues for crew health and mission success. Unique aspects of nutrition during space travel include the overarching physiological adaptation to weightlessness, psychological adaptation to extreme and remote environments, and the ability of nutrition and nutrients to serve as countermeasures to ameliorate the negative effects of spaceflight on the human body. Key areas of clinical concern for long-duration spaceflight include loss of body mass (general inadequate food intake), bone and muscle loss, cardiovascular and immune system decrements, increased radiation exposure and oxidative stress, vision and ophthalmic changes, behavior and performance, nutrient supply during extravehicular activity, and general depletion of body nutrient stores because of inadequate food supply, inadequate food intake, increased metabolism, and/or irreversible loss of nutrients. These topics are reviewed herein, based on the current gap structure.

  20. Behavioral evidence of emotion dysregulation in binge eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichen, Dawn M; Chen, Eunice; Boutelle, Kerri N; McCloskey, Michael S

    2017-04-01

    Binge eating is the most common disordered eating symptom and can lead to the development of obesity. Previous self-report research has supported the hypothesis that individuals who binge eat report greater levels of general emotion dysregulation, which may facilitate binge-eating behavior. However, to date, no study has experimentally tested the relation between binge eating history and in-vivo emotion dysregulation. To do this, a sample of female college students who either endorsed binge eating (n = 40) or denied the presence of any eating pathology (n = 47) completed the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) and a behavioral distress tolerance task (the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task-Computer: PASAT-C) known to induce negative affect and distress. The binge eating group was 2.96 times more likely to quit the PASAT-C early (χ 2  = 5.04, p = 0.025) and reported greater irritability (F(1,84) = 7.09 p = 0.009) and frustration (F(1,84) = 5.00, p = 0.028) after completing the PASAT-C than controls, controlling for initial levels of these emotions. Furthermore, across the entire sample, quitting early was associated with greater emotion dysregulation on the DERS (r pb  = 0.342, p < 0.01). This study is the first to demonstrate that individuals who binge eat show in-vivo emotional dysregulation on a laboratory task. Future studies should examine the PASAT-C to determine its potential clinical utility for individuals with or at risk of developing binge eating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. AIDS, behavior, and culture: understanding evidence-based prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Green, Edward C; Ruark, Allison Herling

    2011-01-01

    .... Arguing for a behavior-based approach, the authors make the case that the most effective programs are those that encourage fundamental behavioral changes such as faithfulness, avoidance of concurrent...

  2. Child Maltreatment Identification and Reporting Behavior of School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Victoria L.; Zibulsky, Jamie; Viezel, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    A majority of substantiated maltreatment reports are made by educators and thus, teacher knowledge of child maltreatment reporting mandates and reporting behavior has been a focus of research. The knowledge and behavior of school psychologists, however, has not received similar attention. This study investigated the child maltreatment reporting…

  3. Effectiveness of manual therapies: the UK evidence report

    OpenAIRE

    Bronfort, Gert; Haas, Mitch; Evans, Roni; Leininger, Brent; Triano, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this report is to provide a succinct but comprehensive summary of the scientific evidence regarding the effectiveness of manual treatment for the management of a variety of musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal conditions. Methods The conclusions are based on the results of systematic reviews of randomized clinical trials (RCTs), widely accepted and primarily UK and United States evidence-based clinical guidelines, plus the results of all RCTs not yet incl...

  4. Evidence for a critical behavior in 4D pure compact QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jersak, J.; Neuhaus, T.

    1995-01-01

    We present evidence about a critical behavior of 4D compact QED (CQED) pure gauge theory. Regularizing the theory on lattices homotopic to a sphere, we present evidence for a critical, i.e. second order like behavior at the deconfinement phase transition for certain values of the coupling parameter γ. ((orig.))

  5. Evidence-Based School Behavior Assessment of Externalizing Behavior in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagner, Daniel M; Boggs, Stephen R; Eyberg, Sheila M

    2010-02-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Revised Edition of the School Observation Coding System (REDSOCS). Participants were 68 children ages 3 to 6 who completed parent-child interaction therapy for Oppositional Defiant Disorder as part of a larger efficacy trial. Interobserver reliability on REDSOCS categories was moderate to high, with percent agreement ranging from 47% to 90% (M = 67%) and Cohen's kappa coefficients ranging from .69 to .95 (M = .82). Convergent validity of the REDSOCS categories was supported by significant correlations with the Intensity Scale of the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory-Revised and related subscales of the Conners' Teacher Rating Scale-Revised: Long Version (CTRS-R: L). Divergent validity was indicated by nonsignificant correlations between REDSOCS categories and scales on the CTRS-R: L expected not to relate to disruptive classroom behavior. Treatment sensitivity was demonstrated for two of the three primary REDSOCS categories by significant pre to posttreatment changes. This study provides psychometric support for the designation of REDSOCS as an evidence-based assessment procedure for young children.

  6. Theory, evidence and Intervention Mapping to improve behavior nutrition and physical activity interventions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Brug (Hans); A. Oenema (Anke); A. Ferreira (Isabel)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The present paper intends to contribute to the debate on the usefulness and barriers in applying theories in diet and physical activity behavior-change interventions. DISCUSSION: Since behavior theory is a reflection of the compiled evidence of behavior research, theory is

  7. Addictive behavior in cinema demand: evidence from Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Sangho KIM; Donghyun PARK

    2010-01-01

    It is intuitively plausible that the demand for cinema services may be partly driven by addiction or habit. Yet there is almost no empirical literature which tests for whether cinema demand is addictive. We estimate addiction models for cinema demand using Korean time series data from 1963 to 2004. Our estimation results indicate that (i) addictive behavior characterizes the demand for cinema services, (ii) this behavior is rational, and (iii) habit is one of most important determinants of ci...

  8. Bureaucratic Minimal Squawk Behavior: Theory and Evidence from Regulatory Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Clare Leaver

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that bureaucrats are susceptible to `minimal squawk` behavior. I develop a simple model in which a desire to avoid criticism can prompt, otherwise public-spirited, bureaucrats to behave inefficiently. Decisions are taken to keep interest groups quiet and mistakes out of the public eye. The policy implications of this behavior are at odds with the received view that agencies should be structured to minimise the threat of `capture`. I test between theories of bureaucratic beha...

  9. State of the evidence regarding behavior change theories and strategies in nutrition counseling to facilitate health and food behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Joanne M; Reeves, Rebecca S; Keim, Kathryn S; Laquatra, Ida; Kellogg, Molly; Jortberg, Bonnie; Clark, Nicole A

    2010-06-01

    Behavior change theories and models, validated within the field of dietetics, offer systematic explanations for nutrition-related behavior change. They are integral to the nutrition care process, guiding nutrition assessment, intervention, and outcome evaluation. The American Dietetic Association Evidence Analysis Library Nutrition Counseling Workgroup conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature related to behavior change theories and strategies used in nutrition counseling. Two hundred fourteen articles were reviewed between July 2007 and March 2008, and 87 studies met the inclusion criteria. The workgroup systematically evaluated these articles and formulated conclusion statements and grades based upon the available evidence. Strong evidence exists to support the use of a combination of behavioral theory and cognitive behavioral theory, the foundation for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), in facilitating modification of targeted dietary habits, weight, and cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors. Evidence is particularly strong in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving intensive, intermediate-duration (6 to 12 months) CBT, and long-term (>12 months duration) CBT targeting prevention or delay in onset of type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Few studies have assessed the application of the transtheoretical model on nutrition-related behavior change. Little research was available documenting the effectiveness of nutrition counseling utilizing social cognitive theory. Motivational interviewing was shown to be a highly effective counseling strategy, particularly when combined with CBT. Strong evidence substantiates the effectiveness of self-monitoring and meal replacements and/or structured meal plans. Compelling evidence exists to demonstrate that financial reward strategies are not effective. Goal setting, problem solving, and social support are effective strategies, but additional research is needed in more diverse populations. Routine documentation

  10. Workplace spirituality and organizational citizenship behavior: Evidence from banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghorbanifar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relationship between workplace Spirituality and Organization Citizenship behavior (OCB in banks located in province of Sari, Iran. The statistical population of research includes the employees of Sari's Banks including Melli, Ghavamin, Saderat, Keshavarzi, Mellat,Tejarat, Saman, Parsian, Sarmaye, Pasargad and Karafarin. We used a questionnaire with 45 questions as an instrument for collecting research data. The questionnaire was designed based on workplace spirituality (Milliman et al., 2003 [Milliman, J., Czaplewski, A., & Ferguson, J. (2003. Workplace spirituality and employee work attitudes, an exploratory empirical assessment. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 16(4, 426-447.] and organizational citizenship behavior (Podsakoff et al., 1990 [Podsakoff, P., MacKenzie, S., Paine, J., & Bachrach, D. (2000. Organizational citizenship behaviors: A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research. Journal of Management, 26(3, 513–563.]. Findings show that there was a meaningful relationship between workplace Spirituality and Organization Citizenship behavior. The results also indicated that there was a positive relationship between work spirituality and Organization Citizenship behavior in Sari's Bank.

  11. Evidence and diagnostic reporting in the IHE context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loef, Cor; Truyen, Roel

    2005-05-01

    Capturing clinical observations and findings during the diagnostic imaging process is increasingly becoming a critical step in diagnostic reporting. Standards developers-notably HL7 and DICOM-are making significant progress toward standards that enable exchanging clinical observations and findings among the various information systems of the healthcare enterprise. DICOM-like the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) -uses templates and constrained, coded vocabulary (SNOMED, LOINC, etc.). Such a representation facilitates automated software recognition of findings and observations, intrapatient comparison, correlation to norms, and outcomes research. The scope of DICOM Structured Reporting (SR) includes many findings that products routinely create in digital form (measurements, computed estimates, etc.). In the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) framework, two Integration Profiles are defined for clinical data capture and diagnostic reporting: Evidence Document, and Simple Image and Numeric Report. This report describes these two DICOM SR-based integration profiles in the diagnostic reporting process.

  12. Theory, evidence and Intervention Mapping to improve behavior nutrition and physical activity interventions.

    OpenAIRE

    Brug, Hans; Oenema, Anke; Ferreira, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The present paper intends to contribute to the debate on the usefulness and barriers in applying theories in diet and physical activity behavior-change interventions. Discussion Since behavior theory is a reflection of the compiled evidence of behavior research, theory is the only foothold we have for the development of behavioral nutrition and physical activity interventions. Application of theory should improve the effectiveness of interventions. However, some of the the...

  13. Has microblogging changed stock market behavior? Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xi; Shen, Dehua; Zhang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the stock market behavior for a long-lived subset of firms in Shanghai and Shenzhen CSI 300 Index (CSI 300 Index) both before and after the establishment of firms' Microblogging in Sina Weibo. The empirical results show a significant increase in the relative trading volume as well as the decreases in the daily expected stock return and firm-level volatility in the post-Sina Weibo period. These findings suggest that Sina Weibo as an alternative information interaction channel has changed the information environment for individual stock, enhanced the speed of information diffusion and therefore changed the overall stock market behavior.

  14. Comparison of mothers', fathers', and teachers' reports on problem behavior in 5-to 6-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grietens, H; Onghena, P; Prinzie, P; Gadeyne, E; Van Assche, Kristof; Ghesquiere, P; Hellinckx, W

    Evidence exists that there is low agreement between multiple informants reporting on children's and adolescents' behavior problems. Few studies, however, focus on agreement between informants in specific age groups. This study examined correspondence and disagreement between mother, father, and

  15. Credit Card Risk Behavior on College Campuses: Evidence from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Mendes-da-Silva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available College students frequently show they have little skill when it comes to using a credit card in a responsible manner. This article deals with this issue in an emerging market and in a pioneering manner. University students (n = 769 in São Paulo, Brazil’s main financial center, replied to a questionnaire about their credit card use habits. Using Logit models, associations were discovered between personal characteristics and credit card use habits that involve financially risky behavior. The main results were: (a a larger number of credit cards increases the probability of risky behavior; (b students who alleged they knew what interest rates the card administrators were charging were less inclined to engage in risky behavior. The results are of interest to the financial industry, to university managers and to policy makers. This article points to the advisability, indeed necessity, of providing students with information about the use of financial products (notably credit cards bearing in mind the high interest rates which their users are charged. The findings regarding student behavior in the use of credit cards in emerging economies are both significant and relevant. Furthermore, financial literature, while recognizing the importance of the topic, has not significantly examined the phenomenon in emerging economies.

  16. Financial innovation and bank behavior : Evidence from credit markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norden, L.; Silva Buston, C.F.; Wagner, W.B.

    This paper investigates whether, and through which channel, the active use of credit derivatives changes bank behavior in the credit market, and how this channel was affected by the crisis of 2007–2009. Our principal finding is that banks with larger gross positions in credit derivatives charge

  17. Understanding patients' behavioral intentions: evidence from Iran's private hospitals industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Ehsan; Arab, Mohammad; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mahmoud Ghazi; Rashidian, Arash; Forushani, Abbas Rahimi; Khabiri, Roghayeh

    2014-01-01

    In the ever-increasing competitive market of private hospital industry, creating a strong relationship with the customers that shapes patients' loyalty has been considered a key factor in obtaining market share. The purpose of this paper is to test a model of customer loyalty among patients of private hospitals in Iran. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Tehran, the capital of the Islamic Republic of Iran in 2010. The study samples composed of 969 patients who were consecutively selected from eight private hospitals. The survey instrument was designed based on a review of the related literature and included 36 items. Data analysis was performed using structural equation modeling. For the service quality construct, three dimensions extracted: Process, interaction, and environment. Both process and interaction quality had significant effects on perceived value. Perceived value along with the process and interaction quality were the most important antecedents of patient overall satisfaction. The direct effect of the process and interaction quality on behavioral intentions was insignificant. Perceived value and patient overall satisfaction were the direct antecedents of patient behavioral intentions and the mediators between service quality and behavioral intentions. Environment quality of service delivery had no significant effect on perceived value, overall satisfaction, and behavioral intentions. Contrary to previous similar studies, the role of service quality was investigated not in a general sense, but in the form of three types of qualities including quality of environment, quality of process, and quality of interaction.

  18. Evidence for mate guarding behavior in the Taylor's checkerspot butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria J. Bennett; Winston P. Smith; Matthew G. Betts

    2011-01-01

    Discerning the intricacies of mating systems in butterflies can be difficult, particularly when multiple mating strategies are employed and are cryptic and not exclusive. We observed the behavior and habitat use of 113 male Taylor's checkerspot butterflies (Euphydryas editha taylori). We confirmed that two distinct mating strategies were...

  19. Experimental Evidence that Social Relationships Determine Individual Foraging Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Josh A; Voelkl, Bernhard; Farine, Damien R; Sheldon, Ben C

    2015-12-07

    Social relationships are fundamental to animals living in complex societies. The extent to which individuals base their decisions around their key social relationships, and the consequences this has on their behavior and broader population level processes, remains unknown. Using a novel experiment that controlled where individual wild birds (great tits, Parus major) could access food, we restricted mated pairs from being allowed to forage at the same locations. This introduced a conflict for pair members between maintaining social relationships and accessing resources. We show that individuals reduce their own access to food in order to sustain their relationships and that individual foraging activity was strongly influenced by their key social counterparts. By affecting where individuals go, social relationships determined which conspecifics they encountered and consequently shaped their other social associations. Hence, while resource distribution can determine individuals' spatial and social environment, we illustrate how key social relationships themselves can govern broader social structure. Finally, social relationships also influenced the development of social foraging strategies. In response to forgoing access to resources, maintaining pair bonds led individuals to develop a flexible "scrounging" strategy, particularly by scrounging from their pair mate. This suggests that behavioral plasticity can develop to ameliorate conflicts between social relationships and other demands. Together, these results illustrate the importance of considering social relationships for explaining behavioral variation due to their significant impact on individual behavior and demonstrate the consequences of key relationships for wider processes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Speculative Behavior and Heterogeneous Expectations: Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Cheolbeom Park

    2002-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that the optimal willingness to pay for a stock is the payoff from holding the stock for one period when investors have different expectations, and that the willingness to pay can be represented as the sum of the expected present value of future dividends and the expected present value of the gap between the future equilibrium price and willingness to pay. This speculative behavior based on the awareness of heterogeneity in expectations is supported by the volatility t...

  1. What Behaviors are Disapproved? Experimental Evidence from Five Dictator Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Vorsatz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The literature on social norms has often stressed that social disapproval is crucial to foster compliance with norms and promote fair and cooperative behavior. With this in mind, we explore the disapproval of allocation decisions using experimental data from five dictator games with a feedback stage. Our data suggests that subjects are heterogeneous in their disapproval patterns, distinguishing two main groups: (1 Subjects who only disapprove choices that harm them, and (2 subjects who disapprove socially inefficient choices.

  2. Experimental Evidence that Social Relationships Determine Individual Foraging Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Firth, Josh A.; Voelkl, Bernhard; Farine, Damien R.; Sheldon, Ben C.

    2015-01-01

    Social relationships are fundamental to animals living in complex societies [1-3]. The extent to which individuals base their decisions around their key social relationships, and the consequences this has on their behavior and broader population level processes, remains unknown. Using a novel experiment that controlled where individual wild birds (great tits, Parus major) could access food, we restricted mated pairs from being allowed to forage at the same locations. This introduced a conflic...

  3. Improving Service Quality by Using Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Iranian Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour-Mohammad Yaghoubi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, with increasing service industries, service marketing and service quality have become an important challenge to organizations. The attempts of organizations in this situation are witnesses to this matter. In the past years, the organizations tried to reach service quality appropriation and satisfaction of self-external customers by concepts and approaches of external marketing. One of the important features of service is the direct interaction with customers and having customer-oriented behaviors. Furthermore, with introducing the internal marketing and the important roles of it, an internal customer of organizations, on achievement of organizational plans, was noted to internal marketing more and more than before. So, the study researchers are going to argue about internal marketing and the effect of it on organizational citizenship behaviors and service quality and the important role of it on development and improvement of service quality by using organizational citizenship behaviors. For this purpose, first the researchers have studied internal marketing and its important components and then have done the same to the other items and finally have applied a quantitative study on all of them. It should be mentioned that the researchers have employed SPSS 17.0 and Lisrel 8.54 for data analysis. The findings of the present study illustrated that there is an appropriate interaction among all the items, which has been studied here and the structural equations for the conceptual framework of this study are goodness of fit.

  4. Childhood problem behavior and parental divorce: evidence for gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbers, Sylvana; van Oort, Floor; Huizink, Anja; Verhulst, Frank; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina; Boomsma, Dorret; Bartels, Meike

    2012-10-01

    The importance of genetic and environmental influences on children's behavioral and emotional problems may vary as a function of environmental exposure. We previously reported that 12-year-olds with divorced parents showed more internalizing and externalizing problems than children with married parents, and that externalizing problems in girls precede and predict later parental divorce. The aim of the current study was to investigate as to whether genetic and environmental influences on internalizing and externalizing problems were different for children from divorced versus non-divorced families. Maternal ratings on internalizing and externalizing problems were collected with the Child Behavior Checklist in 4,592 twin pairs at ages 3 and 12 years, of whom 367 pairs had experienced a parental divorce between these ages. Variance in internalizing and externalizing problems at ages 3 and 12 was analyzed with biometric models in which additive genetic and environmental effects were allowed to depend on parental divorce and sex. A difference in the contribution of genetic and environmental influences between divorced and non-divorced groups would constitute evidence for gene-environment interaction. For both pre- and post-divorce internalizing and externalizing problems, the total variances were larger for children from divorced families, which was mainly due to higher environmental variances. As a consequence, heritabilities were lower for children from divorced families, and the relative contributions of environmental influences were higher. Environmental influences become more important in explaining variation in children's problem behaviors in the context of parental divorce.

  5. Epidemiological Evidence on the Link Between Drug Use and Suicidal Behaviors Among Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, Holly C.

    2004-01-01

    Depression, substance abuse, and aggressive behavior disorders have shown to be among the most influential risk factors for suicide in community and clinical studies of adolescents and adults. Increasing evidence suggests that adolescents who use and abuse alcohol and drugs are at increased risk for suicidal ideation, attempted suicide, and completed suicide, although conclusive evidence has not yet been presented suggesting that drug use causes suicidal thoughts and behaviors. This paper rev...

  6. Neutron scattering evidence on Lifshitz behavior in MnP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, R.M.; Cable, J.W.; Shapira, Y.

    1980-09-01

    The variation of q→ in the fan phase of MnP was measured in order to test whether the para-ferro-fan triple point is a Lifshitz point. Along the para-fan phase boundary, q→ continuously decreases as the triple point is approached, extrapolating to zero at a temperature in good agreement with other measurements of the triple point. The temperature dependence of q→ along this phase boundary is in approximate agreement with theoretical expectations for Lifshitz point behavior. These data support the conclusion that the triple point is a Lifshitz point

  7. Mirror neuron system and observational learning: behavioral and neurophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago-Rodriguez, Angel; Lopez-Alonso, Virginia; Fernández-del-Olmo, Miguel

    2013-07-01

    Three experiments were performed to study observational learning using behavioral, perceptual, and neurophysiological data. Experiment 1 investigated whether observing an execution model, during physical practice of a transitive task that only presented one execution strategy, led to performance improvements compared with physical practice alone. Experiment 2 investigated whether performing an observational learning protocol improves subjects' action perception. In experiment 3 we evaluated whether the type of practice performed determined the activation of the Mirror Neuron System during action observation. Results showed that, compared with physical practice, observing an execution model during a task that only showed one execution strategy does not provide behavioral benefits. However, an observational learning protocol allows subjects to predict more precisely the outcome of the learned task. Finally, intersperse observation of an execution model with physical practice results in changes of primary motor cortex activity during the observation of the motor pattern previously practiced, whereas modulations in the connectivity between primary and non primary motor areas (PMv-M1; PPC-M1) were not affected by the practice protocol performed by the observer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Topiramate in the treatment of compulsive sexual behavior: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zullino Daniele

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the multiple mechanisms of action of topiramate, AMPA/kainate antagonism may be particularly interesting for the treatment of disorders characterized by conditioned cognitive and behavioral cue reactivity. Case presentation We report the case of a patient consulting primarily for obesity and cue triggered snacking, who responded well on topiramate at doses up to 50 mg. Coincidentally he reported on an improvement of compulsive nonparaphilic sexual behaviors (consumption of prostitution, which was also strongly triggered by environmental cues. Both addictive behaviors (snacking and consumption of prostitution reoccurred after discontinuation of topiramate and again responded reintroduction of the drug. Conclusion The present case report of topiramate's effect on comorbid obesity and nonparaphilic addiction could be interpreted as a further indication that topiramate acts on the common pathway underlying conditioned behaviors and seems to be a treatment of behavioral disorders associated with environmental cues.

  9. Effectiveness of manual therapies: the UK evidence report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfort, Gert; Haas, Mitch; Evans, Roni; Leininger, Brent; Triano, Jay

    2010-02-25

    The purpose of this report is to provide a succinct but comprehensive summary of the scientific evidence regarding the effectiveness of manual treatment for the management of a variety of musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal conditions. The conclusions are based on the results of systematic reviews of randomized clinical trials (RCTs), widely accepted and primarily UK and United States evidence-based clinical guidelines, plus the results of all RCTs not yet included in the first three categories. The strength/quality of the evidence regarding effectiveness was based on an adapted version of the grading system developed by the US Preventive Services Task Force and a study risk of bias assessment tool for the recent RCTs. By September 2009, 26 categories of conditions were located containing RCT evidence for the use of manual therapy: 13 musculoskeletal conditions, four types of chronic headache and nine non-musculoskeletal conditions. We identified 49 recent relevant systematic reviews and 16 evidence-based clinical guidelines plus an additional 46 RCTs not yet included in systematic reviews and guidelines.Additionally, brief references are made to other effective non-pharmacological, non-invasive physical treatments. Spinal manipulation/mobilization is effective in adults for: acute, subacute, and chronic low back pain; migraine and cervicogenic headache; cervicogenic dizziness; manipulation/mobilization is effective for several extremity joint conditions; and thoracic manipulation/mobilization is effective for acute/subacute neck pain. The evidence is inconclusive for cervical manipulation/mobilization alone for neck pain of any duration, and for manipulation/mobilization for mid back pain, sciatica, tension-type headache, coccydynia, temporomandibular joint disorders, fibromyalgia, premenstrual syndrome, and pneumonia in older adults. Spinal manipulation is not effective for asthma and dysmenorrhea when compared to sham manipulation, or for Stage 1

  10. Effectiveness of manual therapies: the UK evidence report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leininger Brent

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this report is to provide a succinct but comprehensive summary of the scientific evidence regarding the effectiveness of manual treatment for the management of a variety of musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal conditions. Methods The conclusions are based on the results of systematic reviews of randomized clinical trials (RCTs, widely accepted and primarily UK and United States evidence-based clinical guidelines, plus the results of all RCTs not yet included in the first three categories. The strength/quality of the evidence regarding effectiveness was based on an adapted version of the grading system developed by the US Preventive Services Task Force and a study risk of bias assessment tool for the recent RCTs. Results By September 2009, 26 categories of conditions were located containing RCT evidence for the use of manual therapy: 13 musculoskeletal conditions, four types of chronic headache and nine non-musculoskeletal conditions. We identified 49 recent relevant systematic reviews and 16 evidence-based clinical guidelines plus an additional 46 RCTs not yet included in systematic reviews and guidelines. Additionally, brief references are made to other effective non-pharmacological, non-invasive physical treatments. Conclusions Spinal manipulation/mobilization is effective in adults for: acute, subacute, and chronic low back pain; migraine and cervicogenic headache; cervicogenic dizziness; manipulation/mobilization is effective for several extremity joint conditions; and thoracic manipulation/mobilization is effective for acute/subacute neck pain. The evidence is inconclusive for cervical manipulation/mobilization alone for neck pain of any duration, and for manipulation/mobilization for mid back pain, sciatica, tension-type headache, coccydynia, temporomandibular joint disorders, fibromyalgia, premenstrual syndrome, and pneumonia in older adults. Spinal manipulation is not effective for asthma and

  11. Clobenzorex: evidence for amphetamine-like behavioral actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R; Darmani, N A; Elder, E L; Dumas, D; Glennon, R A

    1997-02-01

    Clobenzorex, an optically active N-substituted derivative of (+)amphetamine, has been identified on the illicit market. Because so little is known regarding the pharmacology or abuse potential of this agent, it was examined in tests of stimulus generalization in rats trained to discriminate 1 mg/kg of (+)amphetamine from vehicle to determine if it would produce amphetamine-appropriate responding. Clobenzorex (ED50 = 6.6 mg/kg) substituted for (+)amphetamine (ED50 = 0.3 mg/kg) but was approximately twenty times less potent than the training drug. Clobenzorex was also compared with (+)amphetamine and cocaine for its ability to induce locomotor stimulation and rearing frequency in mice. Clobenzorex was active in both assays but was less potent than either (+)amphetamine or cocaine. It is concluded that, although weaker than (+)amphetamine, clobenzorex constitutes an agent with amphetamine-like central stimulant behavioral properties.

  12. Effect of subliminal stimuli on consumer behavior: negative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, S G; Jennings, L B

    1975-12-01

    The study corrected methodological weaknesses found in previous experiments designed to test the contentions of motivational research theorists that subliminal stimulation can affect buying behavior. The words "Hershey's Chocolate" were presented to a group of 18 experimental Ss below a forced-choice detection threshold. The 19 control Ss had a blank slide superimposed over the same background media. In a highly controlled buying situation neither experimental nor control Ss purchased Hershey's products, but on comparable chocolate products, the experimental Ss bought 5 and the control Ss, 3. A second study tested 15 experimental and 12 control Ss with the stimulus presented just below a recognition threshold. No experimental Ss bought Hershey's; two control Ss did. No support was found for the claims of motivational research theorists.

  13. Board of director characteristics and audit report lag: Australian evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harjinder Singh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether board of director’s independence, financial expertise, gender, corporate governance experience and diligence impact the audit report lag exhibited by Australian publicly listed firms. Using a pooled sample of 500 firm-year observations obtained from the Australian Securities Exchange for the period 2004 to 2008, this study finds evidence that board member independence, board member financial expertise and, to a lesser extent, board member corporate governance experience are the most significant predictors associated with shorter/reduced audit report lag. Main findings are robust to alternative measures of audit report lag, board characteristics and control variables. Findings from this study clearly imply that boards play a substantial role in reducing audit report lag. Results imply that legislative and regulatory requirements, both in Australian and overseas, stipulating board member independence and financial expertise requirements are effective in improving the integrity of financial reporting, a key component of which is timeliness of financial reporting (encapsulated by audit report lag. In addition, an additional board characteristic that regulators should consider promoting among firms is board member corporate governance experience. Results from this study, therefore, have clear implications not only for regulators but also for key stakeholders such shareholders and management.

  14. Evidence-based emergency medicine. Creating a system to facilitate translation of evidence into standardized clinical practice: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stewart W; Trott, Alexander; Lindsell, Christopher J; Smith, Carol; Gibler, W Brian

    2008-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine, through its landmark report concerning errors in medicine, suggests that standardization of practice through systematic development and implementation of evidence-based clinical pathways is an effective way of reducing errors in emergency systems. The specialty of emergency medicine is well positioned to develop a complete system of innovative quality improvement, incorporating best practice guidelines with performance measures and practitioner feedback mechanisms to reduce errors and therefore improve quality of care. This article reviews the construction, ongoing development, and initial impact of such a system at a large, urban, university teaching hospital and at 2 affiliated community hospitals. The Committee for Procedural Quality and Evidence-Based Practice was formed within the Department of Emergency Medicine to establish evidence-based guidelines for nursing and provider care. The committee measures the effect of such guidelines, along with other quality measures, through pre- and postguideline patient care medical record audits. These measures are fed back to the providers in a provider-specific, peer-matched "scorecard." The Committee for Procedural Quality and Evidence-Based Practice affects practice and performance within our department. Multiple physician and nursing guidelines have been developed and put into use. Using asthma as an example, time to first nebulizer treatment and time to disposition from the emergency department decreased. Initial therapeutic agent changed and documentation improved. A comprehensive, guideline-driven, evidence-based approach to clinical practice is feasible within the structure of a department of emergency medicine. High-level departmental support with dedicated personnel is necessary for the success of such a system. Internet site development (available at http://www.CPQE.com) for product storage has proven valuable. Patient care has been improved in several ways; however, consistent and

  15. Wolfram syndrome and suicide: Evidence for a role of WFS1 in suicidal and impulsive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Adolfo; Kim, Caroline; Seguin, Monique; Lesage, Alain; Chawky, Nadia; Desautels, Alex; Tousignant, Michel; Vanier, Claude; Lipp, Olivier; Benkelfat, Chawki; Rouleau, Guy; Turecki, Gustavo

    2003-05-15

    There is evidence suggesting that subjects affected with the Wolfram syndrome (WFS) and normal carriers present an increased risk of psychiatric disorders, particularly depression and suicidal behavior. We investigated a possible role of the gene involved in WFS (WFS1) in the neurobiology of suicide and the potential modulatory effect on traits associated to suicidal behavior. Genetic variation at WFS1 (H611R, R456H, and I333V) was investigated in 111 suicide victims and 129 normal controls. Possible effects on psychopathology and behavioral traits were investigated in a subsample of suicide cases (N = 31) for whom phenotyping was carried out by means of structured psychiatric interviews and questionnaires adapted for psychological autopsies. We found a significantly higher frequency of the 611R/611R genotype in suicide completers as compared to controls (chi(2) = 19.21, df=2, P = 0.001). Suicide completers with this genotype had higher scores on measures of impulsivity (t = -3.15, df = 15.3, P = 0.006); novelty seeking (NS) (t = -3.35, df = 13.8, P = 0.005); and conversely, lower scores of persistence (t = 2.4, df = 16.6, P = 0.028). Scores of impulsivity and NS remained higher in subjects with the associated genotype after adjusting for age, gender, and psychopathology. These results suggest a role for WFS1 in the pathophysiology of impulsive suicide, and are consistent with previous clinical reports suggesting an increased risk of suicidal behavior in WFS homozygotes and heterozygotes. However, these findings are preliminary and should be confirmed in independent samples. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Cell phone data and travel behavior research: symposium summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This report summarizes the key themes from a symposium held on February 12, 2014, to discuss opportunities and challenges using cellular location data for national travel behavior analysis. Participants discussed the availability of cellular data and...

  17. Mismatch and conflict: neurophysiological and behavioral evidence for conflict priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Ralph; Meuth, Sven G; Kräuchi, Kurt; Schmidlin, Maria; Müller-Spahn, Franz; Falkenstein, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Conflict-related cognitive processes are critical for adapting to sudden environmental changes that confront the individual with inconsistent or ambiguous information. Thus, these processes play a crucial role to cope with daily life. Generally, conflicts tend to accumulate especially in complex and threatening situations. Therefore, the question arises how conflict-related cognitive processes are modulated by the close succession of conflicts. In the present study, we investigated the effect of interactions between different types of conflict on performance as well as on electrophysiological parameters. A task-irrelevant auditory stimulus and a task-relevant visual stimulus were presented successively. The auditory stimulus consisted of a standard or deviant tone, followed by a congruent or incongruent Stroop stimulus. After standard prestimuli, performance deteriorated for incongruent compared to congruent Stroop stimuli, which were accompanied by a widespread negativity for incongruent versus congruent stimuli in the event-related potentials (ERPs). However, after deviant prestimuli, performance was better for incongruent than for congruent Stroop stimuli and an additional early negativity in the ERP emerged with a fronto-central maximum. Our data show that deviant auditory prestimuli facilitate specifically the processing of stimulus-related conflict, providing evidence for a conflict-priming effect.

  18. Behavioral reliability program for the nuclear industry. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.C.; Davis, S.O.; Dunnette, M.D.; Meyer, P.; Sharac, J.

    1981-07-01

    The subject of the study was the development of standards for a behavioral observation program which could be used by the NRC licensed nuclear industry to detect indications of emotional instability in its employees who have access to protected and vital areas. Emphasis was placed on those observable characteristics which could be assessed by supervisors or peers in a work environment. The behavioral reliability program, as was defined in this report, encompasses the concept and basic components of the program, the definition of the behavioral reliability program, the definition of the behavioral reliability criterion, and a set of instructions for the creation and implementation of the program by an individual facility

  19. The Use of the Evidence from the Behavioral Sciences in the Organizational Decision-Making Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan MÎNJINĂ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The important managerial decision-making and the development of policies, strategies, internal normative acts and procedures must be solid grounded for efficient achieving of their objectives. To this end, the evidence-based approach uses various types of evidence, a leading role having those scientific, and the critical thinking. The evidence from behavioral sciences is especially important when the decisions objectives involve behavioral elements. They also help to ensure the rationality of any decision-making process. The concern for the use of behavioral sciences research in the decision-making preceded the occurrence of evidence-based approach. The increased knowledge fund of organizations, the access to the best practices and to the relevant scientific research findings represent only the initial stages of the evidence-based approach implementation and functioning. The ensuring of their effective use calls for special skills training among staff, the creation of tools and organizational mechanisms and of a facilitating organizational culture. This paper argues the need to integrate two approaches that promote the decision-making based on scientific evidence, the evidence-based approach and the use of behavioral and social sciences in the decision-making, to potentiate the contribution of the behavioral sciences to the increasing of the decision-making efficiency. The efforts made in this paper had overall objective to prepare and facilitate the use of research evidence provided by behavioral sciences in the organizational decision-making process by presenting the main concepts and knowledge in the field and by proposing an outline procedure specifically developed.

  20. Charge ordering transition in GdBaCo2O5: Evidence of reentrant behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allieta, M.; Scavini, M.; Lo Presti, L.; Coduri, M.; Loconte, L.; Cappelli, S.; Oliva, C.; Ghigna, P.; Pattison, P.; Scagnoli, V.

    2013-12-01

    We present a detailed study on the charge ordering transition in a GdBaCo2O5.0 system by combining high-resolution synchrotron powder/single-crystal diffraction with electron paramagnetic resonance experiments as a function of temperature. We found a second-order structural phase transition at TCO = 247 K (Pmmm to Pmma) associated with the onset of long-range charge ordering. At Tmin ≈ 1.2TCO, the electron paramagnetic resonance linewidth rapidly broadens, providing evidence of antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations. This likely indicates that, analogously to manganites, the long-range antiferromagnetic order in GdBaCo2O5.0 sets in at ≈TCO. Pair distribution function analysis of diffraction data revealed signatures of structural inhomogeneities at low temperature. By comparing the average and local bond valences, we found that above TCO the local structure is consistent with a fully random occupation of Co2+ and Co3+ in a 1:1 ratio and with a complete charge ordering below TCO. Below T ≈ 100 K the charge localization is partially melted at the local scale, suggesting a reentrant behavior of charge ordering. This result is supported by the weakening of superstructure reflections and the temperature evolution of electron paramagnetic resonance linewidth that is consistent with paramagnetic reentrant behavior reported in the GdBaCo2O5.5 parent compound.

  1. On the relationship between weight status and doctor shopping behavior-evidence from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoqi

    2013-11-01

    A recent study has suggested that overweight and obese people are more likely to consult a range of physicians (doctor shopping). The consistency of this finding with multiple measures of doctor shopping and controls for socioeconomic circumstances was interrogated. Ninety-nine thousand four hundred seven Australians aged 45 and over who had sought primary healthcare at least five times within 6 months of a survey (2006-2008). (i) The count of different physicians consulted; a binary indicator of (ii) >= three different physicians; (iii) >= five different physicians; and iv) a measure that took into account multiple consultations with the same physician were investigated. Weight status was measured using Body Mass Index (BMI) based on self-reported height and weight. Controls included socioeconomic circumstances, demographics, health, and neighborhood factors. In comparison to people with "normal" BMI, the likelihood of doctor shopping was lower among overweight (Incidence Rate Ratio: 0.97, 95%CI: 0.96, 0.98) and obese people (0.95: 0.93, 0.96). This negative correlation between doctor shopping behavior and weight status was consistent after full adjustment and across different outcome measures. In contrast with recent evidence from the US, overweight and obese Australians are less prone to doctor shopping behavior than their peers with "normal" BMI. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  2. REVERSE LEVERAGED BUYOUT RETURN BEHAVIOR: SOME EUROPEAN EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor W. Chamberlain

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the stock performance of reverse leveraged buyouts (RLBOs before, during, and after the global financial crisis. An RLBO consists of the return to public investors (i.e. the offering of stocks to the public of a company that had gone private after a leveraged buyout (LBO led by a private equity fund. The value created by an RLBO resides in the changes brought by the LBO fund while it owns the company. After a “repackaging” of the bought company, the private equity fund sells the company’s shares to the public. Most of the research on this topic, based on RLBOs that occurred between 1980 and 2005 in the US, has shown that RLBOs outperform their peers (i.e. other IPOs and outperform the market after going public again. Focusing on RLBO companies in Europe in the financial crisis era, this study investigates whether they also outperform other IPOs and the market. The study is based on a sample of 421 IPOs occurring between 2001 and 2011 in France, Germany and the UK, of which 52 are RLBOs. We examine RLBO performance one day, one month, one year and three years after the offering. We also use event study methods to investigate the impact of the global financial crisis on RLBO performance. We find that European RLBOs outperform both their peers (i.e. “classic” IPOs and the market during the period studied. This outperformance does not diminish in the long-term. The global financial crisis appears to have affected RLBO performance, which weakened between 2007 and 2009, though RLBOs still outperformed the market. In addition, multivariable regressions were used to examine various extant explanations for RLBO outperformance. This analysis did not support any of the prevailing theories. In particular, the value created by RLBOs does not appear to be linked to LBO duration, sponsor reputation, or to the level of leverage employed. There is no evidence of time or industry effects. Moreover, RLBO performance shows no

  3. Theory, evidence and Intervention Mapping to improve behavior nutrition and physical activity interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Isabel

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper intends to contribute to the debate on the usefulness and barriers in applying theories in diet and physical activity behavior-change interventions. Discussion Since behavior theory is a reflection of the compiled evidence of behavior research, theory is the only foothold we have for the development of behavioral nutrition and physical activity interventions. Application of theory should improve the effectiveness of interventions. However, some of the theories we use lack a strong empirical foundation, and the available theories are not always used in the most effective way. Furthermore, many of the commonly-used theories provide at best information on what needs to be changed to promote healthy behavior, but not on how changes can be induced. Finally, many theories explain behavioral intentions or motivation rather well, but are less well-suited to explaining or predicting actual behavior or behavior change. For more effective interventions, behavior change theory needs to be further developed in stronger research designs and such change-theory should especially focus on how to promote action rather than mere motivation. Since voluntary behavior change requires motivation, ability as well as the opportunity to change, further development of behavior change theory should incorporate environmental change strategies. Conclusion Intervention Mapping may help to further improve the application of theories in nutrition and physical activity behavior change.

  4. Genetic Variance in Homophobia: Evidence from Self- and Peer Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapko-Willmes, Alexandra; Kandler, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The present twin study combined self- and peer assessments of twins' general homophobia targeting gay men in order to replicate previous behavior genetic findings across different rater perspectives and to disentangle self-rater-specific variance from common variance in self- and peer-reported homophobia (i.e., rater-consistent variance). We hypothesized rater-consistent variance in homophobia to be attributable to genetic and nonshared environmental effects, and self-rater-specific variance to be partially accounted for by genetic influences. A sample of 869 twins and 1329 peer raters completed a seven item scale containing cognitive, affective, and discriminatory homophobic tendencies. After correction for age and sex differences, we found most of the genetic contributions (62%) and significant nonshared environmental contributions (16%) to individual differences in self-reports on homophobia to be also reflected in peer-reported homophobia. A significant genetic component, however, was self-report-specific (38%), suggesting that self-assessments alone produce inflated heritability estimates to some degree. Different explanations are discussed.

  5. Checklist for One Health Epidemiological Reporting of Evidence (COHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan F. Davis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One Health is defined as the intersection and integration of knowledge regarding humans, animals, and the environment, yet as the One Health scientific literature expands, there is considerable heterogeneity of approach and quality of reporting in One Health studies. In addition, many researchers who publish such studies do not include or integrate data from all three domains of human, animal, and environmental health. This points to a critical need to unify guidelines for One Health studies. This report details the Checklist for One Health Epidemiological Reporting of Evidence (COHERE to guide the design and publication format of future One Health studies. COHERE was developed by a core writing team and international expert review group that represents multiple disciplines, including human medicine, veterinary medicine, public health, allied professionals, clinical laboratory science, epidemiology, the social sciences, ecohealth and environmental health. The twin aims of the COHERE standards are to 1 improve the quality of reporting of observational or interventional epidemiological studies that collect and integrate data from humans, animals and/or vectors, and their environments; and 2 promote the concept that One Health studies should integrate knowledge from these three domains. The 19 standards in the COHERE checklist address descriptions of human populations, animal populations, environmental assessment, spatial and temporal relationships of data from the three domains, integration of analyses and interpretation, and inclusion of expertise in the research team from disciplines related to human health, animal health, and environmental health.

  6. HERDING BEHAVIOR UNDER MARKETS CONDITION: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE ON THE EUROPEAN FINANCIAL MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moatemri Ouarda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents four main contributions to the literature of behavior herding. Firstly, it extends the behavioral researches of herding of the investors on a developed market and mainly on a European market as a whole. Secondly, we are interested in examination of herding behavior at the level of sectors by using data at the levels of companies. Thirdly, this document estimates the implications of herding behavior in terms of returns, volatility and volume of transaction. Fourthly, the herding behavior is revealed as well during the period of the recent global financial crisis in 2007-2008 and of Asian crisis. Our results reveal a strong evidence of herding behavior sharply contributed to a bearish situation characterized by a strong volatility and a trading volume. The repercussion of herding during the period of the recent financial crisis is clearly revealed for the sectors of the finance and the technology.

  7. Affective experience and motivated behavior in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Evidence from clinical and nonclinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Simon S Y; Shi, Yan-Fang; Au, Angie C W; Li, Zhi; Tsui, Chi F; Chan, Constance K Y; Leung, Meranda M W; Wong, Peony T Y; Wang, Yi; Yan, Chao; Heerey, Erin A; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-09-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have been found to exhibit emotion-behavior decoupling, particularly with respect to anticipated, rather than experienced events. However, previous research has focused on how emotion valence translates into motivated behavior, ignoring the fact that emotion arousal should also modulate emotion-behavior coupling. Few studies have examined emotion-behavior coupling in prepsychotic conditions. This investigation aimed to examine the nature and extent of emotion valence- and arousal-behavior coupling across the schizophrenia spectrum. We examine how emotional valence and arousal couple with behavior in 3 groups of individuals (25 individuals with chronic schizophrenia; 27 individuals early in the disease course, and 31 individuals reporting negative schizotypal symptoms). Participants completed a task using slides to elicit emotion and evoke motivated behavior. We compared participants with their respective matched control groups to determine differences in the correspondence between self-reported emotion valence/arousal and motivated behavior. Both groups with schizophrenia reported similar affective experiences as their controls, whereas individuals reporting negative schizotypal symptoms showed "in-the-moment" anhedonia but not emotion-behavior decoupling. In addition, the schizophrenia groups' affective experiences corresponded less well to their behavior relative to controls. Our findings suggest emotion-behavior decoupling along both valence and arousal dimensions in schizophrenia but not in participants with high levels of schizotypal symptoms. Findings appear to support the idea that emotion-behavior decoupling differs in nature and extent across the schizophrenia spectrum. Interventions to recouple emotion and behavior may be particularly helpful in allowing people with schizophrenia to gain functional independence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Behavior-aware decision support systems : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Gary B.; Homer, Jack (Homer Consulting); Chenoweth, Brooke N.; Backus, George A.; Strip, David R.

    2007-11-01

    As Sandia National Laboratories serves its mission to provide support for the security-related interests of the United States, it is faced with considering the behavioral responses that drive problems, mitigate interventions, or lead to unintended consequences. The effort described here expands earlier works in using healthcare simulation to develop behavior-aware decision support systems. This report focuses on using qualitative choice techniques and enhancing two analysis models developed in a sister project.

  9. Caregiver Behavior Change for Child Survival and Development in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: An Examination of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, John P.; Pequegnat, Willo; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Bachman, Gretchen; Bullock, Merry; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Fox, Nathan A.; Harkness, Sara; Huebner, Gillian; Lombardi, Joan; Murry, Velma McBride; Moran, Allisyn; Norton, Maureen; Mulik, Jennifer; Parks, Will; Raikes, Helen H.; Smyser, Joseph; Sugg, Caroline; Sweat, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In June of 2012, representatives from more than 80 countries promulgated a Child Survival Call to Action, which called for reducing child mortality to 20 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births in every country by 2035. To address the problem of ending preventable child deaths, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the United Nations Children's Fund convened, on June 3–4, 2013, an Evidence Summit on Enhancing Child Survival and Development in Lower- and Middle-Income Countries by Achieving Population-Level Behavior Change. Six evidence review teams were established on different topics related to child survival and healthy development to identify the relevant evidence-based interventions and to prepare reports. This article was developed by the evidence review team responsible for identifying the research literature on caregiver change for child survival and development. This article is organized into childhood developmental periods and cross-cutting issues that affect child survival and healthy early development across all these periods. On the basis of this review, the authors present evidence-based recommendations for programs focused on caregivers to increase child survival and promote healthy development. Last, promising directions for future research to change caregivers' behaviors are given. PMID:25315597

  10. Caregiver behavior change for child survival and development in low- and middle-income countries: an examination of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, John P; Pequegnat, Willo; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Bachman, Gretchen; Bullock, Merry; Carlo, Waldemar A; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Fox, Nathan A; Harkness, Sara; Huebner, Gillian; Lombardi, Joan; Murry, Velma McBride; Moran, Allisyn; Norton, Maureen; Mulik, Jennifer; Parks, Will; Raikes, Helen H; Smyser, Joseph; Sugg, Caroline; Sweat, Michael; Ulkuer, Nurper

    2014-01-01

    In June of 2012, representatives from more than 80 countries promulgated a Child Survival Call to Action, which called for reducing child mortality to 20 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births in every country by 2035. To address the problem of ending preventable child deaths, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the United Nations Children's Fund convened, on June 3-4, 2013, an Evidence Summit on Enhancing Child Survival and Development in Lower- and Middle-Income Countries by Achieving Population-Level Behavior Change. Six evidence review teams were established on different topics related to child survival and healthy development to identify the relevant evidence-based interventions and to prepare reports. This article was developed by the evidence review team responsible for identifying the research literature on caregiver change for child survival and development. This article is organized into childhood developmental periods and cross-cutting issues that affect child survival and healthy early development across all these periods. On the basis of this review, the authors present evidence-based recommendations for programs focused on caregivers to increase child survival and promote healthy development. Last, promising directions for future research to change caregivers' behaviors are given.

  11. Do claimants over-report behavioral health dysfunction when filing for work disability benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Eisen, Sue; Ni, Pengsheng; Rasch, Elizabeth K; Rogers, E Sally; Jette, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Questions exist related to the best way to use medical evidence relative to self-report as part of the SSA disability determination process. To examine concordance between provider and claimant responses along the four dimensions of work related behavioral health functioning: Social Interactions, Mood and Emotions, Behavioral Control, and Self-Efficacy. Using secondary data from a larger study, which collected data on individuals reporting difficulties with work (claimants) due to mental conditions, 39 items were completed by claimants and their healthcare provider. Inter-rater agreement was assessed using three techniques: Cohen's kappa, percent absolute agreement, and folded mountain plots. A sample of 65 dyads was obtained. Inter-rater agreement was low for most items (k=0.0-0.20) with a minority of items having fair agreement (k=0.21-0.40) Percent agreement was fair: Mood and Emotions (46%), Self-Efficacy (44%), Behavioral Control (39%) and Social Interactions (38%). Overall, providers reported lower functioning compared to claimants for the Behavioral Control and Self-Efficacy scales; the reverse trend held for the Mood and Emotions scale. Results indicate discordance between provider and claimant report of behavioral health functioning. Understanding reasons for and approaches to reconciling the inconsistencies between claimant and provider perspectives is a complex task. These findings have implications for how best to assess mental and behavioral-health related work disability in the absence of an established gold standard measure.

  12. Economic Booms and Risky Sexual Behavior: Evidence from Zambian Copper Mining Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Wilson

    2010-01-01

    Existing studies suggest that individual and household level economic shocks affect the demand for and supply of risky sex. However, little evidence exists on the effects of an aggregate shock on equilibrium risky sexual behavior. This paper examines the effects of the early twenty-first century copper boom on risky sexual behavior in Zambian copper mining cities. The results indicate that the copper boom substantially reduced rates of transactional sex and multiple partnerships in copper min...

  13. Improving Chronic Disease in the Caribbean through Evidence-based Behavioral and Social In

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office for Behavioral and Social Sciences Research and the NCI’s Center for Global Health held a workshop entitled “Improving Chronic Disease in the Caribbean through Evidence-based Behavioral and Social Interventions”, which took place in Bridgetown, Barbados from July 21 to 24, 2015. The objectives of the workshop were to encourage the generation of research to more rapidly accelerate chronic disease prevention and management.

  14. The effects of prosocial video games on prosocial behaviors: international evidence from correlational, longitudinal, and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Douglas A; Anderson, Craig A; Yukawa, Shintaro; Ihori, Nobuko; Saleem, Muniba; Ming, Lim Kam; Shibuya, Akiko; Liau, Albert K; Khoo, Angeline; Bushman, Brad J; Rowell Huesmann, L; Sakamoto, Akira

    2009-06-01

    Although dozens of studies have documented a relationship between violent video games and aggressive behaviors, very little attention has been paid to potential effects of prosocial games. Theoretically, games in which game characters help and support each other in nonviolent ways should increase both short-term and long-term prosocial behaviors. We report three studies conducted in three countries with three age groups to test this hypothesis. In the correlational study, Singaporean middle-school students who played more prosocial games behaved more prosocially. In the two longitudinal samples of Japanese children and adolescents, prosocial game play predicted later increases in prosocial behavior. In the experimental study, U.S. undergraduates randomly assigned to play prosocial games behaved more prosocially toward another student. These similar results across different methodologies, ages, and cultures provide robust evidence of a prosocial game content effect, and they provide support for the General Learning Model.

  15. The Effects of Prosocial Video Games on Prosocial Behaviors: International Evidence from Correlational, Longitudinal, and Experimental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Douglas A.; Anderson, Craig A.; Yukawa, Shintaro; Ihori, Nobuko; Saleem, Muniba; Ming, Lim Kam; Shibuya, Akiko; Liau, Albert K.; Khoo, Angeline; Bushman, Brad J.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Sakamoto, Akira

    2009-01-01

    Although dozens of studies have documented a relation between violent video games and aggressive behaviors, very little attention has been paid to potential effects of prosocial games. Theoretically, games in which game characters help and support each other in nonviolent ways should increase both short-term and long-term prosocial behaviors. We report three studies conducted in three countries with three age groups to test this hypothesis. In the correlational study, Singaporean middle-school students who played more prosocial games behaved more prosocially. In the two longitudinal samples of Japanese children and adolescents, prosocial game play predicted later increases in prosocial behavior. In the experimental study, U.S. undergraduates randomly assigned to play prosocial games behaved more prosocially toward another student. These similar results across different methodologies, ages, and cultures provide robust evidence a prosocial game content effect, and provide support for the General Learning Model. PMID:19321812

  16. Recorded Behavior as a Valuable Resource for Diagnostics in Mobile Phone Addiction: Evidence from Psychoinformatics

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Montag; Konrad Błaszkiewicz; Bernd Lachmann; Rayna Sariyska; Ionut Andone; Boris Trendafilov; Alexander Markowetz

    2015-01-01

    Psychologists and psychiatrists commonly rely on self-reports or interviews to diagnose or treat behavioral addictions. The present study introduces a novel source of data: recordings of the actual problem behavior under investigation. A total of N = 58 participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire measuring problematic mobile phone behavior featuring several questions on weekly phone usage. After filling in the questionnaire, all participants received an application to be installed on t...

  17. Effects of Behavioral Genetic Evidence on Perceptions of Criminal Responsibility and Appropriate Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S.; Scurich, Nicholas; Raad, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Demonstrations of a link between genetic variants and criminal behavior have stimulated increasing use of genetic evidence to reduce perceptions of defendants’ responsibility for criminal behavior and to mitigate punishment. However, because only limited data exist regarding the impact of such evidence on decision makers and the public at large, we recruited a representative sample of the U.S. adult population (n=960) for a web-based survey. Participants were presented with descriptions of three legal cases and were asked to: determine the length of incarceration for a convicted murderer; adjudicate an insanity defense; and decide whether a defendant should receive the death penalty. A fully crossed, between-participants, factorial design was used, varying the type of evidence (none, genetic, neuroimaging, both), heinousness of the crime, and past criminal record, with sentence or verdict as the primary outcome. Also assessed were participants’ apprehension of the defendant, belief in free will, political ideology, and genetic knowledge. Across all three cases, genetic evidence had no significant effects on outcomes. Neuroimaging data showed an inconsistent effect in one of the two cases in which it was introduced. In contrast, heinousness of the offense and past criminal record were strongly related to participants’ decisions. Moreover, participants’ beliefs about the controllability of criminal behavior and political orientations were significantly associated with their choices. Our findings suggest that neither hopes that genetic evidence will modify judgments of culpability and punishment nor fears about the impact of genetic evidence on decision makers are likely to come to fruition. PMID:26240516

  18. Effects of Behavioral Genetic Evidence on Perceptions of Criminal Responsibility and Appropriate Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S; Scurich, Nicholas; Raad, Raymond

    2015-05-01

    Demonstrations of a link between genetic variants and criminal behavior have stimulated increasing use of genetic evidence to reduce perceptions of defendants' responsibility for criminal behavior and to mitigate punishment. However, because only limited data exist regarding the impact of such evidence on decision makers and the public at large, we recruited a representative sample of the U.S. adult population (n=960) for a web-based survey. Participants were presented with descriptions of three legal cases and were asked to: determine the length of incarceration for a convicted murderer; adjudicate an insanity defense; and decide whether a defendant should receive the death penalty. A fully crossed, between-participants, factorial design was used, varying the type of evidence (none, genetic, neuroimaging, both), heinousness of the crime, and past criminal record, with sentence or verdict as the primary outcome. Also assessed were participants' apprehension of the defendant, belief in free will, political ideology, and genetic knowledge. Across all three cases, genetic evidence had no significant effects on outcomes. Neuroimaging data showed an inconsistent effect in one of the two cases in which it was introduced. In contrast, heinousness of the offense and past criminal record were strongly related to participants' decisions. Moreover, participants' beliefs about the controllability of criminal behavior and political orientations were significantly associated with their choices. Our findings suggest that neither hopes that genetic evidence will modify judgments of culpability and punishment nor fears about the impact of genetic evidence on decision makers are likely to come to fruition.

  19. Does the evidence make a difference in consumer behavior? Sales of supplements before and after publication of negative research results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilburt, Jon C; Emanuel, Ezekiel J; Miller, Franklin G

    2008-09-01

    To determine if the public consumption of herbs, vitamins, and supplements changes in light of emerging negative evidence. We describe trends in annual US sales of five major supplements in temporal relationship with publication of research from three top US general medical journals published from 2001 through early 2006 and the number of news citations associated with each publication using the Lexus-Nexis database. In four of five supplements (St. John's wort, echinacea, saw palmetto, and glucosamine), there was little or no change in sales trends after publication of research results. In one instance, however, dramatic changes in sales occurred following publication of data suggesting harm from high doses of vitamin E. Results reporting harm may have a greater impact on supplement consumption than those demonstrating lack of efficacy. In order for clinical trial evidence to influence public behavior, there needs to be a better understanding of the factors that influence the translation of evidence in the public.

  20. Differences in Word Recognition between Early Bilinguals and Monolinguals: Behavioral and ERP Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Minna; Hulten, Annika; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Laine, Matti

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the behavioral and brain responses (ERPs) of bilingual word recognition to three fundamental psycholinguistic factors, frequency, morphology, and lexicality, in early bilinguals vs. monolinguals. Earlier behavioral studies have reported larger frequency effects in bilinguals' nondominant vs. dominant language and in some studies…

  1. Brief Report: An Independent Replication and Extension of Psychometric Evidence Supporting the Theory of Mind Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Kathryn J; Coggins, Truman E

    2016-08-01

    This study presents an independent replication and extension of psychometric evidence supporting the Theory of Mind Inventory (ToMI). Parents of 20 children with ASD (4; 1-6; 7 years; months) and 20 with typical development (3; 1-6; 5), rated their child's theory of mind abilities in everyday situations. Other parent report and child behavioral assessments included the Social Responsiveness Scale-2, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-2, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-4, and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, 2. Results revealed high internal consistency, expected developmental changes in children with typical development, expected group differences between children with and without ASD, and strong correlations with other measures of social and communication abilities. The ToMI demonstrates strong psychometrics, suggesting considerable utility in identifying theory of mind deficits in children with ASD.

  2. Unusual Behavior of a Lung Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Cristina; Cabral, Daniel; Almodovar, Teresa; Ribeiro, Analisa; Delgado, Diogo; Mota, Leonor; Mendes, Samuel; Alvoeiro, Magda; Torres, Carolina; Calado, Telma; Antunes, Mariana; Félix, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    55 years old, male patient. History of heavy smoking (65 UMA) and COPD. Admitted to hospital due to a left pneumonia. Thoracic CT and PET-Scan, showed left lower lobe mass measuring 92x89 mm (SUVmax 49). Several mediastinal node groups presented increased uptake of FDG. A fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed. Citology of the bronchoalveolar lavage suggested a squamous carcinoma. EBUS of node stations 4R, 4L e 7 without evidence of malignancy. The case was taken to a multidisciplinary meeting staged as IIIA (T3N2M0). Neoadjuvant therapy (four cycles cysplatine and gemcitabine) was decided based on station 5, suspected disease. A left lower lobectomy was performed after a cervical mediastinoscopy excluded metastasis of node stations 4R and 4L. Histology of the specimen was compatible with inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT). No lymph node involvement was reported. It was restaged as IIB (ypT3N0M0). Three months after surgery one de novo nodule in the lingula with 12,7 of SUVmax was reported. The nodule was removed confirming a IMT metastasis. Four months after the nodule ressection a CT showed new lung and liver nodules. A total oclusion of the left main bronchus was documented and bronchoscopic debulking of the endobronchial mass again revealed IMT. Paliative radiotherapy was decided in the multidisciplinar group targeting the left main bronchus (five sessions of radiotherapy on a dose of 20Gy in 4Gy daily fractions). Ten months after surgery due to the onset of back pain, a CT revealed a sacrum lesion whose needle biopsy was suspicious for multiple myeloma. The patient was referred to another oncological center where previous non-surgical cases had been sent in the past. The patient is now proposed for histology reassessment and discussion by the hematology and pneumology medical teams. Inflammatory myofibrobastic tumors are considered benign or low-grade malignant tumors. The size of the tumour (cut-off of 3 cm) and secure surgical resection with free

  3. Case Study: Evidence-Based Interventions Enhancing Diabetic Foot Care Behaviors among Hospitalized DM Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titis Kurniawan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Improving diabetic patients’ foot care behaviors is one of the most effective strategies in minimizing diabetic foot ulceration and its further negative impacts, either in diabetic hospitalized patients or outpatients.Purpose: To describe foot care knowledge and behaviors among hospitalized diabetic patients, to apply selected foot care knowledge and behaviors improvement evidence, and to evaluate its effectiveness.Method: Four diabetic patients who were under our care for at least three days and could communicate in Thai language were selected from a surgical ward in a university hospital. The authors applied educational program based on patients’ learning needs, provided diabetic foot care leaflet, and assisted patients to set their goal and action plans. In the third day of treatment, we evaluated patients’ foot care knowledge and their goal and action plan statements in improving foot care behaviors.Result: Based on the data collected among four hospitalized diabetic patients, it was shown that all patients needed foot care behaviors improvement and the educational program improved hospitalized patients’ foot care knowledge and their perceived foot care behaviors. The educational program that combined with goal setting and action plans method was easy, safe, and seemed feasibly applicable for diabetic hospitalized patients.Conclusion: The results of this study provide valuable information for improvement of hospitalized diabetic patients’ foot care knowledge and behaviors. The authors recommend nurses to use this evidence-based practice to contribute in improving the quality of diabetic care.Keywords: Intervention, diabetic foot care, hospitalized diabetic patients

  4. Relationship between Achievement Goals and Students' Self-Reported Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbuga, Bulent; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E

    2015-04-21

    This study utilized the 2x2 achievement goal model (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, performance-avoidance goals) to explore the relationships between achievement goals and self-reported personal and social responsibility behaviors in high school physical education settings. Two hundred and twenty one Turkish students completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals, personal and social responsibility behaviors. Results of the one-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences among the four achievement goals, F(3, 660) = 137.05, p social responsibility (r = .38, p responsibility behaviors, and b = .41, t(216) = 5.23, p social responsibility behaviors. These findings seem to provide convergent evidence that mastery-approach goals are positively related to positive educational outcomes.

  5. Evidence Report: Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Dempsey, Donna L.

    2016-01-01

    Substantial evidence supports the claim that inadequate training leads to performance errors. Barshi and Loukopoulos (2012) demonstrate that even a task as carefully developed and refined over many years as operating an aircraft can be significantly improved by a systematic analysis, followed by improved procedures and improved training (see also Loukopoulos, Dismukes, & Barshi, 2009a). Unfortunately, such a systematic analysis of training needs rarely occurs during the preliminary design phase, when modifications are most feasible. Training is often seen as a way to compensate for deficiencies in task and system design, which in turn increases the training load. As a result, task performance often suffers, and with it, the operators suffer and so does the mission. On the other hand, effective training can indeed compensate for such design deficiencies, and can even go beyond to compensate for failures of our imagination to anticipate all that might be needed when we send our crew members to go where no one else has gone before. Much of the research literature on training is motivated by current training practices aimed at current training needs. Although there is some experience with operations in extreme environments on Earth, there is no experience with long-duration space missions where crews must practice semi-autonomous operations, where ground support must accommodate significant communication delays, and where so little is known about the environment. Thus, we must develop robust methodologies and tools to prepare our crews for the unknown. The research necessary to support such an endeavor does not currently exist, but existing research does reveal general challenges that are relevant to long-duration, high-autonomy missions. The evidence presented here describes issues related to the risk of performance errors due to training deficiencies. Contributing factors regarding training deficiencies may pertain to organizational process and training programs for

  6. Identity, Stress, and Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Undergraduates: Evidence for Interaction Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Keith B.; Paysnick, Amy A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined sense of identity (assessed using the Identity subscale of the Psychosocial Maturity Inventory) as a moderator of associations between stressful life events, behavioral/emotional problems, and substance abuse in a sample of 187 college undergraduates (67% female). Correlations showed evidence for positive associations…

  7. A case report of suicidal behavior related to subclinical hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo SH

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Soo-Hyun Joo, Jong-Hyun Jeong, Seung-Chul HongDepartment of Psychiatry, St Vincent's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, KoreaAbstract: Abnormalities in thyroid function are associated with many psychiatric symptoms. We present a report of a 15-year-old girl who was admitted to the psychiatry inpatient unit with symptoms of suicidal behavior, irritability, and impulsivity. One year previously, she had become more short-tempered, and had started to cut her wrists impulsively. Laboratory tests revealed subclinical hyperthyroidism. She was treated with anxiolytic and antithyroid drugs, and her suicidal ideation and irritability resolved. This case demonstrates that subclinical hyperthyroidism can be associated with suicidal behavior as well as overt hyperthyroidism. Early intervention is required to prevent suicidal behavior in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism.Keywords: suicidal behavior, subclinical hyperthyroidism, anxiolytics

  8. Relational Memory Is Evident in Eye Movement Behavior despite the Use of Subliminal Testing Methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison E Nickel

    Full Text Available While it is generally agreed that perception can occur without awareness, there continues to be debate about the type of representational content that is accessible when awareness is minimized or eliminated. Most investigations that have addressed this issue evaluate access to well-learned representations. Far fewer studies have evaluated whether or not associations encountered just once prior to testing might also be accessed and influence behavior. Here, eye movements were used to examine whether or not memory for studied relationships is evident following the presentation of subliminal cues. Participants assigned to experimental or control groups studied scene-face pairs and test trials evaluated implicit and explicit memory for these pairs. Each test trial began with a subliminal scene cue, followed by three visible studied faces. For experimental group participants, one face was the studied associate of the scene (implicit test; for controls none were a match. Subsequently, the display containing a match was presented to both groups, but now it was preceded by a visible scene cue (explicit test. Eye movements were recorded and recognition memory responses were made. Participants in the experimental group looked disproportionately at matching faces on implicit test trials and participants from both groups looked disproportionately at matching faces on explicit test trials, even when that face had not been successfully identified as the associate. Critically, implicit memory-based viewing effects seemed not to depend on residual awareness of subliminal scene cues, as subjective and objective measures indicated that scenes were successfully masked from view. The reported outcomes indicate that memory for studied relationships can be expressed in eye movement behavior without awareness.

  9. Relational Memory Is Evident in Eye Movement Behavior despite the Use of Subliminal Testing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Allison E.; Henke, Katharina; Hannula, Deborah E.

    2015-01-01

    While it is generally agreed that perception can occur without awareness, there continues to be debate about the type of representational content that is accessible when awareness is minimized or eliminated. Most investigations that have addressed this issue evaluate access to well-learned representations. Far fewer studies have evaluated whether or not associations encountered just once prior to testing might also be accessed and influence behavior. Here, eye movements were used to examine whether or not memory for studied relationships is evident following the presentation of subliminal cues. Participants assigned to experimental or control groups studied scene-face pairs and test trials evaluated implicit and explicit memory for these pairs. Each test trial began with a subliminal scene cue, followed by three visible studied faces. For experimental group participants, one face was the studied associate of the scene (implicit test); for controls none were a match. Subsequently, the display containing a match was presented to both groups, but now it was preceded by a visible scene cue (explicit test). Eye movements were recorded and recognition memory responses were made. Participants in the experimental group looked disproportionately at matching faces on implicit test trials and participants from both groups looked disproportionately at matching faces on explicit test trials, even when that face had not been successfully identified as the associate. Critically, implicit memory-based viewing effects seemed not to depend on residual awareness of subliminal scene cues, as subjective and objective measures indicated that scenes were successfully masked from view. The reported outcomes indicate that memory for studied relationships can be expressed in eye movement behavior without awareness. PMID:26512726

  10. Relational Memory Is Evident in Eye Movement Behavior despite the Use of Subliminal Testing Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Allison E; Henke, Katharina; Hannula, Deborah E

    2015-01-01

    While it is generally agreed that perception can occur without awareness, there continues to be debate about the type of representational content that is accessible when awareness is minimized or eliminated. Most investigations that have addressed this issue evaluate access to well-learned representations. Far fewer studies have evaluated whether or not associations encountered just once prior to testing might also be accessed and influence behavior. Here, eye movements were used to examine whether or not memory for studied relationships is evident following the presentation of subliminal cues. Participants assigned to experimental or control groups studied scene-face pairs and test trials evaluated implicit and explicit memory for these pairs. Each test trial began with a subliminal scene cue, followed by three visible studied faces. For experimental group participants, one face was the studied associate of the scene (implicit test); for controls none were a match. Subsequently, the display containing a match was presented to both groups, but now it was preceded by a visible scene cue (explicit test). Eye movements were recorded and recognition memory responses were made. Participants in the experimental group looked disproportionately at matching faces on implicit test trials and participants from both groups looked disproportionately at matching faces on explicit test trials, even when that face had not been successfully identified as the associate. Critically, implicit memory-based viewing effects seemed not to depend on residual awareness of subliminal scene cues, as subjective and objective measures indicated that scenes were successfully masked from view. The reported outcomes indicate that memory for studied relationships can be expressed in eye movement behavior without awareness.

  11. Contemporary Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A Review of Theory, History, and Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Nathan; Pilecki, Brian; McKay, Dean

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has come to be a widely practiced psychotherapy throughout the world. The present article reviews theory, history, and evidence for CBT. It is meant as an effort to summarize the forms and scope of CBT to date for the uninitiated. Elements of CBT such as cognitive therapy, behavior therapy, and so-called "third wave" CBT, such as dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) are covered. The evidence for the efficacy of CBT for various disorders is reviewed, including depression, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, substance abuse, schizophrenia, chronic pain, insomnia, and child/adolescent disorders. The relative efficacy of medication and CBT, or their combination, is also briefly considered. Future directions for research and treatment development are proposed.

  12. Intervention effects on safety compliance and citizenship behaviors: Evidence from the Work, Family, and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Leslie B; Johnson, Ryan C; Crain, Tori L; Bodner, Todd; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Davis, Kelly D; Kelly, Erin L; Buxton, Orfeu M; Karuntzos, Georgia; Chosewood, L Casey; Berkman, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    We tested the effects of a work-family intervention on employee reports of safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors in 30 health care facilities using a group-randomized trial. Based on conservation of resources theory and the work-home resources model, we hypothesized that implementing a work-family intervention aimed at increasing contextual resources via supervisor support for work and family, and employee control over work time, would lead to improved personal resources and increased employee performance on the job in the form of self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors. Multilevel analyses used survey data from 1,524 employees at baseline and at 6-month and 12-month postintervention follow-ups. Significant intervention effects were observed for safety compliance at the 6-month, and organizational citizenship behaviors at the 12-month, follow-ups. More specifically, results demonstrate that the intervention protected against declines in employee self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors compared with employees in the control facilities. The hypothesized mediators of perceptions of family-supportive supervisor behaviors, control over work time, and work-family conflict (work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict) were not significantly improved by the intervention. However, baseline perceptions of family-supportive supervisor behaviors, control over work time, and work-family climate were significant moderators of the intervention effect on the self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behavior outcomes. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Intervention Effects on Safety Compliance and Citizenship Behaviors: Evidence from the Work, Family, and Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Johnson, Ryan C.; Crain, Tori L.; Bodner, Todd; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Davis, Kelly; Kelly, Erin L.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Karuntzos, Georgia; Chosewood, L. Casey; Berkman, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    We tested the effects of a work-family intervention on employee reports of safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors in 30 healthcare facilities using a group-randomized trial. Based on Conservation of Resources theory and the Work-Home Resources Model, we hypothesized that implementing a work-family intervention aimed at increasing contextual resources via supervisor support for work and family and employee control over work time would lead to improved personal resources and increased employee performance on the job in the form of self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors. Multilevel analyses used survey data from 1,524 employees at baseline, 6-month and 12-month post-intervention follow-ups. Significant intervention effects were observed for safety compliance at the 6-month and organizational citizenship behaviors at the 12-month follow-ups. More specifically, results demonstrate that the intervention protected against declines in employee self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors, compared to employees in the control facilities. The hypothesized mediators of perceptions of family supportive supervisor behaviors, control over work time, and work-family conflict (work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict) were not significantly improved by the intervention. However, baseline perceptions of family supportive supervisor behaviors, control over work time, and work-family climate were significant moderators of the intervention effect on the self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behavior outcomes. PMID:26348479

  14. USSR report: life sciences. Biomedical and behavioral sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    Studies in life sciences, biomedical sciences, and behavioral sciences are reported. The following fields of interest were studied: agricultural biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, environment effects, medical demography, medicine, microbiology, physiology, radiation biology, and human factors engineering. For individual titles, see N82-33989 through N82-33994

  15. Organizational factors influencing implementation of evidence-based practices for integrated treatment in behavioral health agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham, Caroline A; Sommerfeld, David; Willging, Cathleen; Aarons, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Objective. In recent years, New Mexico has prioritized integrated treatment for cooccurring mental health and substance use disorders within its public behavioral health system. This report describes factors likely to be important when implementing evidence-based practices (EBPs) in community agencies. Methods. Our mixed-method research design consisted of observations, semistructured interviews, and surveys undertaken with employees at 14 agencies at baseline and after 18 months. We developed four-agency typologies based on iterative coding and analysis of observations and interviews. We then examined survey data from employees at the four exemplar agencies to validate qualitative findings. Results. Financial resources and strong leadership impacted agency capacity to train providers and implement EBPs. Quantitative analysis of service provider survey responses from these agencies (N = 38) supported qualitative findings and demonstrated significant mean score differences in leadership, organizational climate, and attitudes toward EBPs in anticipated directions. Conclusion. The availability of strong leadership and financial resources were key components to initial implementation success in this study of community agencies in New Mexico. Reliance only on external funding poses risks for sustainment when demoralizing work climates precipitate employee turnover. Strong agency leadership does not always compensate for deficient financial resources in vulnerable communities.

  16. Evidence for migratory spawning behavior by morphologically distinct Cisco (Coregonus artedi) from a small inland lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alexander J.; Weidel, Brian C.; Leneker, Mellisa; Solomon, Christopher T.

    2017-01-01

    Conservation and management of rare fishes relies on managers having the most informed understanding of the underlying ecology of the species under investigation. Cisco (Coregonus artedi), a species of conservation concern, is a cold-water pelagic fish that is notoriously variable in morphometry and life history. Published reports indicate, at spawning time, Cisco in great lakes may migrate into or through large rivers, whereas those in small lakes move inshore. Nonetheless, during a sampling trip to Follensby Pond, a 393 ha lake in the Adirondack Mountains, New York, we observed gravid Cisco swimming over an outlet sill from a narrow shallow stream and into the lake. We opportunistically dip-netted a small subsample of 11 individuals entering the lake from the stream (three female, eight male) and compared them to fish captured between 2013 and 2015 with gillnets in the lake. Stream-captured Cisco were considerably larger than lake-captured individuals at a given age, had significantly larger asymptotic length, and were present only as mature individuals between age of 3 and age 5. These results could suggest either Cisco are migrating from a nearby lake to spawn in Follensby Pond, or that a distinct morphotype of Cisco from Follensby Pond migrates out to the stream and then back in at spawning time. Our results appear to complement a handful of other cases in which Cisco spawning migrations have been documented and to provide the first evidence for such behavior in a small inland lake.

  17. Organizational Factors Influencing Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices for Integrated Treatment in Behavioral Health Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline A. Bonham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In recent years, New Mexico has prioritized integrated treatment for cooccurring mental health and substance use disorders within its public behavioral health system. This report describes factors likely to be important when implementing evidence-based practices (EBPs in community agencies. Methods. Our mixed-method research design consisted of observations, semistructured interviews, and surveys undertaken with employees at 14 agencies at baseline and after 18 months. We developed four-agency typologies based on iterative coding and analysis of observations and interviews. We then examined survey data from employees at the four exemplar agencies to validate qualitative findings. Results. Financial resources and strong leadership impacted agency capacity to train providers and implement EBPs. Quantitative analysis of service provider survey responses from these agencies (N = 38 supported qualitative findings and demonstrated significant mean score differences in leadership, organizational climate, and attitudes toward EBPs in anticipated directions. Conclusion. The availability of strong leadership and financial resources were key components to initial implementation success in this study of community agencies in New Mexico. Reliance only on external funding poses risks for sustainment when demoralizing work climates precipitate employee turnover. Strong agency leadership does not always compensate for deficient financial resources in vulnerable communities.

  18. Social desirability and self-reported health risk behaviors in web-based research: three longitudinal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göritz Anja S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background These studies sought to investigate the relation between social desirability and self-reported health risk behaviors (e.g., alcohol use, drug use, smoking in web-based research. Methods Three longitudinal studies (Study 1: N = 5612, 51% women; Study 2: N = 619, 60%; Study 3: N = 846, 59% among randomly selected members of two online panels (Dutch; German using several social desirability measures (Marlowe-Crowne Scale; Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding; The Social Desirability Scale-17 were conducted. Results Social desirability was not associated with self-reported current behavior or behavior frequency. Socio-demographics (age; sex; education did not moderate the effect of social desirability on self-reported measures regarding health risk behaviors. Conclusions The studies at hand provided no convincing evidence to throw doubt on the usefulness of the Internet as a medium to collect self-reports on health risk behaviors.

  19. Development of a Student Health Assessment System: Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors in Middle-School Students. Research Report. ETS RR-10-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCann, Carolyn; Roberts, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    Newly developed assessments of nutrition and exercise knowledge, attitudes, and behavior were administered to 383 eighth-graders. Evidence for the validity of assessment scores was evaluated with five findings. First, parent- and self-reported behaviors were similar and congruent for healthy eating and exercising but not for sedentary behaviors or…

  20. Explanatory style, dispositional optimism, and reported parental behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelle, L A; Busch, E A; Warren, J E

    1996-12-01

    The relationship between two cognitive personality constructs (explanatory style and dispositional optimism) and retrospective self-reports of maternal and paternal behavior were investigated. College students (62 men and 145 women) completed the Life Orientation Test, Attributional Style Questionnaire, and Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire in a single session. As predicted, dispositional optimism was positively correlated with reported maternal and paternal warmth/acceptance and negatively correlated with aggression/hostility, neglect/indifference, and undifferentiated rejection during middle childhood. Unexpectedly, explanatory style was found to be more strongly associated with retrospective reports of paternal as opposed to maternal behavior. The implications of these results for future research concerning the developmental antecedents of differences in explanatory style and dispositional optimism are discussed.

  1. Pharmacological evidence for GABAergic and glutamatergic involvement in the convulsant and behavioral effects of glutaric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, T T; Begnini, J; de Bastiani, J; Fialho, D B; Jurach, A; Ribeiro, M C; Wajner, M; de Mello, C F

    1998-08-17

    The effect of intrastriatal administration of glutaric acid (GTR), a metabolite that accumulates in glutaric acidemia type I (GA-I), on the behavior of adult male rats was investigated. After cannula placing, rats received unilateral intrastriatal injections of GTR buffered to pH 7.4 with NaOH or NaCl. GTR induced rotational behavior toward the contralateral side of injection and clonic convulsions in a dose-dependent manner. Rotational behavior was prevented by intrastriatal preadministration of DNQX and muscimol, but not by the preadministration of MK-801. Convulsions were prevented by intrastriatal preinjection of muscimol. This study provides evidence for a participation of glutamatergic non-NMDA and GABAergic mechanisms in the GTR-induced behavioral alterations. These findings may be of value in understanding the physiopathology of the neurological dysfunction in glutaric acidemia.

  2. Reports by caregivers of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Carvalho do Vale

    Full Text Available Abstract Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD are relevant since they are frequent and cause distress to caregivers. However, they may not be reported by physicians due to the priority usually attributed to cognitive symptoms. Objectives: To verify whether BPSD is being systematically investigated by physicians even in specialized settings and whether their records on medical files are accurate. Methods: Assessment of records on medical files of BPSD reported by caregivers to 182 patients (57.1% men, mean age 67.6±13.5 years assisted in a tertiary-care behavioral neurology outpatient clinic (BNOC who also had appointments in other clinics of the same hospital. Alzheimer's disease (37.9% and vascular disease (19.2% were the most frequent causes of dementia. Results: Report/appointment ratios were 0.58 in BNOC, 0.43 in other neurological, 0.93 in psychiatric and 0.20 in non-neurological, non-psychiatric clinics. BPSD most frequently recorded in BNOC were insomnia, aggressiveness, agitation/hyperactivity, visual hallucinations, apathy, inadequate behavior and ease of crying. Sorted by psychiatrists, categories associated to more BPSD were affect/mood, thought and personality/behavior. affect/mood and sensoperception symptoms were the most frequently reported. Sorted according to Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI, categories associated to more BPSD were depression/dysphoria, delusion and apathy/indifference. depression/dysphoria and agitation/ aggression symptoms were the most frequently reported. Conclusions: BPSD reported by caregivers were very diverse and were not systematically investigated by physicians. Notes in medical files often contained non-technical terms.

  3. Evidence-based behavioral interventions to promote diabetes management in children, adolescents, and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Marisa E; Powell, Priscilla W; Anderson, Barbara J

    2016-10-01

    As members of multidisciplinary diabetes care teams, psychologists are well-suited to support self-management among youth with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and their families. Psychological and behavioral interventions can promote adherence to the complex and demanding diabetes care regimen, with the goals of promoting high quality of life, achieving optimal glycemic control, and ultimately preventing disease-related complications. This article reviews well-researched contemporary behavioral interventions to promote optimal diabetes family- and self-management and health outcomes in youth with T1D, in the context of key behavioral theories. The article summarizes the evidence base for established diabetes skills training programs, family interventions, and multisystemic interventions, and introduces emerging evidence for technology and mobile health interventions and health care delivery system interventions. Next steps in behavioral T1D intervention research include tailoring interventions to meet individuals' and families' unique needs and strengths, and systematically evaluating cost-effectiveness to advocate for dissemination of well-developed interventions. Although in its infancy, this article reviews observational and intervention research for youth with T2D and their families and discusses lessons for future research with this population. Interventions for youth with T2D will need to incorporate family members, consider cultural and family issues related to health behaviors, and take into account competing priorities for resources. As psychologists and behavioral scientists, we must advocate for the integration of behavioral health into routine pediatric diabetes care in order to effectively promote meaningful change in the behavioral and medical well-being of youth and families living with T1D and T2D. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. The globalization of behavioral science evidence about battered women: a theory of production and diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatowski, S I; Dobbin, S A; Richardson, J T; Ginsburg, G P

    1997-01-01

    A theoretical framework is proposed for understanding how the innovative use of behavioral science evidence is both produced and diffused among members of the global legal community. Using case law analyses and interviews with key individuals involved in selected cases, we examine how battered woman syndrome (BWS) is produced and diffused between and among Australia, Canada, England, and the United States. The following diffusion mechanisms are proposed: (1) The availability and accessibility of credible dissemination sources; (2) characteristics of the overall practice environment operating in each legal culture; (3) the attitudes and knowledge of attorneys and judges about the use of scientific evidence; (4) political and social support for the use of the evidence in the legal culture; and (5) the level of structural equivalence, communication, and "neighbor effects" between and among legal cultures. Each mechanism is discussed and supplemented with information from interviews with individuals involved in key cases involving BWS evidence.

  5. Recorded Behavior as a Valuable Resource for Diagnostics in Mobile Phone Addiction: Evidence from Psychoinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Błaszkiewicz, Konrad; Lachmann, Bernd; Sariyska, Rayna; Andone, Ionut; Trendafilov, Boris; Markowetz, Alexander

    2015-10-19

    Psychologists and psychiatrists commonly rely on self-reports or interviews to diagnose or treat behavioral addictions. The present study introduces a novel source of data: recordings of the actual problem behavior under investigation. A total of N = 58 participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire measuring problematic mobile phone behavior featuring several questions on weekly phone usage. After filling in the questionnaire, all participants received an application to be installed on their smartphones, which recorded their phone usage for five weeks. The analyses revealed that weekly phone usage in hours was overestimated; in contrast, numbers of call and text message related variables were underestimated. Importantly, several associations between actual usage and being addicted to mobile phones could be derived exclusively from the recorded behavior, but not from self-report variables. The study demonstrates the potential benefit to include methods of psychoinformatics in the diagnosis and treatment of problematic mobile phone use.

  6. Recorded Behavior as a Valuable Resource for Diagnostics in Mobile Phone Addiction: Evidence from Psychoinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Montag

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychologists and psychiatrists commonly rely on self-reports or interviews to diagnose or treat behavioral addictions. The present study introduces a novel source of data: recordings of the actual problem behavior under investigation. A total of N = 58 participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire measuring problematic mobile phone behavior featuring several questions on weekly phone usage. After filling in the questionnaire, all participants received an application to be installed on their smartphones, which recorded their phone usage for five weeks. The analyses revealed that weekly phone usage in hours was overestimated; in contrast, numbers of call and text message related variables were underestimated. Importantly, several associations between actual usage and being addicted to mobile phones could be derived exclusively from the recorded behavior, but not from self-report variables. The study demonstrates the potential benefit to include methods of psychoinformatics in the diagnosis and treatment of problematic mobile phone use.

  7. Economic booms and risky sexual behavior: evidence from Zambian copper mining cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nicholas

    2012-12-01

    Existing studies suggest that individual and household level economic shocks affect the demand for and supply of risky sex. However, little evidence exists on the effects of an aggregate shock on equilibrium risky sexual behavior. This paper examines the effects of the early twenty-first century copper boom on risky sexual behavior in Zambian copper mining cities. The results suggest that the copper boom substantially reduced rates of transactional sex and multiple partnerships in copper mining cities. These effects were partly concentrated among young adults and copper boom induced in-migration to mining cities appears to have contributed to these reductions. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. A case report of suicidal behavior related to subclinical hyperthyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Jong-Hyun; Joo,Soo-Hyun; Hong,Seung-Chul

    2014-01-01

    Soo-Hyun Joo, Jong-Hyun Jeong, Seung-Chul HongDepartment of Psychiatry, St Vincent's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, KoreaAbstract: Abnormalities in thyroid function are associated with many psychiatric symptoms. We present a report of a 15-year-old girl who was admitted to the psychiatry inpatient unit with symptoms of suicidal behavior, irritability, and impulsivity. One year previously, she had become more short-tempered, and had started to c...

  9. Pharmacologic Treatment of Insomnia Disorder: An Evidence Report for a Clinical Practice Guideline by the American College of Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Timothy J; MacDonald, Roderick; Brasure, Michelle; Olson, Carin M; Carlyle, Maureen; Fuchs, Erika; Khawaja, Imran S; Diem, Susan; Koffel, Erin; Ouellette, Jeannine; Butler, Mary; Kane, Robert L

    2016-07-19

    Pharmacologic interventions are often prescribed for insomnia disorder. To assess the benefits, harms, and comparative effectiveness of pharmacologic treatments for adults with insomnia disorder. Several electronic databases (2004-September 2015), reference lists, and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) documents. 35 randomized, controlled trials of at least 4 weeks' duration that evaluated pharmacotherapies available in the United States and that reported global or sleep outcomes; 11 long-term observational studies that reported harm information; FDA review data for nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics and orexin receptor antagonists; and product labels for all agents. Data extraction by single investigator confirmed by a second reviewer; dual-investigator assessment of risk of bias; consensus determination of strength of evidence. Eszopiclone, zolpidem, and suvorexant improved short-term global and sleep outcomes compared with placebo, although absolute effect sizes were small (low- to moderate-strength evidence). Evidence for benzodiazepine hypnotics, melatonin agonists, and antidepressants, and for most pharmacologic interventions in older adults, was insufficient or low strength. Evidence was also insufficient to compare efficacy within or across pharmacotherapy classes or versus behavioral therapy. Harms evidence reported in trials was judged insufficient or low strength; observational studies suggested that use of hypnotics for insomnia was associated with increased risk for dementia, fractures, and major injury. The FDA documents reported that most pharmacotherapies had risks for cognitive and behavioral changes, including driving impairment, and other adverse effects, and they advised dose reduction in women and in older adults. Most trials were small and short term and enrolled individuals meeting stringent criteria. Minimum important differences in outcomes were often not established or reported. Data were scant for many treatments. Eszopiclone, zolpidem, and

  10. School promotion of healthful diet and physical activity: impact on learning outcomes and self-reported behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcel, G S; Simons-Morton, B; O'Hara, N M; Baranowski, T; Wilson, B

    1989-01-01

    The Go For Health Program included classroom health education and environmental changes in school lunch and physical education to foster healthful diet and exercise among elementary school children. Interventions were based on social learning theory and implementation was based on an organizational change strategy for school innovations. Two schools were assigned to intervention and two to control conditions. Cognitive measures (behavioral capability, self-efficacy, behavioral expectations) and self-reported diet and exercise behavior were assessed at baseline and following intervention. Data were analyzed by ANOVA using the student and then the school as the unit of analysis. Statistically significant changes were observed for diet behavioral capability, self-efficacy, and behavioral expectations, use of salt, and exercise behavioral capability (fourth grade), self-efficacy (fourth grade) and frequency of participation in aerobic activity. The results provide evidence for program impact on learning outcomes and student behavior.

  11. Are there shared environmental influences on adolescent behavior? Evidence from a study of adoptive siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Jacob P; McGue, Matt; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G

    2009-09-01

    The failure to identify specific non-shared environmental influences on behavior coupled with the belief that shared environmental factors contribute minimally to individual differences in behavior has led to the concern that major environmental determinants of behavior may be idiosyncratic, and therefore undetectable. We used data on adoptive (N = 246) and biologically related (N = 130) same-sex sibling pairs (mean ages = 16.1 years older sibling; 13.8 years younger sibling) from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS) to determine whether non-idiosyncratic environmental factors shared by siblings contributed to individual differences in a diverse set of behavioral outcomes. Evidence for shared environmental influence was sought for eight composite measures covering a wide array of adolescent functioning: Academic Achievement, Total IQ, Substance Use Disorders, Externalizing Disorders, Internalizing Disorders, Peer Groups, Disinhibited Personality, and Negative Emotionality. For six of eight composites, significant shared environmental effects, accounting for 14-22% of the variance, were observed for these same-sex sibling pairs. These findings support the use of adoptive sibling designs to directly estimate shared environmental effects and implicate the existence of systematic environmental influences on behavior that are potentially detectable.

  12. Combined Electrophysiological and Behavioral Evidence for the Suppression of Salient Distractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspelin, Nicholas; Luck, Steven J

    2018-05-15

    Researchers have long debated how salient-but-irrelevant features guide visual attention. Pure stimulus-driven theories claim that salient stimuli automatically capture attention irrespective of goals, whereas pure goal-driven theories propose that an individual's attentional control settings determine whether salient stimuli capture attention. However, recent studies have suggested a hybrid model in which salient stimuli attract visual attention but can be actively suppressed by top-down attentional mechanisms. Support for this hybrid model has primarily come from ERP studies demonstrating that salient stimuli, which fail to capture attention, also elicit a distractor positivity (P D ) component, a putative neural index of suppression. Other support comes from a handful of behavioral studies showing that processing at the salient locations is inhibited compared with other locations. The current study was designed to link the behavioral and neural evidence by combining ERP recordings with an experimental paradigm that provides a behavioral measure of suppression. We found that, when a salient distractor item elicited the P D component, processing at the location of this distractor was suppressed below baseline levels. Furthermore, the magnitude of behavioral suppression and the magnitude of the P D component covaried across participants. These findings provide a crucial connection between the behavioral and neural measures of suppression, which opens the door to using the P D component to assess the timing and neural substrates of the behaviorally observed suppression.

  13. Applying social marketing in health care: communicating evidence to change consumer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; McCormack, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    Social marketing uses commercial marketing strategies to change individual and organizational behavior and policies. It has been effective on a population level across a wide range of public health and health care domains. There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of social marketing in changing health care consumer behavior through its impact on patient-provider interaction or provider behavior. Social marketers need to identify translatable strategies (e.g., competition analysis, branding, and tailored messages) that can be applied to health care provider and consumer behavior. Three case studies from social marketing illustrate potential strategies to change provider and consumer behavior. Countermarketing is a rapidly growing social marketing strategy that has been effective in tobacco control and may be effective in countering pharmaceutical marketing using specific message strategies. Informed decision making is a useful strategy when there is medical uncertainty, such as in prostate cancer screening and treatment. Pharmaceutical industry marketing practices offer valuable lessons for developing competing messages to reach providers and consumers. Social marketing is an effective population-based behavior change strategy that can be applied in individual clinical settings and as a complement to reinforce messages communicated on a population level. There is a need for more research on message strategies that work in health care and population-level effectiveness studies.

  14. The Impact of Smoking Bans on Smoking and Consumer Behavior: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, Stefan; Marti, Joachim; Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we exploit the progressive implementation of smoking bans in public venues at the state level in Switzerland to evaluate both the direct effects on smoking and the potential unintended consequences of these legislations on consumer behaviors as measured by visiting restaurants/bars and discos ('going out'). Our results indicate that public venue smoking bans in Switzerland reduce smoking rates, but the findings do not emerge until 1 year following the ban. This pattern of results is consistent with delays in ban enforcement on the part of business owners, difficulties in changing addictive behaviors such as smoking, and/or learning on the part of smokers. We find evidence that smoking bans influence going-out behavior and there is substantial heterogeneity across venue and consumer characteristics. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Do nonphysical punishments reduce antisocial behavior more than spanking? a comparison using the strongest previous causal evidence against spanking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Ronald B

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strongest causal evidence that customary spanking increases antisocial behavior is based on prospective studies that control statistically for initial antisocial differences. None of those studies have investigated alternative disciplinary tactics that parents could use instead of spanking, however. Further, the small effects in those studies could be artifactual due to residual confounding, reflecting child effects on the frequency of all disciplinary tactics. This study re-analyzes the strongest causal evidence against customary spanking and uses these same methods to determine whether alternative disciplinary tactics are more effective in reducing antisocial behavior. Methods This study re-analyzed a study by Straus et al.1 on spanking and antisocial behavior using a sample of 785 children who were 6 to 9 years old in the 1988 cohort of the American National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The comprehensiveness and reliability of the covariate measure of initial antisocial behavior were varied to test for residual confounding. All analyses were repeated for grounding, privilege removal, and sending children to their room, and for psychotherapy. To account for covarying use of disciplinary tactics, the analyses were redone first for the 73% who had reported using at least one discipline tactic and second by controlling for usage of other disciplinary tactics and psychotherapy. Results The apparently adverse effect of spanking on antisocial behavior was replicated using the original trichotomous covariate for initial antisocial behavior. A similar pattern of adverse effects was shown for grounding and psychotherapy and partially for the other two disciplinary tactics. All of these effects became non-significant after controlling for latent comprehensive measures of externalizing behavior problems. Conclusions These results are consistent with residual confounding, a statistical artifact that makes all corrective actions by

  16. Leadership for evidence-based practice: strategic and functional behaviors for institutionalizing EBP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetler, Cheryl B; Ritchie, Judith A; Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Charns, Martin P

    2014-08-01

    Making evidence-based practice (EBP) a reality throughout an organization is a challenging goal in healthcare services. Leadership has been recognized as a critical element in that process. However, little is known about the exact role and function of various levels of leadership in the successful institutionalization of EBP within an organization. To uncover what leaders at different levels and in different roles actually do, and what actions they take to develop, enhance, and sustain EBP as the norm. Qualitative data from a case study regarding institutionalization of EBP in two contrasting cases (Role Model and Beginner hospitals) were systematically analyzed. Data were obtained from multiple interviews of leaders, both formal and informal, and from staff nurse focus groups. A deductive coding schema, based on concepts of functional leadership, was developed for this in-depth analysis. Participants' descriptions reflected a hierarchical array of strategic, functional, and cross-cutting behaviors. Within these macrolevel "themes," 10 behavioral midlevel themes were identified; for example, Intervening and Role modeling. Each theme is distinctive, yet various themes and their subthemes were interrelated and synergistic. These behaviors and their interrelationships were conceptualized in the framework "Leadership Behaviors Supportive of EBP Institutionalization" (L-EBP). Leaders at multiple levels in the Role Model case, both formal and informal, engaged in most of these behaviors. Supportive leadership behaviors required for organizational institutionalization of EBP reflect a complex set of interactive, multifaceted EBP-focused actions carried out by leaders from the chief nursing officer to staff nurses. A related framework such as L-EBP may provide concrete guidance needed to underpin the often-noted but abstract finding that leaders should "support" EBP. © 2014 The Authors. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of

  17. Leadership for Evidence-Based Practice: Strategic and Functional Behaviors for Institutionalizing EBP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetler, Cheryl B; Ritchie, Judith A; Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Charns, Martin P

    2014-01-01

    Background Making evidence-based practice (EBP) a reality throughout an organization is a challenging goal in healthcare services. Leadership has been recognized as a critical element in that process. However, little is known about the exact role and function of various levels of leadership in the successful institutionalization of EBP within an organization. Aims To uncover what leaders at different levels and in different roles actually do, and what actions they take to develop, enhance, and sustain EBP as the norm. Methods Qualitative data from a case study regarding institutionalization of EBP in two contrasting cases (Role Model and Beginner hospitals) were systematically analyzed. Data were obtained from multiple interviews of leaders, both formal and informal, and from staff nurse focus groups. A deductive coding schema, based on concepts of functional leadership, was developed for this in-depth analysis. Results Participants’ descriptions reflected a hierarchical array of strategic, functional, and cross-cutting behaviors. Within these macrolevel “themes,” 10 behavioral midlevel themes were identified; for example, Intervening and Role modeling. Each theme is distinctive, yet various themes and their subthemes were interrelated and synergistic. These behaviors and their interrelationships were conceptualized in the framework “Leadership Behaviors Supportive of EBP Institutionalization” (L-EBP). Leaders at multiple levels in the Role Model case, both formal and informal, engaged in most of these behaviors. Linking Evidence to Action Supportive leadership behaviors required for organizational institutionalization of EBP reflect a complex set of interactive, multifaceted EBP-focused actions carried out by leaders from the chief nursing officer to staff nurses. A related framework such as L-EBP may provide concrete guidance needed to underpin the often-noted but abstract finding that leaders should “support” EBP. PMID:24986669

  18. Is working memory stored along a logarithmic timeline? Converging evidence from neuroscience, behavior and models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Inder; Tiganj, Zoran; Howard, Marc W

    2018-04-23

    A growing body of evidence suggests that short-term memory does not only store the identity of recently experienced stimuli, but also information about when they were presented. This representation of 'what' happened 'when' constitutes a neural timeline of recent past. Behavioral results suggest that people can sequentially access memories for the recent past, as if they were stored along a timeline to which attention is sequentially directed. In the short-term judgment of recency (JOR) task, the time to choose between two probe items depends on the recency of the more recent probe but not on the recency of the more remote probe. This pattern of results suggests a backward self-terminating search model. We review recent neural evidence from the macaque lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) (Tiganj, Cromer, Roy, Miller, & Howard, in press) and behavioral evidence from human JOR task (Singh & Howard, 2017) bearing on this question. Notably, both lines of evidence suggest that the timeline is logarithmically compressed as predicted by Weber-Fechner scaling. Taken together, these findings provide an integrative perspective on temporal organization and neural underpinnings of short-term memory. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Barriers and facilitators of evidence-based practice in pediatric behavioral sleep care: qualitative analysis of the perspectives of health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Katelynn E; Coulombe, J Aimée; Corkum, Penny

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral sleep problems are highly prevalent among young and school-aged children. Despite strong evidence for effective interventions, few children receive evidence-based care. In this study, 124 Canadian health professionals answered open-ended questions regarding barriers and facilitators of their provision of evidence-based behavioral sleep-related care, and responses were analyzed for content. Responses represented issues at an individual practice level, as well as broader systemic issues. The most frequently reported barrier and facilitator related to knowledge, training, and education. Other barriers included lack of time and institutional support, and facilitators included supportive sleep attitudes and beliefs. This study may inform the design of education programs for health professionals, and provides support for broader systems-level initiatives targeted at increasing evidence-based practice.

  20. Explaining reported puma-related behaviors and behavioral intentions among northern Arizona residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; Ruther, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    Management of pumas in the American West is typified by conflict among stakeholders plausibly rooted in life experiences and worldviews. We used a mail questionnaire to assess demographics, nature-views, puma-related life experiences and behaviors, and support for puma-related policies among residents of northern Arizona. Data from the questionnaire (n = 693 respondents) were used to model behaviors and support for policies. Compared to models based on nature-views and life experiences, those based on demographics had virtually no support from the data. The Utilitarian/Dominionistic nature-view had the strongest effect of any variable in six of seven models, and was associated with firearms and opposition to policies that would limit killing pumas. The Humanistic/Moralistic nature-view was positively associated with non-lethal behaviors and policies in five models. Gender had the strongest effect of any demographic variable. Compared to demographics alone, our results suggest that worldviews provide a more meaningful explanation of reported human behaviors and behavioral intentions regarding pumas.

  1. Childhood problem behavior and parental divorce: evidence for gene–environment interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robbers, S.C.C.; van Oort, F.V.; Huizink, A.C.; Verhulst, F.C.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Bartels, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The importance of genetic and environmental influences on children's behavioral and emotional problems may vary as a function of environmental exposure. We previously reported that 12-year-olds with divorced parents showed more internalizing and externalizing problems than children with

  2. Childhood problem behavior and parental divorce: evidence for gene-environment interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C.C. Robbers (Sylvana); F.V.A. van Oort (Floor); A.C. Huizink (Anja); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); C.E.M. van Beijsterveldt (Toos); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); M. Bartels (Meike)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The importance of genetic and environmental influences on children's behavioral and emotional problems may vary as a function of environmental exposure. We previously reported that 12-year-olds with divorced parents showed more internalizing and externalizing problems than

  3. Evidence and Implications of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Emotional and Behavioral Disorders Identification and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George

    2016-01-01

    We summarize our recent findings that White children in the United States are more likely than otherwise similar racial or ethnic minority children to receive special education services, including for emotional and behavioral disorders. We show how the findings are robust. We explain why our findings conflict with prior reports in education that…

  4. Insight into the Earthquake Risk Information Seeking Behavior of the Victims: Evidence from Songyuan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasha Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficient risk communication is a vital way to reduce the vulnerability of individuals when facing emergency risks, especially regarding earthquakes. Efficient risk communication aims at improving the supply of risk information and fulfilling the need for risk information by individuals. Therefore, an investigation into individual-level information seeking behavior within earthquake risk contexts is very important for improved earthquake risk communication. However, at present there are very few studies that have explored the behavior of individuals seeking earthquake risk information. Under the guidance of the Risk Information Seeking and Processing model as well as relevant practical findings using the structural equation model, this study attempts to explore the main determinants of an individual’s earthquake risk information seeking behavior, and to validate the mediator effect of information need during the seeking process. A questionnaire-based survey of 918 valid respondents in Songyuan, China, who had been hit by a small earthquake swarm, was used to provide practical evidence for this study. Results indicated that information need played a noteworthy role in the earthquake risk information seeking process, and was detected both as an immediate predictor and as a mediator. Informational subjective norms drive the seeking behavior on earthquake risk information through both direct and indirect approaches. Perceived information gathering capacity, negative affective responses and risk perception have an indirect effect on earthquake risk information seeking behavior via information need. The implications for theory and practice regarding risk communication are discussed and concluded.

  5. Imprints: Evidence of Our Presence. Annual Report, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebraska Center for Research on Children, Youth, Families and Schools, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the Nebraska Center for Research on Children, Youth, Families and Schools (CYFS) is to the conduct of high-quality interdisciplinary research to promote the intellectual, behavioral and social-emotional development and functioning of individuals across educational, familial and community contexts. The Center creates the context for…

  6. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  7. Examining the Case for Functional Behavior Assessment as an Evidence-Based Practice for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in General Education Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Terrance M.; Alter, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    This article is a review of functional behavior assessment studies in general education setting for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. The studies were assessed in accordance with published standards for evidence-based practices. Overall, few studies met criteria for inclusion in this review and even fewer studies included all three…

  8. Decreased Odds of Injection Risk Behavior Associated With Direct Versus Indirect Use of Syringe Exchange: Evidence From Two California Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, Czarina N; Li, Chin-Shang; Gibson, David R

    2017-07-29

    While there is substantial evidence that syringe exchange programs (SEPs) are effective in preventing HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID), nearly all the evidence comes from PWID who obtain syringes from an SEP directly. Much less is known about the benefits of secondary exchange to PWID who get syringes indirectly from friends or acquaintances who visit an SEP for them. We evaluated the effectiveness of direct versus indirect syringe exchange in reducing HIV-related high-risk injecting behavior among PWID in two separate studies conducted in Sacramento and San Jose, California, cities with quite different syringe exchange models. In both studies associations between direct and indirect syringe exchange and self-reported risk behavior were examined with multivariable logistic regression models. Study 1 assessed effects of a "satellite" home-delivery syringe exchange in Sacramento, while Study 2 evaluated a conventional fixed-site exchange in San Jose. Multivariable analyses revealed 95% and 69% reductions, respectively, in high-risk injection associated with direct use of the SEPs in Sacramento and San Jose, and a 46% reduction associated with indirect use of the SEP in Sacramento. Conclusions/Importance: The very large effect of direct SEP use in Sacramento was likely due in part to home delivery of sterile syringes. While more modest effects were associated with indirect use, such use nevertheless is valuable in reducing the risk of HIV transmission of PWID who are unable or unwilling to visit a syringe exchange.

  9. Quality Disclosure in Sustainability Reporting: Evidence From Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto ROMOLINI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Attention towards sustainability reporting is very high with reference to higher education. The paper aims to assess the maturity level of sus-tainability reporting and to measure its quality by evaluating the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI indicators currently disclosed. The research was carried out using the inductive method. We de-limited the study to universities and we evaluated the quality of sustainability reporting by analyzing the indicators disclosed in 2012 reports accord-ing to GRI guidelines. The research gives an overview of sustainability reporting in universities by evaluating the quality level of their disclosure. The results confrm previous research by high-lighting the necessity to improve sustainability reporting. Moreover, the results show there are differences between universities that are con-nected to the peculiarities of each country. They also enable us to draw up an initial classifcation of universities. The paper provides one of the frst in-depth studies of sustainability reporting quality for universities included in the GRI database.

  10. Brief Report: Further Evidence of Sensory Subtypes in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Alison E.; Dennis, Simon J.; Geraghty, Maureen E.

    2011-01-01

    Distinct sensory processing (SP) subtypes in autism have been reported previously. This study sought to replicate the previous findings in an independent sample of thirty children diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. Model-based cluster analysis of parent-reported sensory functioning (measured using the Short Sensory Profile) confirmed the…

  11. Behavioral and Self-report Measures Influencing Children's Reported Attachment to Their Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nathaniel J; Liu, Jingwen; Kertes, Darlene A; Wynne, Clive D L

    2016-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of dogs as family pets and increased scientific interest in canine behavior, few studies have investigated characteristics of the child or dog that influence the child-dog relationship. In the present study, we explored how behavioral and self-report measures influence a child's reported feelings of attachment to their dog, as assessed by the Lexington Attachment to Pets Scale (LAPS). We tested specifically whether children ( N = 99; Age: M= 10.25 years, SD= 1.31 years) reported stronger attachment to dogs that were perceived as being more supportive (measured by a modified version of the Network of Relationships Inventory), to dogs that are more successful in following the child's pointing gesture in a standard two-object choice test, or to dogs that solicited more petting in a sociability assessment. In addition, we assessed whether children's attachment security to their parent, and whether being responsible for the care of their dog, influenced reported feelings of attachment to the dog. Overall, perceived support provided by the dog was highly predictive of all subscales of the LAPS. The dog's success in following the child's pointing gesture and lower rates of petting during the sociability assessment were associated with higher ratings on the general attachment subscale of the LAPS, but not of other subscales of the LAPS. Caring for the dog did not predict the child's reported attachment to dog, but did predict the dog's behavior on the point following task and petting during the sociability task. If the child cared for the dog, the dog was more likely to be successful on the pointing task and more likely to be petted. These results indicate a dyadic relationship in which the child's care for the dog is associated with the dog's behavior on the behavioral tasks, which in turn is related to the child's reported feelings of attachment. The direction of influence and nature of this dyad will be a fruitful area for future research.

  12. Reporting of MMR evidence in professional publications: 1988–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, S; Hunt, K; Langan, M; Hamilton, V; Petticrew, M

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine how journals and magazines disseminate research evidence and guidance on best practice to health professionals by aligning commentaries on measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) evidence in journals with key events in the MMR controversy. Design: Content analysis. Data sources: Comment articles in six commonly read UK publications. Main outcome measures: Number of comment pieces by publication, year and article type; trends in the focus, tone and inclusion of recommendations on MMR. Results: 860 articles met the inclusion criteria (BMJ n = 104, Community Practitioner n = 45, Health Visitor n = 24, Practice Nurse n = 61, Nursing Standard n = 61 and Pulse n = 565). Of these 860 comment pieces, 264 made some reference to evidence endorsing the safety of MMR. Around one in 10 were rated as negative (10.9%, n = 29) or neutral (11.3%, n = 30) in relation to MMR safety, and nearly a quarter (22.7%, n = 60) were rated as mixed. Following the publication of Wakefield et al’s 1998 paper there was a period of neutrality. In 2000, despite growing public concerns and widespread media coverage, fewer than 20 comment pieces were published. Less than a quarter of comment pieces (n = 196, 22.7%) included recommendations. Conclusion: While a period of neutrality may reflect a professional response to uncertainty by holding back until consensus emerges, it may also represent a missed opportunity to promote evidence-based practice. PMID:19414434

  13. Spontaneous trait inference is culture-specific: behavioral and neural evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jinkyung; Kitayama, Shinobu

    2011-08-01

    People with an independent model of the self may be expected to develop a spontaneous tendency to infer a personality trait from another person's behavior, but those with an interdependent model of the self may not show such a tendency. We tested this prediction by assessing the cumulative effect of both trait activation and trait binding in a diagnostic task that required no trait inference. Participants first memorized pairings of facial photos with trait-implying behavior. In a subsequent lexical decision task, European Americans showed clear evidence of spontaneous trait inference: When they were primed with a previously studied face, lexical decision for the word for the implied trait associated with that face was facilitated, and the antonym of the implied trait elicited an electrophysiological sign associated with processing of semantically inconsistent information (i.e., the N400). As predicted, however, neither effect was observed for Asian Americans. The cultural difference was mediated by independent self-construal.

  14. Banking behavior under uncertainty: Evidence from the US Sulfur Dioxide Emissions Allowance trading program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousse, Olivier; Sevi, Benoit

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine portfolio management of emission allowances in the US Sulfur Dioxide Emissions Allowance Trading Program, to determine whether utilities have a real motive to bank when risk increases. We test a theoretical model linking the motivation of the firm to accumulate permits in order to prepare itself to face a risky situation in the future. Empirical estimation using data for years 2001 to 2004 provides evidence of a relationship between banking behavior and uncertainty the utility is facing with. (authors)

  15. Enhanced GABAA-Mediated Tonic Inhibition in Auditory Thalamus of Rats with Behavioral Evidence of Tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sametsky, Evgeny A; Turner, Jeremy G; Larsen, Deb; Ling, Lynne; Caspary, Donald M

    2015-06-24

    Accumulating evidence suggests a role for inhibitory neurotransmitter dysfunction in the pathology of tinnitus. Opposing hypotheses proposed either a pathologic decrease or increase of GABAergic inhibition in medial geniculate body (MGB). In thalamus, GABA mediates fast synaptic inhibition via synaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs) and persistent tonic inhibition via high-affinity extrasynaptic GABAARs. Given that extrasynaptic GABAARs control the firing mode of thalamocortical neurons, we examined tonic GABAAR currents in MGB neurons in vitro, using the following three groups of adult rats: unexposed control (Ctrl); sound exposed with behavioral evidence of tinnitus (Tin); and sound exposed with no behavioral evidence of tinnitus (Non-T). Tonic GABAAR currents were evoked using the selective agonist gaboxadol. Months after a tinnitus-inducing sound exposure, gaboxadol-evoked tonic GABAAR currents showed significant tinnitus-related increases contralateral to the sound exposure. In situ hybridization studies found increased mRNA levels for GABAAR δ-subunits contralateral to the sound exposure. Tin rats showed significant increases in the number of spikes per burst evoked using suprathreshold-injected current steps. In summary, we found little evidence of tinnitus-related decreases in GABAergic neurotransmission. Tinnitus and chronic pain may reflect thalamocortical dysrhythmia, which results from abnormal theta-range resonant interactions between thalamus and cortex, due to neuronal hyperpolarization and the initiation of low-threshold calcium spike bursts (Walton and Llinás, 2010). In agreement with this hypothesis, we found tinnitus-related increases in tonic extrasynaptic GABAAR currents, in action potentials/evoked bursts, and in GABAAR δ-subunit gene expression. These tinnitus-related changes in GABAergic function may be markers for tinnitus pathology in the MGB. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/359369-12$15.00/0.

  16. Is Toxoplasma Gondii Infection Related to Brain and Behavior Impairments in Humans? Evidence from a Population-Representative Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Sugden

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii is a protozoan parasite present in around a third of the human population. Infected individuals are commonly asymptomatic, though recent reports have suggested that infection might influence aspects of the host's behavior. In particular, Toxoplasma infection has been linked to schizophrenia, suicide attempt, differences in aspects of personality and poorer neurocognitive performance. However, these studies are often conducted in clinical samples or convenience samples.In a population-representative birth-cohort of individuals tested for presence of antibodies to T. gondii (N = 837 we investigated the association between infection and four facets of human behavior: neuropsychiatric disorder (schizophrenia and major depression, poor impulse control (suicidal behavior and criminality, personality, and neurocognitive performance. Suicide attempt was marginally more frequent among individuals with T. gondii seropositivity (p = .06. Seropositive individuals also performed worse on one out of 14 measures of neuropsychological function.On the whole, there was little evidence that T. gondii was related to increased risk of psychiatric disorder, poor impulse control, personality aberrations or neurocognitive impairment.

  17. Agreement between reported use of interventions for liver diseases and research evidence in Cochrane systematic reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kürstein, Pia; Gluud, Lise L; Willemann, Marlene

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluates the agreement between reported use of interventions for patients with liver diseases and research evidence in Cochrane systematic reviews.......This study evaluates the agreement between reported use of interventions for patients with liver diseases and research evidence in Cochrane systematic reviews....

  18. Does the Evidence Make a Difference in Consumer Behavior? Sales of Supplements Before and After Publication of Negative Research Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Miller, Franklin G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine if the public consumption of herbs, vitamins, and supplements changes in light of emerging negative evidence. Methods We describe trends in annual US sales of five major supplements in temporal relationship with publication of research from three top US general medical journals published from 2001 through early 2006 and the number of news citations associated with each publication using the Lexus-Nexis database. Results In four of five supplements (St. John’s wort, echinacea, saw palmetto, and glucosamine), there was little or no change in sales trends after publication of research results. In one instance, however, dramatic changes in sales occurred following publication of data suggesting harm from high doses of vitamin E. Conclusion Results reporting harm may have a greater impact on supplement consumption than those demonstrating lack of efficacy. In order for clinical trial evidence to influence public behavior, there needs to be a better understanding of the factors that influence the translation of evidence in the public. PMID:18618194

  19. First record of lobed trace fossils in Brazil's Upper Cretaceous paleosols: Rhizoliths or evidence of insects and their social behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano do Nascimento, Diego; Batezelli, Alessandro; Bernardes Ladeira, Francisco Sérgio

    2017-11-01

    This is the first report of trace fossils potentially associated with insect social behavior in sandy and well-drained paleosols of the Upper Cretaceous continental sequence of Brazil. The trace fossils consist of dozens of lobed and vertical structures cemented by CaCO3 and preserved mainly in full relief in paleosols of the Marilia Formation (Bauru Basin) in the state of Minas Gerais. The described ichnofossils are predominantly vertical, up to 2 m long, and are composed of horizontal lobed structures connected by vertical tunnel-like structures that intersect in the center and at the edges. The lobed structures range from 3 to 15 cm long and 2-6 cm thick. Two different hypotheses are analyzed to explain the origin of the trace fossils; the less probable one is that the structures are laminar calcretes associated with rhizoliths and rhizoconcretions. The hypothesis involving social insects was considered because the trace fossils described herein partially resemble a modern ant nest and the ichnofossil Daimoniobarax. The micromorphological analysis of the lobed and tunnel-like structures indicates modifications of the walls, such as the presence of inorganic fluidized linings, dark linings and oriented grains, supporting the hypothesis that they are chambers and shafts. The architecture and size of the reported nests suggest the possibility that social insect colonies existed during the Maastrichtian and are direct evidence of the social behavior and reproductive strategies of the Cretaceous pedofauna.

  20. Behavioral evidence for differences in social and non-social category learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile eGamond

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available When meeting someone for the very first time one spontaneously categorizes the seen person on the basis of his/her appearance. Categorization is based on the association between some physical features and category labels that can be social (character trait… or non-social (tall, thin. Surprisingly little is known about how such associations are formed, particularly in the social domain. Here, we aimed at testing whether social and non-social category learning may be dissociated. We presented subjects with a large number of faces that had to be rated according to social or non-social labels, and induced an association between a facial feature (inter-eye distance and the category labels using two different procedures. In a first experiment, we used a feedback procedure to reinforce the association; behavioral measures revealed an association between the physical feature manipulated and abstract non-social categories, while no evidence for an association with social labels could be found. In a second experiment, we used passive exposure to the association between physical features and labels; we obtained behavioral evidence for learning of both social and non-social categories. These results support the view of the specificity of social category learning; they suggest that social categories are best acquired through unsupervised procedures that can be considered as a simplified proxy for group transmission.

  1. Healthy Variability in Organizational Behavior: Empirical Evidence and New Steps for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, José; Rueff-Lopes, Rita

    2015-10-01

    The healthy variability thesis suggests that healthy systems function in a complex manner over time. This thesis is well-established in fields like physiology. In the field of organizational behavior, however, this relation is only starting to be explored. The objective of this article is threefold: First, we aim to provide a comprehensive review of the healthy variability thesis including some of the most important findings across different fields, with a focus on evidences from organizational research in work motivation and performance. Second, we discuss an opposite pattern, unhealthy stability, i.e., the relationship between unhealthy behaviors and lower variability. Again, we provide evidence from diverse areas, from affective processes to disruptive organizational comportments like mobbing. Third, we provide a critical evaluation of current methodological trends and highlight what we believe to be the main factors that are stopping organizational research from advancing in the field. Theoretical, methodological and epistemological implications are discussed. To conclude, we draw a compilation of the lessons learned, which hopefully provide insights for prolific research avenues. Our main purpose is to raise awareness of the healthy variability thesis and to enthuse organizational researchers to consider it in order to advance existing knowledge, revisit old theories and create new ones.

  2. The porous boundaries between explicit and implicit memory: behavioral and neural evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, Ilana T Z; Cabeza, Roberto

    2011-04-01

    Explicit memory refers to the conscious retrieval of past information or experiences, whereas implicit memory refers to an unintentional or nonconscious form of retrieval. Much of the literature in cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience has focused on differences between explicit and implicit memory, and the traditional view is that they rely on distinct brain systems. However, the potential interplay between implicit and explicit memory is not always clear. This review draws from behavioral and functional neuroimaging evidence to evaluate three areas in which implicit and explicit memory may be interrelated. First, we discuss views of familiarity-based recognition in terms of its relationship with implicit memory. Second, we review the challenges of distinguishing between implicit memory and involuntary aware memory, at both behavioral and neural levels. Finally, we examine evidence indicating that implicit and explicit retrieval of relational information may rely on a common neural mechanism. Taken together, these areas indicate that, under certain circumstances, there may be an important and influential relationship between conscious and nonconscious expressions of memory. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. Evidence report : psychiatric disorders and commercial motor vehicle driver safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-29

    This report was prepared by ECRI Institute under subcontract to MANILA Consulting Group, Inc., which holds prime GS-10F-0177N/DTMC75-06-F-00039 with the Department of Transportations Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. ECRI Institute is a...

  4. The agreement between parent-reported and directly measured child language and parenting behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon K Bennetts

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Parenting behaviors are commonly targeted in early interventions to improve children’s language development. Accurate measurement of both parenting behaviors and children’s language outcomes is thus crucial for sensitive assessment of intervention outcomes. To date, only a small number of studies have compared parent-reported and directly measured behaviors, and these have been hampered by small sample sizes and inaccurate statistical techniques, such as correlations. The Bland-Altman Method and Reduced Major Axis regression represent more reliable alternatives because they allow us to quantify fixed and proportional bias between measures. In this study, we draw on data from two Australian early childhood cohorts (N= 201 parents and slow-to-talk toddlers aged 24 months; and N=218 parents and children aged 6-36 months experiencing social adversity to (1 examine agreement and quantify bias between parent-reported and direct measures, and (2 to determine socio-demographic predictors of the differences between parent-reported and direct measures. Measures of child language and parenting behaviors were collected from parents and their children. Our findings support the utility of the Bland-Altman Method and Reduced Major Axis regression in comparing measurement methods. Results indicated stronger agreement between parent-reported and directly measured child language, and poorer agreement between measures of parenting behaviors. Child age was associated with difference scores for child language; however the direction varied for each cohort. Parents who rated their child’s temperament as more difficult tended to report lower language scores on the parent questionnaire, compared to the directly measured scores. Older parents tended to report lower parenting responsiveness on the parent questionnaire, compared to directly measured scores. Finally, speaking a language other than English was associated with less responsive parenting behaviors on the

  5. SU34. A Systematic Review of Behavioral Research and Lesion Evidence for the 2-Factor Theory of Monothematic Delusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neustadter, Eli; Pinder, Juno; Corlett, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Two-factor theory (TFT) posits monothematic delusion formation requires damage producing delusion content (factor 1) and a deficit in belief evaluation (factor 2, posited to be localized in right frontal cortex). The purpose of the current study was 2-fold: (1) to review the behavioral data supporting TFT and (2) to assess whether locations of delusion-inducing lesions were consistent with TFT predictions: ie, common factor 1 damage within a particular monothematic delusion and common factor 2 damage across delusions. Furthermore, factor 2 damage ought to distinguish Capgras syndrome (the delusion that a previously familiar person is an imposter) from nondelusional-affective agnosia (unfamiliarity without delusion). Methods: We reviewed all papers concerned with TFT and all studies of galvanic skin response (GSR) in monothematic delusions (frequently cited as behavioral evidence for TFT). Next, we reviewed case reports of lesion-induced monothematic delusions including Capgras, Fregoli, Cotard, and somatoparaphrenia, as well as affective agnosia. We report lesion location frequencies in 12 regions of interest. Results: We found 27 articles on TFT. Only 3 contained empirical evidence (11%, all hypnosis studies): one had no direct hypothesis regarding TFT, one was inconclusive, and another failed to support TFT. We found 7 additional GSR studies of Capgras, 6 of which reported statistically significant abnormal GSR, but no effects were specific to the familiar person accused of being an imposter. One neuroimaging case study of Capgras did find fMRI correlates of perceiving the imposter in the left hemisphere. One study of somatoparaphrenia reported a GSR deficit to noxious stimuli approaching the denied limb. There were no published studies testing TFT predictions about Cotard or Fregoli. We analyzed 46 reports of lesion-induced delusions and 20 cases of affective agnosia. Right hemisphere damage was most common in monothematic delusion cases (

  6. The Impact of Traditional Culture on Farmers’ Moral Hazard Behavior in Crop Production: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To obtain higher yields, farmers may excessively use pesticides when they grow crops (like rice, vegetables, or fruit, causing moral hazard behavior. This paper examines how Chinese farmers’ moral hazard behavior in crop production is influenced by their traditional culture. A semi-parametric logistic model is used to investigate the impact of Chinese traditional culture on farmers’ moral hazard behavior. The results reveal that Chinese traditional culture has a positive effect on ameliorating the farmers’ excessive use of pesticides in crop production, which leads to a moral hazard in agro-product safety. Specifically, when we control for extraneous variables, the probability of moral hazard decreases by 15% if farmers consider their traditional culture in their production decisions. Moreover, the probability of moral hazard decreases by 17% if farmers consider the traditional culture as a powerful restraint regarding the use of pesticides. Our analysis provides some supportive evidence on the effect of Chinese traditional culture on mitigating farmers’ excessive use of pesticides.

  7. Behavioral evidence for a role of chemoreception during reproduction in lake trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchinger, Tyler J.; Li, Weiming; Johnson, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Chemoreception is hypothesized to influence spawning site selection, mate search, and synchronization of gamete release in chars (Salvelinus spp.), but behavioral evidence is generally lacking. Here, we provide a survey of the behavioral responses of reproductive male and female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) to natural conspecific chemosensory stimuli. A flow-through laboratory assay with side-by-side artificial spawning reefs was used to evaluate behavioral preferences of spawning-phase males and females for chemosensory stimuli from juveniles and from spawning-phase males and females. Males and females preferred male and juvenile stimuli over no stimuli, but only had weak preferences for female stimuli. Only females had a preference for male over juvenile stimuli when given a direct choice between the two. The unexpected observation of male attraction to male stimuli, even when offered female stimuli, indicates a fundamental difference from the existing models of chemical communication in fishes. We discuss our results from the perspectives of prespawning aggregation, mate evaluation, and spawning synchronization. Identification of specific components of the stimuli will allow confirmation of the function and may have management implications for native and invasive populations of lake trout that are ecologically and economically important.

  8. Behavioral and life-history evidence for interspecific competition in the larvae of two heliconian butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, Carolina; Borges, Simone Silva; Rodrigues, Daniela; Moreira, Gilson Rudinei Pires

    2013-10-01

    Interspecific competition in herbivorous insects remains a controversial issue. To date, many studied systems have not met assumptions of the traditional competition theory, and a new paradigm has been emerging. We examined the behavioral and life-history consequences of common host plant use of Heliconius erato and Dryas iulia (Nymphalidae) in relation to Passiflora suberosa (Passifloraceae). Larvae of the former use the apical portion of this host; the latter is presumably able to explore all plant parts. We assessed host use pattern in relation to leaf age, when reared either alone ( D. iulia) or together ( D. iulia and H. erato). Larval feeding choice tests with respect to leaf age were performed, and performance was recorded. Observations were made to assess antagonistic behavior of H. erato and D. iulia towards each other, if any. Similarly to H. erato, D. iulia fed on the young leaves significantly more than the mature ones; larvae were not induced to prefer mature leaves. First instars of H. erato used only the apical parts of P. suberosa and displayed aggressive behavior towards D. iulia, which moved to the lower shoot portions. Larval mortality and development time of both species significantly increased when reared together; such performance costs were more pronounced in D. iulia than H. erato. Our study gathers evidences that use of P. suberosa by these heliconian butterflies represent a case of competitive exclusion resulting in niche differentiation, where costs are higher for D. iulia than H. erato.

  9. Corporate reporting on risks: Evidence from Spanish companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rodríguez Domínguez

    2014-07-01

    Likewise, the results obtained emphasize the complexity of the voluntary revelation of risks. While an extended management board might improve the provision of more detailed information about the risks required by the current regulation, it tends to adopt a conservative policy of reporting concerning the voluntary disclosure. Moreover, we show the relevance of transparency as a deterrent for providing voluntary information by larger companies, due to the concerns about negative strategic repercussions.

  10. Wellhead deliverabilty of natural gas - assembling the evidence. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, W.R.

    1995-09-01

    This report presents information about the wellhead delivery of natural gas--the amount of gas the supply industry can produce and deliver to the pipeline. It is designed to help power industry planners evaluate essential aspects of gas supply as part of their overall assessment and utilization of gas-fired power generation. Low prices caused by excess deliverability have led to minimal exploration for new supplies, with the open-quotes bubbleclose quotes of excess deliverability ending. The report examines the facts pertinent to assessing the outlook for deliverability over the intermediate term. It develops deliverability concepts and relates deliverability to reserves and resources. It assesses the available information for measuring and monitoring availability and suggests improvements in available data. The regional outlook for deliverability growth in the Gulf of Mexico and other leading producing regions is also discussed. The report reviews the historical background of present deliverability trends and discusses the industry dynamics that affect development of future deliverability: lead times for increasing deliverability, the declining base of skilled exploration manpower, advancing gas supply technology, and prices required to encourage exploration and development

  11. The Effect of Group Attachment and Social Position on Prosocial Behavior. Evidence from Lab-in-the-Field Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Baldassarri, Delia; Grossman, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Social life is regulated by norms of fairness that constrain selfish behavior. While a substantial body of scholarship on prosocial behavior has provided evidence of such norms, large inter- and intra-personal variation in prosocial behavior still needs to be explained. The article identifies two social-structural dimensions along which people's generosity varies systematically: group attachment and social position. We conducted lab-in-the-field experiments involving 2,597 members of producer...

  12. The behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia: An analysis of the literature and a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhoff, Jutta Maria; Garberi, Cesare; Re, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to underline the importance of possible legal consequences of the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). This disease is associated with antisocial behavior, impulse control disorder and cognitive and personality impairment, which are often the earliest manifestations of the bvFTD. One of the antisocial behaviors possibly associated with this neurodegenerative disease is pathological stealing. This case report is about a 50-year-old Italian man who had a regular life until 2010. In 2010 and 2011, some critical events occurred: he lost his job, his father-in-law, to whom he was particularly close, died, and his wife had a serious illness. He began to show symptoms of depression, a significant weight loss, apathy, poor self-care, and lack of interest in the activities of his family. He became disengaged from his prior activities, emotionally detached from his family and developed compulsive hoarding. Moreover, he had uninhibited behaviors, a memory retrieval deficit, executive dysfunctions and impulsive behaviors. In January 2012, the subject began stealing objects, particularly components of computer, without premeditation or concern for resulting legal actions. He was then diagnosed affected by bvFTD. He was charged with theft and attempted theft and the Court asked for a psychiatric evaluation, in order to analyze the effect of the neurodegenerative disease on his behavior. To answer to the Court, the Authors analyzed his history of life and made a mental examination. The subject was considered mentally insane at the time of his crimes. This is an example of the practical application in judicial cases of the latest knowledge and evidence in the literature about the frontotemporal dementia, a disease associated with antisocial behaviors that could create tensions with the criminal law. The focus of the paper is to explain how the behavioral symptoms of bvFTD can have legal implications and how to deal with legal

  13. Irish psychiatric nurses' self-reported barriers, facilitators and skills for developing evidence-based practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Yadav, B L

    2012-03-01

    Evidence-based practice places an emphasis on integration of clinical expertise with available best evidence, patient\\'s clinical information and preferences, and with local health resources. This paper reports the findings of a study that investigated the barriers, facilitators and skills in developing evidence-based practice among psychiatric nurses in Ireland. A postal survey was conducted among a random sample of Irish psychiatric nurses and survey data were collected using the Development of Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire. Respondents reported that insufficient time to find and read research reports and insufficient resources to change practice were the greatest barriers to the development of evidence-based practice. Practice development coordinators were perceived as the most supportive resource for changing practice. Using the Internet to search for information was the highest-rated skill and using research evidence to change practice was the lowest-rated skill for developing evidence-based practice. Nurses\\' precursor skills for developing evidence-based practice, such as database searching and information retrieval, may be insufficient in themselves for promoting evidence-based practice if they cannot find evidence relating to their particular field of practice or if they do not have the time, resources and supports to develop their practice in response to evidence.

  14. Executive function and childhood stuttering: Parent ratings and evidence from a behavioral task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntourou, Katerina; Anderson, Julie D; Wagovich, Stacy A

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the executive function (EF) abilities of preschool children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) using a parent-report questionnaire and a behavioral task. Participants were 75 CWS and 75 CWNS between the ages of 3;0 and 5;11 (years; months). Parents rated their children's EF abilities using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P; Gioia, Espy, & Isquith, 2003). Children's ability to integrate cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, and working memory was measured using a behavioral task, the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS; Cameron Ponitz, McClelland, Matthews, & Morrison, 2009). The CWS were judged by their parents as being less proficient in working memory, shift/flexibility, and overall EF than the parents of the CWNS. Children in the CWS group were also 2½ to 7 times more likely than children in the CWNS group to exhibit clinically significant difficulties with EF. Behavioral task findings revealed that 3-year old CWS performed more poorly than their peers on the HTKS. Parental ratings of executive function and working memory were significantly and moderately correlated with receptive and expressive vocabulary skills only for the CWNS group. CWS have more difficulty with EF in everyday life and may experience early delays in their ability to integrate aspects of attention and EF compared to CWNS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Peering into the Brain to Predict Behavior: Peer-Reported, but not Self-Reported, Conscientiousness Links Threat-Related Amygdala Activity to Future Problem Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Johnna R.; Knodt, Annchen R.; Radtke, Spenser R.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2016-01-01

    Personality traits such as conscientiousness as self-reported by individuals can help predict a range of outcomes, from job performance to longevity. Asking others to rate the personality of their acquaintances often provides even better predictive power than using self-report. Here, we examine whether peer-reported personality can provide a better link between brain function, namely threat-related amygdala activity, and future health-related behavior, namely problem drinking, than self-reported personality. Using data from a sample of 377 young adult university students who were rated on five personality traits by peers, we find that higher threat-related amygdala activity to fearful facial expressions is associated with higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness. Moreover, higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness predicts lower future problem drinking more than one year later, an effect specific to men. Remarkably, relatively higher amygdala activity has an indirect effect on future drinking behavior in men, linked by peer-reported conscientiousness to lower future problem drinking. Our results provide initial evidence that the perceived conscientiousness of an individual by their peers uniquely reflects variability in a core neural mechanism supporting threat responsiveness. These novel patterns further suggest that incorporating peer-reported measures of personality into individual differences research can reveal novel predictive pathways of risk and protection for problem behaviors. PMID:27717769

  16. Peering into the brain to predict behavior: Peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness links threat-related amygdala activity to future problem drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Johnna R; Knodt, Annchen R; Radtke, Spenser R; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2017-02-01

    Personality traits such as conscientiousness as self-reported by individuals can help predict a range of outcomes, from job performance to longevity. Asking others to rate the personality of their acquaintances often provides even better predictive power than using self-report. Here, we examine whether peer-reported personality can provide a better link between brain function, namely threat-related amygdala activity, and future health-related behavior, namely problem drinking, than self-reported personality. Using data from a sample of 377 young adult university students who were rated on five personality traits by peers, we find that higher threat-related amygdala activity to fearful facial expressions is associated with higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness. Moreover, higher peer-reported, but not self-reported, conscientiousness predicts lower future problem drinking more than one year later, an effect specific to men. Remarkably, relatively higher amygdala activity has an indirect effect on future drinking behavior in men, linked by peer-reported conscientiousness to lower future problem drinking. Our results provide initial evidence that the perceived conscientiousness of an individual by their peers uniquely reflects variability in a core neural mechanism supporting threat responsiveness. These novel patterns further suggest that incorporating peer-reported measures of personality into individual differences research can reveal novel predictive pathways of risk and protection for problem behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evidence of a reduction over time in the behavioral severity of autistic disorder diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Cooper, Matthew N; Bebbington, Keely; Alvares, Gail; Lin, Ashleigh; Wray, John; Glasson, Emma J

    2017-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) may in part be due to a shift in the diagnostic threshold that has led to individuals with a less severe behavioral phenotype receiving a clinical diagnosis. This study examined whether there were changes over time in the qualitative and quantitative phenotype of individuals who received the diagnosis of Autistic Disorder. Data were from a prospective register of new diagnoses in Western Australia (n = 1252). From 2000 to 2006, we examined differences in both the percentage of newly diagnosed cases that met each criterion as well as severity ratings of the behaviors observed (not met, partially met, mild/moderate and extreme). Linear regression determined there was a statistically significant reduction from 2000 to 2006 in the percentage of new diagnoses meeting two of 12 criteria. There was also a reduction across the study period in the proportion of new cases rated as having extreme severity on six criteria. There was a reduction in the proportion of individuals with three or more criteria rated as extreme from 2000 (16.0%) to 2006 (1.6%), while percentage of new cases with no "extreme" rating on any criteria increased from 58.5% to 86.6% across the same period. This study provides the first clear evidence of a reduction over time in the behavioral severity of individuals diagnosed with Autistic Disorder during a period of stability in diagnostic criteria. A shift toward diagnosing individuals with less severe behavioral symptoms may have contributed to the increasing prevalence of Autistic Disorder diagnoses. Autism Res 2017, 10: 179-187. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Evidence Report: Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kritina; Ezer, Neta; Vos, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Human-computer interaction (HCI) encompasses all the methods by which humans and computer-based systems communicate, share information, and accomplish tasks. When HCI is poorly designed, crews have difficulty entering, navigating, accessing, and understanding information. HCI has rarely been studied in an operational spaceflight context, and detailed performance data that would support evaluation of HCI have not been collected; thus, we draw much of our evidence from post-spaceflight crew comments, and from other safety-critical domains like ground-based power plants, and aviation. Additionally, there is a concern that any potential or real issues to date may have been masked by the fact that crews have near constant access to ground controllers, who monitor for errors, correct mistakes, and provide additional information needed to complete tasks. We do not know what types of HCI issues might arise without this "safety net". Exploration missions will test this concern, as crews may be operating autonomously due to communication delays and blackouts. Crew survival will be heavily dependent on available electronic information for just-in-time training, procedure execution, and vehicle or system maintenance; hence, the criticality of the Risk of Inadequate HCI. Future work must focus on identifying the most important contributing risk factors, evaluating their contribution to the overall risk, and developing appropriate mitigations. The Risk of Inadequate HCI includes eight core contributing factors based on the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS): (1) Requirements, policies, and design processes, (2) Information resources and support, (3) Allocation of attention, (4) Cognitive overload, (5) Environmentally induced perceptual changes, (6) Misperception and misinterpretation of displayed information, (7) Spatial disorientation, and (8) Displays and controls.

  19. Evidence for cognitive–behavioral strategies improving dyspnea and related distress in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norweg A

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Anna Norweg,1 Eileen G Collins2,3 1Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Applied Health Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of Biobehavioral Health Science, College of Nursing, University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC, Chicago, IL, USA; 3Rehabilitation Research and Development (RR&D, Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital, Hines, IL, USA Background: Dyspnea is a complex, prevalent, and distressing symptom of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD associated with decreased quality of life, significant disability, and increased mortality. It is a major reason for referral to pulmonary rehabilitation. Methods: We reviewed 23 COPD studies to examine the evidence for the effectiveness of cognitive–behavioral strategies for relieving dyspnea in COPD. Results: Preliminary evidence from randomized controlled trials exists to support cognitive–behavioral strategies, used with or without exercise, for relieving sensory and affective components of dyspnea in COPD. Small to moderate treatment effects for relieving dyspnea were noted for psychotherapy (effect size [ES] = 0.08–0.25 for intensity; 0.26–0.65 for mastery and distractive auditory stimuli (ES = 0.08–0.33 for intensity; 0.09 to -0.61 for functional burden. Small to large dyspnea improvements resulted from yoga (ES = 0.2–1.21 for intensity; 0.67 for distress; 0.07 for mastery; and −8.37 for functional burden; dyspnea self-management education with exercise (ES = −0.14 to −1.15 for intensity; −0.62 to −0.69 for distress; 1.04 for mastery; 0.14–0.35 for self-efficacy; and slow-breathing exercises (ES = 4390.34 to −0.83 for intensity; -0.61 to -0.80 for distress; and 0.62 for self-efficacy. Cognitive–behavioral interventions may relieve dyspnea in COPD by (1 decreasing sympathetic nerve activity, dynamic hyperinflation, and comorbid anxiety, and (2 promoting arterial oxygen saturation, myelinated vagus nerve activity, a greater

  20. Has dopamine a physiological role in the control of sexual behavior? A critical review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Raúl G; Agmo, Anders

    2004-06-01

    The role of dopaminergic systems in the control of sexual behavior has been a subject of study for at least 40 years. Not surprisingly, reviews of the area have been published at variable intervals. However, the earlier reviews have been summaries of published research rather than a critical analysis of it. They have focused upon the conclusions presented in the original research papers rather than on evaluating the reliability and functional significance of the data reported to support these conclusions. During the last few years, important new knowledge concerning dopaminergic systems and their behavioral functions as well as the possible role of these systems in sexual behavior has been obtained. For the first time, it is now possible to integrate the data obtained in studies of sexual behavior into the wider context of general dopaminergic functions. To make this possible, we first present an analysis of the nature and organization of sexual behavior followed by a summary of current knowledge about the brain structures of crucial importance for this behavior. We then proceed with a description of the dopaminergic systems within or projecting to these structures. Whenever possible, we also try to include data on the electrophysiological actions of dopamine. Thereafter, we proceed with analyses of pharmacological data and release studies, both in males and in females. Consistently throughout this discussion, we make an effort to distinguish pharmacological effects on sexual behavior from a possible physiological role of dopamine. By pharmacological effects, we mean here drug-induced alterations in behavior that are not the result of the normal actions of synaptically released dopamine in the untreated animal. The conclusion of this endeavor is that pharmacological effects of dopaminergic drugs are variable in both males and females, independently of whether the drugs are administered systemically or intracerebrally. We conclude that the pharmacological data

  1. Parents’ Monitoring-Relevant Knowledge and Adolescents’ Delinquent Behavior: Evidence of Correlated Developmental Changes and Reciprocal Influences

    OpenAIRE

    Laird, Robert D.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2003-01-01

    Links between parental knowledge and adolescent delinquent behavior were tested for correlated rates of developmental change and reciprocal associations. For 4 years beginning at age 14, adolescents (N = 396) reported on their delinquent behavior and on their parents’ knowledge of their whereabouts and activities. Parents completed measures of their adolescents’ delinquent behavior. Knowledge was negatively correlated with delinquent behaviors at baseline, and increases over time in knowledge...

  2. Parent and Child Reporting of Corporal Punishment: New Evidence from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, William; MacKenzie, Michael; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2015-06-01

    This paper provides new evidence on parent and child reporting of corporal punishment, drawing on data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of families in 20 medium to large US cities. In separate interviews, 9 year olds and their mothers (N=1,180 families) were asked about the frequency of corporal punishment in the past year. Mothers and children were asked questions with slightly different response categorize which are harmonized in our analysis. Overall, children reported more high frequency corporal punishment (spanking or other physical punishment more than 10 times per year) than their mothers did; this discrepancy was seen in both African-American and Hispanic families (but not White families), and was evident for both boys and girls. These results suggest that reporting of frequency of corporal punishment is sensitive to the identity of the reporter and that in particular child reports may reveal more high frequency punishment than maternal reports do. However, predictors of high frequency punishment were similar regardless of reporter identity; in both cases, risk of high frequency punishment was higher when the child was African-American or had high previous levels of behavior problems.

  3. Auditor report and earnings management: Evidence from FTSE 350 companies in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alhadab

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between audit report and real-based and accrual-based earnings management based on a UK sample. Prior research has mostly focused on US data and examined the relationship between auditor report (qualified vs. non-qualified and earnings management (proxied by discretionary accruals, and found evidence that qualified audit report is positively associated with the level of discretionary accruals. Despite the importance of the role of audit firms to constrain the use of earnings management, there is no research to date has examined the relationship between auditor reports and real earnings management activities based on UK sample. This paper therefore fills this gap in the literature by providing the first evidence for UK FTSE 350 companies that auditor report is positively associated with real and accrual earnings management. The paper also provide evidence that firms received qualified audit report share different characteristics as compared to firms received un-qualified audit report

  4. Self-reported impulsivity, but not behavioral choice or response impulsivity, partially mediates the effect of stress on drinking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kristen R; Ansell, Emily B; Reynolds, Brady; Potenza, Marc N; Sinha, Rajita

    2013-01-01

    Stress and impulsivity contribute to alcohol use, and stress may also act via impulsivity to increase drinking behavior. Impulsivity represents a multi-faceted construct and self-report and behavioral assessments may effectively capture distinct clinically relevant factors. The present research investigated whether aspects of impulsivity mediate the effect of stress on alcohol use. A community-based sample of 192 men and women was assessed on measures of cumulative stress, alcohol use, self-reported impulsivity, and behavioral choice and response impulsivity. Data were analyzed using regression and bootstrapping techniques to estimate indirect effects of stress on drinking via impulsivity. Cumulative adversity exhibited both direct effects and indirect effects (via self-reported impulsivity) on drinking behavior. Additional models examining specific types of stress indicated direct and indirect effects of trauma and recent life events, and indirect effects of major life events and chronic stressors on drinking behavior. Overall, cumulative stress was associated with increased drinking behavior, and this effect was partially mediated by self-reported impulsivity. Self-reported impulsivity also mediated the effects of different types of stress on drinking behavior. These findings highlight the value of mediation models to examine the pathways through which different types of stress increase drinking behavior. Treatment and prevention strategies should focus on enhancing stress management and self-control.

  5. Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Predicts Self-Reported Measures of General Competitiveness, but Not Behavior in Economic Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönte, Werner; Procher, Vivien D; Urbig, Diemo; Voracek, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The ratio of index finger length to ring finger length (2D:4D) is considered to be a putative biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure (PAE), with previous research suggesting that 2D:4D is associated with human behaviors, especially sex-typical behaviors. This study empirically examines the relationship between 2D:4D and individual competitiveness, a behavioral trait that is found to be sexually dimorphic. We employ two related, but distinct, measures of competitiveness, namely behavioral measures obtained from economic experiments and psychometric self-reported measures. Our analyses are based on two independent data sets obtained from surveys and economic experiments with 461 visitors of a shopping mall (Study I) and 617 university students (Study II). The correlation between behavior in the economic experiment and digit ratios of both hands is not statistically significant in either study. In contrast, we find a negative and statistically significant relationship between psychometric self-reported measures of competitiveness and right hand digit ratios (R2D:4D) in both studies. This relationship is especially strong for younger people. Hence, this study provides some robust empirical evidence for a negative association between R2D:4D and self-reported competitiveness. We discuss potential reasons why digit ratio may relate differently to behaviors in specific economics experiments and to self-reported general competitiveness.

  6. Digit Ratio (2D:4D Predicts Self-Reported Measures of General Competitiveness, but Not Behavior in Economic Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Bönte

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ratio of index finger length to ring finger length (2D:4D is considered to be a putative biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure (PAE, with previous research suggesting that 2D:4D is associated with human behaviors, especially sex-typical behaviors. This study empirically examines the relationship between 2D:4D and individual competitiveness, a behavioral trait that is found to be sexually dimorphic. We employ two related, but distinct, measures of competitiveness, namely behavioral measures obtained from economic experiments and psychometric self-reported measures. Our analyses are based on two independent data sets obtained from surveys and economic experiments with 461 visitors of a shopping mall (Study I and 617 university students (Study II. The correlation between behavior in the economic experiment and digit ratios of both hands is not statistically significant in either study. In contrast, we find a negative and statistically significant relationship between psychometric self-reported measures of competitiveness and right hand digit ratios (R2D:4D in both studies. This relationship is especially strong for younger people. Hence, this study provides some robust empirical evidence for a negative association between R2D:4D and self-reported competitiveness. We discuss potential reasons why digit ratio may relate differently to behaviors in specific economics experiments and to self-reported general competitiveness.

  7. Stages of processing in associative recognition: evidence from behavior, EEG, and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, Jelmer P; Schneider, Darryl W; Walsh, Matthew M; Anderson, John R

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the stages of information processing in associative recognition. We recorded EEG data while participants performed an associative recognition task that involved manipulations of word length, associative fan, and probe type, which were hypothesized to affect the perceptual encoding, retrieval, and decision stages of the recognition task, respectively. Analyses of the behavioral and EEG data, supplemented with classification of the EEG data using machine-learning techniques, provided evidence that generally supported the sequence of stages assumed by a computational model developed in the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational cognitive architecture. However, the results suggested a more complex relationship between memory retrieval and decision-making than assumed by the model. Implications of the results for modeling associative recognition are discussed. The study illustrates how a classifier approach, in combination with focused manipulations, can be used to investigate the timing of processing stages.

  8. The behavioral regulation in sport questionnaire (BRSQ): instrument development and initial validity evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Chris; Hodge, Ken; Rose, Elaine A

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of the four studies described in this article was to develop and test a new measure of competitive sport participants' intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation (self-determination theory; Deci & Ryan, 1985). The items for the new measure, named the Behavioral Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ), were constructed using interviews, expert review, and pilot testing. Analyses supported the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and factorial validity of the BRSQ scores. Nomological validity evidence was also supportive, as BRSQ subscale scores were correlated in the expected pattern with scores derived from measures of motivational consequences. When directly compared with scores derived from the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS; Pelletier, Fortier, Vallerand, Tuson, & Blais, 1995) and a revised version of that questionnaire (SMS-6; Mallett, Kawabata, Newcombe, Otero-Forero, & Jackson, 2007), BRSQ scores demonstrated equal or superior reliability and factorial validity as well as better nomological validity.

  9. The Athabasca Granulite Terrane and Evidence for Dynamic Behavior of Lower Continental Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumond, Gregory; Williams, Michael L.; Regan, Sean P.

    2018-05-01

    Deeply exhumed granulite terranes have long been considered nonrepresentative of lower continental crust largely because their bulk compositions do not match the lower crustal xenolith record. A paradigm shift in our understanding of deep crust has since occurred with new evidence for a more felsic and compositionally heterogeneous lower crust than previously recognized. The >20,000-km2 Athabasca granulite terrane locally provides a >700-Myr-old window into this type of lower crust, prior to being exhumed and uplifted to the surface between 1.9 and 1.7 Ga. We review over 20 years of research on this terrane with an emphasis on what these findings may tell us about the origin and behavior of lower continental crust, in general, in addition to placing constraints on the tectonic evolution of the western Canadian Shield between 2.6 and 1.7 Ga. The results reveal a dynamic lower continental crust that evolved compositionally and rheologically with time.

  10. Health Reporting in Print Media in Lebanon: Evidence, Quality and Role in Informing Policymaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Bou Karroum, Lama; Bawab, Lamya; Kdouh, Ola; El-Sayed, Farah; Rachidi, Hala; Makki, Malak

    2015-01-01

    Background Media plays a vital role in shaping public policies and opinions through disseminating health-related information. This study aims at exploring the role of media in informing health policies in Lebanon, identifying the factors influencing health reporting and investigating the role of evidence in health journalism and the quality of health reporting. It also identifies strategies to enhance the use of evidence in health journalism and improve the quality of health reporting. Methods Media analysis was conducted to assess the way media reports on health-related issues and the quality of reporting using a quality assessment tool. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with 27 journalists, researchers and policymakers to explore their perception on the role of media in health policymaking and the factors influencing health reporting. In addition, a validation workshop was conducted. Results Out of 1,279 health-related news articles identified, 318 articles used certain type of evidence to report health issues 39.8% of which relied on experts’ opinions as their source of evidence while only 5.9% referenced peer-reviewed research studies. The quality of health reporting was judged to be low based on a quality assessment tool consisting of a set of ten criteria. Journalists raised concerns about issues impeding them from referring to evidence. Journalists also reported difficulties with the investigative health journalism. Policymakers and researchers viewed media as an important tool for evidence-informed health policies, however, serious concerns were voiced in terms of the current practice and capacities. Conclusion Our study provides a structured reflection on the role of media and the factors that influence health reporting including context-specific strategies that would enhance the quality and promote the use of evidence in health reporting. In the light of the political changes in many Middle Eastern countries, findings from this study can

  11. Behavioral-Progress Monitoring Using the Electronic Daily Behavioral Report Card (e-DBRC) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Mack D.; Vannest, Kimberly J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present an overview of a Web-based electronic system for behavioral-progress monitoring. Behavioral-progress monitoring is necessary to evaluate responsiveness to behavioral interventions, the effects of positive behavioral support, and the attainment of individualized education program goals and objectives. The…

  12. Evidence Report: Risk of Hypobaric Hypoxia from the Exploration Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, Jason R.; Conkin, Johnny; Wessel, James H., III; Norsk, Peter; Law, Jennifer; Arias, Diana; Goodwin, Tom; Crucian, Brian; Whitmire, Alexandra; Bloomberg, Jacob; hide

    2015-01-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) is at the core of a manned space exploration program. Some elements of exploration may be safely and effectively performed by robots, but certain critical elements will require the trained, assertive, and reasoning mind of a human crewmember. To effectively use these skills, NASA needs a safe, effective, and efficient EVA component integrated into the human exploration program. The EVA preparation time should be minimized and the suit pressure should be low to accommodate EVA tasks without causing undue fatigue, physical discomfort, or suit-related trauma. Commissioned in 2005, the Exploration Atmospheres Working Group (EAWG) had the primary goal of recommending to NASA an internal environment that allowed efficient and repetitive EVAs for missions that were to be enabled by the former Constellation Program. At the conclusion of the EAWG meeting, the 8.0 psia and 32% oxygen (O2) environment were recommended for EVA-intensive phases of missions. After re-evaluation in 2012, the 8/32 environment was altered to 8.2 psia and 34% O2 to reduce the hypoxic stress to a crewmember. These two small changes increase alveolar O2 pressure by 11 mmHg, which is expected to significantly benefit crewmembers. The 8.2/34 environment (inspired O2 pressure = 128 mmHg) is also physiologically equivalent to the staged decompression atmosphere of 10.2 psia / 26.5% O2 (inspired O2 pressure = 127 mmHg) used on 34 different shuttle missions for approximately a week each flight. As a result of selecting this internal environment, NASA gains the capability for efficient EVA with low risk of decompression sickness (DCS), but not without incurring the additional negative stimulus of hypobaric hypoxia to the already physiologically challenging spaceflight environment. This report provides a review of the human health and performance risks associated with the use of the 8.2 psia / 34% O2 environment during spaceflight. Of most concern are the potential effects on the

  13. Operationalizing the Measurement of Seroadaptive Behaviors: A Comparison of Reported Sexual Behaviors and Purposely-Adopted Behaviors Among Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) in Seattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosropour, Christine M; Dombrowski, Julia C; Hughes, James P; Manhart, Lisa E; Simoni, Jane M; Golden, Matthew R

    2017-10-01

    Seroadaptive behaviors are traditionally defined by self-reported sexual behavior history, regardless of whether they reflect purposely-adopted risk-mitigation strategies. Among MSM attending an STD clinic in Seattle, Washington 2013-2015 (N = 3751 visits), we used two seroadaptive behavior measures: (1) sexual behavior history reported via clinical computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) (behavioral definition); (2) purposely-adopted risk-reduction behaviors reported via research CASI (purposely-adopted definition). Pure serosorting (i.e. only HIV-concordant partners) was the most common behavior, reported (behavioral and purposely-adopted definition) by HIV-negative respondents at 43% and 60% of visits, respectively (kappa = 0.24; fair agreement) and by HIV-positive MSM at 30 and 34% (kappa = 0.25; fair agreement). Agreement of the two definitions was highest for consistent condom use [HIV-negative men (kappa = 0.72), HIV-positive men (kappa = 0.57)]. Overall HIV test positivity was 1.4 but 0.9% for pure serosorters. The two methods of operationalizing behaviors result in different estimates, thus the choice of which to employ should depend on the motivation for ascertaining behavioral information.

  14. Pubertal changes in emotional information processing: pupillary, behavioral, and subjective evidence during emotional word identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Jennifer S; Siegle, Greg J; Whalen, Diana J; Ostapenko, Laura J; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Dahl, Ronald E

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated pupillary and behavioral responses to an emotional word valence identification paradigm among 32 pre-/early pubertal and 34 mid-/late pubertal typically developing children and adolescents. Participants were asked to identify the valence of positive, negative, and neutral words while pupil dilation was assessed using an eyetracker. Mid-/late pubertal children showed greater peak pupillary reactivity to words presented during the emotional word identification task than pre-/early pubertal children, regardless of word valence. Mid-/late pubertal children also showed smaller sustained pupil dilation than pre-/early pubertal children after the word was no longer on screen. These findings were replicated controlling for participants' age. In addition, mid-/late pubertal children had faster reaction times to all words, and rated themselves as more emotional during their laboratory visit compared to pre-/early pubertal children. Greater recall of emotional words following the task was associated with mid-/late pubertal status, and greater recall of emotional words was also associated with higher peak pupil dilation. These results provide physiological, behavioral, and subjective evidence consistent with a model of puberty-specific changes in neurobehavioral systems underpinning emotional reactivity.

  15. An Association between Auditory-Visual Synchrony Processing and Reading Comprehension: Behavioral and Electrophysiological Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossbridge, Julia; Zweig, Jacob; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2017-03-01

    The perceptual system integrates synchronized auditory-visual signals in part to promote individuation of objects in cluttered environments. The processing of auditory-visual synchrony may more generally contribute to cognition by synchronizing internally generated multimodal signals. Reading is a prime example because the ability to synchronize internal phonological and/or lexical processing with visual orthographic processing may facilitate encoding of words and meanings. Consistent with this possibility, developmental and clinical research has suggested a link between reading performance and the ability to compare visual spatial/temporal patterns with auditory temporal patterns. Here, we provide converging behavioral and electrophysiological evidence suggesting that greater behavioral ability to judge auditory-visual synchrony (Experiment 1) and greater sensitivity of an electrophysiological marker of auditory-visual synchrony processing (Experiment 2) both predict superior reading comprehension performance, accounting for 16% and 25% of the variance, respectively. These results support the idea that the mechanisms that detect auditory-visual synchrony contribute to reading comprehension.

  16. Epigallocatechin gallate ameliorates chronic fatigue syndrome in mice: behavioral and biochemical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Anand Kamal; Kuhad, Anurag; Tiwari, Vinod; Chopra, Kanwaljit

    2009-12-28

    Three decades after the coining of the term chronic fatigue syndrome, the diagnosis of this illness is still symptom based and the aetiology remains elusive. Chronic fatigue syndrome pathogenesis seems to be multifactorial and the possible involvement of immune system is supported. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of the epigallocatechin gallate in a mouse model of immunologically induced chronic fatigue. On 19th day, after lipopolysaccharide/Brucella abortus administration, the mice showed significant increase in immobility period, post swim fatigue and thermal hyperalgesia. Behavioral deficits were coupled with enhanced oxidative-nitrosative stress as evident by increased lipid peroxidation, nitrite levels and decreased endogenous antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase) and inflammation (increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and tissue growth factor-beta). Chronic treatment with epigallocatechin gallate restored these behavioral and biochemical alterations in mice. The present study points out towards the beneficial effect of epigallocatechin gallate in the amelioration of chronic fatigue syndrome and thus may provide a new, effective and powerful strategy to treat chronic fatigue syndrome.

  17. Words and melody are intertwined in perception of sung words: EEG and behavioral evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna L Gordon

    Full Text Available Language and music, two of the most unique human cognitive abilities, are combined in song, rendering it an ecological model for comparing speech and music cognition. The present study was designed to determine whether words and melodies in song are processed interactively or independently, and to examine the influence of attention on the processing of words and melodies in song. Event-Related brain Potentials (ERPs and behavioral data were recorded while non-musicians listened to pairs of sung words (prime and target presented in four experimental conditions: same word, same melody; same word, different melody; different word, same melody; different word, different melody. Participants were asked to attend to either the words or the melody, and to perform a same/different task. In both attentional tasks, different word targets elicited an N400 component, as predicted based on previous results. Most interestingly, different melodies (sung with the same word elicited an N400 component followed by a late positive component. Finally, ERP and behavioral data converged in showing interactions between the linguistic and melodic dimensions of sung words. The finding that the N400 effect, a well-established marker of semantic processing, was modulated by musical melody in song suggests that variations in musical features affect word processing in sung language. Implications of the interactions between words and melody are discussed in light of evidence for shared neural processing resources between the phonological/semantic aspects of language and the melodic/harmonic aspects of music.

  18. Evidence of asymmetric behavioral responses to changes in gasoline prices and taxes for different fuel types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajo-Buenestado, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    Using monthly data from the Spanish gasoline retail market we explore asymmetries in consumers’ behavioral responses to changes in gasoline prices and taxes. In particular, we are interested in investigating whether an increase in gasoline taxes has a more negative impact on the demand than a –similar in magnitude– increase in the “pre-tax” price of gasoline for different fuel types. We estimate fuel consumers’ responses using a rich set of robust panel data models considering potential dynamic effects and endogeneity problems. We find evidence to confirm the existence of asymmetric responses for the demand of unleaded fuels and agricultural diesel fuel. However we cannot support this statement for the regular diesel case: for this fuel both the tax-exclusive price and the tax elasticities are roughly the same. This result agrees with the fact that “diesel drivers” tend to be better informed about changes in both fuel prices and taxes. Some implications in terms of fiscal policy and pollution and climate change policy are also discussed. - Highlights: •Provide evidence of asymmetric responses of gasoline demand due to changes in prices and taxes. •Identify differences in the elasticity of the demand of diesel fuel and unleaded gasoline. •Perform robustness checks considering dynamic effects and IV regression. •Provide some policy recommendations for future gasoline tax changes.

  19. easyCBM® Reading Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Grades K-1. Technical Report #1309

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a study to gather criterion-related evidence for Grade K-1 easyCBM® reading measures. We used correlations to examine the relation between the easyCBM® measures and other published measures with known reliability and validity evidence, including the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy…

  20. easyCBM® Reading Criterion Related Validity Evidence: Grades 2-5. Technical Report #1310

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a study to gather criterion-related evidence for Grade 2-5 easyCBM® reading measures. We used correlations to examine the relation between the easyCBM® measures and other published measures with known reliability and validity evidence, including the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests and the Dynamic…

  1. Self-reported use of evidence-based medicine and smoking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self-reported use of evidence-based medicine and smoking cessation 6 - 9 months after acute coronary syndrome: A single-centre perspective. ... questionnaire detailing current medication use, reasons for non-adherence and smoking status.

  2. Vision and commercial motor vehicle driver safety : vol. 1 : evidence report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-06

    The purpose of this evidence report is to address several key questions posed by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) that pertain to vision and commercial motor vehicle (CMV) driver safety. Each of these key questions was develope...

  3. Behavior change for newborn survival in resource-poor community settings: bridging the gap between evidence and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Aarti; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2010-12-01

    Despite an established evidence base of simple, affordable, and low-cost interventions to avert neonatal deaths, global progress in reducing neonatal mortality has stagnated in recent years. Under-recognition of the critical role played by behavior change in ensuring adoption and dissemination of innovations is a major reason for this gap between evidence and impact. A general lack of understanding of the mechanisms underlying behavior change at a population level coupled with an under-appreciation of the sociocultural context of newborn care behaviors has underscored ill-informed approaches towards behavior change that have met with limited success. This article draws upon available evidence from prevention-oriented, community-based newborn survival trials to derive insights into the role of behavior change in neonatal mortality reduction. We propose a simple model, the intervention-causation pathway, to explain the pathway through which behavior change interventions may lead to reductions in mortality. Further, we explore the unique nature of newborn care behaviors and their underlying sociocultural context, along with state-of-the-art advances in social, behavioral, and management sciences. These principles form the basis of the behavior change management framework that has successfully guided intervention design and implementation, leading to high impact on neonatal mortality reduction, in Uttar Pradesh, India. We describe how the behavior change management framework can be applied to inform the design of theoretically and empirically sound behavior change interventions with greater precision, predictability and pace towards reduction in neonatal mortality. We finally touch upon key overarching principles that should guide intervention execution for maximal impact. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors that distinguish aggression toward animals from other antisocial behaviors: Evidence from a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Emma; Parfitt, Charlotte

    2018-05-25

    Animal cruelty is a form of passive and active aggression that is largely undocumented and unreported. Given that animals are voiceless victims, we have to rely on witnesses and frontline staff (e.g., veterinarians) to report incidents of abuse, which suggests the number of convicted animal abusers is an under-representation of actual perpetrators. The primary aim of the current study was to identify the static and dynamic factors that distinguish animal abusers from non-abuse offenders (i.e., individuals who self-reported antisocial behavior, but not animal abuse), and non-offenders (i.e., individuals who have not engaged in any antisocial behavior) in a community sample. The secondary aim was to identify the potential pathways that distinguish animal abuse perpetration from other types of antisocial behavior. Three hundred and eighty-four participants took part in this retrospective, correlational study. We found that animal abusers share similar socio-demographic characteristics to other offenders but are distinct in their exposure to animal harm/killing during childhood. Low animal-oriented empathy and low self-esteem distinguished animal abusers from non-abuse offenders when controlling for confound variables and other psychological characteristics. We also found that low animal-oriented empathy mediated the relationship between childhood exposure to animal killing and animal abuse perpetration, and that this relationship was stronger among participants with anger regulation issues. This is the first study to examine similarities and differences between animal abusers, non-abuse offenders, and non-offenders on socio-demographic and psychological characteristics. The findings highlight potential treatment targets that are unique to animal abusers with implications for prevention and intervention strategies. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Loneliness and associated violent antisocial behavior: analysis of the case reports of Jeffrey Dahmer and Dennis Nilsen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Willem H J; Palermo, George B

    2005-06-01

    It can be theorized that loneliness plays a significant role in the development and continuation of violent, antisocial attitudes and behavior. Analysis of case reports of two serial killers, Dennis Nilsen and Jeffrey Dahmer, indicate that there is evidence for such a link. In this article, a list of significant correlates of loneliness and antisocial behavior is presented. This may be useful for the assessment of possible dangerousness and in the development of prevention and intervention programs. Suggestions are made for the adequate treatment of loneliness and correlated violent, antisocial behavior. A need is recognized for more research into the psychosocial, emotional, neurobiological, cultural, and ethnic determinants of loneliness and their correlation to specific antisocial and/or criminal behavior.

  6. Evidence acquisition and evaluation for evidence summit on population-level behavior change to enhance child survival and development in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balster, Robert L; Levy, Stephanie; Stammer, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the need for evidence to inform public health officials and health care workers in the U.S. government and low- and middle-income country governments on efficient, effective behavior change policies, strategies, and programs for child health and development, the U.S. government convened the Evidence Summit on Enhancing Child Survival and Development in Lower- and Middle-Income Countries by Achieving Population-Level Behavior Change. This article summarizes the background and methods for the acquisition and evaluation of the evidence used to the achieve the goals of the summit that is reviewed in other articles in this special issue of the Journal of Health Communication. The process began by identifying focal questions intended to inform the U.S. and low- and middle-income governments about behavior change interventions that accelerate reductions in under-5 mortality and optimize healthy and protective child development to 5 years of age. Experts were selected representing the research and program communities, academia, relevant nongovernmental organizations, and government agencies and assembled into evidence review teams. This was followed by the systematic gathering of relevant peer-reviewed literature that would inform the focal questions. Members of the evidence review teams were invited to add relevant articles not identified in the initial literature review to complete the bibliographies. Details of the search processes and methods used for screening and quality reviews are described. The evidence review teams were asked to comply with a specific evaluation framework for recommendations on practice and policy on the basis of both expert opinion and the quality of the data reviewed.

  7. Developmental Trajectories of Peer-Reported Aggressive Behavior: The Role of Friendship Understanding, Friendship Quality, and Friends’ Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; McDonald, Kristina; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate developmental trajectories in peer-reported aggressive behavior across the transition from elementary-to-middle school, and whether aggressive behavior trajectories were associated with friendship quality, friends’ aggressive behavior, and the ways in which children think about their friendships. Method Participants included a community sample of 230 5th grade children who were assessed when they made a transition from elementary-to-middle school (6th grade). Peer nominations were used to assess the target child’s and friend’s aggressive behavior. Self- and friend reports were used to measure friendship quality; friendship understanding was assessed via a structured interview. Results General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) revealed three distinct trajectories of peer-reported aggressive behavior across the school transition: low-stable, decreasing, and increasing. Adolescents’ understanding of friendship formation differentiated the decreasing from the low-stable aggressive behavior trajectories, and the understanding of friendship trust differentiated the increasing from the low-stable aggressive and decreasing aggressive behavior trajectories. Conclusions The findings indicated that a sophisticated understanding of friendship may serve as a protective factor for initially aggressive adolescents as they transition into middle school. Promoting a deepened understanding of friendship relations and their role in one’s own and others’ well-being may serve as an important prevention and intervention strategy to reduce aggressive behavior. PMID:26688775

  8. Developmental Trajectories of Peer-Reported Aggressive Behavior: The Role of Friendship Understanding, Friendship Quality, and Friends' Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; McDonald, Kristina; Rubin, Kenneth H; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2015-10-01

    To investigate developmental trajectories in peer-reported aggressive behavior across the transition from elementary-to-middle school, and whether aggressive behavior trajectories were associated with friendship quality, friends' aggressive behavior, and the ways in which children think about their friendships. Participants included a community sample of 230 5 th grade children who were assessed when they made a transition from elementary-to-middle school (6 th grade). Peer nominations were used to assess the target child's and friend's aggressive behavior. Self- and friend reports were used to measure friendship quality; friendship understanding was assessed via a structured interview. General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) revealed three distinct trajectories of peer-reported aggressive behavior across the school transition: low-stable, decreasing, and increasing. Adolescents' understanding of friendship formation differentiated the decreasing from the low-stable aggressive behavior trajectories, and the understanding of friendship trust differentiated the increasing from the low-stable aggressive and decreasing aggressive behavior trajectories. The findings indicated that a sophisticated understanding of friendship may serve as a protective factor for initially aggressive adolescents as they transition into middle school. Promoting a deepened understanding of friendship relations and their role in one's own and others' well-being may serve as an important prevention and intervention strategy to reduce aggressive behavior.

  9. The influence of media reporting of a celebrity suicide on suicidal behavior in patients with a history of depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Andrew T A; Hawton, Keith; Chen, Tony H H; Yen, Amy M F; Chang, Jung-Chen; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Liu, Chia-Yih; Lee, Yu; Teng, Po-Ren; Chen, Lin-Chen

    2007-11-01

    Few studies have directly assessed the impact of a specific media report in vulnerable people. This study investigates possible influences of media reporting of a celebrity suicide on subsequent suicidal behaviors and associated risk factors among depressive patients. Depressive patients (N=461) were assessed through a structured interview soon after extensive media reporting of a celebrity suicide. Among 438 depressive patients exposed to the media report, 38.8% reported an influence on subsequent suicidal behaviors, including 24 (5.5%) with a suicide attempt. The risk of such influence was highest among patients in a severe depressive state just prior to the media report (adjusted OR 7.81, 95% CI 3.28-18.59). Such influence on a subsequent suicide attempt was highest in patients with a most recent suicide attempt within one month prior to the media reports (adjusted hazard ratio 11.91, 95% CI 3.76-37.72). Our finding of the significant media influence may reflect adverse thoughts among more suicidal and depressed individuals. The possible influence of other factors on the findings cannot be ruled out. This study has provided more convincing evidence suggesting negative influences of media reporting of a celebrity suicide on subsequent suicidal behaviors among depressive patients. Particular attention in terms of potential negative media influences should be paid to patients who are younger and currently depressed and have made a recent suicide attempt.

  10. Increasing the public health impact of evidence-based interventions in behavioral medicine: new approaches and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Joanna; Janke, E Amy; Kugler, Kari C; Duffecy, Jenna; Mielenz, Thelma J; St George, Sara M; Sheinfeld Gorin, Sherri N

    2017-02-01

    The dissemination and implementation of evidence-based behavioral medicine interventions into real world practice has been limited. The purpose of this paper is to discuss specific limitations of current behavioral medicine research within the context of the RE-AIM framework, and potential opportunities to increase public health impact by applying novel intervention designs and data collection approaches. The MOST framework has recently emerged as an alternative approach to development and evaluation that aims to optimize multicomponent behavioral and bio-behavioral interventions. SMART designs, imbedded within the MOST framework, are an approach to optimize adaptive interventions. In addition to innovative design strategies, novel data collection approaches that have the potential to improve the public-health dissemination include mHealth approaches and considering environment as a potential data source. Finally, becoming involved in advocacy via policy related work may help to improve the impact of evidence-based behavioral interventions. Innovative methods, if increasingly implemented, may have the ability to increase the public health impact of evidence-based behavioral interventions to prevent disease.

  11. The Importance of Parental Knowledge and Social Norms: Evidence from Weight Report Cards in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Prina; Heather Royer

    2013-01-01

    The rise of childhood obesity in less developed countries is often overlooked. We study the impact of body weight report cards in Mexico. The report cards increased parental knowledge and shifted parental attitudes about children's weight. We observe no meaningful changes in parental behaviors or children's body mass index. Interestingly, parents of children in the most obese classrooms were less likely to report that their obese child weighed too much relative to those in the least obese cla...

  12. Behavior and Performance on Long-Duration Spaceflights: Evidence from Analogue Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Gunderson, E. K. Eric; Johnson, Jeffrey C.; Holland, Albert W.

    1999-01-01

    Analyses of data collected in Antarctica since 1963 were conducted to identify features of behavior and performance likely to occur during long-duration missions in space.The influence of mission duration and station latitude on POMS mood scores was examined in 450 American men and women who overwintered in Antarctica between 1991 and 1998. The influence of crewmember social characteristics, personality traits, interpersonal needs, and station environments on measures of behavior and performance at the end of the austral winter was examined in 657 American men who overwintered between 1963 and 1974. Both data sets were used to examine the influence of crew social structure on individual performance. Results: Seasonal variations in mood appear to be associated with the altered diurnal cycle and psychological segmentation of the mission. Concurrent measures of personality, interpersonal needs, and coping styles are better predictors of depressed mood and peer-supervisor performance evaluations than baseline measures because of the unique features of the station social and physical environments and the absence of resources typically used to cope with stress elsewhere. Individuals in crews with a clique structure report significantly more depression, anxiety, anger, fatigue and confusion than individuals in crews with a core-periphery structure. Depressed mood is inversely associated with severity of station physical environment, supporting the existence of a positive or "salutogenic" effect for individuals seeking challenging experiences in extreme environments.

  13. Sensation seeking and impulsive traits as personality endophenotypes for antisocial behavior: Evidence from two independent samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Frank D.; Engelhardt, Laura; Briley, Daniel A.; Grotzinger, Andrew D.; Patterson, Megan W.; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Strathan, Dixie B.; Heath, Andrew; Lynskey, Michael; Slutske, Wendy; Martin, Nicholas G.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

    2017-01-01

    Sensation seeking and impulsivity are personality traits that are correlated with risk for antisocial behavior (ASB). This paper uses two independent samples of twins to (a) test the extent to which sensation seeking and impulsivity statistically mediate genetic influence on ASB, and (b) compare this to genetic influences accounted for by other personality traits. In Sample 1, delinquent behavior, as well as impulsivity, sensation seeking and Big Five personality traits, were measured in adolescent twins from the Texas Twin Project. In Sample 2, adult twins from the Australian Twin Registry responded to questionnaires that assessed individual differences in Eysenck's and Cloninger's personality dimensions, and a structured telephone interview that asked participants to retrospectively report DSM-defined symptoms of conduct disorder. Bivariate quantitative genetic models were used to identify genetic overlap between personality traits and ASB. Across both samples, novelty/sensation seeking and impulsive traits accounted for larger portions of genetic variance in ASB than other personality traits. We discuss whether sensation seeking and impulsive personality are causal endophenotypes for ASB, or merely index genetic liability for ASB. PMID:28824215

  14. Sensation seeking and impulsive traits as personality endophenotypes for antisocial behavior: Evidence from two independent samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Frank D; Engelhardt, Laura; Briley, Daniel A; Grotzinger, Andrew D; Patterson, Megan W; Tackett, Jennifer L; Strathan, Dixie B; Heath, Andrew; Lynskey, Michael; Slutske, Wendy; Martin, Nicholas G; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Harden, K Paige

    2017-01-15

    Sensation seeking and impulsivity are personality traits that are correlated with risk for antisocial behavior (ASB). This paper uses two independent samples of twins to (a) test the extent to which sensation seeking and impulsivity statistically mediate genetic influence on ASB, and (b) compare this to genetic influences accounted for by other personality traits. In Sample 1, delinquent behavior, as well as impulsivity, sensation seeking and Big Five personality traits, were measured in adolescent twins from the Texas Twin Project. In Sample 2, adult twins from the Australian Twin Registry responded to questionnaires that assessed individual differences in Eysenck's and Cloninger's personality dimensions, and a structured telephone interview that asked participants to retrospectively report DSM-defined symptoms of conduct disorder. Bivariate quantitative genetic models were used to identify genetic overlap between personality traits and ASB. Across both samples, novelty/sensation seeking and impulsive traits accounted for larger portions of genetic variance in ASB than other personality traits. We discuss whether sensation seeking and impulsive personality are causal endophenotypes for ASB, or merely index genetic liability for ASB.

  15. Do Harsh and Positive Parenting Predict Parent Reports of Deceitful-Callous Behavior in Early Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Hyde, Luke W.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The relationship between parenting and the development of antisocial behavior in children is well established. However, evidence for associations between dimensions of parenting and callous-unemotional (CU) traits is mixed. As CU traits appear critical to understanding a subgroup of youth with antisocial behavior, more research…

  16. Convergence of self-reports and coworker reports of counterproductive work behavior: a cross-sectional multi-source survey among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Jan; Peeters, Maria C W

    2009-05-01

    Most studies of counterproductive work behavior (CWB) are criticized for overreliance on single-source self-reports. This study attempts to triangulate on behaviors and perceptions of the work environment by linking job incumbent self-report with coworker report of the job incumbent's behaviors. Theoretical framework is the Demand-Induced Strain Compensation (DISC) Model, which proposes in general that specific job resources should match specific job demands to reduce deviant behavioral outcomes such as CWB. To test the extent to which job incumbent self-report and coworker report of CWB in health care work converge, and the extent to which job incumbent-reported work-related antecedents (i.e., job demands and job resources) similarly predict both self-reported and coworker-reported behaviors (in line with DISC theory). A cross-sectional survey with anonymous questionnaires was conducted, using data from two different sources (self-reports and coworker reports). A large organization for residential elderly care in the Northern urban area in The Netherlands. Self-report and coworker questionnaires were distributed to 123 health care workers, of which 73 people returned the self-report questionnaire (59% response rate). In addition, 66 out of 123 coworker questionnaires were returned (54% coworker response rate). In total 54 surveys of job incumbents and coworkers could be matched. Next to descriptive statistics, t-test, and correlations, hierarchical regression analyses were conducted using SPSS 15.0 for Windows. Correlations and a t-test demonstrated significant convergence between job incumbent and coworker reports of CWB. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that both job incumbent and coworker data consistently demonstrated CWB to be related to its work-related antecedents. Specifically, findings showed that both physical and emotional job resources moderated the relation between physical job demands and CWB. The current findings provide stronger evidence

  17. Driving violations and health promotion behaviors among undergraduate students: Self-report of on-road behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Liat; Weiss, Yossi; Rosenbloom, Tova

    2017-11-17

    The purposes of this study are to characterize Israeli undergraduate students' driving violations in the terms of problem behavior theory and to identify whether there is any relationship between driving violations and health risk behaviors, daring behaviors, excitement seeking, and health promotion behaviors. This study is based on a structured self-reported anonymous questionnaire distributed to undergraduate students in an academic institution. The sample included 533 undergraduate students (374 females and 159 males). The mean age was 23.4 (SD = 1.4, range = 5). A higher prevalence of self-reported driving violations was found among males in comparison to females. All substance use measures were positively related to driving violations; for example, use of cigarettes (OR = 4.287, P driving violations. The strongest predictive factors for the frequent driving violations group were alcohol consumption-related variables: binge drinking (OR = 2.560, P driving violations group and selling or dealing drugs (12.143, P driving violations group was physical confrontation due to verbal disagreement (3.439, P driving violations was higher for subjects who reported intense physical workout regimens (OR = 1.638, P driving violations. This study shows that bachelors tend to be more involved in risk behaviors, such as substance use, excitement-seeking behaviors, and daring behaviors and are active physically and thus constitute a risk group for driving violations. As such, intervention resources should be directed toward this group.

  18. Physical health, lifestyle beliefs and behaviors, and mental health of entering graduate health professional students: Evidence to support screening and early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek Melnyk, Bernadette; Slevin, Caitlin; Militello, Lisa; Hoying, Jacqueline; Teall, Alice; McGovern, Colleen

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the physical health, lifestyle beliefs and behaviors, and mental health among first-year health professional graduate students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe these attributes as well as to explore the relationships among them. A descriptive correlational study was conducted on the baseline data from a wellness onboarding intervention study with 93 health sciences students from seven different colleges within a large public land grant university in the Midwest United States. Nearly 40% of the sample was overweight/obese, and 19% of students had elevated total cholesterol levels. Only 44% met the recommended 30 min of exercise 5 days per week. Forty-one percent reported elevated depressive symptoms and 28% had elevated anxiety. Four students reported suicidal ideation. Inverse relationships existed among depression/anxiety and healthy lifestyle beliefs/behaviors. Students entering health professional schools are at high risk for depression, anxiety, and unhealthy behaviors, which could be averted through screening and early evidence-based interventions. Assessing the physical health, lifestyle behaviors, and mental health of first-year health sciences professional students is important to identify health problems and modifiable at-risk behaviors so that early interventions can be implemented to improve outcomes. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  19. Evaluation of the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale-Teacher Report Form for Assessing Behavior in a Sample of Urban Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D; Goncy, Elizabeth A; Sullivan, Terri N; Thompson, Erin L

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated the structure and validity of the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale-Teacher Report Form (PBFS-TR) for assessing students' frequency of specific forms of aggression and victimization, and positive behavior. Analyses were conducted on two waves of data from 727 students from two urban middle schools (Sample 1) who were rated by their teachers on the PBFS-TR and the Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS), and on data collected from 1,740 students from three urban middle schools (Sample 2) for whom data on both the teacher and student report version of the PBFS were obtained. Confirmatory factor analyses supported first-order factors representing 3 forms of aggression (physical, verbal, and relational), 3 forms of victimization (physical, verbal and relational), and 2 forms of positive behavior (prosocial behavior and effective nonviolent behavior), and higher-order factors representing aggression, victimization, and positive behavior. Strong measurement invariance was established over gender, grade, intervention condition, and time. Support for convergent validity was found based on correlations between corresponding scales on the PBFS-TR and teacher ratings on the SSIS in Sample 1. Significant correlations were also found between teacher ratings on the PBFS-TR and student ratings of their behavior on the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale-Adolescent Report (PBFS-AR) and a measure of nonviolent behavioral intentions in Sample 2. Overall the findings provided support for the PBFS-TR and suggested that teachers can provide useful data on students' aggressive and prosocial behavior and victimization experiences within the school setting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. An initial look at sibling reports on children's behavior: comparisons with children's self-reports and relations with siblings' self-reports and sibling relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epkins, C C; Dedmon, A M

    1999-10-01

    The authors examined siblings' reports of children's depression, anxiety, and aggression, and their reports of the sibling relationship, and compared them with children's self-reports. In two samples, including 169 sibling pairs (age M = 9.98 years, SD = 1.51), no significant differences emerged in the levels of depression and anxiety found in siblings' reports of children's behavior and children's self-reports, although siblings reported children to have significantly higher levels of aggression than the children self-reported. Age, the difference in ages between siblings, sex, and sibling sex were not related to siblings' reports of children's behavior. The relations between children's and siblings' reports of children's behavior were significant, yet moderate (average r = .22). Both siblings' self-reports of internalizing behavior and their perceptions of aspects of the sibling relationship (affection, rivalry, hostility, and satisfaction with the sibling relationship) explained significant, and unique, variance in siblings' reports of children's internalizing behavior. The findings for aggressive behavior were similar, although siblings' perceptions of affection in the sibling relationship were not significantly related to their reports of children's aggression. The potential uses and benefits of sibling reports of children's behavior, and sibling and family relationships, are discussed.

  1. Behavioral change of pharmacists by online evidence-based medicine-style education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoshima, Syuichi; Kuwabara, Hidenori; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    Although e-learning evidence-based medicine (EBM) courses have proven useful in improving the knowledge and skills of residents, it was still unclear for pharmacists in non-English-speaking countries. Thus, we investigated the behavioral change of Japanese pharmacists who participated in an EBM-style e-learning educational program available online. This EBM-style e-learning program, the Japanese Journal Club for Clinical Pharmacists, was operated by three pharmacists through Skype. It comprised an online questionnaire administered to the program viewers. Two frequencies, the opportunity to be aware of EBM practices and that of reading an article, were compared before and after viewing the broadcast. Frequencies were classified into five categories: "almost every day," "1-2 times a week," "1-2 times a month," "1-2 times a year," and "not at all." The changes before and after viewing the broadcast were evaluated using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The announcement of the questionnaire survey on the web was conducted during the journal club on August 24 and September 7, 2014. The maximum number of simultaneous audiences at the time was 113 persons. Among them, we analyzed data from 36 people who answered the questionnaire. Among these, "1-2 times a week" and "almost every day" were increased, whereas "not at all" was greatly reduced. Indeed, a significant difference was observed in overall change of each frequency before and after viewing the broadcast ( P education of pharmacists.

  2. Dietary options and behavior suggested by plant biomarker evidence in an early human habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Clayton R.; Ashley, Gail M.; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Freeman, Katherine H.

    2016-03-01

    The availability of plants and freshwater shapes the diets and social behavior of chimpanzees, our closest living relative. However, limited evidence about the spatial relationships shared between ancestral human (hominin) remains, edible resources, refuge, and freshwater leaves the influence of local resources on our species' evolution open to debate. Exceptionally well-preserved organic geochemical fossils-biomarkers-preserved in a soil horizon resolve different plant communities at meter scales across a contiguous 25,000 m2 archaeological land surface at Olduvai Gorge from about 2 Ma. Biomarkers reveal hominins had access to aquatic plants and protective woods in a patchwork landscape, which included a spring-fed wetland near a woodland that both were surrounded by open grassland. Numerous cut-marked animal bones are located within the wooded area, and within meters of wetland vegetation delineated by biomarkers for ferns and sedges. Taken together, plant biomarkers, clustered bone debris, and hominin remains define a clear spatial pattern that places animal butchery amid the refuge of an isolated forest patch and near freshwater with diverse edible resources.

  3. [Neuropsychological models of autism spectrum disorders - behavioral evidence and functional imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziobek, Isabel; Bölte, Sven

    2011-03-01

    To review neuropsychological models of theory of mind (ToM), executive functions (EF), and central coherence (CC) as framework for cognitive abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Behavioral and functional imaging studies are described that assess social-cognitive, emotional, and executive functions as well as locally oriented perception in ASD. Impairments in ToM and EF as well as alterations in CC are frequently replicated phenomena in ASD. Especially problems concerning social perception and ToM have high explanatory value for clinical symptomatology. Brain activation patterns differ between individuals with and without ASD for ToM, EF, und CC functions. An approach focussing on reduced cortical connectivity seems to be increasingly favored over explanations focussing on single affected brain sites. A better understanding of the complexities of ASD in future research demands the integration of clinical, neuropsychological, functional imaging, and molecular genetics evidence. Weaknesses in ToM and EF as well as strengths in detail-focussed perception should be used for individual intervention planning.

  4. Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence for early and automatic detection of phonological equivalence in variable speech inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharlamov, Viktor; Campbell, Kenneth; Kazanina, Nina

    2011-11-01

    Speech sounds are not always perceived in accordance with their acoustic-phonetic content. For example, an early and automatic process of perceptual repair, which ensures conformity of speech inputs to the listener's native language phonology, applies to individual input segments that do not exist in the native inventory or to sound sequences that are illicit according to the native phonotactic restrictions on sound co-occurrences. The present study with Russian and Canadian English speakers shows that listeners may perceive phonetically distinct and licit sound sequences as equivalent when the native language system provides robust evidence for mapping multiple phonetic forms onto a single phonological representation. In Russian, due to an optional but productive t-deletion process that affects /stn/ clusters, the surface forms [sn] and [stn] may be phonologically equivalent and map to a single phonological form /stn/. In contrast, [sn] and [stn] clusters are usually phonologically distinct in (Canadian) English. Behavioral data from identification and discrimination tasks indicated that [sn] and [stn] clusters were more confusable for Russian than for English speakers. The EEG experiment employed an oddball paradigm with nonwords [asna] and [astna] used as the standard and deviant stimuli. A reliable mismatch negativity response was elicited approximately 100 msec postchange in the English group but not in the Russian group. These findings point to a perceptual repair mechanism that is engaged automatically at a prelexical level to ensure immediate encoding of speech inputs in phonological terms, which in turn enables efficient access to the meaning of a spoken utterance.

  5. Motivational intensity modulates attentional scope: evidence from behavioral and ERP studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Guangnan; Zhou, Renlai; Wang, Zuowei

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have found that affective states with high motivational intensity narrow attentional scope, whereas affective states with low motivational intensity broaden attentional scope. This conclusion, however, is based on fragmented evidence based on several separate studies. The present study tests this conclusion within a single study using both behavioral (Experiment 1) and neurophysiological (Experiment 2) measures. Experiment 1 showed that individuals had the global precedence effect in the neutral affective state. However, the global precedence effect was reduced for affective states with high motivational intensity, whereas the global precedence effect was not significantly enhanced for those with low motivational intensity. Experiment 2 replicated these results with event-related potential (ERP) recording. ERP results showed that affective states with high motivational intensity induced smaller N2 and greater late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes than low motivational intensity and neutral affective states. However, no differences were found between the low motivational intensity and neutral affective states. Furthermore, smaller LPP predicted the tendency a global attentional focus in the frontal and central areas and larger LPP predicted a narrowed focus in the frontal area. The findings suggested that high motivational intensity of affective states can affect attentional scope.

  6. The effect of group attachment and social position on prosocial behavior. Evidence from lab-in-the-field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarri, Delia; Grossman, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Social life is regulated by norms of fairness that constrain selfish behavior. While a substantial body of scholarship on prosocial behavior has provided evidence of such norms, large inter- and intra-personal variation in prosocial behavior still needs to be explained. The article identifies two social-structural dimensions along which people's generosity varies systematically: group attachment and social position. We conducted lab-in-the-field experiments involving 2,597 members of producer organizations in rural Uganda. Using different variants of the dictator game, we demonstrate that group attachment positively affects prosocial behavior, and that this effect is not simply the by-product of the degree of proximity between individuals. Second, we show that occupying a formal position in an organization or community leads to greater generosity toward in-group members. Taken together, our findings show that prosocial behavior is not an invariant social trait; rather, it varies according to individuals' relative position in the social structure.

  7. A Synthesis of the Daily Behavior Report Card Literature from 2007 to 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riden, Benjamin S.; Taylor, Jonte' C.; Lee, David L.; Scheeler, Mary Catherine

    2018-01-01

    Daily behavior report cards (DBRCs) have shown to be effective in addressing academic and behavioral challenges for a variety of students in past literature. The purpose of this literature review and analysis is to update and summarize findings on the use of DBRCs on academic and social behavior for students considered to have disruptive behaviors…

  8. Evidence-based practice beliefs and behaviors of nurses providing cancer pain management: a mixed-methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Linda H; Meins, Alexa R; Mitchell, Pamela H; Voss, Joachim; Doorenbos, Ardith Z

    2015-03-01

    To describe evidence-based practice (EBP) beliefs and behaviors of nurses who provide cancer pain management. Descriptive, cross-sectional with a mixed-methods approach. Two inpatient oncology units in the Pacific Northwest. 40 RNs.
 Data collected by interviews and web-based surveys. EBP beliefs, EBP implementation, evidence-based pain management. Nurses agreed with the positive aspects of EBP and their implementation ability, although implementation level was low. They were satisfied with their pain management practices. Oncology nursing certification was associated with innovativeness, and innovativeness was associated with EBP beliefs. Themes identified were (a) limited definition of EBP, (b) varied evidence-based pain management decision making, (c) limited identification of evidence-based pain management practices, and (d) integration of nonpharmacologic interventions into patient care. Nurses' low level of EBP implementation in the context of pain management was explained by their trust that standards of care and medical orders were evidence-based. Nurses' EBP beliefs and behaviors should be considered when developing strategies for sustaining evidence-based pain management practices. Implementation of the EBP process by nurses may not be realistic in the inpatient setting; therefore, hospital pain management policies need to be evidence-based and reinforced with nurses.

  9. 2014 Cardiovascular Risks SRP Evidence Review Final Report. [Evidence Review For: The Risk of Orthostatic Intolerance During Re-Exposure to Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan; Ziegler, Michael; Carter, Jason; Claydon, Victoria; Krummen, David; Thomas, Gail

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Cardiovascular Risks Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on December 17-18, 2014. The SRP reviewed the updated evidence report for The Risk of Orthostatic Intolerance During re-Exposure to Gravity (OI Risk). The SRP found the 2014 OI Evidence Report to be a well written, comprehensive overview of the OI risk; that clearly documents the key scientific evidence relevant for both mechanistic understanding and countermeasure development. The 2014 OI Evidence Report could be further strengthened by addressing the points discussed below.

  10. Cross-border integration in the European electricity market. Evidence from the pricing behavior of Norwegian and Swiss exporters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaguer, Jacint

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the electricity market integration process in two European areas based on the pricing behavior of Norwegian and Swiss exporters. The aim is to gain evidence for the period after the adoption of the 'Second Legislative Package' (2003). The pricing behavior of Norwegian exporters indicates that the wholesale markets for Denmark and Sweden are highly integrated. Moreover, results are fully compatible with the existence of a very competitive marketplace for electricity. This clearly contrasts with the evidence provided by Swiss exporters. In this last case, analysis revealed differences in pricing-to-market behavior between Italy, France and Germany, which indicates that exporters take advantage of international market segmentation and divergences between market structures. This outcome provides a reasonable explanation as to why price differences between countries cannot be fully attributed to transmission costs, as has been claimed in previous research. We also found cross-country convergence in levels of markups and in pricing-to-market behavior of the Swiss exporters for the first part of the period that was analyzed. The evidence is fully consistent with an initial impulse toward market integration originated by reforms implemented at the beginning of the last decade. - Highlights: → We exploit a model based on pricing-to-market behavior. → Price discrimination by Swiss exporters is found. → Nordic electricity markets are found to be already highly integrated. → Market integration was recently improved in continental area. → Results are consistent with reforms under the 'Second Legislative Package'.

  11. Cross-border integration in the European electricity market. Evidence from the pricing behavior of Norwegian and Swiss exporters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaguer, Jacint, E-mail: jacint.balaguer@eco.uji.es [Department of Economics, Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castellon (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    This paper examines the electricity market integration process in two European areas based on the pricing behavior of Norwegian and Swiss exporters. The aim is to gain evidence for the period after the adoption of the 'Second Legislative Package' (2003). The pricing behavior of Norwegian exporters indicates that the wholesale markets for Denmark and Sweden are highly integrated. Moreover, results are fully compatible with the existence of a very competitive marketplace for electricity. This clearly contrasts with the evidence provided by Swiss exporters. In this last case, analysis revealed differences in pricing-to-market behavior between Italy, France and Germany, which indicates that exporters take advantage of international market segmentation and divergences between market structures. This outcome provides a reasonable explanation as to why price differences between countries cannot be fully attributed to transmission costs, as has been claimed in previous research. We also found cross-country convergence in levels of markups and in pricing-to-market behavior of the Swiss exporters for the first part of the period that was analyzed. The evidence is fully consistent with an initial impulse toward market integration originated by reforms implemented at the beginning of the last decade. - Highlights: > We exploit a model based on pricing-to-market behavior. > Price discrimination by Swiss exporters is found. > Nordic electricity markets are found to be already highly integrated. > Market integration was recently improved in continental area. > Results are consistent with reforms under the 'Second Legislative Package'.

  12. Factors Influencing the Accuracy of Verbal Reports of Conversational Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.; Benoit, Pamela J.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates (1) whether subjects consult their memory or relevant implicit theories when making verbal reports, and (2) the effect of recognition criterion on verbal report performance. Finds that subjects occasionally employ implicit theories to develop their verbal reports, but that memory is much more important in determining the reports. (MM)

  13. The use of evidence in public governmental reports on health policy: an analysis of 17 Norwegian official reports (NOU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innvaer, Simon

    2009-09-28

    Governments increasingly require policy documents to be evidence-based. This paper analyses the use of scientific evidence in such documents by reviewing reports from government-appointed committees in Norway to assess the committees' handling of questions of effect. This study uses the 'Index of Scientific Quality' (ISQ) to analyse all Norwegian official reports (NOUs) that were: (1) published by the Norwegian Ministry of Health and Care Services during 1994-1998 (N = 20); and (2) concerned with questions of effect either because these were included in the mandate or as a result of the committee's interpretation of the mandate. The ISQ is based on scientific criteria common in all research concerning questions of effect. The primary outcome measure is an ISQ score on a five-point scale. Three reports were excluded because their mandates, or the committees' interpretations of them, did not address questions of effect. For the remaining 17 NOUs in our study, overall ISQ scores were low for systematic literature search and for explicit validation of research. Two reports had an average score of three or higher, while scores for five other reports were not far behind. How committees assessed the relevant factors was often unclear. The reports' evaluations of health evidence in relation to questions of effect lacked transparency and, overall, showed little use of systematic processes. A systematic, explicit and transparent approach, following the standards laid down in the ISQ, may help generate the evidence-based decision-making that Norway, the UK, the EU and the WHO desire and seek. However, policy-makers may find the ISQ criteria for assessing the scientific quality of a report too narrow to adequately inform policy-making.

  14. Relationship between Preschool Teachers' Reports of Children's Behavior and their Behavior toward those Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Jennifer; Arnold, David H.

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between preschool children and their teachers are an important component of the quality of the preschool experience. This study used attribution theory as a framework to better understand these relationships, examining the connection between teachers' perceptions of children's behavior and teachers' behavior toward those…

  15. Do testosterone declines during the transition to marriage and fatherhood relate to men's sexual behavior? Evidence from the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettler, Lee T; McDade, Thomas W; Agustin, Sonny S; Feranil, Alan B; Kuzawa, Christopher W

    2013-11-01

    Testosterone (T) is thought to help facilitate trade-offs between mating and parenting in humans. Across diverse cultural settings married men and fathers have lower T than other men and couples' sexual activity often declines during the first years of marriage and after having children. It is unknown whether these behavioral and hormonal changes are related. Here we use longitudinal data from a large study in the Philippines (n=433) to test this model. We show that among unmarried non-fathers at baseline (n=153; age: 21.5 ± 0.3 years) who became newly married new fathers by follow-up (4.5 years later), those who experienced less pronounced longitudinal declines in T reported more frequent intercourse with their partners at follow-up (pfatherhood had more modest declines in T compared to peers who had less frequent sex (p<0.001). Our findings are generally consistent with theoretical expectations and cross-species empirical observations regarding the role of T in male life history trade-offs, particularly in species with bi-parental care, and add to evidence that T and sexual activity have bidirectional relationships in human males. © 2013.

  16. Teachers' Reported Knowledge and Implementation of Research-Based Classroom and Behavior Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tara C.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Oliver, Regina M.; Chow, Jason C.; Gordon, Jason R.; Mahany, Laura A.

    2017-01-01

    Teachers' reported knowledge about and implementation of research-based classroom and behavior management strategies were examined. A total of 160 elementary teachers from two districts in different regions of the same state completed the researcher-developed "Survey of Classroom and Behavior Management." On average, teachers reported to…

  17. Effects of Physician-directed Pharmaceutical Promotion on Prescription Behaviors: Longitudinal Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Anusua; Dave, Dhaval

    2017-04-01

    Spending on prescription drugs (Rx) represents one of the fastest growing components of US healthcare spending and has coincided with an expansion of pharmaceutical promotional spending. Most (83%) of Rx promotion is directed at physicians in the form of visits by pharmaceutical representatives (known as detailing) and drug samples provided to physicians' offices. Such promotion has come under increased public scrutiny, with critics contending that physician-directed promotion may play a role in raising healthcare costs and may unduly affect physicians' prescribing habits towards more expensive, and possibly less cost-effective, drugs. In this study, we bring longitudinal evidence to bear upon the question of how detailing impacts physicians' prescribing behaviors. Specifically, we examine prescriptions and promotion for a particular drug class based on a nationally representative sample of 150,000 physicians spanning 24 months. The use of longitudinal physician-level data allows us to tackle some of the empirical concerns in the extant literature, virtually all of which have relied on aggregate national data. We estimate fixed-effects specifications that bypass stable unobserved physician-specific heterogeneity and address potential targeting bias. In addition, we also assess differential effects at both the extensive and intensive margins of prescribing behaviors and differential effects across physician-level and market-level characteristics, questions that have not been explored in prior work. The estimates suggest that detailing has a significant and positive effect on the number of new scripts written for the detailed drug, with an elasticity magnitude of 0.06. This effect is substantially smaller than those in the literature based on aggregate information, suggesting that most of the observed relationship between physician-directed promotion and drug sales is driven by selection bias. We find that detailing impacts selective brand-specific demand but does

  18. Preliminary evidence of apathetic-like behavior in aged vesicular monoamine transporter 2 deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aron Baumann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Apathy is considered to be a core feature of Parkinson’s disease (PD and has been associated with a variety of states and symptoms of the disease, such as increased severity of motor symptoms, impaired cognition, executive dysfunction, and dementia. Apart from the high prevalence of apathy in PD, which is estimated to be about 40%, the underlying pathophysiology remains poorly understood and current treatment approaches are unspecific and proved to be only partially effective. In animal models, apathy has been sub-optimally modeled, mostly by means of pharmacological and stress-induced methods, whereby concomitant depressive-like symptoms could not be ruled out. In the context of PD only a few studies on toxin-based models (i.e. 6-OHDA or MPTP claimed to have determined apathetic symptoms in animals. The assessment of apathetic symptoms in more elaborated and multifaceted genetic animal models of PD could help to understand the pathophysiological development of apathy in PD and eventually advance specific treatments for afflicted patients. Here we report the presence of behavioral signs of apathy in 12 months old mice that express only ~5% of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2. Apathetic-like behavior in VMAT2 deficient (LO mice was evidenced by impaired burrowing and nest building skills, and a reduced preference for sweet solution in the saccharin preference test, while the performance in the forced swimming test was normal. Our preliminary results suggest that VMAT2 deficient mice show an apathetic-like phenotype that might be independent of depressive-like symptoms. Therefore VMAT2 LO mice could be a useful tool to study of the pathophysiological substrates of apathy and to test novel treatment strategies for apathy in the context of PD.

  19. Moderating effects of nurses' organizational justice between organizational support and organizational citizenship behaviors for evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Sheng

    2014-10-01

    Lack of existing literature on the correlation among organizational justice, organizational support, and organizational citizenship behaviors has created a research gap in previous evidence-based practice (EBP) studies on nursing personnel. To investigate whether organizational justice among nurses has a moderating effect between their organizational support and organizational citizenship behaviors in order to bridge such a gap of existing literature with the EBP study on nursing personnel. Nursing staff of one large and influential hospital in Taiwan was surveyed. Four hundred questionnaires were distributed, and 386 were collected with a valid response rate of 96.50%. SPSS 17.0 and Amos 17.0 statistical software packages were used for data analysis. Nurses' organizational support positively influences their organizational citizenship behaviors, and their organizational justice perception has a positive moderating effect between organizational support and organizational citizenship behaviors. Results call hospitals' attention to the type of individual behaviors that may improve organizational performance. When nursing staff perceive fair and impartial treatment by the organization and supportive emotional attachment, behaviors beneficial for the organization are expressed in return. Subjective perceptions of nursing staff play an important role in organizational exchange relationship; the higher the degree of nursing staff's perceived organizational justice, the higher the degree of their organizational support, perception, and exhibition of organizational citizenship behaviors such as altruistic behavior and dedication to the work. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  20. The Association Between Student Reports of Classmates’ Disruptive Behavior and Student Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmel Blank

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Classroom disciplinary climate and its correlation to students’ performance is a widely debated issue. Policy reports tend to assume that classroom disruptions interfere with the learning experience. Empirical evidence for this assumption, however, which carefully distinguishes classroom climate from the school climate in general, is still wanting. This study examines the relation between student reports regarding disciplinary infractions to student achievement, with a special focus on classroom disruptions. Multilevel regressions were used to estimate the contribution of classroom and school disciplinary infractions on eighth-grade students’ test scores. Reports of disruptive behavior proved to correlate negatively with test scores, whereas the effect of other school and classroom characteristics, including teachers’ attitudes and school disciplinary policy, were insignificant (controlling for students’ prior achievements. We conclude that a disruptive classroom climate can hinder the learning process and lower the achievement of the entire class, regardless of the conduct of any particular student. Therefore, a special focus on disruptions in the classroom, in contradistinction with school disciplinary climate in general—which is lacking in most studies—emerges as instrumental to the understanding of how school climate relates to student achievement.

  1. Integrating Norm Activation Model and Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Sustainable Transport Behavior: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuwei; Sheng, Hong; Mundorf, Norbert; Redding, Colleen; Ye, Yinjiao

    2017-12-18

    With increasing urbanization in China, many cities are facing serious environmental problems due to continuous and substantial increase in automobile transportation. It is becoming imperative to examine effective ways to reduce individual automobile use to facilitate sustainable transportation behavior. Empirical, theory-based research on sustainable transportation in China is limited. In this research, we propose an integrated model based on the norm activation model and the theory of planned behavior by combining normative and rational factors to predict individuals' intention to reduce car use. Data from a survey of 600 car drivers in China's three metropolitan areas was used to test the proposed model and hypotheses. Results showed that three variables, perceived norm of car-transport reduction, attitude towards reduction, and perceived behavior control over car-transport reduction, significantly affected the intention to reduce car-transport. Personal norms mediated the relationship between awareness of consequences of car-transport, ascription of responsibility of car-transport, perceived subjective norm for car-transport reduction, and intention to reduce car-transport. The results of this research not only contribute to theory development in the area of sustainable transportation behavior, but also provide a theoretical frame of reference for relevant policy-makers in urban transport management.

  2. Integrating Norm Activation Model and Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Sustainable Transport Behavior: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With increasing urbanization in China, many cities are facing serious environmental problems due to continuous and substantial increase in automobile transportation. It is becoming imperative to examine effective ways to reduce individual automobile use to facilitate sustainable transportation behavior. Empirical, theory-based research on sustainable transportation in China is limited. In this research, we propose an integrated model based on the norm activation model and the theory of planned behavior by combining normative and rational factors to predict individuals’ intention to reduce car use. Data from a survey of 600 car drivers in China’s three metropolitan areas was used to test the proposed model and hypotheses. Results showed that three variables, perceived norm of car-transport reduction, attitude towards reduction, and perceived behavior control over car-transport reduction, significantly affected the intention to reduce car-transport. Personal norms mediated the relationship between awareness of consequences of car-transport, ascription of responsibility of car-transport, perceived subjective norm for car-transport reduction, and intention to reduce car-transport. The results of this research not only contribute to theory development in the area of sustainable transportation behavior, but also provide a theoretical frame of reference for relevant policy-makers in urban transport management.

  3. Supporting implementation of evidence-based behavioral interventions: the role of data liquidity in facilitating translational behavioral medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Amy P; Wheeler, Jane L; Courtney, Paul K; Keefe, Francis J

    2011-03-01

    The advancement of translational behavioral medicine will require that we discover new methods of managing large volumes of data from disparate sources such as disease surveillance systems, public health systems, and health information systems containing patient-centered data informed by behavioral and social sciences. The term "liquidity," when applied to data, refers to its availability and free flow throughout human/computer interactions. In seeking to achieve liquidity, the focus is not on creating a single, comprehensive database or set of coordinated datasets, nor is it solely on developing the electronic health record as the "one-stop shopping" source of health-related data. Rather, attention is on ensuring the availability of secure data through the various methods of collecting and storing data currently existent or under development-so that these components of the health information infrastructure together support a liquid data system. The value of accessible, interoperable, high-volume, reliable, secure, and contextually appropriate data is becoming apparent in many areas of the healthcare system, and health information liquidity is currently viewed as an important component of a patient-centered healthcare system. The translation from research interventions to behavioral and psychosocial indicators challenges the designers of healthcare systems to include this new set of data in the correct context. With the intention of advancing translational behavioral medicine at the local level, "on the ground" in the clinical office and research institution, this commentary discusses data liquidity from the patient's and clinician's perspective, requirements for a liquid healthcare data system, and the ways in which data liquidity can support translational behavioral medicine.

  4. Improving clinical cognitive testing: report of the AAN Behavioral Neurology Section Workgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffner, Kirk R; Gale, Seth A; Barrett, A M; Boeve, Bradley F; Chatterjee, Anjan; Coslett, H Branch; D'Esposito, Mark; Finney, Glen R; Gitelman, Darren R; Hart, John J; Lerner, Alan J; Meador, Kimford J; Pietras, Alison C; Voeller, Kytja S; Kaufer, Daniel I

    2015-09-08

    To evaluate the evidence basis of single-domain cognitive tests frequently used by behavioral neurologists in an effort to improve the quality of clinical cognitive assessment. Behavioral Neurology Section members of the American Academy of Neurology were surveyed about how they conduct clinical cognitive testing, with a particular focus on the Neurobehavioral Status Exam (NBSE). In contrast to general screening cognitive tests, an NBSE consists of tests of individual cognitive domains (e.g., memory or language) that provide a more comprehensive diagnostic assessment. Workgroups for each of 5 cognitive domains (attention, executive function, memory, language, and spatial cognition) conducted evidence-based reviews of frequently used tests. Reviews focused on suitability for office-based clinical practice, including test administration time, accessibility of normative data, disease populations studied, and availability in the public domain. Demographic and clinical practice data were obtained from 200 respondents who reported using a wide range of cognitive tests. Based on survey data and ancillary information, between 5 and 15 tests in each cognitive domain were reviewed. Within each domain, several tests are highlighted as being well-suited for an NBSE. We identified frequently used single-domain cognitive tests that are suitable for an NBSE to help make informed choices about clinical cognitive assessment. Some frequently used tests have limited normative data or have not been well-studied in common neurologic disorders. Utilizing standardized cognitive tests, particularly those with normative data based on the individual's age and educational level, can enhance the rigor and utility of clinical cognitive assessment. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  5. Mothers' Reports of Their Involvement in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Stephanie; des Rivieres-Pigeon, Catherine; Sabourin, Gabrielle; Forget, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous studies examine the effectiveness of intensive behavioral intervention programs (EIBI) for young children with autism, few focus on the family aspect of the program. In particular, involvement of mothers in the program, which is strongly recommended, is the subject of only a small number of studies. The goal of this research is…

  6. USSR Report: Life Sciences, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, No. 40

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-02

    development of a child, formation of its physical, neuropsychological functions, the necessary level of immunological protection, constitutes a most...associations of undefined stimulus with food increases in man with increasing hunger and decreases after a day of food deprivation. The basis of behavior

  7. Challenging the myth of REM sleep behavior disorder: no evidence of heightened aggressiveness in dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Armando; Manni, Raffaele; Limosani, Ivan; Terzaghi, Michele; Cavallotti, Simone; Scarone, Silvio

    2012-06-01

    Dreams are commonly described as violent, threatening, and aggressive in patients with REM behavior disorder (RBD), but very few studies have directly investigated dream content in this population. We systematically assessed dreams in subjects with a confirmed diagnosis of idiopathic RBD (iRBD) and explored psychological traits within the group with specific focus on aggressiveness. A total of 129 dream reports was collected, of which 77 belonged to 12 iRBD patients and 52 belonged to 12 control subjects. Transcripts were analyzed with measures of both form and content. The Thematic Apperception Test was used to assess patients' personality traits and to yield information on formal aspects of waking thought processes. No statistically significant differences were found between the dreams of iRBD patients and those of normal controls in any of the applied measures. In wakefulness, passivity was found to differ between the two populations and was being higher in the iRBD group (F(9,14)=4.84, pdreams of RBD patients contain more aggressive elements than those of the general population. However, over 80% of the patients were on treatment at the time of data collection. The "mild" waking temperament could be interpreted as an early subtle sign of the apathy that is commonly described in the context of neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Trust Evaluation Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Node Behaviors and D-S Evidence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangwen Wan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For wireless sensor networks (WSNs, many factors, such as mutual interference of wireless links, battlefield applications and nodes exposed to the environment without good physical protection, result in the sensor nodes being more vulnerable to be attacked and compromised. In order to address this network security problem, a novel trust evaluation algorithm defined as NBBTE (Node Behavioral Strategies Banding Belief Theory of the Trust Evaluation Algorithm is proposed, which integrates the approach of nodes behavioral strategies and modified evidence theory. According to the behaviors of sensor nodes, a variety of trust factors and coefficients related to the network application are established to obtain direct and indirect trust values through calculating weighted average of trust factors. Meanwhile, the fuzzy set method is applied to form the basic input vector of evidence. On this basis, the evidence difference is calculated between the indirect and direct trust values, which link the revised D-S evidence combination rule to finally synthesize integrated trust value of nodes. The simulation results show that NBBTE can effectively identify malicious nodes and reflects the characteristic of trust value that ‘hard to acquire and easy to lose’. Furthermore, it is obvious that the proposed scheme has an outstanding advantage in terms of illustrating the real contribution of different nodes to trust evaluation.

  9. A trust evaluation algorithm for wireless sensor networks based on node behaviors and D-S evidence theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Renjian; Xu, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Xiang; Wan, Jiangwen

    2011-01-01

    For wireless sensor networks (WSNs), many factors, such as mutual interference of wireless links, battlefield applications and nodes exposed to the environment without good physical protection, result in the sensor nodes being more vulnerable to be attacked and compromised. In order to address this network security problem, a novel trust evaluation algorithm defined as NBBTE (Node Behavioral Strategies Banding Belief Theory of the Trust Evaluation Algorithm) is proposed, which integrates the approach of nodes behavioral strategies and modified evidence theory. According to the behaviors of sensor nodes, a variety of trust factors and coefficients related to the network application are established to obtain direct and indirect trust values through calculating weighted average of trust factors. Meanwhile, the fuzzy set method is applied to form the basic input vector of evidence. On this basis, the evidence difference is calculated between the indirect and direct trust values, which link the revised D-S evidence combination rule to finally synthesize integrated trust value of nodes. The simulation results show that NBBTE can effectively identify malicious nodes and reflects the characteristic of trust value that 'hard to acquire and easy to lose'. Furthermore, it is obvious that the proposed scheme has an outstanding advantage in terms of illustrating the real contribution of different nodes to trust evaluation.

  10. The child play behavior and activity questionnaire: a parent-report measure of childhood gender-related behavior in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam; Xie, Dong

    2010-06-01

    Boys and girls establish relatively stable gender stereotyped behavior patterns by middle childhood. Parent-report questionnaires measuring children's gender-related behavior enable researchers to conduct large-scale screenings of community samples of children. For school-aged children, two parent-report instruments, the Child Game Participation Questionnaire (CGPQ) and the Child Behavior and Attitude Questionnaire (CBAQ), have long been used for measuring children's sex-dimorphic behaviors in Western societies, but few studies have been conducted using these measures for Chinese populations. The current study aimed to empirically examine and modify the two instruments for their applications to Chinese society. Parents of 486 Chinese boys and 417 Chinese girls (6-12 years old) completed a questionnaire comprising items from the CGPQ and CBAQ, and an additional 14 items specifically related to Chinese gender-specific games. Items revealing gender differences in a Chinese sample were identified and used to construct a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ). Four new scales were generated through factor analysis: a Gender Scale, a Girl Typicality Scale, a Boy Typicality Scale, and a Cross-Gender Scale (CGS). These scales had satisfactory internal reliabilities and large effect sizes for gender. The CPBAQ is believed to be a promising instrument for measuring children's gender-related behavior in China.

  11. Draft evidence report : traumatic brain injury and commercial motor vehicle driver safety (comprehensive review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-30

    Purpose of this evidence report is to address several key questions posed by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration : Key question 1: What is the impact of traumatic brain injury on crash risk/driving performance? Key question 2: What factor...

  12. Does managerial behavior of managing earnings mitigate the relationship between corporate governance and firm value? Evidence from an emerging market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Sajid Nazir

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between corporate governance and managerial choices for value creation is a topic of continuing interest for researchers. One of most significant managerial decisions that affect value is Discretionary Earnings Management (DEM which is the judgmental adjustments in firm's reported accounting earnings by managers to upsurge firm value temporarily. Effective corporate governance structure to control this opportunistic behavior of mangers can presumably make accounting earnings more reliable and more informative for the stakeholders and hence, increase firm value. Based on 1944 firm year observations for listed firms in Pakistan, this study aims at to analyze the role of corporate governance in enhancing firm value along with the moderating role of DEM using models proposed by Kasznik (1999 and Beatty, Ke, & Petroni (2002 for detecting earnings management practices of managers. The results report that corporate governance significantly and positively influences firm value confirming the positive role of corporate governance in mitigating agency problem and enhancing the firm value. Moreover, corporate governance mechanisms may mitigate the managers’ opportunistic behavior of manipulating the reported earnings. Furthermore, the results report that the behavior of managers is opportunistic towards managing earnings and they are destroying the current and subsequent firm value by manipulating the reported accounting earning. Finally, this opportunistic behavior of managers to manipulate earnings is negatively moderating the well-established positive relationship of corporate governance and firm value. Keywords: Corporate governance, Firm value, Discretionary earnings management, Opportunistic behavior, Kasznik model, Moderating effect

  13. Personality differences predict health-risk behaviors in young adulthood: evidence from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, A; Begg, D; Dickson, N; Harrington, H; Langley, J; Moffitt, T E; Silva, P A

    1997-11-01

    In a longitudinal study of a birth cohort, the authors identified youth involved in each of 4 different health-risk behaviors at age 21: alcohol dependence, violent crime, unsafe sex, and dangerous driving habits. At age 18, the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) was used to assess 10 distinct personality traits. At age 3, observational measures were used to classify children into distinct temperament groups. Results showed that a similar constellation of adolescent personality traits, with developmental origins in childhood, is linked to different health-risk behaviors at 21. Associations between the same personality traits and different health-risk behaviors were not an artifact of the same people engaging in different health-risk behaviors; rather, these associations implicated the same personality type in different but related behaviors. In planning campaigns, health professionals may need to design programs that appeal to the unique psychological makeup of persons most at risk for health-risk behaviors.

  14. Dynamic behavior of district heating systems. 1. Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, J.

    1993-01-01

    In this study a comprehensive model simulating the dynamic behavior of an entire district heating system has been developed. The model consists of four partial models, namely a model of the hydraulic behavior of a heat distribution network, another model of the thermal behavior of this network, a model of the heat generation plants and one of the heat consumers connected to the system. For the hydraulic simulation of the distribution network, a classical steady state approach has proved to be sufficient. The evolution of the temperatures in the network is given by the equation of transport. A numerical resolution scheme, which is adapted to the special case of a heat distribution network was developed for this equation. The model developed for the heating plant is simple but it is sufficiently detailed to determine the operation of its elements. A more complex model would take much more calculation time, but with such a simple model, it is possible to include it in the global model of the entire system. Each heat consumer is represented by a simple one cell model. The difficulty in such an approach is to determine the characteristics of each building in a simple manner. A classification, which allows to find the essential parameters from few and easily available data, has been defined. This model is not sufficiently accurate to calculate the thermal behavior of one specific building but it allows to determine the average dynamic evolution of the heat demand for a set of buildings with a good precision.The developed models have been programmed on a personal computer and the entire district heating network of the city of Lausanne has been simulated with this calculation code. Measurements have been taken on this network and the comparison with calculated results has allowed to calibrate the model. The comparison of measurements and calculations shows, that each part of the system is simulated realistically by the proposed model. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  15. Depositor Discipline and Bank Risk-Taking Behavior: Evidence From the South-East Asian Financial Crises

    OpenAIRE

    M. Kabir Hassan; M. Ershad Hussain

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines whether the risk-taking behavior of commercial banks in five countries of South-East Asia changed after the Asian Crises of 1997. The paper utilizes the framework created by Gruben et al (1997, 1998, and 2003). It also examines the connection between the risk-taking behavior and depositor discipline of these banks after the Asian Crises of 1997. Based on bank level data from the Bank Scope, 2005 CD, he paper presents evidence that the state of depositor discipline is very ...

  16. Predicting organizational citizenship behavior from the functional analysis and role identity perspectives: further evidence in Spanish employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, Ma Celeste; Finkelstein, Marcia A

    2010-05-01

    Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is a prosocial activity with similarities to volunteerism. The purpose of this work is to contribute new evidence about the relevance to OCB of two models of sustained volunteerism, functional analysis and role identity theory. A total of 983 Spanish employees at49 organizations completed surveys measuring amount of OCB, motives for engaging in citizenship behavior, and the degree to which respondents developed an organizational citizen role identity. The results showed that both motives and role identity were significant predictors of OCB, with motive partially mediating the role identity-OCB relationship. The findings suggest that similar mechanisms are involved in sustaining volunteerism and OCB.

  17. Does impaired socioemotional functioning account for behavioral dysexecutive disorders? Evidence from a transnosological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narme, Pauline; Roussel, Martine; Mouras, Harold; Krystkowiak, Pierre; Godefroy, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral dysexecutive disorders are highly prevalent in patients with neurological diseases but cannot be explained by cognitive dysexecutive impairments. In fact, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Given that socioemotional functioning underlies appropriate behavior, socioemotional impairments may contribute to the appearance of behavioral disorders. To investigate this issue, we performed a transnosological study. Seventy-five patients suffering from various neurological diseases (Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and stroke) were included in the study. The patients were comprehensively assessed in terms of cognitive and behavioral dysexecutive disorders and socioemotional processes (facial emotion recognition and theory of mind). As was seen for cognitive and behavioral dysexecutive impairments, the prevalence of socioemotional impairments varied according to the diagnosis. Stepwise logistic regressions showed that (i) only cognitive executive indices predicted hypoactivity with apathy/abulia, (ii) theory of mind impairments predicted hyperactivity-distractibility-impulsivity and stereotyped/perseverative behaviors, and (iii) impaired facial emotion recognition predicted social behavior disorders. Several dysexecutive behavioral disorders are associated with an underlying impairment in socioemotional processes but not with cognitive indices of executive functioning (except for apathy). These results strongly suggest that some dysexecutive behavioral disorders are the outward signs of an underlying impairment in socioemotional processes.

  18. Household and community income, economic shocks and risky sexual behavior of young adults: evidence from the Cape Area Panel Study 2002 and 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkelman, Taryn; Lam, David; Leibbrandt, Murray

    2007-11-01

    To describe recent trends in adolescent sexual behavior in Cape Town, South Africa, and to determine whether household and community poverty and negative economic shocks predict risky sexual behavior. Matched survey data on 2993 African and coloured youth from the Cape Area Panel Study 2002 and 2005. Sexual debut, multiple sexual partners in past year, condom use at last sex, measured in 2002 and 2005. We tested for changes over time in reported sexual behavior and estimate multivariate probit models to measure the association between 2002 individual, household and community characteristics and 2005 sexual behavior. There was a statistically significant increase in condom use and a decrease in the incidence of multiple sexual partners between 2002 and 2005 for young women aged 17-22 years. Young women in households with 10% higher income were 0.53% less likely to debut sexually by 2005; young men in communities with a 10% higher poverty rate were 5% less likely to report condom use at last sex. Negative economic shocks are associated with a 0.04% increase in the probability of multiple partnerships for young women. Education is positively correlated with sexual debut for young women and with multiple partnerships for both sexes. Trends in sexual behavior between 2002 and 2005 indicate significant shifts towards safer practices. There is little evidence of a relationship between negative economic shocks, household and community poverty, and risky behavior. We hypothesize that the unexpected positive relationship between education and sexual debut may be driven by peer effects in schools with substantial age mixing.

  19. Delivering organisational adaptation through legislative mechanisms: Evidence from the Adaptation Reporting Power (Climate Change Act 2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jude, S R; Drew, G H; Pollard, S J T; Rocks, S A; Jenkinson, K; Lamb, R

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that organisations, particularly in key infrastructure sectors, are potentially vulnerable to climate change and extreme weather events, and require organisational responses to ensure they are resilient and adaptive. However, detailed evidence of how adaptation is facilitated, implemented and reported, particularly through legislative mechanisms is lacking. The United Kingdom Climate Change Act (2008), introduced the Adaptation Reporting Power, enabling the Government to direct so-called reporting authorities to report their climate change risks and adaptation plans. We describe the authors' unique role and experience supporting the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) during the Adaptation Reporting Power's first round. An evaluation framework, used to review the adaptation reports, is presented alongside evidence on how the process provides new insights into adaptation activities and triggered organisational change in 78% of reporting authorities, including the embedding of climate risk and adaptation issues. The role of legislative mechanisms and risk-based approaches in driving and delivering adaptation is discussed alongside future research needs, including the development of organisational maturity models to determine resilient and well adapting organisations. The Adaptation Reporting Power process provides a basis for similar initiatives in other countries, although a clear engagement strategy to ensure buy-in to the process and research on its long-term legacy, including the potential merits of voluntary approaches, is required. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Do managerial incentives drive cost behavior? Evidence about the role of the zero earnings benchmark for labor cost behavior in Belgian private firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierynck, B.; Landsman, W.R.; Renders, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of managerial incentives to meet or beat the zero earnings benchmark on labor cost behavior of private Belgian firms. We posit that relative to managers of firms reporting healthy profits, managers meeting or beating the zero earnings benchmark will increase

  1. Feasibility of Exposure Response Prevention to Treat Repetitive Behaviors of Children with Autism and an Intellectual Disability: A Brief Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Brian A.; Woodard, Cooper R.; Bodfish, James W.

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of evidence-based behavioral therapies or pharmacotherapies to treat repetitive behaviors found in autism. Effective behavioral therapies are needed to counter any negative consequences these behaviors may have on the child's early learning and socialization. The purpose of this proof-of-principle study was to test the feasibility…

  2. Sleep Deprivation Promotes Habitual Control over Goal-Directed Control: Behavioral and Neuroimaging Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Liang, Jie; Lin, Xiao; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Yan; Lu, Lin; Shi, Jie

    2017-12-06

    Sleep is one of the most fundamental processes of life, playing an important role in the regulation of brain function. The long-term lack of sleep can cause memory impairments, declines in learning ability, and executive dysfunction. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of sleep deprivation on instrumental learning behavior, particularly goal-directed and habitual actions in humans, and investigated the underlying neural mechanisms. Healthy college students of either gender were enrolled and randomly divided into sleep deprivation group and sleep control group. fMRI data were collected. We found that one night of sleep deprivation led to greater responsiveness to stimuli that were associated with devalued outcomes in the slips-of-action test, indicating a deficit in the formation of goal-directed control and an overreliance on habits. Furthermore, sleep deprivation had no effect on the expression of acquired goal-directed action. The level of goal-directed action after sleep deprivation was positively correlated with baseline working memory capacity. The neuroimaging data indicated that goal-directed learning mainly recruited the ventromedial PFC (vmPFC), the activation of which was less pronounced during goal-directed learning after sleep deprivation. Activation of the vmPFC during goal-directed learning during training was positively correlated with the level of goal-directed action performance. The present study suggests that people rely predominantly on habits at the expense of goal-directed control after sleep deprivation, and this process involves the vmPFC. These results contribute to a better understanding of the effects of sleep loss on decision-making. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding the cognitive consequences of sleep deprivation has become extremely important over the past half century, given the continued decline in sleep duration in industrialized societies. Our results provide novel evidence that goal-directed action may be

  3. Evidence-Based Practices to Reduce Challenging Behaviors of Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahn, Naomi L.; Coogle, Christan Grygas; Hanna, Alexajo; Lewellen, Traysha

    2017-01-01

    Challenging behaviors refer to those behaviors that decrease the child's ability to engage and participate in classroom routines (Dunlap, Wilson, Strain, & Lee, 2013), and therefore, the dilemma in the scenario above is common to early childhood and early childhood special education teachers due to an increase in children experiencing autism…

  4. Early Career Teacher Professional Development: Bridging Simulation Technology with Evidence-Based Behavior Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shernoff, Elisa; Frazier, Stacy; Lisetti, Christine; Buche, Cedric; Lunn, Stephanie; Brown, Claire; Delmarre, Alban; Chou, Tommy; Gabbard, Joseph; Morgan, Emily

    2018-01-01

    Early career teachers working in high poverty schools face of overwhelming challenges navigating disruptive behaviors with studies highlighting behavior problems as one of the strongest predictors of turnover (Ingersoll & Smith, 2003). Simulation-based technology leverages important pedagogical strengths (e.g., realistic training context,…

  5. Poverty dynamics in Germany: Evidence on the relationship between persistent poverty and health behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aue, Katja; Roosen, Jutta; Jensen, Helen H

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have found poverty to be related to lower levels of health due to poor health behavior such as unhealthy eating, smoking or less physical activity. Longer periods of poverty seem to be especially harmful for individual health behavior. Studies have shown that poverty has a dynamic character. Moreover, poverty is increasingly regarded as being a multidimensional construct and one that considers more aspects than income alone. Against this background this paper analyzes the relationship between health behavior and persistent spells of income poverty as well as a combined poverty indicator using data of the German Socio-Economic Panel (2000-2010). Next to cross-sectional logistic regression models we estimate fixed-effects models to analyze the effect of persistent poverty on dietary behavior, tobacco consumption, and physical activity. Cross-sectional results suggest that persistent poverty is related to poor health behavior, particularly regarding tobacco consumption and physical activity. Results also show that multidimensional and dynamic aspects of poverty matter. Complementary panel analyses reveal negative effects for the combined poverty indicator only for dietary behavior in the total sample. However, by analyzing the sample by gender we identify further effects of persistent poverty on health behavior. The analyses show that not only do individuals in poverty but also those in precarious situations show health-damaging behavior more often. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Parenting and adolescent antisocial behavior and depression: evidence of genotype x parenting environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Mark E; Button, Tanya M M; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Reiss, David; Hetherington, E Mavis

    2007-04-01

    Little is known about the interplay of genotypes and malleable risk factors in influencing adolescent psychiatric symptoms and disorders. Information on these processes is crucial in designing programs for the prevention of psychiatric disorders. To assess whether latent genetic factors and measured parent-child relationships interact (G x E) in predicting adolescent antisocial behavior and depression. We characterized risk of antisocial behavior and depression in adolescents by means of a genetically informed design. We used in-home questionnaire and observational measures of adolescent outcomes and environmental moderators (parenting), and a latent variable behavior genetic analytic model. A nationally distributed sample recruited from random-digit dialing and national market panels. A total of 720 families with at least 2 children, 9 through 18 years old, stratified by genetic relatedness (monozygotic and dizygotic twins, full biological siblings in nondivorced and stepfamilies, and half-siblings and biologically unrelated siblings in stepfamilies). Antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms. There was an interaction of genotype and both parental negativity and low warmth predicting overall antisocial behavior, as well as aggressive and nonaggressive forms of antisocial behavior, but not depression. Genetic influence was greater for adolescent antisocial behavior when parenting was more negative or less warm. Genotype-environment correlation was partialled out in the analysis and thus did not account for the results. This study demonstrates, on the basis of careful measurement and appropriate analytic methods, that a continuous measure of parenting in the normative range moderates the influence of genotype on antisocial behavior.

  7. Social class and (un)ethical behavior : A framework, with evidence from a large population sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trautmann, S.T.; van de Kuilen, G.; Zeckhauser, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Differences in ethical behavior between members of the upper and lower classes have been at the center of civic debates in recent years. In this article, we present a framework for understanding how class affects ethical standards and behaviors. We apply the framework using data from a large Dutch

  8. The Social Validity of "Acceptability of Behavioral Interventions Used in Classrooms": Inferences from Longitudinal Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Stephen N.

    2017-01-01

    In this retrospective commentary on "Acceptability of Behavioral Interventions Used in Classrooms: The Influence of Amount of Teacher Time, Severity of Behavior Problem, and Type of Intervention," I first examine the concept of social validity and related measurement challenges per Wolf's concerns about consumers' subjective reactions to…

  9. Variability in Adaptive Behavior in Autism: Evidence for the Importance of Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Williams, Diane L.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive behavior in autism is highly variable and strongly related to prognosis. This study explored family history as a potential source of variability in adaptive behavior in autism. Participants included 77 individuals (mean age = 18) with average or better intellectual ability and autism. Parents completed the Family History Interview about…

  10. Aging and the Social Cognitive Determinants of Physical Activity Behavior and Behavior Change: Evidence from the Guide to Health Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Smith Anderson-Bill

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Part one of this study investigated the effect of aging on social-cognitive characteristics related to physical activity (PA among adults in the baseline phase of a health promotion intervention. Participants' questionnaire responses and activity logs indicated PA levels and self-efficacy declined with age, while social support and the use of self-regulatory behaviors (e.g., goal setting, planning, and keeping track increased. With age participants were also less likely to expect PA to interfere with their daily routines and social obligations. Part two of the study was among overweight/obese, inactive participants completing the intervention; it examined whether improvements in psychosocial variables might counteract declining PA associated with age. After treatment, participants were more active and decreased body weight regardless of age, and improved self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and self-regulatory behaviors. In a causal model, increases in self-efficacy at 7-months lead to increased PA levels and, albeit marginally, weight loss at 16 months; increased PA was associated with greater weight loss. Aging adults who were more confident exercised more and as a result lost more weight. This longitudinal study suggests interventions that offset the effect of aging on self-efficacy may be more successful in helping older participants become more active and avoid weight gain.

  11. Social roles and performance of social-ecological systems: evidence from behavioral lab experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Perez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social roles are thought to play an important role in determining the capacity for collective action in a community regarding the use of shared resources. Here we report on the results of a study using a behavioral experimental approach regarding the relationship between social roles and the performance of social-ecological systems. The computer-based irrigation experiment that was the basis of this study mimics the decisions faced by farmers in small-scale irrigation systems. In each of 20 rounds, which are analogous to growing seasons, participants face a two-stage commons dilemma. First they must decide how much to invest in the public infrastructure, e.g., canals and water diversion structures. Second, they must decide how much to extract from the water made available by that public infrastructure. Each round begins with a 60-second communication period before the players make their investment and extraction decisions. By analyzing the chat messages exchanged among participants during the communication stage of the experiment, we coded up to three roles per participant using the scheme of seven roles known to be important in the literature: leader, knowledge generator, connector, follower, moralist, enforcer, and observer. Our study supports the importance of certain social roles (e.g., connector previously highlighted by several case study analyses. However, using qualitative comparative analysis we found that none of the individual roles was sufficient for groups to succeed, i.e., to reach a certain level of group production. Instead, we found that a combination of at least five roles was necessary for success. In addition, in the context of upstream-downstream asymmetry, we observed a pattern in which social roles assumed by participants tended to differ by their positions. Although our work generated some interesting insights, further research is needed to determine how robust our findings are to different action situations, such as

  12. Sun-Protective Behavior | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  13. An evidence based protocol for peer review of radiographer musculoskeletal plain film reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, Paul; Hannah, April; Jones, Helen; Edwards, Rosemary; Harrington, Kate; Baker, Sally-Anne; Fitzgerald, Nicole; Belfield, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Medical image interpretation by non-medically trained staff continues to court controversy. This article aims to show that any potential risks associated with radiographer reporting can be monitored and mitigated if a robust peer review system is introduced. A search of the evidence base illustrates a paucity of guidance on how reporting radiographers should be audited or how a peer review process should be implemented. A practical framework for designing a reporting radiographer peer review process is provided. Methods: Following a literature review, key issues faced when designing a peer review protocol were identified. The following questions are answered: How frequent should peer review take place? How many reports should be reviewed? How are reports selected for review? Who should peer review the radiographer reports? How should radiographer's reporting performance be measured? What standard of reporting is acceptable? Results: Details are provided of the process that has been used for over three years at a busy inner-city teaching hospital for auditing musculoskeletal plain film radiographer reporting. The peer review method presented is not intended to produce robust statistical data; it is a practical method of locally assessing the reporting competency. As such, our protocol should be viewed as part of a larger programme for continuing professional development. Conclusion: It is hoped that this practical protocol will encourage radiology departments to engage in a programme of peer review for reporting radiographers.

  14. Representing System Behaviors and Expert Behaviors for Intelligent Tutoring. Technical Report No. 108.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Douglas M.; And Others

    Simulation-based software tools that can infer system behaviors from a deep model of the system have the potential for automatically building the semantic representations required to support intelligent tutoring in fault diagnosis. The Intelligent Maintenance Training System (IMTS) is such a resource, designed for use in training troubleshooting…

  15. Angry facial expressions bias gender categorization in children and adults: behavioral and computational evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayet, Laurie; Pascalis, Olivier; Quinn, Paul C.; Lee, Kang; Gentaz, Édouard; Tanaka, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Angry faces are perceived as more masculine by adults. However, the developmental course and underlying mechanism (bottom-up stimulus driven or top-down belief driven) associated with the angry-male bias remain unclear. Here we report that anger biases face gender categorization toward “male” responding in children as young as 5–6 years. The bias is observed for both own- and other-race faces, and is remarkably unchanged across development (into adulthood) as revealed by signal detection analyses (Experiments 1–2). The developmental course of the angry-male bias, along with its extension to other-race faces, combine to suggest that it is not rooted in extensive experience, e.g., observing males engaging in aggressive acts during the school years. Based on several computational simulations of gender categorization (Experiment 3), we further conclude that (1) the angry-male bias results, at least partially, from a strategy of attending to facial features or their second-order relations when categorizing face gender, and (2) any single choice of computational representation (e.g., Principal Component Analysis) is insufficient to assess resemblances between face categories, as different representations of the very same faces suggest different bases for the angry-male bias. Our findings are thus consistent with stimulus-and stereotyped-belief driven accounts of the angry-male bias. Taken together, the evidence suggests considerable stability in the interaction between some facial dimensions in social categorization that is present prior to the onset of formal schooling. PMID:25859238

  16. Angry facial expressions bias gender categorization in children and adults: behavioral and computational evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie eBayet

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Angry faces are perceived as more masculine by adults. However, the developmental course and underlying mechanism (bottom-up stimulus driven or top-down belief driven associated with the angry-male bias remain unclear. Here we report that anger biases face gender categorization towards male responding in children as young as 5-6 years. The bias is observed for both own- and other-race faces, and is remarkably unchanged across development (into adulthood as revealed by signal detection analyses (Experiments 1-2. The developmental course of the angry-male bias, along with its extension to other-race faces, combine to suggest that it is not rooted in extensive experience, e.g. observing males engaging in aggressive acts during the school years. Based on several computational simulations of gender categorization (Experiment 3, we further conclude that (1 the angry-male bias results, at least partially, from a strategy of attending to facial features or their second-order relations when categorizing face gender, and (2 any single choice of computational representation (e.g., Principal Component Analysis is insufficient to assess resemblances between face categories, as different representations of the very same faces suggest different bases for the angry-male bias. Our findings are thus consistent with stimulus-and stereotyped-belief driven accounts of the angry-male bias. Taken together, the evidence suggests considerable stability in the interaction between some facial dimensions in social categorization that is present prior to the onset of formal schooling.

  17. Facial Width-to-Height Ratio Does Not Predict Self-Reported Behavioral Tendencies

    OpenAIRE

    Kosinski, Michal

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of studies have linked facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) with various antisocial or violent behavioral tendencies. However, those studies have predominantly been laboratory based and low powered. This work reexamined the links between fWHR and behavioral tendencies in a large sample of 137,163 participants. Behavioral tendencies were measured using 55 well-established psychometric scales, including self-report scales measuring intelligence, domains and facets of the five-fa...

  18. An uncommon case of random fire-setting behavior associated with Todd paralysis: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kanehisa, Masayuki; Morinaga, Katsuhiko; Kohno, Hisae; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Ninomiya, Taiga; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Tsuru, Jusen; Hanada, Hiroaki; Yoshikawa, Tomoya; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The association between fire-setting behavior and psychiatric or medical disorders remains poorly understood. Although a link between fire-setting behavior and various organic brain disorders has been established, associations between fire setting and focal brain lesions have not yet been reported. Here, we describe the case of a 24-year-old first time arsonist who suffered Todd’s paralysis prior to the onset of a bizarre and random fire-setting behavior. Case presentation...

  19. Case Report: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy of A Patient With Pathological Gambling

    OpenAIRE

    S. Olga Guriz; Aslý Ekinci; M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2012-01-01

    Pathological gambling is a mental disorder characterized by continuous and repetitive gambling behavior and it might cause significant losses in social, professional and family life. There may also be some personal and social results of it such as suicide attempts, loss of job, marital problems, and troubles in family life, legal difficulties and criminal behavior. Co-occurring mental disorders might influence treatment outcomes of pathological gambling behavior. There are some reports sugge...

  20. Physical Aggression in Higher Education: Student-Athletes' Perceptions and Reporting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Jason Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This study examined internal (personal) and external (situational) factors that previous research found affected perceptions of physical aggression and associated reporting behaviors among student-athletes. Results of this study suggested certain factors significantly impacted a student-athlete's decision to report and who received that report.…

  1. Evidence from data storage tags for the presence of lunar and semilunar behavioral cycles in spawning Atlantic cod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Timothy B.; McAdam, Bruce J.; Thorsteinsson, Vilhjalmur; Marteinsdóttir, Gudrún

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the environmental processes determining the timing and success of reproduction is of critical importance to developing effective management strategies of marine fishes. Unfortunately it has proven difficult to comprehensively study the reproductive behavior of broadcast-spawning fishes. The use of electronic data storage tags (DSTs) has the potential to provide insights into the behavior of fishes. These tags allow for data collection over relatively large spatial and temporal scales that can be correlated to predicted environmental conditions and ultimately be used to refine predictions of year class strength. In this paper we present data retrieved from DSTs demonstrating that events putatively identified as Atlantic cod spawning behavior is tied to a lunar cycle with a pronounced semi-lunar cycle within it. Peak activity occurs around the full and new moon with no evidence of relationship with day/night cycles.

  2. The Effects of Senses of Direction on Wayfinding Behaviors: Evidence from Biking Tourists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jo-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine and observe the effects of senses of direction (i.e., abilities of memory and awareness of orientation on wayfinding behaviors for biking tourists. A total of 295 biking tourists completed a questionnaire using a purposive sampling method. The hierarchical regression model was employed to test the proposed hypotheses. Results show that biking tourists’ abilities of memory and awareness of orientation have a direct effect on their wayfinding behaviors. The contribution of this study is to demonstrate the implication of senses of direction to biking tourists’ wayfinding behaviors and to provide biking tourists suggestions for wayfinding strategies.

  3. Human toddlers' attempts to match two simple behaviors provide no evidence for an inherited, dedicated imitation mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan S Jones

    Full Text Available Influential theories of imitation have proposed that humans inherit a neural mechanism - an "active intermodal matching " (AIM mechanism or a mirror neuron system - that functions from birth to automatically match sensory input from others' actions to motor programs for performing those same actions, and thus produces imitation. To test these proposals, 160 1- to 2½-year-old toddlers were asked to imitate two simple movements- bending the arm to make an elbow, and moving the bent elbow laterally. Both behaviors were almost certain to be in each child's repertoire, and the lateral movement was goal-directed (used to hit a plastic cup. Thus, one or both behaviors should have been imitable by toddlers with a functioning AIM or mirror neuron system. Each child saw the two behaviors repeated 18 times, and was encouraged to imitate. Children were also asked to locate their own elbows. Almost no children below age 2 imitated either behavior. Instead, younger children gave clear evidence of a developmental progression, from reproducing only the outcome of the models' movements (hitting the object, through trying (but failing to reproduce the model's arm posture and/or the arm-cup relations they had seen, to accurate imitation of arm bending by age 2 and of both movements by age 2½. Across age levels, almost all children who knew the word 'elbow' imitated both behaviors: very few who did not know the word imitated either behavior. The evidence is most consistent with a view of early imitation as the product of a complex system of language, cognitive, social, and motor competencies that develop in infancy. The findings do not rule out a role for an inherited neural mechanism, but they suggest that such a system would not by itself be sufficient to explain imitation at any age.

  4. Human Toddlers’ Attempts to Match Two Simple Behaviors Provide No Evidence for an Inherited, Dedicated Imitation Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan S.

    2012-01-01

    Influential theories of imitation have proposed that humans inherit a neural mechanism – an “active intermodal matching “ (AIM) mechanism or a mirror neuron system - that functions from birth to automatically match sensory input from others’ actions to motor programs for performing those same actions, and thus produces imitation. To test these proposals, 160 1- to 2½-year-old toddlers were asked to imitate two simple movements– bending the arm to make an elbow, and moving the bent elbow laterally. Both behaviors were almost certain to be in each child’s repertoire, and the lateral movement was goal-directed (used to hit a plastic cup). Thus, one or both behaviors should have been imitable by toddlers with a functioning AIM or mirror neuron system. Each child saw the two behaviors repeated 18 times, and was encouraged to imitate. Children were also asked to locate their own elbows. Almost no children below age 2 imitated either behavior. Instead, younger children gave clear evidence of a developmental progression, from reproducing only the outcome of the models’ movements (hitting the object), through trying (but failing) to reproduce the model’s arm posture and/or the arm-cup relations they had seen, to accurate imitation of arm bending by age 2 and of both movements by age 2½. Across age levels, almost all children who knew the word ‘elbow’ imitated both behaviors: very few who did not know the word imitated either behavior. The evidence is most consistent with a view of early imitation as the product of a complex system of language, cognitive, social, and motor competencies that develop in infancy. The findings do not rule out a role for an inherited neural mechanism, but they suggest that such a system would not by itself be sufficient to explain imitation at any age. PMID:23251500

  5. International Comparisons of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Preschool Children: Parents' Reports from 24 Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie A.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Harder, Valerie S.; Otten, Laura; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michel; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Goncalves, Miguel; Gudmundsson, Halldor; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Liu, Jianghong; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Machado, Barbara Cesar; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Pluck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Pranvera, Jetishi; Schmeck, Klaus; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zeynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; van der Ende, Jan; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Yurdusen, Sema; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    International comparisons were conducted of preschool children's behavioral and emotional problems as reported on the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1 1/2-5 by parents in 24 societies (N = 19,850). Item ratings were aggregated into scores on syndromes; "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders"-oriented scales; a Stress…

  6. Success Avoidant Motivation and Behavior; Its Development Correlates and Situational Determinants. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Matina S.

    This paper reports on a successful attempt to understand success avoidant motivation and behavior by the development of an empirically sophisticated scoring system of success avoidant motivation and the observation of its behavioral correlates and situational determinants. Like most of the work on achievement motivation, the study was carried out…

  7. Television and Social Behavior; Reports and Papers, Volume V: Television's Effects: Further Explorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, George A., Ed.; And Others

    The studies in this fifth volume of technical reports to the Scientific Advisory Committee on Television and Social Behavior explore the role of mediated aggression and violence on relevant human behaviors in some new and interesting ways. The volume begins with an overview of the studies, presenting a statement of the principal questions asked,…

  8. Advantages of the Alpha-lipoic Acid Association with Chlorpromazine in a Model of Schizophrenia Induced by Ketamine in Rats: Behavioral and Oxidative Stress evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Luis Rafael Leite; Cysne Filho, Francisco Maurício Sales; de Almeida, Jamily Cunha; Diniz, Danilo Dos Santos; Patrocínio, Cláudio Felipe Vasconcelos; de Sousa, Caren Nádia Soares; Patrocínio, Manoel Cláudio Azevedo; Macêdo, Danielle; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes

    2018-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder reported to compromise about 1% of the world's population. Although its pathophysiological process is not completely elucidated, evidence showing the presence of an oxidative imbalance has been increasingly highlighted in the literature. Thus, the use of antioxidant substances may be of importance for schizophrenia treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavioral and oxidative alterations by the combination of chlorpromazine (CP) and alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), a potent antioxidant, in the ketamine (KET) model of schizophrenia in rats. Male Wistar rats (200-300 g) were treated for 10 days with saline, CP or ALA alone or in combination with CP previous to KET and the behavioral (open field, Y-maze and PPI tests) and oxidative tests were performed on the last day of treatment. The results showed that KET induced hyperlocomotion, impaired working memory and decreased PPI. CP alone or in combination with ALA prevented KET-induced behavioral effects. In addition, the administration of KET decreased GSH and increased nitrite, lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidase activity. CP alone or combined with ALA prevented the oxidative alterations induced by KET. In conclusion, the treatment with KET in rats induced behavioral impairments accompanied by hippocampal oxidative alterations, possibly related to NMDA receptors hypofunction. Besides that, CP alone or combined with ALA prevented these effects, showing a beneficial activity as antipsychotic agents. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Familial clustering of epilepsy and behavioral disorders: Evidence for a shared genetic basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesdorffer, Dale C.; Caplan, Rochelle; Berg, Anne T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether family history of unprovoked seizures is associated with behavioral disorders in epilepsy probands, thereby supporting the hypothesis of shared underlying genetic susceptibility to these disorders. Methods We conducted an analysis of the 308 probands with childhood onset epilepsy from the Connecticut Study of Epilepsy with information on first degree family history of unprovoked seizures and of febrile seizures whose parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at the 9-year follow-up. Clinical cut-offs for CBCL problem and DSM-Oriented scales were examined. The association between first degree family history of unprovoked seizure and behavioral disorders was assessed separately in uncomplicated and complicated epilepsy and separately for first degree family history of febrile seizures. A subanalysis, accounting for the tendency for behavioral disorders to run in families, adjusted for siblings with the same disorder as the proband. Prevalence ratios were used to describe the associations. Key findings In probands with uncomplicated epilepsy, first degree family history of unprovoked seizure was significantly associated with clinical cut-offs for Total Problems and Internalizing Disorders. Among Internalizing Disorders, clinical cut-offs for Withdrawn/Depressed, and DSM-Oriented scales for Affective Disorder and Anxiety Disorder were significantly associated with family history of unprovoked seizures. Clinical cut-offs for Aggressive Behavior and Delinquent Behavior, and DSM-Oriented scales for Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder were significantly associated with family history of unprovoked seizure. Adjustment for siblings with the same disorder revealed significant associations for the relationship between first degree family history of unprovoked seizure and Total Problems and Agressive Behavior in probands with uncomplicated epilepsy; marginally significant results were seen for Internalizing Disorder

  10. Energy budgets of animals: behavioral and ecological implications. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1977-06-01

    Progress is reported on the following studies: growth and reproduction of lizards; temperature and soil moisture requirements for egg hatching; metabolism measurements of developing eggs; factors controlling growth rate; longevity studies of lizards; growth and reproduction of deer mice with different levels of food and water deprivation; and critical densities of spines of cactus. (HLW)

  11. The Vortex of Homophobic Bullying: The Reporting Behavior of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Monique Claire

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the population of intermediate and high school teachers in the Hawaii Department of Education. The purpose of the study was to determine the degree to which certain variables impact the reporting of homophobic bullying by secondary teachers. The study examined if the type of bullying, a teacher's characteristics, and…

  12. Final Report. Novel Behavior of Ferromagnet/Superconductor Hybrid Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birge, Norman [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2016-09-26

    Final report for grant DE-FG02-06ER46341. This work has produced a most convincing experimental demonstration that spin-triplet supercurrent can appear in Josephson junctions containing ferromagnetic materials, even when the superconducting electrodes are conventional, spin-singlet superconductors.

  13. Final Report. Novel Behavior of Ferromagnet/Superconductor Hybrid Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birge, Norman

    2016-01-01

    Final report for grant DE-FG02-06ER46341. This work has produced a most convincing experimental demonstration that spin-triplet supercurrent can appear in Josephson junctions containing ferromagnetic materials, even when the superconducting electrodes are conventional, spin-singlet superconductors.

  14. Sexual Harassment in Academia: Individual Differences in Student Reporting Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Linda J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    College students (n=182) answered a questionnaire about personal and educational information, and completed the Feminist Attitudes Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. In response to a standardized sexual harassment scenario, participants answered a series of questions about reporting the incident. Discusses findings and offers recommendations.…

  15. USSR Report, Life Sciences Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-28

    M. Zubkova and N. Z. Zagorskaya, Central Scientific Research Institute of Resort Therapy and Physiotherapy , Moscow] [Text] In order to describe...USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev [Abstract] The wide use of oxygen therapy in geriatric practice and the reported side effects and occasional

  16. JOB BEHAVIORAL FACTORS AND TURNOVER INTENTION: EVIDENCE FROM SIME DARBY PROPERTY LIMITED

    OpenAIRE

    Amran Awang; Abdul Razak Amir; Wirda Osman

    2013-01-01

    Some job behavioral factors are utilized to examine their relationship with turnover intention among 201 employees in Sime Darby Property (Malaysia) Limited. Job satisfaction, job stress, organizational commitment, job enrichment and person-organization fit are the job behavioral factors selected for the study. The variables used in the study justify the reliability scores consistent with indicators in previous studies. Research methodology justifies the quantitative requirements ...

  17. The Effects of Senses of Direction on Wayfinding Behaviors: Evidence from Biking Tourists

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Jo-Hui; Ho Ching-Hua; Ngan Kok-Lim; Tu Jin-Hua; Weerapaiboon Wongladda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine and observe the effects of senses of direction (i.e., abilities of memory and awareness of orientation) on wayfinding behaviors for biking tourists. A total of 295 biking tourists completed a questionnaire using a purposive sampling method. The hierarchical regression model was employed to test the proposed hypotheses. Results show that biking tourists’ abilities of memory and awareness of orientation have a direct effect on their wayfinding behaviors. ...

  18. The utility of collateral student drinking reports: Evidence from a biomarker study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendrich, Michael; Fuhrmann, Daniel; Berger, Lisa; Plate, Charles; Lewis, Douglas; Jones, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Researchers have increasingly used collateral informants to validate the reports provided by primary research subjects. We assessed the utility of collateral informants for college students in a study that incorporates biomarkers to validate student reports of recent drinking behavior. Students from a Midwestern university were randomly selected for a study in which they provided 90-day Timeline Followback data, hair and fingernail specimens for ethylglucuronide (EtG) testing, and information about collateral (friends or peers) informants who were familiar with their drinking behavior. We compared summary measures of recent drinking to collateral informant reports for the subset of 72 students who were selected to participate in the collateral validation process who had complete measures. Kappa, weighted kappa, and McNemar tests were performed to evaluate levels of agreement. We compared levels of use indicated by each informant within the context of EtG findings. We also compared respondent and collateral reports with respect to heavy drinking directly to EtG test results. There was considerable overlap between the reports provided by the student participants and their collateral informants. Within the context of EtG-informed analyses, collaterals rarely provided new information about heavy use beyond that provided by the study subjects. Collateral informants have limited utility in non-clinical studies of heavy drinking in randomly selected college students. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Evidence Report: Risk of Crew Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Sams, Clarence F.

    2013-01-01

    The Risk of Crew Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response is identified by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Human Research Program (HRP) as a recognized risk to human health and performance in space. The HRP Program Requirements Document (PRD) defines these risks. This Evidence Report provides a summary of the evidence that has been used to identify and characterize this risk. It is known that human immune function is altered in- and post-flight, but it is unclear at present if such alterations lead to increased susceptibility to disease. Reactivation of latent viruses has been documented in crewmembers, although this reactivation has not been directly correlated with immune changes or with observed diseases. As described in this report, further research is required to better characterize the relationships between altered immune response and susceptibility to disease during and after spaceflight. This is particularly important for future deep-space exploration missions.

  20. The effect of group attachment and social position on prosocial behavior. Evidence from lab-in-the-field experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Baldassarri

    Full Text Available Social life is regulated by norms of fairness that constrain selfish behavior. While a substantial body of scholarship on prosocial behavior has provided evidence of such norms, large inter- and intra-personal variation in prosocial behavior still needs to be explained. The article identifies two social-structural dimensions along which people's generosity varies systematically: group attachment and social position. We conducted lab-in-the-field experiments involving 2,597 members of producer organizations in rural Uganda. Using different variants of the dictator game, we demonstrate that group attachment positively affects prosocial behavior, and that this effect is not simply the by-product of the degree of proximity between individuals. Second, we show that occupying a formal position in an organization or community leads to greater generosity toward in-group members. Taken together, our findings show that prosocial behavior is not an invariant social trait; rather, it varies according to individuals' relative position in the social structure.

  1. How neuroscience and behavioral genetics improve psychiatric assessment: Report on a violent murder case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Rigoni

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the advances in the understanding of neural and genetic foundations of violence, the investigation of the biological bases of a mental disorder is rarely included in psychiatric evaluation of mental insanity. Here we report on a case in which cognitive neuroscience and behavioral genetics methods were applied to a psychiatric forensic evaluation conducted on a young woman, J.F., tried for a violent and impulsive murder. The defendant had a history of multidrug and alcohol abuse and non-forensic clinical evaluation concluded for a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. We analyzed the defendant’s brain structure in order to underlie possible brain structural abnormalities associated with pathological impulsivity. Voxel-Based Morphometry indexed a reduced gray matter volume in the left prefrontal cortex, in a region specifically associated with response inhibition. Furthermore, J.F.’s DNA was genotyped in order to identify genetic polymorphisms associated with various forms of violence and impulsive behaviour. Five polymorphisms that are known to be associated with impulsivity, violence, and other severe psychiatric illnesses were identified in J.F.’s DNA. Taken together, these data provided evidence for the biological correlates of a mental disorder characterized by high impulsivity and aggressive tendencies. Our claim is that the use of neuroscience and behavioral genetics do not change the rationale underlying the determination of criminal liability, which must be based on a causal link between the mental disorder and the crime. Rather, their use is crucial in providing objective data on the biological bases of a defendant’s mental disorder.

  2. Development and validation of a new self-report measure of pain behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Karon F; Keefe, Francis; Jensen, Mark P; Roddey, Toni S; Callahan, Leigh F; Revicki, Dennis; Bamer, Alyssa M; Kim, Jiseon; Chung, Hyewon; Salem, Rana; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2013-12-01

    Pain behaviors that are maintained beyond the acute stage after injury can contribute to subsequent psychosocial and physical disability. Critical to the study of pain behaviors is the availability of psychometrically sound pain behavior measures. In this study we developed a self-report measure of pain behaviors, the Pain Behaviors Self Report (PaB-SR). PaB-SR scores were developed using item response theory and evaluated using a rigorous, multiple-witness approach to validity testing. Participants included 661 survey participants with chronic pain and with multiple sclerosis, back pain, or arthritis; 618 survey participants who were significant others of a chronic pain participant; and 86 participants in a videotaped pain behavior observation protocol. Scores on the PaB-SR were found to be measurement invariant with respect to clinical condition. PaB-SR scores, observer reports, and the videotaped protocol yielded distinct, but convergent views of pain behavior, supporting the validity of the new measure. The PaB-SR is expected to be of substantial utility to researchers wishing to explore the relationship between pain behaviors and constructs such as pain intensity, pain interference, and disability. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Experimental evidence of impacts of an invasive parakeet on foraging behavior of native birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Hannah L; Pringle, Henrietta E; Marshall, Harry H; Owens, Ian P F; Lord, Alexa M

    2014-05-01

    Resource competition is one potential behavioral mechanism by which invasive species can impact native species, but detecting this competition can be difficult due to the interactions that variable environmental conditions can have on species behavior. This is particularly the case in urban habitats where the disturbed environment can alter natural behavior from that in undisturbed habitats. The rose-ringed parakeet ( Psittacula krameri ), is an increasingly common invasive species, predominantly associated with large urban centers. Using an experimental approach, we tested the behavioral responses of native garden birds in response to the presence of a rose-ringed parakeet versus the presence of a similarly sized and dominant native bird, the great spotted woodpecker ( Dendrocopos major ). Parakeet presence significantly reduced feeding rates and increased vigilance among native birds compared with our control treatments. Of visits made by native birds in the presence of a parakeet, feeding was more likely to occur in sites within the parakeet range compared with sites outside, suggesting some habituation of native birds has occurred following prior exposure to parakeets but overall foraging behavior is still disrupted. The results of our study suggest that nonnative species can have complex and subtle impacts on native fauna and show that a nonnative competitor can impact native species simply through their presence near resources.

  4. First evidence that drugs of abuse produce behavioral sensitization and cross-sensitization in planarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Scott M.; Patil, Tavni; Yuvasheva, Ekaternia; Raffa, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral sensitization in mammals, including humans, is sensitive to factors such as administration route, testing environment, and pharmacokinetic confounds, unrelated to the drugs themselves, that are difficult to eliminate. Simpler animals less susceptible to these confounding influences may be advantageous substitutes for studying sensitization. We tested this hypothesis by determining if planarians display sensitization and cross-sensitization to cocaine and glutamate. Planarian hyperactivity was quantified as the number of C-like hyperkinesias during a 1-min drug exposure. Planarians exposed initially to cocaine (or glutamate) on day 1 were challenged with cocaine (or glutamate) after 2 or 6 days of abstinence. Acute cocaine or glutamate produced concentration-related hyperactivity. Cocaine or glutamate challenge after 2 and 6 days of abstinence enhanced the hyperactivity, indicating the substances produced planarian behavioral sensitization (pBS). Cross-sensitization experiments showed that cocaine produced greater hyperactivity in planarians previously exposed to glutamate than in glutamate-naïve planarians, and vice versa. Behavioral responses were pharmacologically selective because neither scopolamine nor caffeine produced pBS despite causing hyperactivity after initial administration, and acute GABA did not cause hyperactivity. Demonstration of pharmacologically-selective behavioral sensitization in planarians suggests these flatworms represent a sensitive in vivo model to study cocaine behavioral sensitization and to screen potential abuse-deterrent therapeutics. PMID:20512030

  5. The Effects of Weight Perception on Adolescents’ Weight-Loss Intentions and Behaviors: Evidence from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoyong Fan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between self-perception of being overweight and weight loss intentions, eating and exercise behaviors, as well as extreme weight-loss strategies for U.S. adolescents. This study uses 50,241 observations from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBSS 2001–2009, which were nationally representative sample of 9th- through 12th-grade students in both public and private schools in the US. This study finds that, irrespective of the weight status base on self-reported weight and height, adolescents who perceive themselves as overweight have a stronger intention to lose weight, but do not develop better eating and exercise habits, compared with their counterparts of same gender and reported weight status. Normal-weight adolescents, if they perceive themselves as overweight, are more likely to engage in health-compromising weight-loss methods. This study shows that it is critical to transform weight-loss intentions into actual behaviors among overweight/obese adolescents and improve the efficacy of behavioral interventions against childhood obesity. It also highlights the need of establishing a correct perception of body weight among normal weight adolescents to curb extreme weight-loss methods.

  6. Facial Width-to-Height Ratio Does Not Predict Self-Reported Behavioral Tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosinski, Michal

    2017-11-01

    A growing number of studies have linked facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) with various antisocial or violent behavioral tendencies. However, those studies have predominantly been laboratory based and low powered. This work reexamined the links between fWHR and behavioral tendencies in a large sample of 137,163 participants. Behavioral tendencies were measured using 55 well-established psychometric scales, including self-report scales measuring intelligence, domains and facets of the five-factor model of personality, impulsiveness, sense of fairness, sensational interests, self-monitoring, impression management, and satisfaction with life. The findings revealed that fWHR is not substantially linked with any of these self-reported measures of behavioral tendencies, calling into question whether the links between fWHR and behavior generalize beyond the small samples and specific experimental settings that have been used in past fWHR research.

  7. Parent-reported suicidal behavior and correlates among adolescents in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianchen; Sun, Zhenxiao; Yang, Yanyun

    2008-01-01

    Suicidal risk begins to increase during adolescence and is associated with multiple biological, psychological, social, and cultural factors. This study examined the prevalence and psychosocial factors of parent-reported suicidal behavior in Chinese adolescents. A community sample of 1920 adolescents in China participated in an epidemiological study. Parents completed a structured questionnaire including child suicidal behavior, illness history, mental health problems, family history, parenting, and family environment. Multiple logistic regression was used for data analysis. Overall, 2.4% of the sample talked about suicide in the previous 6 months, 3.2% had deliberately hurt themselves or attempted suicide, and 5.1% had either suicidal talk or self-harm. The rate of suicidal behavior increased as adolescents aged. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that the following factors were significantly associated with elevated risk for suicidal behavior: depressive/anxious symptoms, poor maternal health, family conflict, and physical punishment of parental discipline style. Suicidal behavior was reported by parents. No causal relationships could be made based on cross-sectional data. The prevalence rate of parent-reported suicidal behavior is markedly lower than self-reported rate in previous research. Depressive/anxious symptoms and multiple family environmental factors are associated with suicidal behavior in Chinese adolescents.

  8. The effect of uncertainty and cooperative behavior on operational performance: Evidence from Brazilian firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Pereira Zamith Brito

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the effect of managers’ uncertainty on cooperative behavior in interorganizational relationships, and how this affects operational performance. We conducted a survey with 225 Brazilian managers, and analyzed data using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Results present: a a negative influence of uncertainty of state on operational performance; b a positive influence of uncertainty of effect on uncertainty of response; c a significant influence of uncertainty of response on cooperative behavior; and d a positive influence of cooperative behavior on performance. The results indicated that cooperation and uncertainty accounted for 18.8% of the variability of operational performance. Considering the uncertainty that plagues Latin societies, this study can help to create more efficient ways to deal with the phenomenon. Rather than turning a blind eye to uncertainty, our study underscores it and treats it like another business environment issue.

  9. Case report: manualized trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy with an unaccompanied refugee minor girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterhitzenberger, Johanna; Rosner, Rita

    2016-01-01

    There is uncertainty whether young traumatized refugees should be treated with culturally adapted psychotherapy or with an evidence-based western approach. As yet, empirical studies on culturally adapted treatments for unaccompanied young refugees in industrialized host countries are not available. Studies do, however, suggest that trauma-focused treatment is promising for this group. We describe the treatment of an unaccompanied refugee minor girl with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who underwent manualized trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT; Cohen, Mannarino, & Deblinger, 2006). A 17-year-old girl from East Africa, who came to Germany without a caregiver, was treated for PTSD resulting from several traumatic experiences and losses in her home country and while fleeing. She lived in a group home for adolescents. Baseline, post, and follow-up data are reported. The girl participated in 12 sessions of manualized TF-CBT. Her caregiver from the youth services received another 12 sessions in line with the treatment manual. Symptoms decreased in a clinically significant manner; at the end of the treatment, the girl was deemed to have recovered from PTSD. Treatment success remained stable over 6 months. Manualized TF-CBT is feasible for young refugees without significant cultural adaptations. It can, however, be seen as culturally sensitive.

  10. Case report: manualized trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy with an unaccompanied refugee minor girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Unterhitzenberger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is uncertainty whether young traumatized refugees should be treated with culturally adapted psychotherapy or with an evidence-based western approach. As yet, empirical studies on culturally adapted treatments for unaccompanied young refugees in industrialized host countries are not available. Studies do, however, suggest that trauma-focused treatment is promising for this group. Objective: We describe the treatment of an unaccompanied refugee minor girl with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD who underwent manualized trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT; Cohen, Mannarino, & Deblinger, 2006. Methods: A 17-year-old girl from East Africa, who came to Germany without a caregiver, was treated for PTSD resulting from several traumatic experiences and losses in her home country and while fleeing. She lived in a group home for adolescents. Baseline, post, and follow-up data are reported. Results: The girl participated in 12 sessions of manualized TF-CBT. Her caregiver from the youth services received another 12 sessions in line with the treatment manual. Symptoms decreased in a clinically significant manner; at the end of the treatment, the girl was deemed to have recovered from PTSD. Treatment success remained stable over 6 months. Conclusions: Manualized TF-CBT is feasible for young refugees without significant cultural adaptations. It can, however, be seen as culturally sensitive.

  11. Effective and persistent changes in household energy-saving behaviors: Evidence from post-tsunami Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimi, Toshio; Kajitani, Yoshio; Chang, Stephanie E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Some households’ adaptations to electricity shortage can be new efficient habits. • The electricity shortage in Japan was used as a natural experiment. • Some behaviors contributed to 2–4% electricity savings and persisted for two years. • Behaviors requiring frequency and discomfort cannot be effective or persistent. • Lowering the electricity-usage level of appliances might be a promising behavior. - Abstract: This paper focuses on households’ development of new energy-efficient habits as demonstrated in the context of a major electricity shortfall event. Energy conservation policies should encourage households to take measures that are actually effective in reducing energy consumption and that can be sustained over long periods of time. Few studies, however, have empirically examined what types of energy-saving measures are actually effective and persistent. The electricity shortages following the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear disaster provided an opportunity to examine this question. A web survey of households in Japan was implemented to obtain data on metered electricity use in the summers of 2010–2013, household behaviors for electricity savings, and household socioeconomic attributes. Regression analysis was conducted to explain the effectiveness and persistence of energy saving behaviors. Results indicate that most households took several electricity-saving measures after the disaster to adapt to the electricity shortage. Certain types of measures led to 2–4% savings in electricity consumption (per measure) and persisted for two years. The effective and persistent electricity-saving measures tended to be those that did not require either frequent efforts or considerable discomfort. Findings suggest that electricity-saving behaviors requiring infrequent effort and little discomfort can become engrained as new habits or lifestyles. In particular, one promising measure may be to lower the electricity

  12. Fiscal Sustainability: Does EU Membership Change Policy Behavior? Empirical Evidence from Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Bökemeier

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies fiscal policy behavior with regard to sustainability for the group of the eight eastern new member states which joined the European Union in 2004. Using the approach of Bohn (1995, 998 the fiscal reaction function is estimated for the years 1996 until 2013. Further, separating the response in periods before and after accession studies potential changes in fiscal sustainability. The results of the panel regressions reveal a positive statistically significant reaction coefficient, indicating sustainable behavior. Moreover, once the responses are split in 2004 the reaction coefficient is somewhat larger in size ahead of the accession. Accounting for the crisis reveals that these years challenge fiscal sustainability.

  13. Evidence of long memory behavior in U.S. renewable energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestana Barros, Carlos; Gil-Alana, Luis A.; Payne, James E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the degrees of time persistence in U.S. total renewable energy consumption using innovative fractional integration and autoregressive models with monthly data from 1981:1 to 2010:10. The results indicate that renewable energy consumption is better explained in terms of a long memory model that incorporates persistence components and seasonality. The degree of integration is above 0.5 but significantly below 1.0, suggesting nonstationarity with mean reverting behavior. The presence of long memory behavior (persistence) in renewable energy consumption suggests that random shocks may very well move renewable energy consumption from pre-determined target levels for a period of time.

  14. Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors: Parental Concern and Concordance Between Parent and Adolescent Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Elon; Richardson, Laura P; Katzman, Katherine; Spielvogle, Heather; Arghira, Adriana Cristina; Zhou, Chuan; McCarty, Carolyn A

    We investigated which adolescent health risk behaviors are of concern to parents generally, according to adolescent age, gender, and in the context of perceived risk. We compared adolescent and parent reports of the presence of health-risk behaviors and factors predicting agreement. Three hundred adolescents aged 13 to 18 years (mean, 14.5 years; 52% female) who presenting for well care completed an electronic screening tool used to assess health-risk behaviors. Parents completed parallel measures of their child's behavior and parental concern. Adolescent and parent reports were compared using McNemar test. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine predictors of agreement. High parental concern was most commonly reported for screen time and diet. When parents identified their adolescent as at-risk, high parental concern was near universal for mental health but less commonly reported for substance use. There were no differences in parental concern according to adolescent gender. Parents of older adolescents expressed more concern regarding physical activity and alcohol. Compared with adolescents, parents were more likely to report risk regarding anxiety, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity, and less likely to report risk regarding screen time, sleep, and marijuana use. Younger adolescent age and higher family relationship quality were predictive of stronger parent-adolescent agreement. Parents in well-care visits commonly have concerns about adolescent lifestyle behaviors. Although parents are more likely to report concern when they know about a behavior, parental concern is not always aligned with parental awareness of risk, particularly for substance use. Parent report of higher prevalence of some risk behaviors suggests their input might assist in risk identification. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Change in lifestyle behaviors and diabetes risk: evidence from a population-based cohort study with 10 year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Adina L; Long, Gráinne H; Johansson, Ingegerd; Weinehall, Lars; Fhärm, Eva; Wennberg, Patrik; Norberg, Margareta; Griffin, Simon J; Rolandsson, Olov

    2017-03-29

    Promoting positive changes in lifestyle behavior in the whole population may be a feasible and effective approach to reducing type 2 diabetes burden, but the impact of population shifts of modifiable risk factors remains unclear. Currently most of the evidence on modifiable lifestyle behavior and type 2 diabetes risk on a population level comes from studies of between-individual differences. The objective of the study was to investigate the association and potential impact on disease burden for within-individual change in lifestyle behavior and diabetes risk. Population-based prospective cohort study of 35,680 participants aged 30-50 at baseline in 1990-2003 in Västerbotten County, Sweden (follow-up until 2013). Five self-reported modifiable lifestyle behaviors (tobacco use, physical activity, alcohol intake, dietary fiber intake and dietary fat intake) were measured at baseline and 10 year follow-up. Lifestyle behaviors were studied separately, and combined in a score. Incident diabetes was detected by oral glucose tolerance tests. Multivariate logistic regression models and population attributable fractions (PAF) were used to analyze the association between change in lifestyle behavior between baseline and 10 year follow-up, and risk of incident diabetes. Incident diabetes was detected in 1,184 (3.3%) participants at 10 year follow-up. There was a reduced diabetes risk associated with increase in dietary fiber intake, odds ratio (OR) 0.79 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66, 0.96) for increase of at least one unit standard deviation (3.0 g/1,000 kcal) of the baseline distribution, PAF 16.0% (95% CI 4.2, 26.4%). Increase in the lifestyle behavior score was associated with reduced diabetes risk, OR 0.92 (95% CI 0.85, 0.99) per unit increase of the score. These results support a causal link between lifestyle behavior and type 2 diabetes incidence. A small shift in lifestyle behaviors, in particular intake of dietary fiber, has the potential to reduce diabetes

  16. Evidence-based tailoring of behavior-change campaigns: increasing fluoride-free water consumption in rural Ethiopia with persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Alexandra C; Tobias, Robert; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2014-03-01

    Two hundred million people worldwide are at risk of developing dental and skeletal fluorosis due to excessive fluoride uptake from their water. Since medical treatment of the disease is difficult and mostly ineffective, preventing fluoride uptake is crucial. In the Ethiopian Rift Valley, a fluoride-removal community filter was installed. Despite having access to a fluoride filter, the community used the filter sparingly. During a baseline assessment, 173 face-to-face interviews were conducted to identify psychological factors that influence fluoride-free water consumption. Based on the results, two behavior-change campaigns were implemented: a traditional information intervention targeting perceived vulnerability, and an evidence-based persuasion intervention regarding perceived costs. The interventions were tailored to household characteristics. The campaigns were evaluated with a survey and analyzed in terms of their effectiveness in changing behavior and targeted psychological factors. While the intervention targeting perceived vulnerability showed no desirable effects, cost persuasion decreased the perceived costs and increased the consumption of fluoride-free water. This showed that altering subjective perceptions can change behavior even without changing objective circumstances. Moreover, interventions are more effective if they are based on evidence and tailored to specific households. © 2013 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  17. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption and Related Behaviors in Brazil: Evidence from the 2013 National Health Survey (PNS 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Macinko

    Full Text Available This study uses data from a nationally representative household survey (the 2013 National Health Survey, n = 62,986 to describe patterns of alcohol consumption and related behaviors among Brazilian adults. Analyses include descriptive and multivariable Poisson regression for self-reports in the past 30 days of: drinking any alcohol, binge drinking, binge drinking 4 or more times, and driving after drinking (DD; as well as age of alcohol consumption initiation. Results show that current drinking prevalence was 26%, with an average age of initiation of 18.7 years. Binge drinking was reported by 51% of drinkers, 43% of whom reported binge drinking 4 or more times. Drinking and driving was reported by nearly one quarter of those who drive a car/motorcycle. Current drinking was more likely among males, ages 25-34, single, urban, and those with more education. Binge drinking was more likely among males, older age groups, and people who started drinking before 18. Drinking and driving was higher among males, those with more education, and rural residents. Those who binge-drink were nearly 70% more likely to report DD. All behaviors varied significantly among Brazilian states. Given their potential health consequences, the levels of injurious alcohol behaviors observed here warrant increased attention from Brazilian policymakers and civil society.

  18. Organizational architecture, ethical culture, and perceived unethical behavior towards customers : Evidence from wholesale banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, Raymond O.S.; Jeurissen, Ronald J.M.; Groenland, Edward A.G.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we propose and test a model of the effects of organizational ethical culture and organizational architecture on the perceived unethical behavior of employees towards customers. This study also examines the relationship between organizational ethical culture and moral acceptability

  19. Effects of Teacher Consultation on Evidence-Based Classroom Management Strategies: Teacher and Student Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Kristin M.

    2013-01-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) conducted the online 2005-2006 Teacher Needs Survey wherein 52% of first year teachers, 28% of teachers with two to five years of experience, and 26% of teachers with 6 to 10 years experience ranked classroom management as their greatest need. Difficulty managing student behaviors leads to higher stress…

  20. Mechanisms of Percept-Percept and Image-Percept Integration in Vision: Behavioral and Electrophysiological Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvit, Silvia; Eimer, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the detection of a visual target can be guided not only by the temporal integration of two percepts, but also by integrating a percept and an image held in working memory. Behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) measures were obtained in a target detection task that required temporal integration of 2…

  1. Does "Compulsory Volunteering" Affect Subsequent Behavior? Evidence from a Natural Experiment in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates the impact of "compulsory volunteerism" for adolescents on subsequent volunteer behavior exploiting the introduction of a mandatory community service program for high school (HS) students in Ontario, Canada. We use difference-in-differences approach with a large longitudinal dataset. Our estimates show that the…

  2. Social Skills Interventions for Students with Challenging Behavior: Evaluating the Quality of the Evidence Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Nancy S.; Burke, Mack D.; Hatton, Heather; Bowman-Perrott, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    This study provides results on a methodological quality review of the single-case research literature from 1998 to 2014 on the use of social skills interventions for students with challenging behavior. A systematic review of the social skills literature was conducted with the intent of updating the Mathur et al. study of social skills…

  3. Development of a Problem-Focused Behavioral Screener Linked to Evidence-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Brian; Volpe, Robert J.; Briesch, Amy M.; Fabiano, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the factor structure, reliability and validity of a novel school-based screening instrument for academic and disruptive behavior problems commonly experienced by children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants included 39 classroom teachers from two public school districts in the…

  4. Evidence-Based Behavioral Treatment of Dog Phobia with Young Children: Two Case Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Anna C.; Rudy, Brittany M.; Davis, Thompson E., III; Matson, Johnny L.

    2013-01-01

    Specific phobias are among the most common anxiety disorders, especially in children. Unfortunately, a paucity of literature exists regarding the treatment of specific phobia in young children, despite the knowledge that traditional techniques (i.e., cognitive-behavioral therapy [CBT]) may not be practical. Therefore, the purpose of this article…

  5. Gene, Brain, and Behavior Relationships in Fragile X Syndrome: Evidence from Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightbody, Amy A.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FraX) remains the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability and provides a valuable model for studying gene-brain-behavior relationships. Over the past 15 years, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have emerged with the goal of better understanding the neural pathways contributing to the…

  6. Combinations of techniques that effectively change health behavior : evidence from meta-Cart analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseldorp, E.; Buuren, S. van; Genugten, L. van; Verheijden, M.W.; Empelen, P. van

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Many health-promoting interventions combine multiple behavior change techniques (BCTs) to maximize effectiveness. Although, in theory, BCTs can amplify each other, the available meta-analyses have not been able to identify specific combinations of techniques that provide synergistic

  7. Behavior of volatiles in arc volcanism : geochemical and petrologic evidence from active volcanoes in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoog, J.C.M. de

    2001-01-01

    Large amounts of material are recycled along subduction zones by uprising magmas, of which volcanoes are the surface expression. This thesis focuses on the behavior of volatiles elements (S, Cl, H) during these recycling processes. The study area is the Indonesian arc system, which

  8. On Empirical Evidence for the Existence of Rules Governing Speech-Using Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Robert E.; Schneider, Michael

    Departing from Baconian science which focuses on explanation of the occurrence of events, Chomsky's linguistics involves a different orientation--namely the explanation of form to account for linguistic behavior. The "knowledge" upon which linguistic judgements are based involves the premise of innate mechanisms. The assumption that speakers and…

  9. Self-Reported Rationing Behavior Among US Physicians: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeler, Robert D; Mundell, Tim; Hurst, Samia A; Goold, Susan Dorr; Thorsteinsdottir, Bjorg; Tilburt, Jon C; Danis, Marion

    2016-12-01

    Rationing is a controversial topic among US physicians. Understanding their attitudes and behaviors around rationing may be essential to a more open and sensible professional discourse on this important but controversial topic. To describe rationing behavior and associated factors among US physicians. Survey mailed to US physicians in 2012 to evaluate self-reported rationing behavior and variables related to this behavior. US physicians across a full spectrum of practice settings. A total of 2541 respondents, representing 65.6 % of the original mailing list of 3872 US addresses. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of physician attitudes and self-reported behaviors, with neutral language representations of the behaviors as well as an embedded experiment to test the influence of the word "ration" on perceived responsibility. Overall percentage of respondents reporting rationing behavior in various contexts and assessment of attitudes toward rationing. In total, 1348 respondents (53.1 %) reported having personally refrained within the past 6 months from using specific clinical services that would have provided the best patient care, because of health system cost. Prescription drugs (n = 1073 [48.3 %]) and magnetic resonance imaging (n = 922 [44.5 %]) were most frequently rationed. Surgical and procedural specialists were less likely to report rationing behavior (adjusted odds ratio [OR] [95 % CI], 0.8 [0.9-0.9] and 0.5 [0.4-0.6], respectively) compared to primary care. Compared with small or solo practices, those in medical school settings reported less rationing (adjusted OR [95 % CI], 0.4 [0.2-0.7]). Physicians who self-identified as very or somewhat liberal were significantly less likely to report rationing (adjusted OR [95 % CI], 0.7 [0.6-0.9]) than those self-reporting being very or somewhat conservative. A more positive opinion about rationing tended to align with greater odds of rationing. More than one-half of respondents engaged in

  10. The role of affect in the maintenance of anorexia nervosa: evidence from a naturalistic assessment of momentary behaviors and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Scott G; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol B; Le Grange, Daniel; Simonich, Heather K; Cao, Li; Lavender, Jason M; Gordon, Kathryn H

    2013-08-01

    The current study examines the relationship of affect and eating disorder behavior in anorexia nervosa (AN) using ecological momentary assessment. Participants were 118 adult females recruited at three sites from eating disorder treatment centers and community advertisements. All participants met full Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.) criteria or subthreshold criteria for AN. Participants were provided handheld computers and asked to report positive affect, negative affect, loss of control (LOC) eating, purging, exercise, drinking fluids to curb appetite, and weighing one's self multiple times per day as well as dietary restriction once daily over a 2-week interval. Mixed-effects models were used to examine the extent to which affective states predict dietary restriction. In addition, we used two analytic approaches to compare affect before and after other eating disorder behaviors. We found that higher daily ratings of negative affect were associated with a greater likelihood of dietary restriction on subsequent days. When examining the single rating immediately before and after behaviors, we found that negative affect increased significantly after LOC eating, purging, the combination of LOC and eating/purging, and weighing of one's self. Using this same analytic approach, we also found negative affect to decrease significantly after the consumption of fluids to curb appetite and exercise. When examining the covariation of AN behaviors and negative affect assessed multiple times in the hours and minutes before the behaviors, we found negative affect significantly increased before LOC eating, purging, the combination of LOC eating/and purging, and weighing behavior. Negative affect also significantly decreased after the occurrence of these behaviors. These findings are consistent with the idea that that negative affect is potentially a critical maintenance mechanism of some AN symptoms, but that the analytic approach used to examine

  11. Self-reported and observed risky driving behaviors among frequent and infrequent cell phone users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; D'Ambrosio, Lisa A; Coughlin, Joseph F

    2013-12-01

    The apparently higher crash risk among individuals who use cell phones while driving may be due both to the direct interference of cell phone use with the driving task and tendencies to engage in risky driving behaviors independent of cell phone use. Measurements of actual highway driving performance, self-reported aberrant driving behaviors as measured by the Manchester Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), and attitudes toward speeding, passing behaviors and relative concern about being involved in a crash were assessed. Individuals who reported frequently using cell phones while driving were found to drive faster, change lanes more frequently, spend more time in the left lane, and engage in more instances of hard braking and high acceleration events. They also scored higher in self-reported driving violations on the DBQ and reported more positive attitudes toward speeding and passing than drivers who did not report using a cell phone regularly while driving. These results indicate that a greater reported frequency of cell phone use while driving is associated with a broader pattern of behaviors that are likely to increase the overall risk of crash involvement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Rarely reported fungal spores and structures: An overlooked source of probative trace evidence in criminal investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawksworth, David L; Wiltshire, Patricia E J; Webb, Judith A

    2016-07-01

    The value of pollen and plant spores as trace evidence has long been established, but it is only in the last eight years that fungal spores have been analysed routinely from the same palynological samples. They have greatly enhanced the specificity of links between people, objects, and places. Most fungal species occupy restricted ecological niches and their distributions can be limited both spatially and geographically. Spores may be dispersed over very short distances from the fungal sporophore,(1) and their presence in any palynological assemblage may indicate a restricted area of ground, or the presence of particular plants (even specific dead plant material). Fungal spores can represent primary, secondary, or even tertiary proxy evidence of a location, and can indicate the presence of a plant even though the plant is not obvious at a crime scene. In some cases, spores from fungi which have rarely been reported, and are considered to be rare, have been of particular value in providing intelligence or evidence of contact. Ten examples are given from case work in which rarely reported or unusual fungi have proved to be important in criminal investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Shifts in attention during mental fatigue: Evidence from subjective, behavioral, physiological, and eye-tracking data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopstaken, J.; Linden, D. van der; Bakker, A.B.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Leung, Y.K.

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing amount of evidence that during mental fatigue, shifts in motivation drive performance rather than reductions in finite mental energy. So far, studies that investigated such an approach have mainly focused on cognitive indicators of task engagement that were measured during

  14. Insect compassion, evidence of altruism, reciprocity, and midwifery behavior in aphids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altruism is characterized by an act provided by a donor to a recipient that is considered detrimental to the donor yet benefits the recipient. Evidence of altruism is abundant in nature. In insects, altruism is manifest by ant and bee colonies where sterile workers provide labor, care of young, co...

  15. Test Review: Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function--Self-Report Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Justin M.; D'Amato, Rik Carl

    2006-01-01

    The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Self-Report version (BRIEF-SR) is the first self-report measure of executive functioning for adolescents. With the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act authorization, there is a greater need for appropriate assessment of severely impaired children. Recent studies have…

  16. Parent-reported problem behavior among children with sensory disabilities attending elementary regular schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, B; Grietens, H

    2004-01-01

    Parent-reported problem behaviors of 94 children with visual and auditory disabilities, attending elementary regular schools, were compared with problems reported in a general population sample of nondisabled children. Both samples were matched by means of a pairwise matching procedure, taking into

  17. Methodological and reporting quality in laboratory studies of human eating behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, E.; Bevelander, K.E.; Field, M.; Jones, A.

    2018-01-01

    The methodological quality and reporting practices of laboratory studies of human eating behavior determine the validity and replicability of nutrition science. The aim of this research was to examine basic methodology and reporting practices in recent representative laboratory studies of human

  18. Predictive Validity of a Student Self-Report Screener of Behavioral and Emotional Risk in an Urban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, Erin; Harrell-Williams, Leigh; Dever, Bridget V.; Furlong, Michael J.; Moore, Stephanie; Raines, Tara; Kamphaus, Randy W.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, schools are implementing school-based screening for risk of behavioral and emotional problems; hence, foundational evidence supporting the predictive validity of screening instruments is important to assess. This study examined the predictive validity of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 Behavioral and Emotional Screening…

  19. Behavioral and multimodal neuroimaging evidence for a deficit in brain timing networks in stuttering: A hypothesis and theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C Etchell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The fluent production of speech requires accurately timed movements. In this article, we propose that a deficit in brain timing networks is the core neurophysiological deficit in stuttering. We first discuss the experimental evidence supporting the involvement of the basal ganglia and supplementary motor area in stuttering and the involvement of the cerebellum as a mechanism for compensating for the neural deficits that underlie stuttering. Next, we outline the involvement of the right inferior frontal gyrus as another putative compensatory locus in stuttering and suggest a role for this structure in an expanded core timing-network. Subsequently, we review behavioral studies of timing in people who stutter and examine their behavioral performance as compared to people who do not stutter. Finally, we highlight challenges to existing research and provide avenues for future research with specific hypotheses.

  20. Suicidal behavior, negative affect, gender, and self-reported delinquency in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Arata, Catalina; Bowers, David; O'Brien, Natalie; Morgan, Allen

    2004-01-01

    The associations among suicidal behavior, negative affect, and delinquency were assessed via an anonymous self-report survey administered to male and female college students ( N = 383). Contrary to our hypothesized results, there were no gender differences in rates of suicidal ideation and attempts. Confirming our hypotheses about gender differences, college men did report significantly more delinquent behavior than college women. College men also scored higher on the suicide-proneness scale, which contained a mixture of death-related, risk-related, and negative self- and health-related items. Furthermore, as predicted, college students with a history of depression, suicide ideation, and/or suicide attempts all reported significantly more delinquent behavior. Self-reported delinquency and current levels of depressive symptomology emerged as significant predictors of suicide-prone behavior for both college men and women, explaining 34% of the variance for women and 17% for men. Levels of engagement in suicide-prone behavior and feelings of depression were elevated in college students with any type of juvenile arrest history. Students with an arrest history were also more likely to have had a diagnosis of depression and to have engaged in suicide ideation in their past. These findings suggest there are complex links between depression, delinquency, and suicidal behavior in college men and women.

  1. Lessons learned from evaluating Maryland's anti-drunk driving campaign: assessing the evidence for cognitive, behavioral, and public health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H

    2009-07-01

    The evidence concerning Maryland's anti-drunk driving program, Checkpoint Strikeforce, is reviewed. To date, there is no evidence to indicate that this campaign, which involves a number of sobriety checkpoints and media activities to promote these efforts, has had any impact on public perceptions, driver behaviors, or alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes and injuries. This conclusion is drawn after examining statistics for alcohol-related crashes, police citations for impaired driving, and public perceptions of alcohol-impaired driving risk. Comparisons are also made with other states in the mid-Atlantic region, where similar campaign activities have occurred. Reasons for this failure in Maryland include insufficient levels of enforcement (e.g., too few sobriety checkpoints and vehicle contacts occurred to raise public perceptions of risk pertaining to impaired driving) and inadequate publicity surrounding this campaign. Suggestions for overcoming these problems are offered.

  2. The Role of Lean Process Improvement in Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices in Behavioral Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeld, Bradley; Scott, Jennifer; Vilander, Gavin; Marx, Larry; Quirk, Michael; Lindberg, Julie; Koerner, Kelly

    2015-10-01

    To effectively implement evidence-based practices (EBP) in behavioral health care, an organization needs to have operating structures and processes that can address core EBP implementation factors and stages. Lean, a widely used quality improvement process, can potentially address the factors crucial to successful implementation of EBP. This article provides an overview of Lean and the relationship between Lean process improvement steps, and EBP implementation models. Examples of how Lean process improvement methodologies can be used to help plan and carry out implementation of EBP in mental health delivery systems are presented along with limitations and recommendations for future research and clinical application.

  3. Cheating Admission Self Report Scale: Evidence of Factorial Validity and Precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney Veloso Gouveia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to adapt the Cheating Admission Self Report Scale (CASRSto the Brazilian context and collect evi-dence on factorial validity and internal consistency. 441 students participated (M=16 years, 54.6% females, randomly divided in two groups. All responded to CASRS and to demographic questions. The analysis of the main components demonstrated a bifactor structure, whose factors presented Cronbach’s alphas (α greater than .80 (G1. This structure was corroborated by means of confirmatory factor analysis (for example, CFI=.87 and RMSEA=.08. The scale was shown to be psychometrically adequate and there was evidence of factorial validity and internal consistency; the scale can be used to measure plagiarism in the academic context.

  4. Evidence of epimeletic behavior involving a Pontoporia blainvillei calf (Cetacea, Pontoporiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Tonello Júnior

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper constitutes the second record of epimeletic behavior for the toninha, Pontoporia blainvillei. A toninha calf carcass was recovered at Enseada Beach, São Francisco do Sul, southern Brazil (26o13’S - 48o31’W on October 9, 2001. Its total length indicated that it was a neonate or a premature calf. The calf had many parallel scratches on it, which were freshly made and produced by adult teeth. There were scratches on the fin, flukes and flippers, and the position and size of the marks demonstrated the intention of the adult to rescue the calf. The anterior region of the body showed net marks, suggesting that the calf had been accidentally entangled. The epimeletic behavior evidenced by the tooth marks could have occurred during the entanglement and/or after its liberation, and we suggest that the causa mortis of the calf was drowning.

  5. Does media governance restrict corporate overinvestment behavior? Evidence from Chinese listed firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huili Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Using China’s A-share listed firms from 2007 to 2011, this paper empirically tests how media governance affects firms’ levels of overinvestment and whether external supervision and informal institutional mechanisms reduce these levels. We find that media governance and overinvestment are significantly negatively related. When firms are located in a district with a stronger media governance environment their levels of overinvestment are lower, indicating that media governance significantly restricts overinvestment behavior. When internal corporate governance efficiency is low, the negative relationship between the media environment and overinvestment behavior is significantly enhanced, indicating that when internal governance or formal systems have reduced efficacy, an important complementary role is played by external supervision and the informal institutional environment. After considering endogeneity and different measures of overinvestment and other related variables, the conclusions remain unchanged.

  6. Musical aptitude and second language pronunciation skills in school-aged children: neural and behavioral evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanov, Riia; Huotilainen, Minna; Välimäki, Vesa; Esquef, Paulo A A; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2008-02-15

    The main focus of this study was to examine the relationship between musical aptitude and second language pronunciation skills. We investigated whether children with superior performance in foreign language production represent musical sound features more readily in the preattentive level of neural processing compared with children with less-advanced production skills. Sound processing accuracy was examined in elementary school children by means of event-related potential (ERP) recordings and behavioral measures. Children with good linguistic skills had better musical skills as measured by the Seashore musicality test than children with less accurate linguistic skills. The ERP data accompany the results of the behavioral tests: children with good linguistic skills showed more pronounced sound-change evoked activation with the music stimuli than children with less accurate linguistic skills. Taken together, the results imply that musical and linguistic skills could partly be based on shared neural mechanisms.

  7. Perceptual chunking and its effect on memory in speech processing: ERP and behavioral evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Annie C; Boucher, Victor J; Jemel, Boutheina

    2014-01-01

    We examined how perceptual chunks of varying size in utterances can influence immediate memory of heard items (monosyllabic words). Using behavioral measures and event-related potentials (N400) we evaluated the quality of the memory trace for targets taken from perceived temporal groups (TGs) of three and four items. Variations in the amplitude of the N400 showed a better memory trace for items presented in TGs of three compared to those in groups of four. Analyses of behavioral responses along with P300 components also revealed effects of chunk position in the utterance. This is the first study to measure the online effects of perceptual chunks on the memory trace of spoken items. Taken together, the N400 and P300 responses demonstrate that the perceptual chunking of speech facilitates information buffering and a processing on a chunk-by-chunk basis.

  8. Turnover, account value and diversification of real traders: evidence of collective portfolio optimizing behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton de Lachapelle, David; Challet, Damien

    2010-07-01

    Despite the availability of very detailed data on financial markets, agent-based modeling is hindered by the lack of information about real trader behavior. This makes it impossible to validate agent-based models, which are thus reverse-engineering attempts. This work is a contribution towards building a set of stylized facts about the traders themselves. Using the client database of Swissquote Bank SA, the largest online Swiss broker, we find empirical relationships between turnover, account values and the number of assets in which a trader is invested. A theory based on simple mean-variance portfolio optimization that crucially includes variable transaction costs is able to reproduce faithfully the observed behaviors. We finally argue that our results bring to light the collective ability of a population to construct a mean-variance portfolio that takes into account the structure of transaction costs.

  9. Morphological and behavioral evidence of Batesian mimicry in nestlings of a lowland Amazonian bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londoño, Gustavo A; García, Duván A; Sánchez Martínez, Manuel A

    2015-01-01

    Because predation is the main cause of avian nest failure, selection should favor strategies that reduce the probability of nest predation. We describe apparent Batesian mimicry in the morphology and behavior of a Laniocera hypopyrra nestling. On hatching, the nestling had a distinctive bright orange color and modified feathers all over its body, and 6 days after hatching, it started to move its head very slowly from side to side (in a "caterpillar" movement) when disturbed. These traits gave it a resemblance to a hairy, aposematic caterpillar. This species has a long nestling period for its size (20 days), perhaps due to slow provisioning rates (about one feeding per hour). We argue that the slow growth rate, combined with high nest predation, favors the evolution of antipredation mechanisms such as the unique morphological and behavioral characteristics of L. hypopyrra nestlings.

  10. Does Consumer Confidence Forecast Household Saving and Borrowing Behavior? Evidence for Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłopocka, Aneta Maria

    2017-01-01

    Consumer confidence plays an important role in households' decision-making processes. This study investigates the effects of consumer confidence on household saving and borrowing behavior that are unsatisfactorily considered in previous discussions. The questions of interest are first, whether indexes of consumer confidence have any predictive power on their own for future household saving and borrowing rates, and second, whether they contain information about future household saving and borrowing rates aside from the information contained in other available indicators. In addition to aggregate confidence indicators, their components are used to provide more precise information. Overall, the multiple linear regression analysis (OLS technique) of Polish time-series data gives positive answers to both questions. This finding supports the recommendation of combining the strengths of objective indicators (such as economic fundamentals) and subjective indicators (such as consumer confidence) to improve household financial behavior forecasts.

  11. Nurses’ Intention and Behavior in Reporting Adverse Event: Application of Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Ekayani

    2017-02-01

    Data menunjukkan bahwa secara global jumlah pelaporan insiden keselamatan pasien masih rendah, begitu juga di Rumah Sakit Baptis Batu, Jawa Timur. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh antara sikap, norma subjektif, dan perceived behavioral control (PBC terhadap niat dan untuk menentukan hubungan antara PBC dan niat terhadap perilaku perawat dalam melaporkan kejadian tidak diharapkan (KTD. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan potong lintang dan dilakukan di Rumah Sakit Baptis Batu pada tanggal 16-31 Maret 2016. Pengambilan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan kuesioner yang dibagikan kepada 82 (dari 85 perawat yang bekerja di Rumah Sakit Baptis Batu. Data dianalisis menggunakan regresi linier berganda dan korelasi Spearman. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sikap (B = 0.496; nilai p = 0.000 dan PBC (B = 0.766; nilai p = 0.037 secara signifikan memengaruhi niat untuk melaporkan KTD, sedangkan norma subjektif (B= -0.087; nilai p = 0.540 tidak berpengaruh terhadap niat melaporkan KTD. Tidak terdapat hubungan antara PBC (r = 0.037; nilai p = 0.739 dan niat (r = 0.031; nilai p = 0.783 terhadap perilaku melaporkan KTD. Temuan ini menunjukkan bahwa niat perawat dalam melaporkan KTD dipengaruhi oleh sikap dan PBC, bukan norma subjektif. Sebaliknya, niat dan PBC tidak berhubungan dengan perilaku melaporkan KTD.

  12. Behavioral intervention technologies: evidence review and recommendations for future research in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, David C; Burns, Michelle Nicole; Schueller, Stephen M; Clarke, Gregory; Klinkman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A technical expert panel convened by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the National Institute of Mental Health was charged with reviewing the state of research on behavioral intervention technologies (BITs) in mental health and identifying the top research priorities. BITs refers to behavioral and psychological interventions that use information and communication technology features to address behavioral and mental health outcomes. This study on the findings of the technical expert panel. Videoconferencing and standard telephone technologies to deliver psychotherapy have been well validated. Web-based interventions have shown efficacy across a broad range of mental health outcomes. Social media such as online support groups have produced disappointing outcomes when used alone. Mobile technologies have received limited attention for mental health outcomes. Virtual reality has shown good efficacy for anxiety and pediatric disorders. Serious gaming has received little work in mental health. Research focused on understanding reach, adherence, barriers and cost is recommended. Improvements in the collection, storage, analysis and visualization of big data will be required. New theoretical models and evaluation strategies will be required. Finally, for BITs to have a public health impact, research on implementation and application to prevention is required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Can Targeted Intervention Mitigate Early Emotional and Behavioral Problems?: Generating Robust Evidence within Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orla Doyle

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of a targeted Irish early intervention program on children's emotional and behavioral development using multiple methods to test the robustness of the results. Data on 164 Preparing for Life participants who were randomly assigned into an intervention group, involving home visits from pregnancy onwards, or a control group, was used to test the impact of the intervention on Child Behavior Checklist scores at 24-months. Using inverse probability weighting to account for differential attrition, permutation testing to address small sample size, and quantile regression to characterize the distributional impact of the intervention, we found that the few treatment effects were largely concentrated among boys most at risk of developing emotional and behavioral problems. The average treatment effect identified a 13% reduction in the likelihood of falling into the borderline clinical threshold for Total Problems. The interaction and subgroup analysis found that this main effect was driven by boys. The distributional analysis identified a 10-point reduction in the Externalizing Problems score for boys at the 90th percentile. No effects were observed for girls or for the continuous measures of Total, Internalizing, and Externalizing problems. These findings suggest that the impact of this prenatally commencing home visiting program may be limited to boys experiencing the most difficulties. Further adoption of the statistical methods applied here may help to improve the internal validity of randomized controlled trials and contribute to the field of evaluation science more generally.ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN04631728.

  14. Capital Regulation and Bank Risk-Taking Behavior: Evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badar Nadeem Ashraf

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In response to the global financial crisis of 2007–2009, risk-based capital requirements have been reinforced in the new Basel III Accord to counter excessive bank risk-taking behavior. However, prior theoretical as well as empirical literature that studies the impact of risk-based capital requirements on bank risk-taking behavior is inconclusive. The primary purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of risk-based capital requirements on bank risk-taking behavior, using a panel dataset of 21 listed commercial banks of Pakistan over the period 2005–2012. Purely regulatory measures of bank capital, capital adequacy ratio, and bank assets portfolio risk, risk-weighted assets to total assets ratio, are used for the main analysis. Recently developed small N panel methods (bias corrected least squares dummy variable (LSDVC method and system GMM method with instruments collapse option are used to control for panel fixed effects, dynamic dependent variables, and endogenous independent variables. Overall, the results suggest that commercial banks have reduced assets portfolio risk in response to stringent risk-based capital requirements. Results also confirm that all banks having risk-based capital ratios either lower or higher than the regulatory required limits, have decreased portfolio risk in response to stringent risk-based capital requirements. The results are robust to alternative proxies of bank risk-taking, alternative estimation methods, and alternative samples.

  15. Social identity shapes social valuation: evidence from prosocial behavior and vicarious reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, Leor M; Zaki, Jamil; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2017-08-01

    People frequently engage in more prosocial behavior toward members of their own groups, as compared to other groups. Such group-based prosociality may reflect either strategic considerations concerning one's own future outcomes or intrinsic value placed on the outcomes of in-group members. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, we examined vicarious reward responses to witnessing the monetary gains of in-group and out-group members, as well as prosocial behavior towards both types of individuals. We found that individuals' investment in their group-a motivational component of social identification-tracked the intensity of their responses in ventral striatum to in-group (vs out-group) members' rewards, as well as their tendency towards group-based prosociality. Individuals with strong motivational investment in their group preferred rewards for an in-group member, whereas individuals with low investment preferred rewards for an out-group member. These findings suggest that the motivational importance of social identity-beyond mere similarity to group members-influences vicarious reward and prosocial behavior. More broadly, these findings support a theoretical framework in which salient social identities can influence neural representations of subjective value, and suggest that social preferences can best be understood by examining the identity contexts in which they unfold. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Development of social skills in children: neural and behavioral evidence for the elaboration of cognitive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Icaza, Patricia; Aboitiz, Francisco; Billeke, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Social skills refer to a wide group of abilities that allow us to interact and communicate with others. Children learn how to solve social situations by predicting and understanding other's behaviors. The way in which humans learn to interact successfully with others encompasses a complex interaction between neural, behavioral, and environmental elements. These have a role in the accomplishment of positive developmental outcomes, including peer acceptance, academic achievement, and mental health. All these social abilities depend on widespread brain networks that are recently being studied by neuroscience. In this paper, we will first review the studies on this topic, aiming to clarify the behavioral and neural mechanisms related to the acquisition of social skills during infancy and their appearance in time. Second, we will briefly describe how developmental diseases like Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) can inform about the neurobiological mechanisms of social skills. We finally sketch a general framework for the elaboration of cognitive models in order to facilitate the comprehension of human social development. PMID:26483621

  17. Risky sexual behaviors of adolescents in rural Malawi: evidence from focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancy, Barbara L; Kaponda, Chrissie P N; Kachingwe, Sitingawawo I; Norr, Kathleen F

    2006-07-01

    Little is known about rural Malawian adolescents' perceptions of their sexual behavior and what would constitute an effective HIV risk-reduction program. This study explored the perceptions of Malawain adolescents using qualitative description research with focus groups. A purposive sample of 144 adolescents, ranging from 10 to 19 years of age was obtained. Subjects were then placed in focus groups separated by gender Qualitative content analysis revealed that adolescents were at risk for HIV based on the select behaviors These included early sexual debut, multiple partners, non-use of condoms and among girls older partners These adolescents acknowledged peer pressure and lack of parental supervision as factors that perpetuated these behaviors and identified two components of HIV prevention programs. For example, parental involvement and support for sexual abstinence were among the issues discussed. It is essential that HIV risk-reduction programs create ways of involving parents and of enhancing adolescents' HIV risk-reduction skills by helping them to change peer norms and to develop negotiation and assertiveness skills to in order to resist peer pressure.

  18. The role of attitudes about vaccine safety, efficacy, and value in explaining parents' reported vaccination behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavail, Katherine Hart; Kennedy, Allison Michelle

    2013-10-01

    To explain vaccine confidence as it related to parents' decisions to vaccinate their children with recommended vaccines, and to develop a confidence measure to efficiently and effectively predict parents' self-reported vaccine behaviors. A sample of parents with at least one child younger than 6 years (n = 376) was analyzed using data from the HealthStyles 2010 survey. Questions were grouped into block variables to create three confidence constructs: value, safety, and efficacy. Regression equations controlling for demographic characteristics were used to identify the confidence construct(s) that best predicted parents' self-reported vaccination decisions (accept all, some, or none of the recommended childhood vaccines). Among the three constructs evaluated, confidence in the value of vaccines, that is the belief that vaccines are important and vaccinating one's children is the right thing to do, was the best predictor of parents' vaccine decisions, F(2, 351) = 119.199, p parents' self-reported vaccine decisions. Confidence in the safety or efficacy of vaccines failed to account for additional significant variance in parent-reported vaccination behavior. Confidence in the value of vaccines is a helpful predictor of parent-reported vaccination behavior. Attitudinal constructs of confidence in the safety and efficacy of vaccines failed to account for additional significant variance in parents' vaccination behaviors. Future research should assess the role of vaccine knowledge and tangible barriers, such as access and cost, to further explain parents' vaccination behaviors.

  19. Evidence Report: Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Simonsen, Lisa; Huff, Janice L.

    2016-01-01

    Possible acute and late risks to the central nervous system (CNS) from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are concerns for human exploration of space. Acute CNS risks may include: altered cognitive function, reduced motor function, and behavioral changes, all of which may affect performance and human health. Late CNS risks may include neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia and premature aging. Although detrimental CNS changes are observed in humans treated with high-dose radiation (e.g., gamma rays and 9 protons) for cancer and are supported by experimental evidence showing neurocognitive and behavioral effects in animal models, the significance of these results on the morbidity to astronauts has not been elucidated. There is a lack of human epidemiology data on which to base CNS risk estimates; therefore, risk projection based on scaling to human data, as done for cancer risk, is not possible for CNS risks. Research specific to the spaceflight environment using animal and cell models must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of CNS changes in order to estimate this risk and to establish validity of the current permissible exposure limits (PELs). In addition, the impact of radiation exposure in combination with individual sensitivity or other space flight factors, as well as assessment of the need for biological/pharmaceutical countermeasures, will be considered after further definition of CNS risk occurs.

  20. Evidence informed management of chronic low back pain with cognitive behavioral therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatchel, Robert J.; Rollings, Kathryn H.

    2011-01-01

    Editors’ preface The management of chronic low back pain (CLBP) has proven very challenging in North America, as evidenced by its mounting socioeconomic burden. Choosing amongst available non-surgical therapies can be overwhelming for many stakeholders, including patients, health providers, policy makers, and third-party payers. Although all parties share a common goal and wish to use limited healthcare resources to support interventions most likely to result in clinically meaningful improvements, there is often uncertainty about the most appropriate intervention for a particular patient. To help understand and evaluate the various commonly used non-surgical approaches to CLBP, the North American Spine Society has sponsored this supplement to The Spine Journal, titled Evidence informed management of chronic low back pain without surgery. Articles in this supplement were contributed by leading spine practitioners and researchers, who were invited to summarize the best available evidence for a particular intervention and encouraged to make this information accessible to non-experts. Each of the articles contains five sections (description, theory, evidence of efficacy, harms, and summary) with common subheadings to facilitate comparison across the 24 different interventions profiled in this supplement, blending narrative and systematic review methodology as deemed appropriate by the authors. It is hoped that articles in this supplement will be informative and aid in decision making for the many stakeholders evaluating non-surgical interventions for CLBP. PMID:18164452

  1. How reliable are self-reports of HIV status disclosure? Evidence from couples in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Amy A; Wong, Lauren H

    2015-11-01

    The majority of research on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disclosure utilizes the perspective from a single individual, which cannot be substantiated in the absence of supporting data such as from a primary partner. The objectives of this study were to evaluate: (1) the extent to which self-reported HIV disclosure was confirmed by a primary partner; (2) individual and relationship-level predictors of self-reported versus confirmed disclosure; and (3) whether confirmed disclosure was a stronger predictor of correctly assessing a partner's HIV status compared to self-reported disclosure. As part of an 8-wave longitudinal study from 2009 to 2011 in southern Malawi, 366 individuals (183 couples) were interviewed about their primary relationship (wave 3), individually tested for HIV (wave 4), and then asked whether they disclosed to their primary partner (wave 5). While 93% of respondents reported that they disclosed, only 64% of respondents had confirmed reports from their partner. Having communicated with partner about HIV was positively associated with self-reported disclosure; this association remained significant but became more precise in the models for confirmed disclosure. Confirmed disclosure, but not self-report, was a significant predictor of correctly assessing a partner's HIV status. Being male, having lower perceived partner infidelity, having higher relationship unity, and testing HIV-negative were positively and significantly associated with correct assessment. Dyadic data from two partners provide an improved measure of disclosure as compared to a single individual's self-report and could be used to identify behavioral and biomedical opportunities to prevent HIV transmission within couples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Only Behavioral But Not Self-Report Measures of Speech Perception Correlate with Cognitive Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Antje; Henshaw, Helen; Ferguson, Melanie A

    2016-01-01

    Good speech perception and communication skills in everyday life are crucial for participation and well-being, and are therefore an overarching aim of auditory rehabilitation. Both behavioral and self-report measures can be used to assess these skills. However, correlations between behavioral and self-report speech perception measures are often low. One possible explanation is that there is a mismatch between the specific situations used in the assessment of these skills in each method, and a more careful matching across situations might improve consistency of results. The role that cognition plays in specific speech situations may also be important for understanding communication, as speech perception tests vary in their cognitive demands. In this study, the role of executive function, working memory (WM) and attention in behavioral and self-report measures of speech perception was investigated. Thirty existing hearing aid users with mild-to-moderate hearing loss aged between 50 and 74 years completed a behavioral test battery with speech perception tests ranging from phoneme discrimination in modulated noise (easy) to words in multi-talker babble (medium) and keyword perception in a carrier sentence against a distractor voice (difficult). In addition, a self-report measure of aided communication, residual disability from the Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile, was obtained. Correlations between speech perception tests and self-report measures were higher when specific speech situations across both were matched. Cognition correlated with behavioral speech perception test results but not with self-report. Only the most difficult speech perception test, keyword perception in a carrier sentence with a competing distractor voice, engaged executive functions in addition to WM. In conclusion, any relationship between behavioral and self-report speech perception is not mediated by a shared correlation with cognition.

  3. The self-reported clinical practice behaviors of Australian optometrists as related to smoking, diet and nutritional supplementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Elizabeth Downie

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this study was to examine the self-reported, routine clinical practice behaviors of Australian optometrists with respect to advice regarding smoking, diet and nutritional supplementation. The study also sought to assess the potential influence of practitioner age, gender, practice location (major city versus regional, therapeutic-endorsement status and personal nutritional supplementation habits upon management practices in these areas.A survey was electronically distributed to Australian optometrists (n = 4,242. Respondents anonymously provided information about their personal demographics and lifestyle behaviors (i.e., age, gender, practice location, therapeutic-endorsement status, smoking status, nutritional supplement intake and routine patient management practices with respect to advice across three domains: smoking, diet and nutritional supplementation. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess for potential effects of the listed factors on practitioner behavior.A total of 283 completed surveys were received (completed survey response rate: 6.7%. Fewer than half of respondents indicated routinely asking their patients about smoking status. Younger practitioners were significantly (p < 0.05 less likely to enquire about patients' smoking behaviors, but this did not extend to counseling for smoking cessation. Almost two-thirds of respondents indicated routinely counseling patients about diet. About half of practitioners specified routinely asking their patients about nutritional supplement intake; this form of questioning was significantly more likely if the respondent was female (p < 0.05. Practitioners who recommended nutritional supplements most commonly did so for age-related macular degeneration (91.2% and dry eye disease (63.9%. The primary source of evidence used to guide practitioners' nutrition-related patient management was reported to be peer-reviewed publications.These findings

  4. cables1 Is Required for Embryonic Neural Development: Molecular, Cellular, and Behavioral Evidence From the Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    GROENEWEG, JOLIJN W.; WHITE, YVONNE A.R.; KOKEL, DAVID; PETERSON, RANDALL T.; ZUKERBERG, LAWRENCE R.; BERIN, INNA; RUEDA, BO R.; WOOD, ANTONY W.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In vitro studies have suggested that the Cables1 gene regulates epithelial cell proliferation, whereas other studies suggest a role in promoting neural differentiation. In efforts to clarify the functions of Cables1 in vivo, we conducted gain- and loss-of-function studies targeting its ortholog (cables1) in the zebrafish embryo. Similar to rodents, zebrafish cables1 mRNA expression is detected most robustly in embryonic neural tissues. Antisense knockdown of cables1 leads to increased numbers of apoptotic cells, particularly in brain tissue, in addition to a distinct behavioral phenotype, characterized by hyperactivity in response to stimulation. Apoptosis and the behavioral abnormality could be rescued by co-expression of a morpholino-resistant cables1 construct. Suppression of p53 expression in cables1 morphants partially rescued both apoptosis and the behavioral phenotype, suggesting that the phenotype of cables1 morphants is due in part to p53-dependent apoptosis. Alterations in the expression patterns of several neural transcription factors were observed in cables1 morphants during early neurulation, suggesting that cables1 is required for early neural differentiation. Ectopic overexpression of cables1 strongly disrupted embryonic morphogenesis, while overexpression of a cables1 mutant lacking the C-terminal cyclin box had little effect, suggesting functional importance of the cyclin box. Lastly, marked reductions in p35, but not Cdk5, were observed in cables1 morphants. Collectively, these data suggest that cables1 is important for neural differentiation during embryogenesis, in a mechanism that likely involves interactions with the Cdk5/p35 kinase pathway. PMID:21268180

  5. The amygdala as a neurobiological target for ghrelin in rats: neuroanatomical, electrophysiological and behavioral evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayte Alvarez-Crespo

    Full Text Available Here, we sought to demonstrate that the orexigenic circulating hormone, ghrelin, is able to exert neurobiological effects (including those linked to feeding control at the level of the amygdala, involving neuroanatomical, electrophysiological and behavioural studies. We found that ghrelin receptors (GHS-R are densely expressed in several subnuclei of the amygdala, notably in ventrolateral (LaVL and ventromedial (LaVM parts of the lateral amygdaloid nucleus. Using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology to record from cells in the lateral amygdaloid nucleus, we found that ghrelin reduced the frequency of mEPSCs recorded from large pyramidal-like neurons, an effect that could be blocked by co-application of a ghrelin receptor antagonist. In ad libitum fed rats, intra-amygdala administration of ghrelin produced a large orexigenic response that lasted throughout the 4 hr of testing. Conversely, in hungry, fasted rats ghrelin receptor blockade in the amygdala significantly reduced food intake. Finally, we investigated a possible interaction between ghrelin's effects on feeding control and emotional reactivity exerted at the level of the amygdala. In rats allowed to feed during a 1-hour period between ghrelin injection and anxiety testing (elevated plus maze and open field, intra-amygdala ghrelin had no effect on anxiety-like behavior. By contrast, if the rats were not given access to food during this 1-hour period, a decrease in anxiety-like behavior was observed in both tests. Collectively, these data indicate that the amygdala is a valid target brain area for ghrelin where its neurobiological effects are important for food intake and for the suppression of emotional (anxiety-like behaviors if food is not available.

  6. Reconsolidation and extinction are dissociable and mutually exclusive processes: behavioral and molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Emiliano; Milton, Amy L; Goozée, Zara Y; Theobald, David E; Everitt, Barry J

    2014-02-12

    Memory persistence is critically influenced by retrieval. In rats, a single presentation of a conditioned fear stimulus induces memory reconsolidation and fear memory persistence, while repeated fear cue presentations result in loss of fear through extinction. These two opposite behavioral outcomes are operationally linked by the number of cue presentations at memory retrieval. However, the behavioral properties and mechanistic determinants of the transition have not yet been explored; in particular, whether reconsolidation and extinction processes coexist or are mutually exclusive, depending on the exposure to non-reinforced retrieval events. We characterized both behaviorally and molecularly the transition from reconsolidation to extinction of conditioned fear and showed that an increase in calcineurin (CaN) in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) supports the shift from fear maintenance to fear inhibition. Gradually increasing the extent of retrieval induces a gradual decrease in freezing responses to the conditioned stimulus and a gradual increase in amygdala CaN level. This newly synthesized CaN is required for the extinction, but not the reconsolidation, of conditioned fear. During the transition from reconsolidation to extinction, we have revealed an insensitive state of the fear memory where NMDA-type glutamate receptor agonist and antagonist drugs are unable either to modulate CaN levels in the BLA or alter the reconsolidation or extinction processes. Together, our data indicate both that reconsolidation and extinction are mutually exclusive processes and also reveal the presence of a transitional, or "limbo," state of the original memory between these two alternative outcomes of fear memory retrieval, when neither process is engaged.

  7. Trade Openness and Bank Risk-Taking Behavior: Evidence from Emerging Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badar Nadeem Ashraf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the impact of trade openness on bank risk-taking behavior. Using a panel dataset of 291 banks from 37 emerging countries over the period from 1998 to 2012, we find that higher trade openness decreases bank risk-taking. The results are robust when we use alternative bank risk-taking proxies and alternative estimation methods. We argue that trade openness provides diversification opportunities to banks in lending activities, which decrease overall bank risk. Further to this end, we observe that higher trade openness helps domestic banks to smooth out income volatility and decreases the impact of a financial crisis on banks.

  8. Preliminary Evidence for Cognitive Mediation During Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy of Panic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Suvak, Michael K.; Barlow, David H.; Shear, M. Katherine; Meuret, Alicia E.; Rosenfield, David; Gorman, Jack M.; Woods, Scott W.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) and pharmacotherapy are similarly effective for treating panic disorder with mild or no agoraphobia, but little is known about the mechanism through which these treatments work. The present study examined some of the criteria for cognitive mediation of treatment change in CBT alone, imipramine alone, CBT plus imipramine, and CBT plus placebo. Ninety-one individuals who received 1 of these interventions were assessed before and after acute treatment, and after a 6-month maintenance period. Multilevel moderated mediation analyses provided preliminary support for the notion that changes in panic-related cognitions mediate changes in panic severity only in treatments that include CBT. PMID:17563154

  9. Case Report: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy of A Patient With Pathological Gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Olga Guriz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Pathological gambling is a mental disorder characterized by continuous and repetitive gambling behavior and it might cause significant losses in social, professional and family life. There may also be some personal and social results of it such as suicide attempts, loss of job, marital problems, and troubles in family life, legal difficulties and criminal behavior. Co-occurring mental disorders might influence treatment outcomes of pathological gambling behavior. There are some reports suggesting that especially higher depression levels may increase the likelihood of gambling behavior and it has also been stressed that identification and early treatment of co-occurring depression in treatment process should improve the results and reduce relapse rates. There is not an standardized treatment modality for the treatment of the disorder. It is known that in the treatment of this condition, which results in personal and social failure, psychological intervention may have positive results both in the short and long term. As pathological gambling is not a homogenous disorder, individual planning is essential for the evaluation and therapy. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy seems to be efficient in the treatment of pathological gambling especially in coping with emotional problems and feeling of discomfort through making up a holistic cognitive, emotional, and behavioral model. In this report, the effectiveness of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy that accompanied a drug therapy is discussed in a case of a pathological gambling with comorbid depression. [JCBPR 2012; 1(2.000: 105-112

  10. Case Report: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Of A Patient With Pathological Gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Olga Guriz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pathological gambling is a mental disorder characterized by continuous and repetitive gambling behavior and it might cause significant losses in social, professional and family life. There may also be some personal and social results of it such as suicide attempts, loss of job, marital problems, and troubles in family life, legal difficulties and criminal behavior. Co-occurring mental disorders might influence treatment outcomes of pathological gambling behavior. There are some reports suggesting that especially higher depression levels may increase the likelihood of gambling behavior and it has also been stressed that identification and early treatment of co-occurring depression in treatment process should improve the results and reduce relapse rates. There is not an standardized treatment modality for the treatment of the disorder. It is known that in the treatment of this condition, which results in personal and social failure, psychological intervention may have positive results both in the short and long term. As pathological gambling is not a homogenous disorder, individual planning is essential for the evaluation and therapy. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy seems to be efficient in the treatment of pathological gambling especially in coping with emotional problems and feeling of discomfort through making up a holistic cognitive, emotional, and behavioral model. In this report, the effectiveness of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy that accompanied a drug therapy is discussed in a case of a pathological gambling with comorbid depression.

  11. Thirty-day self-reported risky driving behaviors of ADHD and non-ADHD drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Tova; Wultz, Boaz

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to compare differences in reported risky driving behaviors of drivers - males and females - having and not having Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), by using a checklist of driving behaviors based on the Driving Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ). Unlike the studies which employ the DBQ by asking the subjects to fill the questionnaire once, in this present study, the participants were asked to report their behaviors on a daily basis for 30 consequent days. The checklist included two factors of risky driving behavior: Violation and Faults. Thirty-eight drivers - 10 males and 9 females with ADHD, and 9 males and 10 females without ADHD (N-ADHD) as control groups - participated in the study. The results showed that the mean of the unsafe behaviors of ADHD was higher, i.e., less safe driving, compared to that of N-ADHD. However, a statistically significant effect was found only between male ADHD and male N-ADHD for the Faults. In order to check the effect of the length of the study, the 30 days duration of the research was divided into three consecutive periods. The reported driving habits of the female ADHD showed safer behaviors than those of the males. Unlike the findings of N-ADHD of both genders, which showed a tendency towards safer driving reports in the three periods, both genders of the ADHD showed higher rates of Faults, i.e., a decrease in safety driving reports, in the three periods. The findings suggest that ADHD drivers differ from the N-ADHD drivers in making driving mistakes, i.e., Faults, due to their lack of sustained attention, but not in making Violations. However, some of the results in the present study were not very strong. Possible explanations for this as well as methodological considerations are discussed, and further research is suggested. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evidence-Based Background Material Underlying Guidance for Federal Agencies in Implementing Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans - Implementing Sustainability: The Institutional-Behavioral Dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, Elizabeth L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Sanquist, Tom [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Wolfe, Amy K. [ORNL; Diamond, Rick [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Payne, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Dion, Jerry [ORNL

    2013-06-01

    This document is part of a larger, programmatic effort to assist federal agencies in taking action and changing their institutions to achieve and maintain federal sustainability goals, while meeting their mission goals. FEMP is developing guidance for federal agency efforts to enable institutional behavior change for sustainability, and for making sustainability “business as usual.” The driving requirement for this change is Executive Order (EO) 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance. FEMP emphasizes strategies for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy utilization as critical components of attaining sustainability, and promotes additional non-energy action pathways contained in EO 13514. This report contributes to the larger goal by laying out the conceptual and evidentiary underpinnings of guidance to federal agencies. Conceptual frameworks focus and organize the development of guidance. We outline a series of progressively refined conceptual frameworks, including a multi-layer approach, key steps in sustainability implementation, a process view of specific approaches to institutional change, the agency Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans (SSPPs), and concepts related to context-specific rules, roles and tools for sustainability. Additionally, we tap pertinent bodies of literature in drawing eight evidence-based principles for behavior change. These principles are important foundations upon which to build in selecting strategies to effect change in organizations. Taken together, this report presents a suite of components that inform the training materials, presentations, web site, and other products that provide guidance to federal agencies.

  13. Plasma behavior during energetic electron streaming events: Further evidence for substorm-associated magnetic reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieber, J.W.; Stone, E.C.; Hones, E.W. Jr.; Baker, D.N.; Bame, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    A recent study showed that streaming energetic (>200 keV) electrons in Earth's magnetotail are statistically associated with southward magnetic fields and with enhancements of the AE index. It is shown here that the streaming electrons characteristically are preceded by aapprox.15 minute period of tailward plasma flow and followed by a dropout of the plasma sheet, thus demonstrating a clear statistical association between substorms and the classical signatures of magnetic reconnection and plasmoid formation. Additionally, a brief upward surge of mean electron energy preceded plasma dropout in several of the events studied, providing direct evidence of localized, reconnection-associated heating processes

  14. An asymmetrical relationship between verbal and visual thinking: converging evidence from behavior and fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Elinor; Hoeflin, Caitlyn; Hamzah, Nada; Fedorenko, Evelina

    2017-01-01

    Humans rely on at least two modes of thought: verbal (inner speech) and visual (imagery). Are these modes independent, or does engaging in one entail engaging in the other? To address this question, we performed a behavioral and an fMRI study. In the behavioral experiment, participants received a prompt and were asked to either silently generate a sentence or create a visual image in their mind. They were then asked to judge the vividness of the resulting representation, and of the potentially accompanying representation in the other format. In the fMRI experiment, participants had to recall sentences or images (that they were familiarized with prior to the scanning session) given prompts, or read sentences and view images, in the control, perceptual, condition. An asymmetry was observed between inner speech and visual imagery. In particular, inner speech was engaged to a greater extent during verbal than visual thought, but visual imagery was engaged to a similar extent during both modes of thought. Thus, it appears that people generate more robust verbal representations during deliberate inner speech compared to when their intent is to visualize. However, they generate visual images regardless of whether their intent is to visualize or to think verbally. One possible interpretation of these results is that visual thinking is somehow primary, given the relatively late emergence of verbal abilities during human development and in the evolution of our species. PMID:28323162

  15. Evidence of exchange-coupled behavior in chromium-cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanbir, Kamar; Sharma, Lalit Kumar; Aakash; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Choubey, Ravi Kant; Mukherjee, Samrat

    2018-06-01

    Cr doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized with the generic formula Co1-xCrxFe2O4 (x = 0, 0.05, 0.15, 0.25) through standard chemical co-precipitation method. XRD studies confirmed the pure spinel cubic structure belonging to Fd 3 bar m space group. From the Williamson-Hall plots, crystallite sizes were found to lie within the range (42 ± 1) nm for the different doped samples. The lattice parameter was found to decrease linearly with increase in the concentration of Cr3+ ion. The magnetic behavior of the samples was determined by M-H studies at 300 K, field cooled (5 T) at 5 K and temperature dependent studies. The M-H at 300 K show soft magnetic behavior whereas the M-H plots at 5 K predict the existence of in-homogeneity of the exchange interactions due to strong exchange coupling between the spins at the core and the surface of the nanoparticles.

  16. Effects of achievement goals on challenge seeking and feedback processing: behavioral and FMRI evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woogul Lee

    Full Text Available We conducted behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI research to investigate the effects of two types of achievement goals--mastery goals and performance-approach goals--on challenge seeking and feedback processing. The results of the behavioral experiment indicated that mastery goals were associated with a tendency to seek challenge, both before and after experiencing difficulty during task performance, whereas performance-approach goals were related to a tendency to avoid challenge after encountering difficulty during task performance. The fMRI experiment uncovered a significant decrease in ventral striatal activity when participants received negative feedback for any task type and both forms of achievement goals. During the processing of negative feedback for the rule-finding task, performance-approach-oriented participants showed a substantial reduction in activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and the frontopolar cortex, whereas mastery-oriented participants showed little change. These results suggest that performance-approach-oriented participants are less likely to either recruit control processes in response to negative feedback or focus on task-relevant information provided alongside the negative feedback. In contrast, mastery-oriented participants are more likely to modulate aversive valuations to negative feedback and focus on the constructive elements of feedback in order to attain their task goals. We conclude that performance-approach goals lead to a reluctant stance towards difficulty, while mastery goals encourage a proactive stance.

  17. Extremely frequent behavior in consumer research: theory and empirical evidence for chronic casino gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetto, Ralph; Woodside, Arch G

    2009-09-01

    The present study informs understanding of customer segmentation strategies by extending Twedt's heavy-half propositions to include a segment of users that represent less than 2% of all households-consumers demonstrating extremely frequent behavior (EFB). Extremely frequent behavior (EFB) theory provides testable propositions relating to the observation that few (2%) consumers in many product and service categories constitute more than 25% of the frequency of product or service use. Using casino gambling as an example for testing EFB theory, an analysis of national survey data shows that extremely frequent casino gamblers do exist and that less than 2% of all casino gamblers are responsible for nearly 25% of all casino gambling usage. Approximately 14% of extremely frequent casino users have very low-household income, suggesting somewhat paradoxical consumption patterns (where do very low-income users find the money to gamble so frequently?). Understanding the differences light, heavy, and extreme users and non-users can help marketers and policymakers identify and exploit "blue ocean" opportunities (Kim and Mauborgne, Blue ocean strategy, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2005), for example, creating effective strategies to convert extreme users into non-users or non-users into new users.

  18. Behavioral response to contamination risk information in a spatially explicit groundwater environment: Experimental evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingyuan; Michael, Holly A.; Duke, Joshua M.; Messer, Kent D.; Suter, Jordan F.

    2014-08-01

    This paper assesses the effectiveness of aquifer monitoring information in achieving more sustainable use of a groundwater resource in the absence of management policy. Groundwater user behavior in the face of an irreversible contamination threat is studied by applying methods of experimental economics to scenarios that combine a physics-based, spatially explicit, numerical groundwater model with different representations of information about an aquifer and its risk of contamination. The results suggest that the threat of catastrophic contamination affects pumping decisions: pumping is significantly reduced in experiments where contamination is possible compared to those where pumping cost is the only factor discouraging groundwater use. The level of information about the state of the aquifer also affects extraction behavior. Pumping rates differ when information that synthesizes data on aquifer conditions (a "risk gauge") is provided, despite invariant underlying economic incentives, and this result does not depend on whether the risk information is location-specific or from a whole aquifer perspective. Interestingly, users increase pumping when the risk gauge signals good aquifer status compared to a no-gauge treatment. When the gauge suggests impending contamination, however, pumping declines significantly, resulting in a lower probability of contamination. The study suggests that providing relatively simple aquifer condition guidance derived from monitoring data can lead to more sustainable use of groundwater resources.

  19. Neuroanatomical Evidence for Catecholamines as Modulators of Audition and Acoustic Behavior in a Vocal Teleost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlano, Paul M; Sisneros, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    The plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) is a well-studied model to understand the neural and endocrine mechanisms underlying vocal-acoustic communication across vertebrates. It is well established that steroid hormones such as estrogen drive seasonal peripheral auditory plasticity in female Porichthys in order to better encode the male's advertisement call. However, little is known of the neural substrates that underlie the motivation and coordinated behavioral response to auditory social signals. Catecholamines, which include dopamine and noradrenaline, are good candidates for this function, as they are thought to modulate the salience of and reinforce appropriate behavior to socially relevant stimuli. This chapter summarizes our recent studies which aimed to characterize catecholamine innervation in the central and peripheral auditory system of Porichthys as well as test the hypotheses that innervation of the auditory system is seasonally plastic and catecholaminergic neurons are activated in response to conspecific vocalizations. Of particular significance is the discovery of direct dopaminergic innervation of the saccule, the main hearing end organ, by neurons in the diencephalon, which also robustly innervate the cholinergic auditory efferent nucleus in the hindbrain. Seasonal changes in dopamine innervation in both these areas appear dependent on reproductive state in females and may ultimately function to modulate the sensitivity of the peripheral auditory system as an adaptation to the seasonally changing soundscape. Diencephalic dopaminergic neurons are indeed active in response to exposure to midshipman vocalizations and are in a perfect position to integrate the detection and appropriate motor response to conspecific acoustic signals for successful reproduction.

  20. Dimensions of Socioeconomic Status and Childhood Asthma Outcomes: Evidence for Distinct Behavioral and Biological Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Edith; Shalowitz, Madeleine U; Story, Rachel E; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Levine, Cynthia S; Hayen, Robin; Leigh, Adam K K; Miller, Gregory E

    The objective of this study was to investigate 2 key dimensions of socioeconomic status (SES)-prestige and resources-and their associations with immune, behavioral, and clinical outcomes in childhood asthma. Children ages 9 to 17 years with a physician's diagnosis of asthma (N = 150), and one of their parents participated in this study. Children and parents completed interviews and questionnaires about SES (prestige = parent education; resources = family assets), environmental exposures, and clinical asthma measures. Spirometry was conducted to assess children's pulmonary function, and blood was collected to measure cytokine production in response to nonspecific stimulation, allergen-specific stimulation, and microbial stimulation. Higher scores on both dimensions of childhood SES were associated with better clinical outcomes in children (β's from |.18 to .27|, p values childhood family environments have different implications for behavioral and immunological processes relevant to childhood asthma. They also suggest that childhood SES relates to multiple aspects of immunologic regulation of relevance to the pathophysiology of asthma.

  1. Consumers behavior on organic food: Evidence from the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vehapi Semir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries, the demand for organic food has seen a significant increase in the past decade. However, the organic food market in Serbia is still in its infancy and can be considered an emerging market. By gaining an understanding of consumer behavior on the Serbian market, it is possible to provide a greater consumption of organic food per capita through an appropriate marketing approach, as well as quicker development of the national market. This paper will outline some of the most significant findings obtained from a quantitative study of the population of Serbia in the role of buyers and potential buyers of organic food. How much knowledge respondents have about organic food was also studied and presented here, as was the socio-demographic profile of the consumers as an important determinant of organic food consumption. In addition, we also analyzed consumer behavior when buying organic food from the standpoint of basic instruments of the marketing mix: the product, the price, marketing communication (promotion and marketing channels (place. The obtained results were explained in relation to the theoretical knowledge obtained from previous studies carried out on various national markets. Based on these findings, a solid foundation for the development of effective marketing strategies was obtained.

  2. An asymmetrical relationship between verbal and visual thinking: Converging evidence from behavior and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Elinor; Hoeflin, Caitlyn; Hamzah, Nada; Fedorenko, Evelina

    2017-05-15

    Humans rely on at least two modes of thought: verbal (inner speech) and visual (imagery). Are these modes independent, or does engaging in one entail engaging in the other? To address this question, we performed a behavioral and an fMRI study. In the behavioral experiment, participants received a prompt and were asked to either silently generate a sentence or create a visual image in their mind. They were then asked to judge the vividness of the resulting representation, and of the potentially accompanying representation in the other format. In the fMRI experiment, participants had to recall sentences or images (that they were familiarized with prior to the scanning session) given prompts, or read sentences and view images, in the control, perceptual, condition. An asymmetry was observed between inner speech and visual imagery. In particular, inner speech was engaged to a greater extent during verbal than visual thought, but visual imagery was engaged to a similar extent during both modes of thought. Thus, it appears that people generate more robust verbal representations during deliberate inner speech compared to when their intent is to visualize. However, they generate visual images regardless of whether their intent is to visualize or to think verbally. One possible interpretation of these results is that visual thinking is somehow primary, given the relatively late emergence of verbal abilities during human development and in the evolution of our species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel Behavioral and Neural Evidences for Age-Related changes in Force complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ching; Lin, Linda L; Hwang, Ing-Shiou

    2018-02-17

    This study investigated age-related changes in behavioral and neural complexity for a polyrhythmic movement, which appeared to be an exception to the loss of complexity hypothesis. Young (n = 15; age = 24.2 years) and older (15; 68.1 years) adults performed low-level force-tracking with isometric index abduction to couple a compound sinusoidal target. Multi-scale entropy (MSE) of tracking force and inter-spike interval (ISI) of motor unit (MU) in the first dorsal interosseus muscle were assessed. The MSE area of tracking force at shorter time scales of older adults was greater (more complex) than that of young adults, whereas an opposite trend (less complex for the elders) was noted at longer time scales. The MSE area of force fluctuations (the stochastic component of the tracking force) were generally smaller (less complex) for older adults. Along with greater mean and coefficient of ISI, the MSE area of the cumulative discharge rate of elders tended to be lower (less complex) than that of young adults. In conclusion, age-related complexity changes in polyrhythmic force-tracking depended on the time scale. The adaptive behavioral consequences could be multi-factorial origins of the age-related impairment in rate coding, increased discharge noises, and lower discharge complexity of pooled MUs.

  4. Neuroimmune Pathways in Alcohol Consumption: Evidence from Behavioral and Genetic Studies in Rodents and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gizelle; Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura B.; Mayfield, Jody; Harris, R. Adron; Blednov, Yuri A.

    2014-01-01

    Immune or brain proinflammatory signaling has been linked to some of the behavioral effects of alcohol. Immune signaling appears to regulate voluntary ethanol intake in rodent models, and ethanol intake activates the immune system in multiple models. This bidirectional link raises the possibility that consumption increases immune signaling, which in turn further increases consumption in a feed-forward cycle. Data from animal and human studies provide overlapping support for the involvement of immune-related genes and proteins in alcohol action, and combining animal and human data is a promising approach to systematically evaluate and nominate relevant pathways. Based on rodent models, neuroimmune pathways may represent unexplored, nontraditional targets for medication development to reduce alcohol consumption and prevent relapse. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists are one class of anti-inflammatory medications that demonstrate antiaddictive properties for alcohol and other drugs of abuse. Expression of immune-related genes is altered in animals and humans following chronic alcohol exposure, and the regulatory influences of specific mRNAs, microRNAs, and activated cell types are areas of intense study. Ultimately, the use of multiple datasets combined with behavioral validation will be needed to link specific neuroimmune pathways to addiction vulnerability. PMID:25175860

  5. Ecology shapes moral judgments towards food-wasting behavior: Evidence from the Yali of West Papua, the Ngorongoro Maasai, and Poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiak, Michał; Butovskaya, Marina; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2018-06-01

    People judge food wasting as an immoral behavior. Although moral concerns vary widely across cultures, to this date, food wasting moral judgments were investigated only among rich and industrialized ones. This study reports first evidence of cultural variability on moral judgments of food wasting between modern and traditional cultures. We conducted our study among the Maasai - pastoralists of Ngorongoro, Yali - horticulturalists of West Papua, and among citizens of Poland. According to the results, Maasai judge food wasting as more immoral compared to Yali and Poles. What's more, Yali judge food wasting harsher than Poles. These results suggest that there are cultural differences in moral judgments of food wasting. These differences might reflect the impact of unstable ecology on food economy of a given society. We hypothesize that harsh moral judgment concerning food waste may serve as a cultural adaptation for food insecurity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. American Pancreatic Association Practice Guidelines in Chronic Pancreatitis: Evidence-Based Report on Diagnostic Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conwell, Darwin L.; Lee, Linda S.; Yadav, Dhiraj; Longnecker, Daniel S.; Miller, Frank H.; Mortele, Koenraad J.; Levy, Michael J.; Kwon, Richard; Lieb, John G.; Stevens, Tyler; Toskes, Philip P.; Gardner, Timothy B.; Gelrud, Andres; Wu, Bechien U.; Forsmark, Christopher E.; Vege, Santhi S.

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis remains challenging in early stages of the disease. This report defines the diagnostic criteria useful in the assessment of patients with suspected and established chronic pancreatitis. All current diagnostic procedures are reviewed and evidence based statements are provided about their utility and limitations. Diagnostic criteria for chronic pancreatitis are classified as definitive, probable or insufficient evidence. A diagnostic (STEP-wise; S-survey, T-tomography, E-endoscopy and P-pancreas function testing) algorithm is proposed that proceeds from a non-invasive to a more invasive approach. This algorithm maximizes specificity (low false positive rate) in subjects with chronic abdominal pain and equivocal imaging changes. Futhermore, a nomenclature is suggested to further characterize patients with established chronic pancreatitis based on TIGAR-O (T-toxic, I-idiopathic, G-genetic, A- autoimmune, R-recurrent and O-obstructive) etiology, gland morphology (Cambridge criteria) and physiologic state (exocrine, endocrine function) for uniformity across future multi-center research collaborations. This guideline will serve as a baseline manuscript that will be modified as new evidence becomes available and our knowledge of chronic pancreatitis improves. PMID:25333398

  7. American Pancreatic Association Practice Guidelines in Chronic Pancreatitis: evidence-based report on diagnostic guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conwell, Darwin L; Lee, Linda S; Yadav, Dhiraj; Longnecker, Daniel S; Miller, Frank H; Mortele, Koenraad J; Levy, Michael J; Kwon, Richard; Lieb, John G; Stevens, Tyler; Toskes, Phillip P; Gardner, Timothy B; Gelrud, Andres; Wu, Bechien U; Forsmark, Christopher E; Vege, Santhi S

    2014-11-01

    The diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis remains challenging in early stages of the disease. This report defines the diagnostic criteria useful in the assessment of patients with suspected and established chronic pancreatitis. All current diagnostic procedures are reviewed, and evidence-based statements are provided about their utility and limitations. Diagnostic criteria for chronic pancreatitis are classified as definitive, probable, or insufficient evidence. A diagnostic (STEP-wise; survey, tomography, endoscopy, and pancreas function testing) algorithm is proposed that proceeds from a noninvasive to a more invasive approach. This algorithm maximizes specificity (low false-positive rate) in subjects with chronic abdominal pain and equivocal imaging changes. Furthermore, a nomenclature is suggested to further characterize patients with established chronic pancreatitis based on TIGAR-O (toxic, idiopathic, genetic, autoimmune, recurrent, and obstructive) etiology, gland morphology (Cambridge criteria), and physiologic state (exocrine, endocrine function) for uniformity across future multicenter research collaborations. This guideline will serve as a baseline manuscript that will be modified as new evidence becomes available and our knowledge of chronic pancreatitis improves.

  8. Qualitative Content Analysis of Coworkers' Safety Reports of Unprofessional Behavior by Physicians and Advanced Practice Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, William; Pichert, James W; Hickson, Gerald B; Braddy, Casey H; Brown, Amy J; Catron, Thomas F; Moore, Ilene N; Stampfle, Morgan R; Webb, Lynn E; Cooper, William O

    2018-03-15

    The aims of the study were to develop a valid and reliable taxonomy of coworker reports of alleged unprofessional behavior by physicians and advanced practice professionals and determine the prevalence of reports describing particular types of unprofessional conduct. We conducted qualitative content analysis of coworker reports of alleged unprofessional behavior by physicians and advanced practice professionals to create a standardized taxonomy. We conducted a focus group of experts in medical professionalism to assess the taxonomy's face validity. We randomly selected 120 reports (20%) of the 590 total reports submitted through the medical center's safety event reporting system between June 2015 and September 2016 to measure interrater reliability of taxonomy codes and estimate the prevalence of reports describing particular types of conduct. The initial taxonomy contained 22 codes organized into the following four domains: competent medical care, clear and respectful communication, integrity, and responsibility. All 10 experts agreed that the four domains reflected essential elements of medical professionalism. Interrater reliabilities for all codes and domains had a κ value greater than the 0.60 threshold for good reliability. Most reports (60%, 95% confidence interval = 51%-69%) described disrespectful or offensive communication. Nine codes had a prevalence of less than 1% and were folded into their respective domains resulting in a final taxonomy composed of 13 codes. The final taxonomy represents a useful tool with demonstrated validity and reliability, opening the door for reliable analysis and systems to promote accountability and behavior change. Given the safety implications of unprofessional behavior, understanding the typology of coworker observations of unprofessional behavior may inform organization strategies to address this threat to patient safety.

  9. Information, education, and health behaviors: Evidence from the MMR vaccine autism controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lenisa V

    2018-05-02

    In the wake of strong, although later refuted, claims of a link between autism and the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, I examine whether fewer parents immunized or delayed vaccinations for their children and if there was a differential response by mother's education level. Using various controls and a differencing strategy that compares in MMR take-up with other vaccines, I find that the MMR-autism controversy led to a decline in the immediate years and that there were negative spillovers onto other vaccines. I also find evidence that more highly educated mothers responded more strongly to the controversy either by not immunizing their children altogether or, to a lesser degree, delaying vaccination. Moreover, the educational gap was greater in states where there was greater media attention devoted to the controversy. This is consistent with the health allocative efficiency hypothesis whereby part of the education gradient in health outcomes is due to more-educated individuals absorbing and responding to health information more quickly. However, unlike in the United Kingdom, where previous studies find that the gap was eliminated after the link was refuted, the evidence for the United States suggests that the educational gap persisted. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Facilitating the use of evidence for decision-making – a review of 64 WHO Health Evidence Network synthesis reports and its impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguen, Tim; Takahashi, Ryoko; Kuchenmueller, Tanja

    between health policies and improvements in public health. HEN publishes synthesis reports that are timed for key policy-making events and summarizes what is known about the policy issue, the gaps in the evidence, the areas of debate and the policy options. HEN provides technical guidance to authors...... in selecting an appropriate literature search and synthesis method and writing specifically for policy-makers in mind. To facilitate the uptake of evidence in policy-making, HEN collaborates with decision-makers in identifying priority health policy areas, framing a synthesis question and disseminating...... the synthesis reports for key policy-making events. We report on the experience of over 10 years, producing 64 HEN reports and its impact on policy-making....

  11. Neural and Behavioral Evidence for an Online Resetting Process in Visual Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Halely; Luria, Roy

    2017-02-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) guides behavior by holding a set of active representations and modifying them according to changes in the environment. This updating process relies on a unique mapping between each VWM representation and an actual object in the environment. Here, we destroyed this mapping by either presenting a coherent object but then breaking it into independent parts or presenting an object but then abruptly replacing it with a different object. This allowed us to introduce the neural marker and behavioral consequence of an online resetting process in humans' VWM. Across seven experiments, we demonstrate that this resetting process involves abandoning the old VWM contents because they no longer correspond to the objects in the environment. Then, VWM encodes the novel information and reestablishes the correspondence between the new representations and the objects. The resetting process was marked by a unique neural signature: a sharp drop in the amplitude of the electrophysiological index of VWM contents (the contralateral delay activity), presumably indicating the loss of the existent object-to-representation mappings. This marker was missing when an updating process occurred. Moreover, when tracking moving items, VWM failed to detect salient changes in the object's shape when these changes occurred during the resetting process. This happened despite the object being fully visible, presumably because the mapping between the object and a VWM representation was lost. Importantly, we show that resetting, its neural marker, and the behavioral cost it entails, are specific to situations that involve a destruction of the objects-to-representations correspondence. Visual working memory (VWM) maintains task-relevant information in an online state. Previous studies showed that VWM representations are accessed and modified after changes in the environment. Here, we show that this updating process critically depends on an ongoing mapping between the

  12. Patient-Reported Outcome questionnaires for hip arthroscopy: a systematic review of the psychometric evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Hip arthroscopies are often used in the treatment of intra-articular hip injuries. Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) are an important parameter in evaluating treatment. It is unclear which PRO questionnaires are specifically available for hip arthroscopy patients. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate which PRO questionnaires are valid and reliable in the evaluation of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy. Methods A search was conducted in Pubmed, Medline, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Pedro, EMBASE and Web of Science from 1931 to October 2010. Studies assessing the quality of PRO questionnaires in the evaluation of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy were included. The quality of the questionnaires was evaluated by the psychometric properties of the outcome measures. The quality of the articles investigating the questionnaires was assessed by the COSMIN list. Results Five articles identified three questionnaires; the Modified Harris Hip Score (MHHS), the Nonarthritic Hip Score (NAHS) and the Hip Outcome Score (HOS). The NAHS scored best on the content validity, whereas the HOS scored best on agreement, internal consistency, reliability and responsiveness. The quality of the articles describing the HOS scored highest. The NAHS is the best quality questionnaire. The articles describing the HOS are the best quality articles. Conclusions This systematic review shows that there is no conclusive evidence for the use of a single patient-reported outcome questionnaire in the evaluation of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy. Based on available psychometric evidence we recommend using a combination of the NAHS and the HOS for patients undergoing hip arthroscopy. PMID:21619610

  13. How the brain predicts people's behavior in relation to rules and desires. Evidence of a medio-prefrontal dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Corrado; Turri, Francesco; Kaufmann, Laurence; Clément, Fabrice; Schwartz, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    Forming and updating impressions about others is critical in everyday life and engages portions of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC), the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the amygdala. Some of these activations are attributed to "mentalizing" functions necessary to represent people's mental states, such as beliefs or desires. Evolutionary psychology and developmental studies, however, suggest that interpersonal inferences can also be obtained through the aid of deontic heuristics, which dictate what must (or must not) be done in given circumstances. We used fMRI and asked 18 participants to predict whether unknown characters would follow their desires or obey external rules. Participants had no means, at the beginning, to make accurate predictions, but slowly learned (throughout the experiment) each character's behavioral profile. We isolated brain regions whose activity changed during the experiment, as a neural signature of impression updating: whereas dMPFC was progressively more involved in predicting characters' behavior in relation to their desires, the medial orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala were progressively more recruited in predicting rule-based behavior. Our data provide evidence of a neural dissociation between deontic inference and theory-of-mind (ToM), and support a differentiation of orbital and dorsal prefrontal cortex in terms of low- and high-level social cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Adding evidence-based behavioral weight loss strategies to a statewide wellness campaign: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahey, Tricia M; Thomas, Graham; Fava, Joseph L; Subak, Leslee L; Schembri, Michael; Krupel, Katie; Kumar, Rajiv; Weinberg, Brad; Wing, Rena R

    2014-07-01

    We determined the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of adding an evidence-based Internet behavioral weight loss intervention alone or combined with optional group sessions to ShapeUp Rhode Island 2011 (SURI), a 3-month statewide wellness campaign. We randomized participants (n = 230; body mass index = 34.3 ±6.8 kg/m(2); 84% female) to the standard SURI program (S) or to 1 of 2 enhanced programs: SURI plus Internet behavioral program (SI) or SI plus optional group sessions (SIG). The primary outcome was weight loss at the end of the 3-month program. Weight losses differed among all 3 conditions (S: 1.1% ±0.9%; SI: 4.2% ±0.6%; SIG: 6.1% ±0.6%; Ps ≤ .04). Both SI and SIG increased the percentage of individuals who achieved a 5% weight loss (SI: 42%; SIG: 54%; S: 7%; Ps < .001). Cost per kilogram of weight loss was similar for S ($39) and SI ($35); both were lower than SIG ($114). Although weight losses were greatest at the end of SURI with optional group sessions, the addition of an Internet behavioral program was the most cost-effective method to enhance weight losses.

  15. Convergence of self-reports and coworker-reports of counterproductive work behavior : a cross-sectional multi-source survey among health care workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.; Peeters, M.C.W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Most studies of counterproductive work behavior (CWB) are criticized for overreliance on single-source self-reports. This study attempts to triangulate on behaviors and perceptions of the work environment by linking job incumbent self-report with coworker report of the job incumbent's

  16. Part-Time Employment and Problem Behaviors: Evidence From Adolescents in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moosung; Oi-Yeung Lam, Beatrice; Ju, Eunsu; Dean, Jenny

    2017-03-01

    This study explores the impact of adolescent part-time work experience on problem behaviors in the South Korean context. To achieve this, propensity score matching (PSM) analyses were employed based on data from the Korean Education Employment Panel (KEEP). Results indicate that adolescents' part-time employment during their secondary school years had significantly undesirable effects on drinking and smoking, even after preexisting differences between the two groups (i.e., those adolescents who participated in part-time work and those who did not) were controlled by PSM. However, an insignificant difference was detected in the likelihood of running away from home. Implications of the results are discussed in terms of changes in the meanings of adolescence and of participating in part-time work in South Korea. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  17. Cannabidiol as an Intervention for Addictive Behaviors: A Systematic Review of the Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélissa Prud'homme

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by the compulsive desire to use drugs and a loss of control over consumption. Cannabidiol (CBD, the second most abundant component of cannabis, is thought to modulate various neuronal circuits involved in drug addiction. The goal of this systematic review is to summarize the available preclinical and clinical data on the impact of CBD on addictive behaviors. MEDLINE and PubMed were searched for English and French language articles published before 2015. In all, 14 studies were found, 9 of which were conducted on animals and the remaining 5 on humans. A limited number of preclinical studies suggest that CBD may have therapeutic properties on opioid, cocaine, and psychostimulant addiction, and some preliminary data suggest that it may be beneficial in cannabis and tobacco addiction in humans. Further studies are clearly necessary to fully evaluate the potential of CBD as an intervention for addictive disorders.

  18. Developing a multidimensional framework for wine tourist behavior: Evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alebaki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In response to the need for a better empirical understanding of the multiple factors that drive the demand of wine tourism, this paper serves a twofold objective: first, to test the distinctiveness of motivations for visiting a wine region along with a winery; and secondly, to explore whether geographical distance between tourists׳ place of origin and the wine region can add to the ability of other wine consumer/tourist variables (product involvement; product knowledge; wine tourist identity; past experience to predict specific aspects of wine tourist behavior. In doing so, quantitative survey data were collected from 381 visitors of 12 wineries located in Northern Greece. Results from Principal Component and Multiple Hierarchical Regression Analyses indicate that travel distance predicts wine purchasing at the cellar door as well as the motivational factors associated with ׳Socialization׳ and ׳Destination attractiveness׳. Further, the study proposes a conceptual framework for wine tourism motivation.

  19. Neural evidence for the intrinsic value of action as motivation for behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Naoki; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Harada, Tokiko; Sadato, Norihiro

    2017-06-03

    The intrinsic value of an action refers to the inherent sense that experiencing a behavior is enjoyable even if it has no explicit outcome. Previous research has suggested that a common valuation mechanism within the reward network may be responsible for processing the intrinsic value of achieving both the outcome and external rewards. However, how the intrinsic value of action is neurally represented remains unknown. We hypothesized that the intrinsic value of action is determined by an action-outcome contingency indicating the behavior is controllable and that the outcome of the action can be evaluated by this feedback. Consequently, the reward network should be activated, reflecting the generation of the intrinsic value of action. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) investigation of a stopwatch game in which the action-outcome contingency was manipulated. This experiment involved 36 healthy volunteers and four versions of a stopwatch game that manipulated controllability (the feeling that participants were controlling the stopwatch themselves) and outcome (a signal allowing participants to see the result of their action). A free-choice experiment was administered after the fMRI to explore preference levels for each game. The results showed that the stopwatch game with the action-outcome contingency evoked a greater degree of enjoyment because the participants chose this condition over those that lacked such a contingency. The ventral striatum and midbrain were activated only when action-outcome contingency was present. Thus, the intrinsic value of action was represented by an increase in ventral striatal and midbrain activation. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. For better or for worse? Empirical evidence of moral licensing in a behavioral energy conservation campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiefenbeck, Verena; Staake, Thorsten; Roth, Kurt; Sachs, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Isolated environmental campaigns focusing on defined target behaviors are rolled out to millions of households every year. Yet it is still unclear whether these programs trigger cross-domain adoption of additional environment-friendly behaviors (positive spillover) or reduced engagement elsewhere. A thorough evaluation of the real net performance of these programs is lacking. This paper investigates whether positive or perverse side effects dominate by exemplifying the impact of a water conservation campaign on electricity consumption. The study draws on daily water (10,780 data points) and weekly electricity (1386 data points) consumption data of 154 apartments in a controlled field experiment at a multifamily residence. The results show that residents who received weekly feedback on their water consumption lowered their water use (6.0% on average), but at the same time increased their electricity consumption by 5.6% compared with control subjects. Income effects can be excluded. While follow-up research is needed on the precise mechanism of the psychological process at work, the findings are consistent with the concept of moral licensing, which can more than offset the benefits of focused energy efficiency campaigns, at least in the short-term. We advocate the adoption of a more comprehensive view in environmental program design/evaluation in order to quantify and mitigate these unintended effects. - Highlights: ► We measure cross-domain licensing effects in a naturalistic setting. ► We rule out income effects as an alternative explanation for the effects. ► The conservation campaign succeeds in reducing demand for the target resource water. ► Yet participants increase consumption in other domains (electricity demand). ► The energy/CO 2 savings from water are more than offset by higher electricity demand

  1. Glucocorticoid Regulation of Food-Choice Behavior in Humans: Evidence from Cushing's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Scott J; Couto, Lizette; Cohen, Vanessa; Lalazar, Yelena; Makotkine, Iouri; Williams, Nia; Yehuda, Rachel; Goldstein, Rita Z; Geer, Eliza B

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which glucocorticoids regulate food intake and resulting body mass in humans are not well-understood. One potential mechanism could involve modulation of reward processing, but human stress models examining effects of glucocorticoids on behavior contain important confounds. Here, we studied individuals with Cushing's syndrome, a rare endocrine disorder characterized by chronic excess endogenous glucocorticoids. Twenty-three patients with Cushing's syndrome (13 with active disease; 10 with disease in remission) and 15 controls with a comparably high body mass index (BMI) completed two simulated food-choice tasks (one with "explicit" task contingencies and one with "probabilistic" task contingencies), during which they indicated their objective preference for viewing high calorie food images vs. standardized pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images. All participants also completed measures of food craving, and approximately half of the participants provided 24-h urine samples for assessment of cortisol and cortisone concentrations. Results showed that on the explicit task (but not the probabilistic task), participants with active Cushing's syndrome made fewer food-related choices than participants with Cushing's syndrome in remission, who in turn made fewer food-related choices than overweight controls. Corroborating this group effect, higher urine cortisone was negatively correlated with food-related choice in the subsample of all participants for whom these data were available. On the probabilistic task, despite a lack of group differences, higher food-related choice correlated with higher state and trait food craving in active Cushing's patients. Taken together, relative to overweight controls, Cushing's patients, particularly those with active disease, displayed a reduced vigor of responding for food rewards that was presumably attributable to glucocorticoid abnormalities. Beyond Cushing's, these results may have relevance for elucidating

  2. Effects of airgun sounds on bowhead whale calling rates: evidence for two behavioral thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna B Blackwell

    Full Text Available In proximity to seismic operations, bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus decrease their calling rates. Here, we investigate the transition from normal calling behavior to decreased calling and identify two threshold levels of received sound from airgun pulses at which calling behavior changes. Data were collected in August-October 2007-2010, during the westward autumn migration in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Up to 40 directional acoustic recorders (DASARs were deployed at five sites offshore of the Alaskan North Slope. Using triangulation, whale calls localized within 2 km of each DASAR were identified and tallied every 10 minutes each season, so that the detected call rate could be interpreted as the actual call production rate. Moreover, airgun pulses were identified on each DASAR, analyzed, and a cumulative sound exposure level was computed for each 10-min period each season (CSEL10-min. A Poisson regression model was used to examine the relationship between the received CSEL10-min from airguns and the number of detected bowhead calls. Calling rates increased as soon as airgun pulses were detectable, compared to calling rates in the absence of airgun pulses. After the initial increase, calling rates leveled off at a received CSEL10-min of ~94 dB re 1 μPa2-s (the lower threshold. In contrast, once CSEL10-min exceeded ~127 dB re 1 μPa2-s (the upper threshold, whale calling rates began decreasing, and when CSEL10-min values were above ~160 dB re 1 μPa2-s, the whales were virtually silent.

  3. Individual differences in ideological attitudes and prejudice: evidence from peer-report data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrs, J Christopher; Kämpfe-Hargrave, Nicole; Riemann, Rainer

    2012-08-01

    Our knowledge on the personality basis of ideological attitudes and prejudice, while based on a substantial body of research, suffers from a potentially serious methodological limitation: an overreliance on the method of self-reports. Across 2 studies (Ns = 193, 424), we examined associations between the Big Five personality dimensions, Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA), Social Dominance Orientation (SDO), and generalized prejudice, using both self-report and peer-report data stemming from 1 (Study 1) or 2 (Study 2) peer rater/s. Correlational and regression analyses as well as structural equation modeling showed that (a) the associations between personality dimensions, ideological attitudes, and prejudice were largely similar to previous research for both data sources; (b) RWA and prejudice showed a similar level of self-peer agreement to personality dimensions; (c) most of the known associations between personality, ideological attitudes, and prejudice were replicated also when measured by independent methods; (d) peer reports had some incremental validity in predicting ideological attitudes and prejudice; and (e) there was evidence that Openness to Experience and Agreeableness predicted prejudice directly and not only indirectly via RWA and SDO, respectively. Implications for the status of RWA, SDO, and prejudice as individual-difference constructs and for their bases in personality dimensions are discussed.

  4. Health risk perception and betel chewing behavior--the evidence from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiang-Ming; Chang, Kuo-Liang; Lin, Lin; Lee, Jwo-Leun

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we provided an empirical examination of the interaction between people's health risk perception and betel chewing. We hypothesized that a better knowledge of possible health risks would reduce both the number of individuals who currently chew betel and the likelihood of those who do not yet chew betel to begin the habit. We constructed a simultaneous equation model with Bayesian two-stage approach to control the endogeneity between betel chewing and risk perception. Using a national survey of 26,684 observations in Taiwan, our study results indicated that better health knowledge reduced the possibility that people would become betel chewers. We also found that, in general, betel chewers have a poorer health risk perception than other population. Overall, the empirical evidence suggested that health authorities could reduce the odds of people becoming betel chewers by improving their knowledge of betel-chewing's harmful effects. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Behavioral and neuroimaging evidence for overreliance on habit learning in alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoerds, Z; de Wit, S; van den Brink, W; Robbins, T W; Beekman, A T F; Penninx, B W J H; Veltman, D J

    2013-12-17

    Substance dependence is characterized by compulsive drug-taking despite negative consequences. Animal research suggests an underlying imbalance between goal-directed and habitual action control with chronic drug use. However, this imbalance, and its associated neurophysiological mechanisms, has not yet been experimentally investigated in human drug abusers. The aim of the present study therefore was to assess the balance between goal-directed and habit-based learning and its neural correlates in abstinent alcohol-dependent (AD) patients. A total of 31 AD patients and 19 age, gender and education matched healthy controls (HC) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during completion of an instrumental learning task designed to study the balance between goal-directed and habit learning. Task performance and task-related blood oxygen level-dependent activations in the brain were compared between AD patients and healthy matched controls. Findings were additionally associated with duration and severity of alcohol dependence. The results of this study provide evidence for an overreliance on stimulus-response habit learning in AD compared with HC, which was accompanied by decreased engagement of brain areas implicated in goal-directed action (ventromedial prefrontal cortex and anterior putamen) and increased recruitment of brain areas implicated in habit learning (posterior putamen) in AD patients. In conclusion, this is the first human study to provide experimental evidence for a disturbed balance between goal-directed and habitual control by use of an instrumental learning task, and to directly implicate cortical dysfunction to overreliance on inflexible habits in AD patients.

  6. The impact of cooking classes on food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors of school-aged children: a systematic review of the evidence, 2003-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersch, Derek; Perdue, Laura; Ambroz, Teresa; Boucher, Jackie L

    2014-11-06

    Cooking programs have been used to promote healthful eating among people of all ages. This review assesses the evidence on childhood cooking programs and their association with changes in food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors of school-aged children. We systematically searched PubMed, Ovid-Medline, and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) databases. We included primary research articles that involved cooking education programs for children and searched reference lists for eligible articles. Studies considered for review contained a hands-on cooking intervention; had participants aged 5 to 12 years; were published in a peer-reviewed journal on or after January 1, 2003; and were written in English. We used the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies to rate the strength of each article and assess bias. The following information was extracted from each study: study design, sample size, location, duration, intervention components, data collection methods, and outcomes. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria and used cooking education to influence children's food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors. Programs varied in duration, evaluation methods, and outcomes of interest. Self-reported food preparation skills, dietary intake, cooking confidence, fruit and vegetable preferences, attitudes toward food and cooking, and food-related knowledge were among the outcomes measured. Program exposure ranged from 2 sessions to regular instruction over 2 years, and the effect of cooking programs on children's food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors varied among the reviewed studies. Findings suggest that cooking programs may positively influence children's food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors. However, because study measurements varied widely, determining best practices was difficult. Further research is needed to fill knowledge gaps on ideal program

  7. The Impact of Cooking Classes on Food-Related Preferences, Attitudes, and Behaviors of School-Aged Children: A Systematic Review of the Evidence, 2003–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, Laura; Ambroz, Teresa; Boucher, Jackie L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cooking programs have been used to promote healthful eating among people of all ages. This review assesses the evidence on childhood cooking programs and their association with changes in food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors of school-aged children. Methods We systematically searched PubMed, Ovid-Medline, and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) databases. We included primary research articles that involved cooking education programs for children and searched reference lists for eligible articles. Studies considered for review contained a hands-on cooking intervention; had participants aged 5 to 12 years; were published in a peer-reviewed journal on or after January 1, 2003; and were written in English. We used the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies to rate the strength of each article and assess bias. The following information was extracted from each study: study design, sample size, location, duration, intervention components, data collection methods, and outcomes. Results Eight studies met the inclusion criteria and used cooking education to influence children’s food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors. Programs varied in duration, evaluation methods, and outcomes of interest. Self-reported food preparation skills, dietary intake, cooking confidence, fruit and vegetable preferences, attitudes toward food and cooking, and food-related knowledge were among the outcomes measured. Program exposure ranged from 2 sessions to regular instruction over 2 years, and the effect of cooking programs on children’s food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors varied among the reviewed studies. Conclusions Findings suggest that cooking programs may positively influence children’s food-related preferences, attitudes, and behaviors. However, because study measurements varied widely, determining best practices was difficult. Further research is

  8. Adult self-reported and objectively monitored physical activity and sedentary behavior: NHANES 2005–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background It remains unclear what people are attempting to communicate, in terms of objectively monitored behavior, when describing their physical activity and sedentary behavior through self-report. The purpose of this study was to examine various objectively monitored accelerometer variables (e.g., moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA], steps/day, sedentary time, etc.) across categories of self-reported MVPA (activity (UODA; “mostly sitting” vs. “stand, walk, lift, or carry”), and leisure-time sedentary behavior (LTSB; ≥ 3 vs. behavior between categories of self-reported MVPA, UODA, and LTSB. Results On average, adults reporting compliance with physical activity guidelines (≥ 150 minutes/week of MVPA) accumulated more objectively measured physical activity and similar amounts of sedentary time relative to those reporting not achieving guidelines. Adults reporting their daily UODA as “mostly sitting” or accruing ≥ 3 hours/day of LTSB accumulated less objectively monitored physical activity and more sedentary time than those who described their UODA as “stand, walk, lift, or carry” or accrued active cross-classified category (7,935 steps/day; ≥ 150 minutes/week of self-reported MVPA, “stand, walk, lift, or carry” UODA, and active cross-classified category (3,532 steps/day; physical activity indicators varied significantly between self-reported MVPA, UODA, and LTSB categories, while objectively monitored sedentary time only varied between UODA and LTSB categories. Cross-classifications of self-reported MVPA, UODA, and LTSB responses depict a greater range of physical activity than viewing dichotomous responses for these variables one-at-a-time. PMID:24215625

  9. Case-mix adjustment of consumer reports about managed behavioral health care and health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eselius, Laura L; Cleary, Paul D; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Huskamp, Haiden A; Busch, Susan H

    2008-12-01

    To develop a model for adjusting patients' reports of behavioral health care experiences on the Experience of Care and Health Outcomes (ECHO) survey to allow for fair comparisons across health plans. Survey responses from 4,068 individuals enrolled in 21 managed behavioral health plans who received behavioral health care within the previous year (response rate = 48 percent). Potential case-mix adjustors were evaluated by combining information about their predictive power and the amount of within- and between-plan variability. Changes in plan scores and rankings due to case-mix adjustment were quantified. The final case-mix adjustment model included self-reported mental health status, self-reported general health status, alcohol/drug treatment, age, education, and race/ethnicity. The impact of adjustment on plan report scores was modest, but large enough to change some plan rankings. Adjusting plan report scores on the ECHO survey for differences in patient characteristics had modest effects, but still may be important to maintain the credibility of patient reports as a quality metric. Differences between those with self-reported fair/poor health compared with those in excellent/very good health varied by plan, suggesting quality differences associated with health status and underscoring the importance of collecting quality information.

  10. Correlates of and couples' concordance in reports of recent sexual behavior and contraceptive use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffi, Alain K; Adjiwanou, Visseho D; Becker, Stan; Olaolorun, Funmilola; Tsui, Amy O

    2012-03-01

    This study uses couple-level data to measure couples' concordance of self-reported time since last coitus and of condom and other contraceptive use at last sexual intercourse among monogamous couples in Liberia (N = 1,673), Madagascar (N = 4,138), and Namibia (N = 588). The study also examines the characteristics associated with sexual behavior and contraceptive use occurring in the 28 days prior to the interviews among couples whose reports are concordant. Overall, our study finds less than 75 percent concordance in reporting of time since last coitus. Use of condoms and other contraceptives yielded fair (0.27) to substantial (0.67) agreement on the kappa index. Factors predicting a shorter time since last coitus among concordant couples in at least two of the countries included wealth, spousal age difference, education, and both partners wanting another child. The discordant reports of recent sexual behavior and contraceptive use suggest that caution should be exercised when inferring couples' behavior from the report of one spouse, that concordant reports should be examined when possible, that methodological changes to improve the validity of spousal reports should be pursued, and that family planning and HIV-prevention programs should target those groups found to be using condoms and other contraceptives less frequently, particularly poorer couples.

  11. The impact of education on sexual behavior in sub-Saharan Africa: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons; Jukes, Matthew C H

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have attempted to determine the relationship between education and HIV status. However, a complete and causal understanding of this relationship requires analysis of its mediating pathways, focusing on sexual behaviors. We developed a series of hypotheses based on the differential effect of educational attainment on three sexual behaviors. We tested our predictions in a systematic literature review including 65 articles reporting associations between three specific sexual behaviors -- sexual initiation, number of partners, and condom use -- and educational attainment or school enrollment in sub-Saharan Africa. The patterns of associations varied by behavior. The findings for condom use were particularly convergent; none of the 44 studies using educational attainment as a predictor reviewed found that more educated people were significantly less likely to use condoms. Findings for sexual initiation and number of partners were more complex. The contrast between findings for condom use on the one hand and sexual initiation and number of partners on the other supports predictions based on our theoretical framework.

  12. The Effects of Money on Fake Rating Behavior in E-Commerce: Electrophysiological Time Course Evidence From Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuicui Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Online ratings impose significant effects on the behaviors of potential customers. Thus, online merchants try to adopt strategies that affect this rating behavior, and most of these strategies are connected to money, such as the strategies of returning cash coupons if a consumer gives a five-star rating (RI strategy, an acronym for “returning” and “if” or returning cash coupons directly with no additional requirements (RN strategy, an acronym for “returning” and “no”. The current study explored whether a certain strategy (RN or RI was more likely to give rise to false rating behaviors, as assessed by event-related potentials. A two-stimulus paradigm was used in this experiment. The first stimulus (S1 was the picture of a product with four Chinese characters that reflected the product quality (slightly defective vs. seriously defective vs. not defective, and the second stimulus (S2 displayed the coupon strategy (RN or RI. The participants were asked to decide whether or not to give a five-star rating. The behavioral results showed that the RI strategy led to a higher rate of five-star ratings than the RN strategy. For the electrophysiological time courses, the N1, N2, and LPP components were evaluated. The slightly defective products elicited a larger amplitude of the N1 component than the seriously defective and not-defective products, reflecting that perceptual difficulty was associated with the processing of the slightly defective products. The RI strategy evoked a less negative N2 and a more positive LPP than the RN strategy, indicating that the subjects perceived less conflict and experienced stronger incentives when processing the RI strategy. These findings will benefit future studies of fake online comments and provide evidence supporting the policy of forbidding the use of the RI strategy in e-commerce.

  13. The Effects of Money on Fake Rating Behavior in E-Commerce: Electrophysiological Time Course Evidence From Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuicui; Li, Yun; Luo, Xuan; Ma, Qingguo; Fu, Weizhong; Fu, Huijian

    2018-01-01

    Online ratings impose significant effects on the behaviors of potential customers. Thus, online merchants try to adopt strategies that affect this rating behavior, and most of these strategies are connected to money, such as the strategies of returning cash coupons if a consumer gives a five-star rating (RI strategy, an acronym for "returning" and "if") or returning cash coupons directly with no additional requirements (RN strategy, an acronym for "returning" and "no"). The current study explored whether a certain strategy (RN or RI) was more likely to give rise to false rating behaviors, as assessed by event-related potentials. A two-stimulus paradigm was used in this experiment. The first stimulus (S1) was the picture of a product with four Chinese characters that reflected the product quality (slightly defective vs. seriously defective vs. not defective), and the second stimulus (S2) displayed the coupon strategy (RN or RI). The participants were asked to decide whether or not to give a five-star rating. The behavioral results showed that the RI strategy led to a higher rate of five-star ratings than the RN strategy. For the electrophysiological time courses, the N1, N2, and LPP components were evaluated. The slightly defective products elicited a larger amplitude of the N1 component than the seriously defective and not-defective products, reflecting that perceptual difficulty was associated with the processing of the slightly defective products. The RI strategy evoked a less negative N2 and a more positive LPP than the RN strategy, indicating that the subjects perceived less conflict and experienced stronger incentives when processing the RI strategy. These findings will benefit future studies of fake online comments and provide evidence supporting the policy of forbidding the use of the RI strategy in e-commerce.

  14. The Effects of Money on Fake Rating Behavior in E-Commerce: Electrophysiological Time Course Evidence From Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuicui; Li, Yun; Luo, Xuan; Ma, Qingguo; Fu, Weizhong; Fu, Huijian

    2018-01-01

    Online ratings impose significant effects on the behaviors of potential customers. Thus, online merchants try to adopt strategies that affect this rating behavior, and most of these strategies are connected to money, such as the strategies of returning cash coupons if a consumer gives a five-star rating (RI strategy, an acronym for “returning” and “if”) or returning cash coupons directly with no additional requirements (RN strategy, an acronym for “returning” and “no”). The current study explored whether a certain strategy (RN or RI) was more likely to give rise to false rating behaviors, as assessed by event-related potentials. A two-stimulus paradigm was used in this experiment. The first stimulus (S1) was the picture of a product with four Chinese characters that reflected the product quality (slightly defective vs. seriously defective vs. not defective), and the second stimulus (S2) displayed the coupon strategy (RN or RI). The participants were asked to decide whether or not to give a five-star rating. The behavioral results showed that the RI strategy led to a higher rate of five-star ratings than the RN strategy. For the electrophysiological time courses, the N1, N2, and LPP components were evaluated. The slightly defective products elicited a larger amplitude of the N1 component than the seriously defective and not-defective products, reflecting that perceptual difficulty was associated with the processing of the slightly defective products. The RI strategy evoked a less negative N2 and a more positive LPP than the RN strategy, indicating that the subjects perceived less conflict and experienced stronger incentives when processing the RI strategy. These findings will benefit future studies of fake online comments and provide evidence supporting the policy of forbidding the use of the RI strategy in e-commerce. PMID:29615851

  15. The role of personality traits and driving experience in self-reported risky driving behaviors and accident risk among Chinese drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Da; Zhang, Rui; Qu, Xingda

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of personality traits and driving experience in the prediction of risky driving behaviors and accident risk among Chinese population. A convenience sample of drivers (n=511; mean (SD) age=34.2 (8.8) years) completed a self-report questionnaire that was designed based on validated scales for measuring personality traits, risky driving behaviors and self-reported accident risk. Results from structural equation modeling analysis demonstrated that the data fit well with our theoretical model. While showing no direct effects on accident risk, personality traits had direct effects on risky driving behaviors, and yielded indirect effects on accident risk mediated by risky driving behaviors. Both driving experience and risky driving behaviors directly predicted accident risk and accounted for 15% of its variance. There was little gender difference in personality traits, risky driving behaviors and accident risk. The findings emphasized the importance of personality traits and driving experience in the understanding of risky driving behaviors and accident risk among Chinese drivers and provided new insight into the design of evidence-based driving education and accident prevention interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. VENTILATION BEHAVIOR IN TRAINED AND UNTRAINED MEN DURING INCREMENTAL TEST: EVIDENCE OF ONE METABOLIC TRANSITION POINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio O. Pires

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe and compare the ventilation behavior during an incremental test utilizing three mathematical models and to compare the feature of ventilation curve fitted by the best mathematical model between aerobically trained (TR and untrained (UT men. Thirty five subjects underwent a treadmill test with 1 km·h-1 increases every minute until exhaustion. Ventilation averages of 20 seconds were plotted against time and fitted by: bi-segmental regression model (2SRM; three-segmental regression model (3SRM; and growth exponential model (GEM. Residual sum of squares (RSS and mean square error (MSE were calculated for each model. The correlations between peak VO2 (VO2PEAK, peak speed (SpeedPEAK, ventilatory threshold identified by the best model (VT2SRM and the first derivative calculated for workloads below (moderate intensity and above (heavy intensity VT2SRM were calculated. The RSS and MSE for GEM were significantly higher (p < 0.01 than for 2SRM and 3SRM in pooled data and in UT, but no significant difference was observed among the mathematical models in TR. In the pooled data, the first derivative of moderate intensities showed significant negative correlations with VT2SRM (r = -0.58; p < 0.01 and SpeedPEAK (r = -0.46; p < 0.05 while the first derivative of heavy intensities showed significant negative correlation with VT2SRM (r = -0. 43; p < 0.05. In UT group the first derivative of moderate intensities showed significant negative correlations with VT2SRM (r = -0.65; p < 0.05 and SpeedPEAK (r = -0.61; p < 0.05, while the first derivative of heavy intensities showed significant negative correlation with VT2SRM (r= -0.73; p< 0.01, SpeedPEAK (r = -0.73; p < 0.01 and VO2PEAK (r = -0.61; p < 0.05 in TR group. The ventilation behavior during incremental treadmill test tends to show only one threshold. UT subjects showed a slower ventilation increase during moderate intensities while TR subjects showed a slower ventilation increase

  17. Perceived extrinsic mortality risk and reported effort in looking after health: testing a behavioral ecological prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Gillian V; Nettle, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Socioeconomic gradients in health behavior are pervasive and well documented. Yet, there is little consensus on their causes. Behavioral ecological theory predicts that, if people of lower socioeconomic position (SEP) perceive greater personal extrinsic mortality risk than those of higher SEP, they should disinvest in their future health. We surveyed North American adults for reported effort in looking after health, perceived extrinsic and intrinsic mortality risks, and measures of SEP. We examined the relationships between these variables and found that lower subjective SEP predicted lower reported health effort. Lower subjective SEP was also associated with higher perceived extrinsic mortality risk, which in turn predicted lower reported health effort. The effect of subjective SEP on reported health effort was completely mediated by perceived extrinsic mortality risk. Our findings indicate that perceived extrinsic mortality risk may be a key factor underlying SEP gradients in motivation to invest in future health.

  18. Trends in parent-reported emotional and behavioral problems among children using special education services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Patricia N; Reuben, Cynthia A

    2015-06-01

    This report describes trends in health conditions reported by parents as the limitations leading to special education services for their children. Data are reported for children ages 6-17 (N=182,998) surveyed in households in the 2001-2012 National Health Interview Survey. Between 2001 and 2012, the overall percentage of U.S. children ages 6-17 who were receiving special education services increased from 7.2% to 8.7%. Between 2001 and 2012, the leading causes of activity limitations among children receiving special education services included emotional or behavioral problems, which increased from 36% to 43%; speech problems, which increased from 16% to 22%; and learning disability, which decreased from 41% to 27%. There were no significant trends in any of the other conditions considered as possible sources of activity limitations. Emotional and behavioral problems have become the most frequently reported source of activity limitations among children receiving special education services.

  19. BEHAVIOR OF FUNDING AND LENDING PRICING OF INDONESIAN BANKS: EVIDENCE FROM AGGREGATE POST CRISIS DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soenartomo Soepomo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to reveal the behavior of lending and funding pricing (deposit interest rate and loan interestrate of Indonesian banks after the great crisis in 1998. Specifically the research design aimed to uncover theform of interaction (state of equilibrium and factors that might influence the state of equilibrium. We used amodel developed by Niehans (1978 and De Grauwe (1982 as a point of departure to address the researchproblem. There were 12 variables used in a simultanous equation econometric model that would be estimated byusing 4 different techniques namely GMM TS, GMM CS, 3SLS and SUR. Two variables namely price ofdeposit and price of loan were treated as endogenous. We also considered the impact of deposit insuranceadoption that was took place in September 2005.The empirical findings showed that the slopes of DD and LLequation were largely consistent with the hypotheses. The parameters were positive and statistically significant.However the numerical value of LL slope that was greater than the other one and comparable to DD slopehad raised a concern for the stability attainment. The most important variables (based on their magnitude andstatistical significance found to affect the constellation were business prospect, system size, exchange rate,operational cost and profitability. In the second tier of importance, we found that monetary policy instruments(policy rate differential and base money supply, quality of loan, capital and total liquidity affected the systemin various degrees.

  20. Dispositional Employability and Online Training Purchase. Evidence from Employees' Behavior in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent-Sellens, Joan; Ficapal-Cusí, Pilar; Boada-Grau, Joan

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between dispositional employability and online training purchase. Through a sample of 883 employees working for enterprises in Spain, and a using principal component analysis and binomial logit probabilistic models, the research revealed two main results. First, it was found that dispositional employability is characterized by five factors: "openness to changes at work," "career motivation and work resilience," "work and career proactivity," "optimism and engagement at work," and "work identity." Second, the research also found a double causality in the relationship analysis between dispositional employability and online training purchase. However, this causality is not direct. In explaining dispositional employability, certain motivations and types of behavior of employees participating in online training are significant. In particular, greater sensitivity toward career-related personal empowerment, a greater predisposition toward developing new experiences at work, and a greater awareness of the fact that positive job outcomes are related to preparation conscientiousness. In explaining online training purchase, employees who are more motivated and who better identify with their jobs are more likely to pay. Moreover, employees who spend more time on training and have less contact with new trends in their jobs, find it hard to keep calm in difficult situations, and have a greater predisposition toward effort, and preference for novelty, variety and challenges at work are more likely to purchase online training.

  1. Dispositional employability and online training purchase. Evidence from employees’ behavior in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan eTorrent-Sellens

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between dispositional employability and online training purchase. Through a sample of 883 employees working for enterprises in Spain, and a using principal component analysis and binomial logit probabilistic models, the research revealed two main results. First, it was found that dispositional employability is characterized by five factors: openness to changes at work, career motivation and work resilience, work and career proactivity, optimism and engagement at work, and work identity. Second, the research also found a double causality in the relationship analysis between dispositional employability and online training purchase. However, this causality is not direct. In explaining dispositional employability, certain motivations and types of behavior of employees participating in online training are significant. In particular, greater sensitivity towards career-related personal empowerment, a greater predisposition towards developing new experiences at work, and a greater awareness of the fact that positive job outcomes are related to preparation conscientiousness. In explaining online training purchase, employees who are more motivated and who better identify with their jobs are more likely to pay. Moreover, employees who spend more time on training and have less contact with new trends in their jobs, find it hard to keep calm in difficult situations, and have a greater predisposition towards effort, and preference for novelty, variety and challenges at work are more likely to purchase online training.

  2. Emotion and goal-directed behavior: ERP evidence on cognitive and emotional conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanske, Philipp; Obermeier, Christian; Schröger, Erich; Kotz, Sonja A.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control supports goal-directed behavior by resolving conflict among opposing action tendencies. Emotion can trigger cognitive control processes, thus speeding up conflict processing when the target dimension of stimuli is emotional. However, it is unclear what role emotionality of the target dimension plays in the processing of emotional conflict (e.g. in irony). In two EEG experiments, we compared the influence of emotional valence of the target (emotional, neutral) in cognitive and emotional conflict processing. To maximally approximate real-life communication, we used audiovisual stimuli. Participants either categorized spoken vowels (cognitive conflict) or their emotional valence (emotional conflict), while visual information was congruent or incongruent. Emotional target dimension facilitated both cognitive and emotional conflict processing, as shown in a reduced reaction time conflict effect. In contrast, the N100 in the event-related potentials showed a conflict-specific reversal: the conflict effect was larger for emotional compared with neutral trials in cognitive conflict and smaller in emotional conflict. Additionally, domain-general conflict effects were observed in the P200 and N200 responses. The current findings confirm that emotions have a strong influence on cognitive and emotional conflict processing. They also highlight the complexity and heterogeneity of the interaction of emotion with different types of conflict. PMID:25925271

  3. Changes in Smoking Behavior over Family Transitions: Evidence for Anticipation and Adaptation Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Bricard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of changes in smoking behaviors over the life course is a promising line of research. This paper aims to analyze the temporal relation between family transitions (partnership formation, first childbirth, separation and changes in smoking initiation and cessation. We propose a discrete-time logistic model to explore the timing of changes in terms of leads and lags effects up to three years around the event in order to measure both anticipation and adaptation mechanisms. Retrospective biographical data from the Santé et Itinéraires Professionnels (SIP survey conducted in France in 2006 are used. Partnership formation was followed for both genders by a fall in smoking initiation and an immediate rise in smoking cessation. Childbirth was associated with increased smoking cessation immediately around childbirth, and additionally, females showed an anticipatory increase in smoking cessation up to two years before childbirth. Couple separation was accompanied by an anticipatory increase in smoking initiation for females up to two years prior to the separation, but this effect only occurred in males during separation. Our findings highlight opportunities for more targeted interventions over the life course to reduce smoking, and therefore have relevance for general practitioners and public policy elaboration.

  4. Dispositional Employability and Online Training Purchase. Evidence from Employees' Behavior in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent-Sellens, Joan; Ficapal-Cusí, Pilar; Boada-Grau, Joan

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between dispositional employability and online training purchase. Through a sample of 883 employees working for enterprises in Spain, and a using principal component analysis and binomial logit probabilistic models, the research revealed two main results. First, it was found that dispositional employability is characterized by five factors: “openness to changes at work,” “career motivation and work resilience,” “work and career proactivity,” “optimism and engagement at work,” and “work identity.” Second, the research also found a double causality in the relationship analysis between dispositional employability and online training purchase. However, this causality is not direct. In explaining dispositional employability, certain motivations and types of behavior of employees participating in online training are significant. In particular, greater sensitivity toward career-related personal empowerment, a greater predisposition toward developing new experiences at work, and a greater awareness of the fact that positive job outcomes are related to preparation conscientiousness. In explaining online training purchase, employees who are more motivated and who better identify with their jobs are more likely to pay. Moreover, employees who spend more time on training and have less contact with new trends in their jobs, find it hard to keep calm in difficult situations, and have a greater predisposition toward effort, and preference for novelty, variety and challenges at work are more likely to purchase online training. PMID:27313557

  5. Changes in Smoking Behavior over Family Transitions: Evidence for Anticipation and Adaptation Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricard, Damien; Legleye, Stéphane; Khlat, Myriam

    2017-06-07

    The study of changes in smoking behaviors over the life course is a promising line of research. This paper aims to analyze the temporal relation between family transitions (partnership formation, first childbirth, separation) and changes in smoking initiation and cessation. We propose a discrete-time logistic model to explore the timing of changes in terms of leads and lags effects up to three years around the event in order to measure both anticipation and adaptation mechanisms. Retrospective biographical data from the Santé et Itinéraires Professionnels (SIP) survey conducted in France in 2006 are used. Partnership formation was followed for both genders by a fall in smoking initiation and an immediate rise in smoking cessation. Childbirth was associated with increased smoking cessation immediately around childbirth, and additionally, females showed an anticipatory increase in smoking cessation up to two years before childbirth. Couple separation was accompanied by an anticipatory increase in smoking initiation for females up to two years prior to the separation, but this effect only occurred in males during separation. Our findings highlight opportunities for more targeted interventions over the life course to reduce smoking, and therefore have relevance for general practitioners and public policy elaboration.

  6. Contingent capture can occur at specific feature values: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jun; Zhao, Guang; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Kan; Li, Hong; Sun, Hong-Jin; Liu, Qiang

    2013-02-01

    The notion that attentional top-down control can be tuned to a stimulus feature is widely accepted. Although previous studies suggested that the stimulus-driven attentional capture could be contingent on top-down attentional control settings, it was uncertain whether contingent capture can occur at a specific feature value. Three experiments were conducted to address this issue using both behavioral and ERPs measures. Participants were required to respond to one color singleton in the search display (target) but refrain from responding to the search display containing another color singleton (nontarget). When target and nontarget belonged to different color categories (Experiment 1), only the target-color cue and within category irrelevant-color cue elicited the significant cue validity effect (i.e. RTs were shorter when the target was presented at the same location as the preceding cue rather than at a different location); they also lead to a robust N2pc effect, indicative of attention-capture. In addition, these two cue types had similar attention-capturing capacity. However, when target and nontarget belonged to the same color category (Experiments 2 and 3), only the target-color cue elicited the significant cue validity effect and the robust N2pc effect. The same within category irrelevant-color cue no longer elicited the cue validity effect, and the N2pc effect was also attenuated. Present findings suggest that contingent capture can occur at a specific feature value. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Emotion and goal-directed behavior: ERP evidence on cognitive and emotional conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchenko, Artyom; Kanske, Philipp; Obermeier, Christian; Schröger, Erich; Kotz, Sonja A

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive control supports goal-directed behavior by resolving conflict among opposing action tendencies. Emotion can trigger cognitive control processes, thus speeding up conflict processing when the target dimension of stimuli is emotional. However, it is unclear what role emotionality of the target dimension plays in the processing of emotional conflict (e.g. in irony). In two EEG experiments, we compared the influence of emotional valence of the target (emotional, neutral) in cognitive and emotional conflict processing. To maximally approximate real-life communication, we used audiovisual stimuli. Participants either categorized spoken vowels (cognitive conflict) or their emotional valence (emotional conflict), while visual information was congruent or incongruent. Emotional target dimension facilitated both cognitive and emotional conflict processing, as shown in a reduced reaction time conflict effect. In contrast, the N100 in the event-related potentials showed a conflict-specific reversal: the conflict effect was larger for emotional compared with neutral trials in cognitive conflict and smaller in emotional conflict. Additionally, domain-general conflict effects were observed in the P200 and N200 responses. The current findings confirm that emotions have a strong influence on cognitive and emotional conflict processing. They also highlight the complexity and heterogeneity of the interaction of emotion with different types of conflict. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Positive Attitude Toward Math Supports Early Academic Success: Behavioral Evidence and Neurocognitive Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lang; Bae, Se Ri; Battista, Christian; Qin, Shaozheng; Chen, Tianwen; Evans, Tanya M; Menon, Vinod

    2018-03-01

    Positive attitude is thought to impact academic achievement and learning in children, but little is known about its underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. Using a large behavioral sample of 240 children, we found that positive attitude toward math uniquely predicted math achievement, even after we accounted for multiple other cognitive-affective factors. We then investigated the neural mechanisms underlying the link between positive attitude and academic achievement in two independent cohorts of children (discovery cohort: n = 47; replication cohort: n = 28) and tested competing hypotheses regarding the differential roles of affective-motivational and learning-memory systems. In both cohorts, we found that positive attitude was associated with increased engagement of the hippocampal learning-memory system. Structural equation modeling further revealed that, in both cohorts, increased hippocampal activity and more frequent use of efficient memory-based strategies mediated the relation between positive attitude and higher math achievement. Our study is the first to elucidate the neurocognitive mechanisms by which positive attitude influences learning and academic achievement.

  9. Paradoxical sleep deprivation: neurochemical, hormonal and behavioral alterations. Evidence from 30 years of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Tufik

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep comprises approximately one-third of a person's lifetime, but its impact on health and medical conditions remains partially unrecognized. The prevalence of sleep disorders is increasing in modern societies, with significant repercussions on people's well-being. This article reviews past and current literature on the paradoxical sleep deprivation method as well as data on its consequences to animals, ranging from behavioral changes to alterations in the gene expression. More specifically, we highlight relevant experimental studies and our group's contribution over the last three decades.O sono ocupa cerca de um terço de nossas vidas, entretanto seu impacto na saúde e sua influência nas condições patológicas ainda não foi completamente elucidado. A prevalência dos distúrbios de sono é cada vez maior, sobretudo nas regiões mais industrializadas, repercutindo diretamente no bem-estar da população. Este artigo tem como objetivo sintetizar e atualizar a literatura a respeito do método de privação de sono paradoxal e seu panorama de conseqüências desde comportamentais até genéticas em animais. Ainda, destacamos a contribuição e relevância dos estudos experimentais realizados por nosso grupo nas ultimas três décadas.

  10. Sentence-Level Effects of Literary Genre: Behavioral and Electrophysiological Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Blohm

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs and behavioral measures to examine effects of genre awareness on sentence processing and evaluation. We hypothesized that genre awareness modulates effects of genre-typical manipulations. We manipulated instructions between participants, either specifying a genre (poetry or not (neutral. Sentences contained genre-typical variations of semantic congruency (congruent/incongruent and morpho-phonological features (archaic/contemporary inflections. Offline ratings of meaningfulness (n = 64/group showed higher average ratings for semantically incongruent sentences in the poetry vs. neutral condition. ERPs during sentence reading (n = 24/group; RSVP presentation at a fixed per-constituent rate; probe task showed a left-lateralized N400-like effect for contemporary vs. archaic inflections. Semantic congruency elicited a bilateral posterior N400 effect for incongruent vs. congruent continuations followed by a centro-parietal positivity (P600. While N400 amplitudes were insensitive to the genre, the latency of the P600 was delayed by the poetry instruction. From these results, we conclude that during real-time sentence comprehension, readers are sensitive to subtle morphological manipulations and the implicit prosodic differences that accompany them. By contrast, genre awareness affects later stages of comprehension.

  11. Initial Clinician Reports of the Bottom-Up Dissemination of an Evidence-Based Intervention for Early Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Paula; Schiff, Miriam

    2018-01-01

    Background: Bottom-up dissemination (BUD) of evidence based treatments (EBT), entailing the spread of an intervention through a peer network in a decentralized manner, is an under-reported phenomenon in the professional literature. Objective: This paper presents findings from a study researching the feasibility of BUD of an evidence-based…

  12. Inhibition drives configural superiority of illusory Gestalt: Combined behavioral and drift-diffusion model evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Qi-Yang; Maurer, Mara; Müller, Hermann J; Conci, Markus

    2016-05-01

    Illusory Kanizsa figures demonstrate that a perceptually completed whole is more than the sum of its composite parts. In the current study, we explored part/whole relationships in object completion using the configural superiority effect (CSE) with illusory figures (Pomerantz & Portillo, 2011). In particular, we investigated to which extent the CSE is modulated by closure in target and distractor configurations. Our results demonstrated a typical CSE, with detection of a configural whole being more efficient than the detection of a corresponding part-level target. Moreover, the CSE was more pronounced when grouped objects were presented in distractors rather than in the target. A follow-up experiment systematically manipulated closure in whole target or, respectively, distractor configurations. The results revealed the effect of closure to be again stronger in distractor, rather than in target configurations, suggesting that closure primarily affects the inhibition of distractors, and to a lesser extent the selection of the target. In addition, a drift-diffusion model analysis of our data revealed that efficient distractor inhibition expedites the rate of evidence accumulation, with closure in distractors particularly speeding the drift toward the decision boundary. In sum, our findings demonstrate that the CSE in Kanizsa figures derives primarily from the inhibition of closed distractor objects, rather than being driven by a conspicuous target configuration. Altogether, these results support a fundamental role of inhibition in driving configural superiority effects in visual search. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Behavioral and fMRI evidence of the differing cognitive load of domain-specific assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, S J; Burianová, H; Ehrich, J; Kervin, L; Calleia, A; Barkus, E; Carmody, J; Humphry, S

    2015-06-25

    Standards-referenced educational reform has increased the prevalence of standardized testing; however, whether these tests accurately measure students' competencies has been questioned. This may be due to domain-specific assessments placing a differing domain-general cognitive load on test-takers. To investigate this possibility, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to identify and quantify the neural correlates of performance on current, international standardized methods of spelling assessment. Out-of-scanner testing was used to further examine differences in assessment results. Results provide converging evidence that: (a) the spelling assessments differed in the cognitive load placed on test-takers; (b) performance decreased with increasing cognitive load of the assessment; and (c) brain regions associated with working memory were more highly activated during performance of assessments that were higher in cognitive load. These findings suggest that assessment design should optimize the cognitive load placed on test-takers, to ensure students' results are an accurate reflection of their true levels of competency. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Microcredit, family planning programs, and contraceptive behavior: evidence from a field experiment in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Jaikishan; Tarozzi, Alessandro

    2011-05-01

    The impact of community-based family planning programs and access to credit on contraceptive use, fertility, and family size preferences has not been established conclusively in the literature. We provide additional evidence on the possible effect of such programs by describing the results of a randomized field experiment whose main purpose was to increase the use of contraceptive methods in rural areas of Ethiopia. In the experiment, administrative areas were randomly allocated to one of three intervention groups or to a fourth control group. In the first intervention group, both credit and family planning services were provided and the credit officers also provided information on family planning. Only credit or family planning services, but not both, were provided in the other two intervention groups, while areas in the control group received neither type of service. Using pre- and post-intervention surveys, we find that neither type of program, combined or in isolation, led to an increase in contraceptive use that is significantly greater than that observed in the control group. We conjecture that the lack of impact has much to do with the mismatch between women's preferred contraceptive method (injectibles) and the contraceptives provided by community-based agents (pills and condoms).

  15. Development of a consensus taxonomy of sedentary behaviors (SIT: report of Delphi Round 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Francois Martin Chastin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, sedentary behaviors have emerged as a distinctive behavioral paradigm with deleterious effects on health independent of physical activity. The next phase of research is to establish dose response between sedentary behaviors and health outcomes and improve understanding of context and determinants of these behaviors. Establishing a common taxonomy of these behaviors is a necessary step in this process. AIM: The Sedentary behavior International Taxonomy project was developed to establish a classification of sedentary behaviors by use of a formal consensus process. METHODS: The study follows a Delphi process in three Rounds. A preparatory stage informed the development of terms of reference documents. In Round 1, experts were asked to make statements about the taxonomy; 1 its purpose and use ; 2 the domains, categories or facets that should be consider and include; 3 the structure/architecture to arrange and link these domains and facets. In Round 2 experts will be presented with a draft taxonomy emerging from Round 1 and invited to comment and propose alterations. The taxonomy will then be finalised at the outset of this stage. RESULTS: Results of Round 1 are reported here. There is a general consensus that a taxonomy will help advances in research by facilitating systematic and standardised: 1 investigation and analysis; 2 reporting and communication; 3 data pooling, comparison and meta-analysis; 4 development of measurement tools; 4 data descriptions, leading to higher quality in data querying and facilitate discoveries. There is also a consensus that such a taxonomy should be flexible to accommodate diverse purposes of use, and future advances in the field and yet provide a cross-disciplinary common language. A consensual taxonomy structure emerged with nine primary facets (Purpose, Environment, Posture, Social, Measurement, Associated behavior, Status, Time, Type and the draft structure presented here for

  16. Nationally Certified School Psychologists' use and reported barriers to using evidence-based interventions in schools: the influence of graduate program training and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Taylor B; Shahidullah, Jeffrey D; Carlson, John S; Palejwala, Mohammed H

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically investigate Nationally Certified School Psychologists' (NCSP) training in and use of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) for child behavior concerns as well as their reported implementation barriers. A modified Tailored Design Method (TDM; Dillman, Smyth, & Christian, 2009) using up to four mail-based participant contacts was used to obtain survey data (72% usable response rate; n = 392) from a randomly selected national sample of 548 currently practicing NCSPs. Lack of time was rated as the most serious barrier to behavioral EBI implementation, followed by a lack of necessary resources, and financial constraints. Nearly three-quarters (71%) of respondents reported a perceived inadequacy of graduate program training in behavioral EBIs, with a statistically significant difference found between respondents who attended American Psychological Association (APA)-accredited/National Association of School Psychologists (NASP)-approved programs and those who did not. These findings highlight the significant barriers school psychologists encounter when attempting to implement behavioral EBIs within applied practice, as well as the importance of graduate program training in implementation science. Implications for training, practice, and research are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Stable Early Maternal Report of Behavioral Inhibition Predicts Lifetime Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; Pine, Daniel S.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Henderson, Heather A.; Diaz, Yamalis; Raggi, Veronica L.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    The odds of a lifetime diagnosis of social anxiety disorder increased by 3.79 times for children who had a stable report of behavioral inhibition from their mothers. This finding has important implications for the early identification and prevention of social anxiety disorder.

  18. Syndrome dimensions of the Child Behavior Checklist and the Teacher Report Form : a critical empirical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, CA; Hox, J; Auerbach, J; Erol, N; Fonseca, AC; Mellenbergh, GJ; Novik, TS; Oosterlaan, J; Roussos, AC; Shalev, RS; Zilber, N; Sergeant, JA

    1999-01-01

    The construct representation of the cross-informant model of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Teacher Report Form (TRF) was evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. Samples were collected in seven different countries. The results are based on 13,226 parent ratings and 8893 teacher

  19. Sociodemographic Characteristics, Behavioral Problems, Parental Concerns and Children’s Strengths Reported by Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisy Ribas Emerich

    Full Text Available Abstract: Parental report is essential to understand adaptive difficulties in childhood. The aim of the study was to identify concerns of parents and qualities of children reported by parents, as well as the association of these variables with sociodemographic factors and child behavior problems. Parents of 353 schoolchildren from three public schools and one private school took part in the study. Assessment of behavior problems and parental reports about concerns and children’s strengths were obtained from the Child Behavior Checklist - CBCL. We submitted parents’ answers to the open-ended questions in the CBCL to a lexical analysis with the IRAMUTEQ software. Results concerning ‘strengths’ were related to affective and social interaction, while ‘concerns’ were related to academic performance and prevention of behavior problems. We concluded that parent concerns are targets of preventive interventions in childhood, while child strengths reported by parents are skills that need to be developed, as they help in adaptive functioning.

  20. Problems reported by parents of children in multiple cultures: the Child Behavior Checklist syndrome constructs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.M. Crijnen (Alfons); T.M. Achenbach (Thomas); F.C. Verhulst (Frank)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare syndromes of parent-reported problems for children in 12 cultures. METHOD: Child Behavior Checklists were analyzed for 13,697 children and adolescents, ages 6 through 17 years, from general population

  1. Teacher Attitudes, Perceived Influences, and Self-Reported Classroom Behaviors Related to School Nutrition Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Beverly Lawler

    2010-01-01

    This study determined attitudes of kindergarten through fifth grade teachers about school nutrition environments, their perceived influence on school nutrition environments, and self-reported classroom behaviors. Specific objectives were to: (a) identify perceived factors that influence the school nutrition environment, according to teachers…

  2. Early Childhood Predictors of Post-Kindergarten Executive Function: Behavior, Parent Report, and Psychophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Hubble, Morgan; Bell, Martha Ann

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined whether children's executive functions before kindergarten would predict variance in executive functions after kindergarten. We obtained behavioral (working memory task performance), parent-reported (temperament-based inhibitory control), and psychophysiological (working memory-related changes in heart rate…

  3. Staff behavior toward children and adolescents in a residential facility: A self-report questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitink, C.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Veerman, J.W.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine psychometric properties of the Staff Behavior toward Clients questionnaire (SBC), a self-report measure for care staff working with children and adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities in residential care. Ninetynine care staff

  4. Resource Catalogue: Educating Behaviorally Disordered and Emotionally Disturbed Pupils. Program Assistance Report No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Frank; And Others

    The guide lists information on 56 resources (journal articles, books, reports, monographs) dealing with the education of children with behavioral disorders and published between 1950 and 1983. An introductory section reviews issues involved in the definition of the population, considers implications of the term "emotional disturbance," and cites…

  5. Effects of pretesting implicit self-determined motivation on behavioral engagement: evidence for the mere measurement effect at the implicit level

    OpenAIRE

    Keatley, David A.; Clarke, David D.; Ferguson, Eamonn; Hagger, Martin S.

    2014-01-01

    Research into individuals’ intended behavior and performance has traditionally adopted explicitly measured, self-report constructs, and outcomes. More recently, research has shown that completing explicit self-report measures of constructs may effect subsequent behavior, termed the “mere measurement” effect. The aim of the present experiment was to investigate whether implicit measures of motivation showed a similar mere measurement effect on subsequent behavior. It may be the case that measu...

  6. Role of Lactobacillus acidophilus loaded floating beads in chronic fatigue syndrome: behavioral and biochemical evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P K; Chopra, K; Kuhad, A; Kaur, I P

    2012-04-01

      In recent years the interface between neuropsychiatry and gastroenterology has converged in to a new discipline referred to as enteric neuroscience. Implications of brain-gut communication in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders indicate a possible role of suitably packaged/delivered probiotics as newer therapeutic options. In the present study probable role of per-oral administration of free Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAB) and LAB loaded alginate beads in attenuation of the symptoms associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) were evaluated.   Chronic fatigue syndrome following physical fatigue was induced in rats by forcing them to swim (forced swim test; FST) in water till exhaustion, after weighing them down with 10% their body weight, daily for 28 days. Immobility (I) and postswim fatigue time (PSF) were taken as suitable markers. Free LAB and LAB loaded floating beads (FBs) were administered, from 21 to 28 days.   Immobility and PSF were found to increase considerably in FST rats (665 ± 22 s and 196 ± 6 s) as compared with the naïve (32 ± 7 s and 22 ± 2 s) at 20 days, establishing severe fatigue like behavior. FST control group exhibited significant (P < 0.05) hypertrophy of spleen, hypotrophy of thymus, and increased oxido-nitrosative stress in brain and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in serum. Treatment with LAB and LAB FBs significantly decreased I and PSF and attenuated (P < 0.05) oxido-nitrosative stress and TNF-α levels. Spleen and thymus were also restored to their original size in this group.   The findings suggest a valuable therapeutic role of LAB especially when incorporated into alginate beads for the treatment of CFS. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Young driver distraction: state of the evidence and directions for behavior change programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Lisa; Chapman, Rebekah L; Sheehan, Mary

    2014-05-01

    Adolescent drivers are overrepresented in distraction-related motor vehicle crashes. A number of potential reasons for such an elevated risk include driving inexperience, high adoption of communication technology, increased peer involvement, and tendency to take risks, which render young drivers particularly vulnerable. Major legislative efforts in Graduated Licensing Systems that include passenger restrictions have shown positive effects. Restrictions on cell phone use are also being introduced; however, it is challenging to enforce such regulations. This article argues that such contextual, legislative interventions are an essential prevention strategy, but there is an unfilled need to introduce behavior change programs that may target adolescents, parents, and friends. A theoretical framework is applied in which risk and protective factors are identified from research within the contexts of community and jurisdiction. In the literature on distraction, social context and normative influences are key elements used to inform program design for adolescent drivers, with parental monitoring informing interventions targeting parents. Following from this assessment of the message content assessment, the design of strategies to deliver the messages is reviewed. In the current literature, school-based programs, simulations, and Web-delivered programs have been evaluated with supplementary strategies delivered by physicians and parents. Such developments are still at an early stage of development, and ultimately will need controlled implementation and evaluation studies. Of course, there is no likely single approach to prevent adolescent driver distraction. Complementary approaches such as the further development of technological interventions to manage phone use are needed. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of working memory load on visual selective attention: Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki ePratt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Working memory and attention interact in a way that enables us to focus on relevant items and maintain current goals. The influence of working memory on attention has been noted in several studies using dual task designs. Multitasking increases the demands on working memory and reduces the amount of resources available for cognitive control functions such as resolving stimulus conflict. However, few studies have investigated the temporal activation of the cortex while multitasking. The present study addresses the extent to which working memory load influences early (P1 and late (P300 attention-sensitive event-related potential (ERP components using a dual task paradigm. Participants performed an arrow flanker task alone (single task condition or concurrently with a Sternberg memory task (dual task condition. In the flanker task, participants responded to the direction of a central arrow surrounded by congruent or incongruent arrows. In the dual task condition, participants were presented with a Sternberg task that consisted of either 4 or 7 consonants to remember prior to a short block of flanker trials. Participants were slower and less accurate on incongruent versus congruent trials. Furthermore, accuracy on incongruent trials was reduced in both dual task conditions. Likewise, P300 amplitude to incongruent flanker stimuli decreased when working memory load increased. These findings suggest that interference from incongruent flankers was more difficult to suppress when working memory was taxed. In addition, P1 amplitude was diminished on all flanker trials in the dual task condition. This result indicates that top-down attentional control over early visual processing is diminished by increasing demands on working memory. Both the behavioral and electrophysiological results suggest that working memory is critical in maintaining attentional focus and resolving conflict.

  9. Coercive and legitimate authority impact tax honesty: evidence from behavioral and ERP experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangl, Katharina; Pfabigan, Daniela M; Lamm, Claus; Kirchler, Erich; Hofmann, Eva

    2017-07-01

    Cooperation in social systems such as tax honesty is of central importance in our modern societies. However, we know little about cognitive and neural processes driving decisions to evade or pay taxes. This study focuses on the impact of perceived tax authority and examines the mental chronometry mirrored in ERP data allowing a deeper understanding about why humans cooperate in tax systems. We experimentally manipulated coercive and legitimate authority and studied its impact on cooperation and underlying cognitive (experiment 1, 2) and neuronal (experiment 2) processes. Experiment 1 showed that in a condition of coercive authority, tax payments are lower, decisions are faster and participants report more rational reasoning and enforced compliance, however, less voluntary cooperation than in a condition of legitimate authority. Experiment 2 confirmed most results, but did not find a difference in payments or self-reported rational reasoning. Moreover, legitimate authority led to heightened cognitive control (expressed by increased MFN amplitudes) and disrupted attention processing (expressed by decreased P300 amplitudes) compared to coercive authority. To conclude, the neuronal data surprisingly revealed that legitimate authority may led to higher decision conflict and thus to higher cognitive demands in tax decisions than coercive authority. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. Behavioral and Genetic Evidence for GIRK Channels in the CNS: Role in Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Jody; Blednov, Yuri A; Harris, R Adron

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels are widely expressed throughout the brain and mediate the inhibitory effects of many neurotransmitters. As a result, these channels are important for normal CNS function and have also been implicated in Down syndrome, Parkinson's disease, psychiatric disorders, epilepsy, and drug addiction. Knockout mouse models have provided extensive insight into the significance of GIRK channels under these conditions. This review examines the behavioral and genetic evidence from animal models and genetic association studies in humans linking GIRK channels with CNS disorders. We further explore the possibility that subunit-selective modulators and other advanced research tools will be instrumental in establishing the role of individual GIRK subunits in drug addiction and other relevant CNS diseases and in potentially advancing treatment options for these disorders. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Hybrid Approach for Evaluating Faulty Behavior Risk of High-Risk Operations Using ANP and Evidence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia-Zhong Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydropower project construction is a high-risk operation, where accidents occur frequently. Moreover, the factors leading to accidents are often human factors, so safety evaluation of these factors for the hydropower projects’ work system is very significant. The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS framework is applied to build evaluation system. In the evaluation process, correlation analysis is used to form the intercriteria analysis matrix that helps the decision makers to build impact relation matrix. Factor weights are calculated by the Analytic Network Process (ANP. In the index value determination step, the evidence theory is used to eliminate the conflicts of three decision makers and the index values are then calculated. The faulty behavior risk (FBR assessment value is finally obtained. The proposed method is practical and its applicability is proved by an example.

  12. Beneficial Effects of Palmitoylethanolamide on Expressive Language, Cognition, and Behaviors in Autism: A Report of Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Nicola; Cirillo, Alessandra; Siniscalco, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Autism spectrum disorders are defined by behavioral and language atypias. Growing body of evidence indicates inflammatory mediators may contribute to the condition. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is naturally occurring and has been available as a nonprescription medical food supplement in Europe since 2008. PEA has been tested in thousands of human subjects without any noted significant side effects. Here we report the first cases of the administration of PEA to two children with autism. Case Presentations. The first 13-year-old male child (Subject 1) presented with a total IgE of 572 IU/mL (nl language, as measured by mean length of utterance, and overall autism severity as measured by the Childhood Autism Rating Scale, Second Edition, improved significantly. Atopic symptoms diminished. No side effects were reported. The second male child, age 15 (Subject 2), also displayed noticeable and rapid improvements in cognitive, behaviors, and sociability. Conclusion. Currently, there is no definitive treatment for autism condition. Palmitoylethanolamide could be an effective treatment for autism syndrome. We propose appropriate double-blind clinical trials to further explore palmitoylethanolamide efficacy and safety.

  13. Beneficial Effects of Palmitoylethanolamide on Expressive Language, Cognition, and Behaviors in Autism: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Antonucci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Autism spectrum disorders are defined by behavioral and language atypias. Growing body of evidence indicates inflammatory mediators may contribute to the condition. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA is naturally occurring and has been available as a nonprescription medical food supplement in Europe since 2008. PEA has been tested in thousands of human subjects without any noted significant side effects. Here we report the first cases of the administration of PEA to two children with autism. Case Presentations. The first 13-year-old male child (Subject 1 presented with a total IgE of 572 IU/mL (nl < 200 and with low mature CD57+ natural killer cell counts (32 cells/µL; nl = 60–300 cells/µL and with significant eczema and allergic stigmata. Expressive language, as measured by mean length of utterance, and overall autism severity as measured by the Childhood Autism Rating Scale, Second Edition, improved significantly. Atopic symptoms diminished. No side effects were reported. The second male child, age 15 (Subject 2, also displayed noticeable and rapid improvements in cognitive, behaviors, and sociability. Conclusion. Currently, there is no definitive treatment for autism condition. Palmitoylethanolamide could be an effective treatment for autism syndrome. We propose appropriate double-blind clinical trials to further explore palmitoylethanolamide efficacy and safety.

  14. Emotional face recognition deficit in amnestic patients with mild cognitive impairment: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang L

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Linlin Yang, Xiaochuan Zhao, Lan Wang, Lulu Yu, Mei Song, Xueyi Wang Department of Mental Health, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Hebei Medical University Institute of Mental Health, Shijiazhuang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI has been conceptualized as a transitional stage between healthy aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Thus, understanding emotional face recognition deficit in patients with amnestic MCI could be useful in determining progression of amnestic MCI. The purpose of this study was to investigate the features of emotional face processing in amnestic MCI by using event-related potentials (ERPs. Patients with amnestic MCI and healthy controls performed a face recognition task, giving old/new responses to previously studied and novel faces with different emotional messages as the stimulus material. Using the learning-recognition paradigm, the experiments were divided into two steps, ie, a learning phase and a test phase. ERPs were analyzed on electroencephalographic recordings. The behavior data indicated high emotion classification accuracy for patients with amnestic MCI and for healthy controls. The mean percentage of correct classifications was 81.19% for patients with amnestic MCI and 96.46% for controls. Our ERP data suggest that patients with amnestic MCI were still be able to undertake personalizing processing for negative faces, but not for neutral or positive faces, in the early frontal processing stage. In the early time window, no differences in frontal old/new effect were found between patients with amnestic MCI and normal controls. However, in the late time window, the three types of stimuli did not elicit any old/new parietal effects in patients with amnestic MCI, suggesting their recollection was impaired. This impairment may be closely associated with amnestic MCI disease. We conclude from our data that face recognition processing and emotional memory is

  15. Evidence that a simpático self-schema accounts for differences in the self-concepts and social behavior of Latinos versus Whites (and Blacks).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Renee A; Waldrip, Amy M; Ickes, William

    2009-05-01

    On the basis of the assumption that Latino Americans use a simpático self-schema more than White Americans do, the authors predicted that the effects of this difference would be evident in the participants' self-concepts and social behavior. As predicted, Studies 1 and 2 revealed that Latino participants reported significantly more simpático-related terms in their spontaneous self-concepts than did White participants. Complementing these findings, Study 3a revealed that the level of interactional involvement and the perceived quality of initial same-sex interactions was significantly enhanced by the presence of Latino dyad members. Study 3b tested the prediction that the content of the dyad members' thoughts and feelings would reveal a greater use of the simpático self-schema by the Latino participants. This prediction was confirmed, and follow-up analyses indicated that a simpático self-schema plays an important mediating role in the subjective experience and social behavior of Latino individuals. Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Objective Physiological Measurements but Not Subjective Reports Moderate the Effect of Hunger on Choice Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabat-Simon, Maytal; Shuster, Anastasia; Sela, Tal; Levy, Dino J.

    2018-01-01

    Hunger is a powerful driver of human behavior, and is therefore of great interest to the study of psychology, economics, and consumer behavior. Assessing hunger levels in experiments is often biased, when using self-report methods, or complex, when using blood tests. We propose a novel way of objectively measuring subjects’ levels of hunger by identifying levels of alpha-amylase (AA) enzyme in their saliva samples. We used this measure to uncover the effect of hunger on different types of choice behaviors. We found that hunger increases risk-seeking behavior in a lottery-choice task, modifies levels of vindictiveness in a social decision-making task, but does not have a detectible effect on economic inconsistency in a budget-set choice task. Importantly, these findings were moderated by AA levels and not by self-report measures. We demonstrate the effects hunger has on choice behavior and the problematic nature of subjective measures of physiological states, and propose to use reliable and valid biologically based methods to overcome these problems. PMID:29875715

  17. Field experiment evidence of substantive, attributional, and behavioral persuasion by members of Congress in online town halls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, William; Neblo, Michael A; Esterling, Kevin M; Lazer, David M J

    2015-03-31

    Do leaders persuade? Social scientists have long studied the relationship between elite behavior and mass opinion. However, there is surprisingly little evidence regarding direct persuasion by leaders. Here we show that political leaders can persuade their constituents directly on three dimensions: substantive attitudes regarding policy issues, attributions regarding the leaders' qualities, and subsequent voting behavior. We ran two randomized controlled field experiments testing the causal effects of directly interacting with a sitting politician. Our experiments consist of 20 online town hall meetings with members of Congress conducted in 2006 and 2008. Study 1 examined 19 small meetings with members of the House of Representatives (average 20 participants per town hall). Study 2 examined a large (175 participants) town hall with a senator. In both experiments we find that participating has significant and substantively important causal effects on all three dimensions of persuasion but no such effects on issues that were not discussed extensively in the sessions. Further, persuasion was not driven solely by changes in copartisans' attitudes; the effects were consistent across groups.

  18. Evidence for superior neurobiological and behavioral inhibitory control abilities in non-offending as compared to offending pedophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärgel, Christian; Massau, Claudia; Weiß, Simone; Walter, Martin; Borchardt, Viola; Krueger, Tillmann H C; Tenbergen, Gilian; Kneer, Jonas; Wittfoth, Matthias; Pohl, Alexander; Gerwinn, Hannah; Ponseti, Jorge; Amelung, Till; Beier, Klaus M; Mohnke, Sebastian; Walter, Henrik; Schiffer, Boris

    2017-02-01

    Neurobehavioral models of pedophilia and child sexual offending suggest a pattern of temporal and in particular prefrontal disturbances leading to inappropriate behavioral control and subsequently an increased propensity to sexually offend against children. However, clear empirical evidence for such mechanisms is still missing. Using a go/nogo paradigm in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we compared behavioral performance and neural response patterns among three groups of men matched for age and IQ: pedophiles with (N = 40) and without (N = 37) a history of hands-on sexual offences against children as well as healthy non-offending controls (N = 40). As compared to offending pedophiles, non-offending pedophiles exhibited superior inhibitory control as reflected by significantly lower rate of commission errors. Group-by-condition interaction analysis also revealed inhibition-related activation in the left posterior cingulate and the left superior frontal cortex that distinguished between offending and non-offending pedophiles, while no significant differences were found between pedophiles and healthy controls. Both areas showing distinct activation pattern among pedophiles play a critical role in linking neural networks that relate to effective cognitive functioning. Data therefore suggest that heightened inhibition-related recruitment of these areas as well as decreased amount of commission errors is related to better inhibitory control in pedophiles who successfully avoid committing hands-on sexual offences against children. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1092-1104, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Field experiment evidence of substantive, attributional, and behavioral persuasion by members of Congress in online town halls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, William; Neblo, Michael A.; Esterling, Kevin M.; Lazer, David M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Do leaders persuade? Social scientists have long studied the relationship between elite behavior and mass opinion. However, there is surprisingly little evidence regarding direct persuasion by leaders. Here we show that political leaders can persuade their constituents directly on three dimensions: substantive attitudes regarding policy issues, attributions regarding the leaders’ qualities, and subsequent voting behavior. We ran two randomized controlled field experiments testing the causal effects of directly interacting with a sitting politician. Our experiments consist of 20 online town hall meetings with members of Congress conducted in 2006 and 2008. Study 1 examined 19 small meetings with members of the House of Representatives (average 20 participants per town hall). Study 2 examined a large (175 participants) town hall with a senator. In both experiments we find that participating has significant and substantively important causal effects on all three dimensions of persuasion but no such effects on issues that were not discussed extensively in the sessions. Further, persuasion was not driven solely by changes in copartisans’ attitudes; the effects were consistent across groups. PMID:25775516

  20. Behavioral and genetic evidence for a novel animal model of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Subtype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-James Y

    2008-12-01

    genomic differences between the WKY/NCrl and WKY/NHsd rats for eight short tandem repeat loci and 2625 SNPs. About 33.5 percent of the genome differs between the two WKY rat substrains, with large stretches of divergence on each chromosome. Discussion These data provide solid behavioral and genetic evidence that the WKY/NCrl and WKY/NHsd rats should be considered as separate substrains. Moreover, the behavioral features of the WKY/NCrl rat indicate that it should be a useful model for ADHD-PI, the primarily inattentive subtype of ADHD. The SD/NTac and the WH/HanTac rats show significant genetic and/or behavioral differences from WKY/NHsd rats and appear not to be appropriate controls in studies using the SHR/NCrl. The present results support the conclusion that SHR/NCrl is the best validated animal model of ADHD-C. The overactivity, impulsiveness and deficient sustained attention of the SHR/NCrl strain are independent behaviors. Thus, overactivity does not account for this strain's impulsiveness and deficient sustained attention. Finally, the present study shows that great care has to be exercised to select the model and comparison groups.

  1. An uncommon case of random fire-setting behavior associated with Todd paralysis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanehisa Masayuki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between fire-setting behavior and psychiatric or medical disorders remains poorly understood. Although a link between fire-setting behavior and various organic brain disorders has been established, associations between fire setting and focal brain lesions have not yet been reported. Here, we describe the case of a 24-year-old first time arsonist who suffered Todd’s paralysis prior to the onset of a bizarre and random fire-setting behavior. Case presentation A case of a 24-year-old man with a sudden onset of a bizarre and random fire-setting behavior is reported. The man, who had been arrested on felony arson charges, complained of difficulties concentrating and of recent memory disturbances with leg weakness. A video-EEG recording demonstrated a close relationship between the focal motor impairment and a clear-cut epileptic ictal discharge involving the bilateral motor cortical areas. The SPECT result was statistically analyzed by comparing with standard SPECT images obtained from our institute (easy Z-score imaging system; eZIS. eZIS revealed hypoperfusion in cingulate cortex, basal ganglia and hyperperfusion in frontal cortex,. A neuropsychological test battery revealed lower than normal scores for executive function, attention, and memory, consistent with frontal lobe dysfunction. Conclusion The fire-setting behavior and Todd’s paralysis, together with an unremarkable performance on tests measuring executive function fifteen months prior, suggested a causal relationship between this organic brain lesion and the fire-setting behavior. The case describes a rare and as yet unreported association between random, impulse-driven fire-setting behavior and damage to the brain and suggests a disconnection of frontal lobe structures as a possible pathogenic mechanism.

  2. Dissemination of an evidence-based intervention to parents of children with behavioral problems in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayyad, John A; Farah, Lynn; Cassir, Youmna; Salamoun, Mariana M; Karam, Elie G

    2010-08-01

    This project describes the dissemination of an evidence-based parenting skills intervention by training social and health workers with little or no mental health background so that they themselves train mothers of children with behavioral problems in impoverished communities in a developing country. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was completed by mothers to screen for children with behavioral problems and was repeated at the end of the intervention. Pre- and post-tests of knowledge and parenting attitudes were administered to mothers. Mental health workers trained social and health workers in social development centers and dispensaries. Each social and health worker trained mothers of children with behavioral problems under supervision utilizing an Arabic adaptation of the treatment manual for externalizing disorders "Helping Challenging Children" developed by the Integrated Services Taskforce of the World Psychiatric Association Child Mental Health Presidential Programme. A total of 20 workers and 87 mothers participated in the training. The proportion of children who obtained an SDQ total difficulties score in the abnormal range decreased from 54.4 to 19.7% after the training. Whereas 40.2% of mothers used severe corporal punishment with their children before the intervention, this decreased to 6.1% post-intervention. Three-fourths of mothers related that the program helped them develop new parenting skills. This pilot project demonstrated the feasibility of dissemination of a manual-based intervention and training of workers who have little background in mental health to offer effective services to families in impoverished communities who otherwise would have not received them. Successful replication in other developing countries would pave the way to incorporating such programs in national policies given their potential sustainability and cost-effectiveness.

  3. Hypocretin-1 receptors regulate the reinforcing and reward-enhancing effects of cocaine: Pharmacological and behavioral genetics evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eHollander

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence suggests that transmission at hypocretin-1 (orexin-1 receptors (Hcrt-R1 plays an important role in the reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behaviors in rodents. However, far less is known about the role for hypocretin transmission in regulating ongoing cocaine-taking behavior. Here, we investigated the effects of the selective Hcrt-R1 antagonist SB-334867 on cocaine intake, as measured by intravenous (IV cocaine self-administration in rats. The stimulatory effects of cocaine on brain reward systems contribute to the establishment and maintenance of cocaine-taking behaviors. Therefore, we also assessed the effects of SB-334867 on the reward-enhancing properties of cocaine, as measured by cocaine-induced lowering of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS thresholds. Finally, to definitively establish a role for Hcrt-R1 in regulating cocaine intake, we assessed IV cocaine self-administration in Hcrt-R1 knockout mice. We found that SB-334867 (1-4 mg/kg dose-dependently decreased cocaine (0.5 mg/kg/infusion self-administration in rats but did not alter responding for food rewards under the same schedule of reinforcement. This suggests that SB-334867 decreased cocaine reinforcement without negatively impacting operant performance. SB-334867 (1-4 mg/kg also dose-dependently attenuated the stimulatory effects of cocaine (10 mg/kg on brain reward systems, as measured by reversal of cocaine-induced lowering of ICSS thresholds in rats. Finally, we found that Hcrt-R1 knockout mice self-administered far less cocaine than wildtype mice across the entire dose-response function. These data demonstrate that Hcrt-R1 play an important role in regulating the reinforcing and reward-enhancing properties of cocaine, and suggest that hypocretin transmission is likely essential for establishing and maintaining the cocaine habit in human addicts.

  4. Evidence-based identification of key beliefs explaining adult male circumcision motivation in Zimbabwe: targets for behavior change messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaño, Daniel E; Kasprzyk, Danuta; Hamilton, Deven T; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Gorn, Gerald

    2014-05-01

    Male circumcision (MC) reduces HIV acquisition among men, leading WHO/UNAIDS to recommend a goal to circumcise 80 % of men in high HIV prevalence countries. Significant investment to increase MC capacity in priority countries was made, yet only 5 % of the goal has been achieved in Zimbabwe. The integrated behavioral model (IBM) was used as a framework to investigate the factors affecting MC motivation among men in Zimbabwe. A survey instrument was designed based on elicitation study results, and administered to a representative household-based sample of 1,201 men aged 18-30 from two urban and two rural areas in Zimbabwe. Multiple regression analysis found all five IBM constructs significantly explained MC Intention. Nearly all beliefs underlying the IBM constructs were significantly correlated with MC Intention. Stepwise regression analysis of beliefs underlying each construct respectively found that 13 behavioral beliefs, 5 normative beliefs, 4 descriptive norm beliefs, 6 efficacy beliefs, and 10 control beliefs were significant in explaining MC Intention. A final stepwise regression of the five sets of significant IBM construct beliefs identified 14 key beliefs that best explain Intention. Similar analyses were carried out with subgroups of men by urban-rural and age. Different sets of behavioral, normative, efficacy, and control beliefs were significant for each sub-group, suggesting communication messages need to be targeted to be most effective for sub-groups. Implications for the design of effective MC demand creation messages are discussed. This study demonstrates the application of theory-driven research to identify evidence-based targets for intervention messages to increase men's motivation to get circumcised and thereby improve demand for male circumcision.

  5. Behavioral and neuropharmacological evidence that serotonin crosses the blood-brain barrier in Coturnix japonica (Galliformes; Aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PA. Polo

    Full Text Available This study was carried out aiming to reach behavioral and neuropharmacological evidence of the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB to serotonin systemically administered in quails. Serotonin injected by a parenteral route (250-1000 µg.kg-1, sc elicited a sequence of behavioral events concerned with a sleeping-like state. Sleeping-like behaviors began with feather bristling, rapid oral movements, blinking and finally crouching and closure of the eyes. Previous administration of 5-HT2C antagonist, LY53857 (3 mg.kg-1, sc reduced the episodes of feather bristling and rapid oral movements significantly but without altering the frequency of blinking and closure of the eyes. Treatment with the 5-HT2A/2C antagonist, ketanserin (3 mg.kg-1, sc did not affect any of the responses evoked by the serotonin. Quipazine (5 mg.kg-1, sc a 5-HT2A/2C/3 agonist induced intense hypomotility, long periods of yawning-like and sleeping-like states. Previous ketanserin suppressed gaping responses and reduced hypomotility, rapid oral movements and bristling but was ineffective for remaining responses induced by quipazine. Results showed that unlike mammals, serotonin permeates the BBB and activates hypnogenic mechanisms in quails. Studies using serotoninergic agonist and antagonists have disclosed that among the actions of the serotonin, feather bristling, rapid oral movements and yawning-like state originated from activation of 5-HT2 receptors while blinking and closure of the eyes possibly require other subtypes of receptors.

  6. Analysis of evidence for an irreproducible martensite-like behavior in actinide metals and alloys below room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandenaw, T.A.

    1976-05-01

    Evidence is presented which suggests that a low-temperature, martensite-like behavior may be quite general in actinide metals and their alloys and compounds. There may be no metastable martensitic embryos in an α-phase structure of high-purity U, Np, and Pu formed by a diffusion-controlled β → α transformation, and thus no evidence for low-temperature phases. The effect of impurity content on observed low-temperature physical properties of these actinides is noted. It is proposed that impurities may be playing several roles. They may permit an electron redistribution in dilute alloys dependent upon the length of holding time. Experimentally determined values for the electronic contribution to heat capacity and the density of states of U, Np, and Pu should thus vary over a considerable range, as has been observed. Variations in interstitial ordering of impurity atoms with processing may yield stacking variants of each basic close-packed actinide metal structure and thus determine the number and structure of low-temperature phase. 46 references

  7. Behavioral HIV Prevention Interventions Among Latinas in the US: A Systematic Review of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel-Ulloa, Jason; Ulibarri, M; Baquero, B; Sleeth, C; Harig, H; Rhodes, S D

    2016-12-01

    Compared to White women, Latinas are 4 times more likely to contract HIV. In an effort to determine the overall state of the science meant to address this disparity, we reviewed the current HIV prevention intervention literature for U.S. Latinas. We searched 5 online electronic databases from their inception through July, 2014, for HIV prevention interventions including a majority sample of Latinas. Of 1041 articles identified, 20 studies met inclusion criteria. We documented study designs, participant characteristics, outcomes, theories used, and other intervention characteristics. Overall, HIV knowledge and attitudes were the predominant outcome; a small minority of studies included self-reported condom use or STD incidence. Strategies used to address cultural factors specific to Latinas and HIV included; lay health advisors, using ethnographic narratives, or using the Theory of Gender and Power, however few of the interventions adopted these strategies. This study identified several gaps in the intervention literature that need to be addressed. In addition to including more direct measures of decreased HIV risk (ex. condom use), more systematic use of strategies meant to address gender and cultural factors that may place Latinas at increased risk (e.g., gender inequity, traditional gender role norms such as machismo and marianismo, and relationship power dynamics).

  8. Dentinoameloblastoma with ghost cells: A rare case report with emphasis on its biological behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastomas are regarded as a homogeneous group of neoplasms with locally invasive character. They generally do not show induction of dental hard tissue formation except in few cases. Biological behavior and histogenesis of these tumors is still unexplored as there is lack of relevant studies and long follow-up of these patients. So, we aimed to report this rare case of dentinoameloblastoma with unique presence of ghost cells in middle-aged female involving maxilla with emphasis on its biological behavior. We conclude that although histogenesis of this tumor is not clear but biological potential is similar to conventional ameloblastoma requiring wider excision.

  9. International comparisons of behavioral and emotional problems in preschool children: parents' reports from 24 societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rescorla, Leslie A; Achenbach, Thomas M; Ivanova, Masha Y

    2011-01-01

    International comparisons were conducted of preschool children's behavioral and emotional problems as reported on the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1½-5 by parents in 24 societies (N = 19,850). Item ratings were aggregated into scores on syndromes; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental...... Disorders-oriented scales; a Stress Problems scale; and Internalizing, Externalizing, and Total Problems scales. Effect sizes for scale score differences among the 24 societies ranged from small to medium (3-12%). Although societies differed greatly in language, culture, and other characteristics, Total...

  10. Nucleus accumbens neurons encode Pavlovian approach behaviors: evidence from an autoshaping paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jeremy J; Wheeler, Robert A; Roitman, Mitchell F; Carelli, Regina M

    2006-03-01

    Environmental stimuli predictive of appetitive events can elicit Pavlovian approach responses that enhance an organism's ability to track and secure natural rewards, but may also contribute to the compulsive nature of drug addiction. Here, we examined the activity of individual nucleus accumbens (NAc) neurons during an autoshaping paradigm. One conditioned stimulus (CS+, a retractable lever presented for 10 s) was immediately followed by the delivery of a 45-mg sucrose pellet to a food receptacle, while another stimulus (CS-, a separate retractable lever presented for 10 s) was never followed by sucrose. Approach responses directed at the CS+ and CS- were recorded as lever presses and had no experimental consequence. Rats (n = 9) selectively approached the CS+ on more than 80% of trials and were surgically prepared for electrophysiological recording. Of 76 NAc neurons, 57 cells (75%) exhibited increases and/or decreases in firing rate (i.e. termed 'phasically active') during the CS+ presentation and corresponding approach response. Forty-seven percent of phasically active cells (27 out of 57) were characterized by time-locked but transient increases in cell firing, while 53% (30 out of 57) showed a significant reduction in firing for the duration of the CS+. In contrast, the same excitatory subpopulation exhibited smaller increases in activity relative to CS- onset, while the inhibitory subpopulation showed no change in firing during the CS- period. The magnitude and prevalence of cue-related neural responses reported here indicates that the NAc encodes biologically significant, repetitive approach responses that may model the compulsive nature of drug addiction in humans.

  11. Counterfactual Processing of Economic Action-Outcome Alternatives in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Further Evidence of Impaired Goal-Directed Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Claire M.; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Kaser, Muzaffer; Fineberg, Naomi A.; Sule, Akeem; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Cardinal, Rudolf N.; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disorder of automatic, uncontrollable behaviors and obsessive rumination. There is evidence that OCD patients have difficulties performing goal-directed actions, instead exhibiting repetitive stimulus-response habit behaviors. This might result from the excessive formation of stimulus-response habit associations or from an impairment in the ability to use outcome value to guide behavior. We investigated the latter by examining counterfactual decision making, which is the ability to use comparisons of prospective action-outcome scenarios to guide economic choice. Methods We tested decision making (forward counterfactual) and affective responses (backward counterfactual) in 20 OCD patients and 20 matched healthy control subjects using an economic choice paradigm that previously revealed attenuation of both the experience and avoidance of counterfactual emotion in schizophrenia patients and patients with orbitofrontal cortex lesions. Results The use of counterfactual comparison to guide decision making was diminished in OCD patients, who relied primarily on expected value. Unlike the apathetic affective responses previously shown to accompany this decision style, OCD patients reported increased emotional responsivity to the outcomes of their choices and to the counterfactual comparisons that typify regret and relief. Conclusions Obsessive-compulsive disorder patients exhibit a pattern of decision making consistent with a disruption in goal-directed forward modeling, basing decisions instead on the temporally present (and more rational) calculation of expected value. In contrast to this style of decision making, emotional responses in OCD were more extreme and reactive than control subjects. These results are in line with an account of disrupted goal-directed cognitive control in OCD. PMID:23452663

  12. Counterfactual processing of economic action-outcome alternatives in obsessive-compulsive disorder: further evidence of impaired goal-directed behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Claire M; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Kaser, Muzaffer; Fineberg, Naomi A; Sule, Akeem; Sahakian, Barbara J; Cardinal, Rudolf N; Robbins, Trevor W

    2014-04-15

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disorder of automatic, uncontrollable behaviors and obsessive rumination. There is evidence that OCD patients have difficulties performing goal-directed actions, instead exhibiting repetitive stimulus-response habit behaviors. This might result from the excessive formation of stimulus-response habit associations or from an impairment in the ability to use outcome value to guide behavior. We investigated the latter by examining counterfactual decision making, which is the ability to use comparisons of prospective action-outcome scenarios to guide economic choice. We tested decision making (forward counterfactual) and affective responses (backward counterfactual) in 20 OCD patients and 20 matched healthy control subjects using an economic choice paradigm that previously revealed attenuation of both the experience and avoidance of counterfactual emotion in schizophrenia patients and patients with orbitofrontal cortex lesions. The use of counterfactual comparison to guide decision making was diminished in OCD patients, who relied primarily on expected value. Unlike the apathetic affective responses previously shown to accompany this decision style, OCD patients reported increased emotional responsivity to the outcomes of their choices and to the counterfactual comparisons that typify regret and relief. Obsessive-compulsive disorder patients exhibit a pattern of decision making consistent with a disruption in goal-directed forward modeling, basing decisions instead on the temporally present (and more rational) calculation of expected value. In contrast to this style of decision making, emotional responses in OCD were more extreme and reactive than control subjects. These results are in line with an account of disrupted goal-directed cognitive control in OCD. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Professional Loan Officers’ Information Search Behavior After Reading Audit Report of a Financially Distressed Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvinen, Tuukka; Myllymäki, Emma-Riikka; Sormunen, Nina

    In order to respond to the concern about the relevance of auditor reporting when a firm is financially distressed, we examine whether the perceived quality of the signing audit firm (i.e. Big4 or non-Big4 auditor) and going-concern modification affects professional loan officers’ information search...... of going-concern modification significantly increases the attention to the audit report, and especially when it is signed by a Big4 auditor. Moreover, the information most explicitly mentioned in the going-concern paragraph is accessed quickly, indicating an attention directing effect of going......-concern paragraph, and this effect is the most evident when the audit report is signed by a Big4 auditor. Finally, the analyses of this study provide evidence on extensive versus superficial information search, which depends on the source credibility in addition to the presence of the going-concern modification...

  14. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  15. Dreaming as mind wandering: evidence from functional neuroimaging and first-person content reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kieran C R; Nijeboer, Savannah; Solomonova, Elizaveta; Domhoff, G William; Christoff, Kalina

    2013-01-01

    Isolated reports have long suggested a similarity in content and thought processes across mind wandering (MW) during waking, and dream mentation during sleep. This overlap has encouraged speculation that both "daydreaming" and dreaming may engage similar brain mechanisms. To explore this possibility, we systematica