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Sample records for reported 12-month alcohol

  1. Periodic progress report, 12 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the first 12 months of the project started with the establishment of the cutting theory for the cutting of heavy sections (phase 1). Phase 2 comprises the design of the first laboratory version cutting head with optics, nozzle systems and interfaces for the various...

  2. Factors associated with presenteeism among employed Australian adults reporting lifetime major depression with 12-month symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocker, Fiona; Martin, Angela; Scott, Jenn; Venn, Alison; Otahal, Petr; Sanderson, Kristy

    2011-12-01

    Employees experiencing depression can take a sickness absence or continue working ('presenteeism'). However, little is known about the factors associated with these behaviors within this population. This study aimed to determine the relative importance of socio-demographic, financial, work and health-related factors associated with presenteeism. The 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing provided data from employed individuals reporting lifetime major depression with 12-month symptoms (N=320). Survey adjusted multivariable logistic regression assessed classification of 12-month, depression-related presenteeism on the basis of socio-demographic, financial, work and health factors. Acceptable classification of cases was 70% or greater. Classification of cases based on socio-demographic factors, age, sex and marital status, was reasonable (62%). Adding work factors (work hours and occupation type) produced a 1% increase in successfully classified cases (63%). Health factors further increased correctly classified cases (67%). Marital status, housing tenure and co-morbid mental disorders were important indicators of presenteeism behavior. Work-related variables were restricted to available measures. Potentially important psychosocial work environment factors were unavailable. Cross-sectional data precluded causal inference. Using available factors, model discrimination did not reach an acceptable level i.e. 70% of presenteeism cases successfully classified. This highlighted the contribution of unmeasured factors to presenteeism behavior. Future research should explore the relative importance of psychosocial work environment and personality factors such as work demands, effort/reward imbalance and conscientiousness. The identified associations between socio-demographic, financial and health factors on work attendance behaviors could inform disease management guidelines for employers via recognition of employees at risk of presenteeism. Copyright

  3. Prevalence of 12-Month Alcohol Use, High-Risk Drinking, and DSM-IV Alcohol Use Disorder in the United States, 2001-2002 to 2012-2013: Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Bridget F; Chou, S Patricia; Saha, Tulshi D; Pickering, Roger P; Kerridge, Bradley T; Ruan, W June; Huang, Boji; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Fan, Amy; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-09-01

    Lack of current and comprehensive trend data derived from a uniform, reliable, and valid source on alcohol use, high-risk drinking, and DSM-IV alcohol use disorder (AUD) represents a major gap in public health information. To present nationally representative data on changes in the prevalences of 12-month alcohol use, 12-month high-risk drinking, 12-month DSM-IV AUD, 12-month DSM-IV AUD among 12-month alcohol users, and 12-month DSM-IV AUD among 12-month high-risk drinkers between 2001-2002 and 2012-2013. The study data were derived from face-to-face interviews conducted in 2 nationally representative surveys of US adults: the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, with data collected from April 2001 to June 2002, and the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III, with data collected from April 2012 to June 2013. Data were analyzed in November and December 2016. Twelve-month alcohol use, high-risk drinking, and DSM-IV AUD. The study sample included 43 093 participants in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and 36 309 participants in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III. Between 2001-2002 and 2012-2013, 12-month alcohol use, high-risk drinking, and DSM-IV AUD increased by 11.2%, 29.9%, and 49.4%, respectively, with alcohol use increasing from 65.4% (95% CI, 64.3%-66.6%) to 72.7% (95% CI, 71.4%-73.9%), high-risk drinking increasing from 9.7% (95% CI, 9.3%-10.2%) to 12.6% (95% CI, 12.0%-13.2%), and DSM-IV AUD increasing from 8.5% (95% CI, 8.0%-8.9%) to 12.7% (95% CI, 12.1%-13.3%). With few exceptions, increases in alcohol use, high-risk drinking, and DSM-IV AUD between 2001-2002 and 2012-2013 were also statistically significant across sociodemographic subgroups. Increases in all of these outcomes were greatest among women, older adults, racial/ethnic minorities, and individuals with lower educational level and family income. Increases were also

  4. Reported and observed controlling feeding practices predict child eating behavior after 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeier, Heidi J; Skouteris, Helen; Haycraft, Emma; Haines, Jess; Hooley, Merrilyn

    2015-06-01

    Controlling feeding practices are linked to children's self-regulatory eating practices and weight status. Maternal reports of controlling feeding practices are not always significantly related to independently rated mealtime observations. However, prior studies only assessed 1 mealtime observation, which may not be representative of typical mealtime settings or routines. The first aim was to examine associations between reported and observed maternal pressure to eat and restriction feeding practices at baseline (T1) and after ∼ 12 mo (T2). The second aim was to evaluate relations between maternal and child factors [e.g., concern about child weight, child temperament, child body mass index (BMI)-for-age z scores (BMIz)] at T1 and reported and observed maternal pressure to eat and restriction feeding practices (T1 and T2). The third aim was to assess prospective associations between maternal feeding practices (T1) and child eating behaviors (T2) and child BMIz (T2). A sample of 79 mother-child dyads in Victoria, Australia, participated in 2 lunchtime home observations (T1 and T2). BMI measures were collected during the visits. Child temperament, child eating behaviors, maternal parenting styles, and maternal feeding practices were evaluated at T1 and T2 via questionnaires. Associations were assessed with Pearson's correlation coefficients, paired t tests, and hierarchical regressions. Reported restriction (T1) was inversely associated with observed restriction at T1 (r = -0.24, P controlling strategies. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Acculturation dimensions and 12-month mood and anxiety disorders across US Latino subgroups in the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, R Lewis; Morcillo, C; Wang, S; Duarte, C S; Aggarwal, N K; Sánchez-Lacay, J A; Blanco, C

    2016-07-01

    Individual-level measures of acculturation (e.g. age of immigration) have a complex relationship with psychiatric disorders. Fine-grained analyses that tap various acculturation dimensions and population subgroups are needed to generate hypotheses regarding the mechanisms of action for the association between acculturation and mental health. Study participants were US Latinos (N = 6359) from Wave 2 of the 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 34 653). We used linear χ2 tests and logistic regression models to analyze the association between five acculturation dimensions and presence of 12-month DSM-IV mood/anxiety disorders across Latino subgroups (Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, 'Other Latinos'). Acculturation dimensions associated linearly with past-year presence of mood/anxiety disorders among Mexicans were: (1) younger age of immigration (linear χ2 1 = 11.04, p acculturation were found among Puerto Ricans. The relationship between different acculturation dimensions and 12-month mood/anxiety disorder varies across ethnic subgroups characterized by cultural and historical differences. The association between acculturation measures and disorder may depend on the extent to which they index protective or pathogenic adaptation pathways (e.g. loss of family support) across population subgroups preceding and/or following immigration. Future research should incorporate direct measures of maladaptive pathways and their relationship to various acculturation dimensions.

  6. Sustained effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Counselling for Alcohol Problems, a brief psychological treatment for harmful drinking in men, delivered by lay counsellors in primary care: 12-month follow-up of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Abhijit; Weiss, Helen A; Weobong, Benedict; McDaid, David; Singla, Daisy R; Park, A-La; Bhat, Bhargav; Katti, Basavaraj; McCambridge, Jim; Murthy, Pratima; King, Michael; Wilson, G Terence; Kirkwood, Betty; Fairburn, Christopher G; Velleman, Richard; Patel, Vikram

    2017-09-01

    Counselling for Alcohol Problems (CAP), a brief intervention delivered by lay counsellors, enhanced remission and abstinence over 3 months among male primary care attendees with harmful drinking in a setting in India. We evaluated the sustainability of the effects after treatment termination, the cost-effectiveness of CAP over 12 months, and the effects of the hypothesized mediator 'readiness to change' on clinical outcomes. Male primary care attendees aged 18-65 years screening with harmful drinking on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) were randomised to either CAP plus enhanced usual care (EUC) (n = 188) or EUC alone (n = 189), of whom 89% completed assessments at 3 months, and 84% at 12 months. Primary outcomes were remission and mean standard ethanol consumed in the past 14 days, and the proposed mediating variable was readiness to change at 3 months. CAP participants maintained the gains they showed at the end of treatment through the 12-month follow-up, with the proportion with remission (AUDIT score costs and better outcomes; uncertainty analysis showed a 99% chance of CAP being cost-effective per remission achieved from a health system perspective, using a willingness to pay threshold equivalent to 1 month's wages for an unskilled manual worker in Goa. Readiness to change level at 3 months mediated the effect of CAP on mean standard ethanol consumption at 12 months (indirect effect -6.014 [95% CI -13.99, -0.046]). Serious adverse events were infrequent, and prevalence was similar by arm. The methodological limitations of this trial are the susceptibility of self-reported drinking to social desirability bias, the modest participation rates of eligible patients, and the examination of mediation effects of only 1 mediator and in only half of our sample. CAP's superiority over EUC at the end of treatment was largely stable over time and was mediated by readiness to change. CAP provides better outcomes at lower costs from a societal

  7. Alcohol Use Disorders in Argentinian Girls and Women 12 Months Before Delivery: Comparison of DSM-IV, DSM-5, and ICD-10 Diagnostic Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Mariana B; Conde, Karina; Cremonte, Mariana

    The evidence of important problems related to prenatal alcohol exposure has faced researchers with the problem of understanding and screening alcohol use in this population. Although any alcohol use should be considered risky during pregnancy, identifying alcohol-drinking problems (ADPs) could be especially important because women with ADPs could not benefit from a simple advice of abstinence and because their offsprings are subjected to a higher risk of problems related with prenatal alcohol exposure. In this context, we aim to study the prevalence and characteristics of ADPs in pregnant women, evaluating the performance of different diagnostic systems in this population. The aims of the study were to describe the prevalence of ADPs obtained with the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in its fourth (DSM-IV) and fifth edition (DSM-5), and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10, in Argentinean females aged 13 to 44 years, 12 months before delivery; to evaluate the level of agreement between these classification systems; and to analyze the performance of each diagnosis criterion in this population. Data were collected through personal interviews of a probability sample of puerperal women (N = 641) in the city of Santa Fe (Argentina), between October 2010 and February 2011. Diagnoses compatible with DSM-IV, DSM-5, and ICD-10 were obtained through the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Agreement among diagnostic systems was measured through Cohen kappa. Diagnosis criteria performance were analyzed considering their prevalence and discriminating ability (D value). Total ADP prevalence was 6.4% for DSM-IV (4.2% abuse and 2.2% dependence), 8.1% for DSM-5 (6.4% mild, 0.8% moderate, and 0.9% severe alcohol use disorder), and 14.1% for the ICD-10 (11.9% harmful use and 2.2% dependence). DSM-5 modifications improved agreement between DSM and ICD. The least prevalent and worst discriminating ability diagnostic

  8. Sustained effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Counselling for Alcohol Problems, a brief psychological treatment for harmful drinking in men, delivered by lay counsellors in primary care: 12-month follow-up of a randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Nadkarni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Counselling for Alcohol Problems (CAP, a brief intervention delivered by lay counsellors, enhanced remission and abstinence over 3 months among male primary care attendees with harmful drinking in a setting in India. We evaluated the sustainability of the effects after treatment termination, the cost-effectiveness of CAP over 12 months, and the effects of the hypothesized mediator 'readiness to change' on clinical outcomes.Male primary care attendees aged 18-65 years screening with harmful drinking on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT were randomised to either CAP plus enhanced usual care (EUC (n = 188 or EUC alone (n = 189, of whom 89% completed assessments at 3 months, and 84% at 12 months. Primary outcomes were remission and mean standard ethanol consumed in the past 14 days, and the proposed mediating variable was readiness to change at 3 months. CAP participants maintained the gains they showed at the end of treatment through the 12-month follow-up, with the proportion with remission (AUDIT score < 8: 54.3% versus 31.9%; adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 1.71 [95% CI 1.32, 2.22]; p < 0.001 and abstinence in the past 14 days (45.1% versus 26.4%; adjusted odds ratio 1.92 [95% CI 1.19, 3.10]; p = 0.008 being significantly higher in the CAP plus EUC arm than in the EUC alone arm. CAP participants also fared better on secondary outcomes including recovery (AUDIT score < 8 at 3 and 12 months: 27.4% versus 15.1%; aPR 1.90 [95% CI 1.21, 3.00]; p = 0.006 and percent of days abstinent (mean percent [SD] 71.0% [38.2] versus 55.0% [39.8]; adjusted mean difference 16.1 [95% CI 7.1, 25.0]; p = 0.001. The intervention effect for remission was higher at 12 months than at 3 months (aPR 1.50 [95% CI 1.09, 2.07]. There was no evidence of an intervention effect on Patient Health Questionnaire 9 score, suicidal behaviour, percentage of days of heavy drinking, Short Inventory of Problems score, WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 score, days

  9. Preventing compulsory admission to psychiatric inpatient care: Perceived coercion, empowerment and self-reported mental health functioning after 12 months of preventive monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara eLay; Barbara eLay; Thekla eDrack; Marco eBleiker; Silke eLengler; Christina eBlank; Wulf eRössler; Wulf eRössler; Wulf eRössler

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate effects of a preventive monitoring program targeted to reduce compulsory re-hospitalization and perceived coercion in patients with severe mental disorder. We analyze patient outcomes in terms of perceived coercion, empowerment and self-reported mental health functioning at 12 months. Methods: The program consists of individualized psycho-education, crisis cards and, after discharge from the psychiatric hospital, a 24-month preventive monitoring. In total, 238 psychiatr...

  10. Preventing compulsory admission to psychiatric inpatient care: Perceived coercion, empowerment and self-reported mental health functioning after 12 months of preventive monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eLay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate effects of a preventive monitoring program targeted to reduce compulsory re-hospitalization and perceived coercion in patients with severe mental disorder. We analyze patient outcomes in terms of perceived coercion, empowerment and self-reported mental health functioning at 12 months. Methods: The program consists of individualized psycho-education, crisis cards and, after discharge from the psychiatric hospital, a 24-month preventive monitoring. In total, 238 psychiatric inpatients who had had compulsory admission(s during the past 24 months were included in the trial. T1-assessment 12 months after baseline was achieved for 182 patients. Results: Study participants reported lower levels of perceived coercion, negative pressures and process exclusion, a higher level of optimism, and a lesser degree of distress due to symptoms, interpersonal relations and social role functioning (significant time effects. However, improvements were not confined to the intervention group, but seen also in the TAU group (no significant group or interaction effects. Altered perceptions were linked to older age, shorter illness duration, female sex, non-psychotic disorder, and compulsory hospitalization not due to risk of harm to others. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that changes in the subjective perspective were fuelled primarily by participation in this study, rather than by having received the specific intervention. The study contributes to a better understanding of the interaction between 'objective' measures (compulsory readmissions and patients’ perceptions and highlights the need for treatment approaches promoting empowerment in individuals with a history of involuntary psychiatric hospitalizations.

  11. Self- and Collateral Spouse-Reported Alcohol in Malawi: Exploring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adult (18+ years old) Malawian men and women's alcohol use and social drinking norms were examined. From 31,676 screened households, heads and spouses in 1,795 households with at least one alcohol user were interviewed. Alcohol use last 12 months was reported by 27.3% and 1.6% of all adult men and women ...

  12. Visual Acuity Change over 12 Months in the Prospective Progression of Atrophy Secondary to Stargardt Disease (ProgStar) Study: ProgStar Report Number 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangrong; Strauss, Rupert W; Cideciyan, Artur V; Michaelides, Michel; Sahel, José-Alain; Munoz, Beatriz; Ahmed, Mohamed; Ervin, Ann M; West, Sheila K; Cheetham, Janet K; Scholl, Hendrik P N

    2017-11-01

    To estimate the yearly rate of change of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the risk of loss 1 line or more over 1 year and to identify risk factors for BCVA loss in patients with Stargardt disease (STGD1). Multicenter, prospective cohort study. Two hundred fifty-nine patients (489 eyes) with molecularly confirmed STGD1 enrolled at 9 centers in the United States and Europe. Participants were followed up every 6 months, and data at the baseline and 6- and 12-month visits were analyzed. Best-corrected visual acuity was measured using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) protocol. Standardized reporting forms were used to collect participants' characteristics and clinical observations. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the rate of BCVA loss. Linear models with generalized estimating equations were used to identify risk factors for BCVA loss of 1 line or more over 1 year. Change in BCVA over 1 year. Cross-sectional analysis at baseline showed that earlier symptom onset and longer duration since onset was associated with worse BCVA. Longitudinal analysis showed no overall significant change of BCVA within 12 months, but the rate of BCVA change was significantly different by baseline BCVA (P trials with 1 year's duration. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Your Baby's Growth: 12 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Baby's Growth: 12 Months KidsHealth / For Parents / Your Baby's ... doubled his or her birth weight. Is My Baby Growing Normally? Babies' growth begins to slow as ...

  14. Developmental milestones record - 12 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 2 naps during the day SENSORY AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT The typical 12-month-old: Begins pretend play ( ... Editorial team. Infant and Newborn Development Read more Toddler Development Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more A. ...

  15. Lethal pneumatosis coli in a 12-month-old child caused by acute intestinal gas gangrene after prolonged artificial nutrition: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kircher Stefan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pneumatosis coli is a rare disease with heterogeneous symptoms which can be detected in the course of various acute and chronic intestinal diseases in children, such as necrotizing enterocolitis, intestinal obstruction and intestinal bacteriological infections. Case presentation We report the case of a 12-month-old boy who died of pneumatosis coli caused by an acute intestinal gas gangrene after prolonged artificial alimentation. Conclusion While intestinal gas gangrene is a highly uncommon cause of pneumatosis coli, it is important to consider it as a differential diagnosis, especially in patients receiving a prolonged artificial food supply. These patients may develop intestinal gas gangrene due to a dysfunctional intestinal barrier.

  16. Urgent Optic Nerve Decompression via an Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Approach for Craniopharyngioma in a 12-Month-Old Infant: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Teishiki; Tanikawa, Motoki; Sakata, Tomohiro; Mase, Mitsuhito

    2018-01-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are benign tumors and account for approximately 5.6-13% of all intracranial tumors in children. Diagnosis of pediatric craniopharyngioma is often delayed until the tumor becomes relatively large and manifests severe visual and/or endocrine disturbance. Endoscopic endonasal approaches have recently been introduced to surgery for craniopharyngioma. These techniques, however, have rarely been utilized in patients affected with craniopharyngioma as young as 1 year old. This report documents a 12-month-old male infant with sellar craniopharyngioma who presented with acute total vision loss. To increase the chances of visual recovery, an endoscopic endonasal optic nerve decompression was performed as an urgent procedure. After decompression, which resulted in improvement of his visual disturbance, gross total resection of the tumor was undertaken through an anterior interhemispheric approach at a later date. Tumor mass reduction through an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach followed by secondary radical total resection under craniotomy was considered to be useful in cases such as this when urgent optic nerve decompression is required. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. A 12-month follow-up of an influenza vaccination campaign based on voluntary adherence: report on upper-respiratory symptoms among volunteers and non-volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Páris Ali Ramadan

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Routine immunization of groups at high risk for influenza has been progressively implemented as a matter of Brazilian public health policy. Although the benefits of the vaccination for healthy young adults are still controversial, it has been offered yearly to hundreds of thousands of Brazilian workers, generally as part of wellness initiatives in the workplace. OBJECTIVE: To study the characteristics of subjects that accepted or refused to be vaccinated against influenza and to report on respiratory symptoms in both groups, one year after the campaign date. DESIGN: A prospective observational study. SETTING: Workers at a subsidiary of an international bank in São Paulo, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: 124 persons that did not accept and 145 that voluntarily accepted the vaccine completed 12 months of follow-up. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Data concerning gender, age, tobacco use, and any history of chronic respiratory illness such as asthma, bronchitis, rhinitis, and repetitive upper-respiratory infections, were recorded at the time of vaccination. After that, workers were asked monthly by questionnaire or telephone about respiratory symptoms, days of work lost and medical consultations. RESULTS: The results showed statistically significant differences regarding age (P = 0.004 with the vaccinated group (V being younger than the non-vaccinated (NV one, and with reference to previous repetitive upper-respiratory infections being higher among the V group (P < 0.0001. During the follow-up, the V group reported more occurrences of upper respiratory symptoms (P < 0.0001, due to both non-influenza (P < 0.0001 and influenza-like illness (P = 0.045. Differences were also found between V and NV groups concerning days off work and number of medical consultations due to upper-respiratory symptoms and non-influenza illness. Gender and history of repetitive upper-respiratory infections were the best predictors of influenza-like illness-related events. CONCLUSIONS

  18. Randomized study on the effect of single-implant versus two-implant retained overdentures on implant loss and muscle activity: a 12-month follow-up report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqutaibi, A Y; Kaddah, A F; Farouk, M

    2017-06-01

    The objective was to evaluate and compare single- and two-implant retained overdentures for the rehabilitation of the edentulous mandible. Fifty-six edentulous subjects were eligible for inclusion. Using a random sampling system, a single implant or two implants were placed in the mandible. After 3 months, locator attachments were connected to the implants and the denture delivered with the retentive components incorporated in the denture base. Implant failure and muscle activity were evaluated at the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up examinations. The study sample comprised 56 patients (32 male, 24 female), with a mean age of 58.2 years. A total of 84 implants were placed (28 in the single-implant group and 56 in the two-implant group). All patients completed the 12 months of follow-up. No significant differences were found between subjects in the two groups with respect to implant failure. With regard to improvements in muscle activity, the two-implant group showed statistically significant but perhaps not clinically important differences. Single-implant mandibular overdentures may be suggested as an alternative treatment modality for the rehabilitation of edentulous patients who cannot afford the cost of a two-implant overdenture. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Instrumented fusion in a 12-month-old with atlanto-occipital dislocation: case report and literature review of infant occipitocervical fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Andrew T; Dewan, Michael C; Patel, Bhairav; Geck, Matthew J; Tomycz, Luke D

    2017-08-01

    The treatment of atlantoaxial dislocation in very young children is challenging and lacks a consensus management strategy. We review the literature on infantile occipitocervical (OC) fusion is appraised and technical considerations are organized for ease of reference. Surgical decisions such as graft type and instrumentation details are summarized, along with the use of bone morphogenic protein and post-operative orthoses. We present the case of a 12-month-old who underwent instrumented occipitocervical (OC) fusion in the setting of traumatic atlanto-occipital dislocation (AOD). Occipitocervical (OC) arthrodesis is obtainable in very young infants and children. Surgical approaches are variable and use a combination of autologous grafting and creative screw and/or wire constructs. The heterogeneity of pathologic etiology leading to OC fusion makes it difficult to make definitive recommendations for surgical management.

  20. Alcoholic hallucinosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Werner Griciunas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Case report of patient who has been an alcoholic for 40 years and, after reducing alcohol intake, developed auditory and visual hallucinations, which caused behavior change. Neurological issues, electrolyte disturbances and other organ dysfunctions were excluded as cause of said change. After intake of haloperidol and risperidone, the patient had regression of symptoms and denied having presented hallucinatory symptoms. The Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais – 5ª edição (DSM-V includes alcoholic hallucinosis in the Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder (alcohol, beginning during abstinence; however, the document is not yet very well accepted among the medical community. The difficulty of the team to confirm the diagnosis of alcoholic hallucinosis lies in the differential diagnosis, as Delirium tremens and severe withdrawal syndrome with psychotic symptoms. Thus, psychopathological differentiation is important, as well as continuity of research and collaboration of other clinical teams in the evaluation.

  1. Past 12-month and lifetime comorbidity and poly-drug use of ecstasy users among young adults in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Martins, Silvia S.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ecstasy use is prevalent among young people and often co-occurs with other drug use, but little is known about the past 12-month and lifetime psychiatric comorbidity and specific additional drug abuse among young adult ecstasy users in the general population. To provide this information, we compared current ecstasy users to former users, other illicit drug users, and non-illicit drug users. Method Data were gathered in a face-to-face survey of the United States conducted in the 2001–2002 (NESARC). Participants were household and group quarters residents aged 18–29 years (n = 8666). We measured current ecstasy use defined as any use in the past year; former ecstasy use as use prior to the past year only; other lifetime drug use included any drug other than ecstasy; lifetime non-illicit drug use as no illicit drug use. Associations were determined for nine other classes of illicit drugs, eight personality disorders, and seven mood and anxiety disorders. Results Of current ecstasy users, 44% used >3 other classes of illicit drugs in the past year, compared to 1.6% of non-ecstasy drug users. Current ecstasy use was associated with current anxiety (OR = 3.7), specifically panic disorder (OR = 7.7) and specific phobia (OR = 4.1), also alcohol abuse (OR = 21.6) and dependence (OR = 4.1) and any personality disorder (OR = 5.1) compared to non-illicit drug users. Conclusions Results indicate important differences in comorbidities of current and former ecstasy users compared to other drug users and lifetime non-illicit drug users that may affect phenotype definitions and etiologic studies. Ecstasy use may represent a distinct population of drug users for which unique treatments may be necessary. PMID:18524499

  2. Alcoholic hallucinosis: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara Werner Griciunas; Norton Yoshiaki Kitanishi; Patricia Motta Carvalho; Daniel Azevedo Cavalcante; Leonardo Mattiolli Marini

    2017-01-01

    Case report of patient who has been an alcoholic for 40 years and, after reducing alcohol intake, developed auditory and visual hallucinations, which caused behavior change. Neurological issues, electrolyte disturbances and other organ dysfunctions were excluded as cause of said change. After intake of haloperidol and risperidone, the patient had regression of symptoms and denied having presented hallucinatory symptoms. The Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais – 5ª edição (...

  3. Finnish women and men who self-report no sexual attraction in the past 12 months: prevalence, relationship status, and sexual behavior history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, Jannike; Jern, Patrick; Sandnabba, N Kenneth; Santtila, Pekka

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of not reporting sexual attraction in the past year and its associations with factors related to partner relations as well as sexuality-related characteristics in a population-based sample of Finnish twins. The present study was based on a total of 3,540 participants (1,304 men and 2,236 women) aged 33-43 years. A total of 19 men and 73 women reported complete absence of sexual interest in women or men during the past year. Older age was associated with absence of sexual interest in the past year in women, but not men. Individuals who reported absence of sexual interest in the past year were more likely than individuals who reported sexual interest to be single, but those who were in a relationship did not express more dissatisfaction with their relationships. Individuals who reported absence of sexual interest in the past year had had fewer sexual partners and reported less experience of sexual behavior in childhood. Women who reported no sexual interest in the past year, but who were nevertheless sexually active, reported higher frequencies of sexual dysfunctions than matched controls. No significant differences regarding the tendency to fake orgasm were found between the sexually active individuals who reported absence of sexual interest in the past year and the group of matched controls. The present study suggests that absence of sexual interest may be a lifelong phenomenon which does not necessarily affect relationship satisfaction, but is associated with variation in sexual behaviors.

  4. Conceptual design of the blanket and power conversion system for a mirror hybrid fusion-fission reactor. 12-month progress report, July 1, 1975--June 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, K.R.; Baxi, C.B.; Rao, R.

    1976-01-01

    This report presents the conceptual design and preliminary feasibility assessment for the hybrid blanket and power conversion system of the Mirror Hybrid Fusion-Fission Reactor. Existing gas-cooled fission reactor technology is directly applicable to the Mirror Hybrid Reactor. There are a number of aspects of the present conceptual design that require further design and analysis effort. The blanket and power conversion system operating parameters have not been optimized. The method of supporting the blanket modules and the interface between these modules and the primary loop helium ducting will require further design work. The means of support and containment of the primary loop components must be studied. Nevertheless, in general, the conceptual design appears quite feasible

  5. Patient-reported outcomes and aesthetic evaluation of root coverage procedures: a 12-month follow-up of a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanini, Martina; Jepsen, Karin; de Sanctis, Massimo; Baldini, Nicola; Greven, Björn; Heinz, Bernd; Wennström, Jan; Cassel, Björn; Vignoletti, Fabio; Sanz, Mariano; Jepsen, Søren; Zucchelli, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    To assess patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), aesthetics and stability of root coverage procedures from a previous 6-month RCT after 1 year. Forty-five patients (90 recessions) had received a coronally advanced flap (CAF = control) only or a xenogeneic collagen matrix in addition (CAF + CMX = test). Visual analogue scales (VAS) and questionnaires were used for PROMs and the root coverage aesthetic score (RES) for professional aesthetic evaluations. VAS scores (patient satisfaction) amounted to 8.58 ± 1.86 (test) versus 8.38 ± 2.46 (control). Six patients preferred CAF + CMX concerning surgical procedure and aesthetics, six preferred CAF and 29 were equally satisfied. RES was 7.85 ± 2.42 for the test group versus 7.34 ± 2.90 for the controls. Root coverage (RC) was 76.28% for test and 75.05% for control defects. The mean increase in keratinized tissue width was higher in test (from 1.97 to 3.02 mm) than in controls (from 2.00 to 2.64 mm) (p = 0.0413). Likewise, test sites showed more gain in gingival thickness (0.52 mm) than control sites (0.27 mm) (p = 0.0023). Compared to 6 months, clinical outcomes were stable. Results for PROMs, RES and RC did not significantly differ between treatment groups. Thickness and width of keratinized tissue were enhanced following CAF + CMX compared to CAF alone. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Technical, economic, environmental and social follow-up of innovating farm-based small methanization plants: BIOGAZ PLUS - Report after a 12-month follow-up; Installation: EARL Guilbaud - Report after a 15-month follow-up; Installation: GAEC Des Buissons - Report after a 12-month follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalanne, Mathieu; Cordelier, Marine; Pouech, Philippe; Thual, Julien; Bastide, Guillaume; Faure, Benoit; Faure, Jean-Marie; Bousquet, Dominique; El Habti, Audrey; L'Heriau, Germain; Guianvarch, David; Farcy, Alexandre; Banville, Sandrine; Chauvin, Damien; Frederic, Sylvain; Haumont, Francois; Guilbaud, Gerard; Leroux, Yannick; Tronc, Jean-Sebastien; Menard, Anthony

    2015-08-01

    This document contains three follow-up reports, each concerning a small farm-based methanization unit. For each one, the report proposes a technical description (operation, provisional exploitation assessment, process principle and implementation, installed instrumentation), describes the status of production (noticed dysfunctions and identified causes, returns on experience), an operation assessment after 12 or 15 months in terms of biological performance (composition of input mixture, methane generation potential, organic load) and energetic performance (biogas, electric, thermal and energetic assessments), an assessment of environmental and social performance (time spent, energy efficiency, greenhouse gas assessment, integration of the installation within the farm, risk and pollution assessment), an economic assessment in terms of investment, of operating statements and of indicators of financial profitability. Results of composition measurements performed on input materials and digestates are provided

  7. Changes in self-reported and parent-reported health-related quality of life in overweight children and adolescents participating in an outpatient training: findings from a 12-month follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finne Emily

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL was found to improve in participants of weight management interventions. However, information on moderately overweight youth as well as on maintaining HRQoL improvements following treatment is sparse. We studied the HRQoL of 74 overweight, but not obese participants (32.4% male, mean age = 11.61 ± 1.70 SD of a comprehensive and effective six-month outpatient training at four time-points up to 12 months after end of treatment. Methods HRQoL was measured by self-report and proxy-report versions of the generic German KINDL-R, including six sub domains, and an obesity-specific additional module. Changes in original and z-standardized scores were analyzed by (2×4 doubly multivariate analysis of variance. This was done separately for self- and proxy-reported HRQoL, taking into account further socio-demographic background variables and social desirability. Additionally, correlations between changes in HRQoL scores and changes in zBMI were examined. Results There were significant multivariate time effects for self-reported and proxy-reported HRQoL and a significant time-gender interaction in self-reports revealed (p 2 = 0.14-0.19. Generic HRQoL further increased after end of treatment. The largest effects were found on the dimension self-esteem (partial η2 = 0.08-0.09 for proxy- and self-reported z-scores, respectively. Correlations with changes in weight were gender-specific, and weight reduction was only associated with HRQoL improvements in girls. Conclusions Positive effects of outpatient training on generic and weight-specific HRQoL of moderately overweight (not obese children and adolescents could be demonstrated. Improvements in HRQoL were not consistently bound to weight reduction. While changes in weight-specific HRQoL were more immediate, generic HRQoL further increased after treatment ended. An extended follow-up may therefore be needed to scrutinize HRQo

  8. Considering abortion: a 12-month audit of records of women contacting a Pregnancy Advisory Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Heather J; Kirkman, Maggie; Hardiman, E Annarella; Mallett, Shelley; Rosenthal, Doreen A

    2009-01-19

    To characterise the demographic and psychosocial circumstances of women contacting Victoria's largest public pregnancy advisory service (PAS). Audit of PAS electronic records for the 12 months from 1 October 2006 to 30 September 2007. De-identified data were extracted from a comprehensive electronic database used for recording consultations. Summary statistics and measures of association. During the 12 months, 5462 women contacted PAS; records were created for 3827 women, and data were available in more than 80% of records for 77% (13/17) of items. Over half of the women receiving pregnancy support from PAS (60%) were 18-29 years old; 12% lived outside the metropolitan area; 51% held a health care card, and smaller percentages faced housing, financial, or drug and alcohol problems; 16% reported violence, but 71% described partners as involved and supportive. Most (79%) made contact within 2 weeks of discovering pregnancy, and 72% were referred by a general practitioner. Later gestation at contact was associated with younger age (P abortion were the desire to delay pregnancy (23%) and family completion (18%); 42% already had at least one child. Twenty-three women reported that the pregnancy was the result of rape. Ten per cent had mental health problems, and smaller numbers faced access barriers and had special needs. This PAS responds to demand from women with diverse social and personal circumstances. Findings provide evidence for policy, prevention and service development.

  9. Reliability and validity of the self-report version of the apathy evaluation scale in first-episode Psychosis: Concordance with the clinical version at baseline and 12 months follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faerden, Ann; Lyngstad, Siv Hege; Simonsen, Carmen; Ringen, Petter Andreas; Papsuev, Oleg; Dieset, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Agartz, Ingrid; Marder, Stephen R; Melle, Ingrid

    2018-05-31

    Negative symptoms have traditionally been assessed based on clinicians' observations. The subjective experience of negative symptoms in people with psychosis may bring new insight. The Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) is commonly used to study apathy in psychosis and has corresponding self-rated (AES-S) and clinician-rated (AES-C) versions. The aim of the present study was to determine the validity and reliability of the AES-S by investigating its concordance with the AES-C. Eighty-four first-episode (FEP) patients completed the shortened 12-item AES-S and AES-C at baseline (T1) and 12 months (T2). Concordance was studied by degree of correlation, comparison of mean scores, and change and difference between diagnostic groups. The Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) was used to study convergent and discriminative properties. High concordance was found between AES-S and AES-C at both T1 and T2 regarding mean values, change from T1 to T2, and the proportion with high levels of apathy. Both versions indicated high levels of apathy in FEP, while associations with PANSS negative symptoms were weaker for AES-S than AES-C. Controlling for depression did not significantly alter results. We concluded that self-rated apathy in FEP patients is in concordance with clinician ratings, but in need of further study. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Electronic Cigarettes Efficacy and Safety at 12 Months: Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamberto Manzoli

    Full Text Available To evaluate the safety and efficacy as a tool of smoking cessation of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, directly comparing users of e-cigarettes only, smokers of tobacco cigarettes only, and smokers of both.Prospective cohort study. Final results are expected in 2019, but given the urgency of data to support policies on electronic smoking, we report the results of the 12-month follow-up.Direct contact and structured questionnaires by phone or via internet.Adults (30-75 years were included if they were smokers of ≥1 tobacco cigarette/day (tobacco smokers, users of any type of e-cigarettes, inhaling ≥50 puffs weekly (e-smokers, or smokers of both tobacco and e-cigarettes (dual smokers. Carbon monoxide levels were tested in a sample of those declaring tobacco smoking abstinence.Sustained smoking abstinence from tobacco smoking at 12 months, reduction in the number of tobacco cigarettes smoked daily.We used linear and logistic regression, with region as cluster unit.Follow-up data were available for 236 e-smokers, 491 tobacco smokers, and 232 dual smokers (overall response rate 70.8%. All e-smokers were tobacco ex-smokers. At 12 months, 61.9% of the e-smokers were still abstinent from tobacco smoking; 20.6% of the tobacco smokers and 22.0% of the dual smokers achieved tobacco abstinence. Adjusting for potential confounders, tobacco smoking abstinence or cessation remained significantly more likely among e-smokers (adjusted OR 5.19; 95% CI: 3.35-8.02, whereas adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not enhance the likelihood of quitting tobacco and did not reduce tobacco cigarette consumption. E-smokers showed a minimal but significantly higher increase in self-rated health than other smokers. Non significant differences were found in self-reported serious adverse events (eleven overall.Adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not facilitate smoking cessation or reduction. If e-cigarette safety will be confirmed, however, the use of e

  11. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition disorders among older African Americans: findings from the National Survey of American Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Briggett C; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Toler, Amanda K; Neighbors, Harold W; Jackson, James S

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate lifetime and 12-month prevalence of 13 psychiatric disorders for older African Americans. Data are from the older African American subsample of the National Survey of American Life. Selected measures of lifetime and 12-month Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) psychiatric disorders were examined (i.e., panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder, dysthymia, bipolar I and II disorders, alcohol abuse/dependence, and drug abuse/dependence). Twenty-three percent of older African Americans reported at least one lifetime disorder and 8.54% reported at least one 12-month disorder. Alcohol abuse, PTSD, and major depression were the most prevalent lifetime disorders. The most prevalent 12-month disorders were PTSD, major depression, and social phobia. Age, sex, education, and region were significantly associated with the odds of having a lifetime disorder. This is the first study of prevalence rates of serious mental disorders for older African Americans based on a national sample. Demographic correlates of the prevalence of disorders are discussed with an emphasis on age and regional differences.

  12. Associations with legal representation in a compensation setting 12 months after injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Petrina P; Feyer, Anne Marie; Cameron, Ian D

    2015-05-01

    Many people with Whiplash Associated Disorder (WAD) seek treatment though a compensation system where factors such as legal involvement have been reported as having a negative impact on recovery outcomes. To compare those with and without legal involvement in their compensation claim, and identify associations with legal involvement at 12 months post injury; and longer term disability. Inception cohort study. 246 people with WAD compensation claim. Legal involvement and Functional Rating Index at 12 months post injury. Participants were recruited from an insurance database. Baseline health (Functional Rating Index, Pain Catastrophising Scale and SF-36), socio-economic, work capacity, and claims data were collected within three months of injury and 12 months. Logistic regression models were used to identify associations with legal involvement at 12 months; and disability (FRI) at 12 months. At baseline 246 participants were enrolled into the study in a median 72 days post injury. At 12 months post injury 52 (25%) had engaged a lawyer. The significant independent associations with legal involvement at 12 months were higher levels of initial disability, work disability, speaking a language other than English at home and lower levels of mental health. Specifically, the odds of lawyer involvement at 12 months post injury was 4.9 times greater for those with work disability; 2.3 times greater for those who spoke a language other than English at home. In terms of health, they had poorer mental health and for every 10 unit increase in the baseline FRI score the odds of having lawyer involvement increased by 38%. DISABILITY: at 12 months (FRI) was significantly independently associated with, PCS-helplessness (pdisadvantage, have had a prior claim and a worse baseline health profile compared to those without a lawyer. Understanding this profile could allow for improved claims processes and targeted interventions to assist this group through any perceived complexities in the

  13. Emotional and Social Development: 8 to 12 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Emotional and Social Development: 8 to 12 Months Page ... around strangers is usually one of the first emotional milestones your baby will reach. You may think ...

  14. Learning, Play, and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning, Play, and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old ... these next few months. What Is My Child Learning? Your little one will make great strides in ...

  15. Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old KidsHealth / For ... will help with the transition from the bottle . Feeding Safety Never leave your baby unattended while eating. ...

  16. Concurrent and Simultaneous Drug and Alcohol Use: Results of the 2000 National Alcohol Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Midanik, Lorraine T.; Tam, Tammy W.; Weisner, Constance

    2007-01-01

    This study estimates the prevalence, assesses predictors and evaluates factors associated with concurrent and simultaneous use of drugs and alcohol in the United States population. Using data from the 2000 National Alcohol Survey (n = 7,612), respondents were asked if they used specific drugs in the last 12 months. Current drinkers who reported using each type of drug were asked if they used alcohol and the drug at the same time. Approximately 10% reported using marijuana in the last 12 month...

  17. Surgical crown lengthening: a 12-month study - radiographic results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Eleutério Diniz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to perform a radiographic follow-up evaluation after a 12-month healing period, following crown lengthening surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-three periodontally healthy subjects (mean age 32.5 years that required crown lengthening surgery in premolars were recruited. In a total of 30 premolars, full thickness flaps, osseous resection, and flap suturing were performed. The restorative margin was defined in the pre-surgical phase and maintained unaltered during the healing period, serving as a reference point. Standardized bitewing radiographs were taken before and after osseous reduction, and at 2, 3, 6, and 12-month healing periods. RESULTS: Intact lamina dura was observed at both mesial and distal alveolar crests only from the 3rd month. At 12-months, all alveolar crests presented lamina dura. The overall mean distance from the restorative margin to the alveolar crest achieved after osseous resection was 3.28±0.87 mm at mesial and 2.81±0.51 mm at distal sites. No significant radiographic changes in the bone crest were observed during a 12-month healing period. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that the radiographic proximal bone level observed on bitewing radiographs following crown lengthening surgery can be used as a reference to predict the future level of the healed alveolar crest.

  18. Perceptual Learning: 12-Month-Olds' Discrimination of Monkey Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Joseph; Flom, Ross; Jones, Jacob; Martin, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Six-month-olds reliably discriminate different monkey and human faces whereas 9-month-olds only discriminate different human faces. It is often falsely assumed that perceptual narrowing reflects a permanent change in perceptual abilities. In 3 experiments, ninety-six 12-month-olds' discrimination of unfamiliar monkey faces was examined. Following…

  19. Stability of cocaine impurity profiles during 12 months of storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Stride; Villesen, Palle; Lindholst, Christian

    2016-01-01

    During the lifetime of a cocaine batch from production end to consumption, several alterations may occur, leading to possible changes in the original impurity profile. Such profile changes may eventually result in erroneous forensic evaluations. In the present study, the stability of both...... the alkaloid and the residual solvent impurity profiles of cocaine were evaluated over a period of 12 months under different storage conditions (temperature, purity and weight) using GC-MS and HS-GC-MS, respectively. The sample purity (p ... profile. The most significant change was observed in low purity samples stored at 37 °C. In contrast, no changes were observed in the residual solvent profile at all storage conditions for the entire 12-month study period. This finding indicates...

  20. Unfulfilled rehabilitation needs and dissatisfaction with care 12 months after a stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tistad, Malin; Tham, Kerstin; von Koch, Lena

    2012-01-01

    a questionnaire. Stroke severity, domains of the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS), the Sense of Coherence scale (SOC) and socio demographic factors were used as independent variables in four logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Unfulfilled needs for rehabilitation at 12 months were predicted by strength (SIS) (odds......BACKGROUND: People who have suffered a stroke commonly report unfulfilled need for rehabilitation. Using a model of patient satisfaction, we examined characteristics in individuals that at 3 months after stroke predicted, or at 12 months were associated with unmet need for rehabilitation...... or dissatisfaction with health care services at 12 months after stroke. METHODS: The participants (n = 175) received care at the stroke units at the Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden. The dependent variables "unfulfilled needs for rehabilitation" and "dissatisfaction with care" were collected using...

  1. Maternal Antenatal Depression and Infant Disorganized Attachment at 12 months

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Lisa J.; Goodman, Sherryl H.; Carlson, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Although high rates of attachment disorganization have been observed in infants of depressed mothers, little is known about the role of antenatal depression as a precursor to infant attachment disorganization. The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between maternal antenatal depression and infant disorganization at 12 months in a sample of women (N = 79) at risk for perinatal depression. A secondary aim was to test the roles of maternal postpartum depression and maternal pa...

  2. Urinary leukotriene E4 at 12 months and influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Stencel-Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    • 3.        Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Oncological Gynecology, Bytom, Medical University of Silesia       Corresponding author: Krystyna Stencel-Gabriel ul. Batorego 15 41-902 Bytom   Keywords: leukotriene E4, infants, allergy, urine.   Summary Objective LTE4 is the end point of cysLTs pathway and its only stable product. Its role was discussed in asthma and AEDS. We aimed to investigate the impact of genetic and environmental factors ( sex, maternal positive family atopy history, breastfeeding, passive smoking and pet exposure . 60 newborns ( including 30 boys were enrolled in the study. Each child was examined at 12 months and urine samples for urinary LTE4 measurement were collected. All samples were processed using ACETM Enzyme Immunoassay Kit ( Cayman Chemical, Ann Arbor, MI, USA . The mean level of urinary LTE4 at 12 months was 186,99 pg/ml ( median: 159,0; CI 95%: 157,79- 221,59 . The Shapiro- Wilk test showed that the distribution of the levels of urinary LTE4 were abnormal. 12- month- old girls had higher urinary LTE4 levels than boys ( mean: 270,50 vs. 193,55 , but maternal positive atopy history, pet exposure, tobacco smoking or length of breastfeeding had no impact on urinary LTE4 excretion. Conclusions In conclusion, most of genetic or environmental factors do not change levels of urinary LTE4 in infants.

  3. The DSM-5 nonsuicidal self-injury disorder among incoming college students: Prevalence and associations with 12-month mental disorders and suicidal thoughts and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekens, Glenn; Hasking, Penelope; Claes, Laurence; Mortier, Philippe; Auerbach, Randy P; Boyes, Mark; Cuijpers, Pim; Demyttenaere, Koen; Green, Jennifer G; Kessler, Ronald C; Nock, Matthew K; Bruffaerts, Ronny

    2018-04-26

    Approximately one in five college students report a history of nonsuicidal self-injury. However, it is unclear how many students meet criteria for the recently proposed DSM-5 nonsuicidal self-injury disorder (NSSI-D). In this study, we used full NSSI-D criteria to identify those students most in need of clinical care. Using data from the Leuven College Surveys (n = 4,565), we examined the 12-month prevalence of DSM-5 NSSI-D in a large and representative sample of incoming college students. We also explored the optimal frequency threshold as a function of interference in functioning due to NSSI, and examined comorbidity patterns with other 12-month mental disorders (i.e., major depressive disorder, broad mania, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and alcohol dependence) and suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STB). Twelve-month NSSI-D prevalence was 0.8% and more common among females (1.1%) than males (0.4%). The proposed 5+ diagnostic threshold was confirmed as yielding highest discrimination between threshold and subthreshold cases in terms of distress or disability due to NSSI. A dose-response relationship was observed for NSSI recency-severity (i.e., 12-month NSSI-D, subthreshold 12-month NSSI-D, past NSSI, no history of NSSI) with number of 12-month mental disorders and STB. NSSI-D occurred without comorbid disorders for one in five individuals, and remained associated with severe role impairment when controlling for the number of comorbid disorders. These findings offer preliminary evidence that DSM-5 NSSI-D is uncommon among incoming college students, but may help to improve the deployment of targeted resource allocation to those most in need of services. More work examining the validity of NSSI-D is required. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. HIIT in the Real World: Outcomes from a 12-Month Intervention in Overweight Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Melyssa; Williams, Sheila M; Brown, Rachel C; Meredith-Jones, Kim A; Osborne, Hamish; Jospe, Michelle; Taylor, Rachael W

    2018-04-21

    Although high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous exercise have comparable health outcomes in the laboratory setting, effectiveness studies in real-world environments are lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an unsupervised HIIT programme in overweight/obese adults over 12 months. 250 overweight/obese adults could choose HIIT or current exercise guidelines of 30 minutes/day moderate-intensity exercise. HIIT participants received a single training session and were advised to independently perform HIIT 3x/week utilizing a variety of protocols. Mixed models, with a random effect for participant, compared differences in weight, body composition, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, physical activity and blood indices at 12 months, adjusting for relevant baseline variables. Forty-two percent (n=104) of eligible participants chose HIIT in preference to current guidelines. At 12 months, there were no differences between exercise groups in weight (adjusted difference HIIT vs conventional; 95% CI: -0.44kg; -2.5, 1.6) or visceral fat (-103cm; -256, 49), although HIIT participants reported greater enjoyment of physical activity (p=0.01). Evidence of adherence to ≥2 sessions/week of unsupervised HIIT (from heart rate monitoring) declined from 60.8% at baseline to 19.6% by 12 months. Participants remaining adherent to HIIT over 12 months (23%) were more likely to be male (67% vs 36%, p=0.03), with greater reductions in weight (-2.7kg; -5.2 -0.2) and visceral fat (-292cm; -483, -101) than non-adherent participants. HIIT was well-accepted by overweight adults and opting for HIIT as an alternative to standard exercise recommendations led to no difference in health outcomes after 12 months. While regular participation in unsupervised HIIT declined rapidly, those apparently adherent to regular HIIT demonstrated beneficial weight loss and visceral fat reduction. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN

  5. Determinants of developmental delay in infants aged 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slykerman, Rebecca F; Thompson, John M D; Clark, Phillipa M; Becroft, David M O; Robinson, Elizabeth; Pryor, Jan E; Wild, Chris J; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine which demographic, maternal, obstetric and postnatal variables were associated with achievement of developmental milestones at the age of 12 months in term infants. Mothers and babies were enrolled in the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study shortly after birth. All infants were full term (gestation >or= 37 weeks). Approximately half of the sample were small for gestational age (SGA = birthweight 10th percentile). A maternal interview was conducted soon after birth. Phase 2 of the study occurred 12 months later when mothers were sent a postal questionnaire requesting information about the child's health and development during the first year of life using the Denver Prescreening Developmental Questionnaire. Seven hundred and forty-four (85.4%) European mothers returned the postal questionnaire. SGA children were not at increased risk of developmental delay at 12 months of age. In a sample representative of New Zealand European children, after adjustment for the effects of potential confounders, maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR = 2.1 [95% CI 1.1, 4.0]), maternal smoking during the first year of life (OR = 1.9 [95% CI 1.0, 3.8]) and low levels of satisfaction with parenting (OR = 2.4 [95% CI 1.1, 5.2]) were associated with significantly increased risk of developmental delay. In the subgroup of SGA children, maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR = 2.9 [95% CI 1.4, 6.2]), high levels of stress associated with parenting (OR = 2.2 [95% CI 1.2, 4.0]), and low levels of satisfaction with parenting (OR = 4.3 [95% CI 1.3, 13.5]) were significantly associated with developmental delay after adjustment for the effects of potential confounders. In conclusion, maternal and postnatal factors were better predictors of developmental delay than demographic variables.

  6. Maternal antenatal depression and infant disorganized attachment at 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Lisa J; Goodman, Sherryl H; Carlson, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Although high rates of attachment disorganization have been observed in infants of depressed mothers, little is known about the role of antenatal depression as a precursor to infant attachment disorganization. The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between maternal antenatal depression and infant disorganization at 12 months in a sample of women (N = 79) at risk for perinatal depression. A secondary aim was to test the roles of maternal postpartum depression and maternal parenting quality as potential moderators of this predicted association. Among women with histories of major depressive episodes, maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at multiple times during pregnancy and the first year postpartum, maternal parenting quality was measured at three months postpartum, and attachment disorganization was assessed at 12 months postpartum. Results revealed that infants classified as disorganized had mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms during pregnancy compared to infants classified as organized. Maternal parenting quality moderated this association, as exposure to higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy was only associated with higher rates of infant disorganized attachment when maternal parenting at three months was less optimal. These findings suggest that enhancing maternal parenting behaviors during this early period in development has the potential to alter pathways to disorganized attachment among infants exposed to antenatal maternal depressive symptoms, which could have enduring consequences for child wellbeing.

  7. Drug and alcohol testing results 2009 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This is the 15th annual report of the results of the Federal Transit Administrations (FTA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Program. This report summarizes the reporting requirements for calendar year 2009, the requirements of the overall drug and alcohol...

  8. Drug and alcohol testing results 2007 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This is the 13th annual report of the results of the Federal Transit Administrations (FTA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Program. This report summarizes the reporting requirements for calendar year 2007, the requirements of the overall drug and alcohol...

  9. Drug and alcohol testing results 2006 annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This is the 12th annual report of the results of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Program. This report summarizes the reporting requirements for calendar year 2006, the requirements of the overall drug and alcohol t...

  10. Predictors of pain and physical function at 3 and 12 months after total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plews, Sarah; Løvlund Nielsen, Randi; Overgaard, Søren

    Background: Few studies have combined preoperative patient-reported and objective outcome measures to predict outcomes after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Purpose / Aim of Study: to identify predictors of outcome 3 and 12 months after THA Materials and Methods: A cohort of 107 consecutive patients...... with primary hip osteoarthritis responded to Hip dysfunction and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) questionnaires prior to and 3 and 12 months after THA. Preoperative pain intensity; joint space width (JSW), age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) were used to predict changes in pain and physical function....... Conclusions: Preoperative pain predicted changes in pain and physical function up to one year after THA. Such knowledge should be taken into consideration, when assessing OA patients prior to surgery. This study provides useful insight for clinicians, regarding the overall improvement patients can expect...

  11. Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury: Clinical Characteristics and a Prognostic Model of 12-Month Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsen, Cathrine Elisabeth; van der Naalt, Joukje; Jacobs, Bram; Follestad, Turid; Moen, Kent Gøran; Vik, Anne; Håberg, Asta Kristine; Skandsen, Toril

    2018-03-31

    Patients with moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) often are studied together with patients with severe TBI, even though the expected outcome of the former is better. Therefore, we aimed to describe patient characteristics and 12-month outcomes, and to develop a prognostic model based on admission data, specifically for patients with moderate TBI. Patients with Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 9-13 and age ≥16 years were prospectively enrolled in 2 level I trauma centers in Europe. Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) score was assessed at 12 months. A prognostic model predicting moderate disability or worse (GOSE score ≤6), as opposed to a good recovery, was fitted by penalized regression. Model performance was evaluated by area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristics curves. Of the 395 enrolled patients, 81% had intracranial lesions on head computed tomography, and 71% were admitted to an intensive care unit. At 12 months, 44% were moderately disabled or worse (GOSE score ≤6), whereas 8% were severely disabled and 6% died (GOSE score ≤4). Older age, lower Glasgow Coma Scale score, no day-of-injury alcohol intoxication, presence of a subdural hematoma, occurrence of hypoxia and/or hypotension, and preinjury disability were significant predictors of GOSE score ≤6 (area under the curve = 0.80). Patients with moderate TBI exhibit characteristics of significant brain injury. Although few patients died or experienced severe disability, 44% did not experience good recovery, indicating that follow-up is needed. The model is a first step in development of prognostic models for moderate TBI that are valid across centers. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-reported consumption of wine and other alcoholic beverages in a German wine area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fronk P

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Petra Fronk,1 Maria Blettner,2 Heinz Decker1 1Institute for Molecular Biophysics, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany; 2Institute for Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany Purpose: To describe the consumption of alcoholic beverages in a German wine area, with special attention to the number of people drinking more than the tolerable upper alcohol intake level (TUAL. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a mailed questionnaire, to investigate the weekly consumption of wine, beer, and spirits during the preceding 12 months in Mainz, the state capital of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. The analysis included 948 responders aged 20–69 years. Results: A total of 948 respondents, with a mean age of 43.7 years, were included in the analysis. About 85% of the respondents consumed alcoholic beverages, with an average of about 13.5 g alcohol/day. Men drank about twice as much as women. In total, 30% of women and 24% of men reported drinking more than the TUAL, and 9.2% of women and 7.2% of men reported drinking more than twice as much as the TUAL. The highest proportion of persons drinking more than the TUAL was found among elderly people. The preferred beverage was wine, which contributed 74% (for women and 54% (for men to the total alcohol intake. On average, the respondents drank 2.8 glasses of wine per week, 1.4 bottles beer, and negligible amounts of spirits. Conclusion: Wine was the preferred alcoholic beverage in Mainz, which was expected for people living in a wine area. A rather large number of people, especially among the elderly, consumed alcohol in an amount higher than the TUAL which may be harmful to health. Keywords: beer, spirits, TUAL, Mainz

  13. Self-reported alcohol intake and risk of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Erin E; Niewoehner, Dennis E; Sisson, Joseph H; Lindberg, Sarah M; Connett, John E; Kunisaki, Ken M

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between alcohol consumption and the risk of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). We conducted a secondary analysis of data previously collected in a large, multicenter trial of daily azithromycin in COPD. To analyze the relationship between amount of baseline self-reported alcohol consumption in the past 12 months and subsequent AECOPD, we categorized the subjects as minimal (alcohol users (>60 drinks/month). The primary outcome was time to first AECOPD and the secondary outcome was AECOPD rate during the 1-year study period. Of the 1,142 enrolled participants, 1,082 completed baseline alcohol questionnaires and were included in this analysis. Six hundred and forty-five participants reported minimal alcohol intake, 363 reported light-to-moderate intake, and 74 reported heavy intake. There were no statistically significant differences in median time to first AECOPD among minimal (195 days), light-to-moderate (241 days), and heavy drinkers (288 days) (P=0.11). The mean crude rate of AECOPD did not significantly differ between minimal (1.62 events per year) and light-to-moderate (1.44 events per year) (P=0.095), or heavy drinkers (1.68 events per year) (P=0.796). There were no significant differences in hazard ratios for AECOPD after adjustment for multiple covariates. Among persons with COPD at high risk of exacerbation, we found no significant relationship between self-reported baseline alcohol intake and subsequent exacerbations. The number of patients reporting heavy alcohol intake was small and further study is needed to determine the effect of heavy alcohol intake on AECOPD risk.

  14. CUMULATIVE TRAUMAS AND RISK THRESHOLDS: 12-MONTH PTSD IN THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH (WMH) SURVEYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Elie G.; Friedman, Matthew J.; Hill, Eric D.; Kessler, Ronald C.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Petukhova, Maria; Sampson, Laura; Shahly, Victoria; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Bromet, Evelyn J.; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Demyttenaere, Koen; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia E.; Haro, Josep Maria; He, Yanling; Karam, Aimee N.; Kawakami, Norito; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Browne, Mark A. Oakley; Posada-Villa, José A.; Shalev, Arieh Y.; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Zarkov, Zahari; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients exposed to multiple traumatic events (TEs) rather than a single TE have increased morbidity and dysfunction. Although epidemiological surveys in the United States and Europe also document high rates of multiple TE exposure, no population-based cross-national data have examined this issue. Methods Data were analyzed from 20 population surveys in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative (n 51,295 aged 18+). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (3.0) assessed 12-month PTSD and other common DSM-IV disorders. Respondents with 12-month PTSD were assessed for single versus multiple TEs implicated in their symptoms. Associations were examined with age of onset (AOO), functional impairment, comorbidity, and PTSD symptom counts. Results 19.8% of respondents with 12-month PTSD reported that their symptoms were associated with multiple TEs. Cases who associated their PTSD with four or more TEs had greater functional impairment, an earlier AOO, longer duration, higher comorbidity with mood and anxiety disorders, elevated hyper-arousal symptoms, higher proportional exposures to partner physical abuse and other types of physical assault, and lower proportional exposure to unexpected death of a loved one than cases with fewer associated TEs. Conclusions A risk threshold was observed in this large-scale cross-national database wherein cases who associated their PTSD with four or more TEs presented a more “complex” clinical picture with substantially greater functional impairment and greater morbidity than other cases of PTSD. PTSD cases associated with four or more TEs may merit specific and targeted intervention strategies. Depression and Anxiety 31:130–142, 2014. PMID:23983056

  15. Drug and Alcohol Testing Results 2008 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This is the 14th annual report of the results of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA) Drug and Alcohol Testing : Program. This report summarizes the reporting requirements for calendar year 2008, the requirements of the overall : drug and alcoh...

  16. Changes in knee joint load indices from before to 12 months after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Creaby, M W

    2016-01-01

    with the contra-lateral leg. METHODS: We estimated indices of knee joint loading (external peak knee adduction moment (KAM), KAM impulse and peak knee flexion moment (KFM)) normalized to body size (i.e., body mass (BM) and height (HT)) using 3D gait analysis in 23 patients (17 men, mean (SD) 46.2 (6.4) years, BMI...... 25.8 (3.4) kg/m(2)) without radiographic knee OA before and 12 months after medial APM. Static alignment was assessed by radiography and self-reported outcomes by Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). RESULTS: Peak KAM and KAM impulse increased in the APM leg compared to the contra......-lateral leg from before to 12 months after surgery (change difference: 0.38 Nm/BM*HT% 95% CI 0.01 to 0.76 (P = 0.049) and 0.20 Nm*s/BM*HT% 95% CI 0.10 to 0.30 (P

  17. Validity of the Fine Motor Area of the 12-Month Ages and Stages Questionnaire in Infants Following Major Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cally; Wallen, Margaret; Walker, Karen; Bundy, Anita; Rolinson, Rachel; Badawi, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) are parent-report screening tools to identify infants at risk of developmental difficulties. The purpose of this study was to examine validity and internal reliability of the fine motor developmental area of the ASQ, 2nd edition (ASQ2-FM) for screening 12-month-old infants following major surgery. The…

  18. Object Permanence in 3 1/2- and 4 1/2-Month-Old Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillargeon, Renee

    1987-01-01

    Three experiments test object permanenece in 3 1/2- and 4 1/2-month-old infants, and use an impossible-possible-habituation event format. The 4 1/2-month-olds, and the 3 1/2-month-olds who were fast habituators, look reliably longer at the impossible than at the possible event. Results seriously question Piaget's (1954) claims regarding the age at…

  19. [Hematemesis in Togo: findings of a 12-month study in an intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djibril, A M; Tomta, K; Balaka, K; Bagny, A; M'ba, K B; Kaaga, L; Redah, D; Agbetra, A

    2010-06-01

    This prospective study was conducted over a 12-month period on patients who underwent upper digestive endoscopy for hematemesis in the medical intensive care unit (ICU) of the Tokoin University Hospital Center in Lomé, Togo. A total of 44 patients with a mean age of 44 years were included. The sex-ratio was 2.61. Risk factors included use of non-steroid anti-inflammatory (NSAI) in 16 patients (36.4%) and alcohol abuse in 13 (29.6%). At the time of admission to the ICU, 21 patients (47.7%) were in hemodynamic shock and 11 (25%) presented signs of portal hypertension. The underlying etiology was peptic ulcer in 18 cases (40.9%) including 13 cases of duodenal ulcer and 5 cases of stomach ulcer, rupture of esophageal varicosities in 8 (18.2%), gastric tumor in 6 (13.6%), Mallory Weiss syndrome in 5 (11.4%), gastritis in 4 (9,1%), and esophagitis in 3 (6.8%) due to peptic inflammation in 2 and mycotic infection in 1. The mortality rate was 45.5%. The main causes of hematemesis were peptic ulcer and rupture of esophageal varicosities. The death rate was high due to inadequate care facilities.

  20. Alcohol use disorder severity and reported reasons not to seek treatment: a cross-sectional study in European primary care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Charlotte; Manthey, Jakob; Martinez, Alicia; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-08-12

    Alcohol use disorders are among the mental disorders with the lowest treatment rates. Increasing the treatment rates requires insight on the reasons why patients do not seek treatment. This study examined self-reported reasons for not seeking treatment and their association with alcohol use disorder severity among primary health care patients diagnosed with an alcohol use disorder. Alcohol use disorders, health service utilization, and reasons for not seeking treatment were assessed via interviews on regionally representative samples of primary care patients from 6 European countries (Italy, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Poland and Spain, total N = 9,098). Additionally, general practitioners had to fill in a questionnaire assessing their patients' alcohol use and alcohol use disorders. A multinomial logistic regression was performed to investigate the association between reasons for not seeking treatment and alcohol use disorder severity. Of 1,008 patients diagnosed with an alcohol use disorder (via general practitioner or patient interview) in the past 12 months, the majority (N = 810) did not receive treatment and 251 of those gave a reason for not seeking treatment. The most frequent reason was 'lack of problem awareness' (55.3% of those who responded), the second most common response was 'stigma or shame' (28.6%), followed by 'encounter barriers' (22.8%) and 'cope alone' (20.9%). The results indicated lower probabilities of reporting 'denial' and higher probabilities to report 'encounter barriers' as alcohol use disorders severity increases. However, both trends were discontinued for patients with severe alcohol use disorders. Particularly at lower levels of alcohol use disorder severity, a lack of problem awareness prevents patients from seeking treatment. Routinely alcohol consumption monitoring in primary care practices could help primary and secondary prevention of alcohol use disorders and increase treatment coverage.

  1. Outcomes of a Multi-Component Family Enrichment Project: 12-Month Follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Anne Tompkins

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has established that family enrichment programs work with a variety of populations (e.g., Hawkins, Stanley, Blanchard, & Albright, 2012. It is unclear if a multi-component program focusing on a variety of family outcomes can lead to lasting change. This study used growth modeling to examine effects of relationship (i.e., Within My Reach, parenting (i.e., Making Parenting a Pleasure, and financial enrichment (i.e., Spend Some, Save Some, Share Some classes over 12 months. Results revealed improvement in family functioning at one year post for all three programs. Program specific improvements included relationship functioning and parenting alliance. Program participants reported overall satisfaction and gaining of valuable skills. Findings suggest these family enrichment programs can have long-lasting effects; potential reasons for sample success and implications are discussed.

  2. Knowledge and beliefs concerning early childhood caries from mothers of children ages zero to 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Marina Sousa; Romano, Ana Regina; Dos Santos, Iná da Silva; Cenci, Maximiliano Sergio

    2014-01-01

    This study's purpose was to assess mothers' knowledge and beliefs about early childhood caries (ECC) etiology and prevention. This cross-sectional study targeted mothers (N=277) of zero- to 12-month-olds visiting 12 public health care centers in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Information on causes of and recommendations to prevent ECC, as well as socioeconomic and demographic variables, was collected. Chi-square, univariate, and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed (Pinfluence caries in their children. None reported the role of micro-organisms and lack of fluoride in the caries etiology. These findings highlight the importance of providing preventive orientation to the mothers regarding early childhood caries. Information on age of first dental visit should be emphasized, especially among mothers with more than one child and low-income families.

  3. Predictors for repeat self-harm and suicide among older people within 12 months of a self-harm presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Gary; Foster, Gisele; de Beer, Wayne; Gee, Susan; Hawkes, Tracey; Rimkeit, Sally; Tan, Yu Mwee; Merry, Sally; Sundram, Frederick

    2017-08-01

    A past history of self-harm is a significant risk factor for suicide in older people. The aims of this study are to (i) characterize older people who present with self-harm to emergency departments (EDs); and (ii) determine the predictors for repeat self-harm and suicide. Demographic and clinical data were retrospectively collected on older people (age 65+ years), who presented to seven EDs in New Zealand following an episode of self-harm between 1st July 2010 and 30th June 2013. In addition, 12-month follow-up information on repeat self-harm and suicide was collected. The sample included 339 older people (55.2% female) with an age range of 65-96 years (mean age = 75.0; SD = 7.6). Overdose (68.7%) was the most common method of self-harm. 76.4% of the self-harm cases were classified as suicide attempts. Perceived physical illness (47.8%) and family discord (34.5%) were the most common stressors. 12.7% of older people repeated self-harm and 2.1% died by suicide within 12 months. Older people who had a positive blood alcohol reading (OR = 3.87, 95% Cl = 1.35-11.12, p = 0.012) and were already with mental health services at the index self-harm (OR = 2.73, 95% Cl = 1.20-6.25, p = 0.047) were more likely to repeat self-harm/suicide within 12 months. Older people who self-harm are at very high risk of repeat self-harm and suicide. Screening and assessment for alcohol use disorders should be routinely performed following a self-harm presentation, along with providing structured psychological treatment as an adjunct to pharmacological treatment for depression and interventions to improve the person's resilience resources.

  4. Maternal stress and psychological distress preconception: association with offspring atopic eczema at age 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Heis, S; Crozier, S R; Healy, E; Robinson, S M; Harvey, N C; Cooper, C; Inskip, H M; Baird, J; Godfrey, K M

    2017-06-01

    Perinatal maternal stress and low mood have been linked to offspring atopic eczema. To examine the relation of maternal stress/mood with atopic eczema in the offspring, focusing particularly on stress/psychological distress preconception. At recruitment in the UK Southampton Women's Survey, preconception maternal reports of perceived stress in daily living and the effect of stress on health were recorded; in a subsample, psychological distress was assessed (12-item General Health Questionnaire). Infants were followed up at ages 6 (n = 2956) and 12 (n = 2872) months and atopic eczema ascertained (based on UK Working Party Criteria for the Definition of Atopic Dermatitis). At 6 months post-partum, mothers were asked if they had experienced symptoms of low mood since childbirth and completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Preconception perceived stress affecting health [OR 1.21 (95% CI 1.08-1.35), P = 0.001] and stress in daily living [OR 1.16 (1.03-1.30), P = 0.014] were associated with an increased risk of offspring atopic eczema at age 12 months but not at 6 months, robust to adjustment for potentially confounding variables. Findings were similar for maternal psychological distress preconception. Low maternal mood between delivery and 6 months post-partum was associated with an increased risk of infantile atopic eczema at age 12 months, but no significant association between post-natal mood and atopic eczema was seen after taking account of preconception stress. Our data provide novel evidence linking maternal stress at preconception to atopic eczema risk, supporting a developmental contribution to the aetiology of atopic eczema and pointing to potentially modifiable influences. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Acute coronary ischemia during alcohol withdrawal: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Ganeshalingam

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The potential of alcohol withdrawal to cause acute coronary events is an area that needs the urgent attention of clinicians and researchers. Case presentation We report the case of a 52-year-old heavy-alcohol-using Sri Lankan man who developed electocardiogram changes suggestive of an acute coronary event during alcohol withdrawal. Despite the patient being asymptomatic, subsequent echocardiogram showed evidence of ischemic myocardial dysfunction. We review the literature on precipitation of myocardial ischemia during alcohol withdrawal and propose possible mechanisms. Conclusions Alcohol withdrawal is a commonly observed phenomenon in hospitals. However, the number of cases reported in the literature of acute coronary events occurring during withdrawal is few. Many cases of acute ischemia or sudden cardiac deaths may be attributed to other well known complications of delirium tremens. This is an area needing the urgent attention of clinicians and epidemiologists.

  6. Embolization for the treatment of intractable epistaxis: 12 month outcomes in a two centre case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Anthony E; McAuliffe, William; Phillips, Timothy J; Phatouros, Constantine C; Singh, Tejinder P

    2017-12-01

    Embolization is a treatment option for intractable epistaxis; however, concerns regarding tissue necrosis, stroke and blindness persist in the literature. A retrospective review of patients from September 2010 to January 2016 treated with embolization for epistaxis was performed. No patient was excluded. Follow-up was 12 months and no patient was lost. 62 embolizations on 59 patients occurred. 21 cases were taking anticoagulants, P2Y12 inhibiting agents or had a systemic coagulopathy. Embolized territories typically involved bilateral distal internal maxillary arteries with unilateral or bilateral facial arteries with polyvinyl alcohol particles. 60 cases had procedural general anaesthesia. There were no major complications. Six died of unrelated causes. Of the surviving 53 patients, excluding the 3 patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia, 5 had recurrent epistaxis post-embolization. Four were taking P2Y12 inhibiting and/or anticoagulants, none of which required surgery, prolonged packing or repeat embolization. This group had a propensity to recur compared with cases taking aspirin only or no antiplatelet/anticoagulant (77.8 vs 97.1%, p = 0.04). The fifth underwent repeat embolization after previously only having ipsilateral distal internal maxillary and facial arteries treated. Embolization for epistaxis is safe and effective. Of those who had recurrent epistaxis post embolization, most were taking P2Y12 inhibition and/or anticoagulation. We prefer bilateral distal internal maxillary artery and unilateral facial artery embolization under general anaesthesia for optimal safety and efficacy. Advances in knowledge: Embolization with this technique seems to facilitate superior outcomes without complications despite the large proportion of patients taking anticoagulating or P2Y12 inhibiting agents.

  7. Parent-child discrepancies in reports of parental monitoring and their relationship to adolescent alcohol-related behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abar, Caitlin C.; Jackson, Kristina M.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Barnett, Nancy P.

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancies between parents and adolescents regarding parenting behaviors have been hypothesized to represent a deficit in the parent-child relationship and may represent unique risk factors for poor developmental outcomes. The current study examined the predictive utility of multiple methods for characterizing discrepancies in parents’ and adolescents’ reports of parental monitoring on youth alcohol use behaviors in order to inform future study design and predictive modeling. Data for the current study came from a prospective investigation of alcohol initiation and progression. The analyzed sample consisted of 606 adolescents (6th – 8th grade; 54% female) and their parents were surveyed at baseline, with youth followed up 12 months later. A series of hierarchical logistic regressions were performed for each monitoring-related construct examined (parental knowledge, parental control, parental solicitation, and child disclosure). The results showed that adolescents’ reports were more closely related to outcomes than parents’ reports, while greater discrepancies were frequently found to be uniquely associated with greater likelihood of alcohol use behaviors. Implications for future work incorporating parents’ and adolescents’ reports are discussed. PMID:24964878

  8. Incidence and 12-month outcome of non-transient childhood conversion disorder in the U.K. and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, Cornelius; Reading, Richard; Lynn, Richard; Forlee, Simone; Garralda, Elena

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about conversion disorder in childhood. To document clinical incidence, features, management and 12-month outcome of non-transient conversion disorder in under 16-year-olds in the U.K. and Ireland. Surveillance through the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit and Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Surveillance System. In total, 204 cases (age range 7-15 years) were reported, giving a 12-month incidence of 1.30/100 000 (95% CI 1.11-1.52). The most common symptoms were motor weakness and abnormal movements. Presentation with multiple symptoms was the norm. Antecedent stressors were reported for 80.8%, most commonly bullying in school. Most children required in-patient admission with frequent medical investigations. Follow-up at 12 months was available for 147 children, when all conversion disorder symptoms were reported as improved. Most families (91%) accepted a non-medical explanation of the symptoms either fully or partially. Childhood conversion disorder represents an infrequent but significant clinical burden in the UK and Ireland.

  9. The South African Stress and Health (SASH) study: 12- month and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    scale population-based study of common mental disorders in the country. This paper provides data on the 12-month and lifetime prevalence of these conditions. Methods. Data from a nationally representative sample of 4 351 adults were ...

  10. Longitudinal observation of treatment patterns and outcomes for patients with fibromyalgia: 12-month findings from the reflections study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Rebecca L; Kroenke, Kurt; Williams, David A; Mease, Philip; Chen, Yi; Faries, Douglas; Peng, Xiaomei; Hann, Danette; Wohlreich, Madelaine; McCarberg, Bill

    2013-09-01

    To describe 12-month treatment patterns and outcomes for patients starting a new medication for fibromyalgia in routine clinical practice. Data from 1,700 patients were collected at baseline and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Repeated measures and Poisson regression models controlling for demographic, clinical, and baseline outcomes were used to assess changes in health outcomes (Brief Pain Inventory severity and interference, Sheehan Disability Scale, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire), satisfaction, and economic factors for patients who initiated on pregabalin (214, 12.6%), duloxetine (264, 15.5%), milnacipran (134, 7.9%), or tricyclic antidepressants (66, 3.9%). Sensitivity analyses were run using propensity-matched cohorts. Patients started on 145 unique drugs for fibromyalgia, and over 75% of patients took two or more medications concurrently for fibromyalgia at each time point assessed. Overall, patients showed improvement on the four health outcomes, with few differences across medication cohorts. At baseline, patients reported annual averages of 20.3 visits for outpatient care, 27.7 missed days of work, and 32.6 days of care by an unpaid caregiver. The duloxetine and milnacipran (vs pregabalin or tricyclic antidepressant) cohorts had fewer outpatient visits during the 12-month study. Patients reported satisfaction with overall treatment and their fibromyalgia medication (46.0% and 42.8%, respectively). In this real-world setting, patients with fibromyalgia reported modest improvements, high resource, and medication use, and were satisfied with the care they received. Cohort differences were difficult to discern because of the high rates of drug discontinuation and concomitant medication use over the 12-month study period. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A 12-month exercise intervention decreased stress symptoms and increased mental resources among working adults – Results perceived after a 12-month follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oili Kettunen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study evaluated the effect of a 12-month physical exercise intervention accompanied by a 12-month followup evaluating stress symptoms (SS, mental resources (MR and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF in healthy, working adults. We hypothesized that the stress symptoms would decrease and mental resources would increase during the intervention and that these results are associated with changes in CRF. Material and methods The study group included healthy adults (N = 371. Three hundred thirty eight participants (212 women, 126 men were allocated in the exercise group and 33 in the control group (17 women and 16 men. For the analysis, the exercise group was divided into subgroups according to the baseline SS and MR. Stress symptoms and MR were measured using the Occupational Stress Questionnaire. Results During the 12-month exercise intervention, SS decreased by 16% (p < 0.0001, MR increased by 8% (p < 0.0001 and CRF increased by 7% (p < 0.0001 in the exercise group, while no changes occurred in the control group (ANCOVA, p < 0.01. In the exercise group, the results (SS, MR, and CRF remained improved during the follow-up. There was a positive correlation between the change in SS and the change in CRF (r = 0.19, p < 0.01. In the subgroup having the highest SS at baseline, SS during the intervention decreased most (26% (ANCOVA, p < 0.0001. Conclusions One year physical exercise intervention improved mental well-being among working adults and this was associated with an improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. The positive changes remained after the 12-month follow-up.

  12. Delusional parasitosis with alcohol dependence: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Dave, Austin Fernandes, Anup Bharati, Avinash De Sousa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Delusional parasitosis is a syndrome with which most psychiatrists are familiar. However, most reports consist of case reports or small series. We present here a case report of delusional parasitosis of an extremely bizarre nature in a case of alcohol dependence that responded to pimozide, haloperidol and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT.

  13. Language skills of children during the first 12 months after stuttering onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Amy; Eadie, Patricia; Block, Susan; Mensah, Fiona; Reilly, Sheena

    2017-03-01

    To describe the language development in a sample of young children who stutter during the first 12 months after stuttering onset was reported. Language production was analysed in a sample of 66 children who stuttered (aged 2-4 years). The sample were identified from a pre-existing prospective, community based longitudinal cohort. Data were collected at three time points within the first year after stuttering onset. Stuttering severity was measured, and global indicators of expressive language proficiency (length of utterances and grammatical complexity) were derived from the samples and summarised. Language production abilities of the children who stutter were contrasted with normative data. The majority of children's stuttering was rated as mild in severity, with more than 83% of participants demonstrating very mild or mild stuttering at each of the time points studied. The participants demonstrated developmentally appropriate spoken language skills comparable with available normative data. In the first year following the report of stuttering onset, the language skills of the children who were stuttering progressed in a manner that is consistent with developmental expectations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comprehensive Nutritional and Dietary Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorder—A Randomized, Controlled 12-Month Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Adams

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study involved a randomized, controlled, single-blind 12-month treatment study of a comprehensive nutritional and dietary intervention. Participants were 67 children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD ages 3–58 years from Arizona and 50 non-sibling neurotypical controls of similar age and gender. Treatment began with a special vitamin/mineral supplement, and additional treatments were added sequentially, including essential fatty acids, Epsom salt baths, carnitine, digestive enzymes, and a healthy gluten-free, casein-free, soy-free (HGCSF diet. There was a significant improvement in nonverbal intellectual ability in the treatment group compared to the non-treatment group (+6.7 ± 11 IQ points vs. −0.6 ± 11 IQ points, p = 0.009 based on a blinded clinical assessment. Based on semi-blinded assessment, the treatment group, compared to the non-treatment group, had significantly greater improvement in autism symptoms and developmental age. The treatment group had significantly greater increases in EPA, DHA, carnitine, and vitamins A, B2, B5, B6, B12, folic acid, and Coenzyme Q10. The positive results of this study suggest that a comprehensive nutritional and dietary intervention is effective at improving nutritional status, non-verbal IQ, autism symptoms, and other symptoms in most individuals with ASD. Parents reported that the vitamin/mineral supplements, essential fatty acids, and HGCSF diet were the most beneficial.

  15. Physical activity in Iranian older adults who experienced fall during the past 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Leili; Shokrvash, Behjat; Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Montazeri, Ali

    2014-10-31

    Physical activity may have several benefits for elderly people. However, the risk of falling might prevent this population from showing interest in physical activity. This research was aimed to explore facilitators and barriers to physical activity in older persons who have experienced at least one fall in the past 12 months. This cross sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011, in Tehran, Iran. Using a multistage sampling method a group of elderly people entered into the study. A multi-section questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic information, physical activity level, and different determinants that might influence physical activity. Several statistical tests including linear regression were used to analyze the data. In all, 180 old people from 40 elderly centers (49 men and 131 women) took part in the study. The mean age of participants was 65.9 ± 6.1 years. The result indicated that most participants experienced two or more falls during the last year (54.5%). Those who had more falls significantly scored lower on the Physical Activity Scale for Elderly (p falls, self-reported health and daily living activities. However, we observed inverse association between number of falls and physical activity. Indeed the findings suggest that we should reinforce benefits exist when designing programs to increase physical activity among elderly population.

  16. Unexpected Arrest-Related Deaths in America: 12 Months of Open Source Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho, Jeffrey D

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sudden, unexpected arrest-related death (ARD has been associated with drug abuse, extreme delirium or certain police practices. There is insufficient surveillance and causation data available. We report 12 months of surveillance data using a novel data collection methodology.Methods: We used an open-source, prospective method to collect 12 consecutive months of data, including demographics, behavior, illicit substance use, control methods used, and time of collapse after law enforcement contact. Descriptive analysis and chi-square testing were applied.Results: There were 162 ARD events reported that met inclusion criteria. The majority were male with mean age 36 years, and involved bizarre, agitated behavior and reports of drug abuse just prior to death. Law enforcement control techniques included none (14%; empty-hand techniques (69%; intermediate weapons such as TASER device, impact weapon or chemical irritant spray (52%; and deadly force (12%. Time from contact to subject collapse included instantaneous (13%, within the first hour (53% and 1-48 hours (35%. Significant collapse time associations occurred with the use of certain intermediate weapons.Conclusion: This surveillance report can be a foundation for discussing ARD. These data support the premise that ARDs primarily occur in persons with a certain demographic and behavior profile that includes middle-aged males exhibiting agitated, bizarre behavior generally following illicit drug abuse. Collapse time associations were demonstrated with the use of TASER devices and impact weapons. We recommend further study in this area to validate our data collection method and findings. [WestJEM. 2009;10:68-73.

  17. Effects of a 12-Month Educational Intervention on Clinicians' Attitudes/Practices Regarding the Screening Spiritual History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Harold G; Perno, Kathleen; Erkanli, Alaattin; Hamilton, Ted

    2017-06-01

    Patients' spiritual values, beliefs, and preferences are identified in outpatient medical settings by the taking of a screening spiritual history (SSH). We report the impact of an educational/training program on the attitudes/practices of physicians (MDs) and midlevel practitioners (MLPs). A convenience sample of 1082 MDs or MLPs in outpatient practices was approached to participate in a 12-month educational/training program in this single-group experimental study. Of the 1082 professionals, 48% (427 physicians, 93 MLPs) agreed to complete a questionnaire assessing demographics, practice characteristics, religiosity, and attitudes/practices regarding the SSH. Changes in attitudes/practices over time were examined and baseline predictors identified using mixed-effects regression. Of the 520 participants completing questionnaires at baseline, 436 were assessed at 1 month (83.8%) and 432 were assessed at 12 months (83.1%). The belief that MDs should take a SSH did not significantly change over time (B = -0.022, standard error [SE] 0.028, P = 0.426). However, those who took an SSH often/always increased from 16.7% at baseline to 34.8% at 12-month follow-up (B = 0.328, SE 0.030, P Educational programs of this type may be used to increase SSH taking by outpatient MDs and MLPs.

  18. Alcohol and Health. Fifth Special Report to the U.S. Congress from the Secretary of Health and Human Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This report is divided into an overview of alcohol and health, and eight chapters which deal with various aspects of alcohol use and abuse. The epidemiology of alcohol abuse and alcoholism is discussed. Data are presented on self-reported consumption of alcohol among youths and adults; alcohol consumption during pregnancy; alcohol-related…

  19. Principals' reports of adults' alcohol use in Australian secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Bernadette M; Kippen, Rebecca; Buykx, Penny; Munro, Geoffrey; McBride, Nyanda; Wiggers, John

    2016-02-29

    Schools provide opportunities for parents and the wider community to connect and support the physical and emotional wellbeing of their children. Schools therefore have the potential to play a role in the socialisation of alcohol use through school policies and practices regarding consumption of alcohol by adults at school events in the presence of children. This survey was undertaken to a) compare the extent to which alcohol is used at secondary school events, when children are present, in the states of New South Wales (NSW) and Victoria (VIC), Australia; b) describe principals' level of agreement with these practices; c) their awareness of state policies on this issue; and d) the predictors of such events. A random sample of secondary schools, stratified to represent metropolitan and non-metropolitan schools were invited to participate. Bivariate and multivariate analysis were conducted with p values schools consented to participate in the study. Fifteen percent of participating NSW schools and 57% of VIC schools held at least one event in which alcohol was consumed by adults in the presence of children in the year before the survey. Of the 100 reported events, 78% were Year 12 graduation dinners, and 18% were debutante balls. Compared to NSW principals, VIC principals were significantly more likely to agree with the use of alcohol at these events; significantly less likely to be aware of their state education department policy on this issue; have a policy at their own school or support policy that prohibits alcohol use at such events; and less likely to report having enough information to make decisions about this. There is a growing focus on adults' use of alcohol at school events when children are present. Schools can play an important role in educating and socialising children about alcohol via both the curriculum and policies regarding adults' alcohol use at school events. Findings from this study suggest education department and school-based policies that

  20. Infant pain-related negative affect at 12 months of age: early infant and caregiver predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din Osmun, Laila; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Flora, David B

    2014-01-01

    To examine the predictive relationships of early infant and caregiver variables on expressed pain-related negative affect duration at the 12-month immunization. Infants and their caregivers (N = 255) were followed during immunization appointments over the first year of life. Latent growth curve modeling in a structural equation modeling context was used. Higher levels of initial infant pain reactivity at 2 months and caregiver emotional availability averaged across 2, 4, and 6 months of age were related to larger decreases in the duration of infant negative affect over the first 6 months of life. Longer duration of infant negative affect at 2 months and poorer regulation of infant negative affect over the first 6 months of life predicted longer durations of infant negative affect by 12 months. Infant negative affect at 12 months was a function of both infant factors and the quality of caregiver interactive behaviors (emotional availability) in early infancy.

  1. Time-course of exercise and its association with 12-month bone changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vainionpää Aki

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise has been shown to have positive effects on bone density and strength. However, knowledge of the time-course of exercise and bone changes is scarce due to lack of methods to quantify and qualify daily physical activity in long-term. The aim was to evaluate the association between exercise intensity at 3, 6 and 12 month intervals and 12-month changes in upper femur areal bone mineral density (aBMD and mid-femur geometry in healthy premenopausal women. Methods Physical activity was continuously assessed with a waist-worn accelerometer in 35 healthy women (35-40 years participating in progressive high-impact training. To describe exercise intensity, individual average daily numbers of impacts were calculated at five acceleration levels (range 0.3-9.2 g during time intervals of 0-3, 0-6, and 0-12 months. Proximal femur aBMD was measured with dual x-ray absorptiometry and mid-femur geometry was evaluated with quantitative computed tomography at the baseline and after 12 months. Physical activity data were correlated with yearly changes in bone density and geometry, and adjusted for confounding factors and impacts at later months of the trial using multivariate analysis. Results Femoral neck aBMD changes were significantly correlated with 6 and 12 months' impact activity at high intensity levels (> 3.9 g, r being up to 0.42. Trochanteric aBMD changes were associated even with first three months of exercise exceeding 1.1 g (r = 0.39-0.59, p r = 0.38-0.52, p Conclusion The number of high acceleration impacts during 6 months of training was positively associated with 12-month bone changes at the femoral neck, trochanter and mid-femur. These results can be utilized when designing feasible training programs to prevent bone loss in premenopausal women. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov NCT00697957

  2. Objectively measured physical activity and 12-month trajectories of neck-shoulder pain in workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallman, David M.; Birk Jørgensen, Marie; Holtermann, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Aims: This study aimed to investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity at work and leisure and the intensity (mean level and time course) of neck-shoulder pain (NSP) over 12 months among male and female blue collar workers. Methods: Data were obtained from 625 blue...... of NSP (numerical rating scale 0-10) were collected using text messages every fourth week over 12 months. Linear mixed models were used to investigate the associations between occupational physical activity (OPA) and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and the trajectories of the intensity of NSP...

  3. ASSESSMENT OF NEURODEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOMES IN INFANTS 6-12 MONTHS OF AGE ACCORDING TO IMPACT OF PERINATAL RISK FACTORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tskimanauri, N; Khachapuridze, N; Imnadze, P; Chanadiri, T; Bakhtadze, S

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the developmental follow-up of infants (at age of 6 month and 12 month), exposed to separate and combination impact of perinatal risk factors, compared with not exposed cases, within the prospective cohort study. Between January 2015 and January 2017, in this research we prospectively enrolled 1018 live-born infants from the medical reports of the participating clinics in Tbilisi (capital of Republic of Georgia) and Mtskheta, Dusheti (districts of Georgia). Within postnatal follow-up, the children from whole population were assessed at 6 and 12 months of age by family doctors using the Denver Developmental Screening Test (Denver II). The association between the risk factors and neurodevelopmental outcomes was analyzed by Chi-square test of independence. Statistical analysis of these data was performed using the SPSS version 12. (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). A P value of less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Prevalence of abnormal development in whole population was revealed 9.0% or 92 cases at age of 6 month and 36 cases or 3.5% at age of 12 month. Point prevalence of farther neurodevelopmental adversities for healthy born children not influenced by studied risk factors was 0.1% and for infants with impact of the risk factors - 1.5%; on the other hand, prevalence of observed abnormal development in infant's population who had neonatal pathologies was 2.3% if risk factors were not exposed and 21.6% under influence of risk factors. Statistical analysis showed that an abnormal developmental outcomes were more frequent when researched risk factors were exposed (OR-23.18, CI 95% - 11.83 to 45.41 - at age of 6 month; OR - 26.12, CI 95% - 7.95 to 85.85 - at age of 12 month) as well, as correlation of these risk factors with neurodevelopmental adverse outcomes was significant (prisk factors, such as maternal age (35Y), pathologies of pregnancy and delivery as well as gestation age (risk factors increased probability of

  4. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because that's how many accidents occur. What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  5. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  6. Alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Junior, L.

    1988-01-01

    The alcohol production as a secondary energy source, the participation of the alcohol in Brazilian national economic and social aspects are presented. Statistical data of alcohol demand compared with petroleum by-products and electricity are also included. (author)

  7. Child and Adolescent Emergency and Urgent Mental Health Delivery Through Telepsychiatry: 12-Month Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nasreen; Hu, Tina; Axas, Nicholas; Repetti, Leanne

    2017-10-01

    The significant gap between children and adolescents presenting for emergency mental healthcare and the shortage of child and adolescent psychiatrists constitutes a major barrier to timely access for psychiatric assessment for rural and remote areas. Unlike remote areas, urban emergency departments have in-house psychiatric consultation. Telepsychiatry may be a solution to ensure the same service for remote areas. However, there is a paucity of studies on the use of telepsychiatry for child and adolescent emergency consults. Thus, the aim of our study was to (1) assess patient satisfaction with telepsychiatry and (2) compare clinical characteristics and outcome of telepsychiatry with face-to-face emergency child and adolescent assessments. This is a prospective study of telepsychiatry emergency assessments of children and adolescents referred by emergency physicians. The comparison group was age- and gender-matched patients seen for face-to-face urgent assessments. Data were gathered on demographic and clinical variables. Telepsychiatry satisfaction was assessed using a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests were used to assess group differences for each variable. Logistic regression was used to assess impact of the variables on outcome after the consult. A p value <0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. Sixty (n = 60) assessments were conducted through telepsychiatry in 12 months. Among the telepsychiatry group, Aboriginal patients were over-represented (50% vs. 6.7%, p < 0.001), a higher proportion received a diagnosis of adjustment disorder (22% vs. 8.3%, p = 0.004) or no diagnosis (27% vs. 6.7%, p = 0.004) compared with controls. There was no statistically significant difference between groups on other clinical variables. Patients reported a high degree of satisfaction with telepsychiatry. Telepsychiatry is acceptable to patients and families for safe emergency assessment and follow-up, reducing unnecessary travel

  8. Co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress symptoms, pain, and disability 12 months after traumatic injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giummarra, Melita J.; Casey, Sara L.; Devlin, Anna; Ioannou, Liane J.; Gibson, Stephen J.; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Jennings, Paul A.; Cameron, Peter A.; Ponsford, Jennie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Chronic pain is common after traumatic injury and frequently co-occurs with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and PTSD symptoms (PTSS). Objectives: This study sought to understand the association between probable PTSD, PTSS, and pain. Methods: Four hundred thirty-three participants were recruited from the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry and Victorian State Trauma Registry and completed outcome measures. Participants were predominantly male (n = 324, 74.8%) and aged 17-75 years at the time of their injury (M = 44.83 years, SD = 14.16). Participants completed the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist, Brief Pain Inventory, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, EQ-5D-3L and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire 12 months after hospitalization for traumatic injury. Data were linked with injury and hospital admission data from the trauma registries. Results: Those who reported having current problems with pain were 3 times more likely to have probable PTSD than those without pain. Canonical correlation showed that pain outcomes (pain severity, interference, catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, self-efficacy, and disability) were associated with all PTSSs, but especially symptoms of cognition and affect, hyperarousal, and avoidance. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, on the contrary, were predominantly associated with high catastrophizing and low self-efficacy. When controlling for demographics, pain and injury severity, depression, and self-efficacy explained the greatest proportion of the total relationship between PTSS and pain-related disability. Conclusion: Persons with both PTSS and chronic pain after injury may need tailored interventions to overcome fear-related beliefs and to increase their perception that they can engage in everyday activities, despite their pain. PMID:29392235

  9. Immediate Implant Placement and Provisionalization Using the Patient's Extracted Crown: 12-Month Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliberador, Tatiana Miranda; Begnini, Gilmar José; Tomazinho, Flávia; Rezende, Carlos Eduardo Edwards; Florez, Fernando Luis Esteban; Leonardi, Denise Piotto

    2018-03-01

    Immediate placement and provisionalization of implants in fresh sockets has been previously demonstrated to be a predictable treatment in the restoration of non-recoverable teeth in the anterior regions of the maxilla. This article reports a clinical case in which an immediate implant placement protocol was used in combination with two distinct and sequential grafts (bovine bone and connective tissue, respectively) followed by immediate implant provisionalization using the patient's crown of an extracted tooth. Physical, clinical, and image examinations of the patient (female, 23 years old) revealed a maxillary central incisor (tooth No. 8) with slight mobility due the presence of extensive cervical resorption. The treatment proposed was the atraumatic extraction of the tooth followed by immediate implant placement and provisionalization. Two grafts (bovine bone and connective tissue) were used due to the presence of a very thin maxillary bone plate associated with a thin gingival biotype. The use of the extracted crown as a temporary crown after immediate implant placement resulted in immediate attainment of an esthetically pleasing outcome and long-term favorable results. The treatment protocol proposed can be efficiently used to immediately restore the patient's esthetics and function while maintaining the health, volume, and contours of gingival tissues over a 12-month follow-up period. Anterior teeth extractions typically require the execution of single-unit prostheses using dental materials of synthetic origin (such as polymers), which often are incapable of achieving the esthetic and physiological results patients expect. The use of the patient's own crown was demonstrated, which allowed good clinical results to be achieved and the natural shape and function of tissues to be maintained.

  10. The Influence of Back Pain and Urinary Incontinence on Daily Tasks of Mothers at 12 Months Postpartum

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sheila W.; Tough, Suzanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study examined back pain (BP) and/or urinary incontinence (UI) impact on the ability to perform daily tasks at 12 months after childbirth in healthy reproductive women who sought maternity care in community based family practice clinics. Methods This study is a secondary analysis from the All Our Babies Study, a prospective, community-based pregnancy cohort in Calgary, Alberta. Maternal self-reported information on demographics, lifestyle, experiences with pregnancy and childbirth, occurrence of BP, UI and consequent impairment of daily tasks were collected by questionnaires administered before 25 weeks, at 34-36 weeks gestation and at 4 and 12 months postpartum. The occurrence and severity of BP and UI at one year after childbirth was assessed using descriptive and bivariate analyses. Logistic regression models examined the association between demographic and obstetrical variables and the severity of functional impairment due to UI and BP. Results From 1574 women with singleton pregnancies included in the study, 1212 (77%) experienced BP, 773 (49%) UI, and 620 (40%) both BP and UI. From the 821 women reporting impairment of daily tasks due to BP, 199 (24 %) were moderately and 90 (11%) severely affected with the remainder, 532 (64%) being mildly affected. From 267 women with functional impairment due to UI, 52 (19%) reported moderately to severe impairment in their ability to perform daily tasks. Obesity and parity were risk factors for impairment of daily functioning due to BP, whereas obesity and vaginal delivery increased the risk of moderate to severe impairment due to UI. Conclusions BP and UI are common occurrences 1 year after childbirth. Maternal performance of daily tasks and women’s health and quality of life are more often impaired due to BP than UI. Our study brings new evidence of the risk factors that predict severity and impact of these conditions on women functioning at 12 months postpartum. PMID:26083252

  11. The Influence of Back Pain and Urinary Incontinence on Daily Tasks of Mothers at 12 Months Postpartum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A Mannion

    Full Text Available The present study examined back pain (BP and/or urinary incontinence (UI impact on the ability to perform daily tasks at 12 months after childbirth in healthy reproductive women who sought maternity care in community based family practice clinics.This study is a secondary analysis from the All Our Babies Study, a prospective, community-based pregnancy cohort in Calgary, Alberta. Maternal self-reported information on demographics, lifestyle, experiences with pregnancy and childbirth, occurrence of BP, UI and consequent impairment of daily tasks were collected by questionnaires administered before 25 weeks, at 34-36 weeks gestation and at 4 and 12 months postpartum. The occurrence and severity of BP and UI at one year after childbirth was assessed using descriptive and bivariate analyses. Logistic regression models examined the association between demographic and obstetrical variables and the severity of functional impairment due to UI and BP.From 1574 women with singleton pregnancies included in the study, 1212 (77% experienced BP, 773 (49% UI, and 620 (40% both BP and UI. From the 821 women reporting impairment of daily tasks due to BP, 199 (24 % were moderately and 90 (11% severely affected with the remainder, 532 (64% being mildly affected. From 267 women with functional impairment due to UI, 52 (19% reported moderately to severe impairment in their ability to perform daily tasks. Obesity and parity were risk factors for impairment of daily functioning due to BP, whereas obesity and vaginal delivery increased the risk of moderate to severe impairment due to UI.BP and UI are common occurrences 1 year after childbirth. Maternal performance of daily tasks and women's health and quality of life are more often impaired due to BP than UI. Our study brings new evidence of the risk factors that predict severity and impact of these conditions on women functioning at 12 months postpartum.

  12. The Spectrum of Histopathological Changes in the Renal Allograft - a 12 Months Protocol Biopsy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Severova-Andreevska

    2018-03-01

    CONCLUSION: Our 12-month protocol biopsy study revealed the presence of different forms of mixed subclinical rejection. Use of recent BANFF classification and scoring system enables more precise diagnosis and subsequently different approach to the further treatment of the KTR. More correlative long-term studies including Anti HLA antibodies and Endothelial Cell Activation- Associated Transcripts (ENDAT are needed.

  13. The outcome at 12 months of very-Iow-birth-weight infants ventilated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Main outcome measures. Attrition rates for rural and urban babies, BPD, ROP, IVH and abnormal motor development. Study population and setting. All ventilated VLBW infants discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit at Tygerberg Hospital over a 1-year period were followed up at 3-monthly intervals for 12 months.

  14. Sequential Analysis of Mastery Behavior in 6- and 12-Month-Old Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacTurk, Robert H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Sequences of mastery behavior were analyzed in a sample of 67 infants 6 to 12 months old. Authors computed (a) frequencies of six categories of mastery behavior, transitional probabilities, and z scores for each behavior change, and (b) transitions from a mastery behavior to positive affect. Changes in frequencies and similarity in organization…

  15. A 12-month follow-up study of treating overweight schizophrenic patients with aripiprazole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schorr, S. G.; Slooff, C. J.; Postema, R.; Van Oven, W.; Schilthuis, M.; Bruggeman, R.; Taxis, K.

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of switching overweight schizophrenic patients to aripiprazole and to assess the impact of 12 months of aripiprazole treatment on weight in routine practice. Method: This was a non-controlled cohort study in overweight schizophrenic patients. Data were

  16. Suicide Attempts within 12 Months of Treatment for Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Peter C.; Conner, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    There are limited prospective data on suicide attempts (SA) during the months following treatment for substance use disorders (SUD), a period of high risk. In an analysis of the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcomes Study, a longitudinal naturalistic multisite study of treated SUDs, variables associated with SA in the 12 months following SUD treatment…

  17. Understanding the Abstract Role of Speech in Communication at 12 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Alia; Onishi, Kristine H.; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2012-01-01

    Adult humans recognize that even unfamiliar speech can communicate information between third parties, demonstrating an ability to separate communicative function from linguistic content. We examined whether 12-month-old infants understand that speech can communicate before they understand the meanings of specific words. Specifically, we test the…

  18. 12-Month Follow-Up of Fluoxetine and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wilson, G. Terence; Masheb, Robin M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The longer term efficacy of medication treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED) remains unknown. This study examined the longer term effects of fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) either with fluoxetine (CBT + fluoxetine) or with placebo (CBT + placebo) for BED through 12-month follow-up after completing treatments.…

  19. Transition from 12 months to 18 months cycles at Krsko in a core physics perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen-Tornehed, J.

    2004-01-01

    Krsko has historically been operating in 12 months cycles with an annual outage for refuelling and maintenance work. Krsko is now in a transition from 12 months to 18 months cycles. Cycle 19, June 2002 - May 2003, was the last 12 month cycle. Cycle 20, June 2003 - September 2004 is a 15 month transition cycle and cycle 21, September 2004 - April 2006 will be the first 18 month cycle. This paper will describe the effects of the transition in a core physics perspective. There are big differences in how to design an 18 month cycle in comparison with a 12 month cycle. The required number of feed assemblies increases, as well as the content of burnable absorbers in the fuel. The strategy of the loading pattern has to be changed with the increased number of fresh fuel assemblies. The most limiting margins can be different for different cycle lengths which also affect the fresh assembly design and loading pattern during the transition. During the core design for cycle 21 the Moderator Temperature Coefficient was the main issue, which caused the need for extra amount of burnable absorbers. (author)

  20. Fish oil affects immune function in 9 to 12 month old infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Lauritzen, Lotte; Kjær, Tanja

    2006-01-01

    /day) or no fish oil and cow’s milk or infant formula from 9 to 12 month of age in 64 healthy Danish infants. Before and after the intervention we measured the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte (RBC) membranes, plasma IgE levels, C-reactive protein and soluble IL-2 receptors (sIL-2R) as well as cytokine...

  1. Alcohol Consumption | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  2. Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Seizures in Patients With Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hamerle

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to assess alcohol consumption and the occurrence of alcohol-related seizures in patients with epilepsy within the last 12 months.Methods: In an epilepsy outpatient clinic, a standardized questionnaire was used to collect data retrospectively from consecutive adult epilepsy patients who had been suffering from the disease for at least 1 year. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify independent predictors.Results: A total of 310 patients with epilepsy were included. Of these, 204 subjects (65.8% consumed alcohol within the last 12 months. Independent predictors for alcohol use were antiepileptic drug monotherapy (OR 1.901 and physicians' advice that a light alcohol intake is harmless (OR 4.102. Seizure worsening related to alcohol consumption was reported by 37 of the 204 patients (18.1% who had used alcohol. All 37 subjects had consumed large quantities of alcohol prior to the occurrence of alcohol-related seizures regardless of their usual alcohol-drinking behavior. The amount of alcohol intake prior to alcohol-related seizures was at least 7 standard drinks, which is equivalent to 1.4 L of beer or 0.7 L of wine. In 95% of cases, alcohol-related seizures occurred within 12 h after cessation of alcohol intake. Independent predictors for alcohol-related seizures were generalized genetic epilepsy (OR 5.792 and chronic heavier alcohol use (OR 8.955.Conclusions: Two-thirds of interviewed subjects had consumed alcohol within the last 12 months. This finding may be an underestimate due to patients' self-reporting and recall error. In all cases, the occurrence of alcohol related-seizures was associated with timely consumption of considerably large amounts of alcohol. Thus, a responsible alcohol intake seems to be safe for most patients with epilepsy. However, subjects with epilepsy and especially those with generalized genetic epilepsy should be made aware of an increased risk for seizures related to heavy

  3. Subacute encephalopathy with epileptic seizures in alcoholism (SESA): case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, F G; Kozian, R

    2001-10-01

    The case of a 66-year-old patient is reported in view of the rarity of his condition: a case of subacute encephalopathy with seizures in alcoholics (SESA syndrome), described first in 1981 by Niedermeyer, et al. Wernicke-type aphasia, epileptic seizures (generalized tonic-clonic) and PLEDs EEG pattern dominated the neurological picture, in addition to hepatomegaly and rhabdomyolysis. This condition differs from all other known CNS complications in chronic alcoholism and is withdrawal-independent. It is prognostically favorable as far as the syndrome as such is concerned.

  4. Changes in Patient-Reported Alcohol-Related Advice Following Veterans Health Administration Implementation of Brief Alcohol Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Laura J; Williams, Emily C; Lapham, Gwen T; Rubinsky, Anna D; Kivlahan, Daniel R; Bradley, Katharine A

    2016-05-01

    Brief alcohol interventions are recommended for primary care patients who screen positive for alcohol misuse, but implementation is challenging. The U.S. Veterans Health Administration (Veterans Affairs [VA]) implemented brief interventions for patients with alcohol misuse in 2008, and rates of brief interventions documented in the electronic medical record increased from 24% to 78% (2008-2011). This study examined whether an independent measure of brief interventions-patient-reported alcohol-related advice-also increased among VA outpatients who screened positive for alcohol misuse on a mailed survey. This retrospective cross-sectional study included VA outpatient respondents to the VA's Survey of Healthcare Experiences of Patients (SHEP; 2007-2011) who reported past-year alcohol use and answered a question about alcohol-related advice. Alcohol-related advice was defined as a report of past-year advice from a VA clinician to abstain from or reduce drinking. The adjusted prevalence of alcoholrelated advice among patients who screened positive for alcohol misuse (SHEP AUDIT-C ≥ 5) was estimated for each year. Among patients with alcohol misuse (n = 61,843), the adjusted prevalence of alcohol-related advice increased from 40.4% (95% CI [39.3%, 41.5%]) in 2007 to 55.5% (95% CI [53.3%, 57.8%]) in 2011. Rates of alcoholrelated advice increased significantly each year except the last. The VA's efforts to implement brief interventions were associated with increased patient-reported alcohol-related advice over time, with a majority of patients with alcohol misuse reporting its receipt. Other systems considering similar approaches to implementation may benefit from collecting patient-reported measures of brief interventions for an additional perspective on implementation.

  5. Physical inactivity at leisure and work: a 12-month study of cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Michelle C; Murphy, Barbara M; Le Grande, Michael R; Worcester, Marian U C

    2013-01-01

    Physical inactivity has been identified as a distinct health risk. However, little is known about how this can vary at leisure and work in cardiac patients. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and predictors of inactivity during leisure and work in the 12 months following a cardiac event in Australian cardiac patients. A total of 346 patients consecutively admitted to hospital with acute coronary syndrome or to undergo coronary artery bypass graft surgery were interviewed in hospital, and 4 and 12 months later. Leisure and occupational physical activity was measured using the Stanford Brief Activity Survey. Sociodemographic, psychosocial, and clinical data were also collected. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity declined over time, with 52% inactive preevent and 29% inactive at 12 months. Approximately 50% of participants were physically inactive in their work, regardless of whether this was measured before or after the cardiac event. Logistic regression revealed that the significant predictors of leisure-time physical inactivity at 12 months were non-home ownership (OR = 2.19; P = .007) and physical inactivity in leisure-time prior to the event (OR = 2.44; P = .001). The significant predictors of occupational physical inactivity at 12 months were white-collar occupation (OR = 3.10; P physical inactivity at work prior to the event (OR = 12.99; P physical inactivity, socioeconomic, and clinical factors predicted both leisure and work inactivity after an acute cardiac event. Effective interventions could be designed and implemented to target those most at risk of being physically inactive at work or leisure.

  6. Receptivity to alcohol marketing predicts initiation of alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa; Feighery, Ellen C; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the influence of alcohol advertising and promotions on the initiation of alcohol use. A measure of receptivity to alcohol marketing was developed from research about tobacco marketing. Recall and recognition of alcohol brand names were also examined. Data were obtained from in-class surveys of sixth, seventh, and eighth graders at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Participants who were classified as never drinkers at baseline (n = 1,080) comprised the analysis sample. Logistic regression models examined the association of advertising receptivity at baseline with any alcohol use and current drinking at follow-up, adjusting for multiple risk factors, including peer alcohol use, school performance, risk taking, and demographics. At baseline, 29% of never drinkers either owned or wanted to use an alcohol branded promotional item (high receptivity), 12% students named the brand of their favorite alcohol ad (moderate receptivity), and 59% were not receptive to alcohol marketing. Approximately 29% of adolescents reported any alcohol use at follow-up; 13% reported drinking at least 1 or 2 days in the past month. Never drinkers who reported high receptivity to alcohol marketing at baseline were 77% more likely to initiate drinking by follow-up than those were not receptive. Smaller increases in the odds of alcohol use at follow-up were associated with better recall and recognition of alcohol brand names at baseline. Alcohol advertising and promotions are associated with the uptake of drinking. Prevention programs may reduce adolescents' receptivity to alcohol marketing by limiting their exposure to alcohol ads and promotions and by increasing their skepticism about the sponsors' marketing tactics.

  7. Employment-based reinforcement of adherence to oral naltrexone in unemployed injection drug users: 12-month outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kelly; DeFulio, Anthony; Everly, Jeffrey J; Donlin, Wendy D; Aklin, Will M; Nuzzo, Paul A; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Umbricht, Annie; Fingerhood, Michael; Bigelow, George E; Silverman, Kenneth

    2015-06-01

    Oral naltrexone could be a promising relapse-prevention pharmacotherapy for recently detoxified opioid-dependent patients; however, interventions are often needed to promote adherence with this treatment approach. We recently conducted a study to evaluate a 26-week employment-based reinforcement intervention of oral naltrexone in unemployed injection drug users (Dunn et al., 2013). Participants were randomly assigned into a contingency (n = 35) group required to ingest naltrexone under staff observation to gain entry into a therapeutic workplace or a prescription (n = 32) group given a take-home supply of oral naltrexone and access to the workplace without observed ingestion. Monthly urine samples were collected and analyzed for evidence for naltrexone adherence, opioid use, and cocaine use. As previously reported, contingency participants provided significantly more naltrexone-positive urine samples than prescription participants during the 26-week intervention period. The goal of this current study is to report the 12-month outcomes, which occurred 6 months after the intervention ended. Results at the 12-month visit showed no between-groups differences in naltrexone-positive, opioid-negative, or cocaine-negative urine samples and no participant self-reported using naltrexone at the follow-up visit. These results show that even after a period of successfully reinforced oral naltrexone adherence, longer-term naltrexone use is unlikely to be maintained after reinforcement contingencies are discontinued. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Oscillatory Dynamics Underlying Perceptual Narrowing of Native Phoneme Mapping from 6 to 12 Months of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Mantilla, Silvia; Hämäläinen, Jarmo A; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Benasich, April A

    2016-11-30

    During the first months of life, human infants process phonemic elements from all languages similarly. However, by 12 months of age, as language-specific phonemic maps are established, infants respond preferentially to their native language. This process, known as perceptual narrowing, supports neural representation and thus efficient processing of the distinctive phonemes within the sound environment. Although oscillatory mechanisms underlying processing of native and non-native phonemic contrasts were recently delineated in 6-month-old infants, the maturational trajectory of these mechanisms remained unclear. A group of typically developing infants born into monolingual English families, were followed from 6 to 12 months and presented with English and Spanish syllable contrasts varying in voice-onset time. Brain responses were recorded with high-density electroencephalogram, and sources of event-related potential generators identified at right and left auditory cortices at 6 and 12 months and also at frontal cortex at 6 months. Time-frequency analyses conducted at source level found variations in both θ and γ ranges across age. Compared with 6-month-olds, 12-month-olds' responses to native phonemes showed smaller and faster phase synchronization and less spectral power in the θ range, and increases in left phase synchrony as well as induced high-γ activity in both frontal and left auditory sources. These results demonstrate that infants become more automatized and efficient in processing their native language as they approach 12 months of age via the interplay between θ and γ oscillations. We suggest that, while θ oscillations support syllable processing, γ oscillations underlie phonemic perceptual narrowing, progressively favoring mapping of native over non-native language across the first year of life. During early language acquisition, typically developing infants gradually construct phonemic maps of their native language in auditory cortex. It is well

  9. Long-distance longitudinal prostate MRI quality assurance: from startup to 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curci, Nicole E; Gartland, Patrick; Shankar, Prasad R; Montgomery, Jeffrey S; Miller, David C; George, Arvin K; Davenport, Matthew S

    2018-02-22

    To evaluate a 12-month long-distance prostate MRI quality assurance (QA) program. The need for IRB approval was waived for this prospective longitudinal QA effort. One academic institution experienced with prostate MRI [~ 1000 examinations/year (Site 2)] partnered with a private institution 240 miles away that was starting a new prostate MRI program (Site 1). Site 1 performed all examinations (N = 249). Four radiologists at Site 1 created finalized reports, then sent images and reports to Site 2 for review on a rolling basis. One radiologist at Site 2 reviewed findings and exam quality and discussed results by phone (~ 2-10 minutes/MRI). In months 1-6 all examinations were reviewed. In months 7-12 only PI-RADS ≤ 2 and 'difficult' cases were reviewed. Repeatability was assessed with intra-class correlation (ICC). 'Clinically significant cancer' was Gleason ≥ 7. Image quality significantly (p < 0.001) improved after the first three months. Inter-rater agreement also improved in months 3-4 [ICC: 0.849 (95% CI 0.744-0.913)] and 5-6 [ICC: 0.768 (95% CI 0.619-0.864)] compared to months 1-2 [ICC: 0.621 (95% CI 0.436-0.756)]. PI-RADS ≤ 2 examinations were reclassified PI-RADS ≥ 3 in 19% (30/162); of these, 23 had post-MRI histology and 57% (13/23) had clinically significant cancer (5.2% of 249). False-negative examinations [N = 18 (PI-RADS ≤ 2 and Gleason ≥ 7)] were more common at Site 1 during months 1-6 [9% (14/160) vs. 4% (4/89)]. Positive predictive values for PI-RADS ≥ 3 were similar. Remote quality assurance of prostate MRI is feasible and useful, enabling new programs to gain durable skills with minimal risk to patients.

  10. TVT-Secur mini-sling for stress urinary incontinence: a review of outcomes at 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Colin A

    2011-09-01

    • Synthetic mid-urethral slings (MUSs) are considered the first choice surgical procedure for stress urinary incontinence. Recent publications have raised concerns about the efficacy of third generation single-incision mini-slings. The present paper is a systematic review of studies reporting 12-month outcomes after the TVT-Secur (TVT-S) procedure. • Pubmed/Medline online databases, abstracts from recent International Continence Society and International Urogynecological Association annual scientific meetings and the Clinicaltrials.gov and Controlled-trials.com online trial registries were searched for English-language articles containing the terms 'TVT-Secur', 'TVT Secur' or 'mini-sling'. The primary outcomes were objective and subjective cure rates at 12 months. Secondary outcomes included peri-operative (vaginal perforation, urinary retention, urinary tract infection [UTI]) and postoperative (mesh exposure, de novo overactive bladder (OAB), dyspareunia and return to theatre) complication rates. • Among 1178 women undergoing the TVT-S procedure, from 10 studies, both objective and subjective cure rate at 12 months was 76%, with objective cure significantly higher in women undergoing the 'U-type' approach. Vaginal perforation was a complication in 1.5% of cases, with a 2.4% incidence of mesh exposure in the first year. The incidence of de novo OAB symptoms was 10%. Rates of urinary retention (2.3%), UTI (4.4%), dyspareunia (1%) and return to theatre for complications (0.8%) were low. In the first year after a TVT-S procedure 5% of women required repeat continence surgery. • Longer-term studies and randomized comparisons with more established MUSs are required before TVT-S should be routinely used in the surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence. © 2011 THE AUTHOR. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  11. Alcohol Misuse and Multiple Sexual Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi, PhD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We examine the association between self-reported alcohol misuse and alcohol usewithin 2 hours of having sex and the number of sexual partners among a sample of African-Americanand Latino emergency department (ED patients.Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected prospectively from a randomized sample of all EDpatients during a 5-week period. In face-to-face interviews, subjects were asked to report their alcoholuse and number of sexual partners in the past 12 months. Data were analyzed using multiple variablenegative binomial regression models, and effect modification was assessed through inclusion ofinteraction terms.Results: The 395 study participants reported an average of 1.4 (standard error¼0.11 sexual partnersin the past 12 months, 23% reported misusing alcohol, and 28% reported consuming alcohol beforesex. There was no statistically significant association between alcohol misuse and the number ofsexual partners; however, alcohol before sex was associated with a larger number of sexual partners inthe past year. Moreover, among those who misused alcohol, participants who reported alcohol beforesex were 3 times more likely to report a higher number of sexual partners (risk ratio¼3.2; confidenceinterval [CI]¼1.9–5.6. The association between alcohol use before sex and number of sexual partnersis dependent upon whether a person has attributes of harmful drinking over the past 12 months.Overall, alcohol use before sex increases the number of sexual partners, but the magnitude of thiseffect is significantly increased among alcohol misusers.Conclusion: Alcohol misusers and those who reported having more than 1 sexual partner were morelikely to cluster in the same group, ie, those who used alcohol before sex. Efforts to reduce the burdenof sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, and other consequences ofrisky sexual behavior in the ED population should be cognizant of the interplay of alcohol and

  12. 12-month efficacy of a single radiofrequency ablation on autonomously functioning thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Stella; Stacul, Fulvio; Michelli, Andrea; Giudici, Fabiola; Zuolo, Giulia; de Manzini, Nicolò; Dobrinja, Chiara; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Fabris, Bruno

    2017-09-01

    Radiofrequency ablation has been advocated as an alternative to radioiodine and/or surgery for the treatment of autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules. However, only a few studies have measured radiofrequency ablation efficacy on autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules. The aim of this work was to evaluate the 12-month efficacy of a single session of radiofrequency ablation (performed with the moving shot technique) on solitary autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules. Thirty patients with a single, benign autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules, who were either unwilling or ineligible to undergo surgery and radioiodine, were treated with radiofrequency ablation between April 2012 and May 2015. All the patients underwent a single radiofrequency ablation, performed with the 18-gauge needle and the moving shot technique. Clinical, laboratory, and ultrasound evaluations were scheduled at baseline, and after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months from the procedure. A single radiofrequency ablation reduced thyroid nodule volume by 51, 63, 69, and 75 % after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. This was associated with a significant improvement of local cervical discomfort and cosmetic score. As for thyroid function, 33 % of the patients went into remission after 3 months, 43 % after 6 months, and 50 % after 12 months from the procedure. This study demonstrates that a single radiofrequency ablation allowed us to withdraw anti-thyroid medication in 50 % of the patients, who remained euthyroid afterwards. This study shows that a single radiofrequency ablation was effective in 50 % of patients with autonomously functioning benign thyroid nodules. Patients responded gradually to the treatment. It is possible that longer follow-up studies might show greater response rates.

  13. Quit and Smoking Reduction Rates in Vape Shop Consumers: A Prospective 12-Month Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Polosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Here, we present results from a prospective pilot study that was aimed at surveying changes in daily cigarette consumption in smokers making their first purchase at vape shops. Modifications in products purchase were also noted. Design: Participants were instructed how to charge, fill, activate and use their e-cigarettes (e-cigs. Participants were encouraged to use these products in the anticipation of reducing the number of cig/day smoked. Settings: Staff from LIAF contacted 10 vape shops in the province of the city of Catania (Italy that acted as sponsors to the 2013 No Tobacco Day. Participants: 71 adult smokers (≥18 years old making their first purchase at local participating vape shops were asked by professional retail staff to complete a form. Measurements: Their cigarette consumption was followed-up prospectively at 6 and 12 months. Details of products purchase (i.e., e-cigs hardware, e-liquid nicotine strengths and flavours were also noted. Findings: Retention rate was elevated, with 69% of participants attending their final follow-up visit. At 12 month, 40.8% subjects could be classified as quitters, 25.4% as reducers and 33.8% as failures. Switching from standard refillables (initial choice to more advanced devices (MODs was observed in this study (from 8.5% at baseline to 18.4% at 12 month as well as a trend in decreasing thee-liquid nicotine strength, with more participants adopting low nicotine strength (from 49.3% at baseline to 57.1% at 12 month. Conclusions: We have found that smokers purchasing e-cigarettes from vape shops with professional advice and support can achieve high success rates.

  14. Impact of malnutrition on 12-month mortality following acute hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jack J; Pulle, Ranjeev C; Crouch, Alisa M; Kuys, Suzanne S; Ferrier, Rebecca L; Whitehouse, Sarah L

    2016-03-01

    Studies investigating the relationship between malnutrition and post-discharge mortality following acute hip fracture yield conflicting results. This study aimed to determine whether malnutrition independently predicted 12-month post-fracture mortality after adjusting for clinically relevant covariates. An ethics approved, prospective, consecutive audit was undertaken for all surgically treated hip fracture inpatients admitted to a dedicated orthogeriatric unit (November 2010-October 2011). The 12-month mortality data were obtained by a dual search of the mortality registry and Queensland Health database. Malnutrition was evaluated using the Subjective Global Assessment. Demographic (age, gender, admission residence) and clinical covariates included fracture type, time to surgery, anaesthesia type, type of surgery, post-surgery time to mobilize and post-operative complications (delirium, pulmonary and deep vein thrombosis, cardiac complications, infections). The Charlson Comorbidity Index was retrospectively applied. All diagnoses were confirmed by the treating orthogeriatrician. A total of 322 of 346 patients were available for audit. Increased age (P = 0.004), admission from residential care (P malnutrition (P 48 h (P malnutrition (odds ratio (OR) 2.4 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-4.7, P = 0.007)), in addition to admission from residential care (OR 2.6 (95% CI 1.3-5.3, P = 0.005)) and pulmonary embolism (OR 11.0 (95% CI 1.5-78.7, P = 0.017)), independently predicted 12-month mortality. Findings substantiate malnutrition as an independent predictor of 12-month mortality in a representative sample of hip fracture inpatients. Effective strategies to identify and treat malnutrition in hip fracture should be prioritized. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  15. Beta blocker therapy is associated with reduced depressive symptoms 12 months post percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battes, Linda C; Pedersen, Susanne S; Oemrawsingh, Rohit M; van Geuns, Robert J; Al Amri, Ibtihal; Regar, Evelyn; de Jaegere, Peter P T; Serruys, Patrick; van Domburg, Ron T

    2012-02-01

    Beta blocker therapy may induce depressive symptoms, although current evidence is conflicting. We examined the association between beta blocker therapy and depressive symptoms in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients and the extent to which there is a dose-response relationship between beta blocker dose and depressive symptoms. Patients treated with PCI (N=685) completed the depression scale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale 1 and 12 months post PCI. Information about type and dose of beta blocker use was extracted from medical records. Of all patients, 68% (466/685) were on beta blocker therapy at baseline. In adjusted analysis, beta blocker use at 1 month post PCI (OR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.53-1.26) was not significantly associated with depressive symptoms. At 12 months post PCI, there was a significant relationship between beta blocker use and depressive symptoms (OR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.31-0.84), with beta blocker therapy associated with a 49% risk reduction in depressive symptoms. There was a dose-response relationship between beta blocker dose and depressive symptoms 12 months post PCI, with the risk reduction in depressive symptoms in relation to a low dose being 36% (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.37-1.10) and 58% (OR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.24-0.76) in relation to a high dose. Patients treated with beta blocker therapy were less likely to experience depressive symptoms 12 months post PCI, with there being a dose-response relationship with a higher dose providing a more pronounced protective effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Headache patients' satisfaction with telemedicine: a 12-month follow-up randomized non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K I; Alstadhaug, K B; Bekkelund, S I

    2017-06-01

    We investigated non-acute headache patients' long-term satisfaction with a telemedicine consultation and consultation preferences in northern Norway. We hypothesized that patients were not less satisfied with telemedicine than traditional consultations. We also examined the influence of gender, age and education on satisfaction. For 2.5 years, patients were consecutively screened, recruited and randomly assigned to telemedicine or traditional visits with a consultation at a neurological outpatient department. The primary endpoint was frequency of satisfied patients at 3 and 12 months. Secondary endpoints were satisfaction with consultation, communication, information, diagnosis, advice and prescriptions, and preferred visit form at 12 months. Of 402 participants, 279 (69.4%) answered questionnaires at both 3 and 12 month, and 291 (72.4%) responded at 12 months. The long-term satisfaction of telemedicine patients was 124/145 (85.5%) compared with 118/134 (88.1%) in the traditional group (P = 0.653). The groups did not differ with respect to secondary endpoints, but females were more satisfied with telemedicine communication (P = 0.027). In the telemedicine group, 99/147 (67.3%) were indifferent to the type of consultation. Age and education did not alter the primary results. At 1 year after a specialist evaluation for headache, telemedicine patients did not express less satisfaction than those with traditional consultation. Telemedicine specialist consultations may be a good alternative for headache patients in secondary care. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Neurology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Academy of Neurology.

  17. Assessment of Gastroesophageal Reflux in Children(2-12 Month) Based on Clinical Findings and Ultrasonography

    OpenAIRE

    F Jassemi Zergani; R Farahi Rostami; F Hakim; Z Jannat Alipour; K Karimi; Z Fotokian

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Gastroesophageal reflux is a common gastrointestinal disorder among infants, which can cause complications, such as esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus if its diagnosis and treatment are delayed. On the other hand, similarity of Gastro esophageal Reflux symptoms with symptoms of other childhood diseases makes its diagnosis and treatment difficult. So a proper tool for early screening and diagnostic test is essential. Methods: This study was conducted on 221 infants(2 to 12 month...

  18. Improvement in GOS and GOSE scores 6 and 12 months after severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Luisa; Ventura, José Luis; Herrero, José Ignacio; Monfort, Jose Luis; Juncadella, Montserrat; Gabarrós, Andreu; Bartolomé, Carlos; Javierre, Casimiro F; García-Huete, Lucía

    2007-11-01

    To assess improvements in Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) and GOS extended (GOSE) scores between 6 months and 1 year following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). One studied 214 adult patients with severe TBI with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) GOSE at 6 months and 1 year) was better in the high GCS score at admission (6-8) group than in the low score group (3-5). The improvement in GOS scores between 6 months and 1 year was greater in the high GCS score at admission group than in the low score group. At 6 months, 75 patients had died and 120 survived. None died between the 6-12-month assessments; at 12 months, 36% had improved GOS score. GOS scores improved between 6-12 months after severe TBI in 36% of survivors and it is concluded that the expectancy of improvement is incomplete at 6 months. This improvement was greater in patients with better GCS scores (6-8) at admission than in those with worse GCS scores (3-5).

  19. Consistency of self-reported alcohol consumption on randomized and sequential alcohol purchase tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eAmlung

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral economic demand for addictive substances is commonly assessed via purchase tasks that measure estimated drug consumption at a range of prices. Purchase tasks typically use escalating prices in sequential order, which may influence performance by providing explicit price reference points. This study investigated the consistency of value preferences on two alcohol purchase tasks (APTs that used either a randomized or sequential price order (price range: free to $30 per drink in a sample of ninety-one young adult monthly drinkers. Randomization of prices significantly reduced relative response consistency (p < .01, although absolute consistency was high for both versions (>95%. Self-reported alcohol consumption across prices and indices of demand were highly similar across versions, although a few notable exceptions were found. These results suggest generally high consistency and overlapping performance between randomized and sequential price assessment. Implications for the behavioral economics literature and priorities for future research are discussed.

  20. Doubly illegal: Qualitative accounts of underage alcohol access through theft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Vanessa K.; Friese, Bettina; Moore, Roland S.; Grube, Joel W.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated sources of alcohol for underage drinkers. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were individually conducted with 47 youths, ages 15–18, who reported drinking within the last 12 months, to explore alcohol access. Theft was one method that some youths reported using to obtain alcohol. In addition to 9% of respondents who reported stealing alcohol from commercial outlets themselves, a total of 26% respondents reported occasions when their close friends stole alcohol. Our findings unveiled that teens had a body of knowledge that some drew upon for stealing alcohol. Youths revealed detailed knowledge about store layout, theft protection devices and store policies. In particular, respondents disclosed knowledge about which aisles have blind spots, how to remove security tops on bottles, and no-chase policies. Theft of alcohol from commercial sources may be reduced by examining the weaknesses of existing theft prevention practices, and revising store policies. PMID:22303285

  1. Assessing early communication skills at 12 months: a retrospective study of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Nathaniel Robert; Eadie, Patricia Ann; Prior, Margot Ruth; Reilly, Sheena

    2015-07-01

    Early identification of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is currently limited by the absence of reliable biological markers for the disorder, as well as the reliability of screening and assessment tools for children aged between 6 and 18 months. Ongoing research has demonstrated the importance of early social communication skills in differentiating children later diagnosed with ASD from their typically developing (TD) peers, but researchers have not yet investigated whether these differences can be detected using community-ascertained systematic observation data as early as 12 months. To investigate whether differences in early social communication skills can be detected at 12 months of age, comparing children later diagnosed with ASD, and TD peers; and to determine whether differences remain when groupings are based on age of subsequent ASD diagnosis. From a prospective community-ascertained sample, we collected data on children in early life, then conducted retrospective analyses for those children who were later diagnosed with ASD by the age of 7 years, compared with matched TD peers. We analysed standardized observational data of early communication skills, collected using the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales-Developmental Profile (CSBS-DP) Behavior Sample, when participants were 12 months of age. Children in the ASD group exhibited significantly lower social communication skills than the TD group, including on the Total score and Social and Symbolic Composite scores of the CSBS-DP Behavior Sample. Differences on the Total score and Social Composite were also detected for both early and late ASD diagnosis groups when compared with the TD group. These findings give further support for the importance of social communication in assessing children at risk of ASD as early as 12 months of age. Future research could evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of direct observation of these early communication skills as diagnostic indicators for ASD at 12 months

  2. Effect of Exercise on Serum Sex Hormones in Men: A 12-Month Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAWKINS, VIVIAN N.; FOSTER-SCHUBERT, KAREN; CHUBAK, JESSICA; SORENSEN, BESS; ULRICH, CORNELIA M.; STANCYZK, FRANK Z.; PLYMATE, STEPHEN; STANFORD, JANET; WHITE, EMILY; POTTER, JOHN D.; MCTIERNAN, ANNE

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The effect of exercise on androgens in middle-aged to older men is poorly understood, and it could have implications for several aspects of health. This analysis was conducted to examine the effects of long-term aerobic exercise on serum sex hormones in middle-aged to older men. Methods One hundred two sedentary men, ages 40–75 yr, were randomly assigned to a 12-month exercise intervention or a control group (no change in activity). The combined facility- and home-based exercise program consisted of moderate/vigorous-intensity aerobic activity for 60 min·d−1, 6 d·wk−1. Serum concentrations of testosterone, free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 3α-androstanediol glucuronide (3α-Diol-G), estradiol, free estradiol, and sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) were measured at baseline, 3, and 12 months. Results Exercisers trained a mean of 370 min·wk−1 (102% of goal), with only two dropouts. Cardiopulmonary fitness (V̇O2max) increased 10.8% in exercisers and decreased by 1.8% in controls (P < 0.001). DHT increased 14.5% in exercisers versus 1.7% in controls at 3 months (P = 0.04); at 12 months, it remained 8.6% above baseline in exercisers versus a 3.1% decrease in controls (P = 0.03). SHBG increased 14.3% in exercisers versus 5.7% in controls at 3 months (P = 0.04); at 12 months, it remained 8.9% above baseline in exercisers versus 4.0% in controls (P = 0.13). There were significant trends toward increasing DHT and SHBG, with greater increases in V̇O2max at 3 and 12 months in exercisers. No statistically significant differences were observed for testosterone, free testosterone, 3α-Diol-G, estradiol, or free estradiol in exercisers versus controls. Conclusions A yearlong, moderate-intensity aerobic exercise program increased DHT and SHBG, but it had no effect on other androgens in middle-aged to older men. PMID:18202581

  3. Role of caregiver-reported outcomes in identification of children with prenatal alcohol exposure during the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N; Lowe, Jean; Garrison, Laura M; Cano, Sandra; Leyva, Yuridia; Qeadan, Fares; Stephen, Julia M

    2018-05-16

    BackgroundEarlier identification of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to identify neurobehavioral (NB) outcomes associated with PAE in infants.MethodsThis manuscript evaluates NB outcomes at 6.33±1.12 months of age in 93 infants (39 PAE and 54 No-PAE) recruited prospectively into the ENRICH cohort. PAE was assessed by prospective repeated TLFB interviews and a panel of ethanol biomarkers. NB outcomes were evaluated by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III), Parenting Stress Index (PSI), Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ-R), and Infant Sensory Profile (ISP).ResultsMean maternal age at enrollment was 28.18±5.75, and 64.52% were Hispanic/Latina. Across three TLFB calendars, absolute alcohol per day in the PAE group was 0.44±0.72, corresponding to low-moderate alcohol consumption. While no association was observed between PAE and BSID-III (P's>0.05), PAE was associated with higher scores on the PSI difficult child scale (=13.9; P=0.015), total stress (=13.9; P=0.010), and IBQ negative affect (=8.60; P=0.008) measures after adjustment for covariates.ConclusionsCaregiver-reported assessments may provide a currently unrecognized opportunity to identify behavioral deficits, point to early interventions, and should be included in clinical assessments of infants at-risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.Pediatric Research advance online publication, 16 May 2018; doi:10.1038/pr.2018.26.

  4. Gait and balance deterioration over a 12-month period in multiple sclerosis patients with EDSS scores ≤ 3.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Mary P; Cofré Lizama, L Eduardo; Butzkueven, Helmut; Kilpatrick, Trevor J

    2017-01-01

    It is not currently known whether gait and balance measures are responsive to deterioration of motor function in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with low EDSS scores (≤3.0). The aim of this study was to quantify MS-related gait and balance deterioration over a 12-month period. Thirty-eight participants with MS (33 female, mean age: 41.1 ± 8.3 years), mean time since diagnosis 2.2 ± 4.1 years, EDSS score ≤3.0 and without clinical evidence of gait deterioration, were recruited. Participants performed walking trials and Functional and Lateral Reach Tests. Kinematics of the ankle and knee, and electromyography of the tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius muscles were also measured. Three participants reported relapses with worsening EDSS scores and 4 non-relapsing participants had worse EDSS scores at 12 months. There were significant decreases in mean gait speed, stride length and balance scores, and a significant increase in double support. Marked changes in ankle kinematics, with decreased medial gastrocnemius activity were observed. Gait and balance performance of non-disabled RRMS participants may progressively decline, even in the absence of both acute clinical relapse and change in clinical status measured by the EDSS.

  5. Physical health after childbirth and maternal depression in the first 12 months post partum: results of an Australian nulliparous pregnancy cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhouse, Hannah; Gartland, Deirdre; Perlen, Susan; Donath, Susan; Brown, Stephanie J

    2014-03-01

    to investigate the relationship between maternal physical health problems and depressive symptoms in the first year after childbirth. prospective pregnancy cohort study. Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 1507 nulliparous women. women were recruited from six public hospitals between six and 24 weeks gestation. Written questionnaires were completed at recruitment and at three, six and 12 months post partum. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS); standardised measures of urinary and faecal incontinence, a checklist of symptoms for other physical health problems. overall, 16.1% of women reported depressive symptoms during the first 12 months post partum, with point prevalence at three, six and 12 months post partum of 6.9%, 8.8% and 7.8% respectively. The most commonly reported physical health problems in the first three months were tiredness (67%), back pain (47%), breast problems (37%), painful perineum (30%), and urinary incontinence (29%). Compared with women reporting 0-2 health problems in the first three months post partum, women reporting 5 or more health problems had a six-fold increase in likelihood of reporting concurrent depressive symptoms at three months post partum (Adjusted OR=6.69, 95% CI=3.0-15.0) and a three-fold increase in likelihood of reporting subsequent depressive symptoms at 6-12 months post partum (Adjusted OR=3.43, 95% CI 2.1-5.5). poor physical health in the early postnatal period is associated with poorer mental health throughout the first 12 months post partum. Early intervention to promote maternal mental health should incorporate assessment and intervention to address common postnatal physical health problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Stressful life events, perceived stress, and 12-month course of geriatric depression: direct effects and moderation by the 5-HTTLPR and COMT Val158Met polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannas, Anthony S; McQuoid, Douglas R; Steffens, David C; Chrousos, George P; Taylor, Warren D

    2012-07-01

    Although the relation between stressful life events (SLEs) and risk of major depressive disorder is well established, important questions remain about the effects of stress on the course of geriatric depression. Our objectives were (1) to examine how baseline stress and change in stress is associated with course of geriatric depression and (2) to test whether polymorphisms of serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Val158Met) genes moderate this relation. Two-hundred and sixteen depressed subjects aged 60 years or older were categorized by remission status (Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale≤6) at 6 and 12 months. At 6 months, greater baseline numbers of self-reported negative and total SLEs and greater baseline perceived stress severity were associated with lower odds of remission. At 12 months, only baseline perceived stress predicted remission. When we examined change in stress, 12-month decrease in negative SLEs and level of perceived stress were associated with improved odds of 12-month remission. When genotype data were included, COMT Val158Met genotype did not influence these relations. However, when compared with 5-HTTLPR L/L homozygotes, S allele carriers with greater baseline numbers of negative SLEs and with greater decrease in negative SLEs were more likely to remit at 12 months. This study demonstrates that baseline SLEs and perceived stress severity may influence the 12-month course of geriatric depression. Moreover, changes in these stress measures over time correlate with depression outcomes. 5-HTTLPR S carriers appear to be more susceptible to both the effects of enduring stress and the benefit of interval stress reduction.

  7. ENLUB - 12 Months Technical Report WP3: Development of simulative tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenqi

    A draw bead test has been developed at the Department of Manufacturing Engineering, The Technical University of Denmark. The purpose of the test equipment is to simulate an actual situation in industry where draw beads are applied to constrain movement of sheet material particular in stretch...

  8. Effect of omega-3 supplementation on neuropathy in type 1 diabetes: A 12-month pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Evan J H; Perkins, Bruce A; Lovblom, Leif E; Bazinet, Richard P; Wolever, Thomas M S; Bril, Vera

    2017-06-13

    To test the hypothesis that 12 months of seal oil omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) supplementation will stop the known progression of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSP) in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Individuals with T1DM and evidence of DSP as determined by a Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Score ≥1 were recruited to participate in a single-arm, open-label trial of seal oil ω-3 PUFA supplementation (10 mL·d -1 ; 750 mg eicosapentaenoic acid, 560 mg docosapentaenoic acid, and 1,020 mg docosahexaenoic acid) for 1 year. The primary outcome was the 1-year change in corneal nerve fiber length (CNFL) measured by in vivo corneal confocal microscopy, with sensory and nerve conduction measures as secondary outcomes. Forty participants (53% female), aged 48 ± 14 years, body mass index 28.1 ± 5.8 with diabetes duration of 27 ± 18 years, were enrolled. At baseline, 23 participants had clinical DSP and 17 did not. Baseline CNFL was 8.3 ± 2.9 mm/mm 2 and increased 29% to 10.1 ± 3.7 mm/mm 2 ( p = 0.002) after 12 months of supplementation. There was no change in nerve conduction or sensory function. Twelve months of ω-3 supplementation was associated with increase in CNFL in T1DM. NCT02034266. This study provides Class IV evidence that for patients with T1DM and evidence of DSP, 12 months of seal oil omega-3 supplementation increases CNFL. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  9. Weight loss after bariatric surgery and periodontal changes: a 12-month prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales-Peres, Silvia Helena de Carvalho; Sales-Peres, Matheus de Carvalho; Ceneviva, Reginaldo; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    Several longitudinal studies have explored the association of obesity and weight gain with periodontal disease. However, the effect of weight loss on periodontal tissues remains unclear. To explore whether weight loss after bariatric surgery was associated with changes in periodontal measures over 12 months. Two public hospitals in São Paulo, Brazil. We used data from 110 morbidly obese patients (body mass index [BMI]>40 kg/m 2 or≥35 kg/m 2 with co-morbid conditions) who underwent bariatric surgery between April 2011 and March 2013. Data on demographic factors, BMI, smoking habits, and glucose levels were extracted from medical records preoperatively and after 6 and 12 months postsurgery. A full-mouth periodontal examination was conducted by trained examiners to assess probing pocket depth, clinical attachment loss, and bleeding on probing (BOP) at baseline and 6 and 12 months after surgery. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models. BMI was not significantly related to the proportion of sites with BOP at baseline, but it was negatively associated with the rate of change in the proportion of sites with BOP. The greater the BMI loss, the higher the proportion of sites with BOP, particularly 6 months after surgery. However, BMI was not associated with baseline probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss or rates of changes in these periodontal outcomes. The findings suggest that weight loss was associated with increased gingival bleeding, showing a peak at 6 months after bariatric surgery. Periodontal pocketing and attachment loss remained unchanged during the study period. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Histamine-dependent behavioral response to methamphetamine in 12-month-old male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Summer F.; Raber, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) use is a growing problem across the United States. Effects of MA include hyperactivity and increased anxiety. Using a mouse model system, we examined behavioral performance in the open field and elevated zero maze and shock-startle response of 12-month-old wild-type mice injected with MA once (1mg/kg) 30 min prior to behavioral testing. MA treatment resulted in behavioral sensitization in the open field, consistent with studies in younger mice. There was an increased activity in the elevated zero maze and an increased shock-startle response 30 and 60 min post-injection. Since histamine mediates some effects of MA in the brain, we assessed whether 12-month-old mice lacking histidine decarboxylase (Hdc−/−), the enzyme required to synthesize histamine, respond differently to MA than wild-type (Hdc+/+) mice. Compared to saline treatment, acute and repeated MA administration increased activity in the open field and measures of anxiety, though more so in Hdc−/− than Hdc+/+ mice. In the elevated zero maze, opposite effects of MA on activity and measures of anxiety were seen in Hdc+/+ mice. In contrast, MA similarly increased the shock-startle response in Hdc−/− and Hdc+/+ mice, compared to saline-treated genotype-matched mice. These results are similar to those in younger mice suggesting that the effects are not age-dependent. Overall, single or repeated MA treatment causes histamine-dependent changes in 12-month-old mice in the open field and elevated zero-maze, but not in the shock-startle response. PMID:21466792

  11. Prognosis at 6 and 12months after self-attempted hanging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantois, Guillaume; Parmentier-Decrucq, Erika; Duburcq, Thibault; Favory, Raphaël; Mathieu, Daniel; Poissy, Julien

    2017-11-01

    Patients surviving a self-attempted hanging have a total neurological recovery in 57-77% of cases at hospital discharge, but no long-term data are available. In this observational study, all patients hospitalized post-self-attempted hanging in the intensive care unit (ICU) in a 5-year period were included. Neurological evaluations at 6 and 12months were performed according to Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) scores. Factors associated with neurological recovery were determined by comparing CPC2+3+4 (bad recovery) vs. CPC1 (good recovery). Of 231 patients included, 104 (47%) were found to have cardiac arrest (CA). Ninety-five (41%) patients died in the ICU: 93 (89%) in the CA group and 2 (1.6%) in the group without CA. Neurological evaluations at 6 and 12months were obtained in 97 of the 136 surviving patients. At 6months, in the CA group (n=9), the CPC score was 1 for 6 patients, 2 for 2, and 4 for 1 patient. In the group without CA (n=88), 79 patients had normal neurological status at 6months and 78 at 12months. Among these patients, 96% returned home, 77% returned to work, 16 (18%) patients re-attempted suicide within the year. Risk factors of neurological sequelae at 6months were a CA at the hanging site (P=0.045), an elevated diastolic blood pressure (87 vs. 70 mm Hg; P=0.04), a lower initial Glasgow score (4 vs. 5; P=0.04), and an elevated blood glucose level (139 vs. 113 mg/dL; Pgood neurological outcome. The rate of suicidal recidivism is particularly important, which justifies joint work with psychiatrists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Community participation of patients 12 months post-stroke in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witness Mudzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Improvement in health-related quality of life (HRQL is the main goal of rehabilitation. The ability of the stroke-patient to participate in various situations signifies successful rehabilitation. The aim of the study was to establish the extent of communityparticipation and the barriers and facilitators to the participation for stroke patients after their discharge.Method: This study formed part of a larger study focusing on the impact of caregiver education on stroke survivors and their careers. This was a longitudinal study comprising 200 patients with first-time ischaemic stroke. Although the patients were followed up at home at 3 months, 6 months and 12 months post-stroke, this paper focuses on the 12-months follow-up participation results. Patient functional ability was measured by using the Barthel Index (BI and the Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI, whereas participation was measured by using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF checklist. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data.Results: Patients experienced severe to complete difficulty when undertaking single and multiple tasks without help 12-months post-discharge. They struggled with the preparation of meals, household work and interpersonal interactions, and they had difficulties withcommunity life and partaking in recreation and leisure activities. Immediate family and societal attitudes were viewed as facilitators to community participation whereas friends, transportation services and social security services were viewed as barriers to communityparticipation.Conclusion: The patient-ability to socialise and participate in community issues is currently poor. The identified barriers to community participation need to be addressed in order toimprove patient-participation in the community post-stroke.

  13. Micropulse diode laser trabeculoplasty (MDLT: A phase II clinical study with 12 months follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Maria Fea

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Maria Fea, Alex Bosone, Teresa Rolle, Beatrice Brogliatti, Federico Maria GrignoloIstituto di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Clinica Oculistica dell’ Università di Torino, Torino, ItalyObjective: This pilot study evaluates the pressure lowering potential of subthreshold micropulse diode laser trabeculoplasty (MDLT for a clinically meaningful duration in patients with medically uncontrolled open angle glaucoma (OAG.Design: prospective interventional case series.Participants: Thirty-two eyes of 20 consecutive patients with uncontrolled OAG (12 bilateral and 8 unilateral.Methods: Confluent subthreshold laser applications over the inferior 180° of the anterior TM using an 810 nm diode laser in a micropulse operating mode. The intraocular pressure (IOP was measured at baseline and at 1 hour, 1 day, 1 week, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post-treatment. Flare was measured with a Kowa FM 500 flare-meter at baseline and at 3 hours, 1 day, 1 week, and 12 months post-treatment. After treatment, the patients were maintained on their pre-treatment drug regimen.Main outcome measures: Criteria for treatment response were IOP reduction ≥3 mm Hg and IOP ≤21 mm Hg within the first week after MDLT. Eyes not complying to the above criteria during the follow-up were considered treatment failure. Mean IOP change and percentage of IOP reduction during the follow-up were calculated.Results: One eye was analyzed for bilateral patients. A total of 20 eyes were thus included. Four eyes (20% did not respond to treatment during the first week. One additional eye failed at the 6 month visit. The treatment was successful in 15 eyes (75% at 12 months. The IOP was significantly lower throughout follow-up (p < 0.01. At 12 months, the mean percentage of IOP reduction in the 15 respondent eyes was 22.1% and 12 eyes (60% had IOP reduction higher than 20%. During the first two postoperative days, one eye with pigmentary glaucoma experienced a significant increase of flare

  14. Ospemifene 12-month safety and efficacy in postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, S R; Bachmann, G A; Koninckx, P R

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Assessment of 12-month safety of ospemifene 60 mg/day for treatment of postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA). METHODS: In this 52-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, women 40-80 years with VVA and an intact uterus were randomized...... baseline to week 12 in percentage of superficial and parabasal cells and vaginal pH. RESULTS: Of 426 randomized subjects, 81.9% (n = 349) completed the study with adverse events the most common reason for discontinuation (ospemifene 9.5%; placebo 3.9%). Most (88%) treatment-emergent adverse events...

  15. Lower extremity revascularization using directional atherectomy: 12-month prospective results of the DEFINITIVE LE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinsey, James F; Zeller, Thomas; Rocha-Singh, Krishna J; Jaff, Michael R; Garcia, Lawrence A

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of directional atherectomy (DA) for endovascular treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in infrainguinal arteries in patients with claudication or critical limb ischemia. To date, no prospective, multicenter, independently-adjudicated study has evaluated the effectiveness and durability of DA in the treatment of PAD. Previous DA studies have not been prospectively powered to evaluate any differences in outcomes in patients with and without diabetes. DEFINITIVE LE (Determination of EFfectiveness of the SilverHawk(®) PerIpheral Plaque ExcisioN System (SIlverHawk Device) for the Treatment of Infrainguinal VEssels / Lower Extremities) prospectively enrolled subjects at 47 multinational centers with an infrainguinal lesion length up to 20 cm. Primary endpoints were defined as primary patency at 12 months for claudicants and freedom from major unplanned amputation for critical limb ischemia (CLI) subjects. A pre-specified statistical hypothesis evaluated noninferiority of primary patency in diabetic versus nondiabetic claudicants. Independent angiographic and sonographic core laboratories assessed outcomes, and events were adjudicated by a clinical events committee. A total of 800 subjects were enrolled. The 12-month primary patency was 78% (95% confidence interval: 74.0% to 80.6%) in claudicants, with a 77% rate in the diabetic subgroup versus 78% in the nondiabetic subgroup (noninferior, p < 0.001). The rate of freedom from major unplanned amputation of the target limb at 12 months in CLI subjects was 95% (95% confidence interval: 90.7% to 97.4%). Periprocedural adverse events included embolization (3.8%), perforation (5.3%), and abrupt closure (2.0%). The bail-out stent rate was 3.2%. The DEFINITIVE LE study demonstrated that DA is a safe and effective treatment modality at 12 months for a diverse patient population with either claudication or CLI. Furthermore, DA was shown to be noninferior for

  16. Evaluation of radurizited and pasteurized fruits juices during 12 months of storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilska-Jeszka, J.; Skorupinska, A.

    1975-01-01

    Stability of radurized red and black currant, bilberry, plum and tomato juices, stored at a temperature of 20+-3 0 C, was investigated. With 60 Co as radiation source, doses of 0,5 to 1,5 Mrad were applied. In a 12-month period no significant changes in pH, total and volatile acidity were found. Anthocyanic pigment and ascorbic acid losses were greater in radurized than in pasteurized juices. No organoleptic changes occurred after irradiation with 1 Mrad in tomato juices, very little change in plum and bilberry juices and considerable unfavorable changes in currant juice

  17. Long-term memory, forgetting, and deferred imitation in 12-month-old infants

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Pamela J.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    1999-01-01

    Long-term recall memory, as indexed by deferred imitation, was assessed in 12-month-old infants. Independent groups of infants were tested after retention intervals of 3 min, 1 week and 4 weeks. Deferred imitation was assessed using the ‘observation-only’ procedure in which infants were not allowed motor practice on the tasks before the delay was imposed. Thus, the memory could not have been based on re-accessing a motor habit, because none was formed in the first place. After the delay, memo...

  18. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence, severity and unmet need for treatment of common mental disorders in Japan: results from the final dataset of World Mental Health Japan Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, H.; Kawakami, N.; Kessler, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to estimate the lifetime and 12-month prevalence, severity, and treatment of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th ed. (DSM-IV) mental disorders in Japan based on the final data set of the World Mental Health Japan Survey conducted in 2002–2006. Methods Face-to-face household interviews of 4,130 respondents who were randomly selected from Japanese-speaking residents aged 20 years or older were conducted from 2002 to 2006 in 11 community populations in Japan (overall response rate, 56%). The World Mental Health version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI), a fully structured lay administered psychiatric diagnostic interview, was used for diagnostic assessment. Results Lifetime/12-month prevalence of any DSM-IV common mental disorders in Japan was estimated to be 20.3/7.6%. Rank-order of four classes of mental disorders was anxiety disorders (8.1/4.9%), substance disorders (7.4/1.0%), mood disorders (6.5/2.3%), and impulse control disorders (2.0/0.7%). The most common individual disorders were alcohol abuse/dependence (7.3/0.9%), major depressive disorder (6.1/2.2%), specific phobia (3.4/2.3%), and generalized anxiety disorder (2.6/1.3%). While the lifetime prevalence of any mental disorder was greater for males and the middle-aged, the persistence (proportion of 12-month cases among lifetime cases) of any mental disorder was greater for females and younger respondents. Among those with any 12-month disorder, 15.3% were classified as severe, 44.1% moderate, and 40.6% mild. Although a strong association between severity and service use was found, only 21.9% of respondents with any 12-month disorder sought treatment within the last 12 months; only 37.0% of severe cases received medical care. The mental health specialty sector was the most common resource used in Japan. Although the prevalence of mental disorders were quite low, mental disorders were the second

  19. Level of agreement between patient and proxy responses to the EQ-5D health questionnaire 12 months after injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbe, Belinda J; Lyons, Ronan A; Sutherland, Ann M; Hart, Melissa J; Cameron, Peter A

    2012-04-01

    Health-related quality of life represents a patient's experiences and expectations and should be collected from the patient. In trauma, collection of information from the patient can be challenging, particularly for subgroups where cognitive impairment is prevalent, increasing reliance on proxy reporting. This study assessed the agreement between patient and proxy reporting of health-related quality of life 12 months after injury. The Victorian State Trauma Registry and Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry collect EQ-5D data at 12 months after injury. Cases where data were collected from the patient and proxy were extracted. Agreement between patient and proxy responses was compared using kappa (K) coefficients for the individual EQ-5D items, and Bland-Altman plots and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests for the EQ-5D summary score and visual analog scale (VAS). Agreement between patient and proxy respondents was substantial for the mobility (K = 0.61) and personal care items (K = 0.67) and moderate for the usual activities (K = 0.50), pain/discomfort (K = 0.42), and anxiety/depression items (K = 0.47). The mean difference between proxy and patient-reported scores for the VAS (0.74, 95% confidence interval: -2.73, 4.21) and the EQ-5D summary score (-0.02, 95% confidence interval: -0.07, 0.03) was small, but the limits of agreement were wide (-34.22 to 35.71 for VAS and -0.55 to 0.51 for summary score), suggesting no systematic bias. Although proxy and patient responses for the EQ-5D VAS may differ, the differences show random variability rather than systematic bias. Group comparisons using proxy responses are unlikely to be biased, but proxy responses should be used with caution when assessing individual patient recovery.

  20. Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative in the past 12 months: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, Pavel; Lowford, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Eight years ago Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) was launched with the release of its Science Plan (http://neespi.org). Gradually, the Initiative was joined by numerous international projects launched in EU, Russia, the United States, Canada, Japan, and China. Throughout its duration, NEESPI served and is serving as an umbrella for more than 155 individual international research projects. Currently, the total number of the ongoing NEESPI projects (as on January 2013) is 48 and has changed but slightly compared to its peak (87 in 2008). The past 12 months (from the previous EGU Assembly) were extremely productive in the NEESPI outreach. We organized three Open Science Sessions at the three major Geoscience Unions/Assembly Meetings (JpGU, AGU, and this EGU Session) and three International NEESPI Workshops. The programs of two of these Workshops (in Yoshkar Ola and Irkutsk, Russia) included Summer Schools for early career scientists. More than 150 peer-reviewed papers, books, and/or book chapters were published in 2012 or are in press (this list was still incomplete at the time of preparation of this abstract). In particular, a suite of 25 peer-reviewed NEESPI articles was published in the Forth Special NEESPI Issue of "Environmental Research Letters" (ERL) http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/focus/NEESPI3 (this is the third ERL Issue). In December 2012, the next Special ERL NEESPI Issue was launched http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/focus/NEESPI4. Northern Eurasia is a large study domain. Therefore, it was decided to describe the latest findings related to its environmental changes in several regional monographs in English. Three books on Environmental Changes in the NEESPI domain were published by the University of Helsinki (Groisman et al. 2012), "Akademperiodyka" (Groisman and Lyalko 2012), and Springer Publishing House (Groisman and Gutman 2013) being devoted to the high latitudes of Eurasia, to Eastern Europe, and to Siberia

  1. A test of cognitive mediation in a 12-month physical activity workplace intervention: does it explain behaviour change in women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Pickering, Michael A; Rhodes, Ryan E; Courneya, Kerry S; Spence, John C

    2010-05-03

    Attempts to demonstrate the efficacy of interventions aimed at increasing physical activity (PA) have been mixed. Further, studies are seldom designed in a manner that facilitates the understanding of how or why a treatment is effective or ineffective and PA intervention designs should be guided by a heavier reliance upon behavioral theory. The use of a mediating variable framework offers a systematic methodological approach to testing the role of theory, and could also identify the effectiveness of specific intervention components. The primary purpose of this paper was to test the mediating role that cognitive constructs may have played in regards to the positive effect that a workplace behavioral intervention had on leisure-time PA for women. A subsidiary purpose was to examine the cross-sectional relationships of these cognitive constructs with PA behavior. The Physical Activity Workplace Study was a randomized controlled trial which compared the effects of stage-matched and standard print materials upon self-reported leisure-time PA, within a workplace sample at 6 and 12-months. In this secondary analysis we examined the mediation effects of 14 psychosocial constructs across 3 major social-cognitive theories which were operationalized for the intervention materials and measured at baseline, 6 and 12-months. We examined change in PA and change in the psychological constructs employing a mediation strategy proposed by Baron and Kenny for: (1) the first 6-months (i.e., initial change), (2) the second 6-months (i.e., delayed change), and (3) the entire 12-months (overall change) of the study on 323 women (n = 213 control/standard materials group; n = 110 stage-matched materials group). Of the 14 constructs and 42 tests (including initial, delayed and overall change) two positive results were identified (i.e., overall change in pros, initial change in experiential powerful intervention approaches processes), with very small effect sizes. However, these mediating

  2. A test of cognitive mediation in a 12-month physical activity workplace intervention: does it explain behaviour change in women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickering Michael A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attempts to demonstrate the efficacy of interventions aimed at increasing physical activity (PA have been mixed. Further, studies are seldom designed in a manner that facilitates the understanding of how or why a treatment is effective or ineffective and PA intervention designs should be guided by a heavier reliance upon behavioral theory. The use of a mediating variable framework offers a systematic methodological approach to testing the role of theory, and could also identify the effectiveness of specific intervention components. The primary purpose of this paper was to test the mediating role that cognitive constructs may have played in regards to the positive effect that a workplace behavioral intervention had on leisure-time PA for women. A subsidiary purpose was to examine the cross-sectional relationships of these cognitive constructs with PA behavior. Methods The Physical Activity Workplace Study was a randomized controlled trial which compared the effects of stage-matched and standard print materials upon self-reported leisure-time PA, within a workplace sample at 6 and 12-months. In this secondary analysis we examined the mediation effects of 14 psychosocial constructs across 3 major social-cognitive theories which were operationalized for the intervention materials and measured at baseline, 6 and 12-months. We examined change in PA and change in the psychological constructs employing a mediation strategy proposed by Baron and Kenny for: (1 the first 6-months (i.e., initial change, (2 the second 6-months (i.e., delayed change, and (3 the entire 12-months (overall change of the study on 323 women (n = 213 control/standard materials group; n = 110 stage-matched materials group. Results Of the 14 constructs and 42 tests (including initial, delayed and overall change two positive results were identified (i.e., overall change in pros, initial change in experiential powerful intervention approaches processes, with very

  3. Does contingency in adults' responding influence 12-month-old infants' social referencing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Gunilla

    2017-11-01

    In two experiments we examined the influence of contingent versus non-contingent responding on infant social referencing behavior. EXPERIMENT 1: Forty 12-month-old infants were exposed to an ambiguous toy in a social referencing situation. In one condition an unfamiliar adult who in a previous play situation had responded contingently to the infant's looks gave the infant positive information about the toy. In the other condition an unfamiliar adult who previously had not responded contingently delivered the positive information. EXPERIMENT 2: Forty-eight 12-month-old infants participated in Experiment 2. In this experiment it was examined whether the familiarity of the adult influences infants' reactions to contingency in responding. In one condition a parent who previously had responded contingently to the infant's looks provided positive information about the ambiguous toy, and in the other condition a parent who previously had not responded contingently provided the positive information. The infants looked more at the contingent experimenter in Experimenter 1, and also played more with the toy after receiving positive information from the contingent experimenter. No differences in looking at the parent and in playing with the toy were found in Experiment 2. The results indicate that contingency in responding, as well as the familiarity of the adult, influence infants' social referencing behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The relationship between attention and deferred imitation in 12-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmyj, Norbert; Schölmerich, Axel; Daum, Moritz M

    2017-08-01

    Imitation is a frequent behavior in the first years of life, and serves both a social function (e.g., to interact with others) and a cognitive function (e.g., to learn a new skill). Infants differ in their temperament, and temperament might be related to the dominance of one function of imitation. In this study, we investigated whether temperament and deferred imitation are related in 12-month-old infants. Temperament was measured via the Infant Behavior Questionnaire Revised (IBQ-R) and parts of the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB). Deferred imitation was measured via the Frankfurt Imitation Test for 12-month-olds (FIT-12). Regression analyses revealed that the duration of orienting (IBQ-R) and the latency of the first look away in the Task Orientation task (Lab-TAB) predicted the infants' imitation score. These results suggest that attention-related processes may play a major role when infants start to imitate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Distress among women receiving uninformative BRCA1/2 results: 12-month outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Suzanne C; Rini, Christine; Goldsmith, Rachel E; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis; Cohen, Lawrence H; Schwartz, Marc D

    2009-10-01

    Few data are available regarding the long-term psychological impact of uninformative BRCA1/2 test results. This study examines change in distress from pretesting to 12-months post-disclosure, with medical, family history, and psychological variables, such as pretesting perceived risk of carrying a deleterious mutation prior to testing and primary and secondary appraisals, as predictors. Two hundred and nine women with uninformative BRCA1/2 test results completed questionnaires at pretesting and 1-, 6-, and 12-month post-disclosure, including measures of anxiety and depression, cancer-specific and genetic testing distress. We used a mixed models approach to predict change in post-disclosure distress. Distress declined from pretesting to 1-month post-disclosure, but remained stable thereafter. Primary appraisals predicted all types of distress at 1-month post-disclosure. Primary and secondary appraisals predicted genetic testing distress at 1-month as well as change over time. Receiving a variant of uncertain clinical significance and entering testing with a high expectation for carrying a deleterious mutation predicted genetic testing distress that persisted through the year after testing. As a whole, women receiving uninformative BRCA1/2 test results are a resilient group. For some women, distress experienced in the month after testing does not dissipate. Variables, such as heightened pretesting perceived risk and cognitive appraisals, predict greater likelihood for sustained distress in this group and could be amenable to intervention.

  6. Replicating Reducing the Risk: 12-Month Impacts of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocklin, Michelle; Layzer, Jean; Price, Cristofer; Juras, Randall; Freiman, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To test the effectiveness of Reducing the Risk, an evidence-based sexual health curriculum designed to help prevent adolescent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, on youth sexual behavior and intermediate outcomes thought to lead to these behaviors. Methods. Classes within schools in St. Louis, Missouri; Austin, Texas; and San Diego, California; were randomly assigned to receive Reducing the Risk or “business as usual.” Youths completed Web-based surveys at baseline (preintervention, August 2012–January 2014) and 12 months later (August 2013–January 2015). Intent-to-treat analyses were conducted across sites; we tested for differences in impacts between sites and other subgroups. Results. The program had no overall impact on sexual behaviors. However, at 1 site, program participants were significantly less likely to have engaged in recent sexual intercourse than were control group members. There were positive overall impacts on intermediate outcomes (e.g., knowledge, attitudes). Conclusions. After 12 months, Reducing the Risk was unsuccessful at changing sexual behaviors. Other results were mixed, but promising evidence (e.g., behavioral impacts at 1 site, impacts on intermediate outcomes) suggests potential for more widespread behavioral impacts over a longer term. PMID:27689492

  7. Parents’ Experiences of Suicide-Bereavement: A Qualitative Study at 6 and 12 Months after Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Ross

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The death of a child by suicide is a severe trauma, placing parents at greater risk of psychological morbidity and physical health problems compared to other causes of death. However, few studies have examined the aftermath and bereavement experience for parents following the death of a child to suicide, limiting the ability to guide effective postvention services through empirical research. The current study, which was part of a larger longitudinal investigation of suicide bereavement in Queensland, Australia, examined the individual experiences of both mothers and fathers bereaved by suicide over time, specifically at the six month and 12 month time points after their loss. Bereaved parents who had provided written consent to be contacted for research purposes were identified through the Queensland Suicide Register, and took part in individual, semi-structured interviews. Generic qualitative analysis identified three key themes: searching for answers and sense-making, coping strategies and support, and finding meaning and purpose. Some participants showed indications of meaning-making and post-traumatic growth at 12 months after the suicide. According to the dual process model of bereavement, it is likely that participants were still oscillating between sense-making and meaning making, indicating that adapting to bereavement is a dynamic and fluctuating process.

  8. Predictors of self-rated health: a 12-month prospective study of IT and media workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Dan; Arnetz, Bengt B; Theorell, Töres; Anderberg, Ulla Maria

    2006-07-31

    The aim of the present study was to determine health-related risk and salutogenic factors and to use these to construct prediction models for future self-rated health (SRH), i.e. find possible characteristics predicting individuals improving or worsening in SRH over time (0-12 months). A prospective study was conducted with measurements (physiological markers and self-ratings) at 0, 6 and 12 months, involving 303 employees (187 men and 116 women, age 23-64) from four information technology and two media companies. There were a multitude of statistically significant cross-sectional correlations (Spearman's Rho) between SRH and other self-ratings as well as physiological markers. Predictors of future SRH were baseline ratings of SRH, self-esteem and social support (logistic regression), and SRH, sleep quality and sense of coherence (linear regression). The results of the present study indicate that baseline SRH and other self-ratings are predictive of future SRH. It is cautiously implied that SRH, self-esteem, social support, sleep quality and sense of coherence might be predictors of future SRH and therefore possibly also of various future health outcomes.

  9. Predictors of self-rated health: a 12-month prospective study of IT and media workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnetz Bengt B

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of the present study was to determine health-related risk and salutogenic factors and to use these to construct prediction models for future self-rated health (SRH, i.e. find possible characteristics predicting individuals improving or worsening in SRH over time (0–12 months. Methods A prospective study was conducted with measurements (physiological markers and self-ratings at 0, 6 and 12 months, involving 303 employees (187 men and 116 women, age 23–64 from four information technology and two media companies. Results There were a multitude of statistically significant cross-sectional correlations (Spearman's Rho between SRH and other self-ratings as well as physiological markers. Predictors of future SRH were baseline ratings of SRH, self-esteem and social support (logistic regression, and SRH, sleep quality and sense of coherence (linear regression. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that baseline SRH and other self-ratings are predictive of future SRH. It is cautiously implied that SRH, self-esteem, social support, sleep quality and sense of coherence might be predictors of future SRH and therefore possibly also of various future health outcomes.

  10. Corporal and testicular biometry in wild boar from birth to 12 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danillo Velloso Ferreira Murta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this tudy was to evaluate corporal and testicular development in wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa from birth to 12 months of age, evaluating body weight, biometric testicular parameters, and gonadosomatic index. Thirty-nine male wild boars from a commercial farm licensed by IBAMA were used in the study. The animals were weighed and assigned to 13 experimental groups. The testes were recovered through unilateral orchiectomy, weighed on an analytical balance and measured for length, width and thickness. Body weight and testicular measures increased with the age, up to 12 months, and were more accelerated in the first and ninth months. Initially the testicular growth pattern, between zero and nine months, followed the body growth, and the gonadosomatic index varied from 0.07 to 0.09%. Between 9 and 11 months, the testicular growth was superior to the body growth, and the gonadosomatic index varied from 0.09 to 0.16%. Finally, after 11 months of age, testicular and body growth had a similar behavior. In conclusion, body weight, testicular biometry, and gonadosomatic index development accelerated in the ninth month.

  11. Quality of HIV care in the United Kingdom: key indicators for the first 12 months from HIV diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpech, V; Brown, A E; Croxford, S; Chau, C; Polavarapu, V; Cooper, N; Rooney, G; Yin, Z

    2013-10-01

    Prompt HIV diagnosis and treatment are associated with increased longevity and reduced transmission. The aim of the study was to examine late diagnoses and to assess the quality of care following diagnosis. National surveillance and cohort data were used to examine late HIV diagnoses and to assess the quality of care received in the 12 months following HIV diagnosis. In 2011, 79% (4910/6219) of persons (15 years and over) diagnosed with HIV infection had CD4 counts reported within 3 months; of these, 49% were diagnosed late (CD4 count risk of 1-year mortality compared with those diagnosed promptly. Reducing late diagnosis of HIV infection remains a public health priority in the UK. © 2013 British HIV Association.

  12. [Alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zima, T

    1996-07-14

    Alcohol is one of the most widely used addictive substances. It can be assumed that everybody encounters alcohol--ethanol in various forms and concentrations in the course of their lives. A global and social problem of our civilization is alcohol consumption which has a rising trend. Since 1989 the consumption of alcoholic beverages is rising and the mean annual consumption of concentrated ethanol per head is cea 10 litres. In ethanol abuse the organism is damaged not only by ethanol alone but in particular by substances formed during its metabolism. Its detailed knowledge is essential for the knowledge and investigations of the metabolic and toxic effect of ethanol on the organism. Ingested alcohol is in 90-98% eliminated from the organism by three known metabolic pathways: 1-alcohol dehydrogenase, 2-the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and 3-catalase. Alcohol is a frequent important risk factor of serious "diseases of civilization" such as IHD, hypertension, osteoporosis, neoplastic diseases. Cirrhosis of the liver and chronic pancreatitis are the well known diseases associated with alcohol ingestion and also their most frequent cause. It is impossible to list all organs and diseases which develop as a result of alcohol consumption. It is important to realize that regular and "relatively" small amounts in the long run damage the organism and may be even fatal.

  13. Final report of the safety assessment of Alcohol Denat., including SD Alcohol 3-A, SD Alcohol 30, SD Alcohol 39, SD Alcohol 39-B, SD Alcohol 39-C, SD Alcohol 40, SD Alcohol 40-B, and SD Alcohol 40-C, and the denaturants, Quassin, Brucine Sulfate/Brucine, and Denatonium Benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    animals that died, respiratory arrest was the cause. The acute i.p. LD(50) for 15 ml/kg of Brucine base was 62.0 mg/kg, with central nervous system depression prior to the onset of convulsions, just as with oral Brucine. The acute intravenous (i.v.) LD(50) was 12.0 mg/kg. Brucine was nonmutagenic in an Ames assay at levels up to 6666 mu g/plate, with and without metabolic activation. In a repeat-insult patch test, for a hair care product containing 47% SD Alcohol 40 (95%), it was reported that Brucine Sulfate may be considered a nonprimary irritant and a nonprimary sensitizer. Three different sunscreen products (35% SD Alcohol 40-B, 72.4% SD Alcohol 40, and 74.5% SD Alcohol 40) did not show any signs of photoallergy in human subjects. Also, these three formulas did not exhibit any evidence of phototoxicity in humans. Denatonium Benzoate is a bitter substance detectable at a concentration of 10 ppb, discernibly bitter at 50 ppb, and unpleasantly bitter at 10 ppm. The distribution of topically applied lidocaine, a topical anesthetic chemically related to Denatonium Benzoate demonstrated that virtually no lidocaine appears in the plasma, suggesting that the larger Denatonium Benzoate molecule also would have little or no systemic exposure. Denatonium Benzoate (0.1%) did not show adverse effects in 10 rats in an acute inhalation toxicity test and 0.005% to 0.05% was nonirritating to ocular mucosa in 6 albino rabbits. The acute oral LD(50) for the male rats was 640 mg/kg and for females, 584 mg/kg. The LD(50) for the male rabbits was 508 mg/kg and for the female rabbits, 640 mg/kg. In two chronic toxicity studies, Denatonium Benzoate was administered (by gavage) at 1.6, 8, and 16 mg/kg/day, one using cynomologus monkeys and the other rats, resulted in no compound-related toxicity. The toxicity of SD Alcohols has also been tested, with implications for the particular denaturant used. An irritation test of 55.65% SD Alcohol 40-B denatured with Denatonium Benzoate using rabbits

  14. Health-related quality of life is related to cytokine levels at 12 months in patients with chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Kupper, Nina; Schoormans, Dounya

    2010-01-01

    for the MLHFQ, the SF-36 mental component summary (MCS) and the physical component summary (PCS), controlling for age, sex, BMI, smoking, co morbidity, NYHA-class and 6min walk test. Baseline MLHFQ was associated with increased levels of baseline sTNFR2, and 12-month sTNFR1 12month sTNFR2. Baseline MCS...

  15. Identification of Infants at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Language Delay Prior to 12 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samango-Sprouse, Carole A.; Stapleton, Emily J.; Aliabadi, Farhad; Graw, Robert; Vickers, Rebecca; Haskell, Kathryn; Sadeghin, Teresa; Jameson, Robert; Parmele, Charles L.; Gropman, Andrea L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown an increased head circumference and the absence of the head tilt reflex as possible risk factors for autism spectrum disorder, allowing for early detection at 12 months in typically developing population of infants. Our aim was to develop a screening tool to identify infants prior to 12 months at risk for autism spectrum…

  16. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Public Awareness Campaign, 1979: Progress Report Concerning the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Warning Labels on Containers of Alcoholic Beverages and Addendum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

    This report provides expert opinion on the problems of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and ways to inform the public of teratogenic risk of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. In the absence of firm evidence that moderate drinking of alcoholic beverages leads to FAS and uncertainty concerning the effectiveness of labeling of alcoholic beverages, a…

  17. "Cancer Put My Life on Hold": Work-Related Challenges Among Middle-aged Adults 12 Months After a Diagnosis of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Catherine; Mihala, Gabor; Beesley, Vanessa L; Lynch, Brigid M; Graves, Nicholas; Gordon, Louisa G

    Colorectal cancer affects a wide range of working-age people. Little is known about the consequent work limitations. The aim of this study was to understand the extent and changing nature of work-related limitations of middle-aged (45-64 years) people over the first 12 months of colorectal cancer. Surveys were administered to participants recruited via the Queensland Cancer Registry, at 6 and 12 months after diagnosis. Among those who returned to work, the Work Limitations Questionnaire measured 4 job performance domains (time management, physical, mental-interpersonal, and output demands) and an overall productivity score. Open-ended questions supplemented the Work Limitations Questionnaire, and responses were thematically analyzed. Of 239 participants, 8% did not continue in the study, and 20% left employment by 12 months, leaving 171 participants eligible for this analysis. Open-ended responses for why participants stopped work included bowel problems and stoma, loss of strength, and medication adverse effects. At 12 months, 22% to 39% of participants reported work limitations, but there was no overall significant change in work limitations between 6 and 12 months. Qualitative data highlighted the key work-related issues were changes in work functioning, attitudes of employers and colleagues, financial pressures, and emotional responses. While a significant proportion left work because of treatment-related problems, and the majority of participants did not experience workplace limitations, some reported considerable work-related challenges. Discussions with health professionals about the possible impact of treatment adverse effects on employment, good communication with employers, and workplace flexibility may facilitate return to work for this population.

  18. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in patients over 59 years: early recovery and 12-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leivonen, Marja Kaarina; Juuti, Anne; Jaser, Nabil; Mustonen, Harri

    2011-08-01

    Bariatric surgery has shown to be safe for patients over 60 years with good results especially considering resolving of comorbidities. Sleeve gastrectomy is considered to be safer than gastric bypass (GBP) and more effective than gastric banding with less adverse symptoms. Weight loss may be more modest than after GBP, but the effect on vitamins may also be milder. Since 2007, we collected prospectively 12-month follow-up data from 55 sleeve gastrectomy patients of whom 12 were over 59 years of age. Vitamin and calcium supplements were used postoperatively. The recovery from the operation was recorded during hospital stay, at 1- and 12-month follow-up visits using a standard protocol including laboratory tests. The results between patients over and under 59 years were compared. The preoperative weight and weight loss were comparable between the groups. Operation time was shorter and hospital stay was longer for older patients, p = ns. There was no operative mortality. Early major complications were seen more often in the older age group, 42% vs 9% (p = 0.02), but late complications were more common in younger patients, 17% vs 44%, p = ns. Early complications were mostly bleedings, which did not lengthen the hospital stay, neither were re-operations nor endoscopic procedures needed. Excess weight loss and resolving of comorbidities after 12 months was comparable between the groups. However, vitamin deficiencies and hypoalbuminemia were more common in the older age group, 42% and 23% for vitamins and 44% and 29% for proteins, p = ns. The older patients had more adverse effects related to surgery, 25% vs 9%, and younger had more adverse psychiatric effects, p = ns. Sleeve gastrectomy is effective and safe for older bariatric patients. Weight loss is comparable to younger patients and enough to resolve the comorbidities in most of the patients. With standardized nutritional supplementation, the older patients had more often vitamin deficiencies and

  19. Recovery of episodic memory subprocesses in mild and complicated mild traumatic brain injury at 1 and 12 months post injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayim, Fadi M; Flashman, Laura A; Wright, Matthew J; Roth, Robert M; McAllister, Thomas W

    2016-11-01

    Episodic memory complaints are commonly reported after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The contributions of specific memory subprocesses (encoding, consolidation, and retrieval), however, are not well understood in mild TBI (mTBI). In the present study, we evaluated subprocesses of episodic memory in patients with mTBI using the item-specific deficit approach (ISDA), which analyzes responses on list learning tasks at an item level. We also conducted exploratory analyses to evaluate the effects of complicated mTBI (comp-mTBI) on memory. We compared episodic verbal memory performance in mTBI (n = 92) at approximately 1 and 12 months post TBI, as well as in a healthy comparison (HC) group (n = 40) at equivalent time points. Episodic memory was assessed using the California Verbal Learning Test-2nd Edition (CVLT-II), and both standard CVLT-II scores and ISDA indices were evaluated. Compared to the HC group, the mTBI group showed significantly poorer encoding and learning across time, as measured by ISDA and CVLT-II. Further analyses of these mTBI subgroups [(noncomplicated mTBI (NC-mTBI, n = 77) and comp-mTBI (n = 15)], indicated that it was the comp-mTBI group who continued to demonstrate poorer encoding ability than the HC group. When the patient groups were directly compared, the NC-mTBI group improved slightly on the ISDA Encoding Deficit Index. While the comp-mTBI group worsened slightly over time, their poorer encoding ability was not likely clinically meaningful. These findings indicate that, while the NC-mTBI and HC groups' performances were comparable by 12 months, a primary, long-term deficit in encoding of auditory verbal information remained problematic in the comp-mTBI group.

  20. Preschool-based social communication treatment for children with autism: 12-month follow-up of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaale, Anett; Fagerland, Morten W; Martinsen, Egil W; Smith, Lars

    2014-02-01

    This study reports 12-month follow-up data from a randomized controlled trial of preschool-based social communication treatment for young children with autism. A total of 61 children (48 males) with autism, 29 to 60 months of age, had earlier been randomized either to 8 weeks of preschool-based social communication treatment in addition to standard preschool program (n = 34) or to standard preschool program only (n = 27). Significant short-term effects on targeted social communication skills have previously been published. Long-term gains in social communication, language and global social functioning and communication were assessed from video-taped preschool teacher-child and mother-child interactions, Early Social Communication Scales, Reynell Developmental Language Scale, and Social Communication Questionnaire. Compared with those in the control group, the treated children achieved significantly larger improvements in joint attention and joint engagement from baseline to 12-month follow-up. However, no effects were detected on language and global ratings of social functioning and communication. The treatment effect on child initiation of joint attention increased with increasing level of sociability at baseline, whereas nonverbal IQ and expressive language had no moderating effect. This study is the first to show that, similar to specialist-delivered treatment, preschool-based treatment may produce small but possibly clinically important long-term changes in social communication in young children with autism. The treatment did not affect language and global ratings of social functioning and communication. More studies are needed to better understand whether treatment effects may be improved by increasing the intensity and duration of the treatment. Clinical trial registration information--Joint Attention Intervention and Young Children With Autism; http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT00378157. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

  1. A randomized clinical trial of methadone maintenance for prisoners: results at 12 months postrelease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinlock, Timothy W; Gordon, Michael S; Schwartz, Robert P; Fitzgerald, Terrence T; O'Grady, Kevin E

    2009-10-01

    This study examined the impact of prison-initiated methadone maintenance at 12 months postrelease. Males with pre-incarceration heroin dependence (N = 204) were randomly assigned to (a) Counseling Only: counseling in prison, with passive referral to treatment upon release; (b) Counseling + Transfer: counseling in prison with transfer to methadone maintenance treatment upon release; and (c) Counseling + Methadone: counseling and methadone maintenance in prison, continued in the community upon release. The mean number of days in community-based drug abuse treatment were, respectively, Counseling Only, 23.1; Counseling + Transfer, 91.3; and Counseling + Methadone, 166.0 (p Counseling + Methadone participants were also significantly less likely than participants in each of the other two groups to be opioid-positive or cocaine-positive according to urine drug testing. These results support the effectiveness of prison-initiated methadone for males in the United States. Further study is required to confirm the findings for women.

  2. Associations between positive and negative affect and 12-month physical disorders in a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Eric B

    2012-06-01

    Associations between positive and negative affect and a range of 12-month physical disorders were investigated in the Midlife Development in the United States Survey, a nationally representative sample of 3,032 adults ages 25-74. These associations were examined, controlling for relevant sociodemographic and psychiatric covariates. High positive affect was associated with decreased risk of physical disorders, whereas high negative affect was associated with increased risk. However, associations between positive affect and physical disorders were partially attenuated following adjustment for concurrent negative affect. Additionally, high affect balance was associated with decreased risk of physical disorders before and after adjustments. These findings underscore the relevance of affective disposition in health status, suggesting that both positive and negative affect may serve as viable health risk parameters.

  3. Decrease in musculoskeletal pain after 4 and 12 months of an aerobic exercise intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Birk Jørgensen, Marie; Lidegaard, Mark

    2018-01-01

    affects level of musculoskeletal pain from baseline to 4- and 12-months follow-up. METHODS: One-hundred-and-sixteen cleaners aged 18-65 years were cluster-randomized. The aerobic exercise group ( n = 57) received worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week) and the reference group ( n = 59) lectures....... Aerobic exercise interventions among workers standing or walking in the majority of the working hours should tailor exercise to only maintain the positive effect on musculoskeletal pain.......BACKGROUND: Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain is high in jobs with high physical work demands. An aerobic exercise intervention targeting cardiovascular health was evaluated for its long term side effects on musculoskeletal pain. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate if aerobic exercise...

  4. A randomized clinical trial of buprenorphine for prisoners: Findings at 12-months post-release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael S; Kinlock, Timothy W; Schwartz, Robert P; O'Grady, Kevin E; Fitzgerald, Terrence T; Vocci, Frank J

    2017-03-01

    This study examined whether starting buprenorphine treatment prior to prison and after release from prison would be associated with better drug treatment outcomes and whether males and females responded differently to the combination of in-prison treatment and post-release service setting. Study design was a 2 (In-Prison Treatment: Condition: Buprenorphine Treatment: vs. Counseling Only)×2 [Post-Release Service Setting Condition: Opioid Treatment: Program (OTP) vs. Community Health Center (CHC)]×2 (Gender) factorial design. The trial was conducted between September 2008 and July 2012. Follow-up assessments were completed in 2014. Participants were recruited from two Baltimore pre-release prisons (one for men and one for women). Adult pre-release prisoners who were heroin-dependent during the year prior to incarceration were eligible. Post-release assessments were conducted at 1, 3, 6, and 12-month following prison release. Participants (N=211) in the in-prison treatment condition effect had a higher mean number of days of community buprenorphine treatment compared to the condition in which participants initiated medication after release (P=0.005). However, there were no statistically significant hypothesized effects for the in-prison treatment condition in terms of: days of heroin use and crime, and opioid and cocaine positive urine screening test results (all Ps>0.14) and no statistically significant hypothesized gender effects (all Ps>0.18). Although initiating buprenorphine treatment in prison compared to after-release was associated with more days receiving buprenorphine treatment in the designated community treatment program during the 12-months post-release assessment, it was not associated with superior outcomes in terms of heroin and cocaine use and criminal behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mild pituitary phenotype in 3- and 12-month-old Aip-deficient male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoq, Anne-Lise; Zizzari, Philippe; Hage, Mirella; Decourtye, Lyvianne; Adam, Clovis; Viengchareun, Say; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Geoffroy, Valérie; Lombès, Marc; Tolle, Virginie; Guillou, Anne; Karhu, Auli; Kappeler, Laurent; Chanson, Philippe; Kamenický, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene predispose humans to pituitary adenomas, particularly of the somatotroph lineage. Mice with global heterozygous inactivation of Aip (Aip(+/-)) also develop pituitary adenomas but differ from AIP-mutated patients by the high penetrance of pituitary disease. The endocrine phenotype of these mice is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the endocrine phenotype of Aip(+/-) mice by assessing the somatic growth, ultradian pattern of GH secretion and IGF1 concentrations of longitudinally followed male mice at 3 and 12 months of age. As the early stages of pituitary tumorigenesis are controversial, we also studied the pituitary histology and somatotroph cell proliferation in these mice. Aip(+/-) mice did not develop gigantism but exhibited a leaner phenotype than wild-type mice. Analysis of GH pulsatility by deconvolution in 12-month-old Aip(+/-) mice showed a mild increase in total GH secretion, a conserved GH pulsatility pattern, but a normal IGF1 concentration. No pituitary adenomas were detected up to 12 months of age. An increased ex vivo response to GHRH of pituitary explants from 3-month-old Aip(+/-) mice, together with areas of enlarged acini identified on reticulin staining in the pituitary of some Aip(+/-) mice, was suggestive of somatotroph hyperplasia. Global heterozygous Aip deficiency in mice is accompanied by subtle increase in GH secretion, which does not result in gigantism. The absence of pituitary adenomas in 12-month-old Aip(+/-) mice in our experimental conditions demonstrates the important phenotypic variability of this congenic mouse model. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  6. A survey of nutritional status of children 0-12 months in specialist hospital Gombe, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mela Danjin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was a cross-sectional survey of children and their mothers in specialist Hospital Gombe, Nigeria. Objective: Anthropometric assessment of nutritional status of the children (0-12 months and a survey of mothers′ opinion on malnutrition. Population: Children and mothers attending immunization sessions in specialist hospital Gombe, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Hundred children (0-12 months attending immunization sessions were purposefully sampled and measured using sensitive anthropometric tools and techniques, while on the other arm of the study structured interviews were administered on the children′s consenting mothers (100 who turned in for their wards′ immunization. Only 97 out of 100 data collected on the children were used. Anthropometric indices used were height-for-age, weight-for-height, weight-for-age, and mid-upper arm circumference. Results: The study revealed a higher prevalence of moderate stunting in male (46.9% than in female (33.3% children (P 11 exhibited both severe and moderate forms of underweight. Among infants 3-5 months, moderate wasting was found to be less prevalent (4.2%. And despite the fact that 90% of their mothers showed a positive attitude toward exclusive breastfeeding, only 44% of them breastfed their infants exclusively from birth to the 6 th month of life. Conclusion: In order to address the various forms of nutritional derangements detected among the children, mothers should be targeted for infant nutritional education and authorities should institute poverty alleviation measures so as to address underlying causes of malnutrition.

  7. The Origins of 12-Month Attachment: A Microanalysis of 4-Month Mother-Infant Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Beatrice; Jaffe, Joseph; Markese, Sara; Buck, Karen; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Bahrick, Lorraine; Andrews, Howard; Feldstein, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    A detailed microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant face-to-face communication revealed a fine-grained specification of essential communication processes that predicted 12-month insecure attachment outcomes, particularly resistant and disorganized classifications. An urban community sample of 84 dyads were videotaped at 4 months during a face-to-face interaction, and at 12 months during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. Four-month mother and infant communication modalities of attention, affect, touch, and spatial orientation were coded from split-screen videotape on a 1s time base; mother and infant facial-visual “engagement” variables were constructed. We used contingency measures (multi-level time-series modeling) to examine the dyadic temporal process over time, and specific rates of qualitative features of behavior to examine the content of behavior. Self-contingency (auto-correlation) measured the degree of stability/lability within an individual’s own rhythms of behavior; interactive contingency (lagged cross-correlation) measured adjustments of the individual’s behavior that were correlated with the partner’s previous behavior. We documented that both self- and interactive contingency, as well as specific qualitative features, of mother and infant behavior were mechanisms of attachment formation by 4 months, distinguishing 12-month insecure, resistant, and disorganized attachment classifications from secure; avoidant were too few to test. All communication modalities made unique contributions. The separate analysis of different communication modalities identified intermodal discrepancies or conflict, both intrapersonal and interpersonal, that characterized insecure dyads. Contrary to dominant theories in the literature on face-to-face interaction, measures of maternal contingent coordination with infant yielded the fewest associations with 12-month attachment, whereas mother and infant self-contingency, and infant contingent coordination with mother

  8. Binge Alcohol Use among Persons Aged 12 to 20: 2002 and 2003 Update. The NSDUH Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Research has shown that persons who engage in binge alcohol use as teenagers are at increased risk for binge drinking as young adults. Binge Alcohol Use among Persons Aged 12 to 20: 2002 and 2003 Update asks respondents aged 12 or older to report their frequency and quantity of alcohol use during the month before the survey. NSDUH defines binge…

  9. Mother's Emotional and Posttraumatic Reactions after a Preterm Birth: The Mother-Infant Interaction Is at Stake 12 Months after Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Anne-Cécile; Eutrope, Julien; Thierry, Aurore; Bednarek, Nathalie; Aupetit, Laurence; Saad, Stéphanie; Vulliez, Lauriane; Sibertin-Blanc, Daniel; Nezelof, Sylvie; Rolland, Anne-Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Very preterm infants are known to be at risk of developmental disabilities and behavioural disorders. This condition is supposed to alter mother-infant interactions. Here we hypothesize that the parental coping with the very preterm birth may greatly influence mother-infant interactions. 100 dyads were included in 3 university hospitals in France. Preterm babies at higher risk of neurodevelopmental sequelae (PRI>10) were excluded to target the maternal determinants of mother-infant interaction. We report the follow-up of this cohort during 1 year after very preterm birth, with regular assessment of infant somatic state, mother psychological state and the assessment of mother-infant interaction at 12 months by validated scales (mPPQ, HADS, EPDS, PRI, DDST and PIPE). We show that the intensity of post-traumatic reaction of the mother 6 months after birth is negatively correlated with the quality of mother-infant interaction at 12 months. Moreover, the anxious and depressive symptoms of the mother 6 and 12 months after birth are also correlated with the quality of mother-infant interaction at 12 months. By contrast, this interaction is not influenced by the initial affective state of the mother in the 2 weeks following birth. In this particular population of infants at low risk of sequelae, we also show that the quality of mother-infant interaction is not correlated with the assessment of the infant in the neonatal period but is correlated with the fine motor skills of the baby 12 months after birth. This study suggests that mothers' psychological condition has to be monitored during the first year of very preterm infants' follow-up. It also suggests that parental interventions have to be proposed when a post-traumatic, anxious or depressive reaction is suspected.

  10. Mother's Emotional and Posttraumatic Reactions after a Preterm Birth: The Mother-Infant Interaction Is at Stake 12 Months after Birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Cécile Petit

    Full Text Available Very preterm infants are known to be at risk of developmental disabilities and behavioural disorders. This condition is supposed to alter mother-infant interactions. Here we hypothesize that the parental coping with the very preterm birth may greatly influence mother-infant interactions.100 dyads were included in 3 university hospitals in France. Preterm babies at higher risk of neurodevelopmental sequelae (PRI>10 were excluded to target the maternal determinants of mother-infant interaction. We report the follow-up of this cohort during 1 year after very preterm birth, with regular assessment of infant somatic state, mother psychological state and the assessment of mother-infant interaction at 12 months by validated scales (mPPQ, HADS, EPDS, PRI, DDST and PIPE.We show that the intensity of post-traumatic reaction of the mother 6 months after birth is negatively correlated with the quality of mother-infant interaction at 12 months. Moreover, the anxious and depressive symptoms of the mother 6 and 12 months after birth are also correlated with the quality of mother-infant interaction at 12 months. By contrast, this interaction is not influenced by the initial affective state of the mother in the 2 weeks following birth. In this particular population of infants at low risk of sequelae, we also show that the quality of mother-infant interaction is not correlated with the assessment of the infant in the neonatal period but is correlated with the fine motor skills of the baby 12 months after birth.This study suggests that mothers' psychological condition has to be monitored during the first year of very preterm infants' follow-up. It also suggests that parental interventions have to be proposed when a post-traumatic, anxious or depressive reaction is suspected.

  11. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria to change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  12. Ischemic colitis complicating imipramine overdose and alcohol ingestion. Case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Peter Neimann; Rørdam, P

    1992-01-01

    Patients on antidepressant medication are instructed to avoid alcohol because of possible additive effects on cognitive function. An unusual case of colonic gangrene following overdose of imipramine and alcohol is presented. The patient recovered.......Patients on antidepressant medication are instructed to avoid alcohol because of possible additive effects on cognitive function. An unusual case of colonic gangrene following overdose of imipramine and alcohol is presented. The patient recovered....

  13. Alcohol and Health. Seventh Special Report to the U.S. Congress from the Secretary of Health and Human Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This report describes recent progress in knowledge on alcohol abuse and alcoholism. These topics are covered: (1) alcohol abuse and alcoholism, including drinking patterns, etiology, and alcohol dependence as a disease; (2) epidemiology, including morbidity and deaths; (3) genetics and environment, including twin and adoption studies, animal…

  14. How much alcohol do you buy? A comparison of self-reported alcohol purchases with actual sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstedt, Mats

    2010-04-01

    Unrecorded alcohol has increased in the Nordic countries during recent years, above all in terms of cross-border trade. This implies that trends and levels of per capita consumption would look different without estimates of this source of alcohol, estimates that in Sweden and other countries are made through surveys. The overall aim is to analyse the validity of Swedish survey estimates of alcohol bought in the cross-border trade and possibly to develop weights that can be applied to such estimates. The analysis consists of comparing self-reported purchases of spirits, wine, cider/alcopops and beer at retail monopoly (Systembolaget) during 2008 (n = 18,000) with actual sales during the same period overall and monthly. Of the recorded amount of purchases at Systembolaget, 87% was reported in the survey, compared with the 40-60% usually found for self-reported consumption. Significant differences across beverages were revealed, showing a lower coverage rate for beer and spirits and a higher coverage rate for wine and cider. Changes in purchases of all beverages were captured fairly well, at least changes taking place from one month to another. Self-reported alcohol purchases achieve a higher coverage rate than found typically in studies based on self-reported use of alcohol. If adjustments are to be made to correct for underreporting in self-reported data on alcohol purchases, different weights should be applied to different beverages. Furthermore, at least major changes in how much alcohol is purchased in the population can be monitored using well-designed population surveys.

  15. High prevalence of unhealthy alcohol use and comparison of self-reported alcohol consumption to phosphatidylethanol among women engaged in sex work and their male clients in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Marie-Claude; Page, Kimberly; Sansothy, Neth; Stein, Ellen; Vun, Mean Chhi; Hahn, Judith A

    2016-08-01

    In Cambodia, most of the female sex workers (FSW) work in venues where unhealthy alcohol use is ubiquitous and potentially contributing to the HIV epidemic. However, no accurate data exists. We compare self-reported unhealthy alcohol consumption to a biomarker of alcohol intake in Cambodian FSW and male clients, and determine factors associated with unhealthy alcohol use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among FSW (n=100) and male clients (n=100) in entertainment and sex work venues in Cambodia. Self-reported unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT-C) was compared to phosphatidylethanol (PEth) positive (≥50ng/ml), a biomarker of alcohol intake. Sociodemographics data was collected. Correlates of self-reported unhealthy alcohol use and PEth positive were determined. The prevalence of PEth positive in FSW was 60.0%. Self-reported unhealthy alcohol consumption was reported by 85.0% of the women. Almost all women (95.0%) testing PEth positive also reported unhealthy alcohol use. Prevalence of unhealthy alcohol consumption (self-report and PEth positive) was higher in FSW working in entertainment establishments compared to other sex work venues (psex work settings. Self-reported unhealthy alcohol use is well reported by FSW, but less by male clients. These findings highlight the urgency of using accurate measures of unhealthy alcohol consumption and integrating this health issue into HIV prevention interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Alcoholism and diabetes mellitus: Case report | Otieno | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    He was an alcoholic receiving psychiatric care for alcoholism. They both presented separately at different hospitals with decompensated diabetes following heavy alcohol consumption. The history and clinico-laboratory picture of both patients are presented and brief management programme and outcome are also given.

  17. Externalities from Alcohol Consumption in the 2005 US National Alcohol Survey: Implications for Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Giesbrecht

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A subsample (n = 2,550 of the 2005 US National Alcohol Survey of adults was used to estimate prevalence and correlates of six externalities from alcohol abuse—family problems, assaults, accompanying intoxicated driver, vehicular accident, financial problems and vandalized property—all from another‘s drinking. On a lifetime basis, 60% reported externalities, with a lower 12-month rate (9%. Women reported more family/marital and financial impacts and men more assaults, accompanying drunk drivers, and accidents. Being unmarried, older, white and ever having monthly heavy drinking or alcohol problems was associated with more alcohol externalities. Publicizing external costs of drinking could elevate political will for effective alcohol controls.

  18. Externalities from Alcohol Consumption in the 2005 US National Alcohol Survey: Implications for Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Thomas K.; Ye, Yu; Kerr, William; Bond, Jason; Rehm, Jürgen; Giesbrecht, Norman

    2009-01-01

    A subsample (n = 2,550) of the 2005 US National Alcohol Survey of adults was used to estimate prevalence and correlates of six externalities from alcohol abuse––family problems, assaults, accompanying intoxicated driver, vehicular accident, financial problems and vandalized property––all from another’s drinking. On a lifetime basis, 60% reported externalities, with a lower 12-month rate (9%). Women reported more family/marital and financial impacts and men more assaults, accompanying drunk drivers, and accidents. Being unmarried, older, white and ever having monthly heavy drinking or alcohol problems was associated with more alcohol externalities. Publicizing external costs of drinking could elevate political will for effective alcohol controls. PMID:20049257

  19. A comparison between brand-specific and traditional alcohol surveillance methods to assess underage drinkers' reported alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah P; Siegel, Michael B; DeJong, William; Jernigan, David H

    2014-11-01

    Adolescent alcohol consumption remains common and is associated with many negative health outcomes. Unfortunately, common alcohol surveillance methods often underestimate consumption. Improved alcohol use measures are needed to characterize the landscape of youth drinking. We aimed to compare a standard quantity-frequency measure of youth alcohol consumption to a novel brand-specific measure. We recruited a sample of 1031 respondents across the United States to complete an online survey. Analyses included 833 male and female underage drinkers ages 13-20. Respondents reported on how many of the past 30 days they consumed alcohol, and the number of drinks consumed on an average drinking day. Using our brand-specific measure, respondents identified which brands they consumed, how many days they consumed each brand, and how many drinks per brand they usually had. Youth reported consuming significantly more alcohol (on average, 11 drinks more per month) when responding to the brand-specific versus the standard measure (p brands consumed (p brand preferences and consumption.

  20. African American community members sustain favorable blood pressure outcomes through 12-month telephone motivational interviewing (MI) maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community approaches offer promise for addressing disparities experienced by African Americans in hypertension prevalence, treatment, and control. HUB City Steps, a community-based participatory research lifestyle intervention, tracked participants through a 12-month MI maintenance phase following a...

  1. Brand preferences of underage drinkers who report alcohol-related fights and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah P; Siegel, Michael B; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; Jernigan, David H

    2015-04-01

    A significant body of research has demonstrated an association between adolescent alcohol consumption and subsequent fights and injuries. To date, however, no research has identified which brands are associated with alcohol-related fights and injuries among underage drinkers. We aimed to: (1) report the prevalence of alcohol-related fights and injuries among a national sample of underage drinkers in the U.S. and (2) describe the relationship between specific alcohol brand consumption and these alcohol-related negative consequences. We recruited 1,031 self-reported drinkers (ages 13-20 years) via an internet panel maintained by Knowledge Networks to complete an online survey. Respondents reported their past-month overall and brand-specific alcohol consumption, risky drinking behavior, and past-year alcohol-related fights and injuries. Over one-quarter of the respondents (26.7%, N = 232) reported at least one alcohol-related fight or injury in the past year. Heavy episodic drinkers were over six times more likely to report one of these negative alcohol-related consequences (AOR: 6.4, 95% CI: 4.1-9.9). Respondents of black race and those from higher-income households were also significantly more likely to report that experience (AOR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.7; AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.0 and 1.1-3.2, respectively). We identified eight alcohol brands that were significantly associated with alcohol-related fights and injuries. CONCLUSIONS/IMPORTANCE: Alcohol-related fights and injuries were frequently reported by adolescent respondents. Eight alcohol brands were significantly more popular among drinkers who experienced these adverse consequences. These results point to the need for further research on brand-specific correlates of underage drinking and negative health outcomes.

  2. Mental health in retired professional football players: 12-month incidence, adverse life events and support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ramele, Serena; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; Gouttebarge, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The primary aim was to explore the incidence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD; distress, sleep disturbance, anxiety/depression, adverse alcohol use) in retired professional football players and to explore the association between adverse life events and the onset of symptoms of

  3. APPLICATION OF FILTEK SILORANE-INITIAL OBSERVATIONS AND PROSPECTIVE CLINICAL TRIAL FOR 12 MONTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubomir Vangelov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymerization shrinkage and related adverse effects are still considered a major problem of dental composites. To solve this problem different approaches are offered. Currently, 3M ESPE developed a new monomer system based on cationic ring opening, the goal is to create a composite material with low polymerization shrinкage called siloran. Aim: To investigate the clinical presentation of Filtek д Silorane Low Shrink Posterior Restorative for an observation period of 12 months. Material and methods: The study included 36 patients. Total of 66 restorations are made. They were evaluated using modified USPHS criteria of Ryge and Cvar. After their assessment, restorations were captured with a digital camera and X-rays were taken in parallel technique. On control examination after one year, 31 patients (63 restorations were available for the study. Same parameters were assessed and new digital pictures and X-rays were made. The statistics was made with software SPSS version 17. For statistical analysis a Criterion Pirson (x2 was used. Results: With the exception of one of the criteria, it was shown that no statistically significant difference exists between the baseline and after one year (p> 0,05. Only the criterion surface of the filling was found to have statistically significant difference (p <0,05

  4. Fine Motor Development of Low Birth Weight Infants Corrected Aged 8 to 12 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Nazi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the fine motor development between Low Birth Weight (LBW infants and Normal Birth Weight infants (NBW at the age of 8-12 months by using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-2 (PDMS-2 . Methods: This was a non experimental and cross sectional study which was conducted on the 18 LBW infants and 14 normal infants. By referring to the profile of infants in NICU of Aliasghar Hospital, those with defined inclusion criteria was recognized (case group. The normal weight infants, randomly selected from Health Center of that hospital, matched with case group for date of birth. After completing the questionnaire about demographic variables, their gross motor development was assessed with PDMS-2. Finally the scores of the motor quotient were analyzed by independent t-test statistical method. Results: There was a significant difference between Fine motor quotient of groups (P=0.007. Discussion: This study showed that LBW infants are significantly lower than normal weight infants in attaining Fine motor skills. It means that the LBW infants are more prone to developmental difficulties.

  5. Cerebral ultrasound in newborns with severs asphyxia: correlation with the neurological status at 12 months

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esparza, J.; Gonzalez, A.; Inchusta, M.I.; Pina, L.

    1997-01-01

    To establish the prognostic value of cerebral ultrasound performed in newborns (NB) with severe asphyxia. A retrospective study of the ultrasound (US) findings during the acute phase of severe perinatal asphyxia was carried out in a series of 182 NB. The US images were correlated with the neurological status of the infants at the age of 12 months. Of the 122 NB with normal US findings, 94,2% presented no sequelae or a slightly impaired psychomotor performance attributable to prematurity, thus conferring a high prognostic value to this technique. Subependymal cerebral hemorrhage was diagnosed in 35 cases (22 grades I and II, 9 grade III and 4 grade IV), in whom the prognosis was related to the grade of hemorrhage. Twenty-five NB were diagnosed as having some type of hypoxic or ischemic encephalopathy, eith the prognosis differing according to the topography of the lesion and the reversibility of the ultrasonographic signs: poor prognosis in ten NB with diffuse cerebral involvement and in four with periventricular leukomalacia, uncertain prognosis in seven NB with focal brain damage and a good prognosis in four with reversible cerebral edema. (Author) 35 refs

  6. Atypical social development in neonatal intensive care unit survivors at 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasumasa; Yoshida, Futoshi; Hemmi, Hayato; Ito, Miharu; Kakita, Hiroki; Yoshikawa, Toru; Hishida, Manabu; Iguchi, Toshiyuki; Seo, Tomoko; Nakanishi, Keiko

    2011-12-01

    Owing to advances in neonatal intensive care, many infants who are hospitalized in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) can survive and grow, and are referred to as NICU survivors. However, social development in NICU survivors has not been fully explored. To examine the social development of NICU survivors, a questionnaire consisting of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) was used. The M-CHAT was completed by the parents of either NICU survivors (n= 117) or normally delivered children (control group, n= 112) during their regular medical checkups at a corrected age of 12 months. Ninety percent of NICU survivors and 63% of control children did not pass the M-CHAT screen. As it was originally designed for children aged 18-30 months, failed M-CHAT items could have been due to developmental issues and not due to autistic spectrum disorders. However, there was a significant difference in the total number of items failed between the two groups. In particular, many NICU survivors did not pass on M-CHAT items, such as oversensitivity to noise, unusual finger movements, and attempts to attract attention. Concerning perinatal complications, infants with low birthweight and/or the need for respiratory support tended to have a higher number of failures on all M-CHAT items. NICU survivors may have distinct developmental patterns of social communication, and should be followed up for assessment of social skills and neurological development. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  7. The role of verbal labels on flexible memory retrieval at 12-months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gemma; Liu, Hao; Herbert, Jane S

    2016-11-01

    The provision of verbal labels enhances 12-month-old infants' memory flexibility across a form change in a puppet imitation task (Herbert, 2011), although the mechanisms for this effect remain unclear. Here we investigate whether verbal labels can scaffold flexible memory retrieval when task difficulty increases and consider the mechanism responsible for the effect of language cues on early memory flexibility. Twelve-month-old infants were provided with English, Chinese, or empty language cues during a difficult imitation task, a combined change in the puppet's colour and form at the test (Hayne et al., 1997). Imitation performance by infants in the English language condition only exceeded baseline performance after the 10-min delay. Thus, verbal labels facilitated flexible memory retrieval on this task. There were no correlations between infants' language comprehension and imitation performance. Thus, it is likely that verbal labels facilitate both attention and categorisation during encoding and retrieval. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of Gastroesophageal Reflux in Children(2-12 Month Based on Clinical Findings and Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Jassemi Zergani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gastroesophageal reflux is a common gastrointestinal disorder among infants, which can cause complications, such as esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus if its diagnosis and treatment are delayed. On the other hand, similarity of Gastro esophageal Reflux symptoms with symptoms of other childhood diseases makes its diagnosis and treatment difficult. So a proper tool for early screening and diagnostic test is essential. Methods: This study was conducted on 221 infants(2 to 12 months with initial symptoms of gastro esophageal reflux(frequent vomiting, restlessness after feeding, no weight gain, coughing repeatedly and refusing to eat that referred to pediatric Clinic of Rajai Hospital in Tonekabon. Data was collected with demographic and infant gastro esophageal reflux questionnaire by use of the information in records and interview with parents. Then the samples were examined via sonography for gastroesophagial reflux. Results: After initial screening based on infants gastro esophageal reflux tool, gastro esophageal reflux by ultrasound was positive in 63/3% of infants. The mean esophageal diameter was (20/73±2/54mm in infants with gastro esophageal reflux and (23/71±2/35mm in infants without gastro esophageal reflux. Conclusion: Due to the similarity of gastro esophageal Reflux symptoms with clinical symptoms of other childhood diseases, use of an initial screening measurement for early assessment of gastro esophageal reflux in infants is necessary. Moreover, appropriate, available and low costs diagnostic method with little complication seems essential such as ultrasonography for confirm diagnosis and early treatment.

  9. Differences in reporting of perceived acute effects of alcohol use, marijuana use, and simultaneous alcohol and marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christine M; Cadigan, Jennifer M; Patrick, Megan E

    2017-11-01

    Although there are serious negative harms associated with simultaneous alcohol and marijuana (SAM) use, little is known about the self-reported acute effects of SAM use and how they may be similar to or different than effects experienced when using alcohol or marijuana only. The current study examines the perceived acute effects of SAM use, compared to using alcohol or marijuana only, as well as demographic and substance use predictors of overall SAM effects. Participants were a community sample of young adults ages 18-23 participating in a longitudinal study on social role transitions and substance use during young adulthood. Young adults who reported SAM use at least once in their lifetime were selected for the present analyses (N=315; mean age=21.42; 58% female) and reported the effects they experienced from typical alcohol use, marijuana use, and SAM use. There were significant differences in the extent to which young adults perceived the effects depending on the substances used. Most effects (i.e., clumsy, confused, dizzy, difficulty concentrating) were rated strongest when engaging in SAM use, compared to typical alcohol or marijuana use alone. Feeling high and feeling marijuana effects were rated strongest when engaging in marijuana use alone compared to SAM use, but feeling drunk was greater during SAM use compared to alcohol use alone. Greater alcohol use and increased time spent high during typical SAM use were associated with greater overall SAM effects. When young adults engage in SAM use they report experiencing greater negative physiological and cognitive effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationships between Breastfeeding Patterns and Maternal and Infant Body Composition over the First 12 Months of Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Zoya Gridneva; Alethea Rea; Anna R. Hepworth; Leigh C. Ward; Ching T. Lai; Peter E. Hartmann; Donna T. Geddes

    2018-01-01

    Breastfeeding has been implicated in the establishment of infant appetite regulation, feeding patterns and body composition (BC). A holistic approach is required to elucidate relationships between infant and maternal BC and contributing factors, such as breastfeeding parameters. Associations between maternal and breastfed term infant BC (n = 20) and feeding parameters during first 12 months of lactation were investigated. BC was measured at 2, 5, 9 and/or 12 months postpartum with ultrasound ...

  11. Comparison of the population excess fraction of Chlamydia trachomatis infection on pelvic inflammatory disease at 12-months in the presence and absence of Chlamydia testing and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Bethan; Turner, Katy M.E.; Leung, Stella

    2017-01-01

    Background: The impact of Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) control on the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is theoretically limited by the proportion of PID caused by chlamydia. We estimate the population excess fraction (PEF) of treated chlamydia infection on PID at 12-months...... in settings with widespread chlamydia control (testing and treatment) and compare this to the estimated PEF of untreated chlamydia. Methods: We used two large retrospective population-based cohorts of women of reproductive age from settings with widespread chlamydia control to calculate the PEF of treated...... chlamydia on PID at 12-months. We undertook a systematic review to identify further studies that reported the risk of PID in women who were tested for chlamydia (infected and uninfected). We used the same method to calculate the PEF in eligible studies then compared all estimates of PEF. Results...

  12. Precursors of social emotional functioning among full-term and preterm infants at 12 months: Early infant withdrawal behavior and symptoms of maternal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Vibeke; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Slinning, Kari; Vannebo, Unni Tranaas; Guedeney, Antoine; Heimann, Mikael; Rostad, Anne Margrethe; Smith, Lars

    2016-08-01

    This study forms part of a longitudinal investigation of early infant social withdrawal, maternal symptoms of depression and later child social emotional functioning. The sample consisted of a group of full-term infants (N=238) and their mothers, and a group of moderately premature infants (N=64) and their mothers. At 3 months, the infants were observed with the Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB) and the mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). At 12 months, the mothers filled out questionnaires about the infants' social emotional functioning (Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment and the Ages and Stages Questionnaire-Social Emotional). At 3 months, as we have previously shown, the premature infants had exhibited more withdrawal behavior and their mothers reported elevated maternal depressive symptoms as compared with the full-born group. At 12 months the mothers of the premature infants reported more child internalizing behavior. These data suggest that infant withdrawal behavior as well as maternal depressive mood may serve as sensitive indices of early risk status. Further, the results suggest that early maternal depressive symptoms are a salient predictor of later child social emotional functioning. However, neither early infant withdrawal behavior, nor gestational age, did significantly predict social emotional outcome at 12 months. It should be noted that the differences in strength of the relations between ADBB and EPDS, respectively, to the outcome at 12 months was modest. An implication of the study is that clinicians should be aware of the complex interplay between early infant withdrawal and signs of maternal postpartum depression in planning ports of entry for early intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Frequency of cardiovascular risk factors before and 6 and 12 months after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Alayde Mendonça da; Rivera, Ivan Romero; Barbosa, Emília Maria Wanderley de Gusmão; Crispim, Maria Angélica Correia; Farias, Guilherme Costa; Fontan, Alberto Jorge Albuquerque; Bezerra, Rodrigo Azavedo; Sá, Larissa Gabriella de Souza

    2013-01-01

    To compare the frequency of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in obese patients of the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS) with indication of bariatric surgery during the preoperative period and after the sixth month and the first year of the procedure. An observational, longitudinal, prospective, and analytical study was performed, with consecutive selection of obese patients with indication for surgery referred to preoperative cardiac evaluation. The protocol consisted of: medical history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and biochemical analysis. This study analyzed the following variables: weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus type 2(DM), dyslipidemia (high LDL cholesterol; low HDL cholesterol; hypertriglyceridemia), and metabolic syndrome (MS). The chi-squared test and the Tukey-Kramer method were used for statistical analysis. The sample was composed of 96 obese people, among which 86 were women, aged between 18 and 58 years old (median 35 years old). At the end of six months, significant reductions of 88%, 95%, 71%, 89%, and 80% in the frequency of SAH, high LDL cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia, DM, and MS could already be observed. A significant and small reduction in the frequency of low HDL cholesterol (24%) and abnormal WC (31%) was observed only at the end of 12 months. After six months and one year, weight and BMI experienced reductions of 33.4kg and 44.3kg, and 13.1kg/m(2) and 17.2kg/m(2), respectively. The positive impact on weight loss and the reduction in BMI, WC, and in the frequency of CVRFs are already extremely significant after six months and remain so one year after bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to do. Wondering if adding a glass of wine or beer might help lower your blood glucose if it is high? The effects of alcohol can be unpredictable and it is not recommended as a treatment for high blood glucose. The risks likely outweigh any benefit that may be seen in blood glucose alone. ...

  15. Comparison of assessment methods for self-reported alcohol consumption in health interview surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, O; Strandberg-Larsen, K; Christensen, K

    2008-01-01

    To select a simple method for assessing alcohol consumption and to compare how different reference periods and response categories influence the self-reported frequency of binge drinking.......To select a simple method for assessing alcohol consumption and to compare how different reference periods and response categories influence the self-reported frequency of binge drinking....

  16. Factors influencing oral hygiene behaviour and gingival outcomes 3 and 12 months after initial periodontal treatment: an exploratory test of an extended Theory of Reasoned Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Birgitta; Baker, Sarah R; Lindberg, Per; Oscarson, Nils; Ohrn, Kerstin

    2012-02-01

    The aim was to empirically test the extended Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the prospective direct and indirect role of attitudes, beliefs, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and a cognitive behavioural intervention in adult's oral hygiene behaviour and gingival outcomes at 3- and 12-month follow-up. Data were derived from an RCT evaluating the effectiveness of oral hygiene educational programs integrated in non-surgical periodontal treatment (n = 113). Before baseline examination, participants completed a self-report questionnaire. Structural equation modelling using maximum likelihood estimation with bootstrapping was used to test the direct and indirect (mediated) pathways within the extended TRA model. The extended TRA model explained a large amount of variance in gingival outcome scores at 12 months (56%). A higher level of self-efficacy at baseline was associated with higher frequencies of oral hygiene behaviour at 3 months. Being female was linked to more normative beliefs that, in turn, related to greater behavioural beliefs and self-efficacy. Gender was also related to behavioural beliefs, attitudes and subjective norms. Both frequency of oral hygiene behaviour at 3 months and the cognitive behavioural intervention predicted gingival outcome at 12 months. The model demonstrated that self-efficacy, gender and a cognitive behavioural intervention were important predictors of oral hygiene behavioural change. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Does Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) prevent major depressive episode for workers? A 12-month follow-up of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, K; Kawakami, N; Furukawa, T A; Matsuyama, Y; Shimazu, A; Umanodan, R; Kawakami, S; Kasai, K

    2015-07-01

    In this study we investigated whether an Internet-based computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) program can decrease the risk of DSM-IV-TR major depressive episodes (MDE) during a 12-month follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of Japanese workers. Participants were recruited from one company and three departments of another company. Those participants who did not experience MDE in the past month were randomly allocated to intervention or control groups (n = 381 for each). A 6-week, six-lesson iCBT program was provided to the intervention group. While the control group only received the usual preventive mental health service for the first 6 months, the control group was given a chance to undertake the iCBT program after a 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome was a new onset of DSM-IV-TR MDE during the 12-month follow-up, as assessed by means of the web version of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), version 3.0 depression section. The intervention group had a significantly lower incidence of MDE at the 12-month follow-up than the control group (Log-rank χ2 = 7.04, p MDE in the working population. However, it should be noted that MDE was measured by self-report, while the CIDI can measure the episodes more strictly following DSM-IV criteria.

  18. Risk factors for wheeze in the last 12 months in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quah, B S; Mazidah, A R; Simpson, H

    2000-06-01

    Most children with asthma develop their symptoms before the age of 5 years and many preschool wheezers continue to wheeze in the early school years. It is thus important to investigate the factors that predispose young children to wheeze. The objective of this study was to investigate the relevant environmental and family influences on recent wheeze (wheeze within the last 12 months) in preschool children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in five primary health clinics in the district of Kota Bharu from April to October 1998. Nurses from these clinics distributed Bahasa Malaysia questionnaires containing questions on asthma symptoms, environmental risk factors, family's social status and family history of atopy and wheeze to preschool children aged 1-5 years during their home visits. The respondents were parent(s) or carer(s) of the children. A total of 2,524 (87.7%) complete questionnaires were available for analysis of risk factors. One hundred and fifty six (6.2%) children had current wheeze. Significant risk factors associated with current wheeze were a family history of asthma (O.R. = 6.36, 95% C.I. = 4.45-9.09), neonatal hospital admission (O.R. = 2.38, 95% C.I. = 1.51 - 3.75), and a maternal (O.R. = 2.12, 95% C.I. = 1.31-3.41) or paternal (O.R. = 1.52, 95% C.I. = 0.95-2.43) history of allergic rhinitis. Among environmental factors examined, namely, household pets, carpeting in bedroom, use of fumigation mats, mosquito coils and aerosol insect repellents, maternal and paternal smoking, and air conditioning, none were associated with an increased risk of wheeze. In conclusion, the strongest association with current wheeze was a family history of asthma. Also significant were neonatal hospital admission and a history of allergic rhinitis in either the mother or father. None of the environmental factors studied were related to current wheeze in preschool children.

  19. Analysis of correlation between initial alveolar bone density and apical root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment without extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cabrini Scheibel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between initial alveolar bone density of upper central incisors (ABD-UI and external apical root resorption (EARR after 12 months of orthodontic movement in cases without extraction. METHODS: A total of 47 orthodontic patients 11 years old or older were submitted to periapical radiography of upper incisors prior to treatment (T1 and after 12 months of treatment (T2. ABD-UI and EARR were measured by means of densitometry. RESULTS: No statistically significant correlation was found between initial ABD-UI and EARR at T2 (r = 0.149; p = 0.157. CONCLUSION: Based on the present findings, alveolar density assessed through periapical radiography is not predictive of root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment in cases without extraction.

  20. Analysis of correlation between initial alveolar bone density and apical root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment without extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibel, Paula Cabrini; Ramos, Adilson Luiz; Iwaki, Lilian Cristina Vessoni; Micheletti, Kelly Regina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between initial alveolar bone density of upper central incisors (ABD-UI) and external apical root resorption (EARR) after 12 months of orthodontic movement in cases without extraction. METHODS: A total of 47 orthodontic patients 11 years old or older were submitted to periapical radiography of upper incisors prior to treatment (T1) and after 12 months of treatment (T2). ABD-UI and EARR were measured by means of densitometry. RESULTS: No statistically significant correlation was found between initial ABD-UI and EARR at T2 (r = 0.149; p = 0.157). CONCLUSION: Based on the present findings, alveolar density assessed through periapical radiography is not predictive of root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment in cases without extraction. PMID:25715722

  1. The 12-month effects of structured lifestyle advice and pelvic floor muscle training for pelvic organ prolapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Ulla; Brostrøm, Søren; Lose, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the 12-month effects of adding pelvic floor muscle training to a lifestyle advice program in women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse stage II-III and the number of women who had sought further treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was a 12-month follow up...... of a randomized controlled trial comparing a structured lifestyle advice program alone (lifestyle group) or in combination with pelvic floor muscle training (training and lifestyle group). Both programs consisted of six separate group sessions within 12 weeks. RESULTS: Data were available from 83 (76%) of the 109...... surgery. More severe anterior prolapse and more bladder symptoms at the 3-month follow up were significantly associated with having sought further treatment in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: At 12-month follow up, the effects of adding pelvic floor muscle training to a structured lifestyle advice program were...

  2. Objectively measured physical activity and 12-month trajectories of neck-shoulder pain in workers: A prospective study in DPHACTO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, David M; Birk Jørgensen, Marie; Holtermann, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity at work and leisure and the intensity (mean level and time course) of neck-shoulder pain (NSP) over 12 months among male and female blue collar workers. Data were obtained from 625 blue collar workers from the Danish cohort DPHACTO. Physical activity was measured objectively at baseline using accelerometers. The percentage of time spent in physical activity (walking, climbing stairs, running and cycling) was calculated for both work and leisure time. Longitudinal data on the intensity of NSP (numerical rating scale 0-10) were collected using text messages every fourth week over 12 months. Linear mixed models were used to investigate the associations between occupational physical activity (OPA) and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and the trajectories of the intensity of NSP, adjusted for individual, biomechanical and psychosocial factors, and baseline pain. OPA was not associated with the mean intensity of NSP over 12 months. LTPA was negatively associated with the mean intensity of NSP both among men ( B=-0.71, 95% CI -1.31 to -0.11) and women ( B=-0.85, 95% CI -1.57 to -0.13). Sex interactions on the 12-month trajectories of NSP showed that higher physical activity was associated with a slower reduction in NSP among men for OPA only ( B=0.03, 95% CI 0.01-0.05) and women for LTPA only ( B=0.05, 95% CI 0.00-0.09). We found that more time in LTPA was associated with a lower overall intensity of NSP over 12 months among blue collar workers. However, depending on sex and domain, high physical activity had an unfavourable effect on the course of NSP over 12 months.

  3. Histological analysis and identification of spermatogenesis-related genes in 2-, 6-, and 12-month-old sheep testes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Man; Sun, Limin; Zhao, Jia; Xiang, Lujie; Cheng, Xiaoyin; Li, Jiarong; Jia, Chao; Jiang, Huaizhi

    2017-10-01

    Testis development and spermatogenesis are vital factors that influence male animal fertility. In order to identify spermatogenesis-related genes and further provide a theory basis for finding biomarkers related to male sheep fertility, 2-, 6-, and 12-month-old Small Tail Han Sheep testes were selected to investigate the dynamic changes of sheep testis development. Hematoxylin-eosin routine staining and RNA-Seq technique were used to perform histological and transcriptome analysis for these testes. The results showed that 630, 102, and 322 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in 2- vs 6-month-old, 6- vs 12-month-old, and 2- vs 12-month-old testes, respectively. GO and KEGG analysis showed the following: DEGs in 2- vs 6-month-old testes were mainly related to the GO terms of sexual maturation and the pathways of multiple metabolism and biosynthesis; in 6- vs 12-month-old testes, most of the GO terms that DEGs involved in were related to metabolism and translation processes; the most significantly enriched pathway is the ribosome pathway. The union of DEGs in 2- vs 6-month-old, 6- vs 12-month-old, and 2- vs 12-month-old testes was categorized into eight profiles by series cluster. Subsequently, the eight profiles were classified into four model profiles and four co-expression networks were constructed based on the DEGs in these model profiles. Finally, 29 key regulatory genes related to spermatogenesis were identified in the four co-expression networks. The expression of 13 DEGs (CA3, APOH, MYOC, CATSPER4, SYT6, SERPINA10, DAZL, ADIPOR2, RAB13, CEP41, SPAG4, ODF1, and FRG1) was validated by RT-PCR.

  4. Alcohol-Related Blackouts, Negative Alcohol-Related Consequences, and Motivations for Drinking Reported by Newly Matriculating Transgender College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupler, Larry A; Zapp, Daniel; DeJong, William; Ali, Maryam; O'Rourke, Sarah; Looney, John; Swartzwelder, H Scott

    2017-05-01

    Many transgender college students struggle with identity formation and other emotional, social, and developmental challenges associated with emerging adulthood. A potential maladaptive coping strategy employed by such students is heavy drinking. Prior literature has suggested greater consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences (ARCs) in transgender students compared with their cisgender peers, but little is known about their differing experiences with alcohol-related blackouts (ARBs). We examined the level of alcohol consumption, the frequency of ARBs and other ARCs, and motivations for drinking reported by the largest sample of transgender college students to date. A Web survey from an alcohol-prevention program, AlcoholEdu for College™, assessed student demographics and drinking-related behaviors, experiences, and motivations of newly matriculating first-year college students. A self-reported drinking calendar was used to examine each of the following measures over the previous 14 days: number of drinking days, total number of drinks, and maximum number of drinks on any single day. A 7-point Likert scale was used to measure ARCs, ARBs, and drinking motivations. Transgender students of both sexes were compared with their cisgender peers. A total of 989 of 422,906 students (0.2%) identified as transgender. Over a 14-day period, transgender compared with cisgender students were more likely to consume alcohol over more days, more total drinks, and a greater number of maximum drinks on a single day. Transgender students (36%) were more likely to report an ARB than cisgender students (25%) as well as more negative academic, confrontation-related, social, and sexual ARCs. Transgender respondents more often cited stress reduction, social anxiety, self-esteem issues, and the inherent properties of alcohol as motivations for drinking. For nearly all measures, higher values were yielded by male-to-female than female-to-male transgender students. Transgender

  5. A 12-month descriptive analysis of emergency intubations at Brooke Army Medical Center: a National Emergency Airway Registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    April, Michael D; Schauer, Steven G; Brown Rd, Calvin A; Ng, Patrick C; Fernandez, Jessie; Fantegrossi, Andrea E; Maddry, Joseph K; Summers, Shane; Sessions, Daniel J; Barnwell, Robert M; Antonacci, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Emergency airway management is a critical skill for military healthcare providers. Our goal was to describe the Emergency Department (ED) intubations at Brooke Army Medical Center (BAMC) over a 12-month period. Physicians performing endotracheal intubations in the BAMC ED complete data collection forms for each intubation event as part of the National Emergency Airway Registry, including patient demographics, intubation techniques, success and failure rates, adverse events, and patient disposition. We cross-referenced these forms against the numbers of intubation events reported in the ED nursing daily reports to ensure capture of all intubations. Providers completed forms for every intubation within 6 weeks of the procedure. We analyzed data from March 28, 2016, to March 27, 2017. During the study period, providers performed 259 intubations in the BAMC ED. Reasons for intubation were related to trauma for 184 patients (71.0%) and medical conditions for 75 patients (29.0%). Overall, first-attempt success was 83.0%. Emergency medicine residents performed a majority of first attempts (95.0%). Most common devices chosen on first attempt were a video laryngoscope for 143 patients (55.2%) and a direct laryngoscope for 115 patients (44.4%). One patient underwent cricothyrotomy. The 2 most common induction agents were ketamine (59.8%; 95% CI, 55.2%-67.4%) and etomidate (19.3%; 95% CI, 14.7%-24.7%). The most common neuromuscular blocking agents were rocuronium (62.9%; 95% CI, 56.7%-68.8%) and succinylcholine (18.9%; 95% CI, 14.3%-24.2%). In the BAMC ED, emergency intubation most commonly occurred for trauma indications using video laryngoscopy with a high first-pass success.

  6. Health-related quality of life among Danish patients 3 and 12 months after TIA or mild stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muus, Ingrid; Petzold, Max; Ringsberg, Karin C

    2010-01-01

    This paper aimed to describe health related quality of life three and 12 months after mild stroke or transient ischemic attack, TIA, to describe the perceived changes from pre to post stroke status and to examine sociodemographic determinants for health related quality of life.......This paper aimed to describe health related quality of life three and 12 months after mild stroke or transient ischemic attack, TIA, to describe the perceived changes from pre to post stroke status and to examine sociodemographic determinants for health related quality of life....

  7. Internet-based prevention for alcohol and cannabis use: final results of the Climate Schools course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Nicola C; Teesson, Maree; Vogl, Laura E; Andrews, Gavin

    2010-04-01

    To establish the long-term efficacy of a universal internet-based alcohol and cannabis prevention programme in schools. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Climate Schools: Alcohol and Cannabis Course. The evidence-based course, aimed at reducing alcohol and cannabis use, is facilitated by the internet and consists of 12 novel and curriculum consistent lessons delivered over 6 months. A total of 764 year 8 students (13 years) from 10 Australian secondary schools were allocated randomly to the internet-based prevention programme (n = 397, five schools), or to their usual health classes (n = 367, five schools). Participants were assessed at baseline, immediately post, and 6 and 12 months following completion of the intervention, on measures of alcohol and cannabis knowledge, attitudes, use and related harms. This paper reports the final results of the intervention trial, 12 months following the completion of the Climate Schools: Alcohol and Cannabis Course. The effectiveness of the course 6 months following the intervention has been reported previously. At the 12-month follow-up, compared to the control group, students in the intervention group showed significant improvements in alcohol and cannabis knowledge, a reduction in average weekly alcohol consumption and a reduction in frequency of drinking to excess. No differences between groups were found on alcohol expectancies, cannabis attitudes or alcohol- and cannabis-related harms. The course was found to be acceptable by teachers and students as a means of delivering drug education in schools. Internet-based prevention programs for school-age children can improve student's knowledge about alcohol and cannabis, and may also reduce alcohol use twelve months after completion.

  8. Effects of a 12-month exercise program on cardiorespiratory health indicators of Vietnam War veterans resident in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Rebecca M; Leicht, Anthony S; Spinks, Warwick L

    2008-06-01

    To measure the effect of a combined aerobic and resistance exercise program on key cardiovascular disease risk factors (i.e. body composition or anthropometry and cardiorespiratory function) of Australian male, Vietnam War veterans living in the tropics. Twelve-month exercise program with assessments at commencement, 3, 6 and 12 months. North Queensland regional centre. Australian male, Vietnam War veterans (n = 164) resident in north Queensland. Measurement of heart rate, blood pressure, skinfold and girth measurements, exercise heart rate response and estimated aerobic capacity to determine whether the implementation of a simple aerobic and resistance exercise program could positively change selected cardiovascular disease risk factors in Vietnam Veterans. Significant improvements were reported for systolic blood pressure (131.1 (SD 15.7) reduced to 122.7 (12.4) mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (82.7 (9.1) reduced to 76.3 (10.3) mmHg), resting heart rate (73 (11) reduced to 69 (11) bpm), sum of skinfolds (127.5 (40.3) reduced to 99.5 (32.1) mm), waist girth (103.2 (12.0) reduced to 100.5 (12.1) cm), hip girth (105.3 (9.6) reduced to 103.7 (10.4) cm) and aerobic capacity (2.17 (0.39) increased to 2.36 (0.34) L min(-1)). Participation in a combined aerobic and resistance training program elicited significant anthropometric and cardiorespiratory benefits that might lead to a decreased risk of developing cardiovascular disease for male Vietnam War veterans resident in rural and regional areas.

  9. Invitations received from potential predatory publishers and fraudulent conferences: a 12-month early-career researcher experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Eric; Tardif, Pier-Alexandre; Moore, Lynne; Le Sage, Natalie; Cameron, Peter A

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to describe all unsolicited electronic invitations received from potential predatory publishers or fraudulent conferences over a 12-month period following the first publication as a corresponding author of a junior academician. Unsolicited invitations received at an institutional email address and perceived to be sent by predatory publishers or fraudulent conferences were collected. A total of 502 invitations were included of which 177 (35.3%) had subject matter relevant to the recipient's research interests and previous work. Two hundred and thirty-seven were invitations to publish a manuscript. Few disclosed the publication fees (32, 13.5%) but they frequently reported accepting all types of manuscripts (167, 70.5%) or emphasised on a deadline to submit (165, 69.6%). Invitations came from 39 publishers (range 1 to 87 invitations per publisher). Two hundred and ten invitations from a potential fraudulent conference were received. These meetings were held in Europe (97, 46.2%), North America (65, 31.0%), Asia (20.4%) or other continents (5, 2.4%) and came from 18 meeting organisation groups (range 1 to 137 invitations per organisation). Becoming an editorial board member (30), the editor-in-chief (1), a guest editor for journal special issue (6) and write a book chapter (11) were some of the roles offered in the other invitations included while no invitation to review a manuscript was received. Young researchers are commonly exposed to predatory publishers and fraudulent conferences following a single publication as a corresponding author. Academic institutions worldwide need to educate and inform young researchers of this emerging problem. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Transcatheter closure of calcified patent ductus arteriosus in older adult patients: Immediate and 12-month follow-up results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xinghua; Zhang, Qiuwang; Sun, Hourong; Fei, Jianchun; Zhang, Xiquan; Kutryk, Michael J

    2017-05-01

    To present our experience in transcatheter closure of calcified patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in older adult patients, which has rarely been reported. From 2009 to 2014, a total of 16 patients (median age 58 years) with calcified PDA underwent transcatheter closure in our center. All patients were symptomatic with major symptoms being exertional dyspnea (in 12), palpitations (in 8), and fatigue (in 5). A continuous murmur was heard in all patients. The median ductus diameter was 4 mm (range 3-7 mm). The median Qp/Qs was 1.6 (range 1.4-2.9). Transcatheter closure was performed for all patients. The size of the occluder selected was 2-3 mm greater than the narrowest portion of PDA. We experienced difficulties in advancing the multipurpose catheter through the calcified duct in about one third of patients (5/16). Considering that calcified tissue has a greater tendency to rupture, hence, to close PDA in these patients, they adopted the retrograde wire-assisted technique and modified the procedure to reduce the shear stress of sheath and avoid any sheath kinking. For the remaining 11 patients, the advancement of the multipurpose catheter through the calcified duct was smooth and the conventional antegrade approach was applied. Clinical examination, standard 12-lead electrocardiography, chest x-ray, and transthoracic echocardiography were performed before hospital discharge, at 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-months follow-ups. All PDAs were successfully closed. There were no deaths. Three patients had a trivial residual shunt, with one also having intravascular hemolysis. Following pharmacological treatment, hemolysis signs vanished at 7 days postprocedure. The trivial residual shunt disappeared in all three patients at 3-month follow-up. No new-onset residual shunt, device embolization, device dislocation, infective endocarditis, or embolism was observed at all follow-up time points. Successful closure of calcified PDA with few complications in older adult patients was achieved

  11. The Relationship Between Maternal Education and Child Health Outcomes in Urban Australian Children in the First 12 Months of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Tamzyn M; Cameron, Cate M; Ng, Shu-Kay; McClure, Rod J

    2015-11-01

    To describe the relationship between maternal education and child health outcomes at 12 months of age in a cohort of children in urban Australia, and to determine whether this relationship could be explained by the intermediate factors of maternal health behaviour and the social environmental context. Data were derived from The Environments for Health Living Griffith Birth Cohort Study. Women attending their third trimester antenatal appointment at one of three public hospitals were recruited between 2006 and 2010 and invited to complete a 48-item, baseline self-administered questionnaire. Twelve months following the birth of their baby, a follow-up questionnaire consisting of 63 items was distributed. Women for whom complete follow-up data were not available were different from women who did complete follow-up data. The children of women with follow-up data-whom at the time of their pregnancy had not completed school or whose highest level of education was secondary school or a trade-had respectively a 59 and 57 % increased chance of having had a respiratory/infectious disease or injury in the first year of life (according to parent proxy-reports), compared to children of women with a tertiary education. When maternal behavioural and social environmental factors during pregnancy were included in the model (n=1914), the effect of secondary education was still evident but with a reduced odds ratio of 1.35 (95 % CI 1.07-1.72) and 1.19 (95 % CI 0.87-1.64), respectively. The effect of not having completed school was no longer significant. Results indicate that the relationship between maternal education and child outcomes may be mediated by maternal social environmental and behavioural factors. Results are likely an underestimation of the effect size, given the under representation in our cohort of participants with maternal characteristics associated with elevated risk of infant morbidity.

  12. Reporting the characteristics of the policy context for population-level alcohol interventions: a proposed 'Transparent Reporting of Alcohol Intervention ContExts' (TRAICE) checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, John; Meier, Petra S; Booth, Andrew; Brennan, Alan

    2014-11-01

    Effectiveness of alcohol policy interventions varies across times and places. The circumstances under which effective polices can be successfully transferred between contexts are typically unexplored with little attention given to developing reporting requirements that would facilitate systematic investigation. Using purposive sampling and expert elicitation methods, we identified context-related factors impacting on the effectiveness of population-level alcohol policies. We then drew on previous characterisations of alcohol policy contexts and methodological-reporting checklists to design a new checklist for reporting contextual information in evaluation studies. Six context factor domains were identified: (i) baseline alcohol consumption, norms and harm rates; (ii) baseline affordability and availability; (iii) social, microeconomic and demographic contexts; (iv) macroeconomic context; (v) market context; and (vi) wider policy, political and media context. The checklist specifies information, typically available in national or international reports, to be reported in each domain. The checklist can facilitate evidence synthesis by providing: (i) a mechanism for systematic and more consistent reporting of contextual data for meta-regression and realist evaluations; (ii) information for policy-makers on differences between their context and contexts of evaluations; and (iii) an evidence base for adjusting prospective policy simulation models to account for policy context. Our proposed checklist provides a tool for gaining better understanding of the influence of policy context on intervention effectiveness. Further work is required to rationalise and aggregate checklists across interventions types to make such checklists practical for use by journals and to improve reporting of important qualitative contextual data. © 2014 The Authors. Drug and Alcohol Review published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and

  13. Struggling for Independence: A Grounded Theory Study on Convalescence of ICU-survivors 12 Months Post ICU Discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ågård, Anne Sophie; Egerod, Ingrid; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore and explain the challenges, concerns and coping modalities in ICU-survivors living with a partner or spouse during the first 12 months post ICU discharge. Design: Qualitative, longitudinal grounded theory study. Settings: Five ICUs in Denmark, four general, one neurosurgical...

  14. Disruptions in brain networks of older fallers are associated with subsequent cognitive decline: a 12-month prospective exploratory study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Liang Hsu

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment and impaired mobility are major public health concerns. There is growing recognition that impaired mobility is an early biomarker of cognitive impairment and dementia. The neural basis for this association is currently unclear. We propose disrupted functional connectivity as a potential mechanism. In this 12-month prospective exploratory study, we compared functional connectivity of four brain networks- the default mode network (DMN, fronto-executive network (FEN, fronto-parietal network (FPN, and the primary motor sensory network (SMN--between community-dwelling older adults with ≥ two falls in the last 12 months and their non-falling counterparts (≤ one fall in the last 12 months. Functional connectivity was examined both at rest and during a simple motor tapping task. Compared with non-fallers, fallers showed more connectivity between the DMN and FPN during right finger tapping (p  = 0.04, and significantly less functional connectivity between the SMN and FPN during rest (p ≤ 0.05. Less connectivity between the SMN and FPN during rest was significantly associated with greater decline in both cognitive function and mobility over the12-month period (r =  -0.32 and 0.33 respectively; p ≤ 0.04. Thus, a recent history of multiple falls among older adults without a diagnosis of dementia may indicate sub-clinical changes in brain function and increased risk for subsequent decline.

  15. Correlation of serum KL-6 and CC16 levels with neurodevelopmental outcome in premature infants at 12 months corrected age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqun; Lu, Hui; Zhu, Yunxia; Xiang, Junhua; Huang, Xianmei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate KL-6 and CC16 levels and their correlation with neurodevelopmental outcome among very low birth weight pre-term infants at 12 months corrected age. This prospective cohort study was performed from 2011 to 2013 by enrolling pre-term neonates of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks and birth weight ≤ 1500 g. Serum KL-6 and CC16 levels were determined 7 days after birth and their correlation with neurodevelopment was evaluated using Gesell Mental Developmental Scales. Of the 86 eligible pre-term infants, 63 completed follow-up, of which 15 had bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At 12 months corrected age, 49 infants had favorable outcomes and 14 infants had poor neurodevelopmental outcome. KL-6 levels were higher and CC16 levels were lower in infants with poor neurodevelopmental outcome compared with those infants who had favourable neurodevelopmental outcome. Serum KL-6 levels less than 90.0 ng/ml and CC16 levels greater than 320.0 pg/ml at 7 days of life were found to be predictive of a favourable outcome at 12 months corrected age. These biological markers could predict neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 months corrected age in very low birth weight premature infants, and help the clinician plan early therapeutic interventions to minimize or avoid poor neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:25631862

  16. Predictors of 12-Month Outcome in Bulimia Nervosa and the Influence of Attitudes to Shape and Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairburn, Christopher G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Patients with bulimia nervosa were treated with either cognitive behavioral, behavioral, or a form of interpersonal psychotherapy for 19 sessions in an 18-week period. Assessments were made at pretreatment; posttreatment; and 4-, 8-, and 12-month follow-up. The nature of the relationship between attitudinal disturbance and outcome was complex and…

  17. A 12-month study of the hikikomori syndrome of social withdrawal: Clinical characterization and different subtypes proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagón-Amor, Ángeles; Martín-López, Luis Miguel; Córcoles, David; González, Anna; Bellsolà, Magda; Teo, Alan R; Pérez, Víctor; Bulbena, Antoni; Bergé, Daniel

    2018-03-23

    Social withdrawal is a new mental health problem increasingly common, present in different cultures, whose psychopathology and treatment is not yet established. This study aims to determine the socio-demographic and clinical features and possible clinical subtypes that predict the 12-month outcomes of cases with hikikomori syndrome, a severe form of social withdrawal. Socio-demographic and clinical data at baseline were analysed as well as data obtained for 12 months after at-home treatment in 190 cases. The inclusion criteria were: spending all time at home, avoiding social situations and relationships, significant deterioration due to social isolation, with a minimum duration of 6 months. Six major diagnostic groups were identified: affective, anxiety, psychotic, drug use, personality and other Axis I disorders. The anxiety-affective subgroup demonstrated lower clinical severity, but worse evolution. Less than half of the cases were available for medical follow-up at 12-months. Subjects undergoing intensive treatment had a higher medical follow-up rate and better social networks at 12-months. Therefore, our findings provide data to reach consensus on the specific characteristics of social isolation hikikomori syndrome. The analysis demonstrated the fragility and tendency to relapse and have disengagement, particularly relevant in the anxiety-affective subgroup, suggesting that intensive treatments are more effective. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 76 FR 62503 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Black...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... was later judged, by size and shape, to be that of a Laysan and not a black- footed albatross (Rice... List the Black-footed Albatross as Endangered or Threatened; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol...] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Black-footed...

  19. Elevate Anterior/Apical: 12-Month Data Showing Safety and Efficacy in Surgical Treatment of Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanford, Edward J.; Moore, Robert D.; Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.; Courtieu, Christophe; Lukban, James C.; Bataller, Eduardo; Liedl, Bernhard; Sutherland, Suzette E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of the Elevate Anterior/Apical transvaginal mesh procedure in pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repair at 12-months follow-up. Methods: This prospective, multicenter, multinational study enrolled 142 patients experiencing anterior vaginal

  20. Prevalence, incidence and course of lower extremity injuries in runners during a 12-month follow-up period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppel van, D.; Scholten-Peeters, G G M; van Middelkoop, M.; Verhagen, Arianne P

    2014-01-01

    To describe the incidence, 12-month prevalence, and course of lower extremity injuries that occurred during and after the Amgen Singelloop Breda in 2009. The design was based on a prospective cohort study with a population-based setting. In total, 3605 registered runners received a web-based

  1. Patterns of mother-infant interaction from 3 to 12 months among dyads with substance abuse and psychiatric problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqveland, Torill S; Haabrekke, Kristin; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Moe, Vibeke

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of mother-infant interaction patterns from 3 to 12 months among three groups of mother-baby pairs recruited during pregnancy: one group from residential substance abuse treatment (n=28), a second group from psychiatric outpatient treatment (n=22), and a third group from well-baby clinics (n=30). The mother-infant interaction at 3 and 12 months was assessed by the Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment (PCERA), which consists of maternal, child and dyadic subscales (Clark, 2006). Linear mixed effects models were used to analyze group differences and the changes in mother-infant interaction from 3 to 12 months. At 3 months, pairwise comparisons showed that the group with psychiatric problems had significantly more difficulties in the mother-infant interaction than the two other groups. The group with substance abuse problems was not significantly different from the two other groups. At 12 months, the mother-infant pairs in the substance abuse group showed significantly more relational disturbances than the non-clinical pairs, as well as a poorer affective quality of interaction than the dyads in the group with psychiatric problems. Analysis of change from 3 to 12 months showed that difficulties in the interaction increased among the mother-baby pairs in the substance abuse group, while improvements were displayed in the two other groups. These results underline that mother-infant pairs at double risk due to maternal substance abuse and other non-optimal factors, are in need for long-term follow up in order to prevent the development of negative interactional patterns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The steroids for corneal ulcers trial (SCUT): secondary 12-month clinical outcomes of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Muthiah; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Rajaraman, Revathi; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Lalitha, Prajna; O'Brien, Kieran S; Glidden, David V; Ray, Kathryn J; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Zegans, Michael E; Whitcher, John P; McLeod, Stephen D; Porco, Travis C; Lietman, Thomas M; Acharya, Nisha R

    2014-02-01

    To determine whether topical corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy for bacterial keratitis improves long-term clinical outcomes. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked clinical trial. This multicenter trial compared 1.0% prednisolone sodium phosphate to placebo in the treatment of bacterial keratitis among 500 patients with culture-positive ulcers receiving 48 hours of moxifloxacin before randomization. The primary endpoint was 3 months from enrollment, and 399 patients were evaluated at 12 months. The outcomes examined were best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) and scar size at 12 months. Based on previous results, regression models with adjustments for baseline status and/or causative organism were used for analysis. No significant differences in clinical outcomes by treatment group were seen with the prespecified regression models (BSCVA: -0.04 logMAR, 95% CI, -0.12 to 0.05, P = .39; scar size: 0.03 mm, 95% CI, -0.12 to 0.18, P = .69). A regression model including a Nocardia-treatment arm interaction found corticosteroid use associated with a mean 1-line improvement in BSCVA at 12 months among patients with non-Nocardia ulcers (-0.10 logMAR, 95% CI, -0.19 to -0.02, P = .02). No significant difference was observed in 12-month BSCVA for Nocardia ulcers (0.18 logMAR, 95% CI, -0.04 to 0.41, P = .16). Corticosteroids were associated with larger mean scar size at 12 months among Nocardia ulcers (0.47 mm, 95% CI, 0.06-0.88, P = .02) and no significant difference was identified by treatment for scar size for non-Nocardia ulcers (-0.06 mm, 95% CI, -0.21 to 0.10, P = .46). Adjunctive topical corticosteroid therapy may be associated with improved long-term clinical outcomes in bacterial corneal ulcers not caused by Nocardia species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Zinc-deficiency acrodermatitis in a patient with chronic alcoholism and gastric bypass: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Shahsavari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Acquired adult-onset zinc deficiency is occasionally reported in patients with malnutrition states, such as alcoholism, or malabsorptive states, such as post-bariatric surgery. The defining symptoms of hypozincemia include a classic triad of necrolytic dermatitis, diffuse alopecia, and diarrhea. We report a case of zinc deficiency in a 39-year-old man with history of gastric bypass surgery and alcoholism. For this patient, severe hypozincemia confirmed acrodermatitis, and zinc supplementation was met with gradual improvement.

  4. Social Desirability Bias in the Reporting of Alcohol Consumption: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Wilson, Amanda; Attia, John; Sheeran, Paschal; Miller, Peter; McCambridge, Jim

    2016-05-01

    To investigate reporting of alcohol consumption, we manipulated the contexts of questions in ways designed to induce social desirability bias. We undertook a two-arm, parallel-group, individually randomized trial at an Australian public university. Students were recruited by email to a web-based "Research Project on Student Health Behavior." Respondents answered nine questions about their physical activity, diet, and smoking. They were unknowingly randomized to a group presented with either (A) three questions about their alcohol consumption or (B) seven questions about their alcohol dependence and problems (under a prominent header labeled "Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test"), followed by the same three alcohol consumption questions from (A). A total of 3,594 students (mean age = 27, SD = 10) responded and were randomized: 1,778 to Group A and 1,816 to Group B. Outcome measures were the number of days they drank alcohol, the typical number of drinks they consumed per drinking day, and the number of days they consumed six or more drinks. The primary analysis included participants with any alcohol consumption in the preceding 4 weeks (1,304 in Group A; 1,340 in Group B) using between-group, two-tailed t tests. In Groups A and B, respectively, means (and SDs) of the number of days drinking were 5.89 (5.92) versus 6.06 (6.12), p = .49; typical number of drinks per drinking day: 4.02 (3.87) versus 3.82 (3.76), p = .17; and number of days consuming six or more drinks: 1.69 (2.94) versus 1.67 (3.25), p = .56. We could not reject the null hypothesis because earlier questions about alcohol dependence and problems showed no sign of biasing the respondents' subsequent reports of alcohol consumption. These data support the validity of university students' reporting of alcohol consumption in web-based studies.

  5. 12-month blood pressure results of catheter-based renal artery denervation for resistant hypertension: the SYMPLICITY HTN-3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakris, George L; Townsend, Raymond R; Flack, John M; Brar, Sandeep; Cohen, Sidney A; D'Agostino, Ralph; Kandzari, David E; Katzen, Barry T; Leon, Martin B; Mauri, Laura; Negoita, Manuela; O'Neill, William W; Oparil, Suzanne; Rocha-Singh, Krishna; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2015-04-07

    Results of the SYMPLICITY HTN-3 (Renal Denervation in Patients With Uncontrolled Hypertension) trial confirmed the safety but not the efficacy of renal denervation for treatment-resistant hypertension at 6 months post procedure. This study sought to analyze the 12-month SYMPLICITY HTN-3 results for the original denervation group, the sham subjects who underwent denervation after the 6-month endpoint (crossover group), and the sham subjects who did not undergo denervation after 6 months (non-crossover group). Eligible subjects were randomized 2:1 to denervation or sham procedure. Subjects were unblinded to their treatment group after the 6-month primary endpoint was ascertained; subjects in the sham group meeting eligibility requirements could undergo denervation. Change in blood pressure (BP) at 12 months post randomization (6 months for crossover subjects) was analyzed. The 12-month follow-up was available for 319 of 361 denervation subjects and 48 of 101 non-crossover subjects; 6-month denervation follow-up was available for 93 of 101 crossover subjects. In denervation subjects, the 12-month office systolic BP (SBP) change was greater than that observed at 6 months (-15.5 ± 24.1 mm Hg vs. -18.9 ± 25.4 mm Hg, respectively; p = 0.025), but the 24-h SBP change was not significantly different at 12 months (p = 0.229). The non-crossover group office SBP decreased by -32.9 ± 28.1 mm Hg at 6 months, but this response regressed to -21.4 ± 19.9 mm Hg (p = 0.01) at 12 months, increasing to 11.5 ± 29.8 mm Hg. These data support no further reduction in office or ambulatory BP after 1-year follow-up. Loss of BP reduction in the non-crossover group may reflect decreased medication adherence or other related factors. (Renal Denervation in Patients With Uncontrolled Hypertension [SYMPLICITY HTN-3]; NCT01418261). Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical Outcome Following Radiofrequency Denervation for Refractory Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction Using the Simplicity III Probe: A 12-Month Retrospective Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Sacroiliac joint syndrome (SIJ) is diagnosed in 10% to 25% of cases of lower back pain. The response to traditional radiofrequency (RF) denervation of the SIJ has being inconsistent. The Simplicity III RF probe (Neruotherm. Inc.) offers a novel treatment option. To evaluate the long-term clinical outcome (12 months) refractory SIJ syndrome in terms of pain intensity and functional improvement. A 50% reduction in intensity pain intensity (VAS) at 12 months was deemed clinically significant. A 12-month retrospective observational evaluation all of adults treated with RF for refractory SIJ. Chronic pain management center. The medical records of all adults treated with this technique was retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was pain intensity scores (VAS) over a 12 months period; Secondary outcomes included Roland-Morris Functional scores (RMF), Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), general health assessment (Sf12), and patient satisfaction scores (GPI), which were recorded pre and post denervation. Pain Intensity improved by 4.7 points compared to pre-treatment representing a 61% reduction in pain at 12 months (n=11, P < 0.001). Significant improvements in (a) RMF (P < 0.01, W2 = 0.63 (large effect size); (b) BPI (P < 0.001, W2 = 0.72 (strong effect size); and (c) Sf12 (P < 0.01) were noted. Overall patients were satisfied with the outcome (GPI = 77.7%). The retrospective in nature of the study and the small sample size are limitations. As it was our policy to monitor the progress of the individuals since the introduction of this technique a reliable method of recording the baseline and outcome variables at each point of contact was in place. Access to a complete set of variables in all individuals over a 12-month period was therefore possible, which we feel contributes to the quality of the dataset. By creating a consistent radiofrequency lesion between the sacral foramen and the SIJ will reliably capture the innervation to the SIJ with significant long-term clinical

  7. Self-perceived ability to cope with stress without smoking predicts successful smoking cessation 12 months later in a quitline setting: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Nohlert

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Telephone-based smoking cessation services ('quitlines' are both effective and cost-effective. Knowledge of modifiable baseline factors in real-life settings with heterogeneous participants is essential for the development and improvement of treatment protocols to assist in telephone-based smoking cessation. The aim was to assess self-efficacy as a predictor for abstinence at the 12-month follow-up at the Swedish National Tobacco Quitline (SNTQ. Methods The data were collected from a randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of proactive and reactive service at the SNTQ. Included were 612 clients calling the SNTQ between February 2009 and September 2010. Outcome measures were self-reported point prevalence and 6-month continuous abstinence at the 12-month follow-up. Plausible predictors of smoking cessation were assessed at the first call and in a baseline questionnaire. Self-efficacy was measured by three questions: (1 the likelihood of being smoking free in 1 year; (2 the ability to handle stress and depressive mood without smoking; and (3 the likelihood of using medication against craving if necessary. The associations between predictors and outcome were subjected to logistic regression analysis. Results Of the three self-efficacy predictors for abstinence at month 12, only the perceived ability to handle stress and depressive mood without smoking remained significant in the adjusted analyses (odds ratio, OR, 1.1 for point prevalence and 1.2 for 6-month continuous abstinence. The overall strongest predictor in the adjusted analyses was smoking status in the week before baseline (OR 2.7 for point prevalence and 3.1 for 6-month continuous abstinence. Conclusions The perceived ability to handle stress and depressive mood without smoking at baseline predicted the subjects' abstinence at the 12-month follow-up. An assessment of/adjustment for stress and depressive mood may be appropriate in future smoking cessation

  8. Alcohol and Mortality: Combining Self-Reported (AUDIT-C) and Biomarker Detected (PEth) Alcohol Measures Among HIV Infected and Uninfected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyawo, Oghenowede; McGinnis, Kathleen A; Justice, Amy C; Fiellin, David A; Hahn, Judith A; Williams, Emily C; Gordon, Adam J; Marshall, Brandon D L; Kraemer, Kevin L; Crystal, Stephen; Gaither, Julie R; Edelman, E Jennifer; Bryant, Kendall J; Tate, Janet P

    2018-02-01

    Unhealthy alcohol use may be particularly detrimental among individuals living with HIV and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV), and is often under-reported. Direct biomarkers of alcohol exposure may facilitate improved detection of alcohol use. We evaluated the association of alcohol exposure determined by both self-report [Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C)] and a direct biomarker [phosphatidylethanol (PEth)], with mortality among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study-Biomarker Cohort. We considered PEth AUDIT-C scores [0, 1-3/1-2 (men/women), 4-7/3-7 (men/women), 8-12] and PEth (AUDIT-C = 0 (abstinence). Of these, 15% (149/1015) had PEth ≥8 suggesting recent alcohol exposure. Among those with AUDIT-C = 0, HCV+ individuals were more likely to have PEth ≥8. After controlling for age, sex, race, HIV, HCV, and HIV viral suppression, those with AUDIT-C = 0 but PEth ≥8 had the highest risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 2.15, 95% confidence interval: 1.40 to 3.29). PEth in addition to self-report may improve detection of alcohol use in clinical settings, particularly among those at increased risk of harm from alcohol use. Individuals infected with HCV were more likely to under-report alcohol use.

  9. Unusual Infections Complicating the Use of Steroids with Severe Alcoholic Hepatitis: Report of 2 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Arantes

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroid therapy for acute alcoholic hepatitis has been demonstrated to enhance survival in patients who are encephalopathic, and who do not have renal failure or gastrointestinal bleeding. However, the complications of steroid therapy in such patients have been less well documented. The authors report two patients with alcoholic liver disease who developed life-threatening infections after steroid therapy was started. The first patient initially developed diabetes followed by Fournier's gangrene of the perineum, and a lung abscess following septic emboli. The second patient had established alcoholic cirrhosis rather than alcoholic hepatitis. She developed a necrotic ulcer on the arm at the site of an intravenous line, which was infected with a rhizopus species. Despite surgical debridement the lesion progressed and contributed to her death. Treatment of alcoholic hepatitis with steroids is not innocuous, and physicians should be aware of the potential for life-threatening complications.

  10. Treatment outcomes after initiation of exenatide twice daily or insulin in clinical practice: 12-month results from CHOICE in six European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostenson CG

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Claes-Göran Östenson,1 Stephan Matthaei,2 Matthew Reaney,3 Thure Krarup,4 Bruno Guerci,5 Jacek Kiljanski,6 Carole Salaun-Martin,7 Hélène Sapin,7 David Bruhn,8 Chantal Mathieu,9 Michael Theodorakis10 1Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Diabetes-Center Quakenbrück, Quakenbrück, Germany; 3Eli Lilly, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 4Department of Endocrinology I, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 5Diabetology, Metabolic Diseases and Nutrition, Brabois Hospital, CHU Nancy, and INSERM CIC, ILCV, Vandoeuvre Lès Nancy, France; 6Eli Lilly, Warsaw, Poland; 7Eli Lilly, Neuilly Cedex, France; 8Eli Lilly, San Diego, California, USA; 9Department of Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium; 10Department of Clinical Therapeutics, University of Athens School of Medicine, Athens, Greece* *Michael Theodorakis was affiliated with the institution shown at the time of the study, but has since left this institution Objective: The CHanges to treatment and Outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes initiating InjeCtablE therapy (CHOICE study assessed time to, and reasons for, significant treatment change after patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM initiated their first injectable glucose-lowering therapy (exenatide twice daily [BID] or insulin in routine clinical practice, and these patients’ clinical outcomes, in six European countries. This paper reports interim data from the first 12 months of the study. Research design and methods: CHOICE (NCT00635492 is a prospective, noninterventional, observational study. Clinical data were collected at initiation of first injectable therapy and after approximately 3, 6, and 12 months. Results: Of 2497 patients enrolled in CHOICE, 1096 in the exenatide BID and 1239 in the insulin cohorts had ≥1 post-baseline assessment and were included in this analysis. Overall, 32.2% of the exenatide BID cohort and 29.1% of the insulin cohort (Kaplan–Meier estimates had

  11. Providing reviews of evidence to COPD patients: controlled prospective 12-month trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M; Smith, B J; Veale, A J; Esterman, A; Frith, P A; Selim, P

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel patient-held manual designed to reduce the evidence-practice gap in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The intervention manual contained summaries of research evidence. It was developed using current best practice for patient information materials and designed to cause discussion of evidence between patient and doctor. A controlled before-and-after study was employed in two similar but geographically separate regions of metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia. Participants had moderate to severe COPD, with 249 included at baseline and 201 completing the study. Evidence-based COPD management was measured using an indicator with three components: rates of influenza vaccination, bone density testing, and pulmonary rehabilitation. A survey of behavioral steps leading to practice change was conducted with the trial. Analysis, by median split of socioeconomic disadvantage, showed significant difference between study arms for only one component of the indicator of evidence-based practice, enrollment in pulmonary rehabilitation and only for the most socioeconomically disadvantaged stratum. For both socioeconomic strata, more intervention participants than control participants reported remembering being given the information material, reading part or all, and finding it very or quite helpful. Other significant differences were restricted to the stratum of greatest socioeconomic disadvantage: reading all of the material, learning from it, referring back, and talking to a doctor about a topic from the material. Above 90% of all participants who received the manual reported reading from it, 42% reported discussing topics with a doctor, but only 10% reported treatment change attributable to the manual. We have found that people with COPD will read an evidence manual developed using current best practice. However, the study demonstrated improvement for only one of the three components of an indicator of evidence

  12. From early stress to 12-month development in very preterm infants: Preliminary findings on epigenetic mechanisms and brain growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Monica; Provenzi, Livio; De Carli, Pietro; Dessimone, Francesca; Sirgiovanni, Ida; Giorda, Roberto; Cinnante, Claudia; Squarcina, Letizia; Pozzoli, Uberto; Triulzi, Fabio; Brambilla, Paolo; Borgatti, Renato; Mosca, Fabio; Montirosso, Rosario

    2018-01-01

    Very preterm (VPT) infants admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) are at risk for altered brain growth and less-than-optimal socio-emotional development. Recent research suggests that early NICU-related stress contributes to socio-emotional impairments in VPT infants at 3 months through epigenetic regulation (i.e., DNA methylation) of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4). In the present longitudinal study we assessed: (a) the effects of NICU-related stress and SLC6A4 methylation variations from birth to discharge on brain development at term equivalent age (TEA); (b) the association between brain volume at TEA and socio-emotional development (i.e., Personal-Social scale of Griffith Mental Development Scales, GMDS) at 12 months corrected age (CA). Twenty-four infants had complete data at 12-month-age. SLC6A4 methylation was measured at a specific CpG previously associated with NICU-related stress and socio-emotional stress. Findings confirmed that higher NICU-related stress associated with greater increase of SLC6A4 methylation at NICU discharge. Moreover, higher SLC6A4 discharge methylation was associated with reduced anterior temporal lobe (ATL) volume at TEA, which in turn was significantly associated with less-than-optimal GMDS Personal-Social scale score at 12 months CA. The reduced ATL volume at TEA mediated the pathway linking stress-related increase in SLC6A4 methylation at NICU discharge and socio-emotional development at 12 months CA. These findings suggest that early adversity-related epigenetic changes might contribute to the long-lasting programming of socio-emotional development in VPT infants through epigenetic regulation and structural modifications of the developing brain.

  13. Reasons for cannabis use in first-episode psychosis: does strength of endorsement change over 12 months?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolliakou, A; Castle, D; Sallis, H; Joseph, C; O'Connor, J; Wiffen, B; Gayer-Anderson, C; McQueen, G; Taylor, H; Bonaccorso, S; Gaughran, F; Smith, S; Greenwood, K; Murray, R M; Di Forti, M; Atakan, Z; Ismail, K

    2015-01-01

    Why patients with psychosis use cannabis remains debated. The self-medication hypothesis has received some support but other evidence points towards an alleviation of dysphoria model. This study investigated the reasons for cannabis use in first-episode psychosis (FEP) and whether strength in their endorsement changed over time. FEP inpatients and outpatients at the South London and Maudsley, Oxleas and Sussex NHS Trusts UK, who used cannabis, rated their motives at baseline (n=69), 3 months (n=29) and 12 months (n=36). A random intercept model was used to test the change in strength of endorsement over the 12 months. Paired-sample t-tests assessed the differences in mean scores between the five subscales on the Reasons for Use Scale (enhancement, social motive, coping with unpleasant affect, conformity and acceptance and relief of positive symptoms and side effects), at each time-point. Time had a significant effect on scores when controlling for reason; average scores on each subscale were higher at baseline than at 3 months and 12 months. At each time-point, patients endorsed 'enhancement' followed by 'coping with unpleasant affect' and 'social motive' more highly for their cannabis use than any other reason. 'Conformity and acceptance' followed closely. 'Relief of positive symptoms and side effects' was the least endorsed motive. Patients endorsed their reasons for use at 3 months and 12 months less strongly than at baseline. Little support for the self-medication or alleviation of dysphoria models was found. Rather, patients rated 'enhancement' most highly for their cannabis use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. A Systematic Review to Define the Speech and Language Benefit of Early (<12 Months) Pediatric Cochlear Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijnzeel, Hanneke; Ziylan, Fuat; Stegeman, Inge; Topsakal, Vedat; Grolman, Wilko

    2016-01-01

    This review aimed to evaluate the additional benefit of pediatric cochlear implantation before 12 months of age considering improved speech and language development and auditory performance. We conducted a search in PubMed, EMBASE and CINAHL databases and included studies comparing groups with different ages at implantation and assessing speech perception and speech production, receptive language and/or auditory performance. We included studies with a high directness of evidence (DoE). We retrieved 3,360 articles. Ten studies with a high DoE were included. Four articles with medium DoE were discussed in addition. Six studies compared infants implanted before 12 months with children implanted between 12 and 24 months. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 9 years. Cochlear implantation before the age of 2 years is beneficial according to one speech perception score (phonetically balanced kindergarten combined with consonant-nucleus-consonant) but not on Glendonald auditory screening procedure scores. Implantation before 12 months resulted in better speech production (diagnostic evaluation of articulation and phonology and infant-toddler meaningful auditory integration scale), auditory performance (Categories of Auditory Performance-II score) and receptive language scores (2 out of 5; Preschool Language Scale combined with oral and written language skills and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test). The current best evidence lacks level 1 evidence studies and consists mainly of cohort studies with a moderate to high risk of bias. Included studies showed consistent evidence that cochlear implantation should be performed early in life, but evidence is inconsistent on all speech and language outcome measures regarding the additional benefit of implantation before the age of 12 months. Long-term follow-up studies are necessary to provide insight on additional benefits of early pediatric cochlear implantation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. The impact of maternal post-partum depression on the language development of children at 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, L A; Silva, R A; Godoy, R; Jansen, K; Matos, M B; Tavares Pinheiro, K A; Pinheiro, R T

    2012-05-01

    Language is one of the most important acquisitions made during childhood. Before verbal language, a child develops a range of skills and behaviours that allow the child to acquire all communication skills. Factors such as environmental factors, socio-economic status and interaction with parents can affect the acquisition of vocabulary in children. Post-partum depression can negatively affect the first interactions with the child and, consequently, the emotional, social and cognitive development of the child. To analyse the effect of the duration of the mother's depression on the language development of children at 12 months old. This was a longitudinal study. The participants of this study were mothers who had received prenatal care from the Brazilian National System of Public Health in Pelotas city, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The mothers were interviewed at two different time points: from 30 to 90 days after delivery and at 12 months after delivery; the children were also evaluated at this later time point. To diagnose maternal depression, we used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and to assess child development, we used the language scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III. We followed 296 dyads. Maternal depression at both time points (post partum and at 12 months) was significantly associated with the language development of infants at 12 months of age. This impact was accentuated when related to the duration of the disorder. Older women and women with more than two children were more likely to have children with poorer language development, while women who were the primary caregiver had children with higher scores on the language test. The findings indicate that maternal age, parity, primary caregiver status and duration of post-partum depression are associated with the language development of the child. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy Plus Contingency Management for Cocaine Use: Findings During Treatment and Across 12-Month Follow-Up

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, David H; Hawkins, Wesley E; Covi, Lino; Umbricht, Annie; Preston, Kenzie L

    2003-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) rapidly reduces cocaine use, but its effects subside after treatment. Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) produces reductions months after treatment. Combined, the 2 might be complementary. One hundred ninety-three cocaine-using methadone-maintained outpatients were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of group therapy (CBT or a control condition) and voucher availability (CM contingent on cocaine-negative urine or noncontingent). Follow-ups occurred 3, 6, and 12 months po...

  17. Employment 12 months after kidney transplantation: An in-depth bio-psycho-social analysis of the Swiss Transplant Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitta Danuser

    Full Text Available Return to work with or after a chronic disease is a dynamic process influenced by a variety of interactions between personal, work, societal and medical resources or constraints. The aim of this study was to identify predictors for employment 12 months after transplantation in kidney patients, applying a bio-psycho-social model.All kidney patients followed in the Swiss Transplant Cohort between May 2008 and December 2012, aged 18 to 65 were assessed before, 6 and 12 months after transplantation.Of the 689 included patients, 56.2% worked 12 months post- transplantation compared to 58.9% pre-transplantation. Age, education, self-perceived health (6 months post- transplantation, pre- transplantation employment and receiving an organ from a living donor are significant predictors of employment post- transplantation. Moreover, while self-perceived health increased post- transplantation, depression score decreased only among those employed 12 months post- transplantation. Pre- transplantation employment status was the main predictor for post- transplantation employment (OR = 18.6 and was associated with sex, age, education, depression and duration of dialysis. An organ from a living donor (42.1% was more frequent in younger patients, with higher education, no diabetes and shorter waiting time to surgery.Transplantation did not increase employment in end-stage kidney disease patients but helped maintaining employment. Pre-transplantation employment has been confirmed to be the most important predictor of post-transplantation employment. Furthermore, socio-demographic and individual factors predicted directly and indirectly the post-transplantation employment status. With living donor, an additional predictor linked to social factors and the medical procedure has been identified.

  18. Percutaneous Stabilization System Osseofix® for Treatment of Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures - Clinical and Radiological Results after 12 Months.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Albrecht Ender

    Full Text Available A prospective consecutive cohort study (follow-up study.Our study investigated whether implantation of an expandable titanium mesh cage (Osseofix® is a successful and safe minimally invasive therapy for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCF. Our experiences, clinical and radiological findings after 12 months follow-up are presented. Kypho- and vertebroplasty are well-established minimally invasive procedures for the treatment of osteoporotic VCF. The main complications associated with both procedures are uncontrolled bone cement leakage. Therefore a suitable alternative has been investigated.During June 2010 to May 2011 24 patients were included with 32 osteoporotic VCF (T6 to L4. All of them were stabilized with the Osseofix® system. Preinterventionally we performed X-ray, MRI, and bone density measurements (DXA. Clinical and radiological results were evaluated preop., postop. and after 12 months postop. based on the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, X-ray (Beck Index, Cobb-angle and CT.There was a significant improvement in the mean ODI (70,6% to 30,1% as well as a significant reduction in pain intensity (VAS (7,7 to 1,4 after 12 month. The mean kyphotic angle according to Cobb showed significant improvements (11,7° to 10,4° after 12 months. Postinterventional imaging showed only one case of loss of height in a stabilized vertebral body (3.1%. We saw no changes in posterior vertebral wall or adjacent fractures. Except for one pronounced postoperative hematoma we saw no surgical complications including no cement leakage.Stabilization of symptomatic osteoporotic VCF with Osseofix® system is a safe and effective procedure, even in fractures with posterior wall involvement. The clinical mid-term results are good at a very low complication rate. The Osseofix® system is an interesting alternative to the established procedures of cement augmentation.

  19. A review of existing studies reporting the negative effects of alcohol access and positive effects of alcohol control policies on interpersonal violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Laura Fitterer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption often leads to elevated rates of violence yet alcohol access policies continue to relax across the globe. Our review establishes the extent alcohol policy can moderate violent crime through alcohol availability restrictions. Results were informed from comprehensive selection of peer-reviewed journals from 1950 to October 2015. Our search identified 88 relevant studies on alcohol access and violence conducted across 12 countries. Seventeen studies included quasi-control design, and 23 conducted intervention analysis. Seventy-two (82% reported a significant relationship between alcohol access and violent offences. Alcohol outlet studies reported the greatest percentage of significant results (93%, with trading hours (63%, and alcohol price following (58%. Results from baseline studies indicated the effectiveness of increasing the price of commonly consumed alcohol, restricting the hours of alcohol trading, and limiting the number of alcohol outlets per region to prevent violent offences. Unclear are the effects of tax reductions, restriction of on-premises re-entry, and different outlet types on violent crime. Further, the generalization of statistics over broad areas and the low number of control/intervention studies poses some concern for confounding or correlated effects on study results, and amount of information for local level prevention of interpersonal violence. Future studies should focus on gathering longitudinal data, validating models, limiting crime data to peak drinking days and times, and wherever possible collecting the joint distribution between violent crime, intoxication, and place. A greater up take of local level analysis will benefit studies comparing the influence of multiple alcohol establishment types by relating the location of a crime to establishment proximity. Despite, some uncertainties particular studies showed that even modest policy changes such as 1% increases in alcohol price, one hour changes

  20. Pivotal ERIVANCE basal cell carcinoma (BCC) study: 12-month update of efficacy and safety of vismodegib in advanced BCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Aleksandar; Migden, Michael R; Lewis, Karl; Hainsworth, John D; Solomon, James A; Yoo, Simon; Arron, Sarah T; Friedlander, Philip A; Marmur, Ellen; Rudin, Charles M; Chang, Anne Lynn S; Dirix, Luc; Hou, Jeannie; Yue, Huibin; Hauschild, Axel

    2015-06-01

    Primary analysis from the pivotal ERIVANCE BCC study resulted in approval of vismodegib, a Hedgehog pathway inhibitor indicated for treatment of adults with metastatic or locally advanced basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that has recurred after surgery or for patients who are not candidates for surgery or radiation. An efficacy and safety analysis was conducted 12 months after primary analysis. This was a multinational, multicenter, nonrandomized, 2-cohort study in patients with measurable and histologically confirmed locally advanced or metastatic BCC taking oral vismodegib (150 mg/d). Primary outcome measure was objective response rate (complete and partial responses) assessed by independent review facility. After 12 months of additional follow-up, median duration of exposure to vismodegib was 12.9 months. Objective response rate increased from 30.3% to 33.3% in patients with metastatic disease, and from 42.9% to 47.6% in patients with the locally advanced form. Median duration of response in patients with locally advanced BCC increased from 7.6 to 9.5 months. No new safety signals emerged with extended treatment duration. Limitations include low prevalence of advanced BCC and challenges of designing a study with heterogenous manifestations. The 12-month update of the study confirms the efficacy and safety of vismodegib in management of advanced BCC. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of 12 months continuous positive airway pressure on sympathetic activity related brainstem function and structure in obstructive sleep apnea.

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    Luke Anthony Henderson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA is greatly elevated in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA during normoxic daytime wakefulness. Increased MSNA is a precursor to hypertension and elevated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanisms underlying the high MSNA in OSA are not well understood. In this study we used concurrent microneurography and magnetic resonance imaging to explore MSNA-related brainstem activity changes and anatomical changes in 15 control and 15 subjects with OSA prior to and following 6 and 12 months of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP treatment. We found that 6 and 12 months of CPAP treatment significantly reduced the elevated resting MSNA in individuals with OSA. Furthermore, this MSNA reduction was associated with restoration of MSNA-related activity and structural changes in the medullary raphe, rostral ventrolateral medulla, dorsolateral pons and ventral midbrain. This restoration occurred after 6 months of CPAP treatment and was maintained following 12 months CPAP. These findings show that continual CPAP treatment is an effective long-term treatment for elevated MNSA likely due to its effects on restoring brainstem structure and function.

  2. Fearful gaze cueing: gaze direction and facial expression independently influence overt orienting responses in 12-month-olds.

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    Reiko Matsunaka

    Full Text Available Gaze direction cues and facial expressions have been shown to influence object processing in infants. For example, infants around 12 months of age utilize others' gaze directions and facial expressions to regulate their own behaviour toward an ambiguous target (i.e., social referencing. However, the mechanism by which social signals influence overt orienting in infants is unclear. The present study examined the effects of static gaze direction cues and facial expressions (neutral vs. fearful on overt orienting using a gaze-cueing paradigm in 6- and 12-month-old infants. Two experiments were conducted: in Experiment 1, a face with a leftward or rightward gaze direction was used as a cue, and a face with a forward gaze direction was added in Experiment 2. In both experiments, an effect of facial expression was found in 12-month-olds; no effect was found in 6-month-olds. Twelve-month-old infants exhibited more rapid overt orienting in response to fearful expressions than neutral expressions, irrespective of gaze direction. These findings suggest that gaze direction information and facial expressions independently influence overt orienting in infants, and the effect of facial expression emerges earlier than that of static gaze direction. Implications for the development of gaze direction and facial expression processing systems are discussed.

  3. Indirect zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate ceramic CAD/CAM restorations: Preliminary clinical results after 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Moritz; Koller, Christina; Mehl, Albert; Hickel, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    No clinical data are available for the new computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) material zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS) ceramic. This study describes preliminary clinical results for indirect ZLS CAD/CAM restorations after 12 months. Indirect restorations were fabricated, using the CEREC method and intraoral scanning (CEREC Omnicam, CEREC MCXL). Sixty-seven restorations were seated adhesively (baseline). Sixty restorations were evaluated after 12 months (follow-up), using modified FDI criteria. Two groups were established, according to ZLS restorations' post-processing procedure prior to adhesive seating: group I (three-step polishing, n = 32) and group II (fire glazing, n = 28). Statistical analysis was performed with Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon test (P  .05). Statistically significant differences were found for criteria surface gloss for group I and group II (Mann-Whitney U test, P < .05). This study demonstrates ZLS CAD/CAM restorations have a high clinical success rate after 12 months. A longer clinical evaluation period is necessary to draw further conclusions.

  4. Drug and alcohol task force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordey, T [ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Sunstrum, M [Enform, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Worker absenteeism due to substance abuse costs the Alberta economy approximately $720 million a year. It is estimated that 20 per cent of all drivers in fatal crashes were using alcohol, and the use of cannabis and cocaine in Alberta has more than doubled over the last 15 years. In addition, 1 in 10 Alberta workers have reported using alcohol while at work and 4 per cent have reported using alcohol 4 hours prior to coming to work during the previous 12 months. In an effort to ensure appropriate health and safety for workers in the Canadian petroleum industry, 6 trade associations in the sector have joined together as the Enform Alcohol and Drug Initiative and are now working to develop a common approach to drug and alcohol guidelines and workplace rules. The task group will determine if existing policies and guidelines are sufficient to ensure a safe workplace and will consider standardizing the testing, application and rehabilitation of workers with respect to the use of drugs and alcohol. In the past, disciplinary actions have often been reversed because employers have not been consistent or did not follow established alcohol and drug policies or test to specific standards. Various work rules for inappropriate alcohol and drug use were reviewed, as well as education and communication strategies regarding policy content. Standards for testing criteria were discussed, as well as issues concerning duty-to-accommodate circumstances. An excerpt of concentration standards was presented. It was concluded that a matrix for companies to assess and determine safety sensitive positions is needed. refs., tabs., figs.

  5. Drug and alcohol task force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordey, T.; Sunstrum, M.

    2006-01-01

    Worker absenteeism due to substance abuse costs the Alberta economy approximately $720 million a year. It is estimated that 20 per cent of all drivers in fatal crashes were using alcohol, and the use of cannabis and cocaine in Alberta has more than doubled over the last 15 years. In addition, 1 in 10 Alberta workers have reported using alcohol while at work and 4 per cent have reported using alcohol 4 hours prior to coming to work during the previous 12 months. In an effort to ensure appropriate health and safety for workers in the Canadian petroleum industry, 6 trade associations in the sector have joined together as the Enform Alcohol and Drug Initiative and are now working to develop a common approach to drug and alcohol guidelines and workplace rules. The task group will determine if existing policies and guidelines are sufficient to ensure a safe workplace and will consider standardizing the testing, application and rehabilitation of workers with respect to the use of drugs and alcohol. In the past, disciplinary actions have often been reversed because employers have not been consistent or did not follow established alcohol and drug policies or test to specific standards. Various work rules for inappropriate alcohol and drug use were reviewed, as well as education and communication strategies regarding policy content. Standards for testing criteria were discussed, as well as issues concerning duty-to-accommodate circumstances. An excerpt of concentration standards was presented. It was concluded that a matrix for companies to assess and determine safety sensitive positions is needed. refs., tabs., figs

  6. 12-month follow-up study of drug treatment in pathological gamblers: a primary outcome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannon, Pinhas N; Lowengrub, Katherine; Musin, Ernest; Gonopolsky, Yehudit; Kotler, Moshe

    2007-12-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a relatively common and highly disabling impulse control disorder. A range of psychotherapeutic agents including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, antiepileptic drugs, and opioid antagonists are shown to be effective in the short-term treatment of PG. The use of a wide range of pharmacological treatments for PG is consistent with the observation that PG shares features of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, impulse control disorders, and addictive disorders. The aim of the study is to assess the rate of relapse in treatment-responder pathological gamblers after discontinuation of the active treatment. Our study sample was composed of 43 male pathological gamblers who had been full responders to 1 of 4 drug treatment regimens (fluvoxamine, topiramate, bupropion SR, or naltrexone) from several previous acute open-label (12-week) comparison studies. Full response was defined as the absence of gambling for a 1-month duration together with improvement on the Clinical Global Improvement scale. The 43 full responders were then followed prospectively for an additional 9 months, which included a 3-month open-label continuation phase and a 6-month medication-free follow-up phase. Follow-up visits were performed on a monthly basis throughout the duration of study. At every follow-up visit, a comprehensive psychiatric diagnostic evaluation was performed on all patients, and patients were assessed for symptoms of gambling using a self-report instrument and collateral family reports. The Clinical Global Impression Improvement scale was also administered at every follow-up visit. Raters were blind to the previous drug treatment. Most patients did not relapse during the 6-month medication-free follow-up phase. Three of 6 patients with fluvoxamine, 3 of 9 with topiramate, 7 of 18 with bupropion SR, and 4 of 10 with naltrexone relapsed. Relapse was strictly defined as gambling behavior at any time during the 6-month medication-free follow

  7. Feasibility and indicative results from a 12-month low-energy liquid diet treatment and maintenance programme for severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Michael; Brosnahan, Naomi; McLoone, Philip; McCombie, Louise; Higgs, Anna Bell; Ross, Hazel; Mackenzie, Mhairi; Grieve, Eleanor; Finer, Nick; Reckless, John; Haslam, David; Sloan, Billy; Morrison, David

    2013-02-01

    There is no established primary care solution for the rapidly increasing numbers of severely obese people with body mass index (BMI) > 40 kg/m(2). This programme aimed to generate weight losses of ≥15 kg at 12 months, within routine primary care. Feasibility study in primary care. Patients with a BMI ≥40 kg/m(2) commenced a micronutrient-replete 810-833 kcal/day low-energy liquid diet (LELD), delivered in primary care, for a planned 12 weeks or 20 kg weight loss (whichever was the sooner), with structured food reintroduction and then weight-loss maintenance, with optional orlistat to 12 months. Of 91 patients (74 females) entering the programme (baseline: weight 131 kg, BMI 48 kg/m(2), age 46 years), 58/91(64%) completed the LELD stage, with a mean duration of 14.4 weeks (standard deviation [SD] = 6.0 weeks), and a mean weight loss of 16.9 kg (SD = 6.0 kg). Four patients commenced weight-loss maintenance omitting the food-reintroduction stage. Of the remaining 54, 37(68%) started and completed food reintroduction over a mean duration of 9.3 weeks (SD = 5.7 weeks), with a further mean weight loss of 2.1 kg (SD = 3.7 kg), before starting a long-term low-fat-diet weight-loss maintenance plan. A total of 44/91 (48%) received orlistat at some stage. At 12 months, weight was recorded for 68/91 (75%) patients, with a mean loss of 12.4 kg (SD = 11.4 kg). Of these, 30 (33% of all 91 patients starting the programme) had a documented maintained weight loss of ≥15 kg at 12 months, six (7%) had a 10-15 kg loss, and 11 (12%) had a 5-10 kg loss. The indicative cost of providing this entire programme for wider implementation would be £861 per patient entered, or £2611 per documented 15 kg loss achieved. A care package within routine primary care for severe obesity, including LELD, food reintroduction, and weight-loss maintenance, was well accepted and achieved a 12-month-maintained weight loss of ≥15 kg for one-third of all patients entering the programme.

  8. The effect of 12-month dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation on the menstrual pattern, ovarian reserve markers, and safety profile in women with premature ovarian insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Queenie Ho Yan; Yeung, Tracy Wing Yee; Yung, Sofie Shuk Fei; Ko, Jennifer Ka Yee; Li, Hang Wun Raymond; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu

    2018-03-09

    To evaluate the effect of 12-month DHEA supplementation on menstrual pattern and ovarian reserve markers in women with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) METHODS: This is a prospective observational study. Women with POI were given DHEA supplements (25 mg three times daily) for 12 months. Sonographic assessment for ovarian volume and antral follicle count (AFC) and serum measurement for anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, testosterone, liver function, and hemoglobin level were performed at baseline and monthly for 13 months after the supplementation. Menstrual pattern, ovarian reserve markers, and side-effects were recorded. Between August 2011 and July 2014, 38 women with POI were recruited and 31 completed the study. The median age of women was 36 years, and the median baseline FSH and AMH concentrations were 82.2 IU/L and 0.01 ng/ml, respectively. No women had resumption of regular menstruation after DHEA supplementation. AMH, FSH, and AFC did not change significantly. No serious side effects were reported. Our results do not support any significant improvement in ovarian function by 12-month DHEA supplementation in women with POI.

  9. Mid- and long-term effects of family constellation seminars in a general population sample: 8- and 12-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Christina; Weinhold, Jan; Bornhäuser, Annette; Link, Leoni; Schweitzer, Jochen

    2015-06-01

    In a previous randomized controlled trial (RCT), short-term efficacy of family constellation seminars (FCSs) in a general population sample was demonstrated. In this article, we examined mid- and long-term stability of these effects. Participants were 104 adults (M = 47 years; SD = 9; 84% female) who were part of the intervention group in the original RCT (3-day FCS; 64 active participants and 40 observing participants). FCSs were carried out according to manuals. It was predicted that FCSs would improve psychological functioning (Outcome Questionnaire OQ-45.2) at 8- and 12-month follow-up. Additionally, we assessed the effects of FCSs on psychological distress, motivational incongruence, individuals' experience in their personal social systems, and overall goal attainment. Participants yielded significant improvement in psychological functioning (d = 0.41 at 8-month follow-up, p = .000; d = 0.40 at 12-month follow-up, p = .000). Results were confirmed for psychological distress, motivational incongruence, the participants' experience in their personal social systems, and overall goal attainment. No adverse events were reported. This study provides first evidence for the mid- and long-term efficacy of FCSs in a nonclinical population. The implications of the findings are discussed. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  10. Miglustat in late-onset Tay-Sachs disease: a 12-month, randomized, controlled clinical study with 24 months of extended treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Barbara E; Pastores, Gregory M; Gianutsos, John; Luzy, Cécile; Kolodny, Edwin H

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of miglustat in patients with GM2 gangliosidosis. A randomized, multicenter, open-label, 12-month study involving patients aged 18 years or older, randomized 2:1 to miglustat (200 mg TID) or "no miglustat treatment." This study was followed by 24 months of extended treatment during which all patients received miglustat. Primary efficacy endpoints were change in eight measures of isometric muscle strength in the limbs and isometric grip strength, evaluated at baseline, and months 12 and 36. Secondary efficacy endpoints included gait, balance, disability, and other neurological assessments. Safety evaluations included adverse event reporting. Thirty patients (67% male, age range 18-56 years) with late-onset Tay-Sachs disease were enrolled; 20 were randomized to miglustat and 10 to "no miglustat treatment." Muscle and grip strength generally decreased over the study period. No differences were observed between the two groups in any efficacy measure, either during the 12-month randomized phase or the full 36 months. The most common treatment-related adverse events were decrease in weight and diarrhea. Miglustat treatment was not shown to lead to measurable benefits in this cohort of patients with late-onset Tay-Sachs disease. The observed safety profile was consistent with that of the approved dose (100 mg TID) in type 1 Gaucher disease.

  11. Comparing Class-based and Home-based Exercise for Older Adults with Chronic Health Conditions: 12-month Follow-up of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Koren L; Reeder, Bruce A; Harrison, Elizabeth L; Bruner, Brenda G; Ashworth, Nigel L; Pahwa, Punam; Sari, Nazmi; Sheppard, M Suzanne; Shields, Christopher A; Chad, Karen E

    2017-11-01

    To assess the maintenance of physical activity (PA) and health gains among participants in a class-based (CB) or home-based (HB) PA intervention over a 12-month study period. 172 adults over age 50 were randomly allocated to either a CB or HB intervention, each involving an intensive 3-month phase with 9 months follow-up. Measures at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months included: self-reported PA and health, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, cardiovascular endurance (6MWT), physical function, and functional fitness (SFT). Outcomes were analyzed using generalized estimating equations. Maximum improvement was typically observed at 3 or 6 months followed by a modest diminution, with no differences between groups. For BMI, WC, 6MWT, SFT, there was progressive improvement through the study period. Greater improvement was seen in the CB group compared to the HB group on three items on the SFT (lower body (LB) strength and endurance (29% vs. 21%, p<.01), LB flexibility (2.8 cm vs. 0.4 cm, p<.05), and dynamic agility (14% vs. 7%, p<.05). The interventions were largely comparable; thus, availability, preferences, and cost may better guide program choice.

  12. Quality of life changes following inpatient and outpatient treatment in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a study with 12 months follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hertenstein Elisabeth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of life (QoL is increasingly recognized as a critical outcome parameter in mental health studies. The aim of this study was to investigate different domains of the QoL in persons with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD before and after a multimodal, disorder-specific in- and outpatient treatment. Methods Data of 73 persons with OCD treated in an inpatient setting followed by outpatient treatment were analyzed. The World Health Organization Quality of Life abbreviated (a multidimensional measure of the QoL and the Beck Depression Inventory were administered prior to (baseline and 12 months after the inpatient treatment (follow-up. Results At baseline, participants reported a significantly diminished psychological, social, physical, and global QoL compared to the German general population. Environmental QoL was not impaired in the present sample. The QoL was significantly improved at follow-up, except for social QoL, but remained below norm values. The QoL improvement was predicted by improvements of depressive symptoms. Conclusions The results indicate that persons with OCD suffer from a very low QoL. The QoL was significantly improved after 12 months of intensive state-of-the-art treatment. However, the QoL indices remained considerably lower than population norm values, indicating the need for additional research into novel treatment options for persons with OCD.

  13. Who will increase their physical activity? Predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity over 12 months in the ProActive cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Stephen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to identify predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity over 12 months in the ProActive cohort to improve understanding of factors influencing change in physical activity. Methods ProActive is a physical activity promotion trial that took place in Eastern England (1999-2004. 365 offspring of people with type 2 diabetes underwent measurement of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE using heart rate monitoring, fitness, and anthropometric and biochemical status at baseline and 1 year (n = 321. Linear regression was used to quantify the associations between baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial and behavioural variables and change in PAEE over 12 months. This study is registered as ISRCTN61323766. Results ProActive participants significantly increased their PAEE by 0.6 kj/min (SD 4.2, p = 0.006 over one year, the equivalent of around 20 minutes brisk walking/day. Male sex and higher fitness at baseline predicted increase in PAEE. No significant associations were found for any other variables. Very few baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial and behavioural predictors were associated with change in objectively measured physical activity. Conclusions Traditional baseline determinants of self-reported physical activity targeted by behavioural interventions may be relatively weak predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of factors influencing change in physical activity to inform the development and targeting of interventions.

  14. Randomized controlled trial of a 12-month computerized mindfulness-based intervention for obese patients with binge eating disorder: The MindOb study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffault, Alexis; Carette, Claire; Lurbe I Puerto, Kàtia; Juge, Nicolas; Beauchet, Alain; Benoliel, Jean-Jacques; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Fournier, Jean F; Czernichow, Sébastien; Flahault, Cécile

    2016-07-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions for healthy behaviors such as exercise and dietary modifications have aroused growing interest. This study aims to test the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention for the reduction of impulsive eating and the improvement of motivation to exercise among obese individuals. One-hundred and twenty obese outpatients, aged 18 to 65years, diagnosed with a binge eating disorder, will be randomly assigned to one of the three following groups: mindfulness practice, sham meditation, or treatment as usual control. The tested intervention consists of a 1-year computerized mindfulness-based program. Mindfulness sessions are audio recordings that the patients are asked to listen to, 10min every day. Self-reported questionnaires measuring impulsive eating, motivation to exercise, physical activity level, mood, and mindfulness skills are filled in at baseline, 1, 6, and 12months. Physical activity, calories consumption, and biomarkers are measured with more objective measurement tools at baseline, 6months and 12months. Mindfulness, as both a de-automation element and as a moderator of motivation to exercise, can lead to the reduction of impulsive eating and also to an increase in levels of physical activity. These effects could cause weight loss in obese patients suffering from binge eating disorder. clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02571387. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Relapse after methylprednisolone oral minipulse therapy in childhood vitiligo: A 12-month follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Majid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral minipulse (OMP therapy with methylprednisolone is presently one of the most common oral treatments used for progressive vitiligo in children. The treatment is usually given for a period of 6 months during which majority of patients are reported to go into remission. However, there are no follow-up studies to comment upon what happens to the disease after OMP therapy is withdrawn. Aim of the study: To document the incidence of relapse over a period of 1 year after OMP therapy is stopped in children with vitiligo. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 180 patients of childhood vitiligo (<15 years of age who had been on OMP therapy with oral methylprednisolone for at least 6 months and who had achieved a complete remission of their disease during the treatment period. The enrolled patients were followed up for a period of 1 year and examined clinically for any sign of reactivation of their disease over either the old lesions or at any new area of the body. Results: Forty-two patients were lost and could not complete the follow-up period of 1 year. Out of the 138 patients available at the end of 1 year, relapse was observed in 48 patients (34.8%. Rest of 90 patients remained in remission over the follow-up period of 1 year. Relapse was more common in patients below 10 years of age (47.4% as compared with older children (25.9%. Conclusion: Relapse after using methylprednisolone OMP therapy in children with vitiligo is quite common especially in younger age groups. Studies are needed to see whether these relapses could be avoided by giving the treatment for a period longer than 6 months.

  16. Gratitude, abstinence, and alcohol use disorders: Report of a preliminary finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentzman, Amy R

    2017-07-01

    Gratitude is a central component of addiction recovery for many, yet it has received scant attention in addiction research. In a sample of 67 individuals entering abstinence-based alcohol-use-disorder treatment, this study employed gratitude and abstinence variables from sequential assessments (baseline, 6months, 12months) to model theorized causal relationships: gratitude would increase pre-post treatment and gratitude after treatment would predict greater percent days abstinent 6months later. Neither hypothesis was supported. This unexpected result led to the theory that gratitude for sobriety was the construct of interest; therefore, the association between gratitude and future abstinence would be positive among those already abstinent. Thus, post-treatment abstinence was tested as a moderator of the effect of gratitude on future abstinence: this effect was statistically significant. For those who were abstinent after treatment, the relationship between gratitude and future abstinence was positive; for those drinking most frequently after treatment, the relationship between gratitude and future abstinence was negative. In this preliminary study, dispositional tendency to affirm that there is much to be thankful for appeared to perpetuate the status quo-frequent drinkers with high gratitude were drinking frequently 6months later; abstinent individuals with high gratitude were abstinent 6months later. Gratitude exercises might be contraindicated for clients who are drinking frequently and have abstinence as their treatment goal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of alcohol and drugs among health professionals in Norway: a study using data from questionnaires and samples of oral fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsen, Hilde Marie Erøy; Karinen, Ritva; Moan, Inger Synnøve; Oiestad, Elisabeth Leere; Christophersen, Asbjørg Solberg; Gjerde, Hallvard

    2014-03-10

    Working under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol may affect safety and job performance. However, the size of this possible problem among health professionals (HPs) is unknown. The aim of this study was threefold: (i) to analyze samples of oral fluid and self-reported data from questionnaires to investigate the prevalence of alcohol and drugs among a sample of HPs in Norway, (ii) to study self-reported absence from or impairment at work due to alcohol and/or drug use, and (iii) to examine whether such use and absence/impairment due to such use depend on socio-demographic variables.A total of 916 of the 933 invited HPs from hospitals and pharmacies participated in the study (participation rate = 98.2%), and 81.1% were women. Associations were analyzed in bi-variate cross tables with Chi-square statistics to assess statistical significance.Alcohol was not detected in any of the samples. Ethyl glucuronide, a specific alcohol metabolite, was found in 0.3% of the collected samples. Illicit drugs and medicinal drugs were identified in 0.6% and 7.3% of the samples, respectively. Both analytical results and self-reported use of alcohol and drugs during the past 12 months indicate that recent and past year alcohol and drug use was lower among HPs than among workers in other business areas in Norway, Europe and US. Nevertheless, several HPs reported absence from work due to alcohol (0.9%) and medicinal drug use (0.8%) during the past 12 months. A substantial part (16.7%) of the self-reported medicinal drug users reported absence from work because of use of medicinal drugs during the past 12 months, and more than 1/4 of those reported in-efficiency at work because of the use of medicinal drugs during the past 12 months. Reduced efficiency at work due to alcohol use during the past 12 months was reported by 12.2%.This sample of HPs seldom used illicit drugs, few had a high level of alcohol consumption, and few tested positive for medicinal drugs. Absence or hangover related

  18. Exercise barriers and the relationship to self-efficacy for exercise over 12 months of a lifestyle-change program for people with heart disease and/or diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Muaddi; Gallagher, Robyn; Neubeck, Lis; Bauman, Adrian; Prebill, Gabrielle; Kirkness, Ann; Randall, Sue

    2017-04-01

    Barriers to exercise are common in people with coronary heart disease (CHD) and/or diabetes mellitus (DM), and may influence self-efficacy for exercise. The purpose of this study was to describe the exercise barriers experienced by people who have CHD and/or DM participating in the Healthy Eating and Exercise Lifestyle Program and to determine whether these barriers influence self-efficacy. Participants ( n = 134) identified their barriers to exercise and completed the self-efficacy for exercise survey at baseline, at 4 months (following structured and supervised exercise) and at 12 months (following home-based exercise with three follow-up calls). The sample mean age was 63.6 years (SD 8.5) and 58% were male. Barriers to exercise were reported by 88% at baseline, 76% at 4 months, and 47% at 12 months. The most common barriers were lack of motivation (40.3%), lack of time overall (30.6%), and lack of time due to family commitments (17.2%). Only motivation changed significantly over time from baseline (40%) to 4 months (23%, p = 0.040). Lower self-efficacy for exercise was associated with lack of motivation at 12 months only, more depressive symptoms at baseline and 4 months, and a CHD diagnosis and higher body mass index at 12 months. In contrast, male gender and having higher self-efficacy at baseline were associated with higher self-efficacy for exercise at 4 and 12 months. Patients identified many exercise barriers despite participating in a lifestyle-change program. Lack of motivation negatively influenced self-efficacy for exercise at 12 months. Other factors needing attention include baseline self-efficacy, depressive symptoms, being female, being more overweight, and having CHD.

  19. Substance use problems reported by historically Black college students: combined marijuana and alcohol use versus alcohol alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Warren A; Peters, Ronald J; Perrino, Carrol S; Bryant, Sharronne

    2008-06-01

    Using secondary data analysis,this study compares alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems experienced by African-American students attending a historically Black university who use alcohol only versus those who use alcohol plus marijuana. Results indicate that students who used marijuana plus alcohol experienced more AOD problems than their counterparts who used alcohol only. The current findings are similar to previous research with a majority White college student population.

  20. Prevalence and patterns of depression and anxiety in hemodialysis patients: a 12-month prospective study on incident and prevalent populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Hui Juan; Tan, Wei Jie; Mooppil, Nandakumar; Newman, Stanton; Griva, Konstadina

    2015-05-01

    Depression is common in dialysis patients and has been shown to be associated with higher morbidity and mortality, but little is known about the course of symptoms over time. The current study set up to explore group and individual patterns of change in symptoms of anxiety and depression within the hemodialysis population and to identify socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological factors that may be associated with different trajectories of emotional distress. A total of 159 hemodialysis patients (n = 42 incident and n = 117 prevalent) completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and social support and symptoms subscales from the Kidney Disease Quality of Life (Short Form) on two occasions 12 months apart. Clinical cut-offs were used to identify individual patterns of change in anxiety and depression symptoms across time, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures were employed to establish potential correlates of these trajectories. Mean levels of anxiety and depression symptoms remained unchanged over 1 year with 44.7-54.1% of patients above cut-off at both baseline and follow-up. Individual-level analyses showed that the course of symptoms does not follow a single trajectory. While most patients had either persistent symptoms of distress (39.6% and 31.8% for depression and anxiety, respectively) or no/low symptoms of distress (32.1% and 36.9% for depression and anxiety, respectively), a total of 12.7-18.5% patients either had new-onset symptoms of depression/anxiety or symptoms diminishing over time. Patients with persisting or new-onset symptoms of depression or anxiety reported reduced perceived social support and quality of social interaction compared to the subgroups with low depressive/anxious symptoms. Different patterns of symptoms reflect heterogeneity in patients' emotional reactions and adjustment. More research is needed to identify patients at risk for emotional distress and to explore social support in the context of dialysis. Statement

  1. Differential vulnerability of gray matter and white matter to intrauterine growth restriction in preterm infants at 12 months corrected age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Nelly; Junqué, Carme; Figueras, Francesc; Sanz-Cortes, Magdalena; Bargalló, Núria; Arranz, Angela; Donaire, Antonio; Figueras, Josep; Gratacos, Eduard

    2014-01-30

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with a high risk of abnormal neurodevelopment. Underlying neuroanatomical substrates are partially documented. We hypothesized that at 12 months preterm infants would evidence specific white-matter microstructure alterations and gray-matter differences induced by severe IUGR. Twenty preterm infants with IUGR (26-34 weeks of gestation) were compared with 20 term-born infants and 20 appropriate for gestational age preterm infants of similar gestational age. Preterm groups showed no evidence of brain abnormalities. At 12 months, infants were scanned sleeping naturally. Gray-matter volumes were studied with voxel-based morphometry. White-matter microstructure was examined using tract-based spatial statistics. The relationship between diffusivity indices in white matter, gray matter volumes, and perinatal data was also investigated. Gray-matter decrements attributable to IUGR comprised amygdala, basal ganglia, thalamus and insula bilaterally, left occipital and parietal lobes, and right perirolandic area. Gray-matter volumes positively correlated with birth weight exclusively. Preterm infants had reduced FA in the corpus callosum, and increased FA in the anterior corona radiata. Additionally, IUGR infants had increased FA in the forceps minor, internal and external capsules, uncinate and fronto-occipital white matter tracts. Increased axial diffusivity was observed in several white matter tracts. Fractional anisotropy positively correlated with birth weight and gestational age at birth. These data suggest that IUGR differentially affects gray and white matter development preferentially affecting gray matter. At 12 months IUGR is associated with a specific set of structural gray-matter decrements. White matter follows an unusual developmental pattern, and is apparently affected by IUGR and prematurity combined. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuropsychological performance of youth with secondary attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 6- and 12-months after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, Tisha J; Sagar, Sanya; Schachar, Russell J; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Chapman, Sandra B; Dennis, Maureen; Saunders, Ann E; Yang, Tony T; Levin, Harvey S; Max, Jeffrey E

    2014-11-01

    The present study compared executive dysfunction among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) after traumatic brain injury (TBI), also called secondary ADHD (S-ADHD), pre-injury ADHD and children with TBI only (i.e., no ADHD). Youth aged 6-16 years admitted for TBI to five trauma centers were enrolled (n=177) and evaluated with a semi-structured psychiatric interview scheduled on three occasions (within 2 weeks of TBI, i.e., baseline assessment for pre-injury status; 6-months and 12-months post-TBI). This permitted the determination of 6- and 12-month post-injury classifications of membership in three mutually exclusive groups (S-ADHD; pre-injury ADHD; TBI-only). Several executive control measures were administered. Unremitted S-ADHD was present in 17/141 (12%) children at the 6-month assessment, and in 14/125 (11%) children at 12-months post-injury. The study found that children with S-ADHD exhibited deficient working memory, attention, and psychomotor speed as compared to children with pre-injury ADHD. Furthermore, the children with S-ADHD and the children with TBI-only were impaired compared to the children with pre-injury ADHD with regard to planning. No group differences related to response inhibition emerged. Age, but not injury severity, gender, or adaptive functioning was related to executive function outcome. Neuropsychological sequelae distinguish among children who develop S-ADHD following TBI and those with TBI only. Moreover, there appears to be a different pattern of executive control performance in those who develop S-ADHD than in children with pre-injury ADHD suggesting that differences exist in the underlying neural mechanisms that define each disorder, underscoring the need to identify targeted treatment interventions.

  3. Locomotor Performance During Rehabilitation of People With Lower Limb Amputation and Prosthetic Nonuse 12 Months After Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffman, Caroline E; Buchanan, John; Allison, Garry T

    2016-07-01

    It is recognized that multifactorial assessments are needed to evaluate balance and locomotor function in people with lower limb amputation. There is no consensus on whether a single screening tool could be used to identify future issues with locomotion or prosthetic use. The purpose of this study was to determine whether different tests of locomotor performance during rehabilitation were associated with significantly greater risk of prosthetic abandonment at 12 months postdischarge. This was a retrospective cohort study. Data for descriptive variables and locomotor tests (ie, 10-Meter Walk Test [10MWT], Timed "Up & Go" Test [TUGT], Six-Minute Walk Test [6MWT], and Four Square Step Test [FSST]) were abstracted from the medical records of 201 consecutive participants with lower limb amputation. Participants were interviewed and classified as prosthetic users or nonusers at 12 months postdischarge. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze whether there were differences in locomotor performance. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to determine performance thresholds, and relative risk (RR) was calculated for nonuse. At 12 months postdischarge, 18% (n=36) of the participants had become prosthetic nonusers. Performance thresholds, area under the curve (AUC), and RR of nonuse (95% confidence intervals [CI]) were: for the 10MWT, if walking speed was ≤0.44 ms(-1) (AUC=0.743), RR of nonuse=2.76 (95% CI=1.83, 3.79; PLocomotor performance during rehabilitation may predict future risk of prosthetic nonuse. It may be implied that the 10MWT has the greatest clinical utility as a single screening tool for prosthetic nonuse, given the highest proportion of participants were able to perform this test early in rehabilitation. However, as locomotor skills improve, other tests (in particular, the 6MWT) have specific clinical utility. To fully enable implementation of these locomotor criteria for prosthetic nonuse into clinical practice, validation is warranted

  4. Decrease in musculoskeletal pain after 4 and 12 months of an aerobic exercise intervention: a worksite RCT among cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshøj, Mette; Birk Jørgensen, Marie; Lidegaard, Mark; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Krustrup, Peter; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2017-07-01

    Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain is high in jobs with high physical work demands. An aerobic exercise intervention targeting cardiovascular health was evaluated for its long term side effects on musculoskeletal pain. The objective was to investigate if aerobic exercise affects level of musculoskeletal pain from baseline to 4- and 12-months follow-up. One-hundred-and-sixteen cleaners aged 18-65 years were cluster-randomized. The aerobic exercise group ( n = 57) received worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week) and the reference group ( n = 59) lectures in health promotion. Strata were formed according to closest manager (total 11 strata); clusters were set within strata (total 40 clusters, 20 in each group). Musculoskeletal pain data from eight body regions was collected at baseline and after 4- and 12-months follow-up. The participants stated highest pain in the last month on a scale from 0, stating no pain, up to 10, stating worst possible pain. A repeated-measure 2 × 2 multi-adjusted mixed-models design was applied to compare the between-groups differences in an intention to treat analysis. Participants were entered as a random effect nested in clusters to account for the cluster-based randomization. Clinically significant reductions (>30%, f  2 > 0.25) in the aerobic exercise group, compared to the reference group, in pain intensity in neck, shoulders, arms/wrists were found at 12-months follow-up, and a tendency ( p = 0.07, f  2 = 0.18) to an increase for the knees. At 4-months follow-up the only significant between-group change was an increase in hip pain. This study indicates that aerobic exercise reduces musculoskeletal pain in the upper extremities, but as an unintended side effect may increase pain in the lower extremities. Aerobic exercise interventions among workers standing or walking in the majority of the working hours should tailor exercise to only maintain the positive effect on musculoskeletal pain.

  5. Effectiveness of occlusive bedding in the treatment of atopic dermatitis--a placebo-controlled trial of 12 months' duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, L; Bengtsson, A; van Hage-Hamsten, M; Ohman, S; Scheynius, A

    2001-02-01

    Several studies on avoidance of house-dust-mite (HDM) and cat allergens have been carried out, most of them in asthmatic patients and only a few in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). No study so far has focused on which subgroup of AD patients benefits from avoidance measures. Forty adult patients with AD completed the 12-month avoidance study. They were divided into an active treatment (n = 22) and a placebo (n = 18) group. Active treatment comprised use of polyurethane-coated cotton encasings for bedding, and placebo use of cotton covers. Patients came for regular checkups during the 12-month period, when eczema severity was assessed and blood samples were analyzed for total IgE, HDM- and cat-specific IgE and soluble CD30 (sCD30) in serum. Dust samples were collected from mattresses before treatment and after 3, 6, and 12 months, and analyzed for content of HDM and cat allergen. Eczema severity decreased significantly in both groups (P cat allergens was unchanged in the active treatment group but decreased, albeit not significantly (P=0.19), in the placebo group. sCD30 levels were significantly reduced in both groups (P<0.001). Patients not sensitized to HDM allergens benefited from the bedcovers as much as sensitized patients. Occlusive bedding significantly reduced HDM exposure in bed (P<0.001) and eczema severity, and sCD30 levels decreased significantly (P<0.001). Patients not sensitized to HDM and not exposed to HDM allergens benefited equally from use of the bedcovers, a result which could be due to a reduction of other important allergens, superantigens, or irritants in bed. We therefore recommend the use of bedcovers as part of treatment for AD.

  6. Symptoms before periapical surgery related to histologic diagnosis and postoperative healing at 12 months for 178 periapical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñarrocha, María; Carrillo, Celia; Peñarrocha, Miguel; Peñarrocha, David; von Arx, Thomas; Vera, Francisco

    2011-06-01

    To compare the preoperative signs and symptoms with the histologic diagnosis and postoperative healing at 12 months for 178 periapical lesions. A total of 152 patients who had undergone periapical surgery from 2005 to 2008 were studied. The study included patients presenting with signs and symptoms before periapical surgery with a sufficient tissue sample (periapical lesion) for histologic analysis and a minimal follow-up of 12 months. The signs and symptoms present in the soft tissues at the initial examination were recorded. The histologic analysis established the diagnosis as granuloma, cyst, or scar tissue. The postoperative healing at 12 months was evaluated according to the criteria of von Arx and Kurt. Of the 152 patients, 147, with 178 periapical lesions, were included in the present study. No significant relationship was found between the preoperative signs and symptoms, lesion type, and evolution. However, scar tissues were asymptomatic in 78.1%, and 36.4% of granulomas were painful. Of the 8 cysts, 50% were asymptomatic and 50% caused pain. Fibrous scars created no soft tissue alterations in 68.7%. Granulomas had fistulized in 31.7%, and 75% of cysts had produced no alterations. The lesions with swelling had worse healing, and those with no soft tissue alterations had better postoperative healing. Chronic periapical lesions (granuloma, cyst, and scar tissue) are usually asymptomatic and do not create soft tissue alterations. However, they can deteriorate, producing pain and fistulization. Worse postoperative healing was observed for lesions with swelling, although the difference was not significant. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing on Anxiety in Children with Thalassemia in a 12-month follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Shahnavazi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and  Objective: Thalassemia is the most common genetic diseases in the world and especially in our country. For many reasons, including chronic disease, health care costs, the expected mortality Ray disease states such as anxiety, psychological and social problems in thalassemia. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR on anxiety of children with thalassemia in a 12-month follow up..  Methods: It was a clinical trial study, which was performed on 60 patients with Thalassemia in 2013-2014. A total of 60 thalassemic patients based on Beck anxiety inventory, selected using sampling and were randomly divided into experimental and Control groups. in experimental group, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy was perfomed in five sessions and The control group received no intervention. In order to collect information on demographic questionnaire and Beck Anxiety Inventory were used. data were gathered on anxiety symptoms at pretreatment, posttreatment and 12 month follow up and were analyzed using descriptive statistics, repeated measures and chi square. Results: The average age of the participants was 15.22±1.93  years old. This study shows that the mean or average level of anxiety children with thalassemia in the experimental group before and after intervention and in a 12-month follow up group 34.73 ± 5.62, 19.90 ± 2.48 and 19.23 ± 2.48 respectively; repeated measures ANOVA showed significant statistical difference (p.05 Conclusion: This study shows that Method of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing as an alternative method to treat or reduce anxiety, aggressive children with thalassemia .Trained Nurses can use this new method is effective in the treatment of anxiety.

  8. Development of Metabolic Syndrome in Drug-Naive Adolescents After 12 Months of Second-Generation Antipsychotic Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjo, Christina Power; Stenstrøm, Anne Dorte; Bojesen, Anders Bo

    2017-01-01

    if obesity or metabolic aberration starts in childhood or adolescence. METHODS: Drug-naive adolescents were recruited after contact with an outpatient Psychosis Team. Changes relative to baseline in body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), fasting blood glucose (FBG......), triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were determined through regular follow-ups. RESULTS: The sample included 35 SGA-naive patients aged 7-19 (mean: 15.5) with a diagnosis of psychosis. Over 12 months, the overall rate of MetS changed significantly (from 0% to 20% [p 

  9. Over-imaging in uncomplicated low back pain: a 12-month audit of a general medical unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, M H; Nagiah, S

    2016-12-01

    Low back pain is frequently encountered in hospitals and is a leading cause of disability, often involving costly imaging that exposes a patient to radiation. A retrospective 12-month audit at a South Australian tertiary hospital aimed to evaluate the frequency, modality and appropriateness of imaging in patients with low back pain. Results showed that the general medical unit was unnecessarily ordering imaging in 40% of patients who exhibited no indications warranting such a procedure. A standardised protocol is required to preventing clinicians from requesting imaging solely for the purposes of self-reassurance, patient reassurance or fear of litigation. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  10. Self-reported alcohol use and binge drinking in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5 standard drinks on an average drinking day. Results. Current alcohol use (any amount) in 2014 - 2015 was reported by 33.1% of the population (47.7% males, 20.2% females). Of drinkers, 43.0% reported binge drinking (48.2% males, ...

  11. Effect of changes in a food frequency questionnaire: comparing data from two national dietary survey instruments among 12-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Anne Lene; Laugsand Lillegaard, Inger Therese; Frost Andersen, Lene

    2013-07-24

    National dietary surveys among Norwegian 12-months olds have been conducted twice: in 1999 and 2007. At both time-points diet were assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) (the SFFQ-1999 and the SFFQ-2007). Modifications in the SFFQ-2007 compared to the SFFQ-1999 have been made; therefore, the objective of the present study has been to explore the comparability of the data obtained by the two questionnaires. Moreover, reliability of maternal recall of infant feeding practices was assessed. Three hundred Norwegian infants born in April 2007 were invited to participate by completing both the SFFQ-1999 and the SFFQ-2007. An invitation letter and one of two questionnaires were sent by mail to the mother/parents about two weeks before the child turned 12 months of age. The study had a cross-over design where half of the sample received the SFFQ-1999 first and then about 2-3 weeks later they received the SFFQ-2007. The second half received the SFFQ-2007 first, and then 2-3 weeks later they received the SFFQ-1999. Ninety three participants completed both questionnaires (SFFQ-1999 and SFFQ-2007). For nutrients, the largest significant differences between the questionnaires were found for intake of vitamin D and added sugar, where added sugar was reported lower and vitamin D was reported higher with the SFFQ-2007 compared to the SFFQ-1999. For food items, lower intake of yoghurt and higher intake of vegetables and fish were observed with the SFFQ-2007 compared to the SFFQ-1999. In addition, reliable answers with regard to breastfeeding status, age for breastfeeding cessation and age for introducing solid foods were found. There was reasonable comparability between the two questionnaires for most nutrients and foods. The differences between the two questionnaires could mainly be explained by modifications that had occurred over time, where changes in the food composition databases used and especially changes in commercial recipes with regard to

  12. Associations between the phosphatidylethanol (PEth) alcohol biomarker and self-reported alcohol use in a sample of HIV-infected outpatient drinkers in western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Rebecca K.; Gakinya, Benson N.; Mwaniki, Michael M.; Keter, Alfred K.; Lee, Hana; Loxley, Michelle P.; Klein, Debra A.; Sidle, John E.; Martino, Steve; Baliddawa, Joyce B.; Schlaudt, Kathryn L.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Background To counteract the syndemics of HIV and alcohol in sub-Saharan Africa, international collaborations have developed interventions to reduce alcohol consumption. Reliable and accurate methods are needed to estimate alcohol use outcomes. A direct alcohol biomarker called phosphatidylethanol (PEth) has been shown to validate heavy, daily drinking, but the literature indicates mixed results for moderate and non-daily drinkers, including among HIV-infected populations. This study examined the associations of the PEth biomarker with self-report alcohol use at 2 time points in 127 HIV-infected outpatient drinkers in western Kenya. Methods Participants were consecutively enrolled in a randomized clinical trial to test the efficacy of a behavioral intervention to reduce alcohol use in Eldoret, Kenya. They endorsed current alcohol use, and a minimum score of 3 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption or consuming ≥ 6 drinks per occasion at least monthly in the past year. Study interviews and blood draws were conducted at baseline and at 3 months post-treatment from July 2012 through September 2013. Alcohol use was assessed using the Timeline Followback questionnaire. Blood samples were analyzed for presence of the PEth biomarker and were compared to self-reported alcohol use. We also conducted semi-structured interviews with 14 study completers in February through March 2014. Results Baseline data indicated an average of moderate-heavy alcohol use: 50% drinking days and a median of 4.5 drinks per drinking day. At baseline, 46% of women (31 of 67) and 8% of men (5 of 60) tested negative for PEth (p<.001). At the 3-month follow-up, 93% of women (25 of 27) and 97% of men (30 of 31) who reported drinking tested positive, while 70% of women (28 of 40) and 35% of men (10 of 29) who denied drinking tested negative for PEth. Interviews were consistent with self-reported alcohol use among 13 individuals with negative baseline results. Conclusions These

  13. First CT findings and improvement in GOS and GOSE scores 6 and 12 months after severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Luisa; Herrero, José Ignacio; Monfort, José Luis; Ventura, José Luis; Javierre, Casimiro F; Juncadella, Montserrat; García-Huete, Lucía; Bartolomé, Carlos; Gabarrós, Andreu

    2009-05-01

    To analyse the association between individual initial computerized tomography (CT) scan characteristics and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) and Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) improvement between 6 months and 1 year. Two hundred and twenty-four adult patients with severe traumatic brain injury and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 8 or less who were admitted to an intensive care unit were studied. GOS and GOSE scores were obtained 6 and 12 months after injury in 203 subjects. Patients were predominantly male (84%) and median age was 35 years. Traumatic Coma Data Bank (TCDB) CT classification was associated with GOS/GOSE improvement between 6 months and 1 year, with diffuse injury type I, type II and evacuated mass improving more than diffuse injury type III, type IV and non-evacuated mass; for GOS 43/155 (28%) vs 3/48 (6%) (chi(2) = 9.66, p GOSE 71/155 (46%) vs 7/48 (15%) (chi(2) = 15.1, p GOSE improvement, with the exception of subarachnoid haemorrhage, which showed a negative association with GOSE improvement (chi(2) = 4.08, p GOSE improvement from 6-12 months, but individual CT abnormalities were not associated.

  14. Stable cognitive deficits in schizophrenia patients with comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms: a 12-month longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmbeck, Frederike; Rausch, Franziska; Englisch, Susanne; Eifler, Sarah; Esslinger, Christine; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Zink, Mathias

    2013-11-01

    Amongst schizophrenia patients, a large subgroup of up to 25% also suffers from comorbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCSs). The association between comorbid OCSs in these patients and neuropsychological impairment remains unclear and somewhat contradictory. Longitudinal approaches investigating the stability of OCS-associated cognitive deficits are missing. Thirty-seven patients with schizophrenia and comorbid OCSs and 43 schizophrenia patients without OCS were assessed with a comprehensive cognitive test battery and compared at baseline and, again, 12 months later. Schizophrenia patients with comorbid OCSs showed significant pronounced deficits, with increasing effect sizes over the 12-month assessment period in specific cognitive areas such as visuospatial perception and visual memory (WAIS-R block design, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test), executive functioning (perseveration in the Wisconsin Card Sorting test), and cognitive flexibility (Trail Making test B). These cognitive domains are correlated with OCS severity and are known to be candidate cognitive domains in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). OCSs in schizophrenia is associated with specific and longitudinally stable cognitive deficits, strongly arguing for at least partially overlapping neurobiological mechanisms with OCD. Prospective studies involving patients with at-risk mental states for psychosis are necessary to decipher the interaction of cognitive impairment and the clinical manifestations of schizophrenia and OCSs. This might facilitate the definition of patients at high risk for OCSs, an early detection of subclinical levels, therapeutic interventions, and clinical monitoring.

  15. Improved plasma amino acids pattern following 12 months of supplemented low-protein diet in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Na; Qian, Jiaqi; Lin, Aiwu; Fang, Wei; Cao, Liou; Wang, Qin; Ni, Zhaohui; Lindholm, Bengt; Axelsson, Jonas; Yao, Qiang

    2010-07-01

    Decreased plasma essential amino acid (EAA) levels, increased nonessential amino acid (NEAA) levels, and low EAA to NEAA ratio (E/NEAA) are common in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and may impact uremic complications. In the present study, we investigate the impact of keto acids-supplemented low-protein (sLP) diet on plasma amino acids (AAs) patterns in stable PD patients. This is a supplemental analysis of a previously published prospective and randomized trial. Thirty-nine PD patients selected from the original population were divided to receive either low (LP: 0.6-0.8 g/kg ideal body weight [IBW]/d, n = 13), keto acids-supplemented low- (sLP: 0.6-0.8 g/kg IBW/d + 0.12 g/kg IBW/d of keto acids, n = 12), or high- (HP: 1.0-1.2 g/kg IBW/d, n = 14) protein diets and followed for 1 year. Plasma AA patterns were assessed at baseline and 12 months using high-performance liquid chromatography. Whereas there were no significant differences between the three groups at baseline, following 12 months, the E/NEAA had increased significantly in group sLP (0.58 +/- 0.16 to 0.83 +/- 0.20, p diet supplemented with keto acids significantly improved the pattern of plasma AA in prevalent PD patients.

  16. Relationships between Breastfeeding Patterns and Maternal and Infant Body Composition over the First 12 Months of Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Gridneva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding has been implicated in the establishment of infant appetite regulation, feeding patterns and body composition (BC. A holistic approach is required to elucidate relationships between infant and maternal BC and contributing factors, such as breastfeeding parameters. Associations between maternal and breastfed term infant BC (n = 20 and feeding parameters during first 12 months of lactation were investigated. BC was measured at 2, 5, 9 and/or 12 months postpartum with ultrasound skinfolds (US; infants only and bioimpedance spectroscopy (infants and mothers. 24-h milk intake (MI and feeding frequency (FFQ were measured. Higher FFQ was associated with larger 24-h MI (p ≤ 0.003. Higher 24-h MI was associated with larger infant fat mass (FM (US: p ≤ 0.002, greater percentage FM (US: p ≤ 0.008, greater FM index (FMI (US: p ≤ 0.001 and lower fat-free mass index (FFMI (US: p = 0.015. Lower FFQ was associated with both larger FFM (US: p ≤ 0.001 and FFMI (US: p < 0.001. Greater maternal adiposity was associated with smaller infant FFM measured with US (BMI: p < 0.010; %FM: p = 0.004; FMI: p < 0.011. Maternal BC was not associated with FFQ or 24-h MI. These results reinforce that early life is a critical window for infant programming and that breastfeeding may influence risk of later disease via modulation of BC.

  17. Maladaptive cognitions predict changes in problematic gaming in highly-engaged adults: A 12-month longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Cameron J; King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the role of maladaptive gaming-related cognitions may assist in screening and interventions for problematic gaming, including Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Cognitive-behavioural interventions that target specific cognitions related to gaming may be more effective than more general approaches that focus only on preoccupation with games. Although past research has identified cross-sectional associations between maladaptive cognitions and problematic gaming, it is less clear whether these cognitions can predict future changes in problematic gaming behaviour. The present study employed an 18-item measure of gaming cognition, assessing perfectionism, cognitive salience, regret, and behavioural salience, to investigate potential changes in problematic gaming over a 12-month period. The sample included 465 Australian adults (84% male, M age =26.2years). It was found that individuals who became problematic gamers over 12months had higher baseline scores on perfectionism (d=1.20), cognitive salience (d=0.74) and regret (d=0.69) than those who remained non-problematic gamers. Problematic gamers who became non-problematic gamers had lower baseline perfectionism scores (d=0.62) than those who remained problematic gamers. Cognitive change accounted for an additional 28% of variance in problematic gaming scores beyond gender, age, and frequency of gaming. These findings suggest that maladaptive gaming-related cognitions could be screened in clinical trials to aid in case formulation and inform decisions on needed interventions to deliver optimal client outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Food and Nutrient Intake among 12-Month-Old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Andersen, Lene Frost; Kolve, Cathrine Solheim; Kverndalen, Ingrid; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2016-09-28

    The aim of the present paper was to describe food and nutrient intake among 12-month-old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi infants, with a focus on iron and vitamin D intake. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from August 2013 through September 2014. Eighty-nine mothers/infants of Somali origin and 77 mothers/infants of Iraqi origin residing in Eastern Norway participated in the study. Data were collected using two 24-h multiple-pass recalls. Forty percent of the Norwegian-Somali infants and 47% of the Norwegian-Iraqi infants were breastfed at 12 months of age ( p = 0.414). Median energy percentages (E%) from protein, fat and carbohydrates were within the recommended intake ranges, except the level of saturated fats (12-13 E%). Median intakes of almost all micronutrients were above the recommended daily intakes. Most of the infants consumed iron-enriched products (81%) and received vitamin D supplements (84%). The median intakes of iron and vitamin D were significantly higher among infants receiving iron-enriched products and vitamin D supplements compared to infants not receiving such products ( p food and nutrient intake of this group of infants in general seems to be in accordance with Norwegian dietary recommendations. Foods rich in iron and vitamin D supplements were important sources of the infants' intake of iron and vitamin D and should continue to be promoted.

  19. CT volumetry of intravertebral cement after kyphoplasty. Comparison of polymethylmethacrylate and calcium phosphate in a 12-month follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libicher, M.; Noeldge, G.; Kauffmann, G.W.; Vetter, M.; Wolf, I.; Meinzer, H.P.; Kasperk, C.; Grafe, I.; Fonseca, K.D.; Meeder, P.J.; Hillmeier, J.

    2005-01-01

    This study was intended to measure the volume of intravertebral cement after balloon kyphoplasty with high resolution computed tomography (CT) and dedicated software. Volume changes of biocompatible calcium phosphate cement (CPC) were detected during a follow-up of 12 months. Measurements were compared with a control group of patients treated with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Twenty-three vertebrae (14 CPC, 9 PMMA) of 12 patients were examined with CT using an identical imaging protocol. Dedicated software was used to quantify intravertebral cement volume in subvoxel resolution by analyzing each cement implant with a density-weighted algorithm. The mean volume reduction of CPC was 0.08 ml after 12 months, which corresponds to an absorption rate of 2 vol%. However, the difference did not reach significance level (P>0.05). The mean error estimate was 0.005 ml, indicating excellent precision of the method. CT volumetry appears a precise tool for measurement of intravertebral cement volume. CT volumetry offers the possibility of in vivo measurement of CPC resorption. (orig.)

  20. Effects of 12 months aerobic exercise intervention on work ability, need for recovery, productivity and rating of exertion among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Mark; Søgaard, Karen; Krustrup, Peter

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study assessed the effects of a worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners on: work ability, need for recovery, productivity, and rating of exertion. METHODS: In a monocentric randomised controlled trial in Denmark, 116, of 250 invited, cleaners were cluster-randomised (w......PURPOSE: This study assessed the effects of a worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners on: work ability, need for recovery, productivity, and rating of exertion. METHODS: In a monocentric randomised controlled trial in Denmark, 116, of 250 invited, cleaners were cluster......-randomised (work location; sex; age; length of service) to aerobic exercise [N = 57, 44.9 years, 75.4% female, body mass index (BMI) 26.2], receiving 2 weekly aerobic exercise sessions during 12 months, or a reference group (N = 59, 45.7 years, 76.3% female, BMI 27.1), receiving health-promoting lectures. Self.......2) in the aerobic exercise group compared to the reference group. Productivity and rating of exertion were unaltered. Analysis stratified on age showed significant effects only among the participants aged ≤ 45 years. CONCLUSIONS: After 12 months work ability improved and need for recovery decreased. A period of 4...

  1. Relationship between histological diagnosis and evolution of 70 periapical lesions at 12 months, treated by periapical surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Celia; Peñarrocha, Miguel; Bagán, José Vicente; Vera, Francisco

    2008-08-01

    To relate the histologic diagnosis and radiographic size with the prognosis of 70 biopsies obtained via periapical surgery. Seventy biopsies obtained during periapical surgery were histologically analyzed following curettage of the tissue, establishing the diagnosis as either apical granuloma, radicular cyst, or scar tissue. The radiographic size of the lesion (area in mm(2)) before surgery and after 1 year of follow-up was measured. The evolution at 12 months after surgery was evaluated according to the criteria of von Arx and Kurt. A statistical study was made, the inter-variable relationships were studied using analysis of variance with subsequent Tukey testing and calculation of Pearson correlation coefficient. Results indicated that 65.7% of lesions were granulomas, 25.7% scar tissue, and 8.6% cysts. The larger lesions had the worst prognosis. Cysts had the worst evolution at 12 months after surgery, this result being statistically significant. The prognosis for the periapical lesion depended on the type of lesion and its radiographic size, with cysts and larger lesions having the worst evolution.

  2. Mimicking emotions: how 3-12-month-old infants use the facial expressions and eyes of a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soussignan, Robert; Dollion, Nicolas; Schaal, Benoist; Durand, Karine; Reissland, Nadja; Baudouin, Jean-Yves

    2018-06-01

    While there is an extensive literature on the tendency to mimic emotional expressions in adults, it is unclear how this skill emerges and develops over time. Specifically, it is unclear whether infants mimic discrete emotion-related facial actions, whether their facial displays are moderated by contextual cues and whether infants' emotional mimicry is constrained by developmental changes in the ability to discriminate emotions. We therefore investigate these questions using Baby-FACS to code infants' facial displays and eye-movement tracking to examine infants' looking times at facial expressions. Three-, 7-, and 12-month-old participants were exposed to dynamic facial expressions (joy, anger, fear, disgust, sadness) of a virtual model which either looked at the infant or had an averted gaze. Infants did not match emotion-specific facial actions shown by the model, but they produced valence-congruent facial responses to the distinct expressions. Furthermore, only the 7- and 12-month-olds displayed negative responses to the model's negative expressions and they looked more at areas of the face recruiting facial actions involved in specific expressions. Our results suggest that valence-congruent expressions emerge in infancy during a period where the decoding of facial expressions becomes increasingly sensitive to the social signal value of emotions.

  3. Use of complementary and alternative medicines associated with a 30% lower ongoing pregnancy/live birth rate during 12 months of fertility treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boivin, J; Schmidt, L

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND There seems to be little discussion between patient and physician about the use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs), perhaps because they are not perceived to have adverse effects on fertility. We therefore compared ongoing pregnancy and live birth rate in spontaneous users......, years infertile). CONCLUSIONS Concurrent use of CAM during treatment with ART was associated with a 30% lower pregnancy rate that could not be explained by poor prognosis or life style factors. The mechanisms that could account for this association were discussed. Concurrent CAM use should be monitored...... women about to have ART for the first time completed self-report assessments prior to treatment (Time 1, T1) and at 12-month follow-up (Time 2, T2). Data from treatment records were also available for n = 590. RESULTS About 30.6% (n = 223) of women used CAMs during the observation period. At T2...

  4. Moderate alcohol consumption and waiting time to pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Grønbæk, Morten

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent research indicates that even a moderate consumption of alcohol in women trying to become pregnant is associated with longer waiting time to pregnancy. The findings, though, are based upon few observations. METHODS: Self-reported data on alcohol intake and waiting time...... to pregnancy (0-2, 3-5, 6-12 and >12 months) was used for 39 612 pregnant women, recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort within the first 24 weeks of pregnancy from 1997 to 2000. Main outcome measures were odds ratios (OR) for a prolonged waiting time to pregnancy according to alcohol intake. RESULTS......: In nulliparous women neither moderate nor high alcohol intake was related with longer waiting time to pregnancy compared with a low intake. In parous women, a modest association was seen only among those with an intake of >14 drinks per week (subfecundity OR 1.3; 95% confidence interval 1.0-1.7). Women who...

  5. Insecure attachment and college-age alcohol use disorders. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, Kimberly M

    2006-01-01

    Teens and young adults with insecure attachment may be remarkably susceptible to alcohol and substance use disorders. Particularly in the separation process of leaving-home and entering college, an underlying insecure attachment may manifest through symptoms of alcohol or drug abuse; as these young adults engage in what is perceived to be adult drinking behavior, they become too "attached" to the alcohol as a substitute for earlier, sporadically-available objects (usually parents). That is, they enact a similar relationship to this drug that they may have learned to have with an insecure parent: too close at times, but ultimately fostering guilt, dependence and destructive action. Fear of abandonment, rejection and negative judgment may be intensified in this age group as they struggle at the cusp of independence, but these issues are particularly relevant for insecurely attached teens. In this report, attachment theory is briefly described and applied to the assessment and treatment of a college freshman diagnosed with an alcohol use disorder. By engaging the patient in evaluating her actions and motives through the attachment model, the therapy helps her to channel help-seeking behavior appropriately, to establish expectations for consistency and reliability from significant people in her life and to feel safer without turning to alcohol as a crutch. An argument is made for the general application of attachment theory to alcohol and drug use disorders in this significant phase of young adult development.

  6. Self-guided internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT for obsessive–compulsive disorder: 12 month follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany M. Wootton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT may reduce barriers to treatment faced by people with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD. To date, most research on iCBT for OCD has evaluated clinician-guided treatments. However, self-guided treatments, which do not involve contact with a clinician, have considerable public health potential and may be particularly advantageous for those patients who report stigma as a principal barrier to treatment. The findings of a recent trial of self-guided iCBT for symptoms of OCD highlighted the potential of this approach and found large within-group effect sizes from pre- to post-treatment on the YBOCS-SR (d = 1.37, sustained at 3-month follow-up (d = 1.17. In addition, 32% of participants met criteria for clinically significant change at 3-month follow-up. The present study reports the long-term outcomes of that trial (N = 28. Twelve out of 28 participants (43% completed the 12 month follow-up. A large within-group effect size was found on the YBOCS-SR (d = 1.08 and 33% met criteria for clinically significant change at 12-month follow-up. No significant changes in symptoms were found between 3-month follow-up and 12-month follow-up, demonstrating that participants maintained their treatment gains in the long term. These results add to the emerging literature supporting the potential of self-guided iCBT for individuals with symptoms of OCD.

  7. Psychiatric disorders in students in six French universities: 12-month prevalence, comorbidity, impairment and help-seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Pierre; Guagliardo, Valérie; Gilbert, Fabien; Rouillon, Frédéric; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane

    2010-02-01

    Few studies have explored the prevalence of psychiatric disorders (PD) among university students. This article aims to study 12-month prevalence of PD in university students, their socio-economic correlates, impairment in daily life and help-seeking behaviours. Cross-sectional study of randomly selected first-year students aged 18-24 years, enrolled in one of the six universities in south-eastern France in 2005-2006. We used the WHO CIDI-Short Form to derive DSM-IV diagnoses and the Sheehan disability scale to evaluate impairment. We studied their correlates with multiple logistic regressions. The 12-month prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety disorders (AD) and substance use disorders (SUD) were 8.9% (95% CI: 7.2-10.9), 15.7% (95% CI: 13.5-18.2) and 8.1% (95% CI: 6.7-9.8), respectively. MDD was associated with precarious economic situation (OR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.03-3.23), AD with a precarious job or unemployment of the father (OR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.04-4.14) and SUD with higher educational level of father (OR = 2.17; 95% CI: 1.28-3.67) or having a paid job (OR = 1.82; 95% CI: 1.06-3.13). "Marked" or "extreme" impairment (score > or =7 for at least one of the domains in the Sheehan scale) was noted for 51.7% of students presenting a PD and was even more frequent in the presence of MDD/AD comorbidity. Only 30.5% of the students with a PD had sought professional help in the past 12 months. This study provides new results regarding university students suggesting a link between precarious economic situations and MDD. The frequent impairment arising from PD alongside low rates of help-seeking suggests that PD could be one of the factors in academic failure in first year of university. These results should be used to improve prevention and care of PD in university students in France.

  8. TEMPERAMENT AND BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS AMONG INFANTS IN ALCOHOLIC FAMILIES

    OpenAIRE

    EDWARDS, ELLEN PETERSON; LEONARD, KENNETH E.; EIDEN, RINA DAS

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the association between paternal alcoholism and 12-month infant temperament and 18-month behavior problems. The role of associated parental psychopathology and maternal drinking in exacerbating risk for maladaptive behavioral outcomes was also examined. Participants were 213 families (102 control families, 94 paternal alcoholic families, and 17 families with alcoholic fathers and heavy drinking mothers) who were assessed when their child was 12 months old and reassessed ag...

  9. Thought Field Therapy Compared to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Wait-List for Agoraphobia: A Randomized, Controlled Study with a 12-Month Follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audun C. Irgens

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thought field therapy (TFT is used for many psychiatric conditions, but its efficacy has not been sufficiently documented. Hence, there is a need for studies comparing TFT to well-established treatments. This study compares the efficacy of TFT and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT for patients with agoraphobia.Methods: Seventy-two patients were randomized to CBT (N = 24, TFT (N = 24 or a wait-list condition (WLC (N = 24 after a diagnostic procedure including the MINI PLUS that was performed before treatment or WLC. Following a 3 months waiting period, the WL patients were randomized to CBT (n = 12 or TFT (n = 12, and all patients were reassessed after treatment or waiting period and at 12 months follow-up. At first we compared the three groups CBT, TFT, and WL. After the post WL randomization, we compared CBT (N = 12 + 24 = 36 to TFT (N = 12 + 24 = 36, applying the pre-treatment scores as baseline for all patients. The primary outcome measure was a symptom score from the Anxiety Disorders Interview Scale that was performed by an interviewer blinded to the treatment condition. For statistical comparisons, we used the independent sample’s t-test, the Fisher’s exact test and the ANOVA and ANCOVA tests.Results: Both CBT and TFT showed better results than the WLC (p < 0.001 at post-treatment. Post-treatment and at the 12-month follow-up, there were not significant differences between CBT and TFT (p = 0.33 and p = 0.90, respectively.Conclusion: This paper reports the first study comparing TFT to CBT for any disorder. The study indicated that TFT may be an efficient treatment for patients with agoraphobia.Trial Registration:https://clinicaltrials.gov/, identifier NCT00932919.

  10. TEMPERAMENTAL ADAPTABILITY, PERSISTENCE, AND REGULARITY: PARENTAL RATINGS OF NORWEGIAN INFANTS AGED 6 TO 12 MONTHS, WITH SOME IMPLICATIONS FOR PREVENTIVE PRACTICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsen, Kåre S; Ulvund, Stein Erik; Torgersen, Anne Mari; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Smith, Lars; Moe, Vibeke

    2018-03-01

    There is a need for standardized measures of infant temperament to strengthen current practices in prevention and early intervention. The present study provides Norwegian data on the Cameron-Rice Infant Temperament Questionnaire (CRITQ; J.R. Cameron & D.C. Rice, 1986a), which comprises 46 items and is used within a U.S. health maintenance organization. The CRITQ was filled out by mothers and fathers at 6 and again at 12 months as part of a longitudinal study of mental health during the first years of life (the "Little in Norway" study, N = 1,041 families enrolled; V. Moe & L. Smith, 2010). Results showed that internal consistencies were comparable with U.S. The temperament dimensions of persistence, adaptability, and regularity had acceptable or close-to-acceptable reliabilities in the U.S. study as well as in this study, and also were unifactorial in confirmatory factor analysis. These dimensions are the focus in this article. Findings concerning parents' differential ratings of their infants on the three dimensions are reported, as is the stability of parents' ratings of temperament from 6 to 12 months. In addition, results on the relation between temperament and parenting stress are presented. The study suggests that temperamental adaptability, persistence, and regularity may be relevant when assessing infant behavior, and may be applied in systematic prevention trials for families with infants. The inclusion of concepts related to individual differences in response tendencies and regulatory efforts may broaden the understanding of parent-infant transactions, and thus enrich prevention and sensitizing interventions with the aim of assisting infants' development. © 2018 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  11. THE FIRST RUSSIAN STRATEGIC STUDY OF PHARMACOTHERAPY FOR RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS (REMARCA TRIAL: RESULTS OF 12-MONTH TREATMENT IN 130 PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Karateev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To introduce treat-to-target recommendations is an important task of modern rheumatology; however, there is still a diversity of serious problems relating to a scientific rationale and a clinical one for this strategy and to the possibilities of its implementation in real clinical practice, in the rheumatology service of the Russian Federation in particular, by taking into account the specific features of funding for high-tech medical care.Objective: to determine the efficiency and safety of combined therapy with subcutaneous methotrexate (MT and biological agents (BA when using the treat-to-target strategy in patients with active early and extended-stage rheumatoid arthritis (RA who have risk factors for a poor prognosis.Subjects and methods.The results of the REMARCA (Russian InvEstigation of MethotrexAte and biologicals in eaRly aCtive inflammatory Arthritis trial of 130 patients followed up for 12 months or more were given. There was a female preponderance; mean age 48.9±13.9 years, rheumatoid factor positivity (86.9%; anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody positivity (89.2%. Seventy patients formed a subgroup of early RA (disease duration ≤6 months (mean 4.17±1.39 months; 60 patients were a subgroup of advanced-stage RA (disease duration >6 months (mean 30.8±32.7 months. In all the patients, therapy was initiated by using subcutaneous MT with its rapid dose escalation up to 20–30 mg/week and the achievement of the treatment goal (low disease activity or remission was checked every 3 months and depending on the result a decision had been taken to add or not to add a biological agent (BA (a tumor necrosis factor inhibitor or abatacept. If the former was insufficiently effective, it was substituted for a BA from another class.Results. Subcutaneous MT monotherapy provided remission or low disease activity in 49 (37.7% patients; a BA was given to 81 (62.3% patients. Following 6 and 12 months, low activity or remission

  12. THE FIRST RUSSIAN STRATEGIC STUDY OF PHARMACOTHERAPY FOR RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS (REMARCA TRIAL: RESULTS OF 12-MONTH TREATMENT IN 130 PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Karatee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To introduce treat-to-target recommendations is an important task of modern rheumatology; however, there is still a diversity of serious problems relating to a scientific rationale and a clinical one for this strategy and to the possibilitiesof its implementation in real clinical practice, in the rheumatology service of the Russian Federation in particular, by taking into account the specific features of funding for high-tech medical care.Objective: to determine the efficiency and safety of combined therapy with subcutaneous methotrexate (MT and biological agents (BA when using the treat-to-target strategy in patients with active early and extended-stage rheumatoid arthritis (RA who have risk factors for a poor prognosis.Subjects and methods. The results of the REMARCA (Russian InvEstigation of MethotrexAte and biologicals in eaRly aCtive inflammatory Arthritis trial of 130 patients followed up for 12 months or more were given. There was a female preponderance; mean age 48.9±13.9 years, rheumatoid factor positivity (86.9%; anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide anti body positivity (89.2%. Seventy patients formed a subgroup of early RA (disease duration ≤6 months (mean 4.17±1.39 months; 60 patients were a subgroup of advanced-stage RA (disease duration >6 months (mean 30.8±32.7 months. In all the patients, therapy was initiated by using subcutaneous MT with its rapid dose escalation up to 20–30 mg/week and the achievement of the treatment goal (low disease activity or remission was checked every 3 months and depending on the result a decision had been taken to add or not to add a biological agent (BA (a tumor necrosis factor inhibitor or abatacept. If the former was insufficientlyeffective, it was substituted for a BA from another class.Results. Subcutaneous MT monotherapy provided remission or low disease activity in 49 (37.7% patients; a BA was given to 81 (62.3% patients. Following 6 and 12 months, low activity or remission according to

  13. Use of deuterium oxide to measure breast milk intake in children aged 7-12 months receiving complementary foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creed-Kanashiro, H.

    2000-01-01

    In the present study we performed a pilot study using deuterium oxide method to determine the breast-milk intake in children 7-12 months of age receiving complementary food. This is applied to a community efficacy study to determine the effects on total energy and nutrient intake and on breast-milk consumption of an intensive education intervention using locally available, culturally acceptable complementary foods. We determined the washout period for the deuterium finding a value of 21 days for the mother and child. This measurement was performed using the infrared spectrometer of the Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional and compared with the values obtained with the IR Mass Spectrometer of INTA Chile. The test weighing was conduced on 14 children and compared with the values obtained using the deuterium methodology. Our result suggest that the breast milk intake determined by the weighing test was lower with regard to the value obtained with the deuterium methodology. (author)

  14. Use of deuterium oxide to measure breast milk intake in children aged 7-12 months receiving complementary foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creed-Kanashiro, H [Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional, La Molina, Lima (Peru)

    2000-07-01

    In the present study we performed a pilot study using deuterium oxide method to determine the breast-milk intake in children 7-12 months of age receiving complementary food. This is applied to a community efficacy study to determine the effects on total energy and nutrient intake and on breast-milk consumption of an intensive education intervention using locally available, culturally acceptable complementary foods. We determined the washout period for the deuterium finding a value of 21 days for the mother and child. This measurement was performed using the infrared spectrometer of the Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional and compared with the values obtained with the IR Mass Spectrometer of INTA Chile. The test weighing was conduced on 14 children and compared with the values obtained using the deuterium methodology. Our result suggest that the breast milk intake determined by the weighing test was lower with regard to the value obtained with the deuterium methodology. (author)

  15. Work stress and alcohol consumption among adolescents: moderation by family and peer influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianfang C; Keyes, Katherine M; Li, Guohua

    2014-12-18

    Excessive alcohol use in adolescence can be detrimental to health and academic performance. Few studies consider the moderating effects of parental and peer influence within the context of adolescent work outside of the school environment. This study aims to examine work stress among adolescents and the association with alcohol use and drunkenness, in the context of parental and peer influences. Grade 12 students who participated in Monitoring the Future surveys between 2005 and 2009 (n = 12,341) were included in this study. Independent variables included work stress (job satisfaction, perceived safety, and perceived safety of possessions), self-reported perceptions towards academics and influence from parents and peers. Frequency of alcohol use and drunkenness were measured for lifetime, last 30 days and 12 months. The moderating effects of academic aspiration, parental, and peer influence were assessed on the relationship between work stress and alcohol use. Any work stress was positively associated with alcohol use over the past 12 months (odds ratio = 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.23). Stratified analysis found that peer influence significantly moderated the relationship between work stress and alcohol use over the lifetime and past 12 months. Among adolescents with work stress, odds ratios of alcohol use over the lifetime was 0.83 (95% CI 0.71-0.97) for those with low negative peer influence and 1.09 (95% CI 0.97-1.22) for those with high negative peer influence. Problematic drinking patterns were more apparent among high school students who experienced stress at work. Positive peer influence, however, may buffer the adverse effect of work stress on alcohol use.

  16. Retention of fissure sealants in young permanent molars affected by dental fluorosis: a 12-month clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuddin, S; Reddy, E R; Manjula, M; Srilaxmi, N; Rani, S T; Rajesh, A

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate and compare retention and caries occurance following placement of Clinpro and FUJI VII fissure sealants, by two different techniques simultaneously in unsealed, contralateral young permanent molars of 7- to 10-year-old children affected by mild to moderate dental fluorosis at various recall intervals of 1 week, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. 80 schoolchildren with mild to moderate dental fluorosis were assigned to Group A and Group B with 40 children in each group. In Group A Clinpro fissure sealant and in Group B Fuji VII fissure sealant was used. In both the groups fissure sealants were applied by conventional fissure sealant technique (CST) on one side and enameloplasty sealant technique (EST) on the other side of the same arch. The applied fissure sealants were evaluated clinically for retention and caries incidence. Clinpro fissure sealant showed a retention rate of 95% when compared with Fuji VII (57.5%) at the end of 12 months, which was statistically significant. Regarding techniques, EST showed better results than CST in both the groups. Comparison of groups with respect to retention and techniques at different time periods was performed using Mann-Whitney U test (p < 0.05). Comparison of different time periods with respect to retention and technique in all the groups was performed using Wilcoxon matched pairs test by ranks (p < 0.05). Clinpro fissure sealant showed better retention at all treatment intervals, when compared with Fuji VII. Further follow-up is required to study the efficacy of the fissure sealant placement techniques.

  17. Oral hygiene and gingival health in patients with fixed prosthodontic appliances--a 12-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolan, Sladana Milardović; Viskić, Josko; Stefancić, Sanja; Sitar, Ksenija Rener; Vojvodić, Denis; Mehulić, Ketij

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and observe the oral hygiene and gingival condition in patients before and after fixed prosthodontic therapy through a 12-month period in combination with oral hygiene instructions. It was also analysed how factors, such as type of fixed prosthodontic appliance, constructive material, the position of a fixed partial denture (FPD) in the mouth, age and gender influenced oral hygiene. The dental arches were divided into three segments each and teeth and gingiva were examined using the Plaque and Gingiva Index by Silness and Löe, and for the mineralized deposits assessment the Calculus Index by Green and Vermillion was employed. The preliminary examination was conducted before the prosthodontic therapy, and the reexaminations were carried out 14 days, 1, 6 and 12 months after crown and/or FPD placement. A total of 93 subjects from the original study group of 146 patients attended all clinical examinations, while the rest was excluded. The sample consisted of 60 women, 33 men at age between 21 and 95 (average 51.8). A total of 39 patients had single crowns (C), 50 FPDs and 5 C+FPD. The frequency of plaque found during the preliminary visit was higher than that found in the other periods (p oral hygiene levels than patients with FPDs or C+FPDs (p = 0.001). Our results revealed no significant difference in oral hygiene status among patients with FPDs made of different materials (p = 0.083). The worst hygiene levels were found in patients with fixed prosthodontic appliances in both jaws (p = 0.012). Younger patients showed better hygiene levels than the older ones (p = 0.002). Our research showed that appropriate educational and motivational measures can lead to improved oral hygiene, even after FPD placement. Presumably, the oral health in a group of adult patients can be kept acceptable by providing a prophylactic oral hygiene program.

  18. Rapid response predicts 12-month post-treatment outcomes in binge-eating disorder: theoretical and clinical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, C. M.; White, M. A.; Wilson, G. T.; Gueorguieva, R.; Masheb, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background We examined rapid response in obese patients with binge-eating disorder (BED) in a clinical trial testing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and behavioral weight loss (BWL). Method Altogether, 90 participants were randomly assigned to CBT or BWL. Assessments were performed at baseline, throughout and post-treatment and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Rapid response, defined as ≥70% reduction in binge eating by week four, was determined by receiver operating characteristic curves and used to predict outcomes. Results Rapid response characterized 57% of participants (67% of CBT, 47% of BWL) and was unrelated to most baseline variables. Rapid response predicted greater improvements across outcomes but had different prognostic significance and distinct time courses for CBT versus BWL. Patients receiving CBT did comparably well regardless of rapid response in terms of reduced binge eating and eating disorder psychopathology but did not achieve weight loss. Among patients receiving BWL, those without rapid response failed to improve further. However, those with rapid response were significantly more likely to achieve binge-eating remission (62% v. 13%) and greater reductions in binge-eating frequency, eating disorder psychopathology and weight loss. Conclusions Rapid response to treatment in BED has prognostic significance through 12-month follow-up, provides evidence for treatment specificity and has clinical implications for stepped-care treatment models for BED. Rapid responders who receive BWL benefit in terms of both binge eating and short-term weight loss. Collectively, these findings suggest that BWL might be a candidate for initial intervention in stepped-care models with an evaluation of progress after 1 month to identify non-rapid responders who could be advised to consider a switch to a specialized treatment. PMID:21923964

  19. Factors promoting health-related quality of life in people with rheumatic diseases: a 12 month longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Rheumatic diseases have a significant adverse impact on the individual from physical, mental and social aspects, resulting in a low health-related quality of life (HRQL). There is a lack of longitudinal studies on HRQL in people with rheumatic diseases that focus on factors promoting HRQL instead of risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between suggested health promoting factors at baseline and outcome in HRQL at a 12 month follow-up in people with rheumatic diseases. Methods A longitudinal cohort study was conducted in 185 individuals with rheumatic diseases with questionnaires one week and 12 months after rehabilitation in a Swedish rheumatology clinic. HRQL was assessed by SF-36 together with suggested health factors. The associations between SF-36 subscales and the health factors were analysed by multivariable logistic regressions. Results Factors predicting better outcome in HRQL in one or several SF-36 subscales were being younger or middle-aged, feeling painless, having good sleep structure, feeling rested after sleep, performing low effort of exercise more than twice per week, having strong sense of coherence (SOC), emotional support and practical assistance, higher educational level and work capacity. The most important factors were having strong SOC, feeling rested after sleep, having work capacity, being younger or middle-aged, and having good sleep structure. Conclusions This study identified several factors that promoted a good outcome in HRQL to people with rheumatic diseases. These health factors could be important to address in clinical work with rheumatic diseases in order to optimise treatment strategies. PMID:21599884

  20. Dietary Pattern Trajectories from 6 to 12 Months of Age in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Geraldine Huini; Toh, Jia Ying; Aris, Izzuddin M; Chia, Ai-Ru; Han, Wee Meng; Saw, Seang Mei; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Lee, Yung Seng; Kramer, Michael S; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2016-06-15

    Little is known about the dietary patterns of Asian infants in the first year of life, nor of their associations with maternal socio-demographic factors. Based on the Growing Up in Singapore towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother-offspring cohort, cross-sectional dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis using 24-h recalls and food diaries of infants at 6-, 9- and 12-months of age. Dietary pattern trajectories were modeled by mapping similar dietary patterns across each age using multilevel mixed models. Associations with maternal socio-demographic variables, collected through questionnaires during pregnancy, were assessed using general linear models. In n = 486 infants, four dietary pattern trajectories were established from 6- to 12-months. Predominantly breastmilk: mainly breastmilk and less formula milk, rice porridge, vegetables, fruits and low-fat fish and meat, Easy-to-prepare foods: infant cereals, juices, cakes and biscuits and Noodles (in soup) and seafood: noodle and common accompaniments. In adjusted models, higher maternal education attainment was correlated with higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk, but lowest education attainment increased its adherence over time. Older mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods, but younger mothers had increased adherence over time. Chinese mothers had higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk but greater adherence to GUIDELINES over time, while Indian mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods but greater adherence to Predominantly breastmilk with time (p dietary patterns established during weaning are strongly influenced by maternal socio-demographic factors and remain stable over the first year of life.

  1. Effects of Different Dietary and Lifestyle Modification Therapies on Metabolic Syndrome in Prediabetic Arab Patients: A 12-Month Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan A. Alfawaz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This three-arm, randomized, controlled study aimed to determine the differences in the effects of general advice (GA on lifestyle change, intensive lifestyle modification programme (ILMP and GA + metformin (GA + Met in reducing the prevalence of full metabolic syndrome (MetS in subjects with prediabetes; 294 Saudis with prediabetes (fasting glucose 5.6–6.9 mmol/L were initially randomized, 263 completed 6 months and 237 completed 12 months. They were allocated into three groups: GA group which received a standard lifestyle change education; ILMP which followed a rigorous lifestyle modification support on diet and physical activity; and a GA + Met group. Anthropometric and biochemical estimations were measured. Full MetS (primary endpoint and its components (secondary endpoint were screened at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Full MetS in the ILMP group decreased by 26% (p < 0.001; in GA + Met group by 22.4% (p = 0.01 and in GA group by 8.2% (p = 0.28. The number of MetS components decreased significantly in the ILMP and GA + Met groups (mean change 0.81, p < 0.001 and 0.35, p = 0.05, respectively. Between-group comparison revealed a clinically significant decrease in MetS components in favor of the ILMP group (−0.58 (−0.88–0.28, p < 0.001. This study highlights the clinical potency of ILMP versus other diabetes prevention options in reducing MetS in Saudi adults with elevated fasting glucose.

  2. Self-reported alcohol use and binge drinking in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    January 2018, Vol. 108, No. 1. RESEARCH. Of the 48 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO). African region, South Africa (SA) had the highest per capita alcohol .... SA, focusing primarily on demographics, labour market participation, ..... of male drinkers reported binge drinking, while 32.4% of female drinkers ...

  3. Retrofit Weight-Loss Outcomes at 6, 12, and 24 Months and Characteristics of 12-Month High Performers: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Stefanie; Ditsch, Gary; Ahmed, Rezwan; Hanson, Nicholas Buck; Kachin, Kevin; Berger, Jan

    2016-08-22

    Obesity is the leading cause of preventable death costing the health care system billions of dollars. Combining self-monitoring technology with personalized behavior change strategies results in clinically significant weight loss. However, there is a lack of real-world outcomes in commercial weight-loss program research. Retrofit is a personalized weight management and disease-prevention solution. This study aimed to report Retrofit's weight-loss outcomes at 6, 12, and 24 months and characterize behaviors, age, and sex of high-performing participants who achieved weight loss of 10% or greater at 12 months. A retrospective analysis was performed from 2011 to 2014 using 2720 participants enrolled in a Retrofit weight-loss program. Participants had a starting body mass index (BMI) of >25 kg/m² and were at least 18 years of age. Weight measurements were assessed at 6, 12, and 24 months in the program to evaluate change in body weight, BMI, and percentage of participants who achieved 5% or greater weight loss. A secondary analysis characterized high-performing participants who lost ≥10% of their starting weight (n=238). Characterized behaviors were evaluated, including self-monitoring through weigh-ins, number of days wearing an activity tracker, daily step count average, and engagement through coaching conversations via Web-based messages, and number of coaching sessions attended. Average weight loss at 6 months was -5.55% for male and -4.86% for female participants. Male and female participants had an average weight loss of -6.28% and -5.37% at 12 months, respectively. Average weight loss at 24 months was -5.03% and -3.15% for males and females, respectively. Behaviors of high-performing participants were assessed at 12 months. Number of weigh-ins were greater in high-performing male (197.3 times vs 165.4 times, P=.001) and female participants (222 times vs 167 times, Pactivity tracker days and average steps per day were greater in high-performing females (304.7 vs

  4. Intimate Partner Aggression Reporting Concordance and Correlates of Agreement among Men with Alcohol Use Disorders and Their Female Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuzio, Jillian; O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Marshall, Amy D.; Murphy, Christopher M.; Murphy, Marie; Taft, Casey T.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined relationship aggression reporting concordance among 303 men with alcohol use disorders and their female partners enrolled in couples-based alcohol abuse treatment. Agreement for physical and psychological aggression was generally consistent with, or higher than, concordance rates reported among other populations. Men's…

  5. Comparison of Student Self-Reported and Administrative Data regarding Intercession into Alcohol Misuse among College Freshmen Dormitory Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novik, Melinda G.; Boekeloo, Bradley O.

    2013-01-01

    Intercession into collegiate alcohol misuse by the Department of Resident Life (DRL) in freshmen dormitories at one large Mid-Atlantic, diverse, public university was examined. Freshmen dormitory resident drinkers (n = 357), 71% of whom reported alcohol misuse, were surveyed. Student self-report and DRL documentation, respectively, revealed that…

  6. The case of H.S.: the ethics of reporting alcohol dependence in a bus driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karol, David E; Schuermeyer, Isabel N; Brooker, Craig A

    2007-01-01

    The physician's duty to preserve patient confidentiality is challenged when doing so may endanger third parties. We present the case of a bus driver whose alcohol dependence raised concerns of a risk not only to his own health and safety, but to public safety as well. We first examine the legal and ethical obligations to report his alcohol use to his employer and then stress the importance of weighing the potential harm of violating patient-physician confidentiality against the severity of risk to the general public.

  7. Narcolepsy induced by chronic heavy alcohol consumption: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyuan

    2012-01-01

    Summary Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological disorder, characterized by uncontrollable excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplectic episodes, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, and night time sleep disruption. The paper reviewed the related literature and reported a case of long-term drinking induced narcolepsy which was significantly improved after treatment with paroxetine and dexzopiclone. PMID:25328357

  8. Case report : tuberculosis liver abscess in male alcoholism patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, W. P.; Ginting, F.

    2018-03-01

    A liver abscess often occurs in low-middle income countries such as Indonesia. Two most common liver abscesses are amoebic and pyogenic liver abscess. Data that reported tuberculosis liver abscess (TLA) is extremely rare. A diagnostic criterion for tuberculosis liver abscess is rare and remains unclear. A 52-year-old man developed a TLA which was not associated with any pulmonary or gastrointestinal tract foci of tuberculosis. An ultrasonogram and abdominal scan showed an abscess in the right lobe. We performed paracentesis, and the pus from the lesion was positive tubercular bacilli on acid-fast bacilli staining. The patient was started on systemic antitubercular therapy to which he responded favorably. This report emphasizes the fact that, although a TLA is a very rare entity, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of liver abscess especially in Indonesia where the prevalence of tuberculosis is extremely high.

  9. Trajectories of 12-Month Usage Patterns for Two Smoking Cessation Websites: Exploring How Users Engage Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Jonathan B; Sridharan, Vasundhara; Zhu, Yifan; Mull, Kristin E; Heffner, Jaimee L; Watson, Noreen L; McClure, Jennifer B; Di, Chongzhi

    2018-04-20

    Little is known about how individuals engage with electronic health (eHealth) interventions over time and whether this engagement predicts health outcomes. The objectives of this study, by using the example of a specific type of eHealth intervention (ie, websites for smoking cessation), were to determine (1) distinct groups of log-in trajectories over a 12-month period, (2) their association with smoking cessation, and (3) baseline user characteristics that predict trajectory group membership. We conducted a functional clustering analysis of 365 consecutive days of log-in data from both arms of a large (N=2637) randomized trial of 2 website interventions for smoking cessation (WebQuit and Smokefree), with a primary outcome of 30-day point prevalence smoking abstinence at 12 months. We conducted analyses for each website separately. A total of 3 distinct trajectory groups emerged for each website. For WebQuit, participants were clustered into 3 groups: 1-week users (682/1240, 55.00% of the sample), 5-week users (399/1240, 32.18%), and 52-week users (159/1240, 12.82%). Compared with the 1-week users, the 5- and 52-week users had 57% higher odds (odds ratio [OR] 1.57, 95% CI 1.13-2.17; P=.007) and 124% higher odds (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.45-3.43; Pusers were clustered into 3 groups: 1-week users (645/1309, 49.27% of the sample), 4-week users (395/1309, 30.18%), and 5-week users (269/1309, 20.55%). Compared with the 1-week users, 5-week users (but not 4-week users; P=.99) had 48% higher odds (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.05-2.07; P=.02) of being abstinent at 12 months. In general, the WebQuit intervention had a greater number of weekly log-ins within each of the 3 trajectory groups as compared with those of the Smokefree intervention. Baseline characteristics associated with trajectory group membership varied between websites. Patterns of 1-, 4-, and 5-week usage of websites may be common for how people engage in eHealth interventions. The 5-week usage of either website, and 52-week

  10. Newly identified psychiatric illness in one general practice: 12-month outcome and the influence of patients' personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A F; Anderson, A J

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Relatively little is known about the natural history and outcome of psychological problems in patients who present to general practitioners. Only a small proportion of such patients are seen by specialists. Clinical experience suggests that patient personality is one of the factors influencing outcome in patients diagnosed as having psychiatric illness. AIM. This study set out to examine prospectively the progress and 12-month outcome of patients with newly identified psychiatric illness, and the association of patients' personality with outcome. METHOD. One hundred and seventy one patients with clinically significant psychiatric illness attending one practice in a Scottish new town were followed up prospectively (96 presented with psychological symptoms and 75 with somatic symptoms), and were compared with a group of 127 patients with chronic physical illness. Patients were assessed in terms of psychiatric state, social problems and personality using both computer-based and pencil and paper tests in addition to clinical assessments at each consultation during the follow-up year and structured interview one year after recruitment. RESULTS. Most of the improvement in psychiatric state scores on the 28-item general health questionnaire occurred in the first six months of the illness. Of the 171 patients with psychiatric illness 34% improved quickly and remained well, 54% had an intermittent course but had improved at 12-month follow up while 12% pursued a chronic course without improvement. The mean number of consultations in the follow-up year was 8.4 for patients presenting with psychological symptoms, 7.2 for those presenting with somatic symptoms and 6.6 for patients with chronic physical illness. The Eysenck N score proved a strong predictor of the outcome of new psychiatric illness. CONCLUSION. Only one in three patients with newly identified psychiatric illness improved quickly and and remained well, reflecting the importance of continuing care of

  11. 12-month trajectories of depressive symptoms among nurses-Contribution of personality, job characteristics, coping, and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan-Porter, Wei; Hatch, Daniel; Pendergast, Jane F; Freude, Gabriele; Rose, Uwe; Burr, Hermann; Müller, Grit; Martus, Peter; Pohrt, Anne; Potter, Guy

    2018-07-01

    Job related factors have been associated with higher risk for developing depression, but past studies lacked full consideration of individual factors such as personality and coping. We sought to evaluate associations of personality, coping, job characteristics, and burnout with 12-month trajectories of depressive symptoms among nursing workers. Cohort of nursing workers (N = 281) in a private hospital system, with baseline assessments of personality, job characteristics, and coping. Burnout and depression were measured at baseline and during monthly follow-ups. Linear mixed modeling was used to examine contributions to between- and within-individual variation in monthly depressive symptoms. Personality trait of negative affectivity accounted for 36% of between-individual variation in depressive symptoms over 12 months, while job characteristics and coping explained an additional 5% and 8% of this variation, respectively. Exhaustion dimension of burnout was associated with between-individual variation in depressive symptoms (fixed effect β coefficient 2.44, p < 0.001), but not with within-individual variation in symptoms. Disengagement dimension of burnout was not associated with between-individual variation in depressive symptoms, but contributed to within-individual variation in depressive symptoms over time (fixed effect β coefficient 0.52, p = 0.01). Participants were nursing workers within a single hospital system. Participants who were excluded due to missing baseline data were more likely of non-white race, which may also limit the generalizability of our results. We used latent variables to represent certain job and coping characteristics, which may make our results less comparable with other studies examining the role of these factors in work-associated depression. Future interventions to prevent depression in healthcare workers should consider multiple job and individual factors. Potential components include strategies to manage negative

  12. Relapse and Craving in Alcohol-Dependent Individuals: A Comparison of Self-Reported Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelleman, Michelle; Schoenmakers, Tim M; van de Mheen, Dike

    2018-06-07

    Negative affective states and alcohol-related stimuli increase risk of relapse in alcohol dependence. In research and in clinical practice, craving is often used as another important indicator of relapse, but this lacks a firm empirical foundation. The goal of the present study is to explore and compare determinants for relapse and craving, using Marlatt's (1996) taxonomy of high risk situations as a template. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 alcohol-dependent patients about their most recent relapse and craving episodes. Interview transcripts were carefully reviewed for their thematic content, and codes capturing the thematic content were formulated. In total, we formulated 42 relapse-related codes and 33 craving-related codes. Descriptions of craving episodes revealed that these episodes vary in frequency and intensity. The presence of alcohol-related stimuli (n = 11) and experiencing a negative emotional state (n = 11) were often occurring determinants of craving episodes. Both negative emotional states (n = 17) and testing personal control (n = 11) were viewed as important determinants of relapses. Craving was seldom mentioned as a determinant for relapse. Additionally, participants reported multiple determinants preceding a relapse, whereas craving episodes were preceded by only one determinant. Patient reports do not support the claim that craving by itself is an important proximal determinant for relapse. In addition, multiple determinants were present before a relapse. Therefore, future research should focus on a complexity of different determinants.

  13. Outcomes after foot surgery in people with a diabetic foot ulcer and a 12-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenselink, E; Holloway, S; Eefting, D

    2017-05-02

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively measure the outcomes of foot-sparing surgery at one year follow-up for patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). We assessed wound healing and the need for further surgery in relation to the variables that influence healing. Data were retrospectively collected by reviewing the electronic files of patients attending the Wound Expert Clinic (WEC). Outcomes of surgical debridement, toe, ray and transmetatarsal amputations were assessed. A total of 129 cases in 121 patients were identified for inclusion. The results demonstrated that complete wound healing was reached in 52% (61/117) of the patients within 12 months. The need for additional surgery or for major amputation was 56% (n=72/129) and 30% (n=39/129) respectively. The need for an additional procedure was particularly high after surgical debridement (75%, 33/44) and transmetatarsal amputation (64%, 7/11). Risk factors for non-healing or for a major amputation were: infection (p=0.01), ischaemia (p=0.01), a history of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (p<0.01) and smoking (p=0.01). Additional findings were that not all patients underwent vascular assessment and in half of the patients there was a delay in undergoing revascularisation. The results of the study reveal some areas for improvement including timely revascularisation and performance of multiple debridement procedures if needed in order to save a limb.

  14. The economic burden of opioid prescription by dentists: A 12-month survey of consumer expenditure in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Tulio Eduardo; Lino, Patrícia Azevedo; Martins, Maria Auxiliadora Parreiras; Silva, Maria Elisa Souza; Leles, Claudio Rodrigues; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães

    2017-09-01

    To describe consumer expenditure on opioids prescribed by dentists in Brazil during a 12-month period. We surveyed individual dispensed prescriptions of opioids in private pharmacies from October 2012 to September 2013. A descriptive analysis of costs included a calculation of the overall and mean maximum price to consumers. Monetary costs were converted from local currency units (Brazilian Real - BRL) to international dollars using purchasing power parity (PPP) exchanging rates. 129,708 prescriptions were retrieved from the database. The overall expenditure on opioids was R$4,316,383.46 BRL or $2,721,315.82 (PPP). The mean cost of an individual prescription was R$33.27 BRL ($20.98 PPP), ranging from 14.19 to 3,255.60 BRL. Codeine was frequently prescribed (87.2 percent). The expenditure on opioids is a significant cost to Brazilian patients, especially given that the Brazilian Public Health System should dispense these drugs free of charge. Codeine was the most prescribed opioid. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  15. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF NUTRITION ON PHYSICAL AND NEUROPSYCHICAL DEVELOPMENT OF INFANTS: RESULTS OF 12-MONTHS OBSERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Legon’kova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic ingredient of normal nutrition in infants is breast milk. If breast feeding is impossible the choice of artificial feeding formula should be made taking into account the qualities of formula which must be extremely close to that ones of breast milk. Objectives: to evaluate of state of health of infants having breast and artificial feeding. Methods: effectiveness and tolerance to adopted formula «Nutrilon Comfort» compared to standard milk formula and breast milk were analyzed. Dynamics of physical and neuro-psychical development of children was observed during 12 months. The cases of infectious diseases and tolerance to artificial feeding formulas were estimated. Results: prolonged observation of children from the group of adopted formula with immunomodulatory factors (long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and prebiotics showed its complex action (influence on physical, neuro-psychical development and infectious morbidity is similar to that one of breast feeding. Acute respiratory infections and atopic dermatitis in children having breast feeding and adopted formula developed rarely than in children from group of standard formula (p < 0.05. Conclusion: nutrition with «Nutrilon Comfort» formula in cases when breast feeding is impossible allows child’s development similar to children with breast feeding.

  16. Use of deuterium oxide to measure breast-milk intake in children aged 7 to 12 months receiving complementary foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creed-Kanashiro, H.

    1999-01-01

    The present study is being conducted to pilot the use of the deuterium oxide method for the measurement of breast-milk intake in children 7 - 12 months of age receiving complementary foods. This will be applied to a community efficacy study to determine the effects on total energy and nutrient intake and on breast-milk consumption of an intensive education intervention using locally available, culturally acceptable complementary foods. In order to apply the methodology to this evaluation the washout period of deuterium from the mother and the child after the administration of a dose to the mother is being determined and the comparison of this methodology with the test weighing technique for breast-milk intake. The measurement of deuterium oxide using the infrared spectrometer of the Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional [IIN] is being compared with the IR Mass Spectrometer of INTA Chile. During the present period we have conducted a pilot study to measure breast-milk intake using deuterium oxide in 9 mother-child pairs of children aged 7 - 11 months of age; samples of saliva have been taken for analyses. One child has completed the 28 days of the study and 8 children are in process. Test weighing for 48 hours has been conducted on 5 children; unadjusted breast-milk intake ranges from 589 to 682 g per 24 hours. The samples are awaiting analysis for deuterium oxide. (author)

  17. The progression of 102 Brazilian patients with bipolar disorder: outcome of first 12 months of prospective follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Novis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Prospective studies have shown that the course of bipolar disorder (BD is characterized by the persistence of symptoms, predominantly depression, along most of the time. However, to our knowledge, no studies in Latin America have investigated it. OBJECTIVES: To replicate international studies using a Brazilian sample to prospectively analyze treatment outcomes in the first year and to determine potential chronicity factors. METHODS: We followed up 102 patients with BD for 12 months and evaluated the number of months with affective episodes and the intensity of manic and depressive symptoms using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS and the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D17. Sociodemographic and retrospective clinical data were examined to determine possible predictors of outcome. RESULTS: Almost 50% of the patients had symptoms about half of the time, and there was a predominance of depressive episodes. Disease duration and number of depressive episodes were predictors of chronicity. Depressive polarity of the first episode and a higher number of depressive episodes predicted the occurrence of new depressive episodes. CONCLUSION: In general, BD outcome seems to be poor in the first year of monitoring, despite adequate treatment. There is a predominance of depressive symptoms, and previous depressive episodes are a predictor of new depressive episodes and worse outcome.

  18. Use of deuterium oxide to measure breast-milk intake in children aged 7 to 12 months receiving complementary foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creed-Kanashiro, H [Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional, La Molina, Lima (Peru)

    1999-09-01

    The present study is being conducted to pilot the use of the deuterium oxide method for the measurement of breast-milk intake in children 7 - 12 months of age receiving complementary foods. This will be applied to a community efficacy study to determine the effects on total energy and nutrient intake and on breast-milk consumption of an intensive education intervention using locally available, culturally acceptable complementary foods. In order to apply the methodology to this evaluation the washout period of deuterium from the mother and the child after the administration of a dose to the mother is being determined and the comparison of this methodology with the test weighing technique for breast-milk intake. The measurement of deuterium oxide using the infrared spectrometer of the Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional [IIN] is being compared with the IR Mass Spectrometer of INTA Chile. During the present period we have conducted a pilot study to measure breast-milk intake using deuterium oxide in 9 mother-child pairs of children aged 7 - 11 months of age; samples of saliva have been taken for analyses. One child has completed the 28 days of the study and 8 children are in process. Test weighing for 48 hours has been conducted on 5 children; unadjusted breast-milk intake ranges from 589 to 682 g per 24 hours. The samples are awaiting analysis for deuterium oxide. (author) 37 refs, 3 tabs

  19. Baseline Shoulder Ultrasonography Is Not a Predictive Marker of Response to Glucocorticoids in Patients with Polymyalgia Rheumatica: A 12-month Followup Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, Maria Concetta; Zoli, Angelo; Peluso, Giusy; Bosello, Silvia; Gremese, Elisa; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated whether ultrasound (US) subdeltoid bursitis (SB) and/or biceps tenosynovitis (BT) presence at baseline could represent a predictive marker of response to standard therapy after 12 months of followup, and whether a positive US examination could highlight the need of higher maintenance dosage of glucocorticoids (GC) at 6 and 12 months in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). Sixty-six consecutive patients with PMR underwent bilateral shoulder US evaluations before starting therapy and after 12 months of followup. Absence of girdle pain and morning stiffness (clinical remission) and laboratory variables were evaluated. After diagnosis, all patients were treated with prednisone. At baseline, SB and/or BT were present in 46 patients (70%), of whom 33 (72%) became negative while 13 (28%) remained positive at the 12-month US evaluation. All patients rapidly achieved a clinical remission, and at 6 months 26 (39%) also achieved a laboratory variable normalization. According to US positivity at baseline, no difference was found in remission or relapse rate after 12 months. Thirty patients (46%) at 6 months and 7 (11%) at 12 months were still taking more than 5 mg/day of prednisone. According to the US pattern at baseline, no difference was found in the mean GC dose at 6 and 12 months. In patients with PMR, the presence of SB and/or BT on US at diagnosis is not a predictive marker of GC response or of a higher GC dosage to maintain remission in a 12-month prospective followup study.

  20. A path model analysis on predictors of dropout (at 6 and 12 months) during the weight loss interventions in endocrinology outpatient division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Simone; Spadaccini, Daniele; Riva, Antonella; Allegrini, Pietro; Edera, Chiara; Faliva, Milena Anna; Peroni, Gabriella; Naso, Maurizio; Nichetti, Mara; Gozzer, Carlotta; Vigo, Beatrice; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2018-02-22

    This study aimed to identify the dropout rate at 6 and 12 months from the first outpatient visit, and to analyze dropout risk factors among the following areas: biochemical examinations, anthropometric measures, psychological tests, personal data, and life attitude such as smoking, physical activity, and pathologies. This is a retrospective longitudinal observational study. Patients undergo an outpatient endocrinology visit, which includes collecting biographical data, anthropometric measurements, physical and pathological history, psychological tests, and biochemical examinations. The sample consists of 913 subjects (682 women and 231 men), with an average age of 50.88 years (±15.80) for the total sample, with a BMI of 33.11 ± 5.65 kg/m 2 . 51.9% of the patients abandoned therapy at 6 months after their first visit, and analyzing the dropout rate at 12 months, it appears that 69.5% of subjects abandon therapy. The main predictor of dropout risk factors at 6 and 12 months is the weight loss during the first 3 months (p dropout at 12 months. Patients who introduced physical activity had a reduction of - 17% (at 6 months) and -13% (at 12 months) of dropout risk (p dropout vs. other categories of worker (i = 0.58; p Dropout risk at 12 months decrease in patients with a previous history of cancer, Endocrine and psychic and behavioral disorders (p dropout.

  1. Assessment of Alcohol and Tobacco Use Disorders Among Religious Users of Ayahuasca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Ribeiro Barbosa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to assess the impact of ceremonial use of ayahuasca—a psychedelic brew containing N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT and β-carboline —and attendance at União do Vegetal (UDV meetings on substance abuse; here we report the findings related to alcohol and tobacco use disorder. A total of 1,947 members of UDV 18+ years old were evaluated in terms of years of membership and ceremonial attendance during the previous 12 months. Participants were recruited from 10 states from all major regions of Brazil. Alcohol and tobacco use was evaluated through questionnaires first developed by the World Health Organization and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Analyses compared levels of alcohol and tobacco use disorder between the UDV and a national normative sample (n = 7,939. Binomial tests for proportions indicated that lifetime use of alcohol and tobacco was higher in UDV sample compared to the Brazilian norms for age ranges of 25–34 and over 34 years old, but not for the age range of 18–24 years old. However, current use disorders for alcohol and tobacco were significantly lower in the UDV sample than the Brazilian norms. Regression analyses revealed a significant impact of attendance at ayahuasca ceremonies during the previous 12 months and years of UDV membership on the reduction of alcohol and tobacco use disorder.

  2. Analyses of the rate of decline in stimulated c-peptide 12 months after diagnosis in children with newly diag-nosed type 1 diabetes. results from the Hvidoere study group on childhood diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marie Louise Max; Porksen, S.; Nielsen, L.B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Direct measurement of C-peptide has been recommended to provide the most appropriate primary outcome in trials evaluating the efficacy of therapies to preserve beta-cell function. The aim of the present study was to quantitatively characterize the natural history of disease progression...... as assessed by stimulated C-peptide the first 12 months after diagnosis in children with new onset T1D in two independent cohorts collected over a time interval of 6 years. Furthermore the purpose was to assess whether the natural history of disease has changed over time. Materials and methods...... for both cohorts was calculated to 8.0 ± 0.7%/ month.This is in the same range as the value reported of 0.019 nmol/l/month (1982-1985) by Wallensteen corresponding to a relative change of 9.5%/month. Conclusion: Thus, the natural history of disease progression during the first 12 months after diagnosis has...

  3. Bonded versus vacuum-formed retainers: a randomized controlled trial. Part 1: stability, retainer survival, and patient satisfaction outcomes after 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Katherine; Storey, Madeleine; Littlewood, Simon J; Scott, Paul; Luther, Friedy; Kang, Jing

    2017-10-20

    There is a shortage of evidence on the best type of retainer. Evaluate upper and lower bonded retainers (BRs) versus upper and lower vacuum-formed retainers (VFRs) over 12 months, in terms of stability, retainer survival, and patient satisfaction. Two-arm parallel group multi-centre randomized controlled clinical trial. Sixty consecutive patients completing fixed appliance therapy and requiring retainers were recruited from 3 hospital departments. They were randomly allocated to either upper and lower labial segment BRs (n = 30) or upper and lower full-arch VFRs (n = 30). Primary outcome was stability. Secondary outcomes were retainer survival and patient satisfaction. A random sequence of treatment allocation was computer-generated and implemented by sealing in sequentially numbered opaque sealed envelopes independently prepared in advance. Patients, operators and outcome could not be blinded due to the nature of the intervention. Thirty patients received BRs (median [Mdn] age 16 years, inter-quartile range [IQR] = 2) and 30 received VFRs (Mdn age 17 years, IQR = 4). Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. At 12 months, there were no statistically significant inter-group differences in post-treatment change of maxillary labial segment alignment (BR = 1.1 mm, IQR = 1.56, VFR = 0.76 mm, IQR = 1.55, P = 0.61); however, there was greater post-treatment change in the mandibular VFR group (BR = 0.77 mm, IQR = 1.46, VFR = 1.69mm, IQR = 2.00, P = 0.008). The difference in maxillary retainer survival rates were statistically non-significant, P = 0.34 (BR = 63.6%, 239.3 days, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 191.1-287.5, VFR = 73.3%, 311.1 days, 95% CI = 278.3-344.29). The mandibular BR had a lower survival rate (P = 0.01) at 12 months (BR = 50%, 239.3 days 95% CI = 191.1-287.5, VFR = 80%, 324.9 days 95% CI = 295.4-354.4). More subjects with VFRs reported discomfort (P = 0.002) and speech difficulties (P = 0.004) but found them easier to clean than those with

  4. Reported beverage consumed and alcohol-related diseases among male hospital inpatients with problem drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coder, Beate; Freyer-Adam, Jennis; Lau, Katharina; Riedel, Jeannette; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich; Hapke, Ulfert

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if problem drinkers have varying risks of having alcohol-related diseases according to their reported beverage consumed. In a cross-sectional study all consecutive inpatients aged 18- 64 years from four general hospitals of one catchment area were systematically screened for alcohol use. A total of 1011 men with problem drinking were used for this study. Routine treatment diagnoses for all participants were provided by hospital physicians and were classified into three categories according to their alcohol-attributable fractions (AAF; AAF = 0; AAF spirits drinkers, 26.0% mixed beer and spirits drinkers and 6.9% individuals drinking wine exclusively or in combination with one or two other beverages (mixed wine drinkers). Compared to spirits drinkers and controlling for possible confounders (i.e. alcohol-associated characteristics, demographic variables), multinomial regressions revealed that beer drinkers, mixed beer and spirits drinkers, and mixed wine drinkers had lower odds of having diseases with AAF = 1 than spirits drinkers (e.g. for AAF = 1: beer versus spirits drinkers: OR = 0.42, CI: 0.25-0.72). Beer drinkers and mixed wine drinkers also had lower odds of having diseases with AAF spirits drinkers (e.g. mixed wine versus spirits drinkers: OR = 0.36, CI: 0.18-0.72). These data suggest an association between the reported beverage consumed and alcohol-related diseases. Among hospitalized problem drinkers, spirits drinkers had the greatest risk of having diseases with AAF < 1 and with AAF = 1.

  5. The Self-Report Habit Index: Assessing habitual marijuana, alcohol, e-cigarette, and cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E; DeMartini, Kelly S; Foster, Dawn; Patock-Peckham, Julie; Garrison, Kathleen A; Corlett, Philip R; Krystal, John H; Krishan-Sarin, Suchitra; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2018-05-01

    Substance use is partially driven by habitual processes that occur automatically in response to environmental cues and may be central to users' identities. This study was designed to validate the Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI) for assessing habitual marijuana, alcohol, cigarette, and e-cigarette use. We examined the SRHI's psychometrics in separate samples of adult marijuana (Ns = 189;170), alcohol (Ns = 100;133), cigarette (Ns = 58;371), and e-cigarette (N = 239) users. A 6-item, single-factor solution evidenced good fit across substances (CFI marijuana/alcohol/cigarettes/e-cigarettes = 0.996/0.997/0.996/0.994, RMSEA = 0.046/0.047/0.067/0.068, SRMR = 0.017/0.017/0.010/0.015) and internal consistency (α = 0.88/0.94/0.95/0.91). The SRHI was scalar invariant for sex and race. However, independent-samples t-tests indicated only that women endorsed stronger habitual e-cigarette use and that men endorsed stronger habitual marijuana use. The SRHI also was scalar invariant by product type in dual-users (cigarettes/e-cigarettes[N = 371]; alcohol/cigarettes [n = 58]), although differences in habit strength only were observed for cigarettes versus e-cigarettes, with dual-users reporting stronger habitual cigarette use. Finally, the SRHI predicted frequency of marijuana, alcohol, cigarette, and e-cigarette use (n p 2 [marijuana/alcohol/cigarettes/e-cigarettes] = 0.37/0.48/0.31/0.17) and quantity of alcohol and cigarette use (n p 2  = 0.43/0.33). The SRHI is a psychometrically sound measure of adults' habitual substance use. The SRHI detected mean differences by sex and substance type and predicted the frequency of using each substance. Future research should determine if the SRHI is appropriate for use with other substances or age groups (e.g., adolescents), how it relates to task-based, behavioral measures of habit strength, and the degree to which habit predicts the development or maintenance of addiction. Copyright © 2018

  6. Self-Reported Youth and Adult Exposure to Alcohol Marketing in Traditional and Digital Media: Results of a Pilot Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, David H; Padon, Alisa; Ross, Craig; Borzekowski, Dina

    2017-03-01

    Alcohol marketing is known to be a significant risk factor for underage drinking. However, little is known about youth and adult exposure to alcohol advertising in digital and social media. This study piloted a comparative assessment of youth and adult recall of exposure to online marketing of alcohol. From September to October 2013, a pilot survey of past 30-day exposure to alcohol advertising and promotional content in traditional and digital media was administered to a national sample of 1,192 youth (ages 13 to 20) and 1,124 adults (ages ≥21) using a prerecruited Internet panel maintained by GfK Custom Research. The weighted proportions of youth and adults who reported this exposure were compared by media type and by advertising and promotional content. Youth were more likely than adults to recall exposure to alcohol advertising on television (69.2% vs. 61.9%), radio (24.8% vs. 16.7%), billboards (54.8% vs. 35.4%), and the Internet (29.7% vs. 16.8%), but less likely to recall seeing advertising in magazines (35.7% vs. 36.4%). Youth were also more likely to recall seeing advertisements and pictures on the Internet of celebrities using alcohol (36.1% vs. 20.8%) or wearing clothing promoting alcohol (27.7% vs. 15.9%), and actively respond (i.e., like, share, or post) to alcohol-related content online. Youth report greater exposure to alcohol advertising and promotional content than adults in most media, including on the Internet. These findings emphasize the need to assure compliance with voluntary industry standards on the placement of alcohol advertising and the importance of developing better tools for monitoring youth exposure to alcohol marketing, particularly on the Internet. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. Effects of Motor Development Stimulation on Anthropometric Indices of Infants Aged 1-12 Months in Foster Care Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezou NikNezhad Jalali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The first three years of life have a pivotal role in growth and development of infants. Extra-uterine environment largely affects brain development of infants during the first year of life.However,no specific programs are available for brain development stimulation in foster homes. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of motor development stimulation package on anthropometric indices of infants staying in foster homes. Method: This experimental study was conducted on 50 infants aged 1-12 months at Ali Asghar foster home of Mashhad, Iran in 2013. Infants were randomly divided into two groups of intervention (n=25 and control (n=25. Motor development stimulation packages were used for intervention group three times a week for eight consecutive weeks (24 sessions, two hours each. Anthropometric indices of infants were evaluated using standard instruments before and after intervention. Data analysis was performed in SPSS V.11.5 using independent T-test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: In this study, mean age of infants in intervention and control groups was 6.04±3.48 and 4.3±3.70 months, respectively. In total, 68% of infants were male, and 32% were female. After intervention, Mann-Whitney test results showed no statistically significant difference in height (P=0.47 and head circumference (P=0.11 of infants between the groups. However, independent T-test showed a statistically significant difference in body weight of infants (P=0.007 between the groups after intervention with the stimulation care package. Implications for Practice: According to the results of this study, use of evidence-based motor development stimulation package for eight weeks resulted in increased weight of infants, while it had no effect on height and head circumference. Therefore, it is recommended that complementary studies be conducted in this regard.

  8. [Results of therapeutics strategy of protein-energy wasting in chronic hemodialysis: a prospective study during 12 months].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpio, Ignace; Cleaud, Christine; Arkouche, Walid; Laville, Maurice

    2015-04-01

    Undernutrition (UN) in chronic hemodialysis (CHD) is a recurrent complication and constitutes a major public health problem. This work aims to evaluate the effects of our nutritional strategy (NS) developed among malnourished patients (pts) in CHD. This is a prospective observational study conducted for 12 months (M) in a cohort of 132 pts in CHD including 49 women, mean age 66 ± 16 years and the dialysis vintage 72 ± 74 months. This NS is based on the action of a multidisciplinary team; it provides for moderate UN pts one first phase of an optimization of protein and energy intake in the daily meals; then depending on the clinical course a second phase of oral supplementation at home. For severe UN pts, the optimization of daily meals and the oral supplements at home are reinforced with perdialytic oral supplementation. This modality was also prescribed for moderate UN pts with poor compliance at home. In case of loss of appetite, anorexia, gastrointestinal intolerance or inadequate oral intakes the relay is made by the intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IPN). Methods consist in the evaluation of the serum albumin (ALB), CRP, normalized PCR (nPCR), and Kt/V ratio of urea at baseline (day (D) 0) and at endpoint (M12). The ALB was measured by immunoturbidimetry. Three nutritional profiles were defined, severe UN if ALB ≤ 35 g/L, moderate UN if 35 treatment. The control of inflammation and optimizing dialysis are decisive factors of success. Copyright © 2014 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Infections in infants during the first 12 months of life: role of placental malaria and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Port, Agnès; Watier, Laurence; Cottrell, Gilles; Ouédraogo, Smaila; Dechavanne, Célia; Pierrat, Charlotte; Rachas, Antoine; Bouscaillou, Julie; Bouraima, Aziz; Massougbodji, Achille; Fayomi, Benjamin; Thiébaut, Anne; Chandre, Fabrice; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Martin-Prevel, Yves; Garcia, André; Cot, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The association between placental malaria (PM) and first peripheral parasitaemias in early infancy was assessed in Tori Bossito, a rural area of Benin with a careful attention on transmission factors at an individual level. Statistical analysis was performed on 550 infants followed weekly from birth to 12 months. Malaria transmission was assessed by anopheles human landing catches every 6 weeks in 36 sampling houses and season defined by rainfall. Each child was located by GPS and assigned to the closest anopheles sampling house. Data were analysed by survival Cox models, stratified on the possession of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) at enrolment. Among infants sleeping in a house with an ITN, PM was found to be highly associated to first malaria infections, after adjusting on season, number of anopheles, antenatal care (ANC) visits and maternal severe anaemia. Infants born from a malaria infected placenta had a 2.13 fold increased risk to present a first malaria infection than those born from a non infected placenta ([1.24-3.67], prisk to present a first malaria infection was increased by 3.2 to 6.5, according to the level of anopheles exposure (moderate or high levels, compared to the absence of anopheles). First malaria infections in early childhood can be attributed simultaneously to both PM and high levels of exposure to infected anopheles. Protective measures as Intermittent Preventive Treatment during pregnancy (IPTp) and ITNs, targeted on both mothers and infants should be reinforced, as well as the research on new drugs and insecticides. In parallel, investigations on placental malaria have to be strengthened to better understand the mechanisms involved, and thus to protect adequately the infants high risk group.

  10. Infections in infants during the first 12 months of life: role of placental malaria and environmental factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Le Port

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between placental malaria (PM and first peripheral parasitaemias in early infancy was assessed in Tori Bossito, a rural area of Benin with a careful attention on transmission factors at an individual level. METHODOLOGY: Statistical analysis was performed on 550 infants followed weekly from birth to 12 months. Malaria transmission was assessed by anopheles human landing catches every 6 weeks in 36 sampling houses and season defined by rainfall. Each child was located by GPS and assigned to the closest anopheles sampling house. Data were analysed by survival Cox models, stratified on the possession of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs at enrolment. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Among infants sleeping in a house with an ITN, PM was found to be highly associated to first malaria infections, after adjusting on season, number of anopheles, antenatal care (ANC visits and maternal severe anaemia. Infants born from a malaria infected placenta had a 2.13 fold increased risk to present a first malaria infection than those born from a non infected placenta ([1.24-3.67], p<0.01 when sleeping in a house with an ITN. The risk to present a first malaria infection was increased by 3.2 to 6.5, according to the level of anopheles exposure (moderate or high levels, compared to the absence of anopheles. CONCLUSIONS: First malaria infections in early childhood can be attributed simultaneously to both PM and high levels of exposure to infected anopheles. Protective measures as Intermittent Preventive Treatment during pregnancy (IPTp and ITNs, targeted on both mothers and infants should be reinforced, as well as the research on new drugs and insecticides. In parallel, investigations on placental malaria have to be strengthened to better understand the mechanisms involved, and thus to protect adequately the infants high risk group.

  11. Bone bruise in acute traumatic patellar dislocation: volumetric magnetic resonance imaging analysis with follow-up mean of 12 months

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paakkala, Antti; Paakkala, Timo [Tampere University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tampere (Finland); Sillanpaeae, Petri; Maeenpaeae, Heikki [Tampere University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Tampere (Finland); Huhtala, Heini [University of Tampere, School of Public Health, Tampere (Finland)

    2010-07-15

    The aim of the study was to assess volumetric analysis of bone bruises in acute primary traumatic patellar dislocation by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resolving resolution of bruises in follow-up MRI. MRI was performed in 23 cases. A follow-up examination was done at a mean of 12 months after dislocation. Volumes of patellar and femur bruises for every patient were evaluated separately by two musculoskeletal radiologists, and mean values of the bruises were assessed. Other MRI findings were evaluated, together with agreement by consensus. Bone bruise volumes were compared with other MR findings. In the acute study 100% of patients showed bruising of the lateral femoral condyle and 96% bruising of the patella. The bruise was located at the medial femoral condyle in 30% and at the patellar median ridge in 74% of patients. The median volume of the femoral bruise was 25,831 mm{sup 3} and of the patellar bruise 2,832 mm{sup 3}. At the follow-up study 22% of patients showed bruising of the lateral femoral condyle and 39% bruising of the patella, the median volumes of the bruises being 5,062 mm{sup 3} and 1,380 mm{sup 3}, respectively. Larger patellar bruise volume correlated with larger femur bruise volume in the acute (r=0.389, P=0.074) and the follow-up (r=1.000, P<0.01) studies. Other MRI findings did not correlate significantly with bone bruise volumes. Bone bruising is the commonest finding in cases of acute patellar dislocation, being seen even 1 year after trauma and indicating significant bone trabecular injury in the patellofemoral joint. A large bruise volume may be associated with subsequent chondral lesion progression at the patella. We concluded that the measurement of bone bruise volume in patients with acute patellar dislocation is a reproducible method but requires further studies to evaluate its clinical use. (orig.)

  12. Bone bruise in acute traumatic patellar dislocation: volumetric magnetic resonance imaging analysis with follow-up mean of 12 months

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paakkala, Antti; Paakkala, Timo; Sillanpaeae, Petri; Maeenpaeae, Heikki; Huhtala, Heini

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess volumetric analysis of bone bruises in acute primary traumatic patellar dislocation by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resolving resolution of bruises in follow-up MRI. MRI was performed in 23 cases. A follow-up examination was done at a mean of 12 months after dislocation. Volumes of patellar and femur bruises for every patient were evaluated separately by two musculoskeletal radiologists, and mean values of the bruises were assessed. Other MRI findings were evaluated, together with agreement by consensus. Bone bruise volumes were compared with other MR findings. In the acute study 100% of patients showed bruising of the lateral femoral condyle and 96% bruising of the patella. The bruise was located at the medial femoral condyle in 30% and at the patellar median ridge in 74% of patients. The median volume of the femoral bruise was 25,831 mm 3 and of the patellar bruise 2,832 mm 3 . At the follow-up study 22% of patients showed bruising of the lateral femoral condyle and 39% bruising of the patella, the median volumes of the bruises being 5,062 mm 3 and 1,380 mm 3 , respectively. Larger patellar bruise volume correlated with larger femur bruise volume in the acute (r=0.389, P=0.074) and the follow-up (r=1.000, P<0.01) studies. Other MRI findings did not correlate significantly with bone bruise volumes. Bone bruising is the commonest finding in cases of acute patellar dislocation, being seen even 1 year after trauma and indicating significant bone trabecular injury in the patellofemoral joint. A large bruise volume may be associated with subsequent chondral lesion progression at the patella. We concluded that the measurement of bone bruise volume in patients with acute patellar dislocation is a reproducible method but requires further studies to evaluate its clinical use. (orig.)

  13. Double-blind randomized 12-month soy intervention had no effects on breast MRI fibroglandular tissue density or mammographic density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anna H.; Spicer, Darcy; Garcia, Agustin; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda; Sheth, Pulin; Martin, Sue Ellen; Hawes, Debra; Russell, Christy; McDonald, Heather; Tripathy, Debu; Su, Min-Ying; Ursin, Giske; Pike, Malcolm C.

    2015-01-01

    Soy supplementation by breast cancer patients remains controversial. No controlled intervention studies have investigated the effects of soy supplementation on mammographic density in breast cancer patients. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention study in previously treated breast cancer patients (n=66) and high-risk women (n=29). We obtained digital mammograms and breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans at baseline and after 12 months of daily soy (50 mg isoflavones per day) (n=46) or placebo (n=49) tablet supplementation. The total breast area (MA) and the area of mammographic density (MD) on the mammogram was measured using a validated computer-assisted method, and mammographic density percent (MD% = 100 × MD/MA) was determined. A well-tested computer algorithm was used to quantitatively measure the total breast volume (TBV) and fibroglandular tissue volume (FGV) on the breast MRI, and the FGV percent (FGV% = 100 × FGV/TBV) was calculated. On the basis of plasma soy isoflavone levels, compliance was excellent. Small decreases in MD% measured by the ratios of month 12 to baseline levels, were seen in the soy (0.95) and the placebo (0.87) groups; these changes did not differ between the treatments (P=0.38). Small decreases in FGV% were also found in both the soy (0.90) and the placebo (0.92) groups; these changes also did not differ between the treatments (P=0.48). Results were comparable in breast cancer patients and high-risk women. We found no evidence that soy supplementation would decrease mammographic density and that MRI might be more sensitive to changes in density than mammography. PMID:26276750

  14. Application of balanced scorecard in the evaluation of a complex health system intervention: 12 months post intervention findings from the BHOMA intervention: a cluster randomised trial in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutale, Wilbroad; Stringer, Jeffrey; Chintu, Namwinga; Chilengi, Roma; Mwanamwenge, Margaret Tembo; Kasese, Nkatya; Balabanova, Dina; Spicer, Neil; Lewis, James; Ayles, Helen

    2014-01-01

    In many low income countries, the delivery of quality health services is hampered by health system-wide barriers which are often interlinked, however empirical evidence on how to assess the level and scope of these barriers is scarce. A balanced scorecard is a tool that allows for wider analysis of domains that are deemed important in achieving the overall vision of the health system. We present the quantitative results of the 12 months follow-up study applying the balanced scorecard approach in the BHOMA intervention with the aim of demonstrating the utility of the balanced scorecard in evaluating multiple building blocks in a trial setting. The BHOMA is a cluster randomised trial that aims to strengthen the health system in three rural districts in Zambia. The intervention aims to improve clinical care quality by implementing practical tools that establish clear clinical care standards through intensive clinic implementations. This paper reports the findings of the follow-up health facility survey that was conducted after 12 months of intervention implementation. Comparisons were made between those facilities in the intervention and control sites. STATA version 12 was used for analysis. The study found significant mean differences between intervention(I) and control (C) sites in the following domains: Training domain (Mean I:C; 87.5.vs 61.1, mean difference 23.3, p = 0.031), adult clinical observation domain (mean I:C; 73.3 vs.58.0, mean difference 10.9, p = 0.02 ) and health information domain (mean I:C; 63.6 vs.56.1, mean difference 6.8, p = 0.01. There was no gender differences in adult service satisfaction. Governance and motivation scores did not differ between control and intervention sites. This study demonstrates the utility of the balanced scorecard in assessing multiple elements of the health system. Using system wide approaches and triangulating data collection methods seems to be key to successful evaluation of such complex health

  15. Marginal Bone Remodeling around healing Abutment vs Final Abutment Placement at Second Stage Implant Surgery: A 12-month Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Nabih; Aboulhosn, Maissa; Berberi, Antoine; Manal, Cordahi; Younes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The periimplant bone level has been used as one of the criteria to assess the success of dental implants. It has been documented that the bone supporting two-piece implants undergoes resorption first following the second-stage surgery and later on further to abutment connection and delivery of the final prosthesis. The aim of this multicentric randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the crestal bone resorption around internal connection dental implants using a new surgical protocol that aims to respect the biological distance, relying on the benefit of a friction fit connection abutment (test group) compared with implants receiving conventional healing abutments at second-stage surgery (control group). A total of partially edentulous patients were consecutively treated at two private clinics, with two adjacent two-stage implants. Three months after the first surgery, one of the implants was randomly allocated to the control group and was uncovered using a healing abutment, while the other implant received a standard final abutment and was seated and tightened to 30 Ncm. At each step of the prosthetic try-in, the abutment in the test group was removed and then retightened to 30 Ncm. Horizontal bone changes were assessed using periapical radiographs immediately after implant placement and at 3 (second-stage surgery), 6, 9 and 12 months follow-up examinations. At 12 months follow-up, no implant failure was reported in both groups. In the control group, the mean periimplant bone resorption was 0.249 ± 0.362 at M3, 0.773 ± 0.413 at M6, 0.904 ± 0.36 at M9 and 1.047 ± 0.395 at M12. The test group revealed a statistically significant lower marginal bone loss of 20.88% at M3 (0.197 ± 0.262), 22.25% at M6 (0.601 ± 0.386), 24.23% at M9 (0.685 ± 0.341) and 19.2% at M9 (0.846 ± 0.454). The results revealed that bone loss increased over time, with the greatest change in bone loss occurring between 3 and 6 months. Alveolar bone loss was significantly greater in the

  16. Primary medullary hemorrhage in a patient with coagulopathy due to alcoholic cirrhosis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guangxun; Gao, Yu; Lee, Kwee-Yum; Nan, Guangxian

    2018-04-01

    Mild-to-moderate alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver is related to spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In terms of spontaneous brainstem hemorrhage, pontine is considered as the most common site in contrast to medulla oblongata where the hemorrhage is rarely seen. This rare primary medullary hemorrhage has been attributed so far to vascular malformation (VM), anticoagulants, hypertension, hemorrhagic transformation, and other undetermined factors. Herein, we describe a 53-year-old patient with 35-year history of alcohol abuse was admitted for acute-onset isolated hemianesthesia on the right side. He was normotensive on admission. A neurological examination revealed isolated hemihypoaesthesia on the right side. He had no history of hypertension, and viral hepatitis, and nil use of anticoagulants. Brain computed tomography (CT) image demonstrated hemorrhagic lesion in dorsal and medial medulla oblongata which was ruptured into the fourth ventricle. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) demonstrated no evidence of VM. The laboratory tests implied liver dysfunction, thrombocytopenia, and coagulation disorders. Abdominal ultrasound, and CT image showed a small, and nodular liver with splenomegaly, suggestive of moderate alcoholic cirrhosis. Liver protection therapy and the management of coagulation disorders. After 14 days, he was discharged with mild hemianesthesia but with more improved parameters in laboratory tests. At the 6-month follow-up, brain MRI, MRA, and non-contrast MRI showed no significant findings except for a malacic lesion. We conclude that the patient had alcoholic cirrhosis with coagulopathy, and this may have resulted in primary medullary hemorrhage. This is a first case to report alcoholic cirrhosis as etiology of primary medullary hemorrhage.

  17. STOP smoking and alcohol drinking before OPeration for bladder cancer (the STOP-OP study), perioperative smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Susanne Vahr; Thomsen, Thordis; Thind, Peter

    2017-01-01

    meetings and at follow-up. Discussion: Herein, we report the design of the STOP-OP study, objectives and accrual up-date. This study will provide new knowledge about how to prevent smoking and alcohol-related postoperative complications at the time of bladder cancer surgery. Till now 77 patients have been......Background: To evaluate the effect of a smoking-, alcohol- or combined-cessation intervention starting shortly before surgery and lasting 6 weeks on overall complications after radical cystectomy. Secondary objectives are to examine the effect on types and grades of complications, smoking cessation...... and alcohol cessation, length of hospital stay, health-related quality of life and return to work or habitual level of activity up to 12 months postoperatively. Methods/design: The study is a multi-institutional randomised clinical trial involving 110 patients with a risky alcohol intake and daily smoking who...

  18. Self-rated health, symptoms of depression and general symptoms at 3 and 12 months after a first-ever stroke: a municipality-based study in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassler Ejda

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-rated health is an important indicator of quality of life as well as a good predictor of future health. The purpose of the study was to follow up the self-rated health and the prevalence of symptoms of depression and general symptoms in a population of first-ever stroke patients 3 and 12 months after stroke. Methods All patients surviving their first-ever stroke and residing in Nacka municipality in Stockholm County Council were included using a multiple overlapping search strategy during an 18-month period (n = 187. Our study group comprised the 145 patients who survived the first 3 months after stroke. Three and 12 months after their stroke, the patients were assessed regarding self-rated health and general symptoms using parts of the Göteborg Quality of Life Instrument (GQLI, and regarding symptoms of depression using the Montgomery Asberg Depression Scale (MADRS-S. Results Self-rated health was rated as very good or rather good by 62% at 3 months after stroke and by 78% at 12 months after stroke. More than half of the patients suffered from symptoms of depression, with no significant improvement at 12 months. The most common general symptoms at 3 months after stroke were fatigue, sadness, pain in the legs, dizziness and irritability. Fatigue and sadness were still common at 12 months. Twelve months after stroke the prevalences of crying easily, irritability, impaired concentration, nausea and loss of weight were significantly lower. Conclusion The majority of patients rated their health as rather good or very good at 3 and 12 months after stroke. However, the majority suffered from fatigue and from symptoms of depression after both 3 and 12 months. In continued care of stroke survivors, it is important to consider the fact that many patients who rate their health as good may nevertheless have symptoms of depression, and some of them may benefit from anti-depressive treatment.

  19. Hospital Utilisation in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Infants under 12 Months of Age in Western Australia, Prospective Population Based Data Linkage Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Kimberley; McAullay, Daniel; Strobel, Natalie A; Marriott, Rhonda; Atkinson, David N; Marley, Julia V; Stanley, Fiona J; Edmond, Karen M

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous infants (infants aged under 12 months) have the highest hospital admission and emergency department presentation risks in Australia. However, there have been no recent reports comparing hospital utilisation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous infants. Our primary objective was to use a large prospective population-based linked dataset to assess the risk of all-cause hospital admission and emergency department presentation in Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous infants in Western Australia (WA). Secondary objectives were to assess the effect of socio-economic status (Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage [IRSD]) on hospital utilisation and to understand the causes of hospital utilisation. There were 3,382 (5.4%) Indigenous and 59,583 (94.6%) non-Indigenous live births in WA from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2011. Indigenous infants had a greater risk of hospital admission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.90, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.77-2.04, p = disadvantaged (IRSD 1) infants in the total cohort (35.7%) was similar to the risk in the least disadvantaged (IRSD 5) infants (30.6%) (aOR 1.04, 95% CI 0.96-1.13, p = 0.356). WA Indigenous infants have much higher hospital utilisation than non Indigenous infants. WA health services should prioritise Indigenous infants regardless of their socio economic status or where they live.

  20. Blood alcohol concentration testing and reporting by the states : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Accurate and complete data on blood alcohol concentration : (BAC) levels for drivers in fatal crashes are critical in monitoring : alcohol-impaired-driving rates across the country, developing : alcohol-impaired-driving programs, and evaluating : the...

  1. Reported Adverse Health Effects in Children from Ingestion of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers - United States, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cynthia; Kieszak, Stephanie; Wang, Alice; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua; Wolkin, Amy

    2017-03-03

    Hand sanitizers are effective and inexpensive products that can reduce microorganisms on the skin, but ingestion or improper use can be associated with health risks. Many hand sanitizers contain up to 60%-95% ethanol or isopropyl alcohol by volume, and are often combined with scents that might be appealing to young children. Recent reports have identified serious consequences, including apnea, acidosis, and coma in young children who swallowed alcohol-based (alcohol) hand sanitizer (1-3). Poison control centers collect data on intentional and unintentional exposures to hand sanitizer solutions resulting from various routes of exposure, including ingestion, inhalation, and dermal and ocular exposures. To characterize exposures of children aged ≤12 years to alcohol hand sanitizers, CDC analyzed data reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS).* The major route of exposure to both alcohol and nonalcohol-based (nonalcohol) hand sanitizers was ingestion. The majority of intentional exposures to alcohol hand sanitizers occurred in children aged 6-12 years. Alcohol hand sanitizer exposures were associated with worse outcomes than were nonalcohol hand sanitizer exposures. Caregivers and health care providers should be aware of the potential dangers associated with hand sanitizer ingestion. Children using alcohol hand sanitizers should be supervised and these products should be kept out of reach from children when not in use.

  2. Effects of Duchenne muscular dystrophy on muscle stiffness and response to electrically-induced muscle contraction: A 12-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacourpaille, Lilian; Gross, Raphaël; Hug, François; Guével, Arnaud; Péréon, Yann; Magot, Armelle; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Nordez, Antoine

    2017-03-01

    The present study aimed to assess the ability of muscle stiffness (shear modulus) and response to electrically-induced muscle contraction to detect changes in muscle properties over a 12-month period in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Ten children with DMD and nine age-matched healthy male controls participated in two experimental sessions (T 0 and T +12months ) separated by 12.4 ± 0.9 months. Two contractions of the biceps brachii were electrically-induced during which an ultrasound probe was placed over the muscle. The resting shear modulus was measured using elastography from six muscles. Evoked maximal torque was increased at T +12months in controls (+11.2 ± 7.6%, P muscle stiffness at T +12months in children with DMD for tibialis anterior (+75.1 ± 93.5%, P= 0.043), gastrocnemius medialis (+144.8 ± 180.6%, P= 0.050) and triceps brachii (+35.5 ± 32.2%, P= 0.005). This 12-month follow-up study demonstrates that electromechanical delay and elastography may help detect subtle muscle impairments in patients with DMD. These sensitive outcomes may improve the follow-up of innovative therapeutic interventions within the field of DMD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Traditional Baby Care Practices of Mothers of Children Aged 6-12 Months in The Provincial Centre of Trabzon, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilknur Kahriman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate traditional baby care practices employed by mothers in the Turkish province of Trabzon. Materials and methods: This descriptive study was planned around babies born in the provincial center of Trabzon between 1 June and 31 December, 2005, and aged 6-12 months at the time of the research. Data were collected in July-September 2006. In order to determine sampling size the prevalence of mothers using traditional practices was calculated at 50%, with a deviation of 0.05, giving a sample size of 384 mothers, the final number being put at 400. The study was performed at six clinics selected on the basis of settlement location and socioeconomic level out of 11 health clinics in the city center of the province of Trabzon. Data in the study are presented as numbers, and percentage distributions as mean±standard deviation. Results: It was determined that 69.8% of mothers breastfed their babies immediately and that 91.3% gave them colostrum. It was also determined that 3.7% of mothers resorted to various practices in order to ensure a male or female baby, 44.5% in order to facilitate labor, 25% in order to avoid puerperal fever, 63.5% in order eliminate postnatal pain, 88% to prevent their babies smelling, 86.2% for the shedding of the umbilical cord, 54.2% to protect their babies against jaundice, 73.7% to protect their babies from the evil eye, 26.2% so their babies would be good-looking and 40.7% to safely complete the first 40 days after childbirth. The main practices having a harmful effect on health in the study were swaddling, salting the baby, waiting for the call to prayer before breastfeeding the baby after birth and not giving colostrum. Conclusions: Traditions were observed to have an impact and to be persisting in child care in Trabzon. This suggests it will be useful for health personnel working in the field of infant care to evaluate the traditional characteristics in the locations where they work and to correct negative

  4. Relationship between emotional processing, drinking severity and relapse in adults treated for alcohol dependence in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopera, Maciej; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Suszek, Hubert; Glass, Jennifer M; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-03-01

    Growing data reveals deficits in perception, understanding and regulation of emotions in alcohol dependence (AD). The study objective was to explore the relationships between emotional processing, drinking history and relapse in a clinical sample of alcohol-dependent patients. A group of 80 inpatients entering an alcohol treatment program in Warsaw, Poland was recruited and assessed at baseline and follow-up after 12 months. Baseline information about demographics, psychopathological symptoms, personality and severity of alcohol problems was obtained. The Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (EI) Test and Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) were utilized for emotional processing assessment. Follow-up information contained data on drinking alcohol during the last month. At baseline assessment, the duration of alcohol drinking was associated with lower ability to utilize emotions. Patients reporting more difficulties with describing feelings drank more during their last episode of heavy drinking, and had a longer duration of intensive alcohol use. A longer duration of the last episode of heavy drinking was associated with more problems identifying and regulating emotions. Poor utilization of emotions and high severity of depressive symptoms contributed to higher rates of drinking at follow-up. These results underline the importance of systematic identification of discrete emotional problems and dynamics related to AD. This knowledge has implications for treatment. Psychotherapeutic interventions to improve emotional skills could be utilized in treatment of alcohol-dependent patients. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  5. Workplace Discrimination Is Associated With Alcohol Abuse Among Ethnically Diverse Hospital Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, Angela D; Wells, Anita M; Spencer, S Melinda; Cofie, Leslie; Yen, Irene H

    2016-05-01

    Research suggests that workplace discrimination plays a role in absenteeism, productivity, and turnover. A link among workplace discrimination, mental health, and health disparities may also exist. The purpose of this study was to determine whether self-reported workplace discrimination is associated with alcohol abuse among hospital workers. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected from a prospective cohort study of workers in two healthcare institutions (n = 664) was conducted. Workplace discrimination in the previous 12 months was reported by 14% (n = 91) of participants who were four times more likely to score higher on likely alcohol abuse than their peers. White participants who reported any discrimination were more likely to score higher on likely alcohol abuse than racial/ethnic minority participants who reported any discrimination. Given a diversifying workforce, further research is needed on how workplace discrimination contributes to stress and maladaptive coping, and ultimately health disparities. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the ...

  7. Antabuse treatment for excessive users of alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardt, F

    1992-01-01

    Antabuse treatment has mostly been applied to alcohol dependent patients although the heavy users of alcohol are responsible for the major parts of alcohol related problems in our societies. The heavy users of alcohol should be identified both by the general practitioners and the hospital doctors...... in any field and the first intervention should be a health interview connected with a biological monitoring of alcohol damages and thereby many patients would be motivated for moderate drinking. If this is not the case, heavy users should be encouraged to a 6 or better a 12 months supervised treatment...... with Antabuse. This treatment has especially been effective in employees with work-related alcohol problems....

  8. The effect of 12-month participation in osteogenic and non-osteogenic sports on bone development in adolescent male athletes. The PRO-BONE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Barker, Alan R; Ubago-Guisado, Esther

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Research investigating the longitudinal effects of the most popular sports on bone development in adolescent males is scarce. The aim is to investigate the effect of 12-month participation in osteogenic and non-osteogenic sports on bone development. DESIGN: A 12-month study...... by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and bone stiffness was measured by quantitative ultrasound. Bone outcomes at 12 months were adjusted for baseline bone status, age, height, lean mass and moderate to vigorous physical activity. RESULTS: Footballers had higher improvement in adjusted BMC at the total...... body, total hip, shaft, Ward's triangle, legs and bone stiffness compared to cyclists (6.3-8.0%). Footballers had significantly higher adjusted BMC at total body, shaft and legs compared to swimmers (5.4-5.6%). There was no significant difference between swimmers and cyclists for any bone outcomes...

  9. Cardiovascular adaptations to 4 and 12 months of football or strength training in 65- to 75-year-old untrained men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Hansen, Peter Riis; Rostgaard Andersen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the effects of 1 year of football or strength training on cardiovascular function in 65- to 75-year-old men. Twenty-six untrained men (age: 68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomized to football training (FTG; n = 9), strength training (STG; n = 9), or control (CG; n = 8). In FTG, left...... ventricular (LV) internal diastolic diameter, end-diastolic volume, and mass index were 8%, 21%, and 18% higher (P 12 months, with no changes in STG and CG. After 12 months, LV ejection fraction was increased (P ... longitudinal two-dimensional strain by 8% and 6%, whereas right ventricular systolic function improved (P 12%, respectively, after 12 months...

  10. Post-trauma ratings of pre-collision pain and psychological distress predict poor outcome following acute whiplash trauma: A 12-month follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Tina; Frostholm, Lisbeth; Ørnbøl, Eva

    2008-01-01

    emergency departments or primary care after car accidents in four counties in Denmark. After the collision patients received a questionnaire on psychological distress, unspecified pain and socio-demographics and 12 months later a follow-up on work capability and neck pain was performed. Risk factors were......Patients with acute whiplash trauma were followed to examine if post-trauma ratings of pre-collision pain and psychological distress were associated with reduced work capability and neck pain at 12 months follow-up. The study included 740 consecutive patients (474 females, 266 males) referred from...... identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. Factors associated with affected work capacity at the 12-month follow-up were pre-collision unspecified pain condition (OR = 2.4, p = 0.002) and socio-demographic characteristics: female gender, low educational level, unemployment and blue collar worker...

  11. Sustained effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Healthy Activity Programme, a brief psychological treatment for depression delivered by lay counsellors in primary care: 12-month follow-up of a randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict Weobong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Healthy Activity Programme (HAP, a brief behavioural intervention delivered by lay counsellors, enhanced remission over 3 months among primary care attendees with depression in peri-urban and rural settings in India. We evaluated the sustainability of the effects after treatment termination, the cost-effectiveness of HAP over 12 months, and the effects of the hypothesized mediator of activation on clinical outcomes.Primary care attendees aged 18-65 years screened with moderately severe to severe depression on the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9 were randomised to either HAP plus enhanced usual care (EUC (n = 247 or EUC alone (n = 248, of whom 95% completed assessments at 3 months, and 91% at 12 months. Primary outcomes were severity on the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II and remission on the PHQ-9. HAP participants maintained the gains they showed at the end of treatment through the 12-month follow-up (difference in mean BDI-II score between 3 and 12 months = -0.34; 95% CI -2.37, 1.69; p = 0.74, with lower symptom severity scores than participants who received EUC alone (adjusted mean difference in BDI-II score = -4.45; 95% CI -7.26, -1.63; p = 0.002 and higher rates of remission (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 1.36; 95% CI 1.15, 1.61; p < 0.009. They also fared better on most secondary outcomes, including recovery (aPR = 1.98; 95% CI 1.29, 3.03; p = 0.002, any response over time (aPR = 1.45; 95% CI 1.27, 1.66; p < 0.001, higher likelihood of reporting a minimal clinically important difference (aPR = 1.42; 95% CI 1.17, 1.71; p < 0.001, and lower likelihood of reporting suicidal behaviour (aPR = 0.71; 95% CI 0.51, 1.01; p = 0.06. HAP plus EUC also had a marginal effect on WHO Disability Assessment Schedule score at 12 months (aPR = -1.58; 95% CI -3.33, 0.17; p = 0.08; other outcomes (days unable to work, intimate partner violence toward females did not statistically significantly differ between the two arms. Economic analyses

  12. The Svalbard study 1988-89: a unique setting for validation of self-reported alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høyer, G; Nilssen, O; Brenn, T; Schirmer, H

    1995-04-01

    The Norwegian island of Spitzbergen, Svalbard offers a unique setting for validation studies on self-reported alcohol consumption. No counterfeit production or illegal import exists, thus making complete registration of all sources of alcohol possible. In this study we recorded sales from all agencies selling alcohol on Svalbard over a 2-month period in 1988. During the same period all adults living permanently on Svalbard were invited to take part in a health screening. As part of the screening a self-administered questionnaire on alcohol consumption was introduced to the participants. We found that the self-reported volume accounted for approximately 40 percent of the sales volume. Because of the unique situation applying to Svalbard, the estimate made in this study is believed to be more reliable compared to other studies using sales volume to validate self-reports.

  13. Dry Eye Disease following Refractive Surgery: A 12-Month Follow-Up of SMILE versus FS-LASIK in High Myopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingjie; Chu, Renyuan; Dai, Jinhui; Qu, Xiaomei; Zhou, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare dry eye disease following SMILE versus FS-LASIK. Design. Prospective, nonrandomised, observational study. Patients. 90 patients undergoing refractive surgery for myopia were included. 47 eyes underwent SMILE and 43 eyes underwent FS-LASIK. Methods. Evaluation of dry eye disease was conducted preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, using the Salisbury Eye Evaluation Questionnaire (SEEQ) and TBUT. Results. TBUT reduced following SMILE at 1 and 3 months (p dry eye disease than FS-LASIK at 6 months postoperatively but demonstrates similar degrees of dry eye disease at 12 months. PMID:26649190

  14. Alcoholics anonymous, other 12-step movements and psychotherapy in the US population, 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Room, R; Greenfield, T

    1993-04-01

    Based on the 1990 US National Alcohol Survey, this note provides the first available comprehensive findings on self-reported utilization of a variety of sources of personal support and counselling for alcohol and other problems. Respondents were queried about lifetime attendance and number of times they went to identified sources of help in the prior year. Twelve-step groups included Alcoholics Anonymous, Al-Anon, Adult Children of Alcoholics, and other non-alcohol-oriented groups like Gamblers Anonymous, Narcotics Anonymous, and Overeaters Anonymous; additional questions inquired about support or therapy groups and individual counselling for non-alcohol problems. Of the US adult population, 9% have been to an AA meeting at some time, 3.6% in the prior year, only about one-third of these for problems of their own. About half these percentages, mostly women, have attended Al-Anon. Of the same population, 13.3% indicate ever attending a 12-step meeting (including non-alcohol-oriented groups), 5.3% in the last year. During the prior year a further 2.1% used other support/therapy groups and 5.5% sought individual counselling/therapy for personal problems other than alcohol. In contrast to this high reported utilization, only 4.9% (ever) and 2.3% (12-months) reported going to anyone including AA for a problem (of their own) related to drinking.

  15. Service providers' experiences of using a telehealth network 12 months after digitisation of a large Australian rural mental health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lareen; Bidargaddi, Niranjan; Schrader, Geoffrey

    2016-10-01

    Despite evidence of benefits of telehealth networks in increasing access to, or providing, previously unavailable mental health services, care providers still prefer traditional approaches. For psychiatric assessment, digital technology can offer improvements over analog systems for the technical and, subsequently, the social quality of provider-client interaction. This is in turn expected to support greater provider uptake and enhanced patient benefits. Within the framework of Innovation Diffusion Theory, to study service providers' experiences of an existing regional telehealth network for mental health care practice twelve months after digitisation in order to identify the benefits of digital telehealth over an analog system for mental health care purposes in rural Australia. Qualitative interviews and focus groups were conducted with over 40 service providers from June to September 2013 in South Australia, ranging from the metropolitan central operations to health providers located up to 600km away in rural and remote areas of the same state. Participants included rural mental health teams, directors of nursing at rural hospitals, metropolitan-based psychiatrists and registrars, the metropolitan-based mental health team dedicated to rural provider support, rural GPs, administrative staff, and the executive group of the state rural health department. Fieldwork was conducted 12 months after the analog system was digitised. The interview and focus group data were analysed using thematic analysis, focusing on three key areas of innovation diffusion theory: relative advantage, technical complexity and technical compatibility. Five themes with 11 sub-themes were identified: (1) "Existing Uses", with three sub-themes: current mental health use, use by GPs, and use for staff support; (2) "Relative Advantage", with four sub-themes: improved technical quality, improved clinical practice, time and cost benefits for providers, and improved patient care; (3) "Technical

  16. Unrecorded alcohol in Rio de Janeiro: assessing its misusers through Respondent Driven Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boni, Raquel Brandini; Bertoni, Neilane; Bastos, Leonardo Soares; Bastos, Francisco I

    2014-06-01

    Around 20-30% of alcohol use in low and middle-income countries is estimated to come from unrecorded sources, but little is known about the characteristics of its consumers. The aim of this study was to obtain information about users of unrecorded alcohol and describe factors associated with its frequent use. A cross-sectional study, using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS), was conducted in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 2010. Individuals aged 18-65 who reported binge drinking in the last 12 months were recruited to participate in a structured interview. Three sources of unrecorded alcohol use were assessed: home-made/unrecorded; perfumes/lotions; and "medicinal" products (compounds made of herbs and local spirits). 343 individuals were recruited and 303 were interviewed. The sample comprised mostly of men (n=256) from low socioeconomic strata, with a mean age of 38.8 (±12). Most individuals (71.8%) reported to have used more than one variety of unrecorded alcohol, which was found to be associated with: being older than 31 (OR 2.21; CI 95% 1.05-4.80), an AUDIT score >20 (OR 11.21; CI 95% 4.56-30.96), having used crack/cocaine (OR 2.29; CI 95% 1.02-5.21), and having received treatment for alcohol addiction in the last 12 months (OR 3.64; CI 95% 1.25-13.49). Most unrecorded alcohol users were disadvantaged polysubstance users. Assessing unrecorded alcohol use has important clinical implications and should be screened for among crack/powder cocaine and alcohol-dependent patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Alcohol Ablation Therapy of an Atypically Located Symptomatic Bronchogenic Cyst: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakadamyali, Hatice; Ergun, Tarkan; Lakadamyali, Huseyin; Oguzkurt, Levent

    2007-01-01

    Bronchogenic cyst is a rare developmental lesion. It is usually asymptomatic and most frequently located in the middle mediastinum and lung parenchyma. It can cause symptoms only when infected or pressing on neighboring structures. The MRI findings in a 34-year-old woman with an 8 months history of back pain were evaluated and revealed a cystic lesion in the left paravertebral area. The histopathologic evaluation of the material aspirated with CT guidance was reported to be bronchogenic cyst. A simultaneous alcohol ablation was accomplished. After the procedure the patient's pain disappeared and the follow-up MRI scan 1 year later revealed no relapse. Paravertebrally located bronchogenic cysts are very rare and only 3 cases were found to be reported in the medical literature prior to this one. While aspiration alone is sufficient for diagnosis, it is insufficient to treat the lesion and prevent the recurrences. This paper reports a paravertebral bronchogenic cyst which was symptomatic despite of its small size. CT-guided aspiration was accomplished and simultaneous alcohol ablation was carried out to prevent recurrences

  18. Novel approach to characterising individuals with low back-related leg pain: cluster identification with latent class analysis and 12-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stynes, Siobhán; Konstantinou, Kika; Ogollah, Reuben; Hay, Elaine M; Dunn, Kate M

    2018-04-01

    Traditionally, low back-related leg pain (LBLP) is diagnosed clinically as referred leg pain or sciatica (nerve root involvement). However, within the spectrum of LBLP, we hypothesised that there may be other unrecognised patient subgroups. This study aimed to identify clusters of patients with LBLP using latent class analysis and describe their clinical course. The study population was 609 LBLP primary care consulters. Variables from clinical assessment were included in the latent class analysis. Characteristics of the statistically identified clusters were compared, and their clinical course over 1 year was described. A 5 cluster solution was optimal. Cluster 1 (n = 104) had mild leg pain severity and was considered to represent a referred leg pain group with no clinical signs, suggesting nerve root involvement (sciatica). Cluster 2 (n = 122), cluster 3 (n = 188), and cluster 4 (n = 69) had mild, moderate, and severe pain and disability, respectively, and response to clinical assessment items suggested categories of mild, moderate, and severe sciatica. Cluster 5 (n = 126) had high pain and disability, longer pain duration, and more comorbidities and was difficult to map to a clinical diagnosis. Most improvement for pain and disability was seen in the first 4 months for all clusters. At 12 months, the proportion of patients reporting recovery ranged from 27% for cluster 5 to 45% for cluster 2 (mild sciatica). This is the first study that empirically shows the variability in profile and clinical course of patients with LBLP including sciatica. More homogenous groups were identified, which could be considered in future clinical and research settings.

  19. Hospital Utilisation in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Infants under 12 Months of Age in Western Australia, Prospective Population Based Data Linkage Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley McAuley

    Full Text Available Indigenous infants (infants aged under 12 months have the highest hospital admission and emergency department presentation risks in Australia. However, there have been no recent reports comparing hospital utilisation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous infants.Our primary objective was to use a large prospective population-based linked dataset to assess the risk of all-cause hospital admission and emergency department presentation in Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous infants in Western Australia (WA. Secondary objectives were to assess the effect of socio-economic status (Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage [IRSD] on hospital utilisation and to understand the causes of hospital utilisation.There were 3,382 (5.4% Indigenous and 59,583 (94.6% non-Indigenous live births in WA from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2011. Indigenous infants had a greater risk of hospital admission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.90, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.77-2.04, p = <0.001 and emergency department presentation (aOR 2.15, 95% CI 1.98-2.33, p = <0.001 compared to non-Indigenous infants. Fifty nine percent (59.0% of admissions in Indigenous children were classified as preventable compared to 31.2% of admissions in non-Indigenous infants (aOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.88-2.39. The risk of hospital admission in the most disadvantaged (IRSD 1 infants in the total cohort (35.7% was similar to the risk in the least disadvantaged (IRSD 5 infants (30.6% (aOR 1.04, 95% CI 0.96-1.13, p = 0.356.WA Indigenous infants have much higher hospital utilisation than non Indigenous infants. WA health services should prioritise Indigenous infants regardless of their socio economic status or where they live.

  20. A Randomized, Controlled Study of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T, a Fully Liquid Hexavalent Vaccine, Administered in a 3-, 5- and 11- to 12-month Schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Silfverdal, Sven-Arne; Jordanov, Emilia; Feroldi, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    To assess the immunogenicity and safety of a fully liquid, ready-to-use hexavalent DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine when administered in a 2 + 1 schedule at 3, 5 and 11-12 months of age. Phase III, randomized, active-controlled, observer-blind, multicenter study. Infants were randomized to receive DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T (N = 275) or a licensed control hexavalent vaccine (DTaP-IPV-HB//PRP~T: N = 275), both given in coadministration with Prevenar 13. Serum was analyzed for immune responses to all vaccine antigens. Noninferiority of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T to the control vaccine was tested at completion of the primary series using predefined seroprotection (SP) rate and vaccine response (VR) rates. Safety was assessed using parental reports. Noninferiority of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T to the control vaccine was demonstrated postdose 3 for each antigen, and the SP (for D, T, poliovirus 1, 2 and 3, hepatitis B and polyribosylribitol phosphate) and VR rates (for pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin) were high in each group. SP rates for D, T, polio 1, 2, 3 and VR rates for pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin were similar in each group. For hepatitis B, SP rate was slightly higher for DTaP-IPV-HB//PRP~T (99.6%) than DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T (96.4%), and for PRP, SP rate was higher for DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T (93.5%) than DTaP-IPV-HB//PRP~T (85.2%). For Prevenar 13, the SP rate was high for each serotype and similar for both groups. All vaccines were well tolerated. These study findings confirm the safety and immunogenicity and thus the suitability of this fully liquid hexavalent vaccine for administration in a 2 + 1 schedule.

  1. Dental therapists' expanded scope of practice in Australia: a 12-month follow-up of an educational bridging program to facilitate the provision of oral health care to patients 26+ years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopcraft, Matthew; Martin-Kerry, Jacqueline M; Calache, Hanny

    2015-01-01

    Prior to 2009, dental therapists' scope of clinical practice in Victoria was limited to patients 25 years or younger. However, increases in dental demand by adults 26+ years required an alternative approach to service delivery. This paper outlines the self-reported confidence and knowledge level of dental therapists at 3, 6, and 12 months postcompletion of an educational program aimed at providing them with the skills to treat adults aged 26+ years. The study also surveyed dentists in the practice about the dental therapists' knowledge and the impact of their extended scope of practice on the clinics' operation. After completion of their educational program, the dental therapists who participated were surveyed at 3, 6, and 12 months postcompletion to assess their self-reported confidence levels and knowledge. Senior dentists at the clinic were surveyed to understand the impact of the subsequent change in practice of the dental therapists who undertook this training, as well as any concerns of perceived educational gaps. Surveys showed increased self-reported confidence levels by the dental therapists at 3, 6, and 12 months after completion of the program. Dental therapists and mentoring dentists identified that further education was needed in areas such as oral medicine, pathology, medically compromised patients, medications, prosthodontics, and referrals. Dental therapists felt confident and knowledgeable postprogram to treat patients 26+ years, within their scope of practice. Dentists generally felt that dental therapists, after completing the educational program, were confident and knowledgeable. Educational areas to focus on in future programs were identified. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  2. A 12-Month Prospective, Observational Study of Treatment Regimen and Quality of Life Associated with ADHD in Central and Eastern Europe and Eastern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Michal; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Ondrejka, Igor; Akay, Aynur; Herczeg, Ilona; Dobrescu, Iuliana; Kim, Boong Nyun; Jin, Xingming; Riley, Anne W.; Martenyi, Ferenc; Harrison, Gavan; Treuer, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective, observational, non-randomized study aimed to describe the relationship between treatment regimen prescribed and the quality of life (QoL) of ADHD patients in countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Eastern Asia over 12 months. Methods: 977 Male and female patients aged 6-17 years seeking treatment for…

  3. The effect of a micronutrient-fortified complementary food on micronutrient status, growth and development of 6- to 12-month-old disadvantaged urban South-African infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oelofse, A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Benade, A.J.S.; Dhansay, M.A.; Tolboom, J.J.M.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2003-01-01

    The study was conducted to look at the effectiveness of a multimicronutrient-fortified complementary food on the micronutrient status, linear growth and psychomotor development of 6- to 12-month-old infants from a black urban disadvantaged community in the Western Cape, South Africa. The study was

  4. Effect of Linear Low-Intensity Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction—12-Month Follow-Up of a Randomized, Double-Blinded, Sham-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Lukasz Fojecki, MD

    2018-03-01

    Fojecki GL, Tiessen S, Osther PJS. Effect of Linear Low-Intensity Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction—12-Month Follow-Up of a Randomized, Double-Blinded, Sham-Controlled Study. Sex Med 2018;6:1–7.

  5. Effect of bariatric surgery-induced weight loss on renal and systemic inflammation and blood pressure: a 12-month prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Wiebke K; Dubb, Sukhpreet; Bueter, Marco; Seyfried, Florian; Patel, Karishma; Tam, Frederick W K; Frankel, Andrew H; le Roux, Carel W

    2013-01-01

    Bariatric surgery improves arterial hypertension and renal function; however, the underlying mechanisms and effect of different surgical procedures are unknown. In the present prospective study, we compared the 12-month follow-up results after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy on weight loss, hypertension, renal function, and inflammatory status. A total of 34 morbidly obese patients were investigated before, one and 12 months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 10), laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (n = 13), and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (n = 11) for hypertension, kidney function, urinary and serum cytokine levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and chemokine ligand-18. At 12 months after surgery, the patients in all 3 treatment arms showed a significant decrease in the mean body mass index, mean arterial pressure, and urinary and serum inflammatory markers (all P .8 mg/L) had a marked improvement in renal function 12 months after surgery (P < .05). Surgically induced weight loss is associated with a marked decrease in renal and systemic inflammation and arterial hypertension and improvement in renal function in patients with pre-existing renal impairment. These effects appear to be independent of surgical procedure. The improvement in renal inflammation could be 1 of the mechanisms contributing to the beneficial effects of bariatric surgery on arterial blood pressure, proteinuria, and renal function. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Transvenous stimulation of the phrenic nerve for the treatment of central sleep apnoea: 12 months' experience with the remedē® System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielski, Dariusz; Ponikowski, Piotr; Augostini, Ralph; Kolodziej, Adam; Khayat, Rami; Abraham, William T

    2016-11-01

    Patients with central sleep apnoea (CSA) often have poor quality of life and are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality. This study sought to evaluate the 12-month clinical outcomes of patients with CSA treated with unilateral transvenous phrenic nerve stimulation in the prospective, multicentre, non-randomized remedē ® System pilot study. Forty-seven patients with CSA were treated with the remedē ® System (Respicardia Inc., Minnetonka, MN, USA) for a minimum of 3 months. Sleep-disordered breathing parameters were evaluated by polysomnography (PSG) at 3, 6, and 12-month follow-up. Sleep symptoms and quality of life were also evaluated. Forty-one patients completed all follow-up PSGs and were included in the analysis. At 12 months, there was sustained improvement compared with baseline in the apnoea-hypopnoea index (49.9 ± 15.1 vs. 27.5 ± 18.3 events/h, P phrenic nerve stimulation is associated with sustained improvement in key sleep parameters, sleep symptoms, and quality of life over 12 months of follow-up. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2016 European Society of Cardiology.

  7. Relationship Between Emotional Processing, Drinking Severity and Relapse in Adults Treated for Alcohol Dependence in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopera, Maciej; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Suszek, Hubert; Glass, Jennifer M.; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Growing data reveals deficits in perception, understanding and regulation of emotions in alcohol dependence (AD). The study objective was to explore the relationships between emotional processing, drinking history and relapse in a clinical sample of alcohol-dependent patients. Methods: A group of 80 inpatients entering an alcohol treatment program in Warsaw, Poland was recruited and assessed at baseline and follow-up after 12 months. Baseline information about demographics, psychopathological symptoms, personality and severity of alcohol problems was obtained. The Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (EI) Test and Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) were utilized for emotional processing assessment. Follow-up information contained data on drinking alcohol during the last month. Results: At baseline assessment, the duration of alcohol drinking was associated with lower ability to utilize emotions. Patients reporting more difficulties with describing feelings drank more during their last episode of heavy drinking, and had a longer duration of intensive alcohol use. A longer duration of the last episode of heavy drinking was associated with more problems identifying and regulating emotions. Poor utilization of emotions and high severity of depressive symptoms contributed to higher rates of drinking at follow-up. Conclusions: These results underline the importance of systematic identification of discrete emotional problems and dynamics related to AD. This knowledge has implications for treatment. Psychotherapeutic interventions to improve emotional skills could be utilized in treatment of alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:25543129

  8. Effect of Improving Dietary Quality on Arterial Stiffness in Subjects with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: A 12 Months Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina S. Petersen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available People with diabetes have accelerated arterial stiffening. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of increasing fruit, vegetable and dairy intake for 12 months on carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV, augmentation index (AIx, and central blood pressure (cBP, compared to a usual diet control, in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In a 12 months randomised controlled trial, cfPWV, AIx and cBP were measured every 3 months. The intervention group received dietary counselling to increase consumption of fruit (+1 serving/day; 150 g/day, vegetables (+2 servings/day; 150 g/day and dairy (+1 serving/day; 200–250 g/day at baseline, 1, 3, 6 and 9 months. The control group continued on their usual diet. One hundred and nine participants were randomised and 92 (intervention n = 45; control n = 47 completed. At 3 months, fruit (184 g/day; p = 0.001 and dairy (83 g/day; p = 0.037 intake increased in the intervention group compared with the control group but this increase was not maintained at 12 months. After adjustment for baseline measurements there was no time by treatment effect for central systolic or diastolic BP, AIx or cfPWV. A time effect existed for AIx which modestly increased over time. Peripheral diastolic BP and central pulse pressure were improved in the intervention group compared with the control group at 12 months. In the cohort with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, improving dietary quality by increasing consumption of fruit, vegetables and dairy did not improve cBP, AIx or cfPWV, compared with a control group continuing on their usual diet, after 12 months.

  9. Cognitive status is a determinant of health resource utilization among individuals with a history of falls: a 12-month prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J C; Dian, L; Khan, K M; Bryan, S; Marra, C A; Hsu, C L; Jacova, P; Chiu, B K; Liu-Ambrose, T

    2016-03-01

    Falls are a costly public health problem worldwide. The literature is devoid of prospective data that identifies factors among fallers that significantly drive health care resource utilization. We found that cognitive function--specifically, executive functions--and cognitive status are significant determinants of health resource utilization among older fallers. Although falls are costly, there are no prospective data examining factors among fallers that drive health care resource utilization. We identified key determinants of health resource utilization (HRU) at 6 and 12 months among older adults with a history of falls. Specifically, with the increasing recognition that cognitive impairment is associated with increased falls risk, we investigated cognition as a potential driver of health resource utilization. This 12-month prospective cohort study at the Vancouver Falls Prevention Clinic (n = 319) included participants with a history of at least one fall in the previous 12 months. Based on their cognitive status, participants were divided into two groups: (1) no mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and (2) MCI. We constructed two linear regression models with HRU at 6 and 12 months as the dependent variables for each model, respectively. Predictors relating to mobility, global cognition, executive functions, and cognitive status (MCI versus no MCI) were examined. Age, sex, comorbidities, depression status, and activities of daily living were included regardless of statistical significance. Global cognition, comorbidities, working memory, and cognitive status (MCI versus no MCI ascertained using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)) were significant determinants of total HRU at 6 months. The number of medical comorbidities and global cognition were significant determinants of total HRU at 12 months. MCI status was a determinant of HRU at 6 months among older adults with a history of falls. As such, efforts to minimize health care resource use related to falls

  10. Young adolescents who combine alcohol and energy drinks have a higher risk of reporting negative behavioural outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Joppova, Eva; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-04-01

    To explore whether young adolescents consuming alcohol and energy drinks combined were more likely to report negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drink only one type of these beverages or are abstinent. We analysed data on a representative sample of Slovak adolescents 8502 adolescents (mean age 13.21, 49.4 % boys) from the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children cross-sectional study. We assessed the associations of alcohol and energy drinks consumption with negative outcomes and their potential synergy, as measured by the synergy index (SI). Adolescents consuming both alcohol and energy drinks were at higher risk of negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drank only alcohol or energy drinks or were non-consumers. Consumers of alcohol and energy drinks were highly prone to be involved in fighting-the joint association of alcohol and energy drinks consumption was greater than sum of its associations separately in relation to fighting (SI 1.49; 95 % confidence interval 1.03-2.16). Preventive strategies should aim at increasing awareness of negative behavioural outcomes-especially aggressive behaviour associated with alcohol and energy drinks consumption among young adolescents.

  11. Weight maintenance over 12 months after weight loss resulting from participation in a 12-week randomised controlled trial comparing all meal provision to self-directed diet in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitham, C; Mellor, D D; Goodwin, S; Reid, M; Atkin, S L

    2014-08-01

    The results of weight maintenance after initial weight loss are reported infrequently, although, when they have been reported, the outcomes are generally poor and weight regain is common. After an initial 12-week randomised intervention comparing all meal provision against a self-directed energy restriction, participants re-consented to participate in a follow-on study. Participants were given the option to choose to continue with the same dietary intervention (either all meal provision (provided free of charge) or self-directed diet) or change to the other diet for a further 12 weeks. Participants were followed up at 4-weekly intervals during both intervention periods (a total of 24 weeks), with a final follow up at 12 months. Eighty-five out of 86 individuals who completed the original 12-week randomised phase chose to continue on to the follow-up study. No significant differences in further weight loss between groups (P = 0.138) [mean (SEM): -3.4% (1.1%) for all meal provision only; -3.4% (0.6%) self-directed then all meal provision; -1.1% (1.2%) all meal provision then self-directed] were seen after a further 12 weeks. Meal provision for a total of 24 weeks resulted in 67% of individuals losing at least 10% body weight. The groups switching from self-directed dieting to meal provision (or vice versa) were the only groups to have a lower mean weight at 12 months than at the start of the follow-on study. Structured support for 24 weeks followed by 28 weeks of self-care can result in weight maintenance, with initial weight loss maintained at 12 months from enrolling on a 12-week weight loss intervention, with a 12-week follow-on period. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  12. Feeding Practices and Expectations among Middle-Class Anglo and Puerto Rican Mothers of 12-Month-Old Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Pamela A.; Harwood, Robin L.; Schoelmerich, Axel

    2001-01-01

    Investigated differences in beliefs and practices about infant feeding among middle class Anglo and Puerto Rican mothers. Interviews and observations indicated that Anglo mothers reported earlier attainment of self-feeding and more emphasis on child rearing goals related to self-maximization. Puerto Rican mothers reported later attainment of…

  13. The 'Outcome Reporting in Brief Intervention Trials: Alcohol' (ORBITAL) framework: protocol to determine a core outcome set for efficacy and effectiveness trials of alcohol screening and brief intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, G W; Heather, N; Bray, Jeremy W; Giles, E L; Holloway, A; Barbosa, C; Berman, A H; O'Donnell, A J; Clarke, M; Stockdale, K J; Newbury-Birch, D

    2017-12-22

    The evidence base to assess the efficacy and effectiveness of alcohol brief interventions (ABI) is weakened by variation in the outcomes measured and by inconsistent reporting. The 'Outcome Reporting in Brief Intervention Trials: Alcohol' (ORBITAL) project aims to develop a core outcome set (COS) and reporting guidance for its use in future trials of ABI in a range of settings. An international Special Interest Group was convened through INEBRIA (International Network on Brief Interventions for Alcohol and Other Drugs) to inform the development of a COS for trials of ABI. ORBITAL will incorporate a systematic review to map outcomes used in efficacy and effectiveness trials of ABI and their measurement properties, using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) criteria. This will support a multi-round Delphi study to prioritise outcomes. Delphi panellists will be drawn from a range of settings and stakeholder groups, and the Delphi study will also be used to determine if a single COS is relevant for all settings. A consensus meeting with key stakeholder representation will determine the final COS and associated guidance for its use in trials of ABI. ORBITAL will develop a COS for alcohol screening and brief intervention trials, with outcomes stratified into domains and guidance on outcome measurement instruments. The standardisation of ABI outcomes and their measurement will support the ongoing development of ABI studies and a systematic synthesis of emerging research findings. We will track the extent to which the COS delivers on this promise through an exploration of the use of the guidance in the decade following COS publication.

  14. [Diuretics and their potential effect on breath-alcohol concentration--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Georg; Skopp, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    Many objections were raised to breath-alcohol analysis upon its introduction in the field of traffic law enforcement in Germany, but in the meantime this issue has become less relevant in forensic routine work. In the present case, the defending lawyer claimed that the ethanol concentration in the blood and hence in the breath of his client, which was 0.35 mg/l according to the Dräger Alcotest 7110® Evidential and thus above the legal limit of 0.25 mg/l, had been changed by diuretics taken 4 hours before the breath alcohol test, viz. 10 mg of torasemide, a loop diuretic, and 50 mg of spironolactone, a competitive aldosterone antagonist. According to the literature, the maximum urinary output in healthy subjects within the first 4 hours after 10 mg torasemide was 1450 ml. In patients suffering from heart failure, the urinary volume was reduced by a factor of 2.5-3; after chronic intake of torasemide, water loss did not differ from placebo. Spironolactone, which acts on the distal tubule, has little effect on urinary output. In a publication, the loss of water in excess within 24 hours was 90 ml. Co-administration of 100 mg spironolactone and 20 mg furosemide, which roughly compares to 10 mg torasemide, resulted in a mean urinary volume of 1566 ml within the first 4 hours. In terms of the reported case and provided that no compensatory fluid had been taken, a purely theoretical maximum shift of 0.007 mg/ may occur in the breath-alcohol concentration due to the smaller distribution volume even considering maximum urinary excretion values. On the other hand, already mild levels of dehydration may be associated with negative symptoms affecting driving ability.

  15. Decreases in blood ethanol concentrations during storage at 4 °C for 12 months were the same for specimens kept in glass or plastic tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.W. Jones

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The stability of ethanol was investigated in blood specimens in glass or plastic evacuated tubes after storage in a refrigerator at 4 °C for up to 12 months. Methods: Sterile blood, from a local hospital, was divided into 50 mL portions and spiked with aqueous ethanol (10% w/v to give target concentrations of 0.20, 1.00, 2.00 and 3.00 g/L. Ethanol was determined in blood by headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC with an analytical imprecision of <3% (coefficient of variation, CV%. Aliquots of blood were re-analysed after 2, 7, 14, 28, 91, 182 and 364 days of storage at 4 °C. Results: The standard deviation (SD of analysis by HS-GC was 0.0059 g/L at 0.20 g/L and 0.0342 g/L at 3.00 g/L, corresponding to CVs of 2.9% and 1.1%, respectively. The decreases in blood ethanol content were analytically significant after 14–28 days of storage for both glass and plastic tubes The mean (lowest and highest loss of ethanol after 12 months storage was 0.111 g/L (0.084–0.129 g/L for glass tubes and 0.112 g/L (0.088–0.140 g/L for plastic tubes. The corresponding percentage losses of ethanol were 43–45% at a starting concentration of 0.20 g/L and 3.9–4.1% at 3.00 g/L. Conclusion: The concentration of ethanol in blood gradually decreases during storage at 4 °C. After 12 months storage the absolute decrease in concentration was ~0.11 g/L when the starting concentration ranged from 0.20 to 3.0 g/L. Decreases in ethanol content were the same for specimens kept in glass or plastic evacuated tubes. Keywords: Alcohol, Analysis, Blood, Ethanol stability, Plastic vs glass tubes, Storage conditions

  16. The interpretability of family history reports of alcoholism in general community samples: Findings in a Midwestern US twin birth cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mary; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Knopik, Valerie S.; Glowinski, Anne L.; Grant, Julia D.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Jacob, Theodore; Sher, Kenneth J.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although there is a long tradition in alcoholism research of using family history ratings, the interpretability of family history reports of alcoholism from general community samples has yet to be established. Methods Telephone interview data obtained from a large cohort of female like-sex twins (N = 3787, median age 22) and their biological parents (N = 2928, assessed at twins’ median age 15) were analyzed to determine agreement between parent self-report, parent ratings of coparent, and twin narrow (alcohol problems) versus broad (problem or excessive drinking) ratings of each parent. Results In European ancestry (EA) families, high tetrachoric correlations were observed between twin and cotwin ratings of parental alcohol problems, between twin and parent ratings of coparent alcohol problems using symptom-based and single-item assessments, as well as moderately high correlations between twin and both mother and father self-reports. In African American (AA) families, inter-rater agreement was substantially lower than for EA families, with no cases where father ratings of maternal alcohol problems agreed with either twin ratings or mother self-report; and both cotwin agreement and mother-twin agreement were reduced. Differences between EA and AA families were not explained by differences in years of cohabitation with father or mother’s education; however, underreporting of problems by AA parents may have contributed. Conclusions Results support the use of family history ratings of parental alcoholism in general community surveys for European ancestry families, but suggest that family history assessment in African American families requires improved methods. PMID:22235921

  17. EffiCiency and Safety of an eLectronic cigAreTte (ECLAT as tobacco cigarettes substitute: a prospective 12-month randomized control design study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Caponnetto

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are becoming increasingly popular with smokers worldwide. Users report buying them to help quit smoking, to reduce cigarette consumption, to relieve tobacco withdrawal symptoms, and to continue having a 'smoking' experience, but with reduced health risks. Research on e-cigarettes is urgently needed in order to ensure that the decisions of regulators, healthcare providers and consumers are based on science. Methods ECLAT is a prospective 12-month randomized, controlled trial that evaluates smoking reduction/abstinence in 300 smokers not intending to quit experimenting two different nicotine strengths of a popular e-cigarette model ('Categoria'; Arbi Group Srl, Italy compared to its non-nicotine choice. GroupA (n = 100 received 7.2 mg nicotine cartridges for 12 weeks; GroupB (n = 100, a 6-week 7.2 mg nicotine cartridges followed by a further 6-week 5.4 mg nicotine cartridges; GroupC (n = 100 received no-nicotine cartridges for 12 weeks. The study consisted of nine visits during which cig/day use and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO levels were measured. Smoking reduction and abstinence rates were calculated. Adverse events and product preferences were also reviewed.Declines in cig/day use and eCO levels were observed at each study visits in all three study groups (p<0.001 vs baseline, with no consistent differences among study groups. Smoking reduction was documented in 22.3% and 10.3% at week-12 and week-52 respectively. Complete abstinence from tobacco smoking was documented in 10.7% and 8.7% at week-12 and week-52 respectively. A substantial decrease in adverse events from baseline was observed and withdrawal symptoms were infrequently reported during the study. Participants' perception and acceptance of the product under investigation was satisfactory.In smokers not intending to quit, the use of e-cigarettes, with or without nicotine, decreased cigarette consumption and elicited enduring tobacco

  18. Young Risk Takers: Alcohol, Illicit Drugs, and Sexual Practices among a Sample of Music Festival Attendees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, Rebecca; Bowring, Anna; Dietze, Paul; Hellard, Margaret; Lim, Megan S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Alcohol and other drug use and sexual risk behaviour are increasing among young Australians, with associated preventable health outcomes such as sexually transmissible infections (STIs) on the rise. Methods. A cross-sectional study of young people's health behaviours conducted at a music festival in Melbourne, Australia, in 2011. Results. 1365 young people aged 16–29 completed the survey; 62% were female with a mean age of 20 years. The majority (94%, n = 1287) reported drinking alcohol during the previous 12 months; among those, 32% reported “binge” drinking (6+ drinks) at least weekly. Half (52%) reported ever using illicit drugs and 25% reported past month use. One-quarter (27%) were identified as being at risk of STIs through unprotected sex with new or casual partners during the previous 12 months. Multivariable analyses found that risky sexual behaviour was associated with younger age (≤19 years), younger age of sexual debut (≤15 years), having discussed sexual health/contraception with a doctor, regular binge drinking, and recent illicit drug use. Conclusion. Substance use correlated strongly with risky sexual behaviour. Further research should explore young people's knowledge of alcohol/drug-related impairment and associated risk-taking behaviours, and campaigns should encourage appropriate STI testing among music festival attendees. PMID:26316974

  19. Factors associated with the use of social workers for assistance with lifetime and 12-month behavioral health disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Amanda Toler; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the use of social workers for assistance with a behavioral health disorder. Data were from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys. The analytic sample included respondents who reported using professional services for assistance with a behavioral health disorder during their lifetime (n = 5,585). Logistic regression was used to examine the use of a social worker during the respondent's lifetime or 12 months prior to the interview. Ten percent of respondents visited a social worker for help with a behavioral health disorder during their lifetime and 3% did so in the 12 months prior to the interview. Women were less likely than men to report using a social worker. Those who visited a social worker tended to also use other professionals for a behavioral health disorder although overall respondents reported visiting social workers less frequently for this reason than other types of professionals.

  20. A randomized controlled trial of a resilience-based intervention on psychosocial well-being of children affected by HIV/AIDS: Effects at 6- and 12-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Harrison, Sayward E; Fairchild, Amanda J; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2017-10-01

    Global literature suggests that resilience-based interventions may yield improvements in psychosocial well-being for vulnerable children, but limited data are available regarding the efficacy of such interventions among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS. To evaluate initial efficacy of a multi-level resilience-based intervention among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS in China in improving children's psychosocial well-being and resilience-related outcomes. Seven hundred-ninety children, 6-17 years of age, were recruited from rural China. Children were either AIDS orphans or were living with one or two parents infected with HIV/AIDS. Children and primary caregivers were randomly assigned to participate in a 4-arm trial to evaluate the Child-Caregiver-Advocacy Resilience (ChildCARE) intervention. This resilience-based psychosocial intervention provides programming at three levels (child, caregiver, community). Survey data were collected at baseline, 6-months, and 12-months in order to examine efficacy of the child-only and child + caregiver arms in improving children's psychological resilience. Intervention groups displayed improvements in several resilience-related outcomes at 6- and 12-month follow-ups, including self-reported coping, hopefulness, emotional regulation, and self-control. The child-only intervention arm showed some fading of intervention effects by 12-months. Preliminary findings suggest that the ChildCARE intervention is efficacious in promoting psychosocial well-being of children affected by parental HIV/AIDS in rural China. Targeting both children and caregivers for psychosocial intervention may be effective in improving children's resilience. Additional evaluation and modifications, including the inclusion of booster sessions, should be considered to further strengthen the program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Alcohol consumption and low-risk drinking guidelines among adults: a cross-sectional analysis from Alberta's Tomorrow Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Darren R; Haig, Tiffany R; Poirier, Abbey E; Akawung, Alianu; Friedenreich, Christine M; Robson, Paula J

    2017-12-01

    Moderate to heavy alcohol consumption is a risk factor for all-cause mortality and cancer incidence. Although cross-sectional data are available through national surveys, data on alcohol consumption in Alberta from a large prospective cohort were not previously available. The goal of these analyses was to characterize the levels of alcohol consumption among adults from the Alberta's Tomorrow Project in the context of cancer prevention guidelines. Furthermore, we conducted analyses to examine the relationships between alcohol consumption and other high-risk or risk-related behaviours. Between 2001 and 2009, 31 072 men and women aged 35 to 69 years were enrolled into Alberta's Tomorrow Project, a large provincial cohort study. Data concerning alcohol consumption in the past 12 months were obtained from 26 842 participants who completed self-administered health and lifestyle questionnaires. We conducted cross-sectional analyses on daily alcohol consumption and cancer prevention guidelines for alcohol use in relation to sociodemographic factors. We also examined the combined prevalence of alcohol consumption and tobacco use, obesity and comorbidities. Approximately 14% of men and 12% of women reported alcohol consumption exceeding recommendations for cancer prevention. Higher alcohol consumption was reported in younger age groups, urban dwellers, those with higher incomes and those who consumed more red meat. Moreover, volume of daily alcohol consumption was positively associated with current tobacco use in both men and women. Overall, men were more likely to fall in the moderate and high-risk behavioural profiles and show higher daily alcohol consumption patterns compared to women. Despite public health messages concerning the adverse impact of alcohol consumption, a sizeable proportion of Alberta's Tomorrow Project participants consumed alcohol in excess of cancer prevention recommendations. Continued strategies to promote low-risk drinking among those who choose to

  2. Drug and alcohol in pregnancy and stuttering - a speech-language pathology case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahyara Francini Jacob

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Drug use during pregnancy is a well-known risk factor for the manifestation of speech-language disabilities. However, the necessity of studies directed towards drug use and its influence on interventional speech process in cases of alterations of child language and fluency is observed. In this study, clinical history data are presented as well as pre and post-assessment tests (Speech and Language and the description of an interventional process of a six-year child. The main communication complaint about the child was stuttering. In addition to the child’s clinical history, there was also knowledge of alcohol and legal and illegal drug use by the mother from before the moment of conception until this intervention process was reported. The protocols Stuttering Severity Instrument (SSI, Child Language Test (ABFW: phonology, vocabulary, and fluency tests, along with the Checklist of Verbal Communication Skills were applied. Based on these assessments, the child was diagnosed with mild to moderate stuttering, phonological simplifications, vocabulary inferior to that expected for his age, difficulty maintaining communicative turns, simplified narrative skills, alterations in psycholinguistic processes, and complaints from the school about his learning. The child underwent speech therapy in the areas of fluency and Child Language (phonological approach, showing evolution in the post-intervention assessment. Thus, in the present case, it became clear that the concomitant use of alcohol with exposure to cigarettes and marijuana may trigger changes in the acquisition and development of language, fluency and, consequently, learning.

  3. 77 FR 54331 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Mardon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... habitat requirements include food resources for adults (flower nectar), larval host plants (grasses and... strongly preferred as nectar sources, and Scot's broom is strongly avoided (Hays et al. 2000, p. 14...) are also reported as nectar sources from this region (Beyer and Black 2007, p. 15; Potter and...

  4. ALDH2 and ADH1B interactions in retrospective reports of low-dose reactions and initial sensitivity to alcohol in Asian American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Susan E; Pandika, Danielle; Shea, Shoshana H; Eng, Mimy Y; Liang, Tiebing; Wall, Tamara L

    2011-07-01

    A mechanistic model has been proposed for how alcohol-metabolizing gene variants protect individuals from the development of alcohol use disorders, with heightened sensitivity to alcohol being an early step (endophenotype) in this model. This study was designed to determine whether possession of 2 alcohol-metabolizing genes variations, the aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH2*2 allele and the alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1B*2 allele, was associated with self-reported sensitivity to alcohol at low doses and at initial use. Asian-American college students (N=784) of Chinese and Korean descent were genotyped at the ALDH2 and ADH1B loci and assessed for lifetime alcohol symptoms following 1 or 2 drinks and level of response to alcohol during the first 5 lifetime drinking episodes. Participants who had an ALDH2*2 allele were more likely to report experiencing all 6 low-dose symptoms and having heightened initial response to alcohol. An interaction was found between ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2, with ADH1B*2 being associated with heightened self-reported sensitivity to alcohol only in individuals who also possessed 1 ALDH2*2 allele. These findings suggest the effects of ADH1B*2 may be felt more strongly in Asians who already have some heightened sensitivity to alcohol from possessing 1 ALDH2*2 allele, but who are not too sensitized to alcohol from possessing 2 ALDH2*2 alleles. These results offer additional insight into the discrepant findings that have been reported in the literature for the role of ADH1B*2 in response to alcohol and the development of alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. Sustained effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Healthy Activity Programme, a brief psychological treatment for depression delivered by lay counsellors in primary care: 12-month follow-up of a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weobong, Benedict; Singla, Daisy R.; Hollon, Steven D.; Nadkarni, Abhijit; Park, A-La; Bhat, Bhargav; Anand, Arpita; Dimidjian, Sona; King, Michael; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Wilson, G. Terence; Velleman, Richard

    2017-01-01

    per quality-adjusted life year gained. Patient-reported behavioural activation level at 3 months mediated the effect of the HAP intervention on the 12-month depression score (β = −2.62; 95% CI −3.28, −1.97; p behavioural activation. Conclusions HAP’s superiority over EUC at the end of treatment was largely stable over time and was mediated by patient activation. HAP provides better outcomes at lower costs from a perspective covering publicly funded healthcare services and productivity impacts on patients and their families. Trial registration ISRCTN registry ISRCTN95149997 PMID:28898283

  6. Communication and coping as predictors of fertility problem stress: cohort study of 816 participants who did not achieve a delivery after 12 months of fertility treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L; Holstein, B E; Christensen, Ulla

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated coping strategies and communication strategies as predictors of fertility problem stress 12 months after start of fertility treatment. METHODS: We used a prospective, longitudinal cohort design including 2250 people beginning fertility treatment with a 12-month follow......-up. Data were based on self-administered questionnaires measuring communication with partner and with other people, coping strategies: active-avoidance coping, active-confronting coping, passive-avoidance coping, meaning-based coping, and fertility problem stress. The study population included those...... participants (n = 816, men and women) who had not achieved pregnancy by assisted reproduction or delivery at follow-up. RESULTS: Among both men and women, difficulties in partner communication predicted high fertility problem stress (odds ratio for women, 3.47, 95% confidence interval 2.09-5.76; odds ratio...

  7. Distress after a psychosocial cancer rehabilitation course. Main effects and effect modification in a randomised trial at 12 months of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Lone; Rottmann, Nina; Andersen, Klaus K.

    2015-01-01

    within the past two years who had completed primary treatment were randomised to a six-day, multidimensional residential rehabilitation course or to standard care. Of these, 208 patients received the allocated intervention and 244 received the allocated control condition and were included in the analyses....... Patients in both groups completed questionnaires at baseline and at one, six and 12 months of follow-up, including the 'Profile of Mood States short form', the 'General Self-efficacy' scale and a question on emotional support. At 12 months of follow-up, 179 participants in the intervention group and 195...... programmes may not be effective in the treatment of distress. During the past few decades, studies of psychotherapy or psycho-education in cancer patients have shown small to moderate effects. More focused rehabilitation programmes may be more effective....

  8. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... 466 KB] No. 81: Exploring Treatment Options for Alcohol Use Disorders [ PDF - 539K] No. 80: Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: ...

  9. Predictors of pain and physical function at 12-months in patients with ACL-reconstruction: A retrospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlind Larsen, Michael; Nissen, Nis; Jensen, Carsten

    , anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction improves patient reported outcome. However, the intensity of pain is rarely used as indication for surgery in patients with anterior cruciate ligaments tear Results The degree of preoperative pain predicted postoperative improvements in both pain and physical......). Surprisingly, patients with near normal to abnormal preoperative knee instability did not improve the postoperative pain and physical function as much as patients with normal preoperative instability. Age, gender and knee pivot shift had no predictive value....

  10. Alcohol based surgical prep solution and the risk of fire in the operating room: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Rajiv

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A few cases of fire in the operating room are reported in the literature. The factors that may initiate these fires are many and include alcohol based surgical prep solutions, electrosurgical equipment, flammable drapes etc. We are reporting a case of fire in the operating room while operating on a patient with burst fracture C6 vertebra with quadriplegia. The cause of the fire was due to incomplete drying of the covering drapes with an alcohol based surgical prep solution. This paper discusses potential preventive measures to minimize the incidence of fire in the operating room.

  11. The Effect of Weaning Food on the Body Weight of 6-12 Months Infants in Posyandu Kutoharjo Village, Kaliwungu, Kendal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Nahdloh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to Central Java Riskesdas in 2007 the severe malnutrition rate was 4.0%, while the rate in Kendal district was 3.1%. The age of 6-12 months is important because it is transition from liquid to solid foods. A purely breast milk diet is unsufficient to meet the nutritional needs of a fast growing baby growth. Weaning diet for baby is necessary to prevent growth disorder. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of weaning diet on weight gain of 6-12 month infant in posyandu (intergrated health center of Kutoharjo Kaliwungu Kendal. The study was an analytic observational study with a cross sectional design. 87 samples were taken from the visits of children aged 6-12 months in the posyandu consisted of 53 boys and 34 girls who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The informations of weaning diet was obtained by questionare and interview. The results classified the baby into two groups namely the appropiate groups and inappropriate groups. The infant’s growth was assessed using the growth chart for the previous two months. Data were analyzed by Chi-Square Test. 51 (58.6% infants fed of the appropriate solid foods, 44 (50.6% had a good weight gain growth and only 7 (8% infants has a bad weight gain. While of 36 (41.4% infants fed inappropriate weaning diet, 30 (34.5% infants had a bad weight gain and only 6 (6.9% infants had a good weight gain. The Chi-Square analysis showed p-value of 0.000 (p<0.05, which means that there was a significant difference between the two groups. The weaning food affect on weight gain of 6-12 month infants in posyandu Kutoharjo village Kaliwungu Kendal.

  12. Association of serum hs-CRP and lipids with obesity in school children in a 12-month follow-up study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishide, Ritsuko; Ando, Michiko; Funabashi, Hidemitsu; Yoda, Yoshiko; Nakano, Masataka; Shima, Masayuki

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the association of serum lipids and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) with obesity in school children and to explore whether hs-CRP levels could be used to predict the presence or absence of obesity 12 months later. The subjects were school children (6-11 years old) in Japan. Blood sampling and physical measurements were performed in school (2001); low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, and hs-CRP levels were measured. Data from children who could be followed 12 months later were analyzed. Subjects weighing 20% or more over his/her standard weight were regarded as obese, and the association of obesity with serum parameters was analyzed. Data from 612 subjects were analyzed (follow-up rate, 75.4%). The mean of each serum parameter was significantly higher (inverse for HDL-C; lower) in obese than that in non-obese children. Logistic regression analysis for obesity at baseline showed that the odds ratio (OR) of hs-CRP was the highest [OR, 2.15; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.65-2.78 for an interquartile rage (IQR) increase]; the association with triglycerides and LDL-C/HDL-C was significant. At the 12-month follow-up, the OR of high hs-CRP remained the highest of all serum parameters (2.09; 95% CI, 1.63-2.69 for an IQR increase). High levels of triglycerides, LDL-C/HDL-C, and hs-CRP increased the risk of obesity in school children. Hs-CRP is considered to be a better predictor of obesity 12 months later than is LDL-C/HDL-C.

  13. [Adherence to pharmaceutical guidance in patients over 85 years of age with chronic heart failure-stage C. Effects on 12-month mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve Arríen, Ainhoa; Domínguez de Pablos, Gema; Minaya Saiz, Jesús

    2009-01-01

    To describe factors related to prescription on discharge of treatment for Chronic Heart Failure(CHF)-Stage C and to analyse whether this is related to 12month-mortality. Observational follow-up study of patients over 85 hospitalized during 2006/7 with Stage C-Chronic Heart Failure in an outskirt support hospital. Drug-prescription adherence was assessed according to the American Heart Society 2005-Guidelines and recommendations of the American Geriatrics Society-2007. A multivariate analysis of logistic regression was performed to obtain odds for 12-month mortality for each recommended therapy, adjusting by mortality risk factors. 104 patients aged 90+/-3yr were followed on discharge, 85% of which were women. NYHA-classes were distributed NYHA I-28,2%, II-37,9%, III-30,1%, IV-3,9%. Most frequently prescribed drugs were loop diuretics (83,3%) and IACEs/ARB (62%), and the less frequent beta-blockers (19,1%). IACEs/ARB were prescribed to those with lower functional impairment (p=0.04), and beta-blockers to those with worse NYHA class (p=0.02). All recommended prescriptions had a tendency to 12 month mortality risk reduction, even adjusted by age, functional status, co-morbidity, NYHA class and co-morbid atrial fibrillation, except for spironolactone (OR-1,8; IC95% 0,48-17,19). Treatment with CHF disease-modifying therapies except for spironolactone can reduce 12 month risk mortality, also in the oldest old. There exists room for improvement in frequency of drug prescription in this group of age.

  14. The Pattern of Fatty Acids Displaced by EPA and DHA Following 12 Months Supplementation Varies between Blood Cell and Plasma Fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Celia G.; West, Annette L.; Browning, Lucy M.; Madden, Jackie; Gambell, Joanna M.; Jebb, Susan A.; Calder, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are increased in plasma lipids and blood cell membranes in response to supplementation. Whilst arachidonic acid (AA) is correspondingly decreased, the effect on other fatty acids (FA) is less well described and there may be site-specific differences. In response to 12 months EPA + DHA supplementation in doses equivalent to 0–4 portions of oily fish/week (1 portion: 3.27 g EPA+DHA) multinomial regression analysis was used to identify...

  15. Absorbable hydrogel spacer use in men undergoing prostate cancer radiotherapy: 12 month toxicity and proctoscopy results of a prospective multicenter phase II trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhl, Matthias; DeWeese, Theodore L; Herfarth, Klaus; Eble, Michael J; Pinkawa, Michael; Triest, Baukelien van; Kalisvaart, Robin; Weber, Damien C; Miralbell, Raymond; Song, Danny Y

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy is one of the recommended treatment options for localized prostate cancer. In randomized trials, dose escalation was correlated with better biochemical control but also with higher rectal toxicity. A prospective multicenter phase II study was carried out to evaluate the safety, clinical and dosimetric effects of the hydrogel prostate-rectum spacer. Here we present the 12 months toxicity results of this trial. Fifty two patients with localized prostate cancer received a transperineal PEG hydrogel injection between the prostate and rectum, and then received IMRT to a dose of 78 Gy. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity were recorded during treatment and at 3, 6 and 12 months following irradiation by using the RTOG/EORTC criteria. Additionally, proctoscopy was performed 12 months after treatment and the results were scored using the Vienna Rectoscopy Scale (VRS). Of the patients treated 39.6% and 12.5% experienced acute Grade 1 and Grade 2 GI toxicity, respectively. There was no Grade 3 or Grade 4 acute GI toxicity experienced in the study. Only 4.3% showed late Grade 1 GI toxicity, and there was no late Grade 2 or greater GI toxicity experienced in the study. A total of 41.7%, 35.4% and 2.1% of the men experienced acute Grade 1, Grade 2 and Grade 3 GU toxicity, respectively. There was no Grade 4 acute GU toxicity experienced in the study. Late Grade 1 and Grade 2 GU toxicity was experienced in 17.0% and 2.1% of the patients, respectively. There was no late Grade 3 or greater GU toxicity experienced in the study. Seventy one percent of the patients had a VRS score of 0, and one patient (2%) had Grade 3 teleangiectasia. There was no evidence of ulceration, stricture or necrosis at 12 months. The use of PEG spacer gel is a safe and effective method to spare the rectum from higher dose and toxicity

  16. Proton Pump Inhibitors Intake and Iron and Vitamin B12 Status: A Prospective Comparative Study with a Follow up of 12 Months

    OpenAIRE

    Qorraj-Bytyqi, Hasime; Hoxha, Rexhep; Sadiku, Shemsedin; Bajraktari, Ismet H.; Sopjani, Mentor; Thaçi, Kujtim; Thaçi, Shpetim; Bahtiri, Elton

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) represent the most widely prescribed antisecretory agents, but their prolonged use, may influence iron and vitamin B12 status, which could have important implications for clinical practice. AIM: We undertook this study aiming to investigate the association between PPIs use for 12 months and potential changes in iron and vitamin B12 status, as well as whether this potential association varies among four specific PPI drugs used in the study. MET...

  17. Weight, blood pressure, and dietary benefits after 12 months of a Web-based Nutrition Education Program (DASH for health): longitudinal observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas J; Alsabeeh, Nour; Apovian, Caroline M; Murphy, Megan C; Coffman, Gerald A; Cullum-Dugan, Diana; Jenkins, Mark; Cabral, Howard

    2008-12-12

    The dietary habits of Americans are creating serious health concerns, including obesity, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and even some types of cancer. While considerable attention has been focused on calorie reduction and weight loss, approaches are needed that will not only help the population reduce calorie intake but also consume the type of healthy, well-balanced diet that would prevent this array of medical complications. To design an Internet-based nutrition education program and to explore its effect on weight, blood pressure, and eating habits after 12 months of participation. We designed the DASH for Health program to provide weekly articles about healthy nutrition via the Internet. Dietary advice was based on the DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension). The program was offered as a free benefit to the employees of EMC Corporation, and 2834 employees and spouses enrolled. Enrollees voluntarily entered information about themselves on the website (food intake), and we used these self-entered data to determine if the program had any effect. Analyses were based upon the change in weight, blood pressure, and food intake between the baseline period (before the DASH program began) and the 12th month. To be included in an outcome, a subject had to have provided both a baseline and 12th-month entry. After 12 months, 735 of 2834 original enrollees (26%) were still actively using the program. For subjects who were overweight/obese (body mass index > 25; n = 151), weight change at 12 months was -4.2 lbs (95% CI: -2.2, -6.2; P Internet, with no person-to-person contact with health professionals, is associated with significant weight loss, blood pressure lowering, and dietary improvements after 12 months. Effective programs like DASH for Health, delivered via the Internet, can provide benefit to large numbers of subjects at low cost and may help address the nutritional public health crisis.

  18. Body composition is improved during 12 months' treatment with metformin alone or combined with oral contraceptives compared with treatment with oral contraceptives in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Altinok, Magda Lambaa; Mumm, Hanne; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Ravn, Pernille; Andersen, Marianne

    2014-07-01

    Central obesity in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased inflammatory markers and increased risk for type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was to evaluate whether treatment with metformin (M) or M combined with oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) resulted in a more advantageous body composition than treatment with OCP alone. The study was conducted at an outpatient clinic. This was a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Ninety patients with PCOS were randomized to 12 months' treatment with M (2 g/d), M + OCP (150 mg desogestrel+30 μg ethinylestradiol), or OCP. Whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans and clinical and hormonal evaluations were performed before and after the intervention period. A total of 65 of 90 patients completed the study. Changes in weight at 6 and 12 months and changes in regional fat mass estimates at 12 months were measured. Dropout rates between intervention groups were not significantly different. Treatment with M and M+OCP were superior to OCP regarding weight and regional fat mass. The median (quartiles) weight changes during 12 months of M, M+OCP, and OCP treatment were -3.0 (-10.3; 0.6), -1.9 (-4.9; 0.1), and 1.2 (-0.8; 3.0) kg, respectively, P weight loss and improved body composition compared with OCP, whereas free T levels decreased during M+OCP or OCP. Combined treatment with M+OCP should be considered as an alternative to treatment with OCP alone to avoid weight gain in PCOS.

  19. Effects of high intensity resistance aquatic training on body composition and walking speed in women with mild knee osteoarthritis: a 4-month RCT with 12-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, B; Munukka, M; Rantalainen, T; Lammentausta, E; Nieminen, M T; Kiviranta, I; Kautiainen, H; Häkkinen, A; Kujala, U M; Heinonen, A

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the effects of 4-months intensive aquatic resistance training on body composition and walking speed in post-menopausal women with mild knee osteoarthritis (OA), immediately after intervention and after 12-months follow-up. Additionally, influence of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) will be investigated. This randomised clinical trial assigned eighty-seven volunteer postmenopausal women into two study arms. The intervention group (n = 43) participated in 48 supervised intensive aquatic resistance training sessions over 4-months while the control group (n = 44) maintained normal physical activity. Eighty four participants continued into the 12-months' follow-up period. Body composition was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Walking speed over 2 km and the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) were measured. LTPA was recorded with self-reported diaries. After the 4-month intervention there was a significant decrease (P = 0.002) in fat mass (mean change: -1.17 kg; 95% CI: -2.00 to -0.43) and increase (P = 0.002) in walking speed (0.052 m/s; 95% CI: 0.018 to 0.086) in favour of the intervention group. Body composition returned to baseline after 12-months. In contrast, increased walking speed was maintained (0.046 m/s; 95% CI 0.006 to 0.086, P = 0.032). No change was seen in lean mass or KOOS. Daily LTPA over the 16-months had a significant effect (P = 0.007) on fat mass loss (f 2  = 0.05) but no effect on walking speed. Our findings show that high intensity aquatic resistance training decreases fat mass and improves walking speed in post-menopausal women with mild knee OA. Only improvements in walking speed were maintained at 12-months follow-up. Higher levels of LTPA were associated with fat mass loss. ISRCTN65346593. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dry Eye Disease following Refractive Surgery: A 12-Month Follow-Up of SMILE versus FS-LASIK in High Myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingjie Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare dry eye disease following SMILE versus FS-LASIK. Design. Prospective, nonrandomised, observational study. Patients. 90 patients undergoing refractive surgery for myopia were included. 47 eyes underwent SMILE and 43 eyes underwent FS-LASIK. Methods. Evaluation of dry eye disease was conducted preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, using the Salisbury Eye Evaluation Questionnaire (SEEQ and TBUT. Results. TBUT reduced following SMILE at 1 and 3 months (p<0.001 and at 1, 3, and 6 months following FS-LASIK (p<0.001. TBUT was greater following SMILE than FS-LASIK at 3, 6, and 12 months (p<0.001, p<0.001, and p=0.009, resp.. SEEQ scores increased (greater symptoms following SMILE at 1 month (p<0.001 and 3 months (p=0.003 and at 1, 3, and 6 months following FS-LASIK (p<0.001. SMILE produced lower SEEQ scores (fewer symptoms than FS-LASIK at 1, 3, and 6 months (p<0.001. Conclusion. SMILE produces less dry eye disease than FS-LASIK at 6 months postoperatively but demonstrates similar degrees of dry eye disease at 12 months.

  1. What barriers thwart postpartum women's physical activity goals during a 12-month intervention? A process evaluation of the Nā Mikimiki Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Cheryl L; Saiki, Kara; Steffen, Alana D; Woekel, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 70% of new mothers do not meet national guidelines for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The Nā Mikimiki ("the active ones") Project (2008-2011) was designed to increase MVPA among women with infants 2-12 months old. Participants' barriers to exercising and achievement of specific MVPA goals were discussed during telephone counseling calls over 12 months. Healthy, inactive women (n = 115, mean age = 31 ± 5 years, infants' mean age = 5.5 ± 3 months; 80% racial/ethnic minorities) received a total of 17 calls over 12 months in three phases. During Phase 1 weekly calls were made for a month, in Phase 2 biweekly calls were made for 2 months, and in Phase 3 monthly calls were made for 9 months. Across all phases, the most frequent barriers to achieving MVPA goals were: time/too busy (25%), sick child (11%), and illness (10%). Goals for MVPA minutes per week were achieved or surpassed 40.6% of the time during weekly calls, 39.9% during biweekly calls, and 42.0% during monthly calls. The least likely MVPA goals to be achieved (p barriers she had previously anticipated would impair her improvement of MVPA. This process evaluation demonstrated that telephone counseling somewhat facilitated the resolution of barriers and achievement of MVPA goals; thus, if clinical settings adopted such methods, chronic disease risks could be reduced in this vulnerable population of new mothers.

  2. Food Sources of Energy and Macronutrient Intakes among Infants from 6 to 12 Months of Age: The Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Xuan Lim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adequate nutrition during complementary feeding is important for the growth, development and well-being of children. We aim to examine the energy and macronutrient intake composition and their main food sources in a mother–offspring cohort study in Singapore. The diets of infants were assessed by 24 h dietary recalls or food diaries collected from mothers when their offspring were 6 (n = 760, 9 (n = 893 and 12 (n = 907 months of age. Food sources of energy and macronutrients were determined using the population proportion methodology. Energy intakes per day (kcal; mean (standard deviation, SD of these infants were 640 (158 at 6 months, 675 (173 at 9 months, and 761 (208 at 12 months. Infant formula, breastmilk and infant cereals were the top three food sources of energy and macronutrient intakes in infants through the period 6 to 12 months. Other main energy and carbohydrate sources at 9 and 12 months of age were rice porridge, infant biscuits and fresh fruits, while fish, red meat and eggs were the other main protein and total fat sources. Breast-fed and mixed-fed infants had a more varied diet as compared to formula-fed infants. Formula-fed infants had consistently higher protein and lower total fat consumption compared to those who were breastfed. An understanding of these main food sources during complementary feeding can inform local dietary recommendations and policies.

  3. Prediction of motivational impairment: 12-month follow-up of the randomized-controlled trial on extended early intervention for first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W C; Kwong, V W Y; Chan, G H K; Jim, O T T; Lau, E S K; Hui, C L M; Chan, S K W; Lee, E H M; Chen, E Y H

    2017-03-01

    Amotivation is prevalent in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and is a major determinant of functional outcome. Prediction of amotivation in the early stage of psychosis, however, is under-studied. We aimed to prospectively examine predictors of amotivation in FEP patients in a randomized-controlled trial comparing a 1-year extension of early intervention (Extended EI, 3-year EI) with step-down psychiatric care (SC, 2-year EI). One hundred sixty Chinese patents were recruited from a specialized EI program for FEP in Hong Kong after they have completed this 2-year EI service, randomly allocated to Extended EI or SC, and followed up for 12 months. Assessments on premorbid adjustment, onset profiles, baseline symptom severity and treatment characteristics were conducted. Data analysis was based on 156 subjects who completed follow-up assessments. Amotivation at 12-month follow-up was associated with premorbid adjustment, allocated treatment condition, and levels of positive symptoms, disorganization, amotivation, diminished expression (DE) and depression at study intake. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that Extended EI and lower levels of DE independently predicted better outcome on 12-month amotivation. Our findings indicate a potentially critical therapeutic role of an extended specialized EI on alleviating motivational impairment in FEP patients. The longer-term effect of Extended EI on amotivation merits further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Catheter-based renal denervation for resistant hypertension: 12-month results of the EnligHTN I first-in-human study using a multielectrode ablation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papademetriou, Vasilios; Tsioufis, Costas P; Sinhal, Ajay; Chew, Derek P; Meredith, Ian T; Malaiapan, Yuvi; Worthley, Matthew I; Worthley, Stephen G

    2014-09-01

    Renal denervation has emerged as a novel approach for the treatment of patients with drug-resistant hypertension. To date, only limited data have been published using multielectrode radiofrequency ablation systems. In this article, we present the 12-month data of EnligHTN I, a first-in-human study using a multielectrode ablation catheter. EnligHTN I enrolled 46 patients (average age, 60±10 years; on average 4.7±1.0 medications) with drug-resistant hypertension. Eligible patients were on ≥3 antihypertensive medications and had a systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥160 mm Hg (≥150 mm Hg for diabetics). Bilateral renal artery ablation was performed using a percutaneous femoral approach and standardized techniques. The average baseline office BP was 176/96 mm Hg, average 24-hour ambulatory BP was 150/83 mm Hg, and average home BP was 158/90 mm Hg. The average reductions (mm Hg) at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months were as follows: office: -28/-10, -27/-10, -26/-10, and -27/-11 mm Hg (Prenal function and no new serious or life-threatening adverse events. One patient with baseline nonocclusive renal artery stenosis progressed to 75% diameter stenosis, requiring renal artery stenting. The 12-month data continue to demonstrate safety and efficacy of the EnligHTN ablation system in patients with drug-resistant hypertension. Home BP measurements parallel measurements obtained with 24-hour ambulatory monitoring. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. 12-month follow-up of an exploratory ‘brief intervention’ for high-frequency cannabis users among Canadian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Benedikt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One in three young people use cannabis in Canada. Cannabis use can be associated with a variety of health problems which occur primarily among intensive/frequent users. Availability and effectiveness of conventional treatment for cannabis use is limited. While Brief Interventions (BIs have been shown to result in short-term reductions of cannabis use risks or problems, few studies have assessed their longer-term effects. The present study examined 12-month follow-up outcomes for BIs in a cohort of young Canadian high-frequency cannabis users where select short-term effects (3 months had previously been assessed and demonstrated. Findings N = 134 frequent cannabis users were recruited from among university students in Toronto, randomized to either an oral or a written cannabis BI, or corresponding health controls, and assessed in-person at baseline, 3-months, and 12-months. N = 72 (54 % of the original sample were retained for follow-up analyses at 12-months where reductions in ‘deep inhalation/breathholding’ (Q = 13.1; p  Conclusions The results confirm findings from select other studies indicating the potential for longer-term and sustained risk reduction effects of BIs for cannabis use. While further research is needed on the long-term effects of BIs, these may be a valuable – and efficient – intervention tool in a public health approach to high-risk cannabis use.

  6. Reducing child conduct disordered behaviour and improving parent mental health in disadvantaged families: a 12-month follow-up and cost analysis of a parenting intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGilloway, Sinead; NiMhaille, Grainne; Bywater, Tracey; Leckey, Yvonne; Kelly, Paul; Furlong, Mairead; Comiskey, Catherine; O'Neill, Donal; Donnelly, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The effectiveness of the Incredible Years Basic parent programme (IYBP) in reducing child conduct problems and improving parent competencies and mental health was examined in a 12-month follow-up. Pre- to post-intervention service use and related costs were also analysed. A total of 103 families and their children (aged 32-88 months), who previously participated in a randomised controlled trial of the IYBP, took part in a 12-month follow-up assessment. Child and parent behaviour and well-being were measured using psychometric and observational measures. An intention-to-treat analysis was carried out using a one-way repeated measures ANOVA. Pairwise comparisons were subsequently conducted to determine whether treatment outcomes were sustained 1 year post-baseline assessment. Results indicate that post-intervention improvements in child conduct problems, parenting behaviour and parental mental health were maintained. Service use and associated costs continued to decline. The results indicate that parent-focused interventions, implemented in the early years, can result in improvements in child and parent behaviour and well-being 12 months later. A reduced reliance on formal services is also indicated.

  7. The influence of maternal optimality and infant temperament on parenting stress at 12 months among mothers with substance abuse and psychiatric problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqveland, Torill S; Olafsen, Kåre S; Moe, Vibeke

    2013-10-01

    The present prospective longitudinal study aimed to investigate the long-term impact of maternal optimality assessed during pregnancy on parenting stress at infant age 12 months. In this study the concept of optimality was utilized to investigate maternal variations regarding resources during pregnancy in relation to later parenting stress, among three different groups of mothers that were recruited from substance abuse treatment, psychiatric outpatient treatment and well-baby clinics respectively. The influence of infant temperament on parenting stress was also examined. All mothers were interviewed during pregnancy. At 12 months, infant temperament (Colorado Childhood Temperament Inventory; Rowe & Plomin, 1977) and stress in the parent and child domain (Parenting Stress Index; Abidin, 1955) were assessed. Results demonstrated higher levels of parenting stress among mothers in the clinical groups, compared to the non-clinical group. Furthermore, it was the maternal psychiatric optimality index in combination with child temperament characteristics (child emotionality) that contributed uniquely to stress in the parent domain, while stress in the child domain was significantly associated only with child temperament characteristics (both child emotionality and soothability). The association between maternal psychiatric optimality assessed in pregnancy, infant temperament and parenting stress when the infants were 12 months old, points to the importance of simultaneously addressing the mothers' own psychological distress, and to support positive mother-infant interactions. Each woman's individual optimality profile may be used to display needs of follow-up in order to prevent enduring effects of non-optimality on parenting stress. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  8. Food Sources of Energy and Macronutrient Intakes among Infants from 6 to 12 Months of Age: The Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Shan-Xuan; Toh, Jia-Ying; van Lee, Linde; Han, Wee-Meng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Tan, Kok-Hian; Yap, Fabian; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2018-03-10

    Adequate nutrition during complementary feeding is important for the growth, development and well-being of children. We aim to examine the energy and macronutrient intake composition and their main food sources in a mother-offspring cohort study in Singapore. The diets of infants were assessed by 24 h dietary recalls or food diaries collected from mothers when their offspring were 6 (n = 760), 9 (n = 893) and 12 (n = 907) months of age. Food sources of energy and macronutrients were determined using the population proportion methodology. Energy intakes per day (kcal; mean (standard deviation, SD)) of these infants were 640 (158) at 6 months, 675 (173) at 9 months, and 761 (208) at 12 months. Infant formula, breastmilk and infant cereals were the top three food sources of energy and macronutrient intakes in infants through the period 6 to 12 months. Other main energy and carbohydrate sources at 9 and 12 months of age were rice porridge, infant biscuits and fresh fruits, while fish, red meat and eggs were the other main protein and total fat sources. Breast-fed and mixed-fed infants had a more varied diet as compared to formula-fed infants. Formula-fed infants had consistently higher protein and lower total fat consumption compared to those who were breastfed. An understanding of these main food sources during complementary feeding can inform local dietary recommendations and policies.

  9. Risk factor assessment and counselling for 12 months reduces metabolic and cardiovascular risk in overweight or obese patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: The CRESSOB study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis; Pulido, Susana; Azanza, Jose R; Bernardo, Miguel; Rojo, Luis; Mesa, Francisco J; Martínez-Ortega, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) and cardiovascular risk factors (CRF) have been associated with patients with schizophrenia. The main objective is to assess the evolution of CRF and prevalence of MS for 12 months in a cohort of overweight patients diagnosed with schizophrenia schizophreniform disorder or schizoaffective disorder in which the recommendations for the assessment and control of metabolic and cardiovascular risk were applied. The Control of Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Schizophrenia and Overweight (CRESSOB) study is a 12-month, observational, prospective, open-label, multicentre, naturalistic study including 109 community mental health clinics of Spain. The study included a total of 403 patients, of whom we could collect all variables related to CRF and MS in 366 patients. Of these 366 patients, 286 completed the follow-up, (baseline, months 3, 6 and 12) where they underwent a complete physical examination and a blood test (glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides), they were asked about their health-related habits (smoking, diet and exercise) and they were given a series of recommendations to prevent cardiovascular risk and MS. A total of 403 patients were included, 63% men, mean age (mean; (SD)) 40.5 (10.5) years. After 12 months, the study showed statistically significant decrease in weight (prisk of heart disease at 10 years (p=0.0353). Overweight patients with schizophrenia who receive appropriate medical care, including CRF monitoring and control of health-related habits experience improvements with regard to most CRFs.

  10. Food Sources of Energy and Macronutrient Intakes among Infants from 6 to 12 Months of Age: The Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Shan-Xuan; Toh, Jia-Ying; Han, Wee-Meng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Yap, Fabian; Chong, Yap-Seng; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2018-01-01

    Adequate nutrition during complementary feeding is important for the growth, development and well-being of children. We aim to examine the energy and macronutrient intake composition and their main food sources in a mother–offspring cohort study in Singapore. The diets of infants were assessed by 24 h dietary recalls or food diaries collected from mothers when their offspring were 6 (n = 760), 9 (n = 893) and 12 (n = 907) months of age. Food sources of energy and macronutrients were determined using the population proportion methodology. Energy intakes per day (kcal; mean (standard deviation, SD)) of these infants were 640 (158) at 6 months, 675 (173) at 9 months, and 761 (208) at 12 months. Infant formula, breastmilk and infant cereals were the top three food sources of energy and macronutrient intakes in infants through the period 6 to 12 months. Other main energy and carbohydrate sources at 9 and 12 months of age were rice porridge, infant biscuits and fresh fruits, while fish, red meat and eggs were the other main protein and total fat sources. Breast-fed and mixed-fed infants had a more varied diet as compared to formula-fed infants. Formula-fed infants had consistently higher protein and lower total fat consumption compared to those who were breastfed. An understanding of these main food sources during complementary feeding can inform local dietary recommendations and policies. PMID:29534442

  11. The Prevalence of Past 12-Month and Lifetime DSM-IV Eating Disorders by BMI Category in US Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Alexis E; Ziobrowski, Hannah N; Nicol, Ginger

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to determine whether the prevalence of lifetime and past 12-month DSM-IV eating disorders (ED) diagnoses differed by body mass index category among men and women in a general population sample. Data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (n = 12 337 adults) were analysed using logistic regression. Analyses were conducted separately by gender. Lifetime ED prevalence was 2.22% in men and 4.93% in women. In both genders, the prevalence of any lifetime and past 12-month ED, binge eating disorder and recurrent binge eating was highest among obese individuals. Among obese men and women, lifetime and past 12-month ED prevalence was highest among those with class III obesity. Eating disorders were most prevalent among high-weight individuals. This information is important for planning targeted public health ED and obesity prevention and intervention activities, as well as for informing the clinical care of obese individuals. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  12. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than eight breaths a minute) Irregular breathing (a gap of more than 10 seconds between breaths) Blue- ... about alcohol by their parents and who report close relationships with their parents are less likely to ...

  13. Hypokalemic Paralysis Complicated by Concurrent Hyperthyroidism and Chronic Alcoholism: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Hsien; Lin, Shih-Hua; Leu, Jyh-Gang; Fang, Yu-Wei

    2015-09-01

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is characterized by the presence of muscle paralysis, hypokalemia, and hyperthyroidism. We report the case of a young man with paralysis of the lower extremities, severe hypokalemia, and concurrent hyperthyroidism. TPP was suspected; therefore, treatment consisting of judicious potassium (K+) repletion and β-blocker administration was initiated. However, urinary K+ excretion rate, as well as refractoriness to treatment, was inconsistent with TPP. Chronic alcoholism was considered as an alternative cause of hypokalemia, and serum K+ was restored through vigorous K repletion and the addition of K+ -sparing diuretics. The presence of thyrotoxicosis and hypokalemia does not always indicate a diagnosis of TPP. Exclusion of TPP can be accomplished by immediate evaluation of urinary K+ excretion, acid-base status, and the amount of potassium chloride required to correct hypokalemia at presentation.

  14. Alcohol abuse and involvement in traffic accidents in the Brazilian population, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Boccolini, Cristiano Siqueira; Souza, Paulo Roberto Borges de; Almeida, Wanessa da Silva de; Ribeiro, Lucas Sisinno; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann

    2016-12-01

    Abstract This article aims to analyze alcohol abuse and frequent consumption according to sociodemographic characteristics and investigate the risk of greater involvement in traffic accidents, using data from the National Health Survey (PNS), 2013, Brazil. Events investigated were alcohol abuse and frequent consumption and if the individual was involved in a traffic accident and sustained an injury in the last 12 months. We investigated both events according to sociodemographic characteristics and assessed the association among them through multivariate logistic regression. The prevalence of alcohol abuse and frequent consumption was 6.1% for the population aged 18 years and over, 8.9% among men and 3.6% among women. The prevalence of involvement in traffic accidents was 3.1% in the general population and 6.1% among those who reported alcohol abuse. After controlling for sociodemographic factors, alcohol abuse and frequent consumption was significantly associated with traffic accidents. Considering a higher risk of involvement in traffic accidents among individuals who reported alcohol abuse and frequent consumption, monitoring blood alcohol concentration of drivers becomes a strategic possibility of intervention.

  15. Relationships between self-reported unfair treatment and prescription medication use, illicit drug use, and alcohol dependence among Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Gilbert C; Delva, Jorge; Takeuchi, David T

    2007-05-01

    We examined associations between self-reported unfair treatment and prescription medication use, illicit drug use, and alcohol dependence. We used data from the Filipino American Community Epidemiological Survey, a cross-sectional investigation involving 2217 Filipino Americans interviewed in 1998-1999. Multinomial logistic and negative binomial regression analyses were used in assessing associations between unfair treatment and the substance use categories. Reports of unfair treatment were associated with prescription drug use, illicit drug use, and alcohol dependence after control for age, gender, location of residence, employment status, educational level, ethnic identity level, nativity, language spoken, marital status, and several health conditions. Unfair treatment may contribute to illness and subsequent use of prescription medications. Furthermore, some individuals may use illicit drugs and alcohol to cope with the stress associated with such treatment. Addressing the antecedents of unfair treatment may be a potential intervention route.

  16. Effect of Linear Low-Intensity Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction-12-Month Follow-Up of a Randomized, Double-Blinded, Sham-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojecki, Grzegorz Lukasz; Tiessen, Stefan; Osther, Palle Jørn Sloth

    2018-03-01

    Short-term data on the effect of low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy (Li-ESWT) on erectile dysfunction (ED) have been inconsistent. The suggested mechanisms of action of Li-ESWT on ED include stimulation of cell proliferation, tissue regeneration, and angiogenesis, which can be processes with a long generation time. Therefore, long-term data on the effect of Li-ESWT on ED are strongly warranted. To assess the outcome at 6 and 12 months of linear Li-ESWT on ED from a previously published randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled trial. Subjects with ED (N = 126) who scored lower than 25 points in the erectile function domain of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-EF) were eligible for the study. They were allocated to 1 of 2 groups: 5 weekly sessions of sham treatment (group A) or linear Li-ESWT (group B). After a 4-week break, the 2 groups received active treatment once a week for 5 weeks. At baseline and 6 and 12 months, subjects were evaluated by the IIEF-EF, the Erectile Hardness Scale (EHS), and the Sexual Quality of Life in Men. The primary outcome measure was an increase of at least 5 points in the IIEF-EF (ΔIIEF-EF score). The secondary outcome measure was an increase in the EHS score to at least 3 in men with a score no higher than 2 at baseline. Data were analyzed by linear and logistic regressions. Linear regression of the ΔIIEF-EF score from baseline to 12 months included 95 patients (dropout rate = 25%). Adjusted for the IIEF-EF score at baseline, the difference between groups B and A was -1.30 (95% CI = -4.37 to 1.77, P = .4). The success rate based on the main outcome parameter (ΔIIEF-EF score ≥ 5) was 54% in group A vs 47% in group B (odds ratio = 0.67, P = .28). Improvement based on changes in the EHS score in groups A and B was 34% and 24%, respectively (odds ratio = 0.47, P = .82). Exposure to 2 cycles of linear Li-ESWT for ED is not superior to 1 cycle at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Fojecki GL, Tiessen S

  17. The association between low alcohol use and traffic risk behaviors among Brazilian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Priscila Dib; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi; Malbergier, André; do Amaral, Ricardo Abrantes; de Oliveira, Lúcio Garcia; Yang, Jasmine J; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra

    2012-11-01

    Although there are a large number of studies focused on binge drinking and traffic risk behaviors (TRB), little is known regarding low levels of alcohol consumption and its association to TRB. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to examine the association of low to moderate alcohol intake pattern and TRB in college students in Brazil. 7037 students from a National representative sample were selected under rigorous inclusion criteria. All study participants voluntarily fulfilled a structured, anonymous, and self-questionnaire regarding alcohol and drug use, social-demographic data, and TRB. Alcohol was assessed according to the average number of alcoholic units consumed on standard occasions over the past 12 months. The associations between alcohol intake and TRB were summarized with odds ratio and their confidence interval obtained from logistic regression. Compared with abstainers students who consumed only one alcohol unit had the risk of being a passenger in a car driven by a drunk driver increased by almost four times, students who reported using five or more units were increased by almost five times the risk of being involved in a car crash. Compared with students who consumed one alcohol unit, the risk of driving under the influence of alcohol increased four times in students using three alcohol units. Age group, use of illicit drugs, employment status, gender, and marital status significantly influenced occurrence of TRB among college students. Our study highlights the potential detrimental effects of low and moderate pattern of alcohol consumption and its relation to riding with an intoxicated driver and other TRB. These data suggest that targeted interventions should be implemented in order to prevent negative consequences due to alcohol use in this population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment of infected bulla with alcohol sclerosis combined with percutaneous catheter drainage: a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Young Min; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Chong Soo; Chung, Gyung Ho; Rhee, Yang Keen; Lee, Yong Chul; Sohn, Myung Hee; Choi, Ki Chul

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate effectiveness of alcohol sclerosis combined with percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) for treatment of infected bulla. Infected bulla in four consecutive patients were treated. In all patients, percutaneous catheter drainage of the bulla was performed. Instillation of sterile alcohol (99% ethanol) was carried out into the cavity of the bulla. Alcohol was left in the cavity for approximately 30 minutes in each session. Alcohol instillation was repeated according to the size of bulla. Patients were subsequently followed up with serial chest radiographs and CT scans. All patients showed significant improvement both clinically and radiologically. Disappearance of the bulla and reexpansion of surrounding lung parenchyma was observed in two patients and partial resolution (80% reduction in size) was seen in another two patients. Complications included mild chest pain during instillation of alcohol in all patients and delayed radiating shoulder pain in one patient. We provisionally conclude that intracavitary alcohol instillation combined with PCD is effective in the treatment of the infected bulla

  19. Screening for use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis in pregnancy using self-report tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotham, E; White, J; Ali, R; Robinson, J

    2012-08-01

    The World Health Organization has identified substance use in the top 20 risk factors for ill health. Risks in pregnancy are compounded, with risk to the woman's health, to pregnancy progression and on both the foetus and the newborn. Intrauterine exposure can result in negative influences on offspring development, sometimes into adulthood. With effectively two patients, there is a clear need for antenatal screening. Biomarker reliability is limited and research efforts have been directed to self-report tools, often attempting to address potential lack of veracity if women feel guilty about substance use and worried about possible stigmatization. Tools, which assume the behaviour, are likely to elicit more honest responses; querying pre-pregnancy use would likely have the same effect. Although veracity is heightened if substance use questions are embedded within health and social functioning questionnaires, such tools may be too lengthy clinically. It has been proposed that screening only for alcohol and tobacco, with focus on the month pre-pregnancy, could enable identification of all other substances. Alternatively, the Revised Fagerstrom Questionnaire could be used initially, tobacco being highly indicative of substance use generally. The ASSIST V.3.0 is readily administered and covers all substances, although the pregnancy 'risk level' cut-off for tobacco is not established. Alcohol tools - the 4Ps, TLFB and 'drug' CAGE (with E: query of use to avoid withdrawal) - have been studied with other substances and could be used. General psychosocial distress and mental ill-health often co-exist with substance use and identification of substance use needs to become legitimate practice for obstetric clinicians.

  20. Brief Report: Disposable Income, and Spending on Fast Food, Alcohol, Cigarettes, and Gambling by New Zealand Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Helen; Reeder, Anthony I.; McGee, Rob; Williams, Sheila

    2006-01-01

    We describe self-reported sources of income and expenditure, and the association between part-time employment and spending on fast food, alcohol, cigarettes, and gambling for a sample of 3434 New Zealand (NZ) secondary school students (mean age 15.0 years). Disposable income was usually received from parents and guardians, but nearly 40% of…

  1. Young adolescents who combine alcohol and energy drinks have a higher risk of reporting negative behavioural outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Joppova, Eva; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    To explore whether young adolescents consuming alcohol and energy drinks combined were more likely to report negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drink only one type of these beverages or are abstinent. We analysed data on a representative sample of Slovak adolescents 8502 adolescents

  2. Retrospective reports of parenting received in their families of origin: relationships to adult attachment in adult children of alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Nair, Veena; Rawlings, Tanaya; Cash, Thomas F; Steer, Kate; Fals-Stewart, William

    2005-09-01

    The present study examined general and romantic attachment and parenting students received in their families of origin among 401 college students who resided with an alcohol-abusing parent prior to age 16 years as compared to those who did not reside with alcohol-abusing parents. Participants completed the Children's Report of Parent Behavior Instrument [Schludermann, E. and Schludermann, S. (1970). Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory (CRPBI). Canada: University of Manitoba], Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised [Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., and Brennan, K. G. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350-365], Relationship Scale Questionnaire [Griffin, D. W. and Bartholomew, K. (1994). Models of the self and other: Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 430-445], and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test [Jones, J. W. (1983). The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test: Test manual. Chicago: Camelot]. Young adults who met criteria for ACOAs reported more anxious and avoidant behavior in romantic relationships and a more fearful style of general adult attachment. Parenting behavior in one's family of origin predicted anxious behavior in romantic relationships and a fearful overall style of attachment, whereas being an ACOA and parenting in one's family of origin predicted avoidant behavior in romantic relationships.

  3. Final report of the addendum to the safety assessment of n-butyl alcohol as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLain, Valerie C

    2008-01-01

    nonimmunological contact urticaria was negative in 105 subjects. Repeat-insult patch test (RIPT) studies of nail colors and enamels containing 3% n-Butyl Alcohol in one study produced reactions on challenge, but further study linked significant positive reactions to another solvent. In other RIPT studies, only minimal reactions were reported. A photopatch test demonstrated that a nail enamel containing 3% n-Butyl Alcohol resulted in no reactions. Workers complained of ocular irritation, disagreeable odor, slight headache and vertigo, slight irritation of nose and throat, and dermatitis of the fingers and hands when the air concentration of n-Butyl Alcohol was greater than 50 ppm, as compared to an odor threshold in air of 0.83 ppm. The available safety test data were considered adequate to support the safety of n-Butyl Alcohol in all cosmetic product categories in which it is currently used.

  4. Impact of an Electronic Cigarette on Smoking Reduction and Cessation in Schizophrenic Smokers: A Prospective 12-Month Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Caponnetto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarette smoking is a tough addiction to break. This dependence is the most common dual diagnosis for individuals with schizophrenia. Currently three effective drugs are approved for smoking cessation: nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, varenicline and bupropion. However, some serious side effects of varenicline have been reported, including depression, suicidal thoughts, and suicide. The use of bupropion also has side effects. It should not be used by people who have epilepsy or any condition that lowers the seizure threshold, nor by people who take a specific class of drugs called monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Hence, there are pharmacodynamic reason to believe they could precipitate or exacerbate psychosis. For its capacity to deliver nicotine and provide a coping mechanism for conditioned smoking cues by replacing some of the rituals associated with smoking gestures, electronic-cigarettes may reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms without serious side effects. Our recent work with ECs in healthy smokers not intending to quit consistently show surprisingly high success rates. We hypothesised that these positive findings could be replicated in difficult patients with schizophrenia This tool may help smokers with schizophrenia remain abstinent during their quitting attempts or to reduce cigarette consumption. Efficacy and safety of these devices in long-term smoking cessation and/or smoking reduction studies have never been investigated for this special population. Methods: In this study we monitored possible modifications in smoking habits of 14 smokers (not intending to quit with schizophrenia experimenting with the “Categoria” e-Cigarette with a focus on smoking reduction and smoking abstinence. Study participants were invited to attend six study visits: at baseline, week-4, week-8, week-12 week-24 and week 52. Product use, number of cigarettes smoked, carbon monoxide in exhaled breath (eCO and positive and negative symptoms of

  5. Impact of an electronic cigarette on smoking reduction and cessation in schizophrenic smokers: a prospective 12-month pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponnetto, Pasquale; Auditore, Roberta; Russo, Cristina; Cappello, Giorgio Carlo; Polosa, Riccardo

    2013-01-28

    Cigarette smoking is a tough addiction to break. This dependence is the most common dual diagnosis for individuals with schizophrenia. Currently three effective drugs are approved for smoking cessation: nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), varenicline and bupropion. However, some serious side effects of varenicline have been reported, including depression, suicidal thoughts, and suicide. The use of bupropion also has side effects. It should not be used by people who have epilepsy or any condition that lowers the seizure threshold, nor by people who take a specific class of drugs called monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Hence, there are pharmacodynamic reason to believe they could precipitate or exacerbate psychosis. For its capacity to deliver nicotine and provide a coping mechanism for conditioned smoking cues by replacing some of the rituals associated with smoking gestures, electronic-cigarettes may reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms without serious side effects. Our recent work with ECs in healthy smokers not intending to quit consistently show surprisingly high success rates. We hypothesised that these positive findings could be replicated in difficult patients with schizophrenia This tool may help smokers with schizophrenia remain abstinent during their quitting attempts or to reduce cigarette consumption. Efficacy and safety of these devices in long-term smoking cessation and/or smoking reduction studies have never been investigated for this special population. In this study we monitored possible modifications in smoking habits of 14 smokers (not intending to quit) with schizophrenia experimenting with the "Categoria" e-Cigarette with a focus on smoking reduction and smoking abstinence. Study participants were invited to attend six study visits: at baseline, week-4, week-8, week-12 week-24 and week 52. Product use, number of cigarettes smoked, carbon monoxide in exhaled breath (eCO) and positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia levels were measured at each

  6. Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure after strenuous exercise and alcohol abuse: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth De Francesco Daher

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Rhabdomyolysis is a severe and life-threatening condition in which skeletal muscle is damaged. Acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis has been widely described and its main pathophysiological mechanisms are renal vasoconstriction, intraluminal cast formation and direct myoglobin toxicity. OBJECTIVE: To report on a case of acute renal failure (ARF induced by rhabdomyolysis due to strenuous exercise and alcohol abuse and to describe the pathophysiology of this type of ARF. CASE REPORT: A 39-year-old man arrived at the hospital emergency service with swollen legs and lower extremity compartment syndrome. He was oliguric and had serum creatinine and urea levels of 8.1 mg/dl and 195 mg/dl, respectively. The diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis was made through clinical and laboratory findings (creatine kinase activity of 26320 IU/l. The initial treatment consisted of fluid replacement and forced diuresis. The specific treatment for compartment syndrome, such as fasciotomy, was avoided in order to prevent infection. Partial recovery of renal function was recorded, after ten hemodialysis sessions. Complete recovery was observed after two months of follow-up.

  7. Reported Theory Use by Digital Interventions for Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Consumption, and Association With Effectiveness: Meta-Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, David; Brown, Jamie; Kaner, Eileen; Beyer, Fiona; Muirhead, Colin; Hickman, Matthew; Redmore, James; de Vocht, Frank; Beard, Emma; Michie, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Background Applying theory to the design and evaluation of interventions is likely to increase effectiveness and improve the evidence base from which future interventions are developed, though few interventions report this. Objective The aim of this paper was to assess how digital interventions to reduce hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption report the use of theory in their development and evaluation, and whether reporting of theory use is associated with intervention effectiveness. Methods Randomized controlled trials were extracted from a Cochrane review on digital interventions for reducing hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. Reporting of theory use within these digital interventions was investigated using the theory coding scheme (TCS). Reported theory use was analyzed by frequency counts and descriptive statistics. Associations were analyzed with meta-regression models. Results Of 41 trials involving 42 comparisons, half did not mention theory (50% [21/42]), and only 38% (16/42) used theory to select or develop the intervention techniques. Significant heterogeneity existed between studies in the effect of interventions on alcohol reduction (I2=77.6%, Ptheory use and intervention effectiveness in unadjusted models, though the meta-regression was underpowered to detect modest associations. Conclusions Digital interventions offer a unique opportunity to refine and develop new dynamic, temporally sensitive theories, yet none of the studies reported refining or developing theory. Clearer selection, application, and reporting of theory use is needed to accurately assess how useful theory is in this field and to advance the field of behavior change theories. PMID:29490895

  8. Immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of 2 doses of an adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit vaccine administered 2, 6 or 12 months apart in older adults: Results of a phase III, randomized, open-label, multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Himal; Poder, Airi; Campora, Laura; Geeraerts, Brecht; Oostvogels, Lidia; Vanden Abeele, Carline; Heineman, Thomas C

    2018-01-02

    In phase III trials, 2 doses of a herpes zoster (HZ) subunit vaccine (HZ/su; 50 µg varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E [gE] and AS01 B Adjuvant System) administered 2-months apart in older adults (≥50 and ≥70 years) demonstrated >90% efficacy in preventing HZ and had a clinically acceptable safety profile. Here we report immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety following administration of 2 HZ/su doses at intervals longer than 2 months. In this Phase III, open-label trial conducted in the US and Estonia, 354 adults ≥50 years were randomized 1:1:1 to receive 2 HZ/su doses 2, 6, or 12 months apart. gE-specific humoral immune responses were evaluated at pre-vaccination, 1 and 12 months post-dose 2. Co-primary objectives were to compare immune responses to HZ/su 1 month post-dose 2 when given 6-months or 12-months apart to those administered 2-months apart. For each participant, safety information was collected from dose 1 to 12 months post-dose 2. 346 participants completed the study and 343 were included in the according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity. One month post-dose 2, vaccine response rates were 96.5% (97.5% confidence interval [CI]: 90.4; 99.2) and 94.5% (97.5% CI: 87.6; 98.3) for the 0, 6- and 0, 12-month schedules, respectively, both schedules meeting the pre-defined criterion. Non-inferiority of anti-gE geometric mean concentrations was demonstrated for HZ/su administered on 0, 6-month compared to a 0, 2-month schedule; however, HZ/su administered on a 0, 12-month schedule did not meet the non-inferiority criterion. Injection site pain was the most commonly reported solicited adverse event (AE). 26 participants each reported at least 1 serious AE; none were assessed as related to vaccination. Immune responses to HZ/su administered at 0, 6-month were non-inferior to those elicited by a 0, 2-month schedule. HZ/su exhibited a clinically acceptable safety profile for all dosing intervals. Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01751165

  9. Identification of chronic heart failure patients with a high 12-month mortality risk using biomarkers including plasma C-terminal pro-endothelin-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa A Jankowska

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We hypothesised that assessment of plasma C-terminal pro-endothelin-1 (CT-proET-1, a stable endothelin-1 precursor fragment, is of prognostic value in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF, beyond other prognosticators, including N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP. METHODS: We examined 491 patients with systolic CHF (age: 63±11 years, 91% men, New York Heart Association [NYHA] class [I/II/III/IV]: 9%/45%/38%/8%, 69% ischemic etiology. Plasma CT-proET-1 was detected using a chemiluminescence immunoassay. RESULTS: Increasing CT-proET-1 was a predictor of increased cardiovascular mortality at 12-months of follow-up (standardized hazard ratio 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.95, p = 0.03 after adjusting for NT-proBNP, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, age, creatinine, NYHA class. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, areas under curve for 12-month follow-up were similar for CT-proET-1 and NT-proBNP (p = 0.40. Both NT-proBNP and CT-proET-1 added prognostic value to a base model that included LVEF, age, creatinine, and NYHA class. Adding CT-proET-1 to the base model had stronger prognostic power (p<0.01 than adding NT-proBNP (p<0.01. Adding CT-proET-1 to NT-proBNP in this model yielded further prognostic information (p = 0.02. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma CT-proET-1 constitutes a novel predictor of increased 12-month cardiovascular mortality in patients with CHF. High CT-proET-1 together with high NT-proBNP enable to identify patients with CHF and particularly unfavourable outcomes.

  10. Oral administration of a curcumin-phospholipid delivery system for the treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy: a 12-month follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzolani F

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fabio Mazzolani,1 Stefano Togni21Private Ophthalmology Practice, 2Indena SpA, Milan, ItalyBackground: The therapeutic effects of Meriva®, a curcumin-phospholipid (lecithin delivery system (formulated as Norflo® tablets, on visual acuity and retinal thickness in patients with acute and chronic central serous chorioretinopathy was previously investigated in a six-month open-label study.Methods: In this follow-up study, visual acuity was again assessed by ophthalmologic evaluation and retinal thickness by optical coherence tomography (OCT. Norflo tablets were administered twice daily to patients with central serous chorioretinopathy. The study group consisted of 12 patients (total 18 eyes who completed 12 months of follow-up. The primary endpoint was change in visual acuity before and after treatment with Norflo, and change in neuroretinal or retinal pigment epithelium detachment on OCT was the secondary endpoint.Results: After 12 months of therapy, no eyes showed further reduction in visual acuity, 39% showed stabilization, and 61% showed statistically significant improvement (P = 0.0001 by Student’s t-test and P = 0.0005 by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Ninety-five percent of eyes showed a reduction in neuroretinal or retinal pigment epithelium detachment and 5% showed stabilization. The difference in retinal thickness after 12 months was statistically significant (P = 0.0001 by Student’s t-test and P = 0.0004 by Wilcoxon signed rank test.Conclusion: These results, albeit preliminary, confirm our previous finding that this curcumin delivery system is effective in the management of central serous chorioretinopathy. When administered in a bioavailable formulation, curcumin is worth considering as a therapeutic agent for the management of inflammatory and degenerative eye conditions involving activation of retinal microglial cells.Keywords: curcumin, central serous chorioretinopathy, retinal pigment epithelium detachment, Norflo®, Meriva®

  11. The sustained effect (12 months) of a single-dose vectored thermal pulsation procedure for meibomian gland dysfunction and evaporative dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackie, Caroline A; Coleman, Christy A; Holland, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the sustained effect (up to 1 year) of a single, 12-minute vectored thermal pulsation (VTP) treatment in improving meibomian gland function and dry eye symptoms in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction and evaporative dry eye. The prospective, multicenter, open-label clinical trial included 200 subjects (400 eyes) who were randomized to a single VTP treatment (treatment group) or twice-daily, 3-month, conventional warm compress and eyelid hygiene therapy (control group). Control group subjects received crossover VTP treatment at 3 months (crossover group). Effectiveness measures of meibomian gland secretion (MGS) and dry eye symptoms were evaluated at baseline and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Subjects with inadequate symptom relief could receive additional meibomian gland dysfunction therapy after 3 (treatment group) and 6 months (crossover group). At 3 months, the treatment group had greater mean improvement in MGS (Pdry eye symptoms (P=0.0068), compared to controls. At 12 months, 86% of the treatment group had received only one VTP treatment, and sustained a mean improvement in MGS from 6.4±3.7 (baseline) to 17.3±9.1 (Pdry eye symptoms from 44.1±20.4 to 21.6±21.3 (Pdry eye symptoms from 49.1±21.0 to 24.0±23.2 (Pdry eye symptoms, over 12 months. A single VTP treatment provides significantly greater mean improvement in meibomian gland function and dry eye symptoms as compared to a conventional, twice-daily, 3-month regimen. Early VTP intervention for meibomian gland dysfunction is associated with improved treatment outcomes.

  12. Assessment of psychosocial factors and predictors of psychopathology in a sample of heart transplantation recipients: a prospective 12-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Roberto; Baillès, Eva; Peri, Josep Maria; Bastidas, Anna; Pérez-Villa, Félix; Bulbena, Antonio; Pintor, Luis

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, researchers of heart transplantation (HT) programs have attempted to identify the existence of psychosocial factors that might influence the clinical outcome before and after the transplantation. The first objective of this study is the prospective description of changes in psychiatric and psychosocial factors in a sample of HT recipients through a 12-month follow-up. The second goal is to identify predictors of psychopathology 1 year after HT. Pretransplant baseline assessment consisted of clinical form; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Structured Clinical Interview; Coping questionnaire (COPE); Five Factors Inventory Revised; Apgar-Family questionnaire and Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC). The assessment 1 year after HT consisted of HADS, COPE, Apgar-Family and MHLC. The sample included 78 recipients. During the waiting list period, 32.1% of them had a psychiatric disorder; personality factors profile was similar to the general population, and they showed adaptive coping strategies. Some changes in psychosocial factors were observed at 12 months after the surgery: lower scores of anxiety and depression, less necessity of publicly venting of feelings and a trend to an internal locus of control. Neuroticism and Disengagement pre-HT were predictors of psychopathology in the follow-up assessment. Pretransplant psychosocial screening is important and enables to find out markers of emotional distress like Neuroticism or Disengagement coping styles to identify patients who might benefit from psychiatric and psychological interventions. Successful HT involved some positive changes in psychosocial factors 12 months after the surgery beyond physical recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of low calcium dialysate on the progression of coronary artery calcification in hemodialysis patients: An open-label 12-month randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Jin; Lee, Young-Ki; Oh, Jieun; Cho, AJin; Noh, Jung Woo

    2017-09-15

    The association between the dialysate calcium level and coronary artery calcification (CAC) has not yet been evaluated in hemodialysis patients. The objective of this study was to determine whether lowering the dialysate calcium levels would decrease the progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) compared to using standard calcium dialysate. We conducted an open-label randomized trial with parallel groups. The patients were randomly assigned to either 12-month treatment with low calcium dialysate (LCD; 1.25mmol/L, n=36) or standard calcium dialysate (SCD; 1.5mmol/L, n=40). The primary outcome was the change in the CAC scores assessed by 64-slice multidetector computed tomography after 12months. During the treatment period, CAC scores increased in both groups, especially significant in LCD group (402.5±776.8, 580.5±1011.9, P=0.004). When we defined progressors as patients at second and third tertiles of CAC changes, progressor group had a higher proportion of LCD-treated patients than SCD-treated patients (P=0.0229). In multivariate analysis, LCD treatment is a significant risk factor for increase in CAC scores (odds ratio=5.720, 95% CI: 1.219-26.843, P=0.027). Use of LCD may accelerate the progression of CAC in patients with chronic hemodialysis over a 12-month period. Clinical Research Information Service [Internet]; Osong (Chungcheongbuk-do): Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Ministry of Health and Welfare (Republic of Korea), 2010: KCT0000942. Available from: https://cris.nih.go.kr/cris/search/search_result_st01_kren.jsp?seq=3572&sLeft=2&type=my. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Successful intra-arterial alteplase infusion is a predictor of 12-month limb survival in patients with lower limb arterial occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disini, L.; Wilson, P.; Cockburn, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To determine the factors predicting amputation of the affected lower limb 12 months after thrombolysis for acute arterial occlusion. Materials and methods: The clinical endpoints of 39 patients (24 men, 15 women; average age 69 years) 1 year after catheter-directed thrombolysis with alteplase (mean dose 30 mg, mean duration 24 h) for lower limb arterial occlusion (30 native arteries, nine grafts) from January 2001 to June 2005 were assessed. The amputation rate at 12 months was analysed in relation to the thrombolytic outcome, type of vessel occluded, presence or absence of complications, and subsequent requirement for additional surgery on an elective basis using Fischer's exact test. Results: Successful thrombolysis, defined as complete clot dissolution based on angiographic imaging, was achieved in 64.1% of cases (19 native artery, six bypass graft) with a total complication rate of 23% (n = 9). The incidence of major haemorrhage was 7.5% (n = 3, hypotension and haematemesis, groin haematoma and hypotension, haematemesis). No patient had an intracranial bleed. One year after thrombolysis, 28.2% (n = 11) had further surgery (bypass graft, fasciotomy, embolectomy) and the amputation rate was 20.5% (n = 8). Statistical analysis showed that the amputation rate was significantly higher for patients with failed compared with successful thrombolysis (p = 0.02). The amputation rates did not reach statistical significance in relation to native artery or graft occlusion, presence or absence of complications, and whether or not additional surgery was required. Conclusion: Successful thrombolysis was a predictor for limb survival up to 12 months post-thrombolysis regardless of the type of vessel occlusion, presence of complications or additional surgical requirement

  15. Brief report: The Brief Alcohol Social Density Assessment (BASDA): convergent, criterion-related, and incremental validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKillop, James; Acker, John D; Bollinger, Jared; Clifton, Allan; Miller, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith; Goodie, Adam S

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol misuse is substantially influenced by social factors, but systematic assessments of social network drinking are typically lengthy. The goal of the present study was to provide further validation of a brief measure of social network alcohol use, the Brief Alcohol Social Density Assessment (BASDA), in a sample of emerging adults. Specifically, the study sought to examine the BASDA's convergent, criterion, and incremental validity in relation to well-established measures of drinking motives and problematic drinking. Participants were 354 undergraduates who were assessed using the BASDA, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and the Drinking Motives Questionnaire. Significant associations were observed between the BASDA index of alcohol-related social density and alcohol misuse, social motives, and conformity motives, supporting convergent validity. Criterion-related validity was supported by evidence that significantly greater alcohol involvement was present in the social networks of individuals scoring at or above an AUDIT score of 8, a validated criterion for hazardous drinking. Finally, the BASDA index was significantly associated with alcohol misuse above and beyond drinking motives in relation to AUDIT scores, supporting incremental validity. Taken together, these findings provide further support for the BASDA as an efficient measure of drinking in an individual's social network. Methodological considerations as well as recommendations for future investigations in this area are discussed.

  16. Drugs, Alcohol and Pregnancy: Parents and Children At Risk. Emerging Issues. A Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Stacie Alexander

    The effects of drug and alcohol use by pregnant women which concern state policymakers are discussed in this booklet. Topics discussed include: (1) the effects of fetal alcohol syndrome on infants and children, as well as the effects on children of drug use by mothers during pregnancy; (2) initiatives aimed at helping these children; (3) women…

  17. Four Years of Reports of Alcohol-Related Harm to Pediatricians in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, Joris Jasper; van Zanten, Eva; van der Lely, Nicolaas

    2015-01-01

    Over the four years of the study, the number of adolescents treated with alcohol-related harm increased significantly (from 297 in 2007 to 684 in 2010), up to a total of 1,616. The dominant reason for hospitalization was “alcohol intoxication” (in total 1,350; 88% of all cases). The gender ratio did

  18. The Effect of Alcohol and Private Self-Consciousness on Self-Report of Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Ken

    Many studies have supported the finding that alcohol consumption may lead to socially inappropriate behaviors. One theory which appears promising in accounting for the effects of intoxication is Hull's (1981) self-consciousness theory which is based on the idea that alcohol consumption affects behavior indirectly as a result of its effect on…

  19. [Alcohol drinking in the time of political transition in Poland. Report of the National Health Programme ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalewicz, Jacek; Zulewska-Sak, Justyna

    2003-01-01

    The National Health Programme was adopted in Poland in the mid-1990s. It consists of 18 targets including target 4 that calls for diminishing alcohol consumption and changing its structure as well as limiting health harms associated with alcohol. The programme is being monitored on bi-annual basis. The monitoring covers a level of alcohol consumption and associated harm including trends in mortality and morbidity as well as in road accidents in 1990-2001 period. During the period in point, particularly in the beginning of the transition alcohol consumption increased at least by one third reaching 10-11 litres of pure ethanol per capita, mostly due to sudden disruption of the alcohol control system and high tide of unrecorded supply. Currently, the consumption is estimated to be 9.5-10.0 litres with 30% share of the unrecorded. During last decade recorded morbidity due to mental disorders associated with alcohol increased by 80% and 60% respectively in out- and in-patient system while mortality rates almost doubled. Male mortality due to liver diseases increased by 50% while that of women remained relatively flat. In last few years, alcohol related mortality tended to decline slightly parallel to consumption trends. Significant improvement has been achieved in prevention of drunken diving. The number of deaths in alcohol related road accidents decreased two fold while a rate of drunken crashes per 1000 vehicles dropped three times.

  20. Reported Changes in Students' Alcohol Consumption Following a Brief Education of What Constitutes a Standard Drink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen-Cico, Dessa; Kilmer, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Intercept surveys were conducted with 149 college students each asked to record their alcohol consumption for the previous two weeks using the Timeline Follow-back (TLFB method). Immediately following completion of the pretest TLFB alcohol survey the students were presented with brief educational information defining what constitutes one standard…

  1. Communications Strategies on Alcohol and Highway Safety. Volume I. Adults 18-55. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey Advertising, Inc., New York, NY.

    The first part of a two-part, two volume study deals with adults aged 18-55 and identifies target populations and communications strategies for encouraging personal action steps to prevent drunk driving. Fully 54% of adult Americans participate once a month in social or business situations where alcohol is served. They are termed Alcohol Related…

  2. Ethnic comparisons of the 12 month prevalence of mental disorders and treatment contact in Te Rau Hinengaro: the New Zealand Mental Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Joanne; Kokaua, Jesse; Wells, J Elisabeth; McGee, Magnus A; Oakley Browne, Mark A

    2006-10-01

    To compare ethnic groups for the 12 month prevalence of mental disorders and 12 month treatment contact in Te Rau Hinengaro: The New Zealand Mental Health Survey. Te Rau Hinengaro: The New Zealand Mental Health Survey, undertaken in 2003 and 2004, was a nationally representative face-to-face household survey of 12,992 New Zealand adults aged 16 years and over, including Māori (n = 2595), Pacific people (n = 2236) and a composite Other ethnic group (predominantly European) (n = 8161). Ethnicity was measured using the 2001 census ethnicity question. A fully structured diagnostic interview, the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) was used to measure disorder. The overall response rate was 73.3%. The 12 month prevalence of any mental disorder was highest in Māori (29.5%; 26.6, 32.4), followed by Pacific people (24.4%; 21.2, 27.6) and Others (19.3%; 18.0, 20.6). Adjustment for age, sex, education and household income reduced differences: Māori (23.9%; 21.3, 26.4), Pacific (19.2%; 16.4, 22.1) and Other (20.3%; 18.9, 21.6). A similar pattern was seen for serious disorder and most individual disorders or disorder groups. After adjustment, Māori were most different from Pacific people and Others for substance use disorder. Both Māori and Pacific people had a higher prevalence of bipolar disorder than Others. Pacific people had the lowest prevalence of major depressive disorder. Among those with disorder, the proportion with a visit for mental health problems to any service was highest among Others (41.1%; 38.1, 44.1), with Māori (32.5%; 28.3, 36.7) intermediate and Pacific (25.4%, 19.4, 31.4) lowest. Adjustment did not alter ethnic differences in service contact. Māori, and to a lesser extent Pacific people, have a higher prevalence of 12 month mental disorders than Others. Differences are reduced after adjusting for sociodemographic correlates. Relative to need

  3. Body composition is improved during 12 months' treatment with metformin alone or combined with oral contraceptives compared with treatment with oral contraceptives in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Altinok, Magda Lambaa; Mumm, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    (150 mg desogestrel+30 μg ethinylestradiol), or OCP. Whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans and clinical and hormonal evaluations were performed before and after the intervention period. A total of 65 of 90 patients completed the study. Main Outcome Measures: Changes in weight at 6 and 12......) resulted in a more advantageous body composition than treatment with OCP alone. Setting: The study was conducted at an outpatient clinic. Patients and Interventions: This was a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Ninety patients with PCOS were randomized to 12 months' treatment with M (2 g/d), M + OCP...

  4. Regulatory competence and social communication in term and preterm infants at 12 months corrected age. Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsen, Kåre S; Rønning, John A; Handegård, Bjørn Helge; Ulvund, Stein Erik; Dahl, Lauritz Bredrup; Kaaresen, Per Ivar

    2012-02-01

    Temperamental regulatory competence and social communication in term and preterm infants at 12 months corrected age was studied in a randomized controlled intervention trial aimed at enhancing maternal sensitive responsiveness. Surviving infants communication with the Early Social Communication Scales. Preterm intervention infants with low regulatory competence had higher responding to joint attention than preterm control infants. A sensitizing intervention may moderate the association between temperament and social communication, and thus allow an alternative functional outlet for preterm infants low in regulatory competence. The finding may have implications for conceptualizations of the role of early sensitizing interventions in promoting important developmental outcomes for premature infants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of ocular hypotensive effect and safety 12 months after changing from an unfixed combination to a latanoprost 0.005% + timolol maleate 0.5% fixed combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kenji; Okayama, Ryoko; Higa, Risako; Wakakura, Masato; Tomita, Goji

    2012-01-01

    Latanoprost 0.005% + timolol maleate 0.5% combined eyedrops were recently made available in Japan. We prospectively investigated the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effect, visual preservation effect, and adverse reactions of a one-year administration of this fixed combination. The subjects included 162 eyes from 162 patients diagnosed with either primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension and using an unfixed combination of latanoprost 0.005% and timolol maleate 0.5%. The unfixed combination was discontinued and replaced with the latanoprost 0.005% + timolol maleate 0.5% fixed combination with no washout period. IOP was measured before (baseline) and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the change. The mean deviation value of Humphrey field analysis was compared. Adverse reactions were examined at every follow-up. No significant differences were found between mean IOP values obtained at baseline (mean ± standard deviation, 15.2 ± 3.3 mmHg) 3 months (15.1 ± 3.2 mmHg), 6 months (15.3 ± 3.1 mmHg), 9 months (15.3 ± 3.1 mmHg), and 12 months (15.1 ± 3.2 mmHg) after the change from the unfixed to the fixed combination of eyedrops (P = 0.212). In addition, no significant differences were observed between mean deviation values obtained at baseline (-9.11 ± 6.94 dB) and 12 months (-10.08 ± 7.24 dB) after the change (P = 0.114). Thirty-one patients discontinued the fixed combination within 12 months of replacement, due to an insufficient IOP decrease (20 patients, 12.3%) and adverse reactions (11 patients, 6.8%). Following replacement of two eyedrop medications (latanoprost 0.005% and timolol maleate 0.5%) by one fixed combination (latanoprost 0.005% + timolol maleate 0.5%), IOP and visual field were preserved. However, 20% of the patients discontinued the new treatment because of an insufficient IOP decrease and complaints of adverse reactions.

  6. A comparison of the extended-release and standard-release formulations of tacrolimus in de novo kidney transplant recipients: a 12-month outcome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanous, Helen; Zheng, Rebecca; Campbell, Carolyn; Huang, Michael; Nash, Michelle M; Rapi, Lindita; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S; Prasad, G V Ramesh

    2013-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited comparative data are available on the outcomes between extended-release and standard-release tacrolimus when used de novo in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). METHODS: We identified KTRs transplanted at our institution during 2009-10 routinely prescribed extended-release tacrolimus and compared them with those transplanted during 2008-09 prescribed standard-release tacrolimus. Graft function (eGFR by MDRD-7 equation) at 12 months post-transplant (primary outcome); new-onset diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors, BK viremia incidence, acute rejection, and graft survival to 12 months (secondary outcomes) were compared by intent-to-treat analysis. Time-to-steady-state concentration and number of dose adjustments required to attain steady state were recorded. RESULTS: There were no important demographic differences between the extended-release (N = 106) and standard-release (N = 95) cohorts. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 12 months was similar (58.8 ± 17 versus 59.2 ± 18 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P = 0.307). There was no difference in new-onset diabetes (17 versus 20%, P = 0.581), BK viremia (10 versus 7%, P = 0.450), acute rejection (7 versus 16%, P = 0.067) or graft survival (97 versus 95%, P = 0.301). Time-to-steady state was similar (9.2 ± 1.1 versus 8.1 ± 4.7 days, P = 0.490) although extended-release patients required fewer adjustments to attain steady state (1.2 ± 1.7 [0-8] versus 1.7 ± 1.5 [0-7], P = 0.030) but a similar dose (7.2 ± 2.4 [2-17] versus 7 ± 2.7 [2-16] mg/day, P = 0.697). CONCLUSION: De novo KTRs prescribed extended-release or standard-release tacrolimus demonstrate similar 12-month outcomes.

  7. Self-reported alcohol intake in pregnancy: comparison between four methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, U; Olsen, S F

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE To assess the agreement between four different measures of alcohol intake in pregnancy. DESIGN AND SETTING Danish speaking pregnant women referred to the Midwife Centre in Aarhus, Denmark, for routine antenatal care were contacted at their first visit at approximately 15–16 weeks...... combining the methods. CONCLUSIONS When assessing the distribution of alcohol intake in pregnancy or when studying adverse pregnancy outcomes that are probably caused mainly by sustained exposure it seems that for pregnant women with low to moderate alcohol intake diaries or an average measure from...... gestation from October to December 1998. The women were interviewed about current average alcohol intake and intake within the previous week, and subsequently filled in a two week diary on alcohol intake. When booking for delivery at the end of the first trimester the women were also asked to complete...

  8. Exposure to alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption among Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C; Magee, Christopher A

    2011-01-01

    Underage drinking is a major problem in Australia and may be influenced by exposure to alcohol advertising. The objective of the present study was to collect data on 12-17 year old Australian adolescents' exposure to different types of alcohol advertising and examine the association between exposure to advertising and alcohol consumption. A cross-sectional survey of 1113 adolescents aged 12-17 years recruited with a variety of methods to gain a cross-section of participants across metropolitan, regional and rural New South Wales (including independent schools, mall intercepts and online). Participants answered a series of questions assessing adolescents' exposure to alcohol advertising across eight media (including television, Internet and point-of-sale). Alcohol consumption was assessed using three questions (initiation, recent consumption and frequency of consumption in the previous 12 months). The majority indicated that they had been exposed to alcohol advertisements on television, in newspapers and magazines, on the Internet, on billboards/posters and promotional materials and in bottleshops, bars and pubs; exposure to some of these types of alcohol advertisements was associated with increased alcohol consumption, with differences by age and gender. The results are consistent with studies from other countries and suggest that exposure to alcohol advertisements among Australian adolescents is strongly associated with drinking patterns. Given current high levels of drinking among Australian youth, these findings suggest the need to address the high levels of young people's exposure to alcohol advertising.

  9. A utilitarian comparison of two alcohol use biomarkers with self-reported drinking history collected in antenatal clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Hasken, Julie M; De Vries, Marlene M; Marais, Anna-Susan; Stegall, Julie M; Marsden, Daniel; Parry, Charles D H; Seedat, Soraya; Tabachnick, Barbara

    2018-04-01

    Alcohol use is reported accurately among pregnant women in some populations. Self-reported alcohol use via the AUDIT and 90-day recall for 193 women from antenatal clinics was compared to biomarker results: phosphatidylethanol (PEth) from bloodspots and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in fingernails. AUDIT was positive for 67.9% of respondents, and 65.3% directly reported drinking. Individual biomarkers detected less drinking (PEth = 57.0%, EtG = 38.9%) than self-report. But 64.8% had drinking-positive values (>8 ng) on one or both biomarkers, which was not significantly different from self-report. Biomarkers indicated that 3.1% -6.8% of drinkers denied drinking. Combined biomarker sensitivity was 95% -80% and specificity 49% -76% for drinking in the previous 7-90 days. Combined biomarker results have their best yield (89.6%) and accuracy (78.8%) when measuring 90 day drinking. Women reported their alcohol use accurately, and the combined use of PEth and EtG is supported. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Alcohol consumption and low-risk drinking guidelines among adults: a cross-sectional analysis from Alberta’s Tomorrow Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darren R., Brenner; Tiffany R., Haig; Abbey E, Poirier; Alianu, Akawung; Christine M., Friedenreich; Paula J., Robson

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Moderate to heavy alcohol consumption is a risk factor for all-cause mortality and cancer incidence. Although cross-sectional data are available through national surveys, data on alcohol consumption in Alberta from a large prospective cohort were not previously available. The goal of these analyses was to characterize the levels of alcohol consumption among adults from the Alberta’s Tomorrow Project in the context of cancer prevention guidelines. Furthermore, we conducted analyses to examine the relationships between alcohol consumption and other high-risk or risk-related behaviours. Methods: Between 2001 and 2009, 31 072 men and women aged 35 to 69 years were enrolled into Alberta’s Tomorrow Project, a large provincial cohort study. Data concerning alcohol consumption in the past 12 months were obtained from 26 842 participants who completed self-administered health and lifestyle questionnaires. We conducted cross-sectional analyses on daily alcohol consumption and cancer prevention guidelines for alcohol use in relation to sociodemographic factors. We also examined the combined prevalence of alcohol consumption and tobacco use, obesity and comorbidities. Results: Approximately 14% of men and 12% of women reported alcohol consumption exceeding recommendations for cancer prevention. Higher alcohol consumption was reported in younger age groups, urban dwellers, those with higher incomes and those who consumed more red meat. Moreover, volume of daily alcohol consumption was positively associated with current tobacco use in both men and women. Overall, men were more likely to fall in the moderate and high-risk behavioural profiles and show higher daily alcohol consumption patterns compared to women. Conclusion: Despite public health messages concerning the adverse impact of alcohol consumption, a sizeable proportion of Alberta’s Tomorrow Project participants consumed alcohol in excess of cancer prevention recommendations. Continued

  11. State Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Testing and Reporting for Drivers Involved in Fatal Crashes : Current Practices, Results, and Strategies, 1997-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report documents current State blood alcohol concentration (BAC) testing and reporting practices and results for drivers involved in fatal crashes. It summarizes known BAC results by State for the years 1997 to 2009 for both fatally injured and ...

  12. Effect of Linear Low-Intensity Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction-12-Month Follow-Up of a Randomized, Double-Blinded, Sham-Controlled Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fojecki, Grzegorz Lukasz; Tiessen, Stefan; Sloth Osther, Palle Jørn

    2018-01-01

    -EF (ΔIIEF-EF score). The secondary outcome measure was an increase in the EHS score to at least 3 in men with a score no higher than 2 at baseline. Data were analyzed by linear and logistic regressions. RESULTS: Linear regression of the ΔIIEF-EF score from baseline to 12 months included 95 patients (dropout......INTRODUCTION: Short-term data on the effect of low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy (Li-ESWT) on erectile dysfunction (ED) have been inconsistent. The suggested mechanisms of action of Li-ESWT on ED include stimulation of cell proliferation, tissue regeneration, and angiogenesis, which...... can be processes with a long generation time. Therefore, long-term data on the effect of Li-ESWT on ED are strongly warranted. AIM: To assess the outcome at 6 and 12 months of linear Li-ESWT on ED from a previously published randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled trial. METHODS: Subjects with ED...

  13. Transobturator vaginal tape in comparison to tension-free vaginal tape: A prospective trial with a minimum 12 months follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R B Nerli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The tension-free vaginal tape (TVT procedure is based on the integral theory that the midurethra has an important role in the continence mechanism. Transobturator vaginal tape (TOT is the same in concept as TVT but it differs from TVT in that, rather than passing through the retropubic space, sling materials are drawn through the obturator foramina. We prospectively compared TVT with TOT with respect to operation-related morbidity and surgical outcomes at a minimum follow up of 12 months. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI were alternatively assigned to the TVT group (18 or the TOT group. Preoperative evaluation included urodynamic study and I-QOL questionnaire. One year after operation the surgical result, patient satisfaction, incontinence quality-of-life questionnaire, long-term complications, and uroflowmetry were evaluated in both groups. Results: The patient characteristics in both the TVT and TOT group were similar. Mean operating time was significantly shorter in the TOT group likened to the TVT group. Conclusions: Both the TVT and TOT procedures are minimally invasive and similar in operation-related morbidity. TOT appears to be as effective as TVT, and safer than TVT for the surgical treatment of SUI in women at 12 months follow-up.

  14. The Pattern of Fatty Acids Displaced by EPA and DHA Following 12 Months Supplementation Varies between Blood Cell and Plasma Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia G. Walker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are increased in plasma lipids and blood cell membranes in response to supplementation. Whilst arachidonic acid (AA is correspondingly decreased, the effect on other fatty acids (FA is less well described and there may be site-specific differences. In response to 12 months EPA + DHA supplementation in doses equivalent to 0–4 portions of oily fish/week (1 portion: 3.27 g EPA+DHA multinomial regression analysis was used to identify important FA changes for plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC, cholesteryl ester (CE and triglyceride (TAG and for blood mononuclear cells (MNC, red blood cells (RBC and platelets (PLAT. Dose-dependent increases in EPA + DHA were matched by decreases in several n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in PC, CE, RBC and PLAT, but were predominantly compensated for by oleic acid in TAG. Changes were observed for all FA classes in MNC. Consequently the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio was reduced in a dose-dependent manner in all pools after 12 months (37%–64% of placebo in the four portions group. We conclude that the profile of the FA decreased in exchange for the increase in EPA + DHA following supplementation differs by FA pool with implications for understanding the impact of n-3 PUFA on blood lipid and blood cell biology.

  15. Reducing hospital admissions and improving the diagnosis of COPD in Southampton City: methods and results of a 12-month service improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Tom; North, Mal; Bourne, Simon C

    2014-08-21

    The British Lung Foundation highlighted Southampton City as a hotspot for patients at future risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations due to severe deprivation levels and a high undiagnosed level of disease based on health economic modelling. We developed a strategy spanning primary and secondary care to reduce