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Sample records for replicative-form dnas showed

  1. Transposable elements and circular DNAs

    KAUST Repository

    Mourier, Tobias

    2016-09-26

    Circular DNAs are extra-chromosomal fragments that become circularized by genomic recombination events. We have recently shown that yeast LTR elements generate circular DNAs through recombination events between their flanking long terminal repeats (LTRs). Similarly, circular DNAs can be generated by recombination between LTRs residing at different genomic loci, in which case the circular DNA will contain the intervening sequence. In yeast, this can result in gene copy number variations when circles contain genes and origins of replication. Here, I speculate on the potential and implications of circular DNAs generated through recombination between human transposable elements.

  2. MDA5 Detects the Double-Stranded RNA Replicative Form in Picornavirus-Infected Cells

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    Qian Feng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available RIG-I and MDA5 are cytosolic RNA sensors that play a critical role in innate antiviral responses. Major advances have been made in identifying RIG-I ligands, but our knowledge of the ligands for MDA5 remains restricted to data from transfection experiments mostly using poly(I:C, a synthetic dsRNA mimic. Here, we dissected the IFN-α/β-stimulatory activity of different viral RNA species produced during picornavirus infection, both by RNA transfection and in infected cells in which specific steps of viral RNA replication were inhibited. Our results show that the incoming genomic plus-strand RNA does not activate MDA5, but minus-strand RNA synthesis and production of the 7.5 kbp replicative form trigger a strong IFN-α/β response. IFN-α/β production does not rely on plus-strand RNA synthesis and thus generation of the partially double-stranded replicative intermediate. This study reports MDA5 activation by a natural RNA ligand under physiological conditions.

  3. Role of biofilm in protection of the replicative form of Legionella pneumophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreozzi, Elisa; Di Cesare, Andrea; Sabatini, Luigia; Chessa, Elisa; Sisti, Davide; Rocchi, Marco; Citterio, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    The dual nature of Legionella pneumophila enables its survival in free and intracellular environments and underpins its infection and spread mechanisms. Experiments using bacterial cultures and improved RTqPCR protocols were devised to gain fresh insights into the role of biofilm in protecting the replicative form of L. pneumophila. mip gene expression was used as a marker of virulence in sessile (biofilm-bound) and planktonic (free-floating) cells of L. pneumophila serotype 1 ATCC 33152. The ratio of mip gene expression to transcriptionally active Legionella cells increased both in sessile and free-floating cells demonstrating an up-regulation of mip gene under nutrient depletion. However, a different trend was observed between the two forms, in planktonic cells the mip gene expression/transcriptionally active Legionella cells increased until the end of the experiment, while in the biofilm such increase was observed at the end of the experiment. These findings suggest a possible association between the switch to the transmissive phase of Legionella and a mip up-regulation and a role for biofilm in preserving Legionella cells in replicative form. Moreover, it has been shown that improved RTqPCR protocols are valuable tools to explore bacterial virulence.

  4. Isolation and annotation of 10828 putative full length cDNAs from indica rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE; Kabin; ZHANG; Jianwei; XIANG; Yong; FENG; Qi; HAN; Bin

    2005-01-01

    We reported the isolation and identification of 10828 putative full-length cDNAs (FL-cDNA) from an indica rice cultivar, Minghui 63, with the long-term goal to isolate all full-length cDNAs from indica genome. Comparison with the databases showed that 780 of them are new rice cDNAs with no match in japonica cDNA database. Totally, 9078 of the FL-cDNAs contained predicted ORFs matching with japonica FL-cDNAs and 6543 could find homologous proteins with complete ORFs. 53% of the matched FL-cDNAs isolated in this study had longer 5′UTR than japonica FL-cDNAs. In silico mapping showed that 9776 (90.28%) of the FL-cDNAs had matched genomic sequences in the japonica genome and 10046 (92.78%) had matched genomic sequences in the indica genome. The average nucleotide sequence identity between the two subspecies is 99.2%. A majority of FL-cDNAs (90%) could be classified with GO (gene ontology) terms based on homology proteins. More than 60% of the new cDNAs isolated in this study had no homology to the known proteins. This set of FL-cDNAs should be useful for functional genomics and proteomics studies.

  5. Bio-replicated forming of the biomimetic drag-reducing surfaces in large area based on shark skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Xin; ZHANG DeYuan; LI Xiang; LI YuanYue

    2008-01-01

    On the investigation of biomimetic drag-reducing surface, direct replication of the firm scarfskins on low-resistance creatures to form biomimetic drag-reducing surfaces with relatively vivid morphology relative to the living prototype is a new attempt of the bio-replicated forming technology. Taking shark skin as the bio-replication template, the hot embossing method was applied to the micro-replication of its outward morphology. Furthermore, the skins were jointed together to form the drag-reducing sur-face in large area. The results of the resistance measurements in a water tunnel according to the flat-plate sample pieces have shown that the biomimetic shark-skin coating fabricated by the bio-replicated forming method has significant drag reduction effect, and that the drag reduction effi-ciency reached 8.25% in the test conditions.

  6. Identification of Prostate Cancer-Specific microDNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of...extrachromosomal circular DNAs (eccDNAs), called microDNAs. Unlike previously reported eccDNAs, microDNAs are relatively small in length, map to unique DNA...exonuclease than linear DNAs and can be stably present in the cells or even possibly in the circulating system. Therefore, overall goal of this application

  7. CAFTAN: a tool for fast mapping, and quality assessment of cDNAs

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    Hotz-Wagenblatt Agnes

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The German cDNA Consortium has been cloning full length cDNAs and continued with their exploitation in protein localization experiments and cellular assays. However, the efficient use of large cDNA resources requires the development of strategies that are capable of a speedy selection of truly useful cDNAs from biological and experimental noise. To this end we have developed a new high-throughput analysis tool, CAFTAN, which simplifies these efforts and thus fills the gap between large-scale cDNA collections and their systematic annotation and application in functional genomics. Results CAFTAN is built around the mapping of cDNAs to the genome assembly, and the subsequent analysis of their genomic context. It uses sequence features like the presence and type of PolyA signals, inner and flanking repeats, the GC-content, splice site types, etc. All these features are evaluated in individual tests and classify cDNAs according to their sequence quality and likelihood to have been generated from fully processed mRNAs. Additionally, CAFTAN compares the coordinates of mapped cDNAs with the genomic coordinates of reference sets from public available resources (e.g., VEGA, ENSEMBL. This provides detailed information about overlapping exons and the structural classification of cDNAs with respect to the reference set of splice variants. The evaluation of CAFTAN showed that is able to correctly classify more than 85% of 5950 selected "known protein-coding" VEGA cDNAs as high quality multi- or single-exon. It identified as good 80.6 % of the single exon cDNAs and 85 % of the multiple exon cDNAs. The program is written in Perl and in a modular way, allowing the adoption of this strategy to other tasks like EST-annotation, or to extend it by adding new classification rules and new organism databases as they become available. We think that it is a very useful program for the annotation and research of unfinished genomes. Conclusion CAFTAN is

  8. Differential Display of Cotton cDNAs Expressed by Salicylic Acid Induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李骥; 赵广荣; 刘进元

    2003-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is very important in systemic acquired resistance and hypersensitive response in plant defense, and yet its role is not fully understood.This study seeks to clarify the mechanism of SA induced resistance in cotton.Total RNA was extracted from low-gossypol cultivated cotton seedlings treated with exogenous SA and subjected to fluorescent differential display-PCR (FDD-PCR).Seven cDNA fragments were selected from the total ten differential bands.Comparison with Genbank database shows that all seven cDNA sequences are newly discovered in cotton.However, they share high amino acid identity to some registered cDNAs.Among them, three of the cDNAs could be predicted to encode basic chitinase, penicillin-binding 6 b precursor and ATP-dependent DNA helicase RecG, while the functions of the other four cDNAs are undetermined.Dot blot analysis demonstrates that the expression of five cDNAs in cotton seedlings is induced by SA, while SA induction has a negative effect on the transcript accumulation of the other two cDNAs (E13 and E14).Since SA was previously shown to enhance the resistance to cotton wilt disease, the finding of a basic chitinase gene in cotton expressed by SA induction will provide a new insight into induced disease resistance in cotton.

  9. Preparation and evaluation of nanoparticles loading plasmid DNAs inserted with siRNA fragments targeting c-Myc gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tao; Jiang, Jin-Ling; Liu, Ying; Ye, Zheng-Bao; Zhang, Jun

    2014-09-01

    c-Myc plays a key role in glioma cancer stem cell maintenance. A drug delivery system, nanoparticles loading plasmid DNAs inserted with siRNA fragments targeting c-Myc gene (NPs-c-Myc-siRNA-pDNAs), for the treatment of glioma, has not previously been reported. NPs-c-Myc-siRNA-pDNAs were prepared and evaluated in vitro. Three kinds of c-Myc-siRNA fragments were separately synthesized and linked with empty siRNA expression vectors in the mole ratio of 3:1 by T4 DNA ligase. The linked products were then separately transfected into Escherichia coli. DH5α followed by extraction with Endofree plasmid Mega kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) obtained c-Myc-siRNA-pDNAs. Finally, the recombinant c-Myc-siRNA3-pDNAs, generating the highest transfection efficiency and the greatest apoptotic ability, were chosen for encapsulation into NPs by the double-emulsion solvent-evaporation procedure, followed by stability, transfection efficiency, as well as qualitative and quantitative apoptosis evaluation. NPs-c-Myc-siRNA3-pDNAs were obtained with spherical shape in uniform size below 150 nm, with the zeta potential about -18 mV, the encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity as 76.3 ± 5.4% and 1.91 ± 0.06%, respectively. The stability results showed that c-Myc-siRNA3-pDNAs remained structurally and functionally stable after encapsulated into NPs, and NPs could prevent the loaded c-Myc-siRNA3-pDNAs from DNase degradation. The transfection efficiency of NPs-c-Myc-siRNA3-pDNAs was proven to be positive. Furthermore, NPs-c-Myc-siRNA3-pDNAs produced significant apoptosis with the apoptotic rate at 24.77 ± 5.39% and early apoptosis cells observed. Methoxy-poly-(ethylene-glycol)-poly-(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (MPEG-PLGA-NPs) are potential delivery carriers for c-Myc-siRNA3-pDNAs.

  10. Evolutionary Dynamics of rDNAs and U2 Small Nuclear DNAs in Triportheus (Characiformes, Triportheidae): High Variability and Particular Syntenic Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Cassia Fernanda; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Rebordinos, Laureana; Merlo, Manuel Alejandro; Liehr, Thomas; Portela-Bens, Silvia; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello

    2017-04-01

    Multigene families correspond to a group of genes tandemly repeated, showing enormous diversity in both number of units and genomic organization. In fishes, unlike rDNAs that have been well explored in cytogenetic studies, U2 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes are poorly investigated concerning their chromosomal localization. All Triportheus species (Characiformes, Triportheidae) studied so far carry a ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes system, where the W chromosome contains a huge 18S rDNA cistron. In some species the syntenic organization of rDNAs on autosomes was also verified. To explore this particular organization, we performed three-color-fluorescence in situ hybridization using 5S, 18S rDNA, and U2 snRNA genes as probes in eight Triportheus species. This work represents the first one analyzing the chromosomal distribution of U2 snRNA genes in genomes of Triportheidae. The variability in number of rDNA clusters, and the divergent syntenies for these three multigene families, put in evidence their evolutionary dynamism, revealing a much more complex organization of these genes than previously supposed for closely related species. Our study also provides additional data on the accumulation of repetitive sequences in the sex-specific chromosome. Besides, the chromosomal organization of U2 snDNAs among fish species is also reviewed.

  11. Cynomolgus monkey testicular cDNAs for discovery of novel human genes in the human genome sequence

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    Terao Keiji

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to contribute to the establishment of a complete map of transcribed regions of the human genome, we constructed a testicular cDNA library for the cynomolgus monkey, and attempted to find novel transcripts for identification of their human homologues. Result The full-insert sequences of 512 cDNA clones were determined. Ultimately we found 302 non-redundant cDNAs carrying open reading frames of 300 bp-length or longer. Among them, 89 cDNAs were found not to be annotated previously in the Ensembl human database. After searching against the Ensembl mouse database, we also found 69 putative coding sequences have no homologous cDNAs in the annotated human and mouse genome sequences in Ensembl. We subsequently designed a DNA microarray including 396 non-redundant cDNAs (with and without open reading frames to examine the expression of the full-sequenced genes. With the testicular probe and a mixture of probes of 10 other tissues, 316 of 332 effective spots showed intense hybridized signals and 75 cDNAs were shown to be expressed very highly in the cynomolgus monkey testis, but not ubiquitously. Conclusions In this report, we determined 302 full-insert sequences of cynomolgus monkey cDNAs with enough length of open reading frames to discover novel transcripts as human homologues. Among 302 cDNA sequences, human homologues of 89 cDNAs have not been predicted in the annotated human genome sequence in the Ensembl. Additionally, we identified 75 dominantly expressed genes in testis among the full-sequenced clones by using a DNA microarray. Our cDNA clones and analytical results will be valuable resources for future functional genomic studies.

  12. Raman spectroscopy for detection of stretched DNAs on superhydrophobic surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Marini, Monica

    2014-05-01

    A novel approach for the study of low concentrated DNAs (60 pM) using microRaman spectroscopy is reported. A superhydrophobic substrate with array of microPillars is fabricated over which the sample was drop casted. The substrate concentrates the molecules in a very small area with higher molecular density, enabling to carry out the microRaman measurements. Two different DNAs (single strand and double strand) were used to investigate through Raman technique. A spectral Raman difference was found to distinguish the ssDNA and dsDNAs. The approach can be of interest for a wide variety of applications ranging from biological materials interactions characterization to the biomedical field. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Isolation of Light-Enhanced cDNAs of Cercospora kikuchii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenshaft, M; Upchurch, R G

    1991-09-01

    Cercospora kikuchii is a fungal pathogen of soybeans which produces a photosensitizing phytotoxic polyketide metabolite, cercosporin. Cercosporin synthesis in culture is modulated by several environmental factors. In addition to the light requirement for toxin action, cercosporin biosynthesis is also highly light regulated. As a first step towards identifying genes involved in cercosporin regulation and biosynthesis, we have used subtractive hybridization to isolate light-enhanced cDNA clones. Six distinct cDNA clones representing genes from a wild-type C. kikuchii strain for which transcript accumulation is positively regulated by light were isolated. To assess the relationship of these light-enhanced cDNAs to cercosporin biosynthesis, we compared corresponding steady-state RNA levels in the wild type and in three mutant strains altered in toxin biosynthesis. Two of the mutant C. kikuchii strains which fail to accumulate cercosporin in response to light also fail to exhibit light-enhanced accumulation of transcripts corresponding to all six light-enhanced cDNAs. Cercosporin accumulation in the third mutant strain, S2, is regulated by medium composition as well as light. S2 fails to accumulate cercosporin in complete medium, a medium which allows significant cercosporin accumulation by the wild-type strain. When cultured in complete medium, this mutant strain also fails to show the wild-type, light-enhanced accumulation of transcripts corresponding to five of the six light-enhanced cDNAs. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that transcript accumulation for two of the six light-enhanced cDNAs strongly paralleled cercosporin accumulation in light-grown wild-type culture.

  14. Production and characterization of novel recombinant adeno-associated virus replicative-form genomes: a eukaryotic source of DNA for gene transfer.

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    Lina Li

    Full Text Available Conventional non-viral gene transfer uses bacterial plasmid DNA containing antibiotic resistance genes, cis-acting bacterial sequence elements, and prokaryotic methylation patterns that may adversely affect transgene expression and vector stability in vivo. Here, we describe novel replicative forms of a eukaryotic vector DNA that consist solely of an expression cassette flanked by adeno-associated virus (AAV inverted terminal repeats. Extensive structural analyses revealed that this AAV-derived vector DNA consists of linear, duplex molecules with covalently closed ends (termed closed-ended, linear duplex, or "CELiD", DNA. CELiD vectors, produced in Sf9 insect cells, require AAV rep gene expression for amplification. Amounts of CELiD DNA produced from insect cell lines stably transfected with an ITR-flanked transgene exceeded 60 mg per 5 × 10(9 Sf9 cells, and 1-15 mg from a comparable number of parental Sf9 cells in which the transgene was introduced via recombinant baculovirus infection. In mice, systemically delivered CELiD DNA resulted in long-term, stable transgene expression in the liver. CELiD vectors represent a novel eukaryotic alternative to bacterial plasmid DNA.

  15. Production and characterization of novel recombinant adeno-associated virus replicative-form genomes: a eukaryotic source of DNA for gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lina; Dimitriadis, Emilios K; Yang, Yu; Li, Juan; Yuan, Zhenhua; Qiao, Chunping; Beley, Cyriaque; Smith, Richard H; Garcia, Luis; Kotin, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Conventional non-viral gene transfer uses bacterial plasmid DNA containing antibiotic resistance genes, cis-acting bacterial sequence elements, and prokaryotic methylation patterns that may adversely affect transgene expression and vector stability in vivo. Here, we describe novel replicative forms of a eukaryotic vector DNA that consist solely of an expression cassette flanked by adeno-associated virus (AAV) inverted terminal repeats. Extensive structural analyses revealed that this AAV-derived vector DNA consists of linear, duplex molecules with covalently closed ends (termed closed-ended, linear duplex, or "CELiD", DNA). CELiD vectors, produced in Sf9 insect cells, require AAV rep gene expression for amplification. Amounts of CELiD DNA produced from insect cell lines stably transfected with an ITR-flanked transgene exceeded 60 mg per 5 × 10(9) Sf9 cells, and 1-15 mg from a comparable number of parental Sf9 cells in which the transgene was introduced via recombinant baculovirus infection. In mice, systemically delivered CELiD DNA resulted in long-term, stable transgene expression in the liver. CELiD vectors represent a novel eukaryotic alternative to bacterial plasmid DNA.

  16. Microwave dielectric absorption spectroscopy aiming at novel dosimetry using DNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumi, Yoshinobu; Hirayama, Makoto; Matuo, Youichirou [Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Sunagawa, Takeyoshi [Fukui University of Technology, Fukui (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    We are developing L-band and S-band microwave dielectric absorption systems aiming novel dosimetry using DNAs, such as plasmid DNA and genomic DNA, and microwave technology. Each system is composed of a cavity resonator, analog signal generator, circulator, power meter, and oscilloscope. Since the cavity resonator is sensitive to temperature change, we have made great efforts to prevent the fluctuation of temperature. We have developed software for controlling and measurement. By using this system, we can measure the resonance frequency, f, and ΔQ (Q is a dimensionless parameter that describes how under-damped an oscillator or resonator is, and characterizes a resonator’s bandwidth relative to its center frequency) within about 3 minutes with high accuracy. This system will be expected to be applicable to DNAs evaluations and to novel dosimetric system.

  17. Isolation and functional analysis of two Cistus creticus cDNAs encoding geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateraki, Irene; Kanellis, Angelos K

    2008-05-01

    Cistus creticus ssp. creticus is an indigenous shrub of the Mediterranean area. The glandular trichomes covering its leaf surfaces secrete a resin called "ladanum", which among others contains a number of specific labdane-type diterpenes that exhibit antibacterial and antifungal action as well as in vitro and in vivo cytotoxic and cytostatic activity against human cancer cell lines. In view of the properties and possible future exploitation of these metabolites, it was deemed necessary to study the geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase enzyme (GGDPS, EC 2.5.1.30), a short chain prenyltransferase responsible for the synthesis of the precursor molecule of all diterpenes. In this work, we present the cloning, functional characterisation and expression profile at the gene and protein levels of two differentially expressed C. creticus full-length cDNAs, CcGGDPS1 and CcGGDPS2. Heterologous yeast cell expression system showed that these cDNAs exhibited GGDPS enzyme activity. Gene and protein expression analyses suggest that this enzyme is developmentally and tissue-regulated showing maximum expression in trichomes and smallest leaves (0.5-1.0cm). This work is the first attempt to study the terpenoid biosynthesis at the molecular level in C. creticus ssp. creticus.

  18. Isolation and characterization of cloned cDNAs as encoding human liver chlordecone reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, C.J.; Molowa, D.T.; Guzelian, P.S. (Medical College of Virginia, Richmond (USA))

    1990-01-30

    Chlordecone (Kepone), a toxic organochlorine pesticide, undergoes bioreduction to chlorodecone alcohol in human liver. This reaction is controlled by a cytosolic enzyme, chlordecone reductase (CDR), which may be of the aldo-keto reductase family of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. To further investigate the primary structure and expression of CDR, the authors screened a library of human liver cDNAs cloned in the expression vector {lambda}gt11 and isolated an 800 bp cDNA that directed synthesis of a fusion protein recognized by polyclonal anti-CDR antibodies. Using this cDNA as a probe, they screened two human liver cDNA libraries and found several 1.2-kb cDNAs which would code for polypeptide with 308 residues (35.8 kDa). However, a similar full-length cDNA, possibly the transcript of a pseudogene, contained an in-frame nonsense codon. The deduced protein sequence of CDR showed 65% similarity to the primary structure of human liver aldehyde reductase and 66% similarity to the inferred protein sequence of rat lens aldose reductase. A search of GenBank revealed significant nucleotide similarity to a cDNA coding for bovine lung prostaglandin f synthase and to a partial cDNA coding for frog lens {rho}-crystallin. RNA from adult but not fetal human liver, and from the human hepatoma cell-line Hep G2, contained major (1.6 kb) and minor (2.8 kb) species hybridizable to a CDR cDNA. The relative amounts of these RNAs varied markedly among nine subjects. From this initial description of the nucleotide sequence for a human carbonyl reductase, they conclude that CDR and several related enzymes are part of a novel multigene family involved in the metabolism of such xenobiotics as chlordecone and possibly endogenous substrates.

  19. Selection and fine mapping of chromosome-specific cDNAs: application to human chromosome 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, M; Sala, C; Rivella, S; Toniolo, D

    1996-12-01

    We have developed a methodology for identification and fine mapping of chromosome-specific transcripts. Combining digestion of DNA with different restriction enzymes, ligation to "bubble" linkers, and PCR amplification from Alu and "bubble" primers, we have synthesized human chromosome 1-specific sequences from DNA of a somatic cell hybrid, A9Neol. After hybridization to human fetal brain cDNA, we could efficiently capture chromosome 1-specific cDNAs. The cDNAs were sequenced and used as probes in hybridizations to high-density filters containing the arrayed CEPH Mega-YAC library and to the arrayed cDNA library from infant brain made by B. Soares, which has been extensively sequenced. By this approach we have been able to select chromosome 1-specific cDNAs, to map them to chromosome 1 YAC contigs, and to identify and map corresponding longer cDNAs and ESTs.

  20. Transcript annotation in FANTOM3: mouse gene catalog based on physical cDNAs.

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    Norihiro Maeda

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The international FANTOM consortium aims to produce a comprehensive picture of the mammalian transcriptome, based upon an extensive cDNA collection and functional annotation of full-length enriched cDNAs. The previous dataset, FANTOM2, comprised 60,770 full-length enriched cDNAs. Functional annotation revealed that this cDNA dataset contained only about half of the estimated number of mouse protein-coding genes, indicating that a number of cDNAs still remained to be collected and identified. To pursue the complete gene catalog that covers all predicted mouse genes, cloning and sequencing of full-length enriched cDNAs has been continued since FANTOM2. In FANTOM3, 42,031 newly isolated cDNAs were subjected to functional annotation, and the annotation of 4,347 FANTOM2 cDNAs was updated. To accomplish accurate functional annotation, we improved our automated annotation pipeline by introducing new coding sequence prediction programs and developed a Web-based annotation interface for simplifying the annotation procedures to reduce manual annotation errors. Automated coding sequence and function prediction was followed with manual curation and review by expert curators. A total of 102,801 full-length enriched mouse cDNAs were annotated. Out of 102,801 transcripts, 56,722 were functionally annotated as protein coding (including partial or truncated transcripts, providing to our knowledge the greatest current coverage of the mouse proteome by full-length cDNAs. The total number of distinct non-protein-coding transcripts increased to 34,030. The FANTOM3 annotation system, consisting of automated computational prediction, manual curation, and final expert curation, facilitated the comprehensive characterization of the mouse transcriptome, and could be applied to the transcriptomes of other species.

  1. The cloning of Dmc1 cDNAs and a comparative study of its expression in different ploidy cyprinid fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Dmc1 (disrupted meiotic cDNA) is a functionally specific gene, which was firstly discovered in yeast and then found to encode a protein required for homologous chromosome synapsis during the process of meiosis. In this investigation, we cloned the partial cDNAs of Dmc1 of diploid red crucian carp, Japanese crucian carp, common carp, triploid crucian carp and allotetraploid hybrids by using a pair of degenerate primers based on the conservative sequence of amino acids of the DMC1 protein in yeast, mouse and human. The full length cDNAs were then obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Our data showed that the full length cDNAs of Dmc1 in the three diploid fishes are all 1375 bp long, while it is 1383 bp long in triploids and 1379 bp long in allotetraploids. And despite of the variation in length, all the cDNAs encode a protein of 342 amino acids. A high homology of 97.3% of the DMC1 protein can be drawn by comparing the amino acid sequences in the three diploids, which is also of 86%, 86% and 95% similarity to human, mouse and zebrafish, respectively. A comparative study of the expression pattern of Dmc1 was carried out by RT-PCR using specific primers against the same se-quences of coding regions in different ploidy cyprinid fishes, from which it was showed that Dmc1 was expressed only in gonads of these five kinds of fishes. The expression pattern of Dmc1 in both ovaries and testes from different ploidy fishes within breeding season was also studied by Real-time PCR, and the results showed that the expression of this gene was greatly different among the three different ploidy fishes, which was the highest of triploid and lowest of allotetraploids. The histological sections data showed matured gonads of both diploid red crucian carp and allotetraploids in breeding season, although the latter demonstrated a higher maturation, and no gonadal maturation could be observed in triploids. In conclusion, we suggest that Dmc1 is specifically expressed in the

  2. The cloning of Dmc1 cDNAs and a comparative study of its expression in different ploidy cyprinid fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Dmc1 (disrupted meiotic cDNA) is a functionally specific gene, which was firstly discovered in yeast and then found to encode a protein required for homologous chromosome synapsis during the process of meiosis. In this investigation, we cloned the partial cDNAs of Dmc1 of diploid red crucian carp, Japanese crucian carp, common carp, triploid crucian carp and allotetraploid hybrids by using a pair of degenerate primers based on the conservative sequence of amino acids of the DMC1 protein in yeast, mouse and human. The full length cDNAs were then obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Our data showed that the full length cDNAs of Dmc1 in the three diploid fishes are all 1375 bp long, while it is 1383 bp long in triploids and 1379 bp long in allotetraploids. And despite of the variation in length, all the cDNAs encode a protein of 342 amino acids. A high homology of 97.3% of the DMC1 protein can be drawn by comparing the amino acid sequences in the three diploids, which is also of 86%, 86% and 95% similarity to human, mouse and zebrafish, respectively. A comparative study of the expression pattern of Dmc1 was carried out by RT-PCR using specific primers against the same sequences of coding regions in different ploidy cyprinid fishes, from which it was showed that Dmc1 was expressed only in gonads of these five kinds of fishes. The expression pattern of Dmc1 in both ovaries and testes from different ploidy fishes within breeding season was also studied by Real-time PCR, and the results showed that the expression of this gene was greatly different among the three different ploidy fishes, which was the highest of triploid and lowest of allotetraploids. The histological sections data showed matured gonads of both diploid red crucian carp and allotetraploids in breeding season, although the latter demonstrated a higher maturation, and no gonadal maturation could be observed in triploids. In conclusion, we suggest that Dmc1 is specifically expressed in the

  3. Large-scale collection and annotation of full-length enriched cDNAs from a model halophyte, Thellungiella halophila

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    Seki Motoaki

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thellungiella halophila (also known as Thellungiella salsuginea is a model halophyte with a small plant size, short life cycle, and small genome. It easily undergoes genetic transformation by the floral dipping method used with its close relative, Arabidopsis thaliana. Thellungiella genes exhibit high sequence identity (approximately 90% at the cDNA level with Arabidopsis genes. Furthermore, Thellungiella not only shows tolerance to extreme salinity stress, but also to chilling, freezing, and ozone stress, supporting the use of Thellungiella as a good genomic resource in studies of abiotic stress tolerance. Results We constructed a full-length enriched Thellungiella (Shan Dong ecotype cDNA library from various tissues and whole plants subjected to environmental stresses, including high salinity, chilling, freezing, and abscisic acid treatment. We randomly selected about 20 000 clones and sequenced them from both ends to obtain a total of 35 171 sequences. CAP3 software was used to assemble the sequences and cluster them into 9569 nonredundant cDNA groups. We named these cDNAs "RTFL" (RIKEN Thellungiella Full-Length cDNAs. Information on functional domains and Gene Ontology (GO terms for the RTFL cDNAs were obtained using InterPro. The 8289 genes assigned to InterPro IDs were classified according to the GO terms using Plant GO Slim. Categorical comparison between the whole Arabidopsis genome and Thellungiella genes showing low identity to Arabidopsis genes revealed that the population of Thellungiella transport genes is approximately 1.5 times the size of the corresponding Arabidopsis genes. This suggests that these genes regulate a unique ion transportation system in Thellungiella. Conclusion As the number of Thellungiella halophila (Thellungiella salsuginea expressed sequence tags (ESTs was 9388 in July 2008, the number of ESTs has increased to approximately four times the original value as a result of this effort. Our

  4. Sequencing, mapping, and analysis of 27,455 maize full-length cDNAs.

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    Carol Soderlund

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Full-length cDNA (FLcDNA sequencing establishes the precise primary structure of individual gene transcripts. From two libraries representing 27 B73 tissues and abiotic stress treatments, 27,455 high-quality FLcDNAs were sequenced. The average transcript length was 1.44 kb including 218 bases and 321 bases of 5' and 3' UTR, respectively, with 8.6% of the FLcDNAs encoding predicted proteins of fewer than 100 amino acids. Approximately 94% of the FLcDNAs were stringently mapped to the maize genome. Although nearly two-thirds of this genome is composed of transposable elements (TEs, only 5.6% of the FLcDNAs contained TE sequences in coding or UTR regions. Approximately 7.2% of the FLcDNAs are putative transcription factors, suggesting that rare transcripts are well-enriched in our FLcDNA set. Protein similarity searching identified 1,737 maize transcripts not present in rice, sorghum, Arabidopsis, or poplar annotated genes. A strict FLcDNA assembly generated 24,467 non-redundant sequences, of which 88% have non-maize protein matches. The FLcDNAs were also assembled with 41,759 FLcDNAs in GenBank from other projects, where semi-strict parameters were used to identify 13,368 potentially unique non-redundant sequences from this project. The libraries, ESTs, and FLcDNA sequences produced from this project are publicly available. The annotated EST and FLcDNA assemblies are available through the maize FLcDNA web resource (www.maizecdna.org.

  5. Isolation and characterisation of two cDNAs encoding transglutaminase from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnes, Clemens; Kileng, Øyvind; Jensen, Ingvill; Karki, Pralav; Eichacker, Lutz; Robertsen, Børre

    2014-01-01

    Two cDNAs encoding transglutaminase (TG) were identified in a subtractive cDNA library prepared from the head kidney of poly I:C stimulated Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Full-length TG-1 and TG-2 cDNA were cloned from the head kidney by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The deduced amino acid (aa) sequence for TG-1 was 695 aa with an estimated molecular mass of 78.3 kDa, while TG-2 was a 698 aa protein with an estimated molecular mass of 78.8 kDa. The two proteins were named TG-1 and TG-2 and both possess transglutaminase/protease-like homologous domains (TGc) and full conservation of amino acids cysteine, histidine, and aspartate residues that form the catalytic triad. Sequence analysis showed high similarity (93.1%) with Alaska pollock TG, and the TGs were grouped together with TGs from chum salmon, Japanese flounder, Nile tilapia, and red sea bream in addition to Alaska pollock in phylogenetic analysis. Interestingly, they showed different tissue distribution with highest constitutive expression in reproductive and immunological organs, indicating important roles in these organs. Furthermore, the up-regulation of TG-1 and TG-2 in head kidney after stimulating Atlantic cod with poly I:C suggested a role of TGs in immune response in Atlantic cod.

  6. Show Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Story: Show Time!The whole class presents the story"Under the Sea".Everyone is so excited and happy.Both Leo and Kathy show their parentsthe characters of the play."Who’s he?"asks Kathy’s mom."He’s the prince."Kathy replies."Who’s she?"asks Leo’s dad."She’s the queen."Leo replieswith a smile.

  7. Snobbish Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The State Administration of Radio,Film and Television (SARFT),China's media watchdog,issued a new set of mles on June 9 that strictly regulate TV match-making shows,which have been sweeping the country's primetime programming. "Improper social and love values such as money worship should not be presented in these shows.Humiliation,verbal attacks and sex-implied vulgar content are not allowed" the new roles said.

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding metalloproteinases from snake venom glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ying; Pérez, John C

    2010-01-01

    Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are a superfamily of zinc-dependent proteases and participate in a number of important biological, physiological and pathophysiological processes. In this work, we simultaneously amplified nine cDNAs encoding different classes of metalloproteinases from glands of four different snake species (Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus, Crotalus atrox, Crotalus viridis viridis and Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma) by RT-PCR with a pair of primers. Among the encoded metalloproteinases, two enzymes (AclVMP-I and AplVMP-I), three enzymes (CaVMP-II, CvvVMP-II and AplVMP-II) and four enzymes (AclVMP-III, CaVMP-III, CvvVMP-III and AplVMP-III) with the characteristic motif (HEXXHXXGXXH) of metalloproteinase belong to type P-I, P-II and P-III enzymes, respectively. Disintegrin domains of CaVMP-II and CvvVMP-II from two Crotatus snakes contain RGD-motif whereas AplVMP-II from Agkistrodon snake has KGD-motif. Instead of R/KGD-motif within disintegrin domain of SVMP-II enzyme, CaVMP-III, CvvVMP-III and AplVMP-III enzymes contain SECD-motif, while AclVMP-III has DDCD-motif in their corresponding position of disintegrin-like domains. There are 12 Cys amino acids in cysterin-rich domains of each P-III enzyme. Moreover, a disintegrin precursor (AplDis) with RGD-motif also simultaneously amplified from the glands of A.p. leucostoma while amplifying AplVMP-II and AplVMP-III, which indicated that different types of SVMPs and related genes are present in a single species of snake and share a consensus sequence at the 3' and 5' untranslated regions. RT-PCR result also showed that P-III is highly expressed in Crotalus snakes than in Agkistrodon snakes. Aligning the deduced amino acid sequence of these enzymes with other SVMPs from GenBank database indicated that this is the first report on the isolation of cDNAs encoding P-II and P-III enzymes from C.v. viridis and A.p. leucostoma snakes. The availability of these SVMP sequences directly facilitated

  9. On the alleged origin of geminiviruses from extrachromosomal DNAs of phytoplasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noris Emanuela

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several phytoplasmas, wall-less phloem limited plant pathogenic bacteria, have been shown to contain extrachromosomal DNA (EcDNA molecules encoding a replication associated protein (Rep similar to that of geminiviruses, a major group of single stranded (ss DNA plant viruses. On the basis of that observation and of structural similarities between the capsid proteins of geminiviruses and the Satellite tobacco necrosis virus, it has been recently proposed that geminiviruses evolved from phytoplasmal EcDNAs by acquiring a capsid protein coding gene from a co-invading plant RNA virus. Results Here we show that this hypothesis has to be rejected because (i the EcDNA encoded Rep is not of phytoplasmal origin but has been acquired by phytoplasmas through horizontal transfer from a geminivirus or its ancestor; and (ii the evolution of geminivirus capsid protein in land plants implies missing links, while the analysis of metagenomic data suggests an alternative scenario implying a more ancient evolution in marine environments. Conclusion The hypothesis of geminiviruses evolving in plants from DNA molecules of phytoplasma origin contrasts with other findings. An alternative scenario concerning the origin and spread of Rep coding phytoplasmal EcDNA is presented and its implications on the epidemiology of phytoplasmas are discussed.

  10. Chromosomal organization of repetitive DNAs in Hordeum bogdanii and H. brevisubulatum (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanwen Dou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular karyotypes of H. bogdanii Wilensky, 1918 (2n = 14, and H. brevisubulatum Link, 1844 ssp. brevisubulatum (2n = 28, were characterized by physical mapping of several repetitive sequences. A total of 18 repeats, including all possible di- or trinucleotide SSR (simple sequence repeat motifs and satellite DNAs, such as pAs1, 5S rDNA, 45S rDNA, and pSc119.2, were used as probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization on root-tip metaphase chromosomes. Except for the SSR motifs AG, AT and GC, all the repeats we examined produced detectable hybridization signals on chromosomes of both species. A detailed molecular karyotype of the I genome of H. bogdanii is described for the first time, and each repetitive sequence is physically mapped. A high degree of chromosome variation, including aneuploidy and structural changes, was observed in H. brevisubulatum. Although the distribution of repeats in the chromosomes of H. brevisubulatum is different from that of H. bogdanii, similar patterns between the two species imply that the autopolyploid origin of H. brevisubulatum is from a Hordeum species with an I genome. A comparison of the I genome and the other Hordeum genomes, H, Xa and Xu, shows that colocalization of motifs AAC, ACT and CAT and colocalization of motifs AAG and AGG are characteristic of the I genome. In addition, we discuss the evolutionary significance of repeats in the genome during genome differentiation.

  11. EROBATIC SHOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Visitors look at plane models of the Commercial Aircraft Corp. of China, developer of the count,s first homegrown large passenger jet C919, during the Singapore Airshow on February 16. The biennial event is the largest airshow in Asia and one of the most important aviation and defense shows worldwide. A number of Chinese companies took part in the event during which Okay Airways, the first privately owned aidine in China, signed a deal to acquire 12 Boeing 737 jets.

  12. Repetitive DNAs highlight the role of chromosomal fusions in the karyotype evolution of Dascyllus species (Pomacentridae, Perciformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getlekha, Nuntaporn; Molina, Wagner Franco; de Bello Cioffi, Marcelo; Yano, Cassia Fernanda; Maneechot, Nuntiya; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Supiwong, Weerayuth; Tanomtong, Alongklod

    2016-04-01

    The Dascyllus genus consists of 11 species spread over vast regions of the Indo-Pacific, showing remarkable reductions in the diploid chromosome numbers (2n). The present study analyzed the karyotypes and other chromosomal characteristics of D. trimaculatus (2n = 48; 2st + 46a; NF = 50), D. carneus (2n = 48; 2st + 46a; NF = 50) and D. aruanus (2n = 30; 18m + 2st + 10a; NF = 50) from the Thailand Gulf (Pacific Ocean) and D. melanurus (2n = 48; 2st + 46a; NF = 50) from the Andaman Sea (Indian Ocean), employing conventional cytogenetic analyses and the chromosomal mapping of repetitive DNAs, using 18S and 5S rDNA, telomeric sequences and (CA)15, (GA)15, and (CAA)10 microsatellites as probes. The C-positive heterochromatin was found in the centromeric regions of most chromosomal pairs and 18S rDNA phenotypes were single in all species. However, in D. aruanus (2n = 30), which harbors nine metacentric pairs; the 5S rDNA sites were located in the centromeric region of the shortest one. The mapping of the telomeric sequences in D. aruanus revealed the presence of interstitial telomeric sites (ITS) in the centromeric region of four metacentric pairs, with one of these pairs also displaying an additional ITS in the long arms. Distinct chromosomal markers confirmed the reduction of the 2n by chromosomal fusions, highlighting the precise characterization of these rearrangements by the cytogenetic mapping of the repetitive DNAs.

  13. Collection and comparative analysis of 1888 full-length cDNAs from wild rice Oryza rufipogon Griff. W1943.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tingting; Yu, Shuliang; Fan, Danlin; Mu, Jie; Shangguan, Yingying; Wang, Zixuan; Minobe, Yuzo; Lin, Zhixin; Han, Bin

    2008-10-01

    A huge amount of cDNA and EST resources have been developed for cultivated rice species Oryza sativa; however, only few cDNA resources are available for wild rice species. In this study, we isolated and completely sequenced 1888 putative full-length cDNA (FLcDNA) clones from wild rice Oryza rufipogon Griff. W1943 for comparative analysis between wild and cultivated rice species. Two cDNA libraries were constructed from 3-week-old leaf samples under either normal or cold-treated conditions. Homology searching of these cDNA sequences revealed that >96.8% of the wild rice cDNAs were matched to the cultivated rice O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare genome sequence. However, sequence. The comparative analysis showed that O. rufipogon W1943 had greater similarity to O. sativa ssp. japonica than to ssp. indica cultivars. In addition, 17 novel rice cDNAs were identified, and 41 putative tissue-specific expression genes were defined through searching the rice massively parallel signature-sequencing database. In conclusion, these FLcDNA clones are a resource for further function verification and could be broadly utilized in rice biological studies.

  14. Cloning of cDNAs encoding C-type lectins from Elapidae snakes Bungarus fasciatus and Bungarus multicinctus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, H G; Lee, W H; Zhang, Y

    2001-12-01

    A number of C-type lectins with various biological activities have been purified and characterized from Viperidae snake venoms. In contrast, only a few reports could be found in literature concerning the C-type lectins in Elapidae snake venoms. Based on the published cDNA sequences of C-type lectins from Viperidae snake venoms, oligonucleotide primers were designed and used to screen the cDNA libraries made from the venom glands of Bungarus fasciatus and Bungarus multicinctus. This allowed the cloning of three full length cDNAs encoding C-type lectins. The encoded proteins, named BFL-1, BFL-2 and BML, exhibit high degrees of sequence identities with Viperidae snake venom saccharide-binding lectins (around 60% with Trimeresurus stejnegeri venom lectin, Crotalus atrox venom lectin and Agkistrodon piscivorus venom lectin). They show much less identities with other venom C-type lectin-like proteins (around 30% with the platelet glycoprotein Ib-binding protein from Agkistrodon blomhoffi venom and the factor IX/X-binding protein from Trimeresurus flavoviridis venom). The cDNAs revealed that the precursors contain potential signal peptides characterized by a hydrophobic core. To our knowledge, these are the first cDNA cloning of group VII C-type lectins (Drickamer K. 1993. Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. 45, 207-232) from Elapidae snake venom glands.

  15. Formation of functional asialoglycoprotein receptor after transfection with cDNAs encoding the receptor proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    McPhaul, M; Berg, P.

    1986-01-01

    The rat asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) has been expressed in cultured rat hepatoma cells (HTC cells) after transfection with cloned cDNAs. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting of transfected cells was used to identify the functional cDNA clones and to isolate cells expressing the ASGP-R. Simultaneous or sequential transfections with two cloned cDNAs that encode related but distinctive polypeptide chains were needed to obtain ASGP-R activity; transfection with either cDNA alone failed to ...

  16. Cloning,sequencing and prokaryotic expression of cDNAs for antifreeze protein family from Beetle Tenebrio molitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongyuan LIU; Yun WANG; Guodong LU; Xianlei WANG; Fuchun ZHANG; Ji MA

    2008-01-01

    Partial cDNA sequences coding for antifreeze proteins in Tenebrio molitor were obtained by RT-PCR.Sequence analysis revealed nine putative cDNAs with a high degree of homology to Tenebrio molitor antifreeze protein genes published in GenBank.The recombinant pGEX-4T-l-tmafp-XJ430 was introduced into E.coli BL21 to induce a GST fusion protein by IPTG.SDS-PAGE analysis for the fusion protein shows a band of 38 kDa.pCDNA3- tmafp-XJ430 was injected into mice to generate antiserum which was later detected by indirect ELISA.The titer of the antibody was 1:2000.Western blot-ting analysis shows that the antiserum was specifically against the antifreeze protein.Our results laid the founda-tion for further studies on the properties and functions of insect antifreeze proteins.

  17. Isolation and characterization of human cerebellum cDNAs containing polymorphic CAG trinucleotide repeats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igarashi, S.; Onodera, O.; Tanaka, H. [Niigata Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    It has been discovered that neurologic diseases such as X linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, Huntington`s disease, spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), and dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) are caused by unstable expansions of CAG repeats, which shed a light on a new mechanism of human hereditary diseases. The genetic anticipation, a common genetic feature in these diseases, can be explained by the trinucleotide repeat expansions, and an inverse correlation between the ages of onset and the numbers of trinucleotide repeats is demonstrated in these diseases. Furthermore, there have been diseases such as spinocerebellar ataxia 2 (SCA2) and Machado-Joseph disease showing similar genetic anticipation, which suggests that their causative mutations are unstable expansions of trinucleotide repeats. To identify candidate genes for neurodegenerative diseases which are expressed in human cerebellum and contain CAG repeats, we screened a human cerebellum cDNA library with an oligonucleotide (CAG){sub 10}, labelled with [{gamma}{sup 32}P]ATP. Out of 78 clones we have isolated, 43 clones were partially sequenced and 31 clones were shown to contain CAG or CTG tinucleotide repeats. From homology searches, 12 of the 59 clones were identified to contain known sequences including human MAR/SAR DNA binding protein, human glial fibrillary acidic protein, human myelin transcription factor 1, human neuronal growth protein 43 and human myocyte-specific enhancer 2. From 6 clones out of the 43 novel genes, we were able to develop primer pairs flanking CAG repeats and determined chromosomal localizations with human and rodent hybrid mapping panels. These CAG repeats were shown to be polymorphic and mapped to 1, 15, 17 and 18. These novel cDNAs will be useful as candidate genes for hereditary neurologic diseases showing genetic anticipation.

  18. Cloning, characterization, and mRNA expression analysis of novel human fetal cochlear cDNAs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijendijk, M.W.J.; Pol, T.J.R. van de; Duijnhoven, G.C.F. van; Hollander, A.I. den; Caat, J. ten; Limpt, V. van; Brunner, H.G.; Kremer, J.M.J.; Cremers, F.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    To identify novel genes that are expressed specifically or preferentially in the cochlea, we constructed a cDNA library enriched for human cochlear cDNAs using a suppression subtractive hybridization technique. We analyzed 2640 clones by sequencing and BLAST similarity searches. One hundred and fift

  19. Comparative chromosomal localization of 45S and 5S rDNAs and implications for genome evolution in Cucumis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Tao; Yang, Shu-Qiong; Li, Zi-Ang; Zhang, Yun-Xia; Wang, Yun-Zhu; Cheng, Chun-Yan; Li, Ji; Chen, Jin-Feng; Lou, Qun-Feng

    2016-07-01

    Ribosomal DNAs are useful cytogenetic markers for chromosome analysis. Studies investigating site numbers and distributions of rDNAs have provided important information for elucidating genome organization and chromosomal relationships of many species by fluorescence in situ hybridization. But relevant studies are scarce for species of the genus Cucumis, especially in wild species. In the present study, FISH was conducted to investigate the organization of 45S and 5S rDNA among 20 Cucumis accessions, including cultivars and wild accessions. Our results showed that the number of 45S rDNA sites varied from one to five pairs in different accessions, and most of these sites are located at the terminal regions of chromosomes. Interestingly, up to five pairs of 45S rDNA sites were observed in C. sativus var. sativus, the species which has the lowest chromosome number, i.e., 2n = 14. Only one pair of 5S rDNA sites was detected in all accessions, except for C. heptadactylus, C. sp, and C. spp that had two pairs of 5S rDNA sites. The distributions of 5S rDNA sites showed more variation than 45S rDNA sites. The phylogenetic analysis in this study showed that 45S and 5S rDNA have contrasting evolutionary patterns. We find that 5S rDNA has a polyploidization-related tendency towards the terminal location from an interstitial location but maintains a conserved site number, whereas the 45S rDNA showed a trend of increasing site number but a relatively conserved location.

  20. Contrasting the Chromosomal Organization of Repetitive DNAs in Two Gryllidae Crickets with Highly Divergent Karyotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Gimenez, Octavio M; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Ferrari Soares, Fernanda Aparecida; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo C

    2015-01-01

    A large percentage of eukaryotic genomes consist of repetitive DNA that plays an important role in the organization, size and evolution. In the case of crickets, chromosomal variability has been found using classical cytogenetics, but almost no information concerning the organization of their repetitive DNAs is available. To better understand the chromosomal organization and diversification of repetitive DNAs in crickets, we studied the chromosomes of two Gryllidae species with highly divergent karyotypes, i.e., 2n(♂) = 29,X0 (Gryllus assimilis) and 2n = 9, neo-X1X2Y (Eneoptera surinamensis). The analyses were performed using classical cytogenetic techniques, repetitive DNA mapping and genome-size estimation. Conserved characteristics were observed, such as the occurrence of a small number of clusters of rDNAs and U snDNAs, in contrast to the multiple clusters/dispersal of the H3 histone genes. The positions of U2 snDNA and 18S rDNA are also conserved, being intermingled within the largest autosome. The distribution and base-pair composition of the heterochromatin and repetitive DNA pools of these organisms differed, suggesting reorganization. Although the microsatellite arrays had a similar distribution pattern, being dispersed along entire chromosomes, as has been observed in some grasshopper species, a band-like pattern was also observed in the E. surinamensis chromosomes, putatively due to their amplification and clustering. In addition to these differences, the genome of E. surinamensis is approximately 2.5 times larger than that of G. assimilis, which we hypothesize is due to the amplification of repetitive DNAs. Finally, we discuss the possible involvement of repetitive DNAs in the differentiation of the neo-sex chromosomes of E. surinamensis, as has been reported in other eukaryotic groups. This study provided an opportunity to explore the evolutionary dynamics of repetitive DNAs in two non-model species and will contribute to the understanding of

  1. Contrasting the Chromosomal Organization of Repetitive DNAs in Two Gryllidae Crickets with Highly Divergent Karyotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio M Palacios-Gimenez

    Full Text Available A large percentage of eukaryotic genomes consist of repetitive DNA that plays an important role in the organization, size and evolution. In the case of crickets, chromosomal variability has been found using classical cytogenetics, but almost no information concerning the organization of their repetitive DNAs is available. To better understand the chromosomal organization and diversification of repetitive DNAs in crickets, we studied the chromosomes of two Gryllidae species with highly divergent karyotypes, i.e., 2n(♂ = 29,X0 (Gryllus assimilis and 2n = 9, neo-X1X2Y (Eneoptera surinamensis. The analyses were performed using classical cytogenetic techniques, repetitive DNA mapping and genome-size estimation. Conserved characteristics were observed, such as the occurrence of a small number of clusters of rDNAs and U snDNAs, in contrast to the multiple clusters/dispersal of the H3 histone genes. The positions of U2 snDNA and 18S rDNA are also conserved, being intermingled within the largest autosome. The distribution and base-pair composition of the heterochromatin and repetitive DNA pools of these organisms differed, suggesting reorganization. Although the microsatellite arrays had a similar distribution pattern, being dispersed along entire chromosomes, as has been observed in some grasshopper species, a band-like pattern was also observed in the E. surinamensis chromosomes, putatively due to their amplification and clustering. In addition to these differences, the genome of E. surinamensis is approximately 2.5 times larger than that of G. assimilis, which we hypothesize is due to the amplification of repetitive DNAs. Finally, we discuss the possible involvement of repetitive DNAs in the differentiation of the neo-sex chromosomes of E. surinamensis, as has been reported in other eukaryotic groups. This study provided an opportunity to explore the evolutionary dynamics of repetitive DNAs in two non-model species and will contribute to the

  2. cDNA2Genome: A tool for mapping and annotating cDNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhai Sandor

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last years several high-throughput cDNA sequencing projects have been funded worldwide with the aim of identifying and characterizing the structure of complete novel human transcripts. However some of these cDNAs are error prone due to frameshifts and stop codon errors caused by low sequence quality, or to cloning of truncated inserts, among other reasons. Therefore, accurate CDS prediction from these sequences first require the identification of potentially problematic cDNAs in order to speed up the posterior annotation process. Results cDNA2Genome is an application for the automatic high-throughput mapping and characterization of cDNAs. It utilizes current annotation data and the most up to date databases, especially in the case of ESTs and mRNAs in conjunction with a vast number of approaches to gene prediction in order to perform a comprehensive assessment of the cDNA exon-intron structure. The final result of cDNA2Genome is an XML file containing all relevant information obtained in the process. This XML output can easily be used for further analysis such us program pipelines, or the integration of results into databases. The web interface to cDNA2Genome also presents this data in HTML, where the annotation is additionally shown in a graphical form. cDNA2Genome has been implemented under the W3H task framework which allows the combination of bioinformatics tools in tailor-made analysis task flows as well as the sequential or parallel computation of many sequences for large-scale analysis. Conclusions cDNA2Genome represents a new versatile and easily extensible approach to the automated mapping and annotation of human cDNAs. The underlying approach allows sequential or parallel computation of sequences for high-throughput analysis of cDNAs.

  3. Apoptotic DNA Fragmentation May Be a Cooperative Activity between Caspase-activated Deoxyribonuclease and the Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase-regulated DNAS1L3, an Endoplasmic Reticulum-localized Endonuclease That Translocates to the Nucleus during Apoptosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errami, Youssef; Naura, Amarjit S.; Kim, Hogyoung; Ju, Jihang; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; El-Bahrawy, Ali H.; Ghonim, Mohamed A.; Hemeida, Ramadan A.; Mansy, Moselhy S.; Zhang, Jianhua; Xu, Ming; Smulson, Mark E.; Brim, Hassan; Boulares, A. Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Caspase-activated DNase (CAD) is the most favorable candidate for chromatin degradation during apoptosis. Ca2+-dependent endonucleases are equally important in internucleosomal DNA fragmentation (INDF), including the PARP-1-regulated DNAS1L3. Despite the elaborate work on these endonucleases, the question of whether these enzymes cooperate during INDF was not addressed. Here, we show a lack of correlation between INDF and CAD expression levels and inactivation by cleavage of its inhibitor (ICAD) during apoptosis. The cells that failed to induce INDF accumulated large amounts of 50-kb breaks, which is suggestive of incomplete chromatin processing. Similarly, INDF was blocked by Ca2+ chelation without a block in ICAD cleavage or caspase-3 activation, which is consistent with the involvement of CAD in 50-kb DNA fragmentation and its Ca2+ independence. However, DNAS1L3 expression in INDF-deficient cells promoted INDF during apoptosis and was blocked by Ca2+ chelation. Interestingly, expression of DNAS1L3 in ICAD-deficient cells failed to promote tumor necrosis factor α-induced INDF but required the coexpression of ICAD. These results suggest a cooperative activity between CAD and DNAS1L3 to accomplish INDF. In HT-29 cells, endogenous DNAS1L3 localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and translocated to the nucleus upon apoptosis induction but prior to INDF manifestation, making it the first reported Ca2+-dependent endonuclease to migrate from the ER to the nucleus. The nuclear accumulation of DNAS1L3, but not its exit out of the ER, required the activity of cysteine and serine proteases. Interestingly, the endonuclease accumulated in the cytosol upon inhibition of serine, but not cysteine, proteases. These results exemplify the complexity of chromatin degradation during apoptosis. PMID:23229555

  4. Poly(dA:dT-rich DNAs are highly flexible in the context of DNA looping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Johnson

    Full Text Available Large-scale DNA deformation is ubiquitous in transcriptional regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes alike. Though much is known about how transcription factors and constellations of binding sites dictate where and how gene regulation will occur, less is known about the role played by the intervening DNA. In this work we explore the effect of sequence flexibility on transcription factor-mediated DNA looping, by drawing on sequences identified in nucleosome formation and ligase-mediated cyclization assays as being especially favorable for or resistant to large deformations. We examine a poly(dA:dT-rich, nucleosome-repelling sequence that is often thought to belong to a class of highly inflexible DNAs; two strong nucleosome positioning sequences that share a set of particular sequence features common to nucleosome-preferring DNAs; and a CG-rich sequence representative of high G+C-content genomic regions that correlate with high nucleosome occupancy in vivo. To measure the flexibility of these sequences in the context of DNA looping, we combine the in vitro single-molecule tethered particle motion assay, a canonical looping protein, and a statistical mechanical model that allows us to quantitatively relate the looping probability to the looping free energy. We show that, in contrast to the case of nucleosome occupancy, G+C content does not positively correlate with looping probability, and that despite sharing sequence features that are thought to determine nucleosome affinity, the two strong nucleosome positioning sequences behave markedly dissimilarly in the context of looping. Most surprisingly, the poly(dA:dT-rich DNA that is often characterized as highly inflexible in fact exhibits one of the highest propensities for looping that we have measured. These results argue for a need to revisit our understanding of the mechanical properties of DNA in a way that will provide a basis for understanding DNA deformation over the entire range of

  5. Insights into metazoan evolution from alvinella pompejana cDNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Jean-Claude

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alvinella pompejana is a representative of Annelids, a key phylum for evo-devo studies that is still poorly studied at the sequence level. A. pompejana inhabits deep-sea hydrothermal vents and is currently known as one of the most thermotolerant Eukaryotes in marine environments, withstanding the largest known chemical and thermal ranges (from 5 to 105°C. This tube-dwelling worm forms dense colonies on the surface of hydrothermal chimneys and can withstand long periods of hypo/anoxia and long phases of exposure to hydrogen sulphides. A. pompejana specifically inhabits chimney walls of hydrothermal vents on the East Pacific Rise. To survive, Alvinella has developed numerous adaptations at the physiological and molecular levels, such as an increase in the thermostability of proteins and protein complexes. It represents an outstanding model organism for studying adaptation to harsh physicochemical conditions and for isolating stable macromolecules resistant to high temperatures. Results We have constructed four full length enriched cDNA libraries to investigate the biology and evolution of this intriguing animal. Analysis of more than 75,000 high quality reads led to the identification of 15,858 transcripts and 9,221 putative protein sequences. Our annotation reveals a good coverage of most animal pathways and networks with a prevalence of transcripts involved in oxidative stress resistance, detoxification, anti-bacterial defence, and heat shock protection. Alvinella proteins seem to show a slow evolutionary rate and a higher similarity with proteins from Vertebrates compared to proteins from Arthropods or Nematodes. Their composition shows enrichment in positively charged amino acids that might contribute to their thermostability. The gene content of Alvinella reveals that an important pool of genes previously considered to be specific to Deuterostomes were in fact already present in the last common ancestor of the Bilaterian

  6. ER Adaptor SCAP Translocates and Recruits IRF3 to Perinuclear Microsome Induced by Cytosolic Microbial DNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huansha; Liu, Xing; Huang, Lulu; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Heng; Cui, Ye; Tang, Yijun; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING, also known as MITA, ERIS or MPYS) induces the activation of TBK1 kinase and IRF3 transcription factor, upon sensing of microbial DNAs. How IRF3 is recruited onto the STING signalosome remains unknown. We report here that silencing of the ER adaptor SCAP markedly impairs the IRF3-responsive gene expression induced by STING. Scap knockdown mice are more susceptible to HSV-1 infection. Interestingly, SCAP translocates from ER, via Golgi, to perinuclear microsome in a STING-dependent manner. Mechanistically, the N-terminal transmembrane domain of SCAP interacts with STING, and the C-terminal cytosolic domain of SCAP binds to IRF3, thus recruiting IRF3 onto STING signalosome. Mis-localization of SCAP abolishes its antiviral function. Collectively, this study characterizes SCAP as an essential adaptor in the STING signaling pathway, uncovering a critical missing link in DNAs-triggered host antiviral responses. PMID:26900919

  7. ER Adaptor SCAP Translocates and Recruits IRF3 to Perinuclear Microsome Induced by Cytosolic Microbial DNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Stimulator of interferon genes (STING, also known as MITA, ERIS or MPYS induces the activation of TBK1 kinase and IRF3 transcription factor, upon sensing of microbial DNAs. How IRF3 is recruited onto the STING signalosome remains unknown. We report here that silencing of the ER adaptor SCAP markedly impairs the IRF3-responsive gene expression induced by STING. Scap knockdown mice are more susceptible to HSV-1 infection. Interestingly, SCAP translocates from ER, via Golgi, to perinuclear microsome in a STING-dependent manner. Mechanistically, the N-terminal transmembrane domain of SCAP interacts with STING, and the C-terminal cytosolic domain of SCAP binds to IRF3, thus recruiting IRF3 onto STING signalosome. Mis-localization of SCAP abolishes its antiviral function. Collectively, this study characterizes SCAP as an essential adaptor in the STING signaling pathway, uncovering a critical missing link in DNAs-triggered host antiviral responses.

  8. cDNA2Genome: A tool for mapping and annotating cDNAs

    OpenAIRE

    Suhai Sandor; Glatting Karl-Heinz; del Val Coral

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background In the last years several high-throughput cDNA sequencing projects have been funded worldwide with the aim of identifying and characterizing the structure of complete novel human transcripts. However some of these cDNAs are error prone due to frameshifts and stop codon errors caused by low sequence quality, or to cloning of truncated inserts, among other reasons. Therefore, accurate CDS prediction from these sequences first require the identification of potentially problem...

  9. Identification of cDNAs by direct hybridization using cosmid probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennon, G.G.; Lieuallen, K.

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this effort is to quickly obtain as many chromosome-specific cDNAs with as much map and sequence detail as possible. Many techniques have been proposed to isolate and identify genes within defined genomic regions; the technique discussed here is direct hybridization of a relatively complex genomic probe, an entire cosmid clone, to cDNA libraries. This method continues to be a straightforward technique with a fair number of successes.

  10. Silver atom and strand numbers in fluorescent and dark Ag:DNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Danielle; Gwinn, Elisabeth G

    2012-06-11

    We use tandem HPLC-mass spectrometry with in-line spectroscopy to identify silver atom numbers, N(Ag), of 10 to 21 in visible- to infrared-emitting Ag:DNA complexes stabilized by oligonucleotide monomers and dimers. Qualitatively different absorbance spectra from bare, same-N(Ag) silver clusters point to silver-base interactions as the origin for the color of Ag:DNAs.

  11. Dissection of the essential steps for condensin accumulation at kinetochores and rDNAs during fission yeast mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Norihiko; Nakamura, Takahiro; Kokubu, Aya; Ebe, Masahiro; Nagao, Koji; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro

    2008-03-24

    The condensin complex has a fundamental role in chromosome dynamics. In this study, we report that accumulation of Schizosaccharomyces pombe condensin at mitotic kinetochores and ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs) occurs in multiple steps and is necessary for normal segregation of the sister kinetochores and rDNAs. Nuclear entry of condensin at the onset of mitosis requires Cut15/importin alpha and Cdc2 phosphorylation. Ark1/aurora and Cut17/Bir1/survivin are needed to dock the condensin at both the kinetochores and rDNAs. Furthermore, proteins that are necessary to form the chromatin architecture of the kinetochores (Mis6, Cnp1, and Mis13) and rDNAs (Nuc1 and Acr1) are required for condensin to accumulate specifically at these sites. Acr1 (accumulation of condensin at rDNA 1) is an rDNA upstream sequence binding protein that physically interacts with Rrn5, Rrn11, Rrn7, and Spp27 and is required for the proper accumulation of Nuc1 at rDNAs. The mechanism of condensin accumulation at the kinetochores may be conserved, as human condensin II fails to accumulate at kinetochores in hMis6 RNA interference-treated cells.

  12. Variations in 5S rDNAs in diploid and tetraploid offspring of red crucian carp × common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lihai; Zhang, Chun; Tang, Xiaojun; Chen, Yiyi; Liu, Shaojun

    2017-08-08

    The allotetraploid hybrid fish (4nAT) that was created in a previous study through an intergeneric cross between red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var., ♀) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., ♂) provided an excellent platform to investigate the effect of hybridization and polyploidization on the evolution of 5S rDNA. The 5S rDNAs of paternal common carp were made up of a coding sequence (CDS) and a non-transcribed spacer (NTS) unit, and while the 5S rDNAs of maternal red crucian carp contained a CDS and a NTS unit, they also contained a variable number of interposed regions (IPRs). The CDSs of the 5S rDNAs in both parental fishes were conserved, while their NTS units seemed to have been subjected to rapid evolution. The diploid hybrid 2nF1 inherited all the types of 5S rDNAs in both progenitors and there were no signs of homeologous recombination in the 5S rDNAs of 2nF1 by sequencing of PCR products. We obtained two segments of 5S rDNA with a total length of 16,457 bp from allotetraploid offspring 4nAT through bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequencing. Using this sequence together with the 5S rDNA sequences amplified from the genomic DNA of 4nAT, we deduced that the 5S rDNAs of 4nAT might be inherited from the maternal progenitor red crucian carp. Additionally, the IPRs in the 5S rDNAs of 4nAT contained A-repeats and TA-repeats, which was not the case for the IPRs in the 5S rDNAs of 2nF1. We also detected two signals of a 200-bp fragment of 5S rDNA in the chromosomes of parental progenitors and hybrid progenies by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We deduced that during the evolution of 5S rDNAs in different ploidy hybrid fishes, interlocus gene conversion events and tandem repeat insertion events might occurred in the process of polyploidization. This study provided new insights into the relationship among the evolution of 5S rDNAs, hybridization and polyploidization, which were significant in clarifying the genome evolution of

  13. Using peripheral blood circulating DNAs to detect CpG global methylation status and genetic mutations in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iriyama, Chisako [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Tomita, Akihiro, E-mail: atomita@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Hoshino, Hideaki; Adachi-Shirahata, Mizuho [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Furukawa-Hibi, Yoko; Yamada, Kiyofumi [Department of Neuropsychopharmacology and Hospital Pharmacy, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Naoe, Tomoki [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Circulating DNAs (CDs) can be used to detect genetic/epigenetic abnormalities in MDS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Epigenetic changes can be detected more sensitively when using plasma DNA than PBMNC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mutation ratio in CDs may reflect the ratio in stem cell population in bone marrow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using CDs can be a safer alternate strategy compared to bone marrow aspiration. -- Abstract: Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a hematopoietic stem cell disorder. Several genetic/epigenetic abnormalities are deeply associated with the pathogenesis of MDS. Although bone marrow (BM) aspiration is a common strategy to obtain MDS cells for evaluating their genetic/epigenetic abnormalities, BM aspiration is difficult to perform repeatedly to obtain serial samples because of pain and safety concerns. Here, we report that circulating cell-free DNAs from plasma and serum of patients with MDS can be used to detect genetic/epigenetic abnormalities. The plasma DNA concentration was found to be relatively high in patients with higher blast cell counts in BM, and accumulation of DNA fragments from mono-/di-nucleosomes was confirmed. Using serial peripheral blood (PB) samples from patients treated with hypomethylating agents, global methylation analysis using bisulfite pyrosequencing was performed at the specific CpG sites of the LINE-1 promoter. The results confirmed a decrease of the methylation percentage after treatment with azacitidine (days 3-9) using DNAs from plasma, serum, and PB mono-nuclear cells (PBMNC). Plasma DNA tends to show more rapid change at days 3 and 6 compared with serum DNA and PBMNC. Furthermore, the TET2 gene mutation in DNAs from plasma, serum, and BM cells was quantitated by pyrosequencing analysis. The existence ratio of mutated genes in plasma and serum DNA showed almost equivalent level with that in the CD34+/38- stem cell population in BM. These data suggest that genetic

  14. Genomic organization of repetitive DNAs highlights chromosomal evolution in the genus Clarias (Clariidae, Siluriformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneechot, Nuntiya; Yano, Cassia Fernanda; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Getlekha, Nuntaporn; Molina, Wagner Franco; Ditcharoen, Sukhonthip; Tengjaroenkul, Bundit; Supiwong, Weerayuth; Tanomtong, Alongklod; de Bello Cioffi, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The genus Clarias (Clariidae, Siluriformes) contains at least 61 species naturally spread over vast regions of Asia, India and Africa. However, Clarias species have also been introduced in many different countries and represent the most widespread catfishes in the world. These fishes are also known as "walking catfishes" due to their ability to move over land. A large degree of chromosomal variation has been previously found in this family, mainly using conventional cytogenetic investigations, with diploid chromosome numbers ranging between 48 and 100. In this study, we analyzed the karyotype structure and distribution of four repetitive DNA sequences (5S and 18S rDNAs and (CA)15 and (GA)15 microsatellites) in three Clarias species (C. batrachus, C. gariepinus, C. macrocephalus), as well as in a probable natural hybrid of the two latter species from different Thailand river basins. Clarias gariepinus and C. macrocephalus had 2n = 56 and 2n = 54, respectively, as well as karyotypes composed mainly by metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes. Their karyotypes differed in the number and location of 5S and 18S rDNA sites and in the degree of microsatellite accumulation. An intermediate chromosomal pattern incorporating those of the parental species was found in the probable hybrid, confirming its interspecific origin. Clarias batrachus had 2n = 104 chromosomes and its karyotype was dominated by mainly acrocentric elements, indicating that unusual multiple centric fissions were involved in its karyotype differentiation. The karyotype of this species presented an unexpected dispersion of ribosomal DNAs, possessing 54 and 12 sites of 5S and 18S rDNAs, respectively, as well as a high accumulation and differential distribution of both microsatellite repeats, representing 'hot spots' for chromosomal rearrangement. Both conventional and molecular cytogenetic markers were useful tools for demonstrating remarkable evolutionary dynamism and highlighting multiple

  15. Multiplex APLP System for High-Resolution Haplogrouping of Extremely Degraded East-Asian Mitochondrial DNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuda, Tsuneo; Shojo, Hideki; Tanaka, Mayumi; Nambiar, Phrabhakaran; Minaguchi, Kiyoshi; Umetsu, Kazuo; Adachi, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) serves as a powerful tool for exploring matrilineal phylogeographic ancestry, as well as for analyzing highly degraded samples, because of its polymorphic nature and high copy numbers per cell. The recent advent of complete mitochondrial genome sequencing has led to improved techniques for phylogenetic analyses based on mtDNA, and many multiplex genotyping methods have been developed for the hierarchical analysis of phylogenetically important mutations. However, few high-resolution multiplex genotyping systems for analyzing East-Asian mtDNA can be applied to extremely degraded samples. Here, we present a multiplex system for analyzing mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs), which relies on a novel amplified product-length polymorphisms (APLP) method that uses inosine-flapped primers and is specifically designed for the detailed haplogrouping of extremely degraded East-Asian mtDNAs. We used fourteen 6-plex polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) and subsequent electrophoresis to examine 81 haplogroup-defining SNPs and 3 insertion/deletion sites, and we were able to securely assign the studied mtDNAs to relevant haplogroups. Our system requires only 1×10−13 g (100 fg) of crude DNA to obtain a full profile. Owing to its small amplicon size (<110 bp), this new APLP system was successfully applied to extremely degraded samples for which direct sequencing of hypervariable segments using mini-primer sets was unsuccessful, and proved to be more robust than conventional APLP analysis. Thus, our new APLP system is effective for retrieving reliable data from extremely degraded East-Asian mtDNAs. PMID:27355212

  16. Unique Thermal Stability of Unnatural Hydrophobic Ds Bases in Double-Stranded DNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Michiko; Hirao, Ichiro

    2017-07-26

    Genetic alphabet expansion technology, the introduction of unnatural bases or base pairs into replicable DNA, has rapidly advanced as a new synthetic biology area. A hydrophobic unnatural base pair between 7-(2-thienyl)imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (Ds) and 2-nitro-4-propynylpyrrole (Px) exhibited high fidelity as a third base pair in PCR. SELEX methods using the Ds-Px pair enabled high-affinity DNA aptamer generation, and introducing a few Ds bases into DNA aptamers extremely augmented their affinities and selectivities to target proteins. Here, to further scrutinize the functions of this highly hydrophobic Ds base, the thermal stabilities of double-stranded DNAs (dsDNA) containing a noncognate Ds-Ds or G-Ds pair were examined. The thermal stability of the Ds-Ds self-pair was as high as that of the natural G-C pair, and apart from the generally higher stability of the G-C pair than that of the A-T pair, most of the 5'-pyrimidine-Ds-purine-3' sequences, such as CDsA and TDsA, exhibited higher stability than the 5'-purine-Ds-pyrimidine-3' sequences, such as GDsC and ADsC, in dsDNAs. This trait enabled the GC-content-independent control of the thermal stability of the designed dsDNA fragments. The melting temperatures of dsDNA fragments containing the Ds-Ds pair can be predicted from the nearest-neighbor parameters including the Ds base. In addition, the noncognate G-Ds pair can efficiently distinguish its neighboring cognate natural base pairs from noncognate pairs. We demonstrated that real-time PCR using primers containing Ds accurately detected a single-nucleotide mismatch in target DNAs. These unique properties of the Ds base that affect the stabilities of the neighboring base pairs could impart new functions to DNA molecules and technologies.

  17. A Comprehensive Software Suite for the Analysis of cDNAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuharu Arakawa; Haruo Suzuki; Kosuke Fujishima; Kenji Fujimoto; Sho Ueda; Motomu Matsui; Masaru Tomita

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a comprehensive software suite for bioinformatics research of cDNAs; it is aimed at rapid characterization of the features of genes and the proteins they code. Methods implemented include the detection of translation initiation and termination signals, statistical analysis of codon usage, comparative study of amino acid composition, comparative modeling of the structures of product proteins, prediction of alternative splice forms, and metabolic pathway reconstruction.The software package is freely available under the GNU General Public License at http://www.g-language.org/data/cdna/.

  18. Chromosomal Mapping of Repetitive DNAs in Triportheus trifurcatus (Characidae, Characiformes): Insights into the Differentiation of the Z and W Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Cassia Fernanda; Poltronieri, Juliana; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Liehr, Thomas; de Bello Cioffi, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive DNA sequences play an important role in the structural and functional organization of chromosomes, especially in sex chromosome differentiation. The genus Triportheus represents an interesting model for such studies because all of its species analyzed so far contain a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system. A close relationship has been found between the differentiation of the W chromosome and heterochromatinization, with the involvement of different types of repetitive DNA in this process. This study investigated several aspects of this association in the W chromosome of Triportheus trifurcatus (2n = 52 chromosomes), including the cytogenetic mapping of repetitive DNAs such as telomeric sequences (TTAGGG)n, microsatellites and retrotransposons. A remarkable heterochromatic segment on the W chromosome was observed with a preferential accumulation of (CAC)10, (CAG)10, (CGG)10, (GAA)10 and (TA)15. The retrotransposons Rex1 and Rex3 showed a general distribution pattern in the chromosomes, and Rex6 showed a different distribution on the W chromosome. The telomeric repeat (TTAGGG)n was highly evident in both telomeres of all chromosomes without the occurrence of ITS. Thus, the differentiation of the W chromosome of T. trifurcatus is clearly associated with the formation of heterochromatin and different types of repetitive DNA, suggesting that these elements had a prominent role in this evolutionary process. PMID:24632562

  19. Evolution of gnathostome prodynorphin and proenkephalin: characterization of a shark proenkephalin and prodynorphin cDNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komorowski, Leanne K; Lecaude, Stephanie G; Westring, Christian G; Danielson, Phillip B; Dores, Robert M

    2012-07-01

    Analyses of prodynorphin and proenkephalin cDNAs cloned from the central nervous system of the shark, Heterodontus portusjacksoni, provided additional evidence that these two opioid precursor-coding genes were most likely directly derived from a common ancestral gene. The two cDNAs could be aligned by inserting only seven gaps. The prodynorphin cDNA encodes five opioid sequences which could be aligned to opioid positions B through F in the proenkephalin cDNA. The sequence identity within the opioid positions was 59% at the amino acid level. Shark α-neo-endorphin, dynorphin A, and dynorphin B have amino acid motifs in common with shark met-enkephalin-8, and shark proenkephalin opioid positions E and F, respectively, which have not been observed in other gnathostome prodynorphin and proenkephalin precursor sequences. Shark prodynorphin encodes both kappa (α-neo-endorphin, dynorphin A, and dynorphin B) and delta (met-enkephalin and leu-enkephalin) opioid sequences. Mixed function prodynorphin precursors (encoding both enkephalins and dynorphins) are also found in representatives of the teleost fishes, lungfishes, and amphibians. It appears that only mammals evolved a prodynorphin precursor that exclusively encodes kappa opioid agonists (dynorphins). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhancing yields of low and single copy number plasmid DNAs from Escherichia coli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Whitney N; Smith, Kyle D; Ream, Jennifer A; Kevin Lewis, L

    2017-02-01

    Many plasmids used for gene cloning and heterologous protein expression in Escherichia coli cells are low copy number or single copy number plasmids. The extraction of these types of plasmids from small bacterial cell cultures produces low DNA yields. In this study, we have quantitated yields of low copy and single copy number plasmid DNAs after growth of cells in four widely used broths (SB, SOC, TB, and 2xYT) and compared results to those obtained with LB, the most common E. coli cell growth medium. TB (terrific broth) consistently generated the greatest amount of plasmid DNA, in agreement with its ability to produce higher cell titers. The superiority of TB was primarily due to its high levels of yeast extract (24g/L) and was independent of glycerol, a unique component of this broth. Interestingly, simply preparing LB with similarly high levels of yeast extract (LB24 broth) resulted in plasmid yields that were equivalent to those of TB. By contrast, increasing ampicillin concentration to enhance plasmid retention did not improve plasmid DNA recovery. These experiments demonstrate that yields of low and single copy number plasmid DNAs from minipreps can be strongly enhanced using simple and inexpensive media. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of DNAs by Using Dual Packed Polystyrene Bead-Quantum Dots in a Microfluidic Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Ngoc Tam; Kim, Jong Sung

    2015-01-01

    The semiconductor nanocrystals (or quantum dots) have shown peculiar optical and electrical properties due to their exceptionally small size. In recent years, tremendous researches on quantum dots have been carried out. Among them, QDs as sensing media for biological assay have achieved a great progress. Recently we have reported the detection of DNAs by using fluorescence quenching of QDs after DNA hybridization. Several oligonucleotides and human genomic genes could be detected. In this report we used dual packing of polystyrene bead-quantum dots to detect different kinds of DNAs simultaneously. QDs with different emission peaks were used. Carboxylated-CdSe/ZnS QDs (emission: 525, 605 nm) could bind to microbeads of polystyrene/divinyl benzene via EDC/NHS cross-linking reaction. Polystyrene bead-QDs with different colors were packed in the channel of the microfluidic chip. The fluorescence quenching from the QDs by intercalating dye was observed after hybridization of exon 6 and 7 of p53 gene at the weir in the channel of microfluidic chip. The simultaneous fluorescence quenching of the QDs by PI and TOTO-3 were observed.

  2. Single-Molecule Imaging of DNAs with Sticky Ends at Water/Fused Silica Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isailovic, Slavica [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) was used to study intermolecular interactions of DNAs with unpaired (sticky) ends of different lengths at water/fused silica interface at the single-molecule level. Evanescent field residence time, linear velocity and adsorption/desorption frequency were measured in a microchannel for individual DNA molecules from T7, Lambda, and PSP3 phages at various pH values. The longest residence times and the highest adsorption/desorption frequencies at the constant flow at pH 5.5 were found for PSP3 DNA, followed by lower values for Lambda DNA, and the lowest values for T7 DNA. Since T7, Lambda, and PSP3 DNA molecules contain none, twelve and nineteen unpaired bases, respectively, it was concluded that the affinity of DNAs for the surface increases with the length of the sticky ends. This confirms that hydrophobic and hydrogen-bonding interactions between sticky ends and fused-silica surface are driving forces for DNA adsorption at the fused-silica surface. Described single-molecule methodology and results therein can be valuable for investigation of interactions in liquid chromatography, as well as for design of DNA hybridization sensors and drug delivery systems.

  3. Molecular cloning of partial cDNAs for rat DNA topoisomerase II isoforms and their differential expression in brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, K; Tsutsui, K; Okada, S; Watanabe, M; Shohmori, T; Seki, S; Inoue, Y

    1993-09-05

    cDNA segments for DNA topoisomerase II were amplified from rat brain RNA after reverse transcription by the polymerase chain reaction, using degenerate oligonucleotide primers deduced from the conserved regions of topoisomerase II of higher eukaryotes. The cDNA product from a successful amplification was homogeneous in length but heterogeneous in sequence. Restriction mapping of the cloned cDNA fragments revealed that they consisted of two distinct sequence groups. DNA sequencing of representative clones from each group, designated A and B, showed that they are highly homologous to cDNAs of human topoisomerase II isoforms, alpha and beta, respectively. Northern blot analysis indicated that the transcript level for rat topoisomerase II alpha was high in embryonic brain and in the cerebellum of 2-day newborns, followed by rapid decrease to a undetectable level at 4 weeks after birth. In contrast, rat topoisomerase II beta transcript was present throughout the embryonic and postnatal stages. In the developing cerebellum, cells expressing topoisomerase II alpha were confirmed exclusively to the outer mitotic zone of the external granular layer, whereas the transcript of topoisomerase II beta was detected over the entire cortical region. These results clearly indicate that the isoform alpha is expressed only in proliferating cells. The differential expression of topoisomerase II isozymes was also observed among developed tissues. Therefore, the isozymes are most likely to be involved in the following different physiological processes: topoisomerase II alpha in cell proliferation, and topoisomerase II beta in some processes unrelated to cell proliferation.

  4. Mesoscale simulations of two model systems in biophysics: from red blood cells to DNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhangli; Chen, Yeng-Long; Lu, Huijie; Pan, Zehao; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2015-12-01

    Computational modeling has become increasingly important in biophysics, but the great challenge in numerical simulations due to the multiscale feature of biological systems limits the capability of modeling in making discoveries in biology. Innovative multiscale modeling approaches are desired to bridge different scales from nucleic acids and proteins to cells and tissues. Although all-atom molecular dynamics has been successfully applied in many microscale biological processes such as protein folding, it is still prohibitively expensive for studying macroscale problems such as biophysics of cells and tissues. On the other hand, continuum-based modeling has become a mature procedure for analysis and design in many engineering fields, but new insights for biological systems in the microscale are limited when molecular details are missing in continuum-based modeling. In this context, mesoscale modeling approaches such as Langevin dynamics, lattice Boltzmann method, and dissipative particle dynamics have become popular by simultaneously incorporating molecular interactions and long-range hydrodynamic interactions, providing insights to properties on longer time and length scales than molecular dynamics. In this review, we summarized several mesoscale simulation approaches for studying two model systems in biophysics: red blood cells (RBCs) and deoxyribonucleic acids (DNAs). The RBC is a model system for cell mechanics and biological membranes, while the DNA represents a model system for biopolymers. We introduced the motivations of studying these problems and presented the key features of different mesoscale methods. Furthermore, we described the latest progresses in these methods and highlighted the major findings for modeling RBCs and DNAs. Finally, we also discussed the challenges and potential issues of different approaches.

  5. Organization of some repetitive DNAs and B chromosomes in the grasshopper Eumastusia koebelei koebelei (Rehn, 1909) (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Leptysminae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Allison; Loreto, Vilma; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract B chromosomes occur in approximately 15% of eukaryotes and are usually heterochromatic and rich in repetitive DNAs. Here we describe characteristics of a B chromosome in the grasshopper Eumastusia koebelei koebelei (Rehn, 1909) through classical cytogenetic methods and mapping of some repetitive DNAs, including multigene families, telomeric repeats and a DNA fraction enriched with repetitive DNAs obtained from DOP-PCR. Eumastusia koebelei koebelei presented 2n=23, X0 and, in one individual, two copies of the same variant of a B chromosome were noticed, which are associated during meiosis. The C-positive blocks were located in the pericentromeric regions of the standard complement and along the entire length of the B chromosomes. Some G+C-rich heterochromatic blocks were noticed, including conspicuous blocks in the B chromosomes. The mapping of 18S rDNA and U2 snDNA revealed only autosomal clusters, and the telomeric probe hybridized in terminal regions. Finally, the DOP-PCR probe obtained from an individual without a B chromosome revealed signals in the heterochromatic regions, including the entire length of the B chromosome. The possible intraspecific origin of the B chromosomes, due to the shared pool of repetitive DNAs between the A and B chromosomes and the possible consequences of their association are discussed. PMID:27551344

  6. Characterization and expression analysis of two cDNAs encoding Xa1 and oxysterol binding proteins in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and subsequent microarray analysis, expression profiles of sorghum genes responsive to greenbug phloem-feeding were obtained and identified. Among the profiles, two cDNAs designated to MM73 and MM95 were identified to encode Xa1 (Xa1) and oxysterol ...

  7. Molecular cloning and expression of three polygalacturonase cDNAs from the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three unique cDNAs encoding putative polygalacturonase enzymes were isolated from the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Hemiptera: Miridae). The three nucleotide sequences were dissimilar to one another, but the deduced amino acid sequences were similar to each other and ...

  8. Cloning and functional characterization of two cDNAs encoding NADPH-dependent 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductased from developing cotton fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Mei QIN; Francois MA PUJOL; Yong Hui SHI; Jian Xun FENG; Yi Ming LIU; Alexander J KASTANIOTIS; J Kalervo HILTUNEN; Yu Xian ZHU

    2005-01-01

    Genes encoding enzymes involved in biosynthesis of very long chain fatty acids were significantly up-regulated during early cotton fiber development. Two cDNAs, GhKCR1 and GhKCR2 encoding putative cotton 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductases that catalyze the second step in fatty acid elongation, were isolated from developing cotton fibers. GhKCR1 and 2 contain open reading frames of 963 bp and 924 bp encoding proteins of 320 and 307 amino acid residues,respectively. Quantatitive RT-PCR analysis showed that both these genes were highly preferentially expressed during the cotton fiber elongation period with much lower levels recovered from roots, stems and leaves. GhKCR1 and 2 showed 30%-32% identity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ybr159p at the deduced amino acid level. These cotton cDNAs were cloned and expressed in yeast haploid ybr159w△ mutant that was deficient in 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductase activity.Wild-type growth rate was restored in ybr159w△ cells that expressed either GhKCR1 or 2. Further analysis showed that GhKCR1 and 2 were co-sedimented within the membranous pellet fraction after high-speed centrifugation, similar to the yeast endoplasmic reticulum marker ScKar2p. Both GhKCR(s) showed NADPH-dependent 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductase activity in an in vitro assay system using palmitoyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA as substrates. Our results suggest that GhKCR1 and 2 are functional orthologues of ScYbr159p.

  9. Identification of Gaeumannomyces graminis and Phialophora graminicola by PCR-amplified Ribosomal DNAs%利用PCR扩增的核糖体DNAs鉴定禾顶囊壳菌和瓶梗霉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽丽; S.THEISON; 康振生; H.BUCHENAUER

    2004-01-01

    小麦全蚀病是由禾顶囊壳菌引起的小麦根部病害,在全世界范围内普遍发生.用传统的方法鉴别和区分病原菌与非致病菌花费时间长而且有时不准确.本研究利用PCR技术,扩增了15个禾顶囊壳菌和瓶梗霉分离株的核糖体DNAs,并用限制性内切酶Dde I酶切后电泳,结果表明,该法可有效鉴别禾顶囊壳菌和瓶梗霉这2个不同的种.%Take-all,caused by the soil-borne fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis (G.g.),is a widespread and intractable root disease of graminaceous hosts throughout the world.Identification of isolates by conventional methods such as pathogenicity testing on different hosts and determining morphological characteristics is slow and sometimes inconclusive.The PCR assay was employed in this research to amplify ribosomal DNAs from isolates of Gaeumannomyces graminis and Phialophora graminicola collected by Institute of Phytomedizin,Uni.Hohenheim.Restriction enzyme Dde I was used to digest these amplifed rDNAs to find differences useful in identification.The results showed differences between species Gaeumannomyces graminis and Phialophora graminicola.

  10. The Zα domain of fish PKZ facilitates the B-Z conformational transition of oligonucleotide DNAs with d(GC)n inserts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Puzhong Lu; Shoulong Deng; Youlin Zhu; Yongbin Yan; Yong Liu; Chengyu Hu

    2012-01-01

    PKZ (PKR-like) was discovered as a member of eIF2α kinase family in fish,which possesses a conserved catalytic domain of an eIF2α kinase in C-terminal and also two ZDNA-binding domains (Zα1 and Zα2) in N-terminal.PKZ can be activated through binding of Zα to Z-DNA.However,the regulatory function of PKZ Zα still remains unclear.To investigate a molecular mechanism of how PKZ Zα interacts with Z-DNA,we expressed Zα polypeptide Zα1α2 in Escherichia coli Rosetta strain and purified by affinity chromatography on Ni-NTA resin.Different lengths of oligonucleotide DNAs with various inserts,namely d(GC)n (n =6,8,10,13),d(TA)n (n =6,10),nond(GC),and non-d(TA),were designed and synthesized.Circular dichroism spectrum and gel mobility shift assays were used to investigate the effects of Zα1α2 on the conformational transition of different oligonucleotide DNAs.Results showed that oligonucleotide DNAs retained a conventional B-DNA conformation in the absence of Zα1α2.With the increasing amount of Zα1α2 titration,d(GC)n were recognized and converted to Z-DNA conformation to some degree.With increasing the repeat number (from n =6 to n =13),the tendency of conformational transition became more obvious.However,the conformation of oligonucleotides with d(TA)n inserts changed a little in the presence of Zα1α2,and Zα1α2 had no effect on conformational transition of oligonucleotides with non-d(GC) or non-d(TA) inserts.Gel mobility shift assays further showed that Zα1α2 could bind to oligonucleotide with d(GC)10.In other words,Zα1α2 can turn oligonucleotides with d(GC)n inserts into Z-DNA conformation and bind to it with high affinity.

  11. Chromosomal Mapping of Repetitive DNAs in Myiopsitta monachus and Amazona aestiva (Psittaciformes, Psittacidae) with Emphasis on the Sex Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Furo, Ivanete; Kretschmer, Rafael; Dos Santos, Michelly S; de Lima Carvalho, Carlos A; Gunski, Ricardo J; O'Brien, Patrícia C M; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Cioffi, Marcelo B; de Oliveira, Edivaldo H C

    2017-01-01

    Here, for the first time, we describe the karyotype of Myiopsitta monachus (Psittacidae, Arini). We found 2n = 48, corresponding to the lowest diploid number observed in Neotropical Psittaciformes so far, with an uncommonly large W chromosome homomorphic to the Z. In order to better understand the evolution of the sex chromosomes in this species, we applied several molecular cytogenetic approaches, including C-banding, FISH mapping of repetitive DNAs (several microsatellite repeats), and whole-chromosome painting on metaphases of M. monachus. For comparison, another species belonging to the same tribe but with a smaller W chromosome (A. aestiva) was also analyzed. The results show that the constitutive heterochromatin has a very diverse distribution pattern in these species revealing heterochromatic blocks in the centromeric region of all chromosomes and in most of the length of the W chromosome in A. aestiva, while in M. monachus they were found in interstitial and telomeric regions. Concerning the microsatellites, only the sequence (CG)n produced signals on the W chromosome of A. aestiva, in the distal region of both arms. However, in M. monachus, (CAA)n, (CAG)n, and (CG)n probes were accumulated on the W chromosome, and, in addition, the sequence (CAG)n also hybridized to heterochromatic regions in macrochromosomes, as well as in microchromosomes. Based on these results, we suggest that the increase in length of the W chromosome in M. monachus is due to the amplification of repetitive elements, which highlights their significant role in the evolutionary process of sex chromosome differentiation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Human Chromosome 21: Mapping of the chromosomes and cloning of cDNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonarakis, S.E.

    1991-09-01

    The objective of the research funded by DOE grant DE-FG02-89ER60857 from 6/15/89 to 8/31/91 was to contribute to the physical mapping of human chromosome 21 (HC21) by cloning large fragments of DNA into Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs) and identify YACs that map on HC21. A total of 54 sequence tagged sites (STS) have been developed and mapped in our laboratory to HC21 and can be used as initial reference points for YAC identification and construction of overlapping clones. A small YAC library was constructed which is HC21 specific. DNA from somatic cell hybrid WAV17 or from flow-sorted HC21 was partially digested with EcoRI, ligated into vectors PJS97, PJS98, and YACs have been obtained with average size insert of more than 300 kb. This library has been deposited in D. Patterson's lab for the Joint YAC screening effort. Additional YAC libraries from ICI Pharmaceuticals or from Los Alamos National Laboratories have been screened with several STS and positive YACs have been identified. Work in progress includes screening of YAC libraries in order to construct overlapping clones, characterization of the cloning ends of YACs, characterization of additional STS and cloning of HC21 specific cDNAs. 15 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Cas9-assisted recombineering in C. elegans: genome editing using in vivo assembly of linear DNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paix, Alexandre; Schmidt, Helen; Seydoux, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Recombineering, the use of endogenous homologous recombination systems to recombine DNA in vivo, is a commonly used technique for genome editing in microbes. Recombineering has not yet been developed for animals, where non-homology-based mechanisms have been thought to dominate DNA repair. Here, we demonstrate, using Caenorhabditis elegans, that linear DNAs with short homologies (∼35 bases) engage in a highly efficient gene conversion mechanism. Linear DNA repair templates with homology to only one side of a double-strand break (DSB) initiate repair efficiently, and short overlaps between templates support template switching. We demonstrate the use of single-stranded, bridging oligonucleotides (ssODNs) to target PCR fragments for repair of DSBs induced by CRISPR/Cas9 on chromosomes. Based on these findings, we develop recombineering strategies for precise genome editing that expand the utility of ssODNs and eliminate in vitro cloning steps for template construction. We apply these methods to the generation of GFP knock-in alleles and gene replacements without co-integrated markers. We conclude that, like microbes, metazoans possess robust homology-dependent repair mechanisms that can be harnessed for recombineering and genome editing. PMID:27257074

  14. Group I twintrons: genetic elements in myxomycete and schizopyrenid amoeboflagellate ribosomal DNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einvik, C; Elde, M; Johansen, S

    1998-09-17

    Protists are unicellular eukaryotes which represent a significant fraction of the global biodiversity. The myxomycete Didymium and the schizopyrenid amoeboflagellate Naegleria are distantly related protists. However, we have noted several striking similarities in life cycle, cell morphology, and ribosomal DNA organization between these organisms. Both have multicopy nuclear extrachromosomal ribosomal DNAs. Here the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes are interrupted by an optional group I twintron, a novel category among the group I introns. Group I twintrons are mobile self-splicing introns of 1.3-1.4 kb in size, with a complex organization at the RNA level. A group I twintron consists of two distinct ribozymes (catalytic RNAs) with different functions in RNA processing, and an open reading frame encoding a functional homing endonuclease--all with prospects of application as molecular tools in biotechnology. Updated RNA secondary structure models of group I twintrons, as well as an example of in vitro ribozyme activity, are presented. We suggest that the group I twintrons have been independently established in myxomycetes and schizopyrenid amoeboflagellates by horizontal gene transfer due to a combination of the phagocytotic behavior in natural environments and the extrachromosomal multicopy nature of ribosomal DNA.

  15. DNA strand transfer catalyzed by vaccinia topoisomerase: ligation of DNAs containing a 3' mononucleotide overhang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C; Shuman, S

    2000-05-01

    The specificity of vaccinia topoisomerase for transesterification to DNA at the sequence 5'-CCCTT and its versatility in strand transfer have illuminated the recombinogenic properties of type IB topoisomerases and spawned topoisomerase-based strategies for DNA cloning. Here we characterize a pathway of topoisomerase-mediated DNA ligation in which enzyme bound covalently to a CCCTT end with an unpaired +1T nucleotide rapidly and efficiently joins the CCCTT strand to a duplex DNA containing a 3' A overhang. The joining reaction occurs with high efficiency, albeit slowly, to duplex DNAs containing 3' G, T or C overhangs. Strand transfer can be restricted to the correctly paired 3' A overhang by including 0.5 M NaCl in the ligation reaction mixture. The effects of base mismatches and increased ionic strength on the rates of 3' overhang ligation provide a quantitative picture of the relative contributions of +1 T:A base pairing and electrostatic interactions downstream of the scissile phosphate to the productive binding of an unlinked acceptor DNA to the active site. The results clarify the biochemistry underlying topoisomerase-cloning of PCR products with non-templated 3' overhangs.

  16. Coadministration of cruzipain and GM-CSF DNAs, a new immunotherapeutic vaccine against Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerny, Natacha; Sánchez Alberti, Andrés; Bivona, Augusto E; De Marzi, Mauricio C; Frank, Fernanda M; Cazorla, Silvia I; Malchiodi, Emilio L

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccine research and development are especially important in Chagas disease considering the characteristics of the chronic infection and the number of people in the Americas living with a parasite infection for decades. We have previously reported the efficacy of attenuated Salmonella enterica (S) carrying plasmid encoding cruzipain (SCz) to protect against Trypanosoma cruzi infection. In the present work we investigated whether Cz DNA vaccine immunotherapy could be effective in controlling an ongoing T. cruzi infection in mice. We here report the intramuscular administration of naked Cz DNA or the oral administration of Salmonella as Cz DNA delivery system as therapeutic vaccines in mice during acute or chronic infection. The coadministration of a plasmid encoding GM-CSF improved vaccine performance, indicating that the stimulation of innate immune cells is needed in the event of an ongoing infection. These therapeutic vaccines were able to address the response to a protective and sustained Th1 biased profile not only against Cz but also against a variety of parasite antigens. The combined therapeutic vaccine during the chronic phase of infection prevents tissue pathology as shown by a reduced level of enzyme activity characteristic of tissue damage and a tissue status compatible with normal tissue. The obtained results suggest that immunotherapy with Cz and GM-CSF DNAs, either alone or in combination with other drug treatments, may represent a promising alternative for Chagas disease therapy.

  17. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of two juvenile hormone esterase-like carboxylesterase cDNAs in Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu; Zhao, Muzi; Deng, Yanfei; Yang, Yuanjie; Li, Xuguang; Lu, Quanping; Ge, Jiachun; Pan, Jianlin; Xu, Zhiqiang

    2017-03-01

    Precise regulation of methyl farnesoate (MF) titer is of prime importance throughout the crustacean life-cycle. Although the synthetic pathway of MF is well-documented, little is known about its degradation and recycling in crustaceans. Juvenile hormone esterase-like (JHE-like) carboxylesterase (CXE) is a key enzyme in MF degradation, thus playing a significant role in regulating the MF titer. We identified and characterized two cDNAs, Es-CXE1 and Es-CXE2, encoding JHE-like CXEs in Chinese mitten crab. Full-length cDNAs of Es-CXE1 and Es-CXE2 encode proteins composed of 584 and 597 amino acids, respectively, both of which contain a typical carboxylesterase domain. Alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Es-CXEs are highly similar to those of other crustaceans. To further validate their functions, we evaluated the mRNA expression patterns of the Es-CXEs in various tissues and in different physiological conditions. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that the two Es-CXEs were predominantly expressed in the hepatopancreas and ovaries, which are the major tissues for MF metabolism. Es-CXE2 expression levels in the hepatopancreas and ovaries were about 100 and 25-fold higher, than the respective Es-CXE1 expressions. During ovarian rapid development stage, the global expressions of Es-CXEs were up-regulated in the hepatopancreas and down-regulated in the ovaries. After eyestalk ablation (ESA), the mRNA expressions of the two Es-CXEs were up-regulated in the hepatopancreas, further indicating their potential in degrading MF. Taken together, our results suggest that Es-CXEs, the key component of the juvenile hormone degradation pathway, may play vital roles in the development and reproduction of the Chinese mitten crab.

  18. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of cDNAs encoding androgenic gland hormone precursors from two porcellionidae species, Porcellio scaber and P. dilatatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Yuriko; Tominaga, Satoshi; Okuno, Atsuro; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2003-01-01

    Male sexual characteristics in Crustacea are induced by androgenic gland hormone (AGH), which is produced by the male-specific androgenic gland. Recently, AGH in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare was characterized and its cDNA cloned, the first example in which the structure of AGH was elucidated. We report here the molecular cloning of cDNAs encoding AGH precursors from two additional terrestrial isopods, Porcellio scaber and P. dilatatus. cDNA fragments encoding Porcellio scaber AGH (Pos-AGH) and P. dilatatus AGH (Pod-AGH) were amplified by RT-PCR using degenerate oligonucleotide primers designed based on the amino acid sequence of A. vulgare AGH (Arv-AGH). Subsequently, full length cDNAs were obtained by 5'- and 3'-RACE. Both AGH precursors consisted of a signal peptide, B chain, C peptide and A chain, and exhibited the same organization as that of Arv-AGH. The amino acid sequences of the A and B chains, which comprise mature AGH peptide, were highly conserved among the three species, while that of the C peptide showed only low sequence similarity. In Northern blot analysis, each cDNA fragment used as a probe specifically hybridized with a single band (0.75 kb) in mRNA extracted from whole male reproductive organs. In analysis of the tissue-specific gene expression of these two AGHs by RT-PCR, it was revealed that both AGH transcripts were detected only in cDNA synthesized using total RNA from the testis carrying the androgenic glands, but not in that from testis only, seminal vesicle, vas deferens, or hepatopancreas.

  19. Molecular cloning of cDNAs and structural model analysis of two gonadotropin beta-subunits of snakehead fish (Channa maculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Shen, San-Tai; Yu, John Yuh-Lin

    2005-09-15

    The cDNAs encoding beta-subunits of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) have been cloned from the pituitary of snakehead fish, Channa maculata, and the three-dimensional structural models of the encoded FSH and LH were investigated. The cloned cDNAs, including 5'-untranslated region (UTR), open-reading frame, and 3'-UTR followed by a poly(A) tail, were obtained by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of cDNA end methods. The open-reading frames of FSH-beta cDNA encodes a 120-amino acid protein with a signal peptide of 18 amino acids and a mature protein of 102 amino acids; while LH-beta cDNA encodes a 140-amino acid protein with a signal peptide of 33 amino acids and a mature protein of 115 amino acids. The amino acid sequence identities of snakehead fish FSH-beta and LH-beta in comparison with other fish are 27.8-81.9% and 45.2-88.8%, respectively; while in comparison with tetrapods are 26.2-28.9% and 37.5-51.2%, respectively. Both FSH-beta and LH-beta of snakehead fish resemble most to those of Perciformes, implying their closer phylogenetic relationship. All 12 cysteine residues are conserved in snakehead fish LH-beta; while 11 cysteine residues are conserved in its FSH-beta. The third cysteine is absent in snakehead fish FSH-beta; instead, a positionally shifted cysteine residue is present at the N-terminus, as found in some phylogenetic related fish. The structure models of snakehead fish FSH and LH, constructed by using the crystal structures of human FSH and human chorionic gonadotropin as respective template, showed that the positionally shifted N-terminal cysteine residue of snakehead fish FSH-beta likely can substitute the third cysteine to form a disulfide bond with the 12th cysteine.

  20. Characterization of the human DNAS1L2 gene and the molecular mechanism for its transcriptional activation induced by inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokawa, Daisuke; Matsushita, Tokiyoshi; Kobayashi, Takanobu; Matsumoto, Yoshifumi; Tanuma, Sei-Ichi

    2004-07-01

    DNAS1L2, a member of the DNase I-like endonuclease family, is the only divalent cation-dependent acid DNase so far identified in mammals. The presence of a proline-rich domain (PRD) is its unique feature among family members. We found that a novel transcript encoding a short product, DNAS1L2-S, is expressed in peripheral blood leukocytes. Although DNAS1L2-S lacks the PRD, its enzymatic properties are apparently the same as those of the previously identified long form, DNAS1L2-L. Sequence analysis reveals that DNAS1L2 consists of seven exons. The exon/intron boundaries agree with the GT/AG rule with one exception: GC replaces GT at the 5' splice site in the sixth intron. TNF-alpha and IL-1beta are found to be potent inducers of DNAS1L2 expression in keratinocytes. They induce DNAS1L2 activation via the NF-kappaB pathway, and an NF-kappaB binding site located within the 5' flanking region is identified as the cis-responsive element.

  1. Immortalization of human foreskin keratinocytes by various human papillomavirus DNAs corresponds to their association with cervical carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodworth, C.D.; Doniger, J.; DiPaolo, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Normal human foreskin keratinocytes cotransfected with the neomycin resistance gene and recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) DNAs (types 16, 18, 31, and 33) that have a high or moderate association with cervical malignancy acquired immortality and contained integrated and transcriptionally active viral genomes. Only transcripts from the intact E6 and E7 genes were detected in at least one cell line, suggesting that one or both of these genes are responsible for immortalization. Recombinant HPV DNAs with low or no oncogenic potential for cervical cancer (HPV1a, -5, -6b, and -11) induced small G418-resistant colonies that senesced as did the nontransfected cells. These colonies contained only episomal virus DNA; therefore, integration of HPV sequences is important for immortalization of keratinocytes. This study suggests that the virus-encoded immortalization function contributes to the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma.

  2. Functional and expression analyses of transcripts based on full-length cDNAs of Sorghum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Setsuko; Makita, Yuko; Kuriyama-Kondou, Tomoko; Kawashima, Mika; Mochizuki, Yoshiki; Hirakawa, Hideki; Sato, Shusei; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Matsui, Minami

    2015-12-01

    Sorghum bicolor is one of the most important crops for food and bioethanol production. Its small diploid genome and resistance to environmental stress make sorghum an attractive model for studying the functional genomics of the Saccharinae and other C4 grasses. We analyzed the domain-based functional annotation of the cDNAs using the gene ontology (GO) categories for molecular function to characterize all the genes cloned in the full-length cDNA library of sorghum. The sorghum cDNA library successfully captured a wide range of cDNA-encoded proteins with various functions. To characterize the protein function of newly identified cDNAs, a search of their deduced domains and comparative analyses in the Oryza sativa and Zea mays genomes were carried out. Furthermore, genes on the sense strand corresponding to antisense transcripts were classified based on the GO of molecular function. To add more information about these genes, we have analyzed the expression profiles using RNA-Seq of three tissues (spikelet, seed and stem) during the starch-filling phase. We performed functional analysis of tissue-specific genes and expression analysis of genes of starch biosynthesis enzymes. This functional analysis of sorghum full-length cDNAs and the transcriptome information will facilitate further analysis of the Saccharinae and grass families.

  3. Paraphyly of organelle DNAs in Cycas Sect. Asiorientales due to ancient ancestral polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Tsai-Wen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study addresses the apportionment of genetic diversity between Cycas revoluta and C. taitungensis, species that constitute the section Asiorientales and represent a unique, basal lineage of the Laurasian genus Cycas. Fossil evidence indicates divergence of the section from the rest of Cycas at least 30 million years ago. Geographically, C. taitungensis is limited to Taiwan whereas C. revoluta is found in the Ryukyu Archipelago and on mainland China. Results The phylogenies of ribosomal ITS region of mtDNA and the intergenic spacer between atpB and rbcL genes of cpDNA were reconstructed. Phylogenetic analyses revealed paraphyly of both loci in the two species and also in the section Asiorientales. The lack of reciprocal monophyly between these long isolated sections is likely due to persistent shared ancestral polymorphisms. Molecular dating estimated that mt- and cp DNA lineages coalesced to the most recent common ancestors (TMRCA about 327 (mt and 204 MYA (cp, corresponding with the divergence of cycad sections in the Mesozoic. Conclusion Fates of newly derived mutations of cycads follow Klopfstein et al.'s surfing model where the majority of new mutations do not spread geographically and remain at low frequencies or are eventually lost by genetic drift. Only successful 'surfing mutations' reach very high frequencies and occupy a large portion of a species range. These mutations exist as dominant cytotypes across populations and species. Geographical subdivision is lacking in both species, even though recurrent gene flow by both pollen and seed is severely limited. In total, the contrasting levels between historical and ongoing gene flow, large population sizes, a long lifespan, and slow mutation rates in both organelle DNAs have all likely contributed to the unusually long duration of paraphyly in cycads.

  4. Mitochondrial genomes and Doubly Uniparental Inheritance: new insights from Musculista senhousia sex-linked mitochondrial DNAs (Bivalvia Mytilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milani Liliana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Doubly Uniparental Inheritance (DUI is a fascinating exception to matrilinear inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. Species with DUI are characterized by two distinct mtDNAs that are inherited either through females (F-mtDNA or through males (M-mtDNA. DUI sex-linked mitochondrial genomes share several unusual features, such as additional protein coding genes and unusual gene duplications/structures, which have been related to the functionality of DUI. Recently, new evidence for DUI was found in the mytilid bivalve Musculista senhousia. This paper describes the complete sex-linked mitochondrial genomes of this species. Results Our analysis highlights that both M and F mtDNAs share roughly the same gene content and order, but with some remarkable differences. The Musculista sex-linked mtDNAs have differently organized putative control regions (CR, which include repeats and palindromic motifs, thought to provide sites for DNA-binding proteins involved in the transcriptional machinery. Moreover, in male mtDNA, two cox2 genes were found, one (M-cox2b 123bp longer. Conclusions The complete mtDNA genome characterization of DUI bivalves is the first step to unravel the complex genetic signals allowing Doubly Uniparental Inheritance, and the evolutionary implications of such an unusual transmission route in mitochondrial genome evolution in Bivalvia. The observed redundancy of the palindromic motifs in Musculista M-mtDNA may have a role on the process by which sperm mtDNA becomes dominant or exclusive of the male germline of DUI species. Moreover, the duplicated M-COX2b gene may have a different, still unknown, function related to DUI, in accordance to what has been already proposed for other DUI species in which a similar cox2 extension has been hypothesized to be a tag for male mitochondria.

  5. Comparative analysis of cloned cDNAs encoding Chinese yellow cattle and Gansu black swine integrin receptors for foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ping; Shang, Youjun; Yin, Shuanghui; Zhang, Keshan; Wang, Guangxiang; Lv, Zhanlu; Yang, Shunli; Wu, Jinyan; Jin, Ye; Chen, Yan; Liu, Yongjie; Tian, Hong; Liu, Xiangtao

    2013-10-01

    To analyze foot-and-mouth disease virus tropism and host range with respect to the integrin receptor, we cloned cDNAs encoding the integrin αν, β1, β3, β6 and β8 subunits from Chinese yellow cattle and Gansu black swine and carried out comparative analysis of their molecular characteristics. The lengths of the mature proteins and the functional domains of the four integrin β subunits were the same between bovine and swine; however, the number of putative N-linked glycosylation sites and cysteine residues and their arrangement varied. Homology analysis of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences showed that FMDV integrin receptors of Chinese yellow cattle and Gansu black swine are highly conserved. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all FMDV integrin receptor subunits of cattle and swine are clustered into the Artiodactyla group; however, Chinese yellow cattle are phylogenetically closer to sheep than to Gansu black swine. We postulate that the host tropism of FMDV may, in part, be related to the divergence of integrin subunits among different species.

  6. Characterization and expression of two chicken cDNAs encoding ubiquitin fused to ribosomal proteins of 52 and 80 amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezquita, J; Pau, M; Mezquita, C

    1997-08-22

    We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of two chicken cDNAs, Ub-t52 and Ub-t80, encoding ubiquitin fused to ribosomal proteins of 52 and 80 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequences of the ribosomal proteins are identical or very similar to the homologous human and rat proteins and to the corresponding proteins of other species. Unexpectedly, the ubiquitin moiety of the Ub-t52 protein showed two amino acid substitutions: serine-20 has been replaced by asparagine and serine-57 by alanine. Ubiquitin is a protein strongly conserved during evolution, with no changes in sequence previously reported in vertebrates. Ub-t52 and Ub-t80 are highly expressed in early embryogenesis and during postmitotic stages of spermatogenesis, in parallel with the expression of the polyubiquitin gene UbII. Whereas the 5' untranslated regions (5'UTRs) of the chicken polyubiquitin mRNAs showed marked differences in mature testes in relation to somatic tissues, no differences were observed in the 5'UTRs of the ubiquitin-ribosomal protein mRNAs. These mRNAs possess a 5'-terminal oligopyrimidine tract that could be used as a mechanism to postpone translation during postmitotic stages of spermatogenesis, as has been proposed in quiescent cells.

  7. Inconsistencies of genome annotations in apicomplexan parasites revealed by 5'-end-one-pass and full-length sequences of oligo-capped cDNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugano Sumio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apicomplexan parasites are causative agents of various diseases including malaria and have been targets of extensive genomic sequencing. We generated 5'-EST collections for six apicomplexa parasites using our full-length oligo-capping cDNA library method. To improve upon the current genome annotations, as well as to validate the importance for physical cDNA clone resources, we generated a large-scale collection of full-length cDNAs for several apicomplexa parasites. Results In this study, we used a total of 61,056 5'-end-single-pass cDNA sequences from Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. yoelii, P. berghei, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Toxoplasma gondii. We compared these partially sequenced cDNA sequences with the currently annotated gene models and observed significant inconsistencies between the two datasets. In particular, we found that on average 14% of the exons in the current gene models were not supported by any cDNA evidence, and that 16% of the current gene models may contain at least one mis-annotation and should be re-evaluated. We also identified a large number of transcripts that had been previously unidentified. For 732 cDNAs in T. gondii, the entire sequences were determined in order to evaluate the annotated gene models at the complete full-length transcript level. We found that 41% of the T. gondii gene models contained at least one inconsistency. We also identified and confirmed by RT-PCR 140 previously unidentified transcripts found in the intergenic regions of the current gene annotations. We show that the majority of these discrepancies are due to questionable predictions of one or two extra exons in the upstream or downstream regions of the genes. Conclusion Our data indicates that the current gene models are likely to still be incomplete and have much room for improvement. Our unique full-length cDNA information is especially useful for further refinement of the annotations for the genomes of

  8. Gene discovery in the hamster: a comparative genomics approach for gene annotation by sequencing of hamster testis cDNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Shafiq A

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complete genome annotation will likely be achieved through a combination of computer-based analysis of available genome sequences combined with direct experimental characterization of expressed regions of individual genomes. We have utilized a comparative genomics approach involving the sequencing of randomly selected hamster testis cDNAs to begin to identify genes not previously annotated on the human, mouse, rat and Fugu (pufferfish genomes. Results 735 distinct sequences were analyzed for their relatedness to known sequences in public databases. Eight of these sequences were derived from previously unidentified genes and expression of these genes in testis was confirmed by Northern blotting. The genomic locations of each sequence were mapped in human, mouse, rat and pufferfish, where applicable, and the structure of their cognate genes was derived using computer-based predictions, genomic comparisons and analysis of uncharacterized cDNA sequences from human and macaque. Conclusion The use of a comparative genomics approach resulted in the identification of eight cDNAs that correspond to previously uncharacterized genes in the human genome. The proteins encoded by these genes included a new member of the kinesin superfamily, a SET/MYND-domain protein, and six proteins for which no specific function could be predicted. Each gene was expressed primarily in testis, suggesting that they may play roles in the development and/or function of testicular cells.

  9. Analysis of two novel cDNAs from the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Z.Y.; Lee, C.C.; Jiralerspong, S. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a clinically recognizable multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation syndrome associated with deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. To date, only one gene encoding snRNA U3 has been mapped to this region. Here we report the identification of two novel genes, designated 463 and B9, which have been mapped to the SMS region. A full-length cDNA corresponding to each of these genes has been cloned and sequenced. Deletion analysis has been conducted on somatic cell hybrids retaining the del(17)(p11.2) chromosome from each of 15 SMS patients by PCR of sequence tagged sites for the cDNAs and confirmed by Southern analysis. The gene 463 is deleted in 15/15 patients analyzed to date, whereas the gene B9 is deleted in 10/15 of the patients analyzed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization is used to analyze additional SMS patients for hemizygosity at these loci. A physical map of the region is being constructed to determine the relative location of these cDNAs within 17p11.2. Our studies to date, thus, suggest that although both genes 463 and B9 are located within 17p11.2, gene 463 is more likely to be associated with SMS. Complete and exhaustive definition of the critical interval is required to demonstrate the role and importance of gene 463 in SMS.

  10. The histone H3K9 methylation and RNAi pathways regulate normalnucleolar and repeated DNA organization by inhibiting formation ofextrachromosomal DNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Jamy C.; Karpen, Gary H.

    2006-06-15

    In order to identify regulators of nuclear organization, Drosophila mutants in the Su(var)3-9 histone H3K9 methyltransferase, RNAi pathway components, and other regulators of heterochromatin-mediated gene silencing were examined for altered nucleoli and positioning of repeated DNAs. Animals lacking components of the H3K9 methylation and RNAi pathways contained disorganized nucleoli, ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and satellite DNAs. The levels of H3K9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) in chromatin associated with repeated DNAs decreased dramatically in Su(var)3-9 and dcr-2 (dicer-2) mutant tissues compared to wild type. We also observed a substantial increase in extrachromosomal repeated DNAs in mutant tissues. The disorganized nucleolus phenotype depends on the presence of Ligase 4 (Lig4), and ecc DNA formation is not induced by removal of cohesin. We conclude that H3K9 methylation of rDNA and satellites, maintained by Su(var)3-9, HP1, and the RNAi pathway, is necessary for the structural stability of repeated DNAs, which is mediated through suppression of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). These results suggest a mechanism for how local chromatin structure can regulate genome stability, and the organization of chromosomal elements and nuclear organelles.

  11. Chromosomal Mapping of Repetitive DNAs in the Grasshopper Abracris flavolineata Reveal Possible Ancestry of the B Chromosome and H3 Histone Spreading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Bueno

    Full Text Available Supernumerary chromosomes (B chromosomes occur in approximately 15% of eukaryote species. Although these chromosomes have been extensively studied, knowledge concerning their specific molecular composition is lacking in most cases. The accumulation of repetitive DNAs is one remarkable characteristic of B chromosomes, and the occurrence of distinct types of multigene families, satellite DNAs and some transposable elements have been reported. Here, we describe the organization of repetitive DNAs in the A complement and B chromosome system in the grasshopper species Abracris flavolineata using classical cytogenetic techniques and FISH analysis using probes for five multigene families, telomeric repeats and repetitive C0t-1 DNA fractions. The 18S rRNA and H3 histone multigene families are highly variable and well distributed in A. flavolineata chromosomes, which contrasts with the conservation of U snRNA genes and less variable distribution of 5S rDNA sequences. The H3 histone gene was an extensively distributed with clusters occurring in all chromosomes. Repetitive DNAs were concentrated in C-positive regions, including the pericentromeric region and small chromosomal arms, with some occurrence in C-negative regions, but abundance was low in the B chromosome. Finally, the first demonstration of the U2 snRNA gene in B chromosomes in A. flavolineata may shed light on its possible origin. These results provide new information regarding chromosomal variability for repetitive DNAs in grasshoppers and the specific molecular composition of B chromosomes.

  12. The Health Show

    OpenAIRE

    Swann, David

    2011-01-01

    Dr David Swann interviewed on The Health Show, Series 1, Episode 5, 2011 for BBC World about the award-winning 21st Century Nursing Bag. BBC World News reaches 241million people every week, available in 296 million homes, 1.8 million hotel rooms and has the highest average viewership on a weekday of any international news channel. The Health Show is a new 26-part series for BBC World News covering the most important news stories from around the world.

  13. Characterization of cDNAs encoding two distinct miraculin-like proteins and stress-related modulation of the corresponding mRNAs in Citrus jambhiri lush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukuda, Shintaro; Gomi, Kenji; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Akimitsu, Kazuya

    2006-01-01

    Two distinct full-length cDNAs from rough lemon that encoded miraculin-like proteins were isolated by random amplification of cDNA ends (RACEs), based on sequence information from subtractive PCR previously described, and designated as RlemMLP1 and RlemMLP2. The transcripts of both RlemMLP1 and RlemMLP2 were not detected in leaves, or stems but accumulated in fruits. Transcripts accumulated to higher levels in leaves after wounding, inoculation with conidia of Alternaria alternata, or treatment with methyl jasmonate vapors. Treatment with methyl salicylate antagonized the signaling pathway of wounding. Treatment with methyl salicylate at 2 h after wounding significantly reduced wounding-induced gene expression of both RlemMLP1 and RlemMLP2. Protein products of these genes were obtained by using a prokaryotic expression system, and had protease inhibitor activity. RlemMLP2, but not RlemMLP1, contained a thaumatin motif, and only RlemMLP2 showed anti-fungal activity against Alternaria citri. Cellular localization analysis with RlemMLP1 or RlemMLP2 fused to a green fluorescence protein gene following transient translation using a particle bombardment in onion cells indicated that both RlemMLP1 and RlemMLP2 were localized to the cytosol. These evidences revealed that rough lemon RlemMLPs are likely to have defensive function against pathogens at least when host cells are broken by their infections.

  14. A Fashion Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Story: The yearly fashion show day.The children take turns to walk on the stage and show the class their favorite clothes.Now it’s Joe’s and Phoebe’s turn.Joe walks on the stage and says,“My shorts are blue.Do you like my blue shorts?”On the other side of the stage, Phoebe is wearing her favorite pink skirt.“My skirt is pink.Do you like my pink skirt?”asks

  15. On not showing scalps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    proposed by Janet Marstine, the editor of the Routledge Companion to Museum Ethics, I show how the museum succeeded in engaging users in questions of museum ethics. However, this specific debate on human remains in museums developed into an encounter between a global, museological discourse...

  16. Violence and TV Shows

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Yrd. Doç. Dr. Şinasi

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to discuss theories on theviolent effects of TV shows on viewers, especiallyon children. Therefore, this study includes a briefdiscussion of definitions of violence, discussionof violence theories, main results of researcheson televised violence, measuring TV violence,perception of televised violence, individualdifferences and reactions to TV violence,aggressiveness and preferences for TV violence.

  17. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  18. A Visionary Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Seduction. Distinction. Relax. Pulsation. These are the "style universes" on display at Première Vision, heralded as "The World’s Premiere Fabric Show." Started more than 35 years ago by 15 French weavers, Première Vision has expanded beyond its

  19. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  20. Comparative genomic analysis of 1047 completely sequenced cDNAs from an Arabidopsis-related model halophyte, Thellungiella halophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Masatomo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thellungiella halophila (also known as T. salsuginea is a model halophyte with a small size, short life cycle, and small genome. Thellungiella genes exhibit a high degree of sequence identity with Arabidopsis genes (90% at the cDNA level. We previously generated a full-length enriched cDNA library of T. halophila from various tissues and from whole plants treated with salinity, chilling, freezing stress, or ABA. We determined the DNA sequences of 20 000 cDNAs at both the 5'- and 3' ends, and identified 9569 distinct genes. Results Here, we completely sequenced 1047 Thellungiella full-length cDNAs representing abiotic-stress-related genes, transcription factor genes, and protein phosphatase 2C genes. The predicted coding sequences, 5'-UTRs, and 3'-UTRs were compared with those of orthologous genes from Arabidopsis for length, sequence similarity, and structure. The 5'-UTR sequences of Thellungiella and Arabidopsis orthologs shared a significant level of similarity, although the motifs were rearranged. While examining the stress-related Thellungiella coding sequences, we found a short splicing variant of T. halophila salt overly sensitive 1 (ThSOS1, designated ThSOS1S. ThSOS1S contains the transmembrane domain of ThSOS1 but lacks the C-terminal hydrophilic region. The expression level of ThSOS1S under normal growth conditions was higher than that of ThSOS1. We also compared the expression levels of Na+-transport-system genes between Thellungiella and Arabidopsis by using full-length cDNAs from each species as probes. Several genes that play essential roles in Na+ excretion, compartmentation, and diffusion (SOS1, SOS2, NHX1, and HKT1 were expressed at higher levels in Thellungiella than in Arabidopsis. Conclusions The full-length cDNA sequences obtained in this study will be essential for the ongoing annotation of the Thellungiella genome, especially for further improvement of gene prediction. Moreover, they will enable us to

  1. Shanghai Shows Its Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The city known as China’s economic powerhouse showed a more caring face as host of the Special Olympic Games Between October 2 and 11,the Special Olympics Summer Games were hosted in Shanghai,the first time the 40-year-old athletic com- petition for people with intellectual disabilities came to a developing country. This Special Olympics was also larger than all previous games in temps of the number of athletes.

  2. Large-scale analysis of full-length cDNAs from the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivar Micro-Tom, a reference system for the Solanaceae genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Koh; Yano, Kentaro; Suzuki, Ayako; Kawamura, Shingo; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suda, Kunihiro; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Tsugane, Taneaki; Watanabe, Manabu; Ooga, Kazuhide; Torii, Maiko; Narita, Takanori; Shin-I, Tadasu; Kohara, Yuji; Yamamoto, Naoki; Takahashi, Hideki; Watanabe, Yuichiro; Egusa, Mayumi; Kodama, Motoichiro; Ichinose, Yuki; Kikuchi, Mari; Fukushima, Sumire; Okabe, Akiko; Arie, Tsutomu; Sato, Yuko; Yazawa, Katsumi; Satoh, Shinobu; Omura, Toshikazu; Ezura, Hiroshi; Shibata, Daisuke

    2010-03-30

    The Solanaceae family includes several economically important vegetable crops. The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is regarded as a model plant of the Solanaceae family. Recently, a number of tomato resources have been developed in parallel with the ongoing tomato genome sequencing project. In particular, a miniature cultivar, Micro-Tom, is regarded as a model system in tomato genomics, and a number of genomics resources in the Micro-Tom-background, such as ESTs and mutagenized lines, have been established by an international alliance. To accelerate the progress in tomato genomics, we developed a collection of fully-sequenced 13,227 Micro-Tom full-length cDNAs. By checking redundant sequences, coding sequences, and chimeric sequences, a set of 11,502 non-redundant full-length cDNAs (nrFLcDNAs) was generated. Analysis of untranslated regions demonstrated that tomato has longer 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions than most other plants but rice. Classification of functions of proteins predicted from the coding sequences demonstrated that nrFLcDNAs covered a broad range of functions. A comparison of nrFLcDNAs with genes of sixteen plants facilitated the identification of tomato genes that are not found in other plants, most of which did not have known protein domains. Mapping of the nrFLcDNAs onto currently available tomato genome sequences facilitated prediction of exon-intron structure. Introns of tomato genes were longer than those of Arabidopsis and rice. According to a comparison of exon sequences between the nrFLcDNAs and the tomato genome sequences, the frequency of nucleotide mismatch in exons between Micro-Tom and the genome-sequencing cultivar (Heinz 1706) was estimated to be 0.061%. The collection of Micro-Tom nrFLcDNAs generated in this study will serve as a valuable genomic tool for plant biologists to bridge the gap between basic and applied studies. The nrFLcDNA sequences will help annotation of the tomato whole-genome sequence and aid in tomato functional

  3. Construction of human and mouse brain cDNA libraries and isolation of full-length cDNAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    cDNA libraries from aborted human 3-month fetal brain,adult rat and mouse brain were constructed by using a yZAP express cDNA library construction kin.Low molecular weight fragments of the second strand cDNASA were removed by flowing through the Sepharose CL-4B column and the frractionated long,Middle,Short fragments and the combined fragments weire respectively inserted into clone vectors to construct the cDNA libraries of the brain of human 3-month fetus.The 5'ends of 1200 clones from each of human fetal brain cDNA libraries were sequenced.A total of 894 ESTs were obtained and some full-length clones were squenced.By andalyaing the se-quences,12 novel full-length cDNAs were obtained.

  4. Not a "reality" show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNAs of the superoxide dismutase gene family in the resurrection plant Haberlea rhodopensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolova, Elena; Rashkova, Maya; Anachkov, Nikolay; Denev, Iliya; Toneva, Valentina; Minkov, Ivan; Yahubyan, Galina

    2012-06-01

    Resurrection plants can tolerate almost complete water loss in their vegetative parts. The superoxide dismutases (SODs) are essential enzymes of defense against the oxidative damage caused by water stress. Here, we cloned and characterized cDNAs of the SOD gene family in the resurrection plant Haberlea rhodopensis. Seven full-length cDNAs, and their partial genomic clones, were obtained by combination of degenerate PCR, RT-PCR and RACE. The derived amino acid sequences exhibited a very high degree of similarity to cytosolic Cu,Zn-SODs (HrCSD2, HrCSD3), chloroplastic Cu,Zn-SODs (HrCSD5), other Cu,Zn-SODs (HrCSD4), Mn-SODs (HrMSD) and Fe-SODs (HrFSD). One cDNA turned out to be a pseudogene (HrCSD1). All identified SOD genes were found expressed at transcriptional level--the HrCSD2, HrCSD5, HrMSD and HrFSD were constitutively expressed in all organs, while the HrCSD3 and HrCSD4 were organ-specific. The transcripts of the housekeeping SOD genes were detected at significant levels even in air-dry leaves. The multigene SOD family of H. rhodopensis is the first studied SOD family amongst resurrection plant species. Our finding of well expressed SOD transcripts in fully dehydrated leaves correlates with retention of SOD activity, and with the ability of H. rhodopensis to revive upon rehydration. Because of the endemic relict nature of that species, our findings may help to further elucidate the evolutionary relationships among different SOD isoforms from distinct plant species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. 乙醇脱氢酶Ⅰ类基因全长cDNA的克隆与表达%Cloning and Expression of the Full-length cDNAs Encoding Human Class Ⅰ Alcohol Dehydrogenases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文婷; 李景鹏; 崔羽; 张永红; 李世荣

    2007-01-01

    Background & Objective:Background &Objective: The class Ⅰ Alcohol Dehydrogenases (ADH) play a key role in hepatic alcohol catabolism. Human ADH is encoded by at least seven genes, and three class Ⅰ ADH genes-ADH1, ADH2 and ADH3, which encode the α, β, and γ subunit respectively, had been isolated and mapped on chromosome 4q21-q25. This experiment tends to clone the human class Ⅰ ADH and investigate its role in the hepatic alcohol catabolism. Methods: A pair of primers were designed and the full-length cDNAs encoding human Class Ⅰ ADH were cloned at one time. Class Ⅰ ADH cDNAs were amplified with RT-PCR from total RNA extracted from fetal human liver and kidney, and cloned into pGEM-T vector. To identify cDNA segments, a pair of differential primers was designed. By using them, a portion of the ADHs which encodes the segment from -4 to 296 was cloned. These cDNA segments then were detected directly when being digested with Kpn Ⅰ and Pst Ⅰ, respectively. Then all the full-length cDNAs were subcloned in the plasmid pTYB11 and expressed in E. Coli. Stably. Alcohol Dehydrogenase activity of catalyzing alcohol were monitored at 340 nm. Results: Here we had successfully the human class Ⅰ ADH cloned and the full-length cDNAs expressed in E.col.I stably. The relative activity of recombinant enzymes metabolizing ethanol was 0.81 ~1.31 U/mg,0.09 ~0.15 U/mg and 0.76~1.11 U/mg, respectively. Conclusions: In the paper, the full-length cDNAs encoding human class Ⅰ AD H were successfully cloned and expressed and the recombinant enzymes showed the activities similar to the ones isolated from liver.%目的:克隆编码人Ⅰ类乙醇脱氢酶基因,并探讨Ⅰ类乙醇脱氢酶(ADH)在乙醇的肝代谢中的作用.方法:从胎儿肝,肾提取的总RNA;经RT-PCR扩增得到cDNA并克隆至pGEM-T载体.cDNA序列用Kpn Ⅰ和Pst Ⅰ酶切鉴定,并检测其在大肠杆菌中表达活性.通过吸光法检测酶的活性.结果:成功克隆了人Ⅰ类乙

  7. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  8. Public medical shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre.

  9. The Great Cometary Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  10. HsfA1d, a Protein Identified via FOX Hunting Using Thellungiella salsuginea cDNAs Improves Heat Tolerance by Regulating Heat-Stress-Responsive Gene Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yukari Higashi; Naohiko Ohama; Tomoko Ishikawa; Taku Katori; Ayaka Shimura; Kazuya Kusakabe; Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki

    2013-01-01

    Theilungiella salsuginea (formerly T.halophila),a species closely related to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana),is tolerant not only to high salt levels,but also to chilling,freezing,and ozone.Here,we report that T.salsuginea also shows greater heat tolerance than Arabidopsis.We identified T.salsuginea HsfAld (TsHsfAld) as a gene that can confer marked heat tolerance on Arabidopsis.TsHsfAld was identified via Full-length cDNA Over-eXpressing gene (FOX) hunting from among a collection of heat-stress-related T.salsuginea cDNAs.Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TsHsfAld showed constitutive up-regulation of many genes in the Arabidopsis AtHsfA1 regulon under normal growth temperature.In Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts,TsHsfAld was localized in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm.TsHsfAld also interacted with AtHSP90,which negatively regulates AtHsfAls by forming HsfA1-HSP90 complexes in the cytoplasm.It is likely that the partial nuclear localization of TsHsfAld induced the expression of the AtHsfAld regulon in the transgenic plants at normal temperature.We also discovered that transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing AtHsfAld were more heat-tolerant than wild-type plants and up-regulated the expression of the HsfAld regulon,as was observed in TsHsfAld-overexpressing plants.We propose that the products of both TsHsfAld and AtHsfAld function as positive regulators of Arabidopsis heat-stress response and would be useful for the improvement of heat-stress tolerance in other plants.

  11. Disulfide-induced self-assembled targets : A novel strategy for the label free colorimetric detection of DNAs/RNAs via unmodified gold nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shokri, Ehsan; Hosseini, Morteza; Davari, Mehdi D.; Ganjali, Mohammad R.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Rezaee, Farhad

    2017-01-01

    A modified non-cross-linking gold-nanoparticles (Au-NPs) aggregation strategy has been developed for the label free colorimetric detection of DNAs/RNAs based on self-assembling target species in the presence of thiolated probes. Two complementary thiol-modified probes, each of which specifically

  12. Disulfide-induced self-assembled targets: A novel strategy for the label free colorimetric detection of DNAs/RNAs via unmodified gold nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shokri, E. (Ehsan); M. Hosseini (Morteza); Davari, M.D. (Mehdi D.); Ganjali, M.R. (Mohammad R.); M.P. Peppelenbosch (Maikel); F. Rezaee (Farhad)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractA modified non-cross-linking gold-nanoparticles (Au-NPs) aggregation strategy has been developed for the label free colorimetric detection of DNAs/RNAs based on self-assembling target species in the presence of thiolated probes. Two complementary thiol- modified probes, each of which

  13. 一种简便、特异地获取目的基因片段并克隆的好方法%A simple convenient and specific way to obtain foreign DNAs for cloning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    目的:以简便、特异的方法获取目的基因片段用于体外构建重组体。方法:以引物互为模板的聚合酶链反应合成目的基因片段。该目的基因片段经限制性内切核酸酶水解后被连接至克隆载体,克隆后经筛选并电泳鉴定。结果:以聚合酶链反应合成了目的基因片段,并获得相应重组体。经鉴定,该重组体确含目的基因片段序列。结论:成功利用聚合酶链反应获得目的基因片段并获得相应重组体,以作为进一步研究的基础。%Objective: To obtain the foreign DNA to cloning is introduced in this paper. As foreign DNAs, human angiogenin gene fragments(hAngf) were obtained with PCR and cloning for research. Methods: The PCR technique in which the primers were used as template each other was adopted to obtain the foreign DNAs for Cloning. The PCR products become into inserts after digested by restriction endonuclease and then they were inserted into pBluescript vectors to be cloned. Because of the different length of nucleotide sequences between containing the insert or not after treated by several restriction endonucleases, the positive clones and Ang - recombinants were screened and finally they were identified with electrophoresis. Results: The hAng inserts were obtained successfully by PCR and the electrophoretogram showed that the hAngf - pBluescripts wanted were obtained by the means properly adopted. Conclusion: Enough human angiogenin gene fragments (foreign DNAs) were synthesized by PCR and then they were inserted into vectors to be recombined in vitro. The studies of clinical applications and other areas about human angiogenin will be able to be carried out.

  14. Cloning of two glutamate dehydrogenase cDNAs from Asparagus officinalis: sequence analysis and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavesi, A; Ficarelli, A; Tassi, F; Restivo, F M

    2000-04-01

    Two different amplification products, termed c1 and c2, showing a high similarity to glutamate dehydrogenase sequences from plants, were obtained from Asparagus officinalis using two degenerated primers and RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction). The genes corresponding to these cDNA clones were designated aspGDHA and aspGDHB. Screening of a cDNA library resulted in the isolation of cDNA clones for aspGDHB only. Analysis of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence from the full-length cDNA suggests that the gene product contains all regions associated with metabolic function of NAD glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH). A first phylogenetic analysis including only GDHs from plants suggested that the two GDH genes of A. officinalis arose by an ancient duplication event, pre-dating the divergence of monocots and dicots. Codon usage analysis showed a bias towards A/T ending codons. This tendency is likely due to the biased nucleotide composition of the asparagus genome, rather than to the translational selection for specific codons. Using principal coordinate analysis, the evolutionary relatedness of plant GDHs with homologous sequences from a large spectrum of organisms was investigated. The results showed a closer affinity of plant GDHs to GDHs of thermophilic archaebacterial and eubacterial species, when compared to those of unicellular eukaryotic fungi. Sequence analysis at specific amino acid signatures, known to affect the thermal stability of GDH, and assays of enzyme activity at non-physiological temperatures, showed a greater adaptation to heat-stress conditions for the asparagus and tobacco enzymes compared with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae enzyme.

  15. Early replication dynamics of sex-linked mitochondrial DNAs in the doubly uniparental inheritance species Ruditapes philippinarum (Bivalvia Veneridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, D; Ghiselli, F; Milani, L; Breton, S; Passamonti, M

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondrial homoplasmy, which is maintained by strictly maternal inheritance and a series of bottlenecks, is thought to be an adaptive condition for metazoans. Doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) is a unique mode of mitochondrial transmission found in bivalve species, in which two distinct mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) lines are present, one inherited through eggs (F) and one through sperm (M). During development, the two lines segregate in a sex- and tissue-specific manner: females lose M during embryogenesis, whereas males actively segregate it in the germ line. These two pivotal events are still poorly characterized. Here we investigated mtDNA replication dynamics during embryogenesis and pre-adulthood of the venerid Ruditapes philippinarum using real-time quantitative PCR. We found that both mtDNAs do not detectably replicate during early embryogenesis, and that the M line might be lost from females around 24 h of age. A rise in mtDNA copy number was observed before the first reproductive season in both sexes, with the M mitochondrial genome replicating more than the F in males, and we associate these boosts to the early phase of gonad production. As evidence indicates that DUI relies on the same molecular machine of mitochondrial maternal inheritance that is common in most animals, our data are relevant not only to DUI but also to shed light on how differential segregations of mtDNA variants, in the same nuclear background, may be controlled during development.

  16. Collection of Macaca fascicularis cDNAs derived from bone marrow, kidney, liver, pancreas, spleen, and thymus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kameoka Yosuke

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consolidating transcriptome data of non-human primates is essential to annotate primate genome sequences, and will facilitate research using non-human primates in the genomic era. Macaca fascicularis is a macaque monkey that is commonly used for biomedical and ecological research. Findings We constructed cDNA libraries of Macaca fascicularis, derived from tissues obtained from bone marrow, liver, pancreas, spleen, and thymus of a young male, and kidney of a young female. In total, 5'-end sequences of 56,856 clones were determined. Including the previously established cDNA libraries from brain and testis, we have isolated 112,587 cDNAs of Macaca fascicularis, which correspond to 56% of the curated human reference genes. Conclusion These sequences were deposited in the public sequence database as well as in-house macaque genome database http://genebank.nibio.go.jp/qfbase/. These data will become valuable resources for identifying functional parts of the genome of macaque monkeys in future studies.

  17. Silver Nanoclusters Beacon as Stimuli-Responsive Versatile Platform for Multiplex DNAs Detection and Aptamer-Substrate Complexes Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoliang; Li, Jingjing; Feng, Da-Qian; Zhu, Jun-Jie; Wang, Wei

    2017-01-03

    An activatable silver nanoclusters beacon (ASNCB) was synthesized through a facile one-pot approach and applied for multiplex DNAs, small molecule, and protein sensing. Multifunctional single-stranded DNA sequences are rationally designed and used for ASNCB in situ synthesis. Via target-responsive structure transformation of ASNCB, target recognition induced ASNCB conformational transition and lit up the fluorescent signal of silver nanoclusters. By further implementing two different color ASNCBs (520 and 600 nm), the parallel multiplexed analysis of two target genes (Influenza A virus genes H1N1 and H5N1) is achieved. Additionally, with the introduction of aptamer for the design of the molecular beacon, the detections of small molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and biomacromolecule thrombin have also been realized. This is the first time that an activatable fluorescent silver nanoclusters (Ag NCs)-based probe and the target recognition have been integrated into a single process, which provides a versatile platform for different analytes in a facile way. The successful application of our proposed ASNCB in real sample analysis and ATP imaging in living cells further displayed its promising potential for fluorescence sensing.

  18. Genetic diversity among elite Sorghum lines revealed by restriction fragment length polymorphisms and random amplified polymorphic DNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierling, R A; Xiang, Z; Joshi, C P; Gilbert, M L; Nguyen, H T

    1994-02-01

    The genetic diversity of sorghum, as compared to corn, is less well characterized at the genetic and molecular levels despite its worldwide economic importance. The objectives of this study were to: (1) investigate genetic diversity for restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLPs) and random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) in elite sorghum lines, (2) compare similarities based on molecular markers with pedigree relationships, and (3) examine the potential of RFLPs and RAPDs for assigning sorghum lines to the A/B (sterile) and R (restorer) groups. Using four restriction enzymes, polymorphism was detected with 61% of the RFLP probes used, compared to 77% of the random primers. One hundred and sixteen (64%) probe-enzyme combinations yielded multiple-band profiles compared to 98% of the random primers. RFLP profiles generated 290 polymorphic bands compared to 177 polymorphic RAPDs. Pair-wise comparisons of polymorphic RFLPs and RAPDs were used to calculate Nei and Jaccard coefficients. These were employed to generate phenograms using UPGMA and neighborjoining clustering methods. Analysis of RFLP data with Jaccard's coefficient and neighbor-joining clustering produced the phenogram with the closest topology to the known pedigree.

  19. Isolation and characterization of cDNAs encoding leucoanthocyanidin reductase and anthocyanidin reductase from Populus trichocarpa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Wang

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins (PAs contribute to poplar defense mechanisms against biotic and abiotic stresses. Transcripts of PA biosynthetic genes accumulated rapidly in response to infection by the fungus Marssonina brunnea f.sp. multigermtubi, treatments of salicylic acid (SA and wounding, resulting in PA accumulation in poplar leaves. Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR are two key enzymes of the PA biosynthesis that produce the main subunits: (+-catechin and (--epicatechin required for formation of PA polymers. In Populus, ANR and LAR are encoded by at least two and three highly related genes, respectively. In this study, we isolated and functionally characterized genes PtrANR1 and PtrLAR1 from P. trichocarpa. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Populus ANR1 and LAR1 occurr in two distinct phylogenetic lineages, but both genes have little difference in their tissue distribution, preferentially expressed in roots. Overexpression of PtrANR1 in poplar resulted in a significant increase in PA levels but no impact on catechin levels. Antisense down-regulation of PtrANR1 showed reduced PA accumulation in transgenic lines, but increased levels of anthocyanin content. Ectopic expression of PtrLAR1 in poplar positively regulated the biosynthesis of PAs, whereas the accumulation of anthocyanin and flavonol was significantly reduced (P<0.05 in all transgenic plants compared to the control plants. These results suggest that both PtrANR1 and PtrLAR1 contribute to PA biosynthesis in Populus.

  20. Screening of Novel Epilepsy-Related Genes and Isolation and Identification of cDNAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Heming; ZHU Changgeng; HAO Jiandong; MENG Xiangwen; WANG Lihua; CHEN Dequan

    2000-01-01

    Twenty cDNA differential fragments were isolated from the hippocampus of rats in epileptic state using mRNA differential display technique. Four fragments were sequenced and compared with the known sequences in the Genebank, which showed that ERG8, ERG11, ERG12had no significant identity to any known sequences; ERG14 had 64%-69% identity to microtubulin-associated protein of the rat. Because the differential expression of these genes was caused by epilepsy inducer coriaria lactone (CL) and anti-epilepsy drug MK-801 and ERG8 might be a novel candidate epilepsy gene; ERG11 and ERG12 might be novel candidate anti-epilepsy genes.Since the microtubulin-associated protein is closely associated with the collateral sprouting of mossy fibers in the hippocampus of seizured rat, the high expression of ERG14 in the early stage of epilepsy might predict the growth of axon and formation of synapse.

  1. Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNAs from Egyptian mummies by spoligotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Albert R; Sola, Christophe; Reischl, Udo; Grabner, Waltraud; Rastogi, Nalin; Wolf, Hans; Nerlich, Andreas G

    2003-01-01

    Bone and soft tissue samples from 85 ancient Egyptian mummies were analyzed for the presence of ancient Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA (aDNA) and further characterized by spoligotyping. The specimens were obtained from individuals from different tomb complexes in Thebes West, Upper Egypt, which were used for upper social class burials between the Middle Kingdom (since ca. 2050 BC) and the Late Period (until ca. 500 BC). A total of 25 samples provided a specific positive signal for the amplification of a 123-bp fragment of the repetitive element IS6110, indicating the presence of M. tuberculosis DNA. Further PCR-based tests for the identification of subspecies failed due to lack of specific amplification products in the historic tissue samples. Of these 25 positive specimens, 12 could be successfully characterized by spoligotyping. The spoligotyping signatures were compared to those in an international database. They all show either an M. tuberculosis or an M. africanum pattern, but none revealed an M. bovis-specific pattern. The results from a Middle Kingdom tomb (used exclusively between ca. 2050 and 1650 BC) suggest that these samples bear an M. africanum-type specific spoligotyping signature. The samples from later periods provided patterns typical for M. tuberculosis. This study clearly demonstrates that spoligotyping can be applied to historic tissue samples. In addition, our results do not support the theory that M. tuberculosis originated from the M. bovis type but, rather, suggest that human M. tuberculosis may have originated from a precursor complex probably related to M. africanum.

  2. Cloning and molecular characterization of cDNAs encoding three Ancylostoma ceylanicum secreted proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwińska, Anna M; Bąska, Piotr; Daniłowicz-Luebert, Emilia; Januszkiewicz, Kamil; Długosz, Ewa; Wędrychowicz, Halina; Cappello, Michael; Wiśniewski, Marcin

    2013-03-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum belongs to a group of soil-transmitted helminths, which infect almost 576 mln people worldwide and are a major cause of anaemia and malnutrition. Upon contact with a permissive host, third-stage larvae (L3) residing in the environment become activated larvae (ssL3), a process associated with changes in the profile of gene expression. Ancylostoma secreted proteins (ASPs) are the major proteins secreted during larvae activation and play a crucial role in hookworm adaptation to parasitism. Here we report the cloning using RACE-PCR technique of three novel ASPs from the hookworm A. ceylanicum (Ace-asp-3, Ace-asp-4, and Ace-asp-5) and computational analysis of the protein sequences. All three proteins contain SCP (Sperm Coating Protein) domain characteristic for previously described ASP proteins. Real-time PCR analysis shows significant up-regulation of Ace-asp-3 and Ace-asp-5 expression in adult worms and correlated down-regulation in ssL3 larvae. On the other hand, expression of Ace-asp-4 was increased in ssL3 stages and decreased in adult parasites.

  3. Differential subtraction display: a unified approach for isolation of cDNAs from differentially expressed genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardinas, J R; Combates, N J; Prouty, S M; Stenn, K S; Parimoo, S

    1998-03-15

    We have developed a novel efficient approach, termed differential subtraction display, for the identification of differentially expressed genes. Several critical parameters for the reproducibility and enhanced sensitivity of display, as well as steps to reduce the number of false positive cDNA species, have been defined. These include- (a) use of standardized oligo(dT)-primed cDNA pools rather than total RNA as the starting material for differential display, (b) critical role of optimal cDNA input for each distinct class of primers, (c) phenomena of primer dominance and interference, and (d) design of a novel set of enhanced specificity anchor primers. Introduction of an efficient subtractive hybridization step prior to cloning of cDNA species enriches the bona fide cDNA species that are either exclusively present in one sample (+/-) or show altered expression (up-/down-regulation) in RNA samples from two different tissues or cell types. This approach, in comparison to differential display, has several advantages in terms of reproducibility and enhanced sensitivity of display coupled to the cloning of enriched bona fide cDNA species corresponding to differentially expressed RNAs.

  4. Mitochondrial DNAs decreased and correlated with clinical features in HCV patients from Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A-Mei; Ma, Ke; Song, Yuzhu; Feng, Yue; Duan, Haiping; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Binghui; Xu, Gang; Li, Zheng; Xia, Xueshan

    2016-07-01

    Hepatitis C was the most popular chronic infectious liver disease worldwide. It was identified that Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection could lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, though the mechanism was not fully understood. To investigate whether mtDNA copy number could be affected by HCV infection and be associated with clinical features of HCV patients, mtDNA copy numbers were analyzed in 242 patients with HCV infection and 226 matched control samples. The results suggested that mtDNA copy numbers significantly decreased in HCV patients (68.80 ± 3.33) than in control samples (81.54 ± 4.50) (p = 0.022). When males/females were separated from total patients to compare mtDNA copy numbers with gender matched controls, mtDNA copy numbers still significantly decreased in male HCV patients (p = 0.002). Further analysis indicated that level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was negatively correlated with mtDNA copy numbers in total HCV patients (r = -0.128, p = 0.047), and this correlation was more significant in male HCV patients (r = -0.266, p = 0.030). Intriguingly, aspartate amino-transferase (AST) showed positive correlation with mtDNA copy numbers (r = 0.260, p = 0.034) in male HCV patients. Our results indicated that mtDNA copy numbers depleted and correlated with clinical features in male HCV patients.

  5. Suiformes orthologous satellite DNAs as a hallmark of Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari (Tayassuidae) evolutionary rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adega, Filomena; Chaves, Raquel; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique

    2008-12-01

    In a broad general way, eukaryotic satellite DNA sequences are characterized by a highly dynamic molecular behavior due to concerted evolution that leads to rapid change between repeat sequences of different species, achieved by amplification of new variants during speciation or by gradual sequence evolution due to the accumulation of nucleotide substitutions. There are, although exceptions for this almost universal rule. We isolated variants from both the Mc1 and Ac2 pig (Sus scrofa, Suidae) satellite DNA families from the genomes of two Tayassuidae members: Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari, which have highly derived karyotypes. The presence of these sequences in both families' genomes (Suidae and Tayassuidae) implies their existence in a common ancestor, what confers to the variants the status of orthology and the approximate age of, at least 40 million years. While at the molecular composition level these orthologous sequences are highly homologous, cross-species physical mapping revealed a completely different chromosomal location in Suidae versus Tayassuidae families, most probably, reflecting the high level of divergence and chromosomes evolution pathways after radiation of each family. Detailed comparative analysis of the satellites assignment on the peccary's chromosomes revealed its co-localization with homologous evolutionary breakpoints in both species, suggesting their involvement in the rearrangement events. The complex behavior of the repeats evolution in the pig/peccaries genomes is here clearly illustrated. These sequences are molecularly preserved for a considerable period of time and display slow rates of sequence change, but show a dynamic motion behavior throughout the peccary's genomes that accompanied the great architectonic reorganization of Tayassuidae chromosomes during evolution.

  6. STUDIES ON THE FUSION OF LIGNINOLYTIC ENZYME cDNAS AND THEIR EXPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyu Fu

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Manganese peroxidase (MnP and lignin peroxidase (LiP are two major peroxidases involved in lignin biodegradation. The cDNA mnp1 encoding a kind of MnPs, and cDNA clg5 encoding a kind of LiPs were fused to one cDNA mnp1- clg5 (rmc15 by over-lap PCR technology in this research. Then the recombinant cDNA rmc15 was cloned into a vector pTrcHisB to construct its efficient expression plasmid pTHmc15 in Escherichia coli. The E. coli transformed by pTHmc15 was induced by isopropyl--D-thiogalactoside. The expressed protein was analyzed by SDS-PAGE, and a new one was observed with a molecular weight of about 77KD. Enzyme activities of MnP and LiP could not be observed in the unfolded fused protein. However, the enzyme activity of MnP was detected in the recombinant protein after it was refolded and activated by Ca2+ and heme, while the activity of LiP was not detected. These results show that the enzyme activity of the protein at N-terminal was not affected, but at C-terminal it was affected in the fusion protein of ligninolytic enzymes. Therefore, it is unfeasible to construct the gene of bifunctional ligninolytic enzyme with the fusion of the cDNA mnp1 encoding MnP and cDNA clg5 encoding LiP.

  7. Identification of HR-inducing cDNAs from plant pathogens via a Gateway(®)-compatible binary Potato virus X-expression vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Esse, H Peter

    2012-01-01

    Identification of pathogen effectors that elicit a hypersensitive response (HR) in resistant plant hosts is essential to study disease resistance. In this method, it is described how to generate a cDNA library, how to transfer the library into a binary PVX-expression vector, and finally how to set up a high-throughput screen for HR-inducing cDNAs from plant pathogens.

  8. The characterisation of tapetum-specific cDNAs isolated from a Lilium henryi L. meiocyte subtractive cDNA library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, S J; Greenland, A J; Dickinson, H G

    1995-01-01

    Differential screening of a meiocyte subtractive cDNA library from Lilium henryi L. has identified a group of 16 anther-specific partial cDNAs. Three of these sequences, LHM2, LHM6 and LHM7 have been further characterised. Hybridisation in situ with antisense riboprobes of LHM2, LHM6, and LHM7 gives a strong, clear signal which, contrary to expectations, is localised to the tapetal layer surrounding the meiocytes and not the meiocytes themselves. Developmental slot blots demonstrate that mRNAs corresponding to the three LHM cDNAs are transcribed from prophase of meiosis I to the uninucleate microspore stage, while Northern analysis reveals these tapetally expressed cDNAs to correspond with transcripts of some 500 bp. Although LHM2 is less abundant than LHM6 and LHM7, the pattern of developmental expression, and the size range of the transcripts suggests that all three cDNAs may be related. The deduced polypeptide products of LHM6 and LHM7 share 71% identity over a conserved region of 38 residues. Inverse polymerase chain reaction was used to obtain the full sequence for LHM7. Its deduced protein sequence has a signal peptide indicating it may be secreted; the cleaved protein has a molecular weight of 8.9 kDa. Furthermore, the LHM7 protein has significant levels of homology with tapetally expressed proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana, Antirrhinum majus and Lycopersicon esculentum. All contain a highly conserved pattern of cysteine residues present in seed and non-specific lipid transfer proteins. The function of this gene product is discussed in the perspective of current models of another development.

  9. The G-BHQ synergistic effect: Improved double quenching molecular beacons based on guanine and Black Hole Quencher for sensitive simultaneous detection of two DNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Dongshan; Li, Fengquan; Wu, Chenyi; Shi, Boan; Zhai, Kun

    2017-11-01

    We designed two double quenching molecular beacons (MBs) with simple structure based on guanine (G base) and Black Hole Quencher (BHQ), and developed a new analytical method for sensitive simultaneous detection of two DNAs by synchronous fluorescence analysis. In this analytical method, carboxyl fluorescein (FAM) and tetramethyl-6-carboxyrhodamine (TAMRA) were respectively selected as fluorophore of two MBs, Black Hole Quencher 1 (BHQ-1) and Black Hole Quencher 2 (BHQ-2) were respectively selected as organic quencher, and three continuous nucleotides with G base were connected to organic quencher (BHQ-1 and BHQ-2). In the presence of target DNAs, the two MBs hybridize with the corresponding target DNAs, the fluorophores are separated from organic quenchers and G bases, leading to recovery of fluorescence of FAM and TAMRA. Under a certain conditions, the fluorescence intensities of FAM and TAMRA all exhibited good linear dependence on their concentration of target DNAs (T1 and T2) in the range from 4 × 10(-10) to 4 × 10(-8)molL(-1) (M). The detection limit (3σ, n = 13) of T1 was 3 × 10(-10)M and that of T2 was 2×10(-10)M, respectively. Compared with the existing analysis methods for multiplex DNA with MBs, this proposed method based on double quenching MBs is not only low fluorescence background, short analytical time and low detection cost, but also easy synthesis and good stability of MB probes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cloning of artemisinin biosynthetic cDNAs and novel ESTs and quantification of low temperature-induced gene overexpression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To isolate and verify novel genes from qinghao (Artemisia annua) based on the development-specific and environment-induced transcriptomics, leaves have been harvested from the flowering A. annua plants and exposed to low temperature for isolation of total RNAs and cloning of full-length cDNAs and cDNA fragments, or expressed sequence tags (ESTs). After being sequenced and browsed for homol- ogy, these sequences have been submitted to GenBank. Among the accessed 75 sequences, 4 full-length cDNAs are highly homologous to the known A. annua genes, but 71 ESTs are absent in the sequence records of A. annua genes, in which 34 sequences are homologous to other plant genes, including 24 identified protein-coding sequences and 10 unidentified protein-coding sequences, while other 37 sequences are not present in the sequence records of any plant genes, representing the first cloned plant genes. In order to investigate the responsive patterns of A. annua genes to extreme envi- ronmental stresses, especially low temperature, the expression levels of 3 critical qinhaosu (artemisi- nin) biosynthetic genes, ADS, CYP71AV1 and CPR, have been measured in pre- and post-chilling A. annua seedlings cultured in vitro by semi-quantitative PCR (SQ-PCR). Consequently, ADS and CYP71AV1 genes are strongly induced by chilling, but CPR gene is not significantly affected by such treatment. Furthermore, induction of these genes by chilling can be potently suppressed by Ca2+ channel inhibitor LaCl3 or Ca2+ chelator EGTA, suggesting a putative involvement of Ca2+-CaM signal transduction pathway in chilling-induced overexpression of ADS and CYP71AV1 genes. The real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RFQ-PCR) assay of A. annua seedlings exposed to chilling has shown that the expression level of CaM gene is up-regulated for more than 2.5 folds, thereby confirming our above inference on the relevance of Ca2+-CaM-mediated signal transduction to chilling-induced gene overexpression. Finally, 7 newly

  11. Cloning of artemisinin biosynthetic cDNAs and novel ESTs and quantification of low temperature-induced gene overexpression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG QingPing; ZHAO Chang; YIN LuLu; YANG RuiYi; ZENG XiaoMei; HUANG Ying; FENG LiLing; YANG XueQin

    2008-01-01

    To isolate and verify novel genes from qinghao (Artemisia annua) based on the development-specific and environment-induced transcriptomics, leaves have been harvested from the flowering A. annua plants and exposed to low temperature for isolation of total RNAs and cloning of full-length cDNAs and cDNA fragments, or expressed sequence tags (ESTs). After being sequenced and browsed for homology, these sequences have been submitted to GenBank. Among the accessed 75 sequences, 4 full-length cDNAs are highly homologous to the known A. annua genes, but 71 ESTs are absent in the sequence records of A. annua genes, in which 34 sequences are homologous to other plant genes,including 24 identified protein-coding sequences and 10 unidentified protein-coding sequences, while other 37 sequences are not present in the sequence records of any plant genes, representing the first cloned plant genes. In order to investigate the responsive patterns of A. annua genes to extreme environmental stresses, especially low temperature, the expression levels of 3 critical qinhaosu (artemisinin) biosynthetic genes, ADS, CYP71AV1 and CPR, have been measured in pre- and post-chilling A.annua seedlings cultured in vitro by semi-quantitative PCR (SQ-PCR). Consequently, ADS and CYP71AV1 genes are strongly induced by chilling, but CPR gene is not significantly affected by such treatment. Furthermore, induction of these genes by chilling can be potently suppressed by Ca2+channel inhibitor LaCl3 or Ca2+ chelator EGTA, suggesting a putative involvement of Ca2+-CaM signal transduction pathway in chilling-induced overexpression of ADS and CYP71AV1 genes. The real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RFQ-PCR) assay of A. annua seedlings exposed to chilling has shown that the expression level of CaM gene is up-regulated for more than 2.5 folds, thereby confirming our above inference on the relevance of Ca2+-CaM-mediated signal transduction to chilling-induced gene overexpression. Finally, 7 newly isolated A

  12. A mechanistic study of electron transfer from the distal termini of electrode-bound, single-stranded DNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzawa, Takanori; Cheng, Ryan R.; White, Ryan J.; Makarov, Dmitrii E.; Plaxco, Kevin W

    2010-01-01

    Electrode-bound, redox-reporter-modified oligonucleotides play roles in the functioning of a number of electrochemical biosensors, and thus the question of electron transfer through or from such molecules has proven of significant interest. In response, we have experimentally characterized the rate with which electrons are transferred between a methylene blue on the distal end of a short, single-stranded polythymine DNAs to a monolayer-coated gold electrode to which the other end of the DNA is site-specifically attached. We find that this rate scales with oligonucleotide length to the −1.16±0.09 power. This weak, approximately inverse length dependence differs dramatically from the much stronger dependencies observed for the rates of end-to-end collisions in single-stranded DNA and through-oligonucleotide electron hopping. It instead coincides with the expected length dependence of a reaction-limited process in which the overall rate is proportional to the equilibrium probability that the end of the oligonucleotide chain approaches the surface. Studies of the ionic strength and viscosity dependencies of electron transfer further support this “chain-flexibility” mechanism, and studies of the electron transfer rate of methylene blue attached to the hexanethiol monolayer suggest that heterogeneous electron transfer through the monolayer is rate limiting. Thus, under the circumstances we have employed, the flexibility (i.e., the equilibrium statistical properties) of the oligonucleotide chain defines the rate with which an attached redox reporter transfers electrons to an underlying electrode, an observation that may be of utility in the design of new biosensor architectures. PMID:20964337

  13. Glycosylation analysis and protein structure determination of murine fetal antigen 1 (mFA1)--the circulating gene product of the delta-like protein (dlk), preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref-1) and stromal-cell-derived protein 1 (SCP-1) cDNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, T N; Bachmann, E; Teisner, B

    1997-01-01

    By means of sequence analysis, murine fetal antigen 1 (mFA1) isolated from Mus musculus amniotic fluid was shown to be the circulating protein of the delta-like protein, stromal-cell-derived protein 1 (SCP-1) and preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref-1) gene products. The protein contains 36 cysteine resid......, Ser193 and fucose at Thr201) was tentatively ascertained by combining Edman degradation and MALDI-MS. The results presented shows mFA1 to be the circulating heterogeneous cleavage products of the membrane-bound protein encoded by the murine cDNAs dlk, pref-1 and SCP-1....

  14. Molecular and functional characterization of cDNAs putatively encoding carboxylesterases from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqin Zhang

    Full Text Available Carboxylesterases (CarEs belong to a superfamily of metabolic enzymes encoded by a number of genes and are widely distributed in microbes, plants and animals including insects. These enzymes play important roles in detoxification of insecticides and other xenobiotics, degradation of pheromones, regulation of neurodevelopment, and control of animal development. In this study, we characterized a total of 39 full-length cDNAs putatively encoding different CarEs from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, one of the most severe insect pests in many regions of the world, and evaluated the role of four CarE genes in insecticide detoxification. Our phylogenetic analysis grouped the 39 CarEs into five different clades including 20 CarEs in clade A, 3 in D, 13 in E, 1 in F and 2 in I. Four CarE genes (LmCesA3, LmCesA20, LmCesD1, LmCesE1, representing three different clades (A, D and E, were selected for further analyses. The transcripts of the four genes were detectable in all the developmental stages and tissues examined. LmCesA3 and LmCesE1 were mainly expressed in the fat bodies and Malpighian tubules, whereas LmCesA20 and LmCesD1 were predominately expressed in the muscles and hemolymph, respectively. The injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA synthesized from each of the four CarE genes followed by the bioassay with each of four insecticides (chlorpyrifos, malathion, carbaryl and deltamethrin increased the nymphal mortalities by 37.2 and 28.4% in response to malathion after LmCesA20 and LmCesE1 were silenced, respectively. Thus, we proposed that both LmCesA20 and LmCesE1 played an important role in detoxification of malathion in the locust. These results are expected to help researchers reveal the characteristics of diverse CarEs and assess the risk of insecticide resistance conferred by CarEs in the locust and other insect species.

  15. Molecular and functional characterization of cDNAs putatively encoding carboxylesterases from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianqin; Li, Daqi; Ge, Pingting; Guo, Yaping; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2014-01-01

    Carboxylesterases (CarEs) belong to a superfamily of metabolic enzymes encoded by a number of genes and are widely distributed in microbes, plants and animals including insects. These enzymes play important roles in detoxification of insecticides and other xenobiotics, degradation of pheromones, regulation of neurodevelopment, and control of animal development. In this study, we characterized a total of 39 full-length cDNAs putatively encoding different CarEs from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, one of the most severe insect pests in many regions of the world, and evaluated the role of four CarE genes in insecticide detoxification. Our phylogenetic analysis grouped the 39 CarEs into five different clades including 20 CarEs in clade A, 3 in D, 13 in E, 1 in F and 2 in I. Four CarE genes (LmCesA3, LmCesA20, LmCesD1, LmCesE1), representing three different clades (A, D and E), were selected for further analyses. The transcripts of the four genes were detectable in all the developmental stages and tissues examined. LmCesA3 and LmCesE1 were mainly expressed in the fat bodies and Malpighian tubules, whereas LmCesA20 and LmCesD1 were predominately expressed in the muscles and hemolymph, respectively. The injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) synthesized from each of the four CarE genes followed by the bioassay with each of four insecticides (chlorpyrifos, malathion, carbaryl and deltamethrin) increased the nymphal mortalities by 37.2 and 28.4% in response to malathion after LmCesA20 and LmCesE1 were silenced, respectively. Thus, we proposed that both LmCesA20 and LmCesE1 played an important role in detoxification of malathion in the locust. These results are expected to help researchers reveal the characteristics of diverse CarEs and assess the risk of insecticide resistance conferred by CarEs in the locust and other insect species.

  16. Disulfide-induced self-assembled targets: A novel strategy for the label free colorimetric detection of DNAs/RNAs via unmodified gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Ehsan; Hosseini, Morteza; Davari, Mehdi D.; Ganjali, Mohammad R.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Rezaee, Farhad

    2017-04-01

    A modified non-cross-linking gold-nanoparticles (Au-NPs) aggregation strategy has been developed for the label free colorimetric detection of DNAs/RNAs based on self-assembling target species in the presence of thiolated probes. Two complementary thiol- modified probes, each of which specifically binds at one half of the target introduced SH groups at both ends of dsDNA. Continuous disulfide bond formation at 3‧ and 5‧ terminals of targets leads to the self-assembly of dsDNAs into the sulfur- rich and flexible products with different lengths. These products have a high affinity for the surface of Au-NPs and efficiently protect the surface from salt induced aggregation. To evaluate the assay efficacy, a small part of the citrus tristeza virus (CTV) genome was targeted, leading to a detection limit of about 5 × 10-9 mol.L-1 over a linear ranged from 20 × 10-9 to 10 × 10-7 mol.L-1. This approach also exhibits good reproducibility and recovery levels in the presence of plant total RNA or human plasma total circulating RNA extracts. Self-assembled targets can be then sensitively distinguished from non-assembled or mismatched targets after gel electrophoresis. The disulfide reaction method and integrating self-assembled DNAs/RNAs targets with bare AuNPs as a sensitive indicator provide us a powerful and simple visual detection tool for a wide range of applications.

  17. Disulfide-induced self-assembled targets: A novel strategy for the label free colorimetric detection of DNAs/RNAs via unmodified gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Ehsan; Hosseini, Morteza; Davari, Mehdi D.; Ganjali, Mohammad R.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Rezaee, Farhad

    2017-01-01

    A modified non-cross-linking gold-nanoparticles (Au-NPs) aggregation strategy has been developed for the label free colorimetric detection of DNAs/RNAs based on self-assembling target species in the presence of thiolated probes. Two complementary thiol- modified probes, each of which specifically binds at one half of the target introduced SH groups at both ends of dsDNA. Continuous disulfide bond formation at 3′ and 5′ terminals of targets leads to the self-assembly of dsDNAs into the sulfur- rich and flexible products with different lengths. These products have a high affinity for the surface of Au-NPs and efficiently protect the surface from salt induced aggregation. To evaluate the assay efficacy, a small part of the citrus tristeza virus (CTV) genome was targeted, leading to a detection limit of about 5 × 10−9 mol.L−1 over a linear ranged from 20 × 10−9 to 10 × 10−7 mol.L−1. This approach also exhibits good reproducibility and recovery levels in the presence of plant total RNA or human plasma total circulating RNA extracts. Self-assembled targets can be then sensitively distinguished from non-assembled or mismatched targets after gel electrophoresis. The disulfide reaction method and integrating self-assembled DNAs/RNAs targets with bare AuNPs as a sensitive indicator provide us a powerful and simple visual detection tool for a wide range of applications. PMID:28387331

  18. Sequence and characterization of two Arabidopsis thaliana cDNAs isolated by functional complementation of a yeast gln3 gdh1 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, H N; Caboche, M; Daniel-Vedele, F

    1997-06-30

    We have isolated two Arabidopsis thaliana cDNAs by complementation of a yeast gln3 gdh1 strain that is affected in the regulation of nitrogen metabolism. The two clones (RGA1 and RGA2) are homologous to each other and to the SCARECROW (SCR) gene that is involved in regulating an asymmetric cell division in plants. RGA1, RGA2 and SCR share several structural features and may define a new family of genes. RGA1 and RGA2 have been mapped, respectively, to chromosome II and I, and their expression in plant is constitutive.

  19. Cloning Full-Length cDNAs from Vascular Tissues and Cells by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) and RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen

    1999-01-01

    The isolation of full-length cDNAs remains a frequent task undertaken in many laboratories. A full-length cDNA is often desirable for one of the following purposes: 1) to complete the sequence of a partial cDNA cloned by library screenings or the yeast one- or two-hybrid system; 2) to derive the cDNA sequence encoding a protein, based on peptide sequences; 3) to obtain the sequence of a reported cDNA for functional analysis or expression studies; and 4) to define exon/intron boundaries of a cloned gene or determine transcription start site(s) of a promoter.

  20. Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) of oligodeoxyribonucleotides: an insight into solution structural dynamics of DNAs provided by gel electrophoresis and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyani, Manish; Nishigaki, Koichi

    2005-10-01

    Studies on the solution structure dynamics of RNA/DNA are becoming crucially important. The phenomena of SSCP (single-strand conformation polymorphism), small RNA dynamics in a cell, and others can be related to the conformational changes of single-stranded (ss) RNAs/DNAs in solution. However, little is known about those dynamics. Only the intra-structural transition of ssDNAs in solution has been reported based on Watson-Crick (W-C) base-pairing. Here, we found a general feature of the SSCP phenomenon by studying the simpler molecules of ss-oligodeoxyribonucleotides. A single base substitution or a positional exchange of nucleotide in a highly homologous series of ss-dodecanucleotides led to a change in the mobility-in-gel. This was unexpected, since most of these nucleotides [such as d(A(11)G) or d(A(11)C)] have no possibility of forming W-C base-pairing. MD (molecular dynamics) experiments revealed differences in shape and size between the dynamic structures of these molecules which could affect their mobility-in-gel. In addition, a high correlation was observed between the electrophoretic mobility and the size-related parameters such as end-to-end distance obtained from MD simulations. Because the simulation was considerably shorter (nanosecond) than the experimental time-scale (second), the result must be considered conservatively; but it is nevertheless encouraging for utilizing MD simulation for structural analysis of oligonucleotides.

  1. Identification of two metallo- thionein isoforms by molecu-lar cloning of their cDNAs infresh-water fish, crucian carp(Carassius-cuvieri)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Generally, there are two major isoforms of me- tallothionein (MT)in mammals. In this study two cDNAs of metallothionein, MT-A and MT-B, in a fresh-water fish, crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri), were cloned by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The homology of their reading frame is about 92.3%. The sequence analysis of both cDNAs gave the structures of coding regions corresponding to 60 amino acid residues, and the structures of complete 3′-untranslated regions in which a significant difference in the size of their 3′-untranslated regions (130 bp for MT-A and 280 bp for MT-B) exists. The results of amino acid sequenc-ing of both MT-1 and MT-2 purified by HPLC are identical to those deduced from MT cDNA genes, indicating that MT-1 is from MT-A gene and MT-2 is from MT-B gene respec-tively. No blocking in the N-terminal of MT-2 isoform was the first case found in vertebrates, most of which were block-ed by acetylation. These results suggest that there were dif-ferential controls at the transcription level and after transla-tion of these two MT isoforms. And this gives a clue to un-derstand the diversities of their functions.

  2. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  3. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  4. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  5. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  6. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Lau, Morten I.; Rutström, E. Elisabet

    2008-01-01

    , and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  7. Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makidono, Akari; Tsunoda, Hiroko; Mori, Miki; Yagata, Hiroshi; Onoda, Yui; Kikuchi, Mari; Nozaki, Taiki; Saida, Yukihisa; Nakamura, Seigo; Suzuki, Koyu

    2013-07-01

    Phyllodes tumor of the breast is a rare fibroepithelial lesion and particularly uncommon in adolescent girls. It is thought to arise from the periductal rather than intralobular stroma. Usually, it is seen as a well-defined mass. Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth is extremely rare. Here we report a girl who has a phyllodes tumor with intraductal growth.

  8. Pembrolizumab Shows Promise for NSCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Data from the KEYNOTE-001 trial show that pembrolizumab improves clinical outcomes for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, and is well tolerated. PD-L1 expression in at least 50% of tumor cells correlated with improved efficacy.

  9. Create a Polarized Light Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson that introduces students to polarized light using a problem-solving approach. After illustrating the concept using a slinky and poster board with a vertical slot, students solve the problem of creating a polarized light show using Polya's problem-solving methods. (MDH)

  10. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  11. Preparation of a subtractive cDNA library enriched in cDNAs which expressed at a high level in cultured senescent human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, H; Hara, E; Tsuyama, N; Oda, K; Ide, T

    1994-03-30

    Subtracted cDNA library was prepared by subtracting [cDNA from young growing SV40-transformed human fibroblasts] from [cDNA from growing SV40-transformed fibroblasts in extended lifespan]. Isolated cDNA clones which expressed at high level in life-extended transformed cells also expressed at high level in normal senescent fibroblasts but did at low level in growing and growth-arrested young cells. Neither fibronectin nor procollagen cDNA was isolated. This cDNA library is useful for isolation of senescent-specific cDNA species which express at high level in normal senescent cells but at low level in growing and growth-arrested young cells, avoiding growth-arrest-specific cDNAs.

  12. Identities among actin-encoding cDNAs of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and other eukaryote species revealed by nucleotide and amino acid sequence analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia B. Poletto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Actin-encoding cDNAs of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were isolated by RT-PCR using total RNA samples of different tissues and further characterized by nucleotide sequencing and in silico amino acid (aa sequence analysis. Comparisons among the actin gene sequences of O. niloticus and those of other species evidenced that the isolated genes present a high similarity to other fish and other vertebrate actin genes. The highest nucleotide resemblance was observed between O. niloticus and O. mossambicus a-actin and b-actin genes. Analysis of the predicted aa sequences revealed two distinct types of cytoplasmic actins, one cardiac muscle actin type and one skeletal muscle actin type that were expressed in different tissues of Nile tilapia. The evolutionary relationships between the Nile tilapia actin genes and diverse other organisms is discussed.

  13. The intracellular HBV DNAs as novel and sensitive biomarkers for the clinical diagnosis of occult HBV infection in HBeAg negative hepatocellular carcinoma in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the virological status in liver (both tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissue, the clinical features and the contribution of occult HBV infection (OBI to postoperative prognosis in HBeAg-negative(- hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients in China. Using quantitative TaqMan fluorescent real-time PCR assays, HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA and total DNA (tDNA were both quantified in 11 (HBsAg(- and 57 (HBsAg-positive(+ pairs of tumor tissue (TT and adjacent non-tumor tissue (ANTT obtained from HBeAg(- HCC patients who received no antiviral treatment and were negative for anti-HCV before surgical treatment. Of 11 HBsAg(- patients, 36% were with HBsAb(+ HBeAb(+ HBcAb(+. However, only 9% of the HBsAg(- patients were HBsAb(- HBeAb(+ HBcAb(+, which accounted for the majority (93% in the HBsAg(+ group. TT and ANTT HBV tDNAs in 11 HCC patients with HBsAg (- and HBeAg (- were all detectable. HBV cccDNA and tDNA were all lower in the HBsAg(- group than those in the HBsAg(+ group. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients with OBI were associated with a lower risk of cirrhosis and better overall survival (OS. The intracellular HBV DNAs, such as HBV cccDNA and tDNA are valuable biological markers for the diagnosis of occult HBV infection in HCC patients. This would assist the clinical implementation of a more personalized therapy for viral re-activation control and improve the survival rate of OBI patients.

  14. Differential screening and characterization analysis of the egg envelope glycoprotein ZP3 cDNAs between gynogenetic and gonochoristic crucian carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Gynogenetic silver crucian carp,Carassius auratus gibelio,is an intriguing model system.In the present work,a systemic study has been initiated by introducing suppression subtractive hybridization technique into this model system to identify the differentially expressed genes in oocytes between gynogenetic silver crucian carp and its closely related gonochoristic color crucian carp.Five differential cDNA fragments were identified from the preliminary screening,and two of them are ZP3 homologues.Moreover,the full length ZP3 cDNAs were cloned from their oocyte cDNA libraries.The length of ZP3 cDNAs were 1378 bp for gyno-carp and 1367 bp for gono-carp,and they can be translated into proteins with 435 amino acids.Obvious differences are not only in the composition of amino acids,but also in the number of potential O-linked oligosaccharide sites.In addition,gyno-carp ZP3 amino acid sequence has an unexpected higher identity value with common carp (83.5%) than that with the closely related gono-carp (74.7%).The unique homology may be originated from the ancient hybridization.Northern blot analysis confirmed that expression of the ZP3 gene occurred exclusively in the oocytes.Because O-linked oligosaccharides on ZP3 have been demonstrated to play very important roles in fertilization,it is suggested that the extra O-linked glycosylation sites may be related to the unique sperm-egg recognition mechanism in gynogenesis.

  15. Picasso on Show in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A staff member of the National Picasso Museum of France checks one of the great Spanish artist Pablo Picasso’s works at the China Pavilion inside the site of the 2010 World Expo in Shanghai on October 12.Sixty-two priceless paintings and statues selected from the works of the renowned artist have been brought to the pavilion for an upcoming exhibition to premiere on October 18.Besides these representative masterpieces,50 valuable photographs showing the artist’s whole life will also be presented.The exhibition’s estimated value is 678 million euros ($934 million).It will be held until January 10,2012.

  16. Reality shows: uma abordagem psicossocial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pereira Bueno Millan

    Full Text Available Desde os primórdios da civilização, o ser humano mostra necessidade de representar cenicamente seus dramas pessoais e vicissitudes existenciais. O "reality show" é uma das versões pós-modernas da encenação da vida humana. Este artigo, por meio de uma pesquisa bibliográfica, analisa criticamente as relações existentes entre o "reality show" e aspectos psicossociais do comportamento humano. Conclui-se que tais programas televisivos são o retrato da contemporaneidade, ou seja, revelam a morte do sujeito, a fugacidade das experiências vividas, a desvalorização da história e o culto à imagem e à superficialidade. Por meio da sedução do espectador, mobilizam-se aspectos primitivos de seu psiquismo, fazendo com que ele se sinta narcisicamente poderoso e onipotente e se acredite dono do destino dos participantes do programa. Sugerem-se novos estudos que contribuam para a reflexão crítica e maior conscientização.

  17. "Medicine show." Alice in Doctorland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This is an excerpt from the script of a 1939 play provided to the Institute of Social Medicine and Community Health by the Library of Congress Federal Theater Project Collection at George Mason University Library, Fairfax, Virginia, pages 2-1-8 thru 2-1-14. The Federal Theatre Project (FTP) was part of the New Deal program for the arts 1935-1939. Funded by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) its goal was to employ theater professionals from the relief rolls. A number of FTP plays deal with aspects of medicine and public health. Pageants, puppet shows and documentary plays celebrated progress in medical science while examining social controversies in medical services and the public health movement. "Medicine Show" sharply contrasts technological wonders with social backwardness. The play was rehearsed by the FTP but never opened because funding ended. A revised version ran on Broadway in 1940. The preceding comments are adapted from an excellent, well-illustrated review of five of these plays by Barabara Melosh: "The New Deal's Federal Theatre Project," Medical Heritage, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Jan/Feb 1986), pp. 36-47.

  18. Casimir experiments showing saturation effects

    CERN Document Server

    Sernelius, Bo E

    2009-01-01

    We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a 87 Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can exp...

  19. Holoprosencephaly: Characterization of the deletion of 21q22.3 and isolation of cDNAs by a direct selection technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakawa, K.; Colbern, S.; Brusilovsky, A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Holoprosencephaly (HP) is characterized by impaired cleavage of the embryonic forebrain and incomplete mid-facial development. The etiology is heterogeneous and may include aneuploidies for chromosomes 2, 3, 7, 13, 18 and 21. We have narrowed the chromosome 21 candidate region by analyzing 2 cases of HP with deletion 21q22 using FISH and Southern blot techniques. For the smaller deletion, the regions for D21S25, D21S154, D21S171 and D21S44 were deleted and for D21S42 was not. Combining these data with previous reports of deletion of 21q22.3 (ColVIA2-ter) without the holoprosencephaly phenotype indicate that the region responsible for holoprosencephaly spans the 2-3 Mb region including PFKL and ITGB2 (CD18) that has also been linked to progressive myoclonus epilepsy (EPM1). In order to isolate genes responsible for these diseases, we constructed a cDNA library from a 14-week trisomy 21 fetal brain using Uni-Zap XR (Stratagene). More than 95% clones have inserts ranging from 1-4 kb (ave. 2 kb). In addition we applied a direct cDNA selection method to BACs (Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes) in the 21q22.3 region. Using cDNA synthesized from trisomy 21 fetal brain, we attached Sau3AI linkers, digested with Sau3AI, attached second linkers and hybridized to biotinylated BAC DNAs which cover the candidate region. cDNA/BAC DNA hybrid molecules were captured on streptavidin-coated magnetic beads, non-specific cDNA were washed out, and specifically hybridized cDNA were eluted and amplified by PCR. Twice-selected PCR products were subcloned and analyzed. Southern blot analyses revealed that 21 out of 30 (70%) of fragments yielded unique bands on the original BACs. Eight clones contained repetitive sequences. We are now isolating cDNAs expressed in the Down syndrome fetal brain using these cDNA fragments. These genes now provide candidates for EPM1 and holoprosencephaly.

  20. Isolation of cDNAs of scrapie-modulated RNAs by subtractive hybridization of a cDNA library.

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    We have developed a subtractive cloning procedure based on the hybridization of single-stranded cDNA libraries constructed in pi H3M, a vector containing the phage M13 origin of replication. We have used this strategy to isolate three transcripts whose abundance is increased in scrapie-infected brain. DNA sequence analysis showed that they represent glial fibrillary acidic protein, metallothionein II, and the B chain of alpha-crystallin; the latter two may represent a response to stress.

  1. Variability of stomata and 45S and 5S rDNAs loci characteristics in two species of Anthoxanthum genus: A. aristatum and A. odoratum (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapikowska, Maria; Susek, Karolina; Hasterok, R; Szkudlarz, P; Celka, Z; Jackowiak, B

    2013-09-01

    Diploid Anthoxanthum odoratum and tetraploid A. aristatum were compared with respect to stomatal guard cell lengths, and stomatal density at adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the lamina. Further, the genome size of both species was determined by flow cytometry, and the number as well as the chromosomal distribution of 5S and 45S rDNAs were examined using FISH with ribosomal DNA (rDNA) probes. The average length of stomatal guard cells in A. odoratum was shown to be greater than that for A. aristatum, but the ranges overlapped. Moreover, reduction in stomatal frequency was found at higher ploidy levels.The genome size was 6.863 pg/2C DNA for A. aristatum and 13.252 pg/2C DNA for A. odoratum. A. aristatum has four sites of 5S rDNA in its root-tip meristematic cells, whereas A. odoratum has six. Both species have six sites of 45S rDNA. Chromosomal localization of the rDNA varied, which suggests that chromosome rearrangements took place during Anthoxanthum genome evolution.

  2. Cloning and analysis of cDNAs encoding the hypusine-containing protein eIF5A of two lepidopteran insect species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oers, M M; van Marwijk, M; Kwa, M S; Vlak, J M; Thomas, A A

    1999-11-01

    Eukaryotic initiation factor eIF5A is essential for cell viability and contains a characteristic post-translational modification of a specific lysine residue into a hypusine. cDNAs with similarity to eIF5A sequences were derived from Spodoptera exigua and S. frugiperda cDNA libraries. The deduced amino acid sequences are identical for both species and predict a protein with a molecular mass of 17.5 kDa. The Drosophila melanogaster eIF5A cDNA sequence was retrieved from the Drosophila EST Project. The predicted protein is 80% similar to Spodoptera eIF5A. A single eIF5A gene copy is present in the S. frugiperda genome, which is transcribed into four different transcripts. Infection of S. frugiperda cells with a baculovirus resulted in a strong decline of all four transcripts already at 12 h after infection. In contrast, the eIF5A protein was fairly stable up to 48 h post infection.

  3. Expression profiles of defence related cDNAs in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) inoculated with mycorrhizae and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai T32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yung-Chie; Wong, Mui-Yun; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2015-11-01

    Basal stem rot is one of the major diseases of oil palm (Elaies guineensis Jacq.) caused by pathogenic Ganoderma species. Trichoderma and mycorrhizae were proposed to be able to reduce the disease severity. However, their roles in improving oil palm defence system by possibly inducing defence-related genes in the host are not well characterized. To better understand that, transcript profiles of eleven putative defence-related cDNAs in the roots of oil palm inoculated with Trichoderma harzianum T32 and mycorrhizae at different time points were studied. Transcripts encoding putative Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (EgBBI2) and defensin (EgDFS) increased more than 2 fold in mycorrhizae-treated roots at 6 weeks post inoculation (wpi) compared to those in controls. Transcripts encoding putative dehydrin (EgDHN), glycine-rich RNA binding protein (EgGRRBP), isoflavone reductase (EgIFR), type 2 ribosome inactivating protein (EgT2RIP), and EgDFS increased in the oil palm roots treated with T. harzianum at 6 and/or 12 wpi compared to those in the controls. Some of these genes were also expressed in oil palm roots treated with Ganoderma boninense. This study provides an insight of some defence-related genes induced by Trichoderma and mycorrhizae, and their roles as potential agents to boost the plant defence system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Lachesis muta (Viperidae) cDNAs reveal diverging pit viper molecules and scaffolds typical of cobra (Elapidae) venoms: implications for snake toxin repertoire evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio L M; Ching, Ana T C; Carvalho, Eneas; Faria, Fernanda; Nishiyama, Milton Y; Ho, Paulo L; Diniz, Marcelo R V

    2006-06-01

    Efforts to describe toxins from the two major families of venomous snakes (Viperidae and Elapidae) usually reveal proteins belonging to few structural types, particular of each family. Here we carried on an effort to determine uncommon cDNAs that represent possible new toxins from Lachesis muta (Viperidae). In addition to nine classes of typical toxins, atypical molecules never observed in the hundreds of Viperidae snakes studied so far are highly expressed: a diverging C-type lectin that is related to Viperidae toxins but appears to be independently originated; an ohanin-like toxin, which would be the third member of the most recently described class of Elapidae toxins, related to human butyrophilin and B30.2 proteins; and a 3FTx-like toxin, a new member of the widely studied three-finger family of proteins, which includes major Elapidae neurotoxins and CD59 antigen. The presence of these common and uncommon molecules suggests that the repertoire of toxins could be more conserved between families than has been considered, and their features indicate a dynamic process of venom evolution through molecular mechanisms, such as multiple recruitments of important scaffolds and domain exchange between paralogs, always keeping a minimalist nature in most toxin structures in opposition to their nontoxin counterparts.

  5. ISOLATION, CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTIN-ENCODING cDNAs FROM Jatropha curcas L. IP-2P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinya Akashi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Actin is a major component of the plant cytoskeleton, so all cells contain this protein. Actin is expressed constitutivelyand is involved in basic housekeeping functions required for cell maintenance. Because of this, it has been frequentlyused as an internal control to normalize changes in gene expressions analysis. Actually, the information of nucleotidesequence of actin gene of Jatropha curcas L. population IP-2P from Indonesia is not available yet. The objective of thisresearch was to isolate, clone and characterize cDNA of actin genes of J. curcas IP-2P. Three partial actin genesequences had been successfully isolated by PCR using total cDNA as template, and actin primer designed fromconserved region of Arabidopsis thaliana. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that the length of JcACT fragment is610, 534, and 701 bp encoding 203, 177, and 234 amino acids respectively. Local alignment analysis based on mRNAsequences shows that JcACT fragment shares 98% similarity with actin mRNA of Hevea brasiliensis and 99% withactin mRNA of Ricinus communis. Based on deduced amino acid sequence, JcACT is 100% identical to actins fromPrunus salicina, Gossypium hirsutum, and Betula luminifera. Even though these clones of cDNA are not completed yet,they can be used as reference in J. curcas L. gene expression analysis.

  6. Thermodynamics and kinetic studies in the binding interaction of cyclic naphthalene diimide derivatives with double stranded DNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Monirul; Fujii, Satoshi; Sato, Shinobu; Okauchi, Tatsuo; Takenaka, Shigeori

    2015-08-01

    Previously, we reported our investigations of the interaction between a cyclic naphthalene diimide derivative (cNDI 1) and double stranded DNA (dsDNA) (Bioorg. Med. Chem.2014, 22, 2593). Here, we report the synthesis of the novel cNDI 2, which has shorter linker chains than cNDI 1. We performed comparative investigations of the interactions of both cNDI 1 and cNDI 2 with different types of dsDNA, including analysis of their thermodynamics and kinetics. Interactions between the cNDIs and calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA), poly[d(A-T)]2, or poly[d(G-C)]2 were explored by physicochemical and biochemical methods, including UV-Vis spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, stopped-flow kinetics, and a topoisomerase I assay. Upon addition of cNDIs to CT-DNA, the existence of an induced CD signal at approximately the wavelength of the naphthalene diimide chromophore and unwinding of the DNA duplex, as detected by the topoisomerase I assay, revealed that cNDIs bound to the DNA duplex. As indicated by the steric constraint in the formation of the complex, bis-threading intercalation was the more favorable binding mode. UV-Vis spectroscopic titration of the cNDIs with DNA duplexes showed affinities on the order of 10(5)-10(6)M(-1), with a stoichiometry of one cNDI molecule per four DNA base pairs. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS) based on the van't Hoff equation indicated that exothermic and entropy-dependent hydrophobic interactions played a major role in the reaction. Stopped-flow association and dissociation analysis showed that cNDI interactions with poly[d(G-C)]2 were more stable and had a slower dissociation rate than their interactions with poly[d(A-T)]2 and CT-DNA. Measurement of ionic strength indicated that electrostatic attraction is also an important component of the interaction between cNDIs and CT-DNA. Because of its longer linker chain, cNDI 1 showed higher binding selectivity, a more entropically favorable interaction, and much slower dissociation

  7. Cloning and sequencing analysis of three amylase cDNAs in the shrimp Penaeus vannamei (Crustacea decapoda): evolutionary aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wormhoudt, A; Sellos, D

    1996-05-01

    In Penaeus vannamei, alpha-amylase is the most important glucosidase and is present as at least two major isoenzymes which have been purified. In order to obtain information on their structure, a hepatopancreas cDNA library constructed in phage lambda-Zap II (Strategene) was screened using a synthetic oligonucleotide based on the amino acid sequence of a V8 staphylococcal protease peptide of P. vannamei alpha-amylase. Three clones were selected: AMY SK 37 (EMBL sequence accession number: X 77318) is the most complete of the analyzed clones and was completely sequenced. It contains the complete cDNA sequence coding for one of the major isoenzymes of shrimp amylase. The deduced amino acid sequence shows the existence of a 511-residue-long pre-enzyme containing a highly hydrophobic signal peptide of 16 amino acids. Northern hybridization of total RNA with the amylase cDNA confirms the size of the messenger at around 1,600 bases. AMY SK 28, which contains the complete mature sequence of amylase, belonged to the same family characterized by a common 3' terminus and presented four amino acid changes. Some other variants of this family were also partially sequenced. AMY SK 20 was found to encode a minor variant of the protein with a different 3' terminus and 57 amino acid changes. Phylogenetic analysis established with the conserved amino acid regions of the (beta/alpha) eight-barrel domain and with the total sequence of P. vannamei showed close evolutionary relationships with mammals (59-63% identity) and with insect alpha-amylase (52-62% identity). The use of conserved sequences increased the level of similarity but it did not alter the ordering of the groupings. Location of the secondary structure elements confirmed the high level of sequence similarity of shrimp alpha-amylase with pig alpha-amylase.

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Park, Sang Un

    2013-01-01

    Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids at various chain positions to form a broad spectrum of apocarotenoids, including aromatic substances, pigments and phytohormones. Using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR method, we isolated three cDNA-encoding CCDs (McCCD1, McCCD4, and McNCED) from Momordica charantia. Amino acid sequence alignments showed that they share high sequence identity with other orthologous genes. Quantitative real-time RT PCR (reverse transcriptase PCR) analysis revealed that the expression of McCCD1 and McCCD4 was highest in flowers, and lowest in roots and old leaves (O-leaves). During fruit maturation, the two genes displayed differential expression, with McCCD1 peaking at mid-stage maturation while McCCD4 showed the lowest expression at that stage. The mRNA expression level of McNCED, a key enzyme involved in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, was high during fruit maturation and further increased at the beginning of seed germination. When first-leaf stage plants of M. charantia were exposed to dehydration stress, McNCED mRNA expression was induced primarily in the leaves and, to a lesser extend, in roots and stems. McNCED expression was also induced by high temperature and salinity, while treatment with exogenous ABA led to a decrease. These results should be helpful in determining the substrates and cleavage sites catalyzed by CCD genes in M. charantia, and also in defining the roles of CCDs in growth and development, and in the plant's response to environmental stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Chromosomal mapping of rDNAs and H3 histone sequences in the grasshopper rhammatocerus brasiliensis (acrididae, gomphocerinae: extensive chromosomal dispersion and co-localization of 5S rDNA/H3 histone clusters in the A complement and B chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Nathalia L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supernumerary B chromosomes occur in addition to standard karyotype and have been described in about 15% of eukaryotes, being the repetitive DNAs the major component of these chromosomes, including in some cases the presence of multigene families. To advance in the understanding of chromosomal organization of multigene families and B chromosome structure and evolution, the distribution of rRNA and H3 histone genes were analyzed in the standard karyotype and B chromosome of three populations of the grasshopper Rhammatocerus brasiliensis. Results The location of major rDNA was coincident with the previous analysis for this species. On the other hand, the 5S rDNA mapped in almost all chromosomes of the standard complement (except in the pair 11 and in the B chromosome, showing a distinct result from other populations previously analyzed. Besides the spreading of 5S rDNA in the genome of R. brasiliensis it was also observed multiple sites for H3 histone genes, being located in the same chromosomal regions of 5S rDNAs, including the presence of the H3 gene in the B chromosome. Conclusions Due to the intense spreading of 5S rRNA and H3 histone genes in the genome of R. brasiliensis, their chromosomal distribution was not informative in the clarification of the origin of B elements. Our results indicate a linked organization for the 5S rRNA and H3 histone multigene families investigated in R. brasiliensis, reinforcing previous data concerning the association of both genes in some insect groups. The present findings contribute to understanding the organization/evolution of multigene families in the insect genomes.

  10. Evidence of accelerated evolution and ectodermal-specific expression of presumptive BDS toxin cDNAs from Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicosia, Aldo; Maggio, Teresa; Mazzola, Salvatore; Cuttitta, Angela

    2013-10-30

    Anemonia viridis is a widespread and extensively studied Mediterranean species of sea anemone from which a large number of polypeptide toxins, such as blood depressing substances (BDS) peptides, have been isolated. The first members of this class, BDS-1 and BDS-2, are polypeptides belonging to the β-defensin fold family and were initially described for their antihypertensive and antiviral activities. BDS-1 and BDS-2 are 43 amino acid peptides characterised by three disulfide bonds that act as neurotoxins affecting Kv3.1, Kv3.2 and Kv3.4 channel gating kinetics. In addition, BDS-1 inactivates the Nav1.7 and Nav1.3 channels. The development of a large dataset of A. viridis expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and the identification of 13 putative BDS-like cDNA sequences has attracted interest, especially as scientific and diagnostic tools. A comparison of BDS cDNA sequences showed that the untranslated regions are more conserved than the protein-coding regions. Moreover, the KA/KS ratios calculated for all pairwise comparisons showed values greater than 1, suggesting mechanisms of accelerated evolution. The structures of the BDS homologs were predicted by molecular modelling. All toxins possess similar 3D structures that consist of a triple-stranded antiparallel β-sheet and an additional small antiparallel β-sheet located downstream of the cleavage/maturation site; however, the orientation of the triple-stranded β-sheet appears to differ among the toxins. To characterise the spatial expression profile of the putative BDS cDNA sequences, tissue-specific cDNA libraries, enriched for BDS transcripts, were constructed. In addition, the proper amplification of ectodermal or endodermal markers ensured the tissue specificity of each library. Sequencing randomly selected clones from each library revealed ectodermal-specific expression of ten BDS transcripts, while transcripts of BDS-8, BDS-13, BDS-14 and BDS-15 failed to be retrieved, likely due to under-representation in our

  11. Evidence of Accelerated Evolution and Ectodermal-Specific Expression of Presumptive BDS Toxin cDNAs from Anemonia viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Nicosia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Anemonia viridis is a widespread and extensively studied Mediterranean species of sea anemone from which a large number of polypeptide toxins, such as blood depressing substances (BDS peptides, have been isolated. The first members of this class, BDS-1 and BDS-2, are polypeptides belonging to the β-defensin fold family and were initially described for their antihypertensive and antiviral activities. BDS-1 and BDS-2 are 43 amino acid peptides characterised by three disulfide bonds that act as neurotoxins affecting Kv3.1, Kv3.2 and Kv3.4 channel gating kinetics. In addition, BDS-1 inactivates the Nav1.7 and Nav1.3 channels. The development of a large dataset of A. viridis expressed sequence tags (ESTs and the identification of 13 putative BDS-like cDNA sequences has attracted interest, especially as scientific and diagnostic tools. A comparison of BDS cDNA sequences showed that the untranslated regions are more conserved than the protein-coding regions. Moreover, the KA/KS ratios calculated for all pairwise comparisons showed values greater than 1, suggesting mechanisms of accelerated evolution. The structures of the BDS homologs were predicted by molecular modelling. All toxins possess similar 3D structures that consist of a triple-stranded antiparallel β-sheet and an additional small antiparallel β-sheet located downstream of the cleavage/maturation site; however, the orientation of the triple-stranded β-sheet appears to differ among the toxins. To characterise the spatial expression profile of the putative BDS cDNA sequences, tissue-specific cDNA libraries, enriched for BDS transcripts, were constructed. In addition, the proper amplification of ectodermal or endodermal markers ensured the tissue specificity of each library. Sequencing randomly selected clones from each library revealed ectodermal-specific expression of ten BDS transcripts, while transcripts of BDS-8, BDS-13, BDS-14 and BDS-15 failed to be retrieved, likely due to under

  12. Characterization of cDNAs encoding human leukosialin and localization of the leukosialin gene to chromosome 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallant, A.; Eskenazi, A.; Frelinger, J.G. (Univ. of Rochester Medical Center, NY (USA)); Mattei, M.G. (Hopital d' Enfants de la Timone, Marseille (France)); Fournier, R.E.K. (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (USA)); Carlsson, S.R.; Fukuda, M. (La Jolla Center Research Foundation, CA (USA))

    1989-02-01

    The authors describe the isolation and characterization of cDNA clones encoding human leukosialin, a major sialoglycoprotein of human leukocytes. Leukosialin is very closely related or identical to the sialophorin molecule, which is involved in T-cell proliferation and whose expression is altered in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), an X-chromosome-linked immunodeficiency disease. Using a rabbit antiserum to leukosialin, a cDNA clone was isolated from a {lambda}gt11 cDNA library constructed from human peripheral blood cells. The {lambda}gt11 clone was used to isolate longer cDNA clones that correspond to the entire coding sequence of leukosialin. DNA sequence analysis reveals three domains in the predicted mature protein. The extracellular domain is enriched for Ser, Thr, and Pro and contains four contiguous 18-amino acid repeats. The transmembrane and intracellular domains of the human leukosialin molecule are highly homologous to the rat W3/13 molecule. RNA gel blot analysis reveals two polyadenylylated species of 2.3 and 8 kilobases. Southern blot analysis suggests that human leukosialin is a single-copy gene. Analysis of monochromosomal cell hybrids indicates that the leukosialin gene is not X chromosome linked and in situ hybridization shows leukosialin is located on chromosome 16. These findings demonstrate that the primary mutation in WAS is not a defect in the structural gene for leukosialin.

  13. Molecular Cytogenetics in Digenean Parasites: Linked and Unlinked Major and 5S rDNAs, B Chromosomes and Karyotype Diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Souto, Daniel; Pasantes, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    Digenetic trematodes are the largest group of internal metazoan parasites, but their chromosomes are poorly studied. Although chromosome numbers and/or karyotypes are known for about 300 of the 18,000 described species, molecular cytogenetic knowledge is mostly limited to the mapping of telomeric sequences and/or of major rDNA clusters in 9 species. In this work we mapped major and 5S rDNA clusters and telomeric sequences in chromosomes of Bucephalus minimus, B. australis, Prosorhynchoides carvajali (Bucephaloidea), Monascus filiformis (Gymnophalloidea), Parorchis acanthus (Echinostomatoidea), Cryptocotyle lingua (Opisthorchioidea), Cercaria longicaudata, Monorchis parvus (Monorchioidea), Diphterostomum brusinae, and Bacciger bacciger (Microphalloidea). Whilst single major and minor rDNA clusters were mapped to different chromosome pairs in B. minimus and P. acanthus, overlapping signals were detected on a single chromosome pair in the remaining taxa. FISH experiments using major rDNA and telomeric probes clearly demonstrated the presence of highly stretched NORs in most of the digenean taxa analyzed. B chromosomes were detected in the B. bacciger samples hosted by Ruditapes decussatus. Although the cercariae specimens obtained from Donax trunculus, Tellina tenuis, and R. decussatus were in agreement with B. bacciger, their karyotypes showed striking morphological differences in agreement with the proposed assignation of these cercariae to different species of the genus Bacciger. Results are discussed in comparison with previous data on digenean chromosomes. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Characterization of Three Homoeologous cDNAs Encoding Chloroplast-targeted Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase in Common Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Takenouchi; Haruka Nakajima; Kengo Kanamaru; Shigeo Takumi

    2011-01-01

    In the tetrapyrrole biosynthetic pathway of higher plants,5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is metabolized by ALA dehydratase (ALAD).Here,we isolated ALAD1 cDNA from common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its diploid progenitors,and produced transgenic tobacco plants expressing the wheat ALAD1 gene.The ALAD1 genes were highly conserved among wheat relatives,and three homoeologous loci of wheat ALAD1 (TaALAD1) were equally transcribed in common wheat.A transient expression assay of a TaALAD1-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion protein suggested that TaALAD1 is localized in chloroplasts.Overexpression of TaALAD1 in transgenic tobacco resulted in a significant increase in ALAD activity in leaves.Moreover,the transgenic tobacco showed vigorous growth and increased survival rate on medium containing ALA at herbicidal concentrations.These results indicate that wheat ALAD1 has catalytic activity in metabolizing ALA in plastids,and that ectopic expression of TaALAD1 in transgenic plants increases their tolerance to ALA application at high concentrations.

  15. Characterization of cDNAs encoding serine proteases and their transcriptional responses to Cry1Ab protoxin in the gut of Ostrinia nubilalis larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxiu Yao

    Full Text Available Serine proteases, such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, are the primary digestive enzymes in lepidopteran larvae, and are also involved in Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt protoxin activation and protoxin/toxin degradation. We isolated and sequenced 34 cDNAs putatively encoding trypsins, chymotrypsins and their homologs from the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis larval gut. Our analyses of the cDNA-deduced amino acid sequences indicated that 12 were putative trypsins, 12 were putative chymotrypsins, and the remaining 10 were trypsin and chymotrypsin homologs that lack one or more conserved residues of typical trypsins and chymotrypsins. Reverse transcription PCR analysis indicated that all genes were highly expressed in gut tissues, but one group of phylogenetically-related trypsin genes, OnTry-G2, was highly expressed in larval foregut and midgut, whereas another group, OnTry-G3, was highly expressed in the midgut and hindgut. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that several trypsin genes (OnTry5 and OnTry6 were significantly up-regulated in the gut of third-instar larvae after feeding on Cry1Ab protoxin from 2 to 24 h, whereas one trypsin (OnTry2 was down-regulated at all time points. Four chymotrypsin and chymotrypsin homolog genes (OnCTP2, OnCTP5, OnCTP12 and OnCTP13 were up-regulated at least 2-fold in the gut of the larvae after feeding on Cry1Ab protoxin for 24 h. Our data represent the first in-depth study of gut transcripts encoding expanded families of protease genes in O. nubilalis larvae and demonstrate differential expression of protease genes that may be related to Cry1Ab intoxication and/or resistance.

  16. Characterization of the cDNAs encoding three GnRH forms in the pejerrey fish Odontesthes bonariensis (Atheriniformes) and the evolution of GnRH precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilgur, Leonardo G; Ortí, Guillermo; Strobl-Mazzulla, Pablo H; Fernandino, Juan I; Miranda, Leandro A; Somoza, Gustavo M

    2007-06-01

    Most vertebrates express two gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) variants in brain tissue but there is an increasing number of fish species for which a third GnRH form has been detected. We characterized the precursors (cDNAs) of all three forms expressed in the brain of the pejerrey (silverside) fish, Odontesthes bonariensis (Atheriniformes): type I (GnRH-I; 440 bp), type II (GnRH-II; 529 bp), and type III (GnRH-III; 515 bp). The expression of these GnRHs precursors was also observed in peripheral tissues related to reproduction (gonads), visual and chemical senses (eye and olfactory epithelium), and osmoregulation (gill), suggesting that in teleost fish and possibly other vertebrates GnRH mediates directly or indirectly many other functions besides reproduction. We also present a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis including representatives of all chordate GnRH precursors characterized to date that supports the idea of two main paralogous GnRH lineages with different function. A "forebrain lineage" separates evolutionarily from the "midbrain lineage" as a result of an ancient duplication (ca. 600 million years ago). A third, fish-only clade of GnRH genes seems to have originated before the divergence of fish and tetrapods but retained only in fish. Phylogenetic analyses of GnRH precursors (DNA and protein sequences) under different optimality criteria converge on this result. Although alternative scenarios could not be statistically rejected in this study due to the relatively short size of the analyzed molecules, this hypothesis also receives support from chromosomal studies of synteny around the GnRH genes in vertebrates.

  17. A conifer genomics resource of 200,000 spruce (Picea spp.) ESTs and 6,464 high-quality, sequence-finished full-length cDNAs for Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Steven G; Chun, Hye Jung E; Kolosova, Natalia; Cooper, Dawn; Oddy, Claire; Ritland, Carol E; Kirkpatrick, Robert; Moore, Richard; Barber, Sarah; Holt, Robert A; Jones, Steven J M; Marra, Marco A; Douglas, Carl J; Ritland, Kermit; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2008-10-14

    Members of the pine family (Pinaceae), especially species of spruce (Picea spp.) and pine (Pinus spp.), dominate many of the world's temperate and boreal forests. These conifer forests are of critical importance for global ecosystem stability and biodiversity. They also provide the majority of the world's wood and fiber supply and serve as a renewable resource for other industrial biomaterials. In contrast to angiosperms, functional and comparative genomics research on conifers, or other gymnosperms, is limited by the lack of a relevant reference genome sequence. Sequence-finished full-length (FL)cDNAs and large collections of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are essential for gene discovery, functional genomics, and for future efforts of conifer genome annotation. As part of a conifer genomics program to characterize defense against insects and adaptation to local environments, and to discover genes for the production of biomaterials, we developed 20 standard, normalized or full-length enriched cDNA libraries from Sitka spruce (P. sitchensis), white spruce (P. glauca), and interior spruce (P. glauca-engelmannii complex). We sequenced and analyzed 206,875 3'- or 5'-end ESTs from these libraries, and developed a resource of 6,464 high-quality sequence-finished FLcDNAs from Sitka spruce. Clustering and assembly of 147,146 3'-end ESTs resulted in 19,941 contigs and 26,804 singletons, representing 46,745 putative unique transcripts (PUTs). The 6,464 FLcDNAs were all obtained from a single Sitka spruce genotype and represent 5,718 PUTs. This paper provides detailed annotation and quality assessment of a large EST and FLcDNA resource for spruce. The 6,464 Sitka spruce FLcDNAs represent the third largest sequence-verified FLcDNA resource for any plant species, behind only rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and the only substantial FLcDNA resource for a gymnosperm. Our emphasis on capturing FLcDNAs and ESTs from cDNA libraries representing herbivore

  18. A conifer genomics resource of 200,000 spruce (Picea spp. ESTs and 6,464 high-quality, sequence-finished full-length cDNAs for Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holt Robert A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the pine family (Pinaceae, especially species of spruce (Picea spp. and pine (Pinus spp., dominate many of the world's temperate and boreal forests. These conifer forests are of critical importance for global ecosystem stability and biodiversity. They also provide the majority of the world's wood and fiber supply and serve as a renewable resource for other industrial biomaterials. In contrast to angiosperms, functional and comparative genomics research on conifers, or other gymnosperms, is limited by the lack of a relevant reference genome sequence. Sequence-finished full-length (FLcDNAs and large collections of expressed sequence tags (ESTs are essential for gene discovery, functional genomics, and for future efforts of conifer genome annotation. Results As part of a conifer genomics program to characterize defense against insects and adaptation to local environments, and to discover genes for the production of biomaterials, we developed 20 standard, normalized or full-length enriched cDNA libraries from Sitka spruce (P. sitchensis, white spruce (P. glauca, and interior spruce (P. glauca-engelmannii complex. We sequenced and analyzed 206,875 3'- or 5'-end ESTs from these libraries, and developed a resource of 6,464 high-quality sequence-finished FLcDNAs from Sitka spruce. Clustering and assembly of 147,146 3'-end ESTs resulted in 19,941 contigs and 26,804 singletons, representing 46,745 putative unique transcripts (PUTs. The 6,464 FLcDNAs were all obtained from a single Sitka spruce genotype and represent 5,718 PUTs. Conclusion This paper provides detailed annotation and quality assessment of a large EST and FLcDNA resource for spruce. The 6,464 Sitka spruce FLcDNAs represent the third largest sequence-verified FLcDNA resource for any plant species, behind only rice (Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana, and the only substantial FLcDNA resource for a gymnosperm. Our emphasis on capturing FLcDNAs and

  19. Two RNAs or DNAs May Artificially Fuse Together at a Short Homologous Sequence (SHS during Reverse Transcription or Polymerase Chain Reactions, and Thus Reporting an SHS-Containing Chimeric RNA Requires Extra Caution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingkun Xie

    Full Text Available Tens of thousands of chimeric RNAs have been reported. Most of them contain a short homologous sequence (SHS at the joining site of the two partner genes but are not associated with a fusion gene. We hypothesize that many of these chimeras may be technical artifacts derived from SHS-caused mis-priming in reverse transcription (RT or polymerase chain reactions (PCR. We cloned six chimeric complementary DNAs (cDNAs formed by human mitochondrial (mt 16S rRNA sequences at an SHS, which were similar to several expression sequence tags (ESTs.These chimeras, which could not be detected with cDNA protection assay, were likely formed because some regions of the 16S rRNA are reversely complementary to another region to form an SHS, which allows the downstream sequence to loop back and anneal at the SHS to prime the synthesis of its complementary strand, yielding a palindromic sequence that can form a hairpin-like structure.We identified a 16S rRNA that ended at the 4th nucleotide(nt of the mt-tRNA-leu was dominant and thus should be the wild type. We also cloned a mouse Bcl2-Nek9 chimeric cDNA that contained a 5-nt unmatchable sequence between the two partners, contained two copies of the reverse primer in the same direction but did not contain the forward primer, making it unclear how this Bcl2-Nek9 was formed and amplified. Moreover, a cDNA was amplified because one primer has 4 nts matched to the template, suggesting that there may be many more artificial cDNAs than we have realized, because the nuclear and mt genomes have many more 4-nt than 5-nt or longer homologues. Altogether, the chimeric cDNAs we cloned are good examples suggesting that many cDNAs may be artifacts due to SHS-caused mis-priming and thus greater caution should be taken when new sequence is obtained from a technique involving DNA polymerization.

  20. Klebsiella pneumoniae asparagine tDNAs are integration hotspots for different genomic islands encoding microcin E492 production determinants and other putative virulence factors present in hypervirulent strains

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    Andrés Esteban Marcoleta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the developing of multi-resistant and invasive hypervirulent strains, Klebsiella pneumoniae has become one of the most urgent bacterial pathogen threats in the last years. Genomic comparison of a growing number of sequenced isolates has allowed the identification of putative virulence factors, proposed to be acquirable mainly through horizontal gene transfer. In particular, those related with synthesizing the antibacterial peptide microcin E492 (MccE492 and salmochelin siderophores were found to be highly prevalent among hypervirulent strains. The determinants for the production of both molecules were first reported as part of a 13-kbp segment of K. pneumoniae RYC492 chromosome, and were cloned and characterized in E. coli. However, the genomic context of this segment in K. pneumoniae remained uncharacterized.In this work we provided experimental and bioinformatics evidence indicating that the MccE492 cluster is part of a highly conserved 23-kbp genomic island (GI named GIE492, that was integrated in a specific asparagine-tRNA gene (asn-tDNA and was found in a high proportion of isolates from liver abscesses sampled around the world. This element resulted to be unstable and its excision frequency increased after treating bacteria with mytomicin C and upon the overexpression of the island-encoded integrase. Besides the MccE492 genetic cluster, it invariably included an integrase-coding gene, at least 7 protein-coding genes of unknown function, and a putative transfer origin that possibly allows this GI to be mobilized through conjugation. In addition, we analyzed the asn-tDNA loci of all the available K. pneumoniae assembled chromosomes to evaluate them as GI-integration sites. Remarkably, 73% of the strains harbored at least one GI integrated in one of the four asn-tDNA present in this species, confirming them as integration hotspots. Each of these tDNAs was occupied with different frequencies, although they were 100% identical. Also, we

  1. Fabrics China Creation Show Hold in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On August 5-6th.the 3rd Fabrics China Creation Show(one series events of Reach & Touch),organized by China National Textile & Apparel Council and National Textile Development Center,was held in Shanghai,aiming to providing textile producers and designers a platform to show their inspirations and creative ideas in fabric design.

  2. Serving Up Activities for TV Cooking Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchen, Johanna E.

    This paper documents a presentation given on the use of English-language television cooking shows in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) classrooms in Taiwan. Such shows can be ideal for classroom use, since they have a predictable structure consisting of short segments, are of interest to most students,…

  3. Voyeurismo Televisivo, Reality Shows e Brasilidade Televisiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Kilpp

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years we watched a boom of reality shows in the media and also in the academic production specialized in this subject. It remains, however, a epistemological gap related to the aesthetic and techniques (which are related to the televisions grammars that TV uses in these programs to enunciate ethics directions to its own voyeurism, that goes far beyond reality shows, having repercussions on social imaginary of transparency and surveillance, and the redesign of public and private spaces. In this gap, the article points out the debate of Brazilian reality shows in the perspective of the televisions grammars.

  4. Fecal Transplant Shows Early Promise Against Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163263.html Fecal Transplant Shows Early Promise Against Autism Small study found giving healthy gut bacteria to ... study suggests a novel treatment for kids with autism: Give these young patients a fresh supply of ...

  5. Poverty Harder on Women's Hearts, Research Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163168.html Poverty Harder on Women's Hearts, Research Shows Poor females ... reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease around the world," Peters said. The study findings were published online ...

  6. Diabetes Drug Shows Promise Against Parkinson's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_167612.html Diabetes Drug Shows Promise Against Parkinson's Byetta improved symptoms of motor disease in small, ... may do double duty as a treatment for Parkinson's disease, a new study suggests. "This is a ...

  7. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  8. Study Shows How Zika Attacks Infant Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162514.html Study Shows How Zika Attacks Infant Brain Virus can copy itself thousands ... New research paints a chilling portrait of how Zika ravages the infant brain. Scientists from the U.S. ...

  9. Fabrics China Creation Show Held in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On August 5-6th,the 3rd Fabrics China Creation Show (one series events of Reach & Touch),organized by China National Textile & Apparel Council and National Textile Development Center,was held in Shanghai,

  10. Voyeurismo Televisivo, Reality Shows e Brasilidade Televisiva

    OpenAIRE

    Suzana Kilpp

    2008-01-01

    In the last years we watched a boom of reality shows in the media and also in the academic production specialized in this subject. It remains, however, a epistemological gap related to the aesthetic and techniques (which are related to the televisions grammars) that TV uses in these programs to enunciate ethics directions to its own voyeurism, that goes far beyond reality shows, having repercussions on social imaginary of transparency and surveillance, and the redesign of public and private s...

  11. Immunoselection of cDNAs to avian intestinal calcium binding protein 28K and a novel calmodulin-like protein: assessment of mRNA regulation by the Vitamin D hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangelsdorf, D.J.; Komm, B.S.; McDonnell, D.P.; Pike, J.W.; Haussler, M.R.

    1987-12-15

    Calcium's role in a variety of cellular processes has been well documented. The storage, distribution, and delivery of calcium are regulated by a family of binding proteins including troponin C, calmodulin, parvalbumin, and vitamin D dependent calcium binding protein (CaBP-28), all of which have evolved from a common ancestral gene. To evaluate vitamin D regulation of gene transcription, a CaBP-28 cDNA (767 base pairs) was isolated from a chicken intestine lambdagt11 library utilizing a polyvalent CaBP-28 antibody as a probe. Coincident with the identification of the CaBP-28 cDNA, a group of cDNAs also was isolated (with the anti-CaBP-28 antibody) that demonstrated 84% nucleotide homology and 99% deduced amino acid homology with chicken brain calmodulin (CaM). This new CaM-like cDNA was named neoCaM. There is little nucleotide homology between the CaBP-28 cDNA and neoCaM. The CaBP-28 cDNA hybridizes with three transcripts of 2000, 2900, and 3300 bases which are dramatically induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ (1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/), while the neoCaM cDNA recognizes three distinct (from CaBP-28) transcripts. Two of these mRNAs are 1400 and 1800 bases as described for brain CaM, but another large 4000-base transcript is detected with neoCaM. Neither the CaM nor the neoCaM transcript reveals any modulation by 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/. Herein, the authors discuss the possible significance of not only the isolation of both cDNAs with a single antibody but also the relation of neoCaM to other well-characterized CaM cDNAs.

  12. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  13. 2008 LHC Open Days Physics: the show

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    A host of events and activities await visitors to the LHC Open Days on 5 and 6 April. A highlight will be the physics shows funded by the European Physical Society (EPS), which are set to surprise and challenge children and adults alike! School children use their experience of riding a bicycle to understand how planets move around the sun (Copyright : Circus Naturally) Participating in the Circus Naturally show could leave a strange taste in your mouth! (Copyright : Circus Naturally) The Rino Foundation’s experiments with liquid nitrogen can be pretty exciting! (Copyright: The Rino Foundation)What does a bicycle have in common with the solar system? Have you ever tried to weigh air or visualise sound? Ever heard of a vacuum bazooka? If you want to discover the answers to these questions and more then come to the Physics Shows taking place at the CERN O...

  14. Liquid Crystal Research Shows Deformation By Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    These images, from David Weitz's liquid crystal research, show ordered uniform sized droplets (upper left) before they are dried from their solution. After the droplets are dried (upper right), they are viewed with crossed polarizers that show the deformation caused by drying, a process that orients the bipolar structure of the liquid crystal within the droplets. When an electric field is applied to the dried droplets (lower left), and then increased (lower right), the liquid crystal within the droplets switches its alignment, thereby reducing the amount of light that can be scattered by the droplets when a beam is shone through them.

  15. A Talk Show from the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan…

  16. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the cinem

  17. Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163824.html Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma Over one-third ... TUESDAY, Feb. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental gene therapy for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma beat back more ...

  18. Development, management and economy of show caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigna Arrigo A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems concerning the development of show caves are here considered by taking into account different aspects of the problem. A procedure to carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA has been established in the last decade and it is now currently applied. Such an assessment starts with a pre-operational phase to obtain sufficient information on the undisturbed status of a cave to be developed into a show cave. Successively a programme for its development is established with the scope to optimise the intervention on the cave at the condition that its basic environmental parameters are not irreversibly modified. The last phase of the assessment is focussed to assure a feedback through a monitoring network in order to detect any unforeseen difference or anomaly between the project and the effective situation achieved after the cave development. Some data on some of the most important show caves in the world are reported and a tentative evaluation of the economy in connection with the show caves business is eventually made.

  19. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  20. TV-Show Retrieval and Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musto, C.; Narducci, F.; Lops, P.; Semeraro G.; Gemmis, M. de; Barbieri, M.; Korst, J.H.M.; Pronk, S.P.P.; Clout, R.A.W.

    2012-01-01

    Recommender systems are becoming popular tools to aid users in finding interesting and relevant TV-shows and other digital video assets,based on implicitly learned user preferences. In this context, a common assumption is that user preferences can be specified by program types (movie, sports, ...) a

  1. The British Show in Australia, 1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Bond

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1984–85, The British Show, an exhibition largely made up of New British Sculpture, was curated for Australia and New Zealand. This essay discusses the context and effects of the exhibition on art in Australia. It also seeks to define the sources of originality and innovation of the artists included.

  2. Laser entertainment and light shows in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Andrew T.; Symons, Charles

    2002-05-01

    Laser shows and beam effects have been a source of entertainment since its first public performance May 9, 1969, at Mills College in Oakland, California. Since 1997, the Photonics Center, NgeeAnn Polytechnic, Singapore, has been using laser shows as a teaching tool. Students are able to exhibit their creative skills and learn at the same time how lasers are used in the entertainment industry. Students will acquire a number of skills including handling three- phase power supply, operation of cooling system, and laser alignment. Students also acquire an appreciation of the arts, learning about shapes and contours as they develop graphics for the shows. After holography, laser show animation provides a combination of the arts and technology. This paper aims to briefly describe how a krypton-argon laser, galvanometer scanners, a polychromatic acousto-optic modulator and related electronics are put together to develop a laser projector. The paper also describes how students are trained to make their own laser animation and beam effects with music, and at the same time have an appreciation of the operation of a Class IV laser and the handling of optical components.

  3. La mujer, en los talk shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antrop. José Gamboa Cetina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de los medios de comunicación, uno de los que más ha impactado a la población latinoamericana ha sido la televisión, y en la barra programática de las televisoras ha surgido un tipo de programas denominados talk shows. En los últimos meses, la sociedad mexicana ha vivido el "boom" de los talk shows, que en poco tiempo han saturado la barra de la programación vespertina de las dos principales empresas televisivas de la república mexicana. Este fenómeno puede estudiarse desde diversas perspectivas. Sin embargo, por motivos de espacio, en esta ocasión analizaremos su impacto en las mujeres, desde diferentes dimensiones.

  4. 2009 Hands Across Pacific Show Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The 2009 Hands Across the Pacific Show co-sponsored by the Canadian International Cultural Exchanges (CICEX) and Hunan Provincial People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries(HPPAFFC) was held respectively in the Tower Hall of Tokyo,Japan from July 2 to 7 and in the Hunan Provincial Museum from August 1 to 5.Jing Dunquan,Vice President of the

  5. The People's Show: A Critical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Francis

    1996-01-01

    The 1990s heralded a new form of museum exhibition: "The People's Show." A light-hearted celebration of popular culture, the concept has had phenomenal success throughout the United Kingdom. Beneath the humour, however, are more complex and radical agendas relating to cultural rights. The paper explores the issues associated with the rise and possible wane of this museum-based popular cultural phenomenon.

  6. Reality, ficción o show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ruíz Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa “Protagonistas de novela” y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión “trash”, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

  7. Chromosomal mapping of repetitive DNAs in the beetle Dichotomius geminatus provides the first evidence for an association of 5S rRNA and histone H3 genes in insects, and repetitive DNA similarity between the B chromosome and A complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-de-Mello, D C; Moura, R C; Martins, C

    2010-04-01

    Chromosomal banding techniques and repetitive DNA mapping are useful tools in comparative analysis and in the elucidation of genome organization of several groups of eukaryotes. In this study, we contributed to the knowledge of Coleoptera genomes by reporting the chromosomal organization of repetitive DNA sequences, as well as the presence and characteristics of a B chromosome in two natural populations of Dichotomius geminatus (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae) using classical, chromosomal banding and molecular cytogenetic techniques. As in other coleopteran species, the heterochromatin was mainly concentrated in pericentromeric regions and the B chromosome was composed almost entirely of heterochromatin. Physical mapping using double fluorescent in situ hybridization was performed for the first time in Coleoptera; using DNA probes for 5S and 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and histone H3 genes, we showed that ribosomal 18S rDNAs are located in chromosomes 3 and 4, whereas 5S rRNA and histone H3 genes are colocalized in chromosomal pair 2 and show an apparently interspersed organization. Moreover, these genes are not present in the B chromosome, suggesting that the B chromosome did not originate from chromosomal pairs 2, 3 or 4. On the other hand, mapping of the C(0)t-1 DNA fraction showed that the B chromosome is enriched in repetitive DNA elements, also present in the standard complement, indicating an intraspecific origin of this element in D. geminatus. These results will contribute to our understanding of genome organization and evolution of repetitive elements in Coleoptera and other insects regarding both A and B chromosomes.

  8. Bite my art to show your love

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hye yeon

    2012-01-01

    Two years ago, I came to the States for MFA program in UCSD. At first, I started making instructions for performance to communicate with people in my clumsy English, but it soon became my general process of working. In this show, I present a room surrounded by five video projections and drawings. They are documentation of performances concerning the balance of relationship. I performed two with Josh Aaron, other two with Josh Tonies, and one by myself. The performance done by myself reveals t...

  9. Showing and Saying. An Aesthetic Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Sanfélix Vidarte

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Wittgenstein’s distinction between saying and showing and the associated thesis, what can be shown cannot be said, were crucial to his first philosophy, persisted throughout the evolution of his whole thought and played a key role in his views on aesthetics. The objective of art is access to the mystical, forcing us to become aware of the uniqueness of our own experience and life. When art is good is a perfect expression and the work of art becomes like a tautology. An important consequence of this understanding of art is the irreducibility of the aesthetic to the scientific perspective.

  10. Latest European coelacanth shows Gondwanan affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavin, Lionel; Forey, Peter L; Buffetaut, Eric; Tong, Haiyan

    2005-06-22

    The last European fossil occurrence of a coelacanth is from the Mid-Cretaceous of the English Chalk (Turonian, 90 million years ago). Here, we report the discovery of a coelacanth from Late Cretaceous non-marine rocks in southern France. It consists of a left angular bone showing structures that imply close phylogenetic affinities with some extinct Mawsoniidae. The closest relatives are otherwise known from Cretaceous continental deposits of southern continents and suggest that the dispersal of freshwater organisms from Africa to Europe occurred in the Late Cretaceous.

  11. Figure of Beijing ABP Showing up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Last year, there were many good news from Beijing Advanced Business Park(ABP): on October 29, 2005, Xu Weiping, Chairman of the Board of ABP, was chosen as the"2005 Ten Major Chinese Administrative Person in News";On November 8,2005,CCIM (American Certified Commercial Investment Member) invited 40 world famous real estate investors to visit ABS and they showed will to cooperate; On November 22, 2005, Johnson Controls, Inc., one of World Top 500, signed the contract with Zhongguan Village Fengtai Garden that the headquarter of JCI energy administration China Branch will move to ABP to improve the energy administration and radiate all the nation; on December 10,2005, "CEO Salon" co-organized by Phoenix Satellite Television and ABP, was held in the meeting room of ABP, over 120CEOs met here to discuss the trend of China economic development and the development opportunities brought by 11th Five-Year Plan for enterprises.

  12. Lemurs and macaques show similar numerical sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah M.; Pearson, John; DeWind, Nicholas K.; Paulsen, David; Tenekedjieva, Ana-Maria; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the precision of the approximate number system (ANS) in three lemur species (Lemur catta, Eulemur mongoz, and Eulemur macaco flavifrons), one Old World monkey species (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens). In Experiment 1, four individuals of each nonhuman primate species were trained to select the numerically larger of two visual arrays on a touchscreen. We estimated numerical acuity by modeling Weber fractions (w) and found quantitatively equivalent performance among all four nonhuman primate species. In Experiment 2, we tested adult humans in a similar procedure, and they outperformed the four nonhuman species but showed qualitatively similar performance. These results indicate that the ANS is conserved over the primate order. PMID:24068469

  13. Star Shows It Has The Right Stuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Astronomers have used an observation by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to make the best case yet that a star can be engulfed by its companion star and survive. This discovery will help astronomers better understand how closely coupled stars, and perhaps even stars and planets, evolve when one of the stars expands enormously in its red giant phase. The binary star system known as V471 Tauri comprises a white dwarf star (the primary) in a close orbit -- one thirtieth of the distance between Mercury and the Sun -- with a normal Sun-like star (the secondary). Chandra's data showed that the hot upper atmosphere of the secondary star has a deficit of carbon atoms relative to nitrogen atoms. "This deficit of carbon atoms is the first clear observational evidence that the normal star was engulfed by its companion in the past," according to Jeremy Drake of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, MA, who coauthored an article on V471 in The Astrophysical Journal Letters with Marek Sarna of the N. Copernicus Astronomical Center in Poland. The white dwarf star was once a star several times as massive as the Sun. Nuclear fusion reactions in the core of such a star convert carbon into nitrogen over a period of about a billion years. When the fuel in the core of the star is exhausted, the core collapses, triggering more energetic nuclear reactions that cause the star to expand and transform into a red giant before eventually collapsing to become a white dwarf. The carbon-poor material in the core of the red giant is mixed with outer part of the star, so its atmosphere shows a deficit of carbon, as compared with Sun-like stars. The X-ray spectra of a red giant star (top panel) and a Sun-like star (bottom panel) show the large difference in the peaks due to carbon atoms in the two stars. Theoretical calculations indicate that a red giant in a binary system can completely envelop its companion star and dramatically affect its evolution. During this common envelope

  14. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R

    2007-01-01

    Recent claims of cultivable ancient bacteria within sealed environments highlight our limited understanding of the mechanisms behind long-term cell survival. It remains unclear how dormancy, a favored explanation for extended cellular persistence, can cope with spontaneous genomic decay over......-term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence...... that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability....

  15. NASA GIBS Use in Live Planetarium Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmart, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium was rebuilt in year 2000 as an immersive theater for scientific data visualization to show the universe in context to our planet. Specific astrophysical movie productions provide the main daily programming, but interactive control software, developed at AMNH allows immersive presentation within a data aggregation of astronomical catalogs called the Digital Universe 3D Atlas. Since 2006, WMS globe browsing capabilities have been built into a software development collaboration with Sweden's Linkoping University (LiU). The resulting Uniview software, now a product of the company SCISS, is operated by about fifty planetariums around that world with ability to network amongst the sites for global presentations. Public presentation of NASA GIBS has allowed authoritative narratives to be presented within the range of data available in context to other sources such as Science on a Sphere, NASA Earth Observatory and Google Earth KML resources. Specifically, the NOAA supported World Views Network conducted a series of presentations across the US that focused on local ecological issues that could then be expanded in the course of presentation to national and global scales of examination. NASA support of for GIBS resources in an easy access multi scale streaming format like WMS has tremendously enabled particularly facile presentations of global monitoring like never before. Global networking of theaters for distributed presentations broadens out the potential for impact of this medium. Archiving and refinement of these presentations has already begun to inform new types of documentary productions that examine pertinent, global interdependency topics.

  16. The great American medicine show revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomes, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Since the late 1800s, changes in the advertising and marketing of medicinal drugs have produced heated debates in the United States. With the emergence of the modern prescription drug between 1938 and 1951, concerns that once focused primarily on patients' use of over-the-counter drugs were broadened to include physicians and their "doctors' drugs" as well. The medical profession's growing control over their patients' drug choices inevitably heightened the scrutiny of their own performance as consumers. Although deeply divided over issues of the patient's role in medical decision making, consumer activists and physician reformers expressed similar concerns about the impact of aggressive pharmaceutical marketing and advertising on the doctor-patient relationship, and starting in the late 1950s they employed strikingly similar strategies to counter the new corporate "medicine show." Yet their efforts to promote a more rational use of prescription drugs have usually been too little and too late to offset the effectiveness of pharmaceutical advertising and mar-keting activities.

  17. Tetrahydrobiopterin shows chaperone activity for tyrosine hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thöny, Beat; Calvo, Ana C; Scherer, Tanja; Svebak, Randi M; Haavik, Jan; Blau, Nenad; Martinez, Aurora

    2008-07-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters. Primary inherited defects in TH have been associated with l-DOPA responsive and non-responsive dystonia and infantile parkinsonism. In this study, we show that both the cofactor (6R)-l-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) and the feedback inhibitor and catecholamine product dopamine increase the kinetic stability of human TH isoform 1 in vitro. Activity measurements and synthesis of the enzyme by in vitro transcription-translation revealed a complex regulation by the cofactor including both enzyme inactivation and conformational stabilization. Oral BH(4) supplementation to mice increased TH activity and protein levels in brain extracts, while the Th-mRNA level was not affected. All together our results indicate that the molecular mechanisms for the stabilization are a primary folding-aid effect of BH(4) and a secondary effect by increased synthesis and binding of catecholamine ligands. Our results also establish that orally administered BH(4) crosses the blood-brain barrier and therapeutic regimes based on BH(4) supplementation should thus consider the effect on TH. Furthermore, BH(4) supplementation arises as a putative therapeutic agent in the treatment of brain disorders associated with TH misfolding, such as for the human TH isoform 1 mutation L205P.

  18. The earliest published electrocardiogram showing ventricular preexcitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Knorre, Georg H

    2005-03-01

    When in 1930, Wolff, Parkinson, and White published what is today known as the WPW, or preexcitation syndrome, they, and subsequently others, found few comparable cases in the preceding literature. Among these the report of Cohn and Fraser, published in 1913, was the earliest. However, another even earlier documentation in a 1909 article by Hoffmann escaped notice till now. The ECG of a patient with paroxysmal tachycardia reveals a short PR interval and a delta-wave-induced widening of the QRS complex, even though the reproduced tachycardia was not preexcitation related. The interpretation of this poorly reproduced ECG can be confirmed by another and more detailed description of the patient in an electrocardiography textbook published in 1914 by the same author. Thus, the earliest publication of an ECG showing ventricular preexcitation now can be dated back to 1909. Moreover, the Hoffmann monograph contains two additional examples of the WPW syndrome not noticed until now. All three cases published by Hoffmann had their first ECG recordings in 1912 or earlier.

  19. Ribavirin shows immunomodulatory effects on activated microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Danijela; Stojiljkovic, Mirjana; Lavrnja, Irena; Parabucki, Ana; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Nedeljkovic, Nadezda; Herdegen, Thomas; Pekovic, Sanja

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Ribavirin (RBV) is synthetic purine nucleoside analogue, licensed as anti-viral drug that displays immunomodulatory actions on various immune cells. Our previous ex vivo studies have demonstrated immunosuppressive effects of RBV on reactive T-lymphocytes in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Here, we examined the effects of RBV on inflammatory response of microglia. RBV potency to down-regulate microglia inflammatory response was assessed by measuring microglia cell body size, and the production of nitric oxide (NO) and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. RBV exerted cytotoxic effects on LPS-stimulated microglia, leaving non-stimulated microglia unaffected. The exposure of activated microglia to RBV led to: decrease in the level of NO as a result of decreased cell number, lower average cell surface, the reduction of membrane ruffling, the suppression of interleukin-6 release and promoted interleukin-10 production. On the other hand, RBV promoted LPS-induced interleukin-1 beta release. Our results imply that RBV is a complex immunomodulator showing both anti- and pro-inflammatory effects on activated microglia.

  20. MRI shows clodronate-liposomes attenuating liverinjuryinratswithsevereacutepancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Xin Zhang; Sheng-Chun Dang; Yong Zhang; Xin Sha; Li-Rong Zhang; Chuan-She Wei; Min Chen; De-Li Jiang

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have revealed that macrophages play an important role in the development of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Activated macrophages can lead to a systemic inlfammatory response, induce lipid peroxidation, impair membrane structure, result in injury to the liver and the other extrahepatic organs, and eventually result in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome by promoting excessive secretion of cytokines. Liver injury can further aggravate the systemic inlfammatory response and increase mortality by affecting the metabolism of toxins and the release of excessive inlfammatory mediators. Clodronate is a synthetic bisphosphonate, which is often used for treating bone changes caused by osteoporosis and other factors. In the current study, we created liposomes containing superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIOs) for macrophage labeling and magnetic resonance imaging, using a novel method that can bind the clodronate to induce apoptosis and deplete macrophages. METHODS: Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by chemical coprecipitation. SPIO-containing liposomes and SPIO-clodronate-containing liposomes were prepared by the thin iflm method. SAP models were prepared by injection of sodium taurocholate (2 ml/kg body weight) into the subcapsular space of the pancreas. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group, a SAP plus SPIO-liposome group, and a SAP plus SPIO-clodronate-containing group. Two and six hours after SAP models were available, T2-weighted MRI scans (in the same plane) of the livers of rats in each group were performed. At the end of the scans, 2 ml of blood was taken from the superior mesenteric vein to measure the levels of serum amylase, ALT, AST, TNF-α, and IL-6. Pathological changes in the liver and pancreas were assessed. RESULTS: Transmission electron microscopy showed that the liposomes had a uniform size. No pathological changes in the pancreata of rats in the control group were noted. The

  1. 斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)两种催乳素受体基因的cDNA克隆和mRNA表达分析%cDNAs CLONING AND mRNA EXPRESSION OF TWO PROLACTIN RECEPTORS IN ORANGE-SPOTTED GROUPER EPINEPHELUS COIOIDES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 马细兰; 陈勇智; 李水生; 陈华谱; 刘晓春; 林浩然

    2012-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) has many important physiological roles in the control of growth, osmoregulation and reproduction, which is mediated by prolactin receptor (PRLR). In this study, two cDNAs encoding PRLR were isolated from the gill of orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides. The two cDNAs, one consisting of 1947bp and the other of 1749bp, encoding for putative 649- and 487-amino acid PRLR (designated PRLR1 and PRLR2, respectively), shared 40.4% identity in deduced amino acid sequence. PRLR1 and PRLR2 showed the conserved structural characteristics of PRLR family, including the WS motif, the box1 region, extracellular cysteine residues and intracellular tyrosine residues. However, there were differences of structural features between the two receptors as well. PRLR1 has 13 intracellular tyrosine residues while PRLR2 only has 8. The structural discrepancies thus undoubtedly indicated the distinct biological functions of PRLR1 and PRLR2. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that both PRLR1 and PRLR2 mRNAs were presented in all tissues tested and expressed extremely highly in gill, kidney and intestine, lowly in pituitary and hypothalamus. The expressions of PRLR1 and PRLR2 in different embryo developmental stages were also detected by real-time PCR. The strongest signal was detected in the fertilized egg stage for PRLR1, while in the stage of optic vesicle and smoite formation for PRLR2. The expression level of PRLR2 is much higher than PRLR1 in all stages examined except in the fertilized egg stage. The expression distinction of PRLR1 and PRLR2 suggested that they may play different roles during early development of orange-spotted grouper.%采用RT-PCR方法克隆了斜带石斑鱼两种催乳素受体(Prolactin receptor,PRLR)的cDNA序列,序列分析表明:PRLR1开放阅读框为1947bp,共编码649个氨基酸,PRLR2开放阅读框为1749bp,共编码487个氨基酸,PRLR1与PRLR2的氨基酸同源性为40.4%。用Real-time RT-PCR方法研究了PRLR1

  2. Microarrays for global expression constructed with a low redundancy set of 27,500 sequenced cDNAs representing an array of developmental stages and physiological conditions of the soybean plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retzel Ernest

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays are an important tool with which to examine coordinated gene expression. Soybean (Glycine max is one of the most economically valuable crop species in the world food supply. In order to accelerate both gene discovery as well as hypothesis-driven research in soybean, global expression resources needed to be developed. The applications of microarray for determining patterns of expression in different tissues or during conditional treatments by dual labeling of the mRNAs are unlimited. In addition, discovery of the molecular basis of traits through examination of naturally occurring variation in hundreds of mutant lines could be enhanced by the construction and use of soybean cDNA microarrays. Results We report the construction and analysis of a low redundancy 'unigene' set of 27,513 clones that represent a variety of soybean cDNA libraries made from a wide array of source tissue and organ systems, developmental stages, and stress or pathogen-challenged plants. The set was assembled from the 5' sequence data of the cDNA clones using cluster analysis programs. The selected clones were then physically reracked and sequenced at the 3' end. In order to increase gene discovery from immature cotyledon libraries that contain abundant mRNAs representing storage protein gene families, we utilized a high density filter normalization approach to preferentially select more weakly expressed cDNAs. All 27,513 cDNA inserts were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. The amplified products, along with some repetitively spotted control or 'choice' clones, were used to produce three 9,728-element microarrays that have been used to examine tissue specific gene expression and global expression in mutant isolines. Conclusions Global expression studies will be greatly aided by the availability of the sequence-validated and low redundancy cDNA sets described in this report. These cDNAs and ESTs represent a wide array of developmental

  3. Cloning of Full-Length cDNAs Encoding Two Methyl-Binding Domain Proteins and Their Expression Patterns in Wheat Seeds%两个小麦甲基结合蛋白基因cDNA全长克隆及其在种子中的表达特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡荣; 李永春; 凌娜; 王潇; 司志飞; 张艳霞; 尹钧

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] Analyzing the sequence characteristics of two wheat MBD genes,TaMBD1 and TaMBD6 and their expression patterns during the seed development and germination,which will provide an insight into epigenctic regulation mechanisms involved in the development and germination of wheat seeds.[Method] RACE technology was used in full-length cDNAs cloning and proper bioinformatics softwares were applied for characterizing the cloned genes and the deduced proteins.Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was performed to detect the expression patterns of cloned genes.[Result]Two full-length cDNAs of TaMBD1 and TaMBD6 were cloned,which encodes 193 and 187 amino acids,respectively.The amino acid sequence analysis showed that a typical methyl-CpG-binding domain was included in TaMBD1 and TaMBD6,and a CW-type Zinc finger domain was found in TaMBD1,additionally.Structure prediction revealed that both of TaMBD1 and TaMBD6 could fold into an alpha/beta sandwich structure comprising a layer of twisted beta sheet,backed by another layer formed by the aiphal helix and loops at the C terminus.The RT-PCR analysis showed that the TaMBD1 was steadily expressed with a relative higher level during the seed development,while gradually up-and down-regulated in embryo and endosperm tissues,respectively,along with the germination of wheat seeds.The expression of TaMBD6 is vibrated during the seed development and it was highly expressed at the time point of 15 days after pollination.However,the expression of TaMBD6 was not detected during the seed germination.[Conclusion]Two full-length cDNAs of TaMBD1 and TaMBD6 were firstly cloned from wheat and the typical DNA binding domains were found in the deduced proteins.The expression patterns of these two genes indicated that TaMBD1 might play an importan regulating role during the seed development and germination in wheat,while TaMBD6 was only involved in the regulation of seed development.The results provided important information for further studies on

  4. The serrate leaf margined Juniperus (Section Sabina) of the western hemisphere: systematics and evolution based on leaf essential oils and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams

    2000-12-01

    The volatile leaf essential compositions of all 17 serrate leaf margin species of Juniperus (sect. Sabina) of the western hemisphere are reported and compared: J. angosturana, J. ashei, J. californica, J. coahuilensis, J. comitana, J. deppeana, J. durangensis, J. flaccida, J. gamboana, J. jaliscana, J. monosperma, J. monticola, J. osteosperma, J. occidentalis, J. pinchotii, J. saltillensis, and J. standleyi. A number of previously unidentified compounds of the leaf essential oils have now been identified. In addition, DNA data (RAPDs) of all these species were analyzed. Both the leaf essential oils and DNA show these species to be quite distinct with few apparent subgroups, such that the species groupings were not strong in either data set. These data support the hypothesis that this group of junipers originated in Mexico as part of the Madro-Tertiary flora by rapid radiation into new arid land habitats, leaving few extant intermediate taxa.

  5. Sequencing and analysis of full-length cDNAs, 5'-ESTs and 3'-ESTs from a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii).

    KAUST Repository

    Brenner, Sydney

    2012-10-08

    Cartilaginous fishes are the most ancient group of living jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) and are, therefore, an important reference group for understanding the evolution of vertebrates. The elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii), a holocephalan cartilaginous fish, has been identified as a model cartilaginous fish genome because of its compact genome (∼910 Mb) and a genome project has been initiated to obtain its whole genome sequence. In this study, we have generated and sequenced full-length enriched cDNA libraries of the elephant shark using the \\'oligo-capping\\' method and Sanger sequencing. A total of 6,778 full-length protein-coding cDNA and 10,701 full-length noncoding cDNA were sequenced from six tissues (gills, intestine, kidney, liver, spleen, and testis) of the elephant shark. Analysis of their polyadenylation signals showed that polyadenylation usage in elephant shark is similar to that in mammals. Furthermore, both coding and noncoding transcripts of the elephant shark use the same proportion of canonical polyadenylation sites. Besides BLASTX searches, protein-coding transcripts were annotated by Gene Ontology, InterPro domain, and KEGG pathway analyses. By comparing elephant shark genes to bony vertebrate genes, we identified several ancient genes present in elephant shark but differentially lost in tetrapods or teleosts. Only ∼6% of elephant shark noncoding cDNA showed similarity to known noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). The rest are either highly divergent ncRNAs or novel ncRNAs. In addition to full-length transcripts, 30,375 5\\'-ESTs and 41,317 3\\'-ESTs were sequenced and annotated. The clones and transcripts generated in this study are valuable resources for annotating transcription start sites, exon-intron boundaries, and UTRs of genes in the elephant shark genome, and for the functional characterization of protein sequences. These resources will also be useful for annotating genes in other cartilaginous fishes whose genomes have been targeted for

  6. Sequencing and analysis of full-length cDNAs, 5'-ESTs and 3'-ESTs from a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Ying Tan

    Full Text Available Cartilaginous fishes are the most ancient group of living jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes and are, therefore, an important reference group for understanding the evolution of vertebrates. The elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii, a holocephalan cartilaginous fish, has been identified as a model cartilaginous fish genome because of its compact genome (∼910 Mb and a genome project has been initiated to obtain its whole genome sequence. In this study, we have generated and sequenced full-length enriched cDNA libraries of the elephant shark using the 'oligo-capping' method and Sanger sequencing. A total of 6,778 full-length protein-coding cDNA and 10,701 full-length noncoding cDNA were sequenced from six tissues (gills, intestine, kidney, liver, spleen, and testis of the elephant shark. Analysis of their polyadenylation signals showed that polyadenylation usage in elephant shark is similar to that in mammals. Furthermore, both coding and noncoding transcripts of the elephant shark use the same proportion of canonical polyadenylation sites. Besides BLASTX searches, protein-coding transcripts were annotated by Gene Ontology, InterPro domain, and KEGG pathway analyses. By comparing elephant shark genes to bony vertebrate genes, we identified several ancient genes present in elephant shark but differentially lost in tetrapods or teleosts. Only ∼6% of elephant shark noncoding cDNA showed similarity to known noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs. The rest are either highly divergent ncRNAs or novel ncRNAs. In addition to full-length transcripts, 30,375 5'-ESTs and 41,317 3'-ESTs were sequenced and annotated. The clones and transcripts generated in this study are valuable resources for annotating transcription start sites, exon-intron boundaries, and UTRs of genes in the elephant shark genome, and for the functional characterization of protein sequences. These resources will also be useful for annotating genes in other cartilaginous fishes whose genomes have been

  7. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  8. Chromosome mapping of repetitive DNAs in sergeant major fishes (Abudefdufinae, Pomacentridae): a general view on the chromosomal conservatism of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getlekha, Nuntaporn; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Yano, Cassia Fernanda; Maneechot, Nuntiya; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Supiwong, Weerayuth; Tanomtong, Alongklod; Molina, Wagner Franco

    2016-10-01

    Species of the Abudefduf genus (sergeant-majors) are widely distributed in the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic oceans, with large schools inhabiting rocky coastal regions and coral reefs. This genus consists of twenty recognized species are of generalist habit, showing typical characteristics of colonizers. Some populations maintain gene flow between large oceanic areas, a condition that may influence their cytogenetic features. A number of species have been shown to be invaders and able to hybridize with local species. However, cytogenetic data in this genus are restricted to few species. In this way, the present study includes the chromosomal investigation, using conventional (Giemsa staining, Ag-NOR and C-banding) and molecular (in situ mapping of six different repetitive DNA classes) approaches in four Abudefduf species from different oceanic regions (A. bengalensis and A. sexfasciatus from the Indo-Pacific, A. vaigiensis from the Indian and A. saxatilis from the Atlantic oceans, respectively), to investigate the evolutionary events associated with the chromosomal diversification in this group. All species share a similar karyotype (2n = 48; NF = 52), except A. sexfasciatus (2n = 48; NF = 50), which possesses a characteristic pericentric inversion in the NOR-bearing chromosomal pair. Mapping of repetitive sequences suggests a chromosomal conservatism in this genus. The high karyotypic similarity between allopatric species of Abudefduf may be related to the success of natural viable hybrids among species with recent secondary contact.

  9. Molecular cloning of cDNAs encoding lamp A, a human lysosomal membrane glycoprotein with apparent M sub r approx 120,000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viitala, J.; Carlsson, S.R.; Siebert, P.D.; Fukuda, M. (La Jolla Cancer Research Foundation, CA (USA))

    1988-06-01

    Although several lysosomal membrane glycoproteins have been characterized by using specific antibodies, none of the studies so far elucidated the amino acid sequence of a lysosomal membrane glycoprotein. Here we describe cDNA clones encoding for one of the lysosome-associated membrane proteins with apparent M{sub r} {approx} 120,000, lamp A. The amino acid sequence based on the fully coded cDNA shows that as many as 18 potential N-glycosylation sites can be found in the total of 385 amino acid residues. The results obtained by endoglycosidase F digestion support the conclusion that this glycoprotein contains 18 N-glycans. These N-glycosylation sites are clustered in two domains; one contains 10 and the other contains 8 N-glycosylation sites. These domains are separated by a (proline-serine)-rich region that has a distinct homology to the IgA hinge structure. The first N-glycosylated domain is elongated to a potential leader peptide toward the NH{sub 2}-terminal end. The second N-glycosylated domain, on the other hand, is connected to a putative transmembrane portion consisting of hydrophobic amino acids. This segment, in turn, is elongated to a short cytoplasmic segment composed of 11 amino acid residues at the COOH-terminal end.

  10. Molecular characterization of cytochrome P450 CYP6B47 cDNAs and 5'-flanking sequence from Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): its response to lead stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jialiang; Zhang, Guren; Zhou, Qiang

    2012-05-01

    In insects, P450s are responsible for the oxidative metabolism of structurally diverse endogenous and exogenous compounds including plant allelochemicals and insecticides. A novel full-length P450 cDNA, CYP6B47, was cloned from Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The sequence is 1718 bp in length with an ORF of 1509 bp encoding 503 amino acid residues. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that CYP6B47 belongs to CYP3 clan and second clade of CYP6Bs which contain 11 P450s from Noctuidae. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that CYP6B47 was expressed only in larvae stages and had a high level of transcription in the midgut and fat body. In addition, we cloned a 2141-bp 5'-flanking regions and presented the basal luciferase activities of promoter. We also predicted multiple putative elements for transcription factors binding in the 5'-flanking region. Interestingly, the expression of CYP6B47 significantly increased in the midgut and fat body after lead (Pb) exposure for 5 generations. Larvae tolerance to the alpha-cypermethrin (35% increased in LC(50)) and fenvalerate (52% increased in LC(50)) were improved after pre-exposure to 50 mg/kg Pb. These dates suggested that lead increased tolerance of larvae to insecticides mainly through transcriptional induction of detoxification genes including CYP6B47. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Purification of Aminopeptidase N Protein and Differences in cDNAs Encoding APN1 Between Susceptible and Resistant Helicoverpa armigera Strains to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Ge-mei; WANG Gui-rong; XU Guang; WU Kong-ming; GUO Yu-yuan

    2004-01-01

    The brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) in midgut of Helicoverpa armigera were successfully separated, and most of the Aminopeptidase N (APN) activities in BBMV were preserved. The 3-[(3-chlor-amidopropyl) dimethylammonio]-l-propane-sulphonate (CHAPS)can enhance the dissolution of BBMV, and phosphatidylinositol-specific phosopholipase C (PI-PLC) can cleave the APN from midgut membrane. The APN was primarily purified using a Mono-Q column. The results of immunoblotting showed that the 120 and 170 kDa proteins in the BBMV could bind CrylAc, and 120kDa APN was a glycosylphosphalidylinositol(GPI)anchored protein. Two Bt-resistant strains (Bt-P, Bt-M) were obtained after being selected for more than five years in laboratory using Bt insecticides and Bt transgenic cotton incorporated into diet separately. The resistance of Bt-P and Bt-M were 1 083.3and 48.7 times that of susceptible strain. The genes encoding APN1 in midgut of susceptible and resistant H.armigera were cloned by PCR and RACE techniques. The inferred amino acid sequences of APN1 possessed the common character of APN family in insects. In comparison with APN1 in susceptible strain, three nucleotide mutations were observed in the APN1 of Bt-M strain and resulted in two amino acid replace in the putative protein sequences, and eight nucleotide mutations were observed in Bt-P strain and resulted in five amino acid replace.

  12. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Vijee; Gupta, Soni; Thomas, Sherinmol; Mickey, Hanjabam; Charakana, Chaitanya; Chauhan, Vineeta Singh; Sharma, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Kumari, Alka; Gupta, Prateek; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS), carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1) involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  13. Cytochrome P450c17 (steroid 17. cap alpha. -hydroxylase/17,20 lyase): cloning of human adrenal and testis cDNAs indicates the same gene is expressed in both tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, B.; Picado-Leonard, J.; Haniu, M.; Bienkowski, M.; Hall, P.F.; Shively, J.E.; Miller, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    P450c17 is the single enzyme mediating both 17..cap alpha..-hydroxylase (steroid 17..cap alpha..-monooxygenase, EC 1.14.99.9) and 17,20 lyase activities in the synthesis of steroid hormones. It has been suggested that different P450c17 isozymes mediate these activities in the adrenal gland and testis. The authors sequenced 423 of the 509 amino acids (83%) of the porcine adrenal enzyme; based on this partial sequence, a 128-fold degenerate 17-mer was synthesized and used to screen a porcine adrenal cDNA library. This yielded a 380-base cloned cDNA, which in turn was used to isolate several human adrenal cDNAs. The longest of these, lambda hac 17-2, is 1754 base pairs long and includes the full-length coding region, the complete 3'-untranslated region, and 41 bases of the 5'-untranslated region. This cDNA encodes a protein of 508 amino acids having a predicted molecular weight of 57,379.82. High-stringency screening of a human testicular cDNA library yielded a partial clone containing 1303 identical bases. RNA gel blots and nuclease S1-protection experiments confirm that the adrenal and testicular P450c17 mRNAs are indistinguishable. These data indicate that the testis possesses a P450c17 identical to that in the adrenal. The human amino acid sequence is 66.7% homologous to the corresponding regions of the porcine sequence, and the human cDNA and amino acid sequences are 80.1 and 70.3% homologous, respectively, to bovine adrenal P450c17 cDNA. Both comparisons indicate that a central region comprising amino acid residues 160-268 is hypervariable among these species of P450c17.

  14. 苏云金芽孢杆菌伴孢晶体中20-kb DNAs上染色体基因的鉴定%Identification of Chromosomal Genes on 20-kb DNAs from Parasporal Crystal of Bacillus thuringiensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙运军; 袁志明; 夏立秋; 魏薇; 付祖姣; 黄璠; 丁学知; 胡胜标

    2007-01-01

    已有的研究表明苏云金芽孢杆菌(Bacillus thuringiensis,Bt)4.0718菌株菱形晶体中含有与原毒素紧密结合的20-kb DNAs,利用PCR-RFLP分析发现在这些20-kb DNAs上含有cry1Aa、cry1Ac、cry2Aa和cry2Ab基因.本研究利用特异引物从4.0718菌株中20-kb DNAs上分别扩增出带有自身调控序列的cry1Ac和cry2Aa基因,并将其分别电转至Bt无晶体菌株Cry-B中获得重组菌株Cry-B(pHC42)和Cry-B(pHC39).SDS-PAGE和透射电镜分析表明这两种重组菌株能够分别产生由130-kDa的Cry1Ac原毒素形成的菱形晶体以及由65-kDa的Cry2Aa原毒素形成的方形晶体.毒力生测的结果显示,这两种菌株的表达产物对棉铃虫(Helicoverpa armigera)幼虫具有预期的杀虫效果.重组菌株分别形成的两种晶体经不同的缓冲液溶解后能释放出与20-kb DNAs紧密结合的原毒素,同时在20-kb DNAs上均可检测到源于Bt染色体的spo0A和nprA基因片段.

  15. Early and reliable detection of herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella zoster virus DNAs in oral fluid of patients with idiopathic peripheral facial nerve palsy: Decision support regarding antiviral treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Andreas; Kessler, Harald H; Walch, Christian; Quasthoff, Stefan; Raggam, Reinhard B

    2010-09-01

    Idiopathic peripheral facial nerve palsy has been associated with the reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or varicella zoster virus (VZV). In recent studies, detection rates were found to vary strongly which may be caused by the use of different oral fluid collection devices in combination with molecular assays lacking standardization. In this single-center pilot study, liquid phase-based and absorption-based oral fluid collection was compared. Samples were collected with both systems from 10 patients with acute idiopathic peripheral facial nerve palsy, 10 with herpes labialis or with Ramsay Hunt syndrome, and 10 healthy controls. Commercially available IVD/CE-labeled molecular assays based on fully automated DNA extraction and real-time PCR were employed. With the liquid phase-based oral fluid collection system, three patients with idiopathic peripheral facial nerve palsy tested positive for HSV-1 DNA and another two tested positive for VZV DNA. All patients with herpes labialis tested positive for HSV-1 DNA and all patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome tested positive for VZV DNA. With the absorption-based oral fluid collection system, detections rates and viral loads were found to be significantly lower when compared to those obtained with the liquid phase-based collection system. Collection of oral fluid with a liquid phase-based system and the use of automated and standardized molecular methods allow early and reliable detection of HSV-1 and VZV DNAs in patients with acute idiopathic peripheral facial nerve palsy and may provide a valuable decision support regarding start of antiviral treatment at the first clinical visit.

  16. Accumulation of amplified target DNAs using thiol/biotin labeling, S1 nuclease, and ferrocene–streptavidin–magnetic system and a direct detection of specific DNA signals with screen printed gold electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyasak Chaumpluk et al

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Combinations of PCR-based amplification platform using 5' thiolated and biotinylated specific primers, S1 nuclease–PCR products treatment, ferrocene–streptavidin (Fc–Stv–magnetic binding for DNA accumulation, and screen printed gold electrode for the DNA allocation, were applied to Hoechst 33258-induced DNA aggregation and signals induction system for direct signals detection and DNA quantification in food samples. Thiolated and biotinylated at each 5' terminus enabled DNA purification through S1 nuclease treatment for primers and non-specific DNA elimination and enabled DNA trapping with a ferrocene–streptavidin–magnetic system. This facilitated the accumulation of target DNAs at higher concentration, resulting in enhanced signals. After allocation of DNA on the surface of gold electrode via thiol binding, intensity of DNA signals through these treatments could be measured directly after being induced by Hoechst 33258. Wider amplitude changes in anodic current peaks between negative and positive samples (increasing from 3.70 to 10.10 μA compared with those applied with no treatment combinations (decreasing from 3.92 to 1.23 μA were observed. This enhancement of the signals allowed a greater efficiency of DNA quantification. When this combination was used for GMOs content estimation in reference samples, results revealed an improved accuracy from 66% to 96%. The combined biosensor system, although more costly than the standard Hoechst 33258/carbon electrode system, provided an alternative choice for DNA quantification, offering labor-free immobilization of probe onto electrode surface, easy test administration, and efficient semi-quantitative test without expensive instruments.

  17. 5-Methylcytosine in Chlorelle pyrenoidosa DNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayen, M; Dalmon, J

    1976-05-19

    The presence of 5-methylcytosine in Chlorella pyrenoidosa (strain 211/8b) DNA's has been investigated by means of paper chromatography and thermal chromatography on hydroxyapatite. It has been shown that nuclear DNA contains 3.5 mol% 5-methylcytosine whereas no significant amount of this base can be detected in chloroplast DNA. The thermal chromatography of nuclear DNA labelled from [6-3H]- or [Me-14C] methionine lead us to conclude that the 5-methylcytosine content is directly proportional to the G + C content of the various DNA fractions. The existence of methylated sequences in DNA is postulated and the biological function of the 5-methylcytosine is discussed.

  18. Barley metallothioneins: MT3 and MT4 are localized in the grain aleurone layer and show differential zinc binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Schiller, Michaela; Kichey, Thomas; Hansen, Thomas Hesselhøj; Pedas, Pai; Husted, Søren; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod

    2012-07-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low-molecular-weight, cysteine-rich proteins believed to play a role in cytosolic zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) homeostasis. However, evidence for the functional properties of MTs has been hampered by methodological problems in the isolation and characterization of the proteins. Here, we document that barley (Hordeum vulgare) MT3 and MT4 proteins exist in planta and that they differ in tissue localization as well as in metal coordination chemistry. Combined transcriptional and histological analyses showed temporal and spatial correlations between transcript levels and protein abundance during grain development. MT3 was present in tissues of both maternal and filial origin throughout grain filling. In contrast, MT4 was confined to the embryo and aleurone layer, where it appeared during tissue specialization and remained until maturity. Using state-of-the-art speciation analysis by size-exclusion chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry on recombinant MT3 and MT4, their specificity and capacity for metal ion binding were quantified, showing a strong preferential Zn binding relative to Cu and cadmium (Cd) in MT4, which was not the case for MT3. When complementary DNAs from barley MTs were expressed in Cu- or Cd-sensitive yeast mutants, MT3 provided a much stronger complementation than did MT4. We conclude that MT3 may play a housekeeping role in metal homeostasis, while MT4 may function in Zn storage in developing and mature grains. The localization of MT4 and its discrimination against Cd make it an ideal candidate for future biofortification strategies directed toward increasing food and feed Zn concentrations.

  19. Molecular characterization and expression analyses of cDNAs encoding the thioredoxin-interacting protein and selenoprotein P genes and histological changes in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in response to silver nanoparticle exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thummabancha, Kubpaphas; Onparn, Nuttaphon; Srisapoome, Prapansak

    2016-02-15

    Herein, Nile tilapia thioredoxin-interacting protein (On-TXNIP) and selenoprotein P (On-SEPP) cDNAs were cloned and characterized. The full-length On-TXNIP cDNA contained 2 arrestin domains, 2 conserved cysteine residues that bind to thioredoxin to inhibit thioredoxin function, and 2 PPXY motifs, which negatively regulate the protein by stimulating binding to E3 ubiquitin ligase. The On-SEPP cDNA contained 17 selenocysteines (Sec) encoded by the TGA codon, which can be recognized as either a stop codon or a Sec codon. The On-SEPP cDNA also carried 2 typical SECIS elements located in the 3'UTR that are important for selenocysteine translation. Evolutionary analyses of both the On-TXNIP and On-SEPP genes revealed that these genes are closely related to the TXNIP and SEPP genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio), with amino acid similarities of 91.8% and 61.9%, respectively. A normal tissue distribution analysis indicated that the On-TXNIP and On-SEPP genes were ubiquitously expressed in all tissues examined, and the highest expression levels of these genes were observed in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and the trunk kidney, respectively. The expression levels of On-TXNIP and On-SEPP transcripts were acutely and chronically analyzed following the injection of fish with 1, 10 or 100mg/kg silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). Significant up-regulation of On-TXNIP and On-SEPP transcripts was observed in the liver, spleen, and head kidney at the early phase of Ag NP exposure (hours 6 through 48). Down-regulation of On-SEPP transcripts was clearly observed in the liver at weeks 1 to 4. Histopathology analysis demonstrated that the fish livers exhibited a dramatic infiltration of Kupffer cells, elevated bi-nucleated cells, expanded sinusoidal blood congestion and severe necrosis in a dose-dependent manner. Based on these findings, coupling of the expression analysis of these two cellular stress response genes and histopathological observation of fish exposed to Ag NPs should be

  20. 雌核发育二倍体鲫鲤及其他倍性鱼cdc2基因cDNA全序列克隆及表达%The cloning of cdc2 cDNAs and a comparative study of its expression in different ploidy fishes including the diploid gynogenetic hybrid of red crucian carp × common carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶敏; 刘少军; 钟欢; 周毅; 宋灿; 张纯; 刘筠

    2013-01-01

    Cdc2(Cyclin Dependent Kinase,namely CDK1)encoded by cdc2 gene and CyclinB combination regulates G2/M transition. To find out molecular mechanism that diploid hybrid fish could produce diploid gamete,the full length cDNAs of cdcl in the third gynogenetic generation(G3) ,red crucian carp( Carassius auratus red var. ) ,triploid crucian carp and allotetraploid were obtained by PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Our data showed that all the cDNAs of cdcl gene in the four different ploidy fishes encode a protein of 302 amino acids containing a domain (PSTAVRE) which combine Cyclins. A high homology of 97. 6% of the Cdc2 protein can be drawn by comparing the amino acid sequences in these four fishes, which indicates the higher conservative function and evolution of Cdc2 protein in these four fishes. A comparative expression pattern of cdcl in early-stage gonads of G3 and different ploidy fishes was carried out by Realtime PCR using specific primers against the same sequences of coding regions in the four fishes. The results showed that the expression of cdcl in the ovary of G3 was higher than those of red crucian carp and triploid crucian carp, while lower than that of allotetraploid, which, at the molecular level, indicates existence of polyploid oogonia in early-stage gonads of G3. The higher expression of cdcl in G3 suggests that consecutive S-phase replication may occur without intervening mitosis, which might be related to the formation mechanisms for the diploid eggs generated by diploid hybrids.%为研究雌核发育二倍体鲫鲤产生二倍体卵子的分子机制,实验采用PCR和cDNA末端快速分离法,克隆获得了雌核发育二倍体鲫鲤第三代(G3)、二倍体红鲫、三倍体湘云鲫和四倍体鲫鲤的细胞周期相关基因——cdc2基因cDNA全序列.结果显示,4种不同倍性鱼cdc2基因均编码含有302个氨基酸蛋白,而且编码的蛋白都含有与其他CDK激酶相当保守的序列PSTAVRE;同源性分析发现,4

  1. Molecular characterization of a cytokinin-inducible periwinkle protein showing sequence homology with pathogenesis-related proteins and the Bet v 1 allergen family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpin, S; Laffer, S; Schoentgen, F; Valenta, R; Chénieux, J C; Rideau, M; Hamdi, S

    1998-03-01

    Cytokinin treatment of periwinkle callus cultures increased the accumulation of a protein, designated T1, in two-dimensional separated protein extracts. The first 30 NH2-terminal amino acids were determined by Edman degradation and showed significant sequence homology with intracellular pathogenesis-related (IPR) plant proteins and the Bet v 1 allergen family. The deduced amino acid sequence of cDNAs coding for T1, isolated by RT-PCR and 5' RACE-PCR, exhibited an average sequence identity of 40% with both IPR and Bet v 1-related allergens. T1 and all related proteins contained a p-loop motif typically found in nucleotide-binding proteins as the most conserved sequence feature. Northern blot analysis showed that cytokinin treatment of periwinkle callus induced T1 transcripts, whereas addition of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid inhibited this accumulation. Hybridization of genomic periwinkle DNA with the T1 cDNA suggested that the protein is encoded by a single-copy gene. Immunoblot studies with a panel of Bet v 1-specific antibodies and sera from Bet v 1 allergic individuals identified T1 as a protein that is immunologically distinct from the Bet v 1 allergen family and has no allergenic properties.

  2. Zebrafish brd2a and brd2b are paralogous members of the bromodomain-ET (BET family of transcriptional coregulators that show structural and expression divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee Katharine J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brd2 belongs to the bromodomain-extraterminal domain (BET family of transcriptional co-regulators, and functions as a pivotal histone-directed recruitment scaffold in chromatin modification complexes affecting signal-dependent transcription. Brd2 facilitates expression of genes promoting proliferation and is implicated in apoptosis and in egg maturation and meiotic competence in mammals; it is also a susceptibility gene for juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME in humans. The brd2 ortholog in Drosophila is a maternal effect, embryonic lethal gene that regulates several homeotic loci, including Ultrabithorax. Despite its importance, there are few systematic studies of Brd2 developmental expression in any organism. To help elucidate both conserved and novel gene functions, we cloned and characterized expression of brd2 cDNAs in zebrafish, a vertebrate system useful for genetic analysis of development and disease, and for study of the evolution of gene families and functional diversity in chordates. Results We identify cDNAs representing two paralogous brd2 loci in zebrafish, brd2a on chromosome 19 and brd2b on chromosome 16. By sequence similarity, syntenic and phylogenetic analyses, we present evidence for structural divergence of brd2 after gene duplication in fishes. brd2 paralogs show potential for modular domain combinations, and exhibit distinct RNA expression patterns throughout development. RNA in situ hybridizations in oocytes and embryos implicate brd2a and brd2b as maternal effect genes involved in egg polarity and egg to embryo transition, and as zygotic genes important for development of the vertebrate nervous system and for morphogenesis and differentiation of the digestive tract. Patterns of brd2 developmental expression in zebrafish are consistent with its proposed role in Homeobox gene regulation. Conclusion Expression profiles of zebrafish brd2 paralogs support a role in vertebrate developmental patterning and

  3. 32 CFR 552.78 - “Show cause” hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....78 “Show cause” hearing. Before suspending the solicitation privilege, the company and the agent will have a chance to show cause why the action should not be taken. “Show cause” is an opportunity for...

  4. Food Safety Not Always on Menu of TV Cooking Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161980.html Food Safety Not Always on Menu of TV Cooking Shows ... shows. They also noted whether the shows mentioned food safety. The findings were published in the November-December ...

  5. Genomic organization of the CC chemokine mip-3alpha/CCL20/larc/exodus/SCYA20, showing gene structure, splice variants, and chromosome localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R T; Boyd, J; Gladue, R P; Paradis, T; Thomas, R; Cunningham, A C; Lira, P; Brissette, W H; Hayes, L; Hames, L M; Neote, K S; McColl, S R

    2001-04-01

    We describe the genomic organization of a recently identified CC chemokine, MIP3alpha/CCL20 (HGMW-approved symbol SCYA20). The MIP-3alpha/CCL20 gene was cloned and sequenced, revealing a four exon, three intron structure, and was localized by FISH analysis to 2q35-q36. Two distinct cDNAs were identified, encoding two forms of MIP-3alpha/CCL20, Ala MIP-3alpha/CCL20 and Ser MIP-3alpha/CCL20, that differ by one amino acid at the predicted signal peptide cleavage site. Examination of the sequence around the boundary of intron 1 and exon 2 showed that use of alternative splice acceptor sites could give rise to Ala MIP-3alpha/CCL20 or Ser MIP-3alpha/CCL20. Both forms of MIP-3alpha/CCL20 were chemically synthesized and tested for biological activity. Both flu antigen plus IL-2-activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphoblasts and cord blood-derived dendritic cells responded to Ser and Ala MIP-3alpha/CCL20. T lymphocytes exposed only to IL-2 responded inconsistently, while no response was detected in naive T lymphocytes, monocytes, or neutrophils. The biological activity of Ser MIP-3alpha/CCL20 and Ala MIP-3alpha/CCL20 and the tissue-specific preference of different splice acceptor sites are not yet known.

  6. 蓝粒小麦花青素合成途径中的查尔酮合酶基因和类黄酮3′5′-羟化酶基因3′末端的克隆和表达分析%Cloning and Expression of Two Chalcone Synthase and a Flavonoid 3′5′- Hydroxylase 3′-end cDNAs from Developing Seeds of Blue-grained Wheat Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthetic Pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国华; 李滨; 高建伟; 刘建中; 赵学强; 郑琪; 童依平; 李振声

    2004-01-01

    DNA ends (RACE) strategies, two chalcone synthase (CHS) cDNAs were cloned from developing seeds of blue-grained wheat, both of the deduced peptides contain 394 amino acids, and share 98.9% of amino acid sequence identity and the nucleotide sequences have the identity of 96.0%, and one flavonoid 3′5′-hydroxylase (F3 ′5 ′H) 3′-end cDNA was isolated. Four CHS genomic DNAs were cloned from Thinopyrum ponticum (Podp.) Z. W. Liu et R. R.-C. Wang (ThpCHS.tg), blue-grained wheat (TaCHS.bg), white-grained offspring of light blue-grained wheat (TaCHS. wg) and Chinese Spring (2n=42)( TaCHS. csg), respectively.Although these four genomic DNAs were isolated from different materials, they are very high homologous and each has one intron. The difference of the four CHS genomic DNAs mainly exists in intron. Through DNA alignment we found that one CHS cDNA ( TaCHS. t1) came from one of the parents, Th. ponticum, the other one ( TaCHS. w1) had the identity of 100% with white grain parent. This indicated that CHS genes from two parents expressed at the same developing stage in blue-grained wheat. Southern blotting analysis showed that they have at least four copies in wheat, the copy numbers in different color grains are not significantly different, but they are different from that of Th. ponticum. CHS in blue-grained wheat belongs to a CHS multifamily. Reverse Northern analysis indicated that the CHS expressed strongly in the developing blue-grained seeds at early stage (15 d after flowering, DAF), but F3 ′5 ′Hand dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) transcripts accumulated less than that of CHS at early stage. However, at the later developing stage (21 DAF), F3 ′5′Hand DFR transcripts accumulated more than that of CHS, the transcripts of CHS could hardly be detected. The expression order of the three genes is the same as the order of the biosynthetic steps in anthocyanin biosynthesis. At the same time, CHS genes cloned from seeds have not been detected in leaves of blue

  7. 21 CFR 1314.150 - Order To show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Order To show cause. 1314.150 Section 1314.150... CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Order to Show Cause § 1314.150 Order To show cause. (a) If, upon information gathered by... upon the regulated seller or distributor an order to show cause why the regulated seller or...

  8. 29 CFR 34.41 - Notice to Show Cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Notice to Show Cause. 34.41 Section 34.41 Labor Office of... Show Cause. (a) The Director may issue a Notice to Show Cause to a recipient failing to comply with the... compliance review. (b) The Notice to Show Cause shall contain: (1) A description of the violation and...

  9. "The George Lopez Show": The Same Old Hispano?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markert, John

    2007-01-01

    "The George Lopez Show" is the first successful television show with a Latino in a leading role that features Hispanic material since Freddie Prinze's thirty-year-old sitcom, "Chico and the Man." This study seeks to assess how Latinos are presented on "The George Lopez Show." A content analysis reveals that the show perpetuates some of the…

  10. 21 CFR 1301.37 - Order to show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Order to show cause. 1301.37 Section 1301.37 Food... Suspension of Registration § 1301.37 Order to show cause. (a) If, upon examination of the application for... Administrator shall serve upon the applicant an order to show cause why the registration should not be...

  11. 47 CFR 1.701 - Show cause orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Show cause orders. 1.701 Section 1.701..., and Reports Involving Common Carriers General § 1.701 Show cause orders. (a) The Commission may... order to show cause. The order shall contain a statement of the particulars and matters concerning...

  12. 21 CFR 1309.46 - Order to show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Order to show cause. 1309.46 Section 1309.46 Food... Or Suspension of Registration § 1309.46 Order to show cause. (a) If, upon examination of the... upon the applicant an order to show cause why the application for registration should not be denied....

  13. 46 CFR 502.66 - Order to show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Order to show cause. 502.66 Section 502.66 Shipping... Proceedings; Pleadings; Motions; Replies § 502.66 Order to show cause. The Commission may institute a proceeding by order to show cause. The order shall be served upon all persons named therein, shall...

  14. 34 CFR 300.194 - Show cause hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Show cause hearing. 300.194 Section 300.194 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility By-Pass for Children in Private Schools § 300.194 Show cause hearing. (a) If a show cause hearing is requested, the Secretary— (1) Notifies the SEA and affected LEA or other...

  15. 41 CFR 60-1.28 - Show cause notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Show cause notices. 60-1... Procedure § 60-1.28 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe... contractor to show cause, within 30 days, why monitoring, enforcement proceedings or other appropriate...

  16. 10 CFR 590.401 - Orders to show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orders to show cause. 590.401 Section 590.401 Energy... WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Opinions and Orders § 590.401 Orders to show cause... exportation of natural gas over which FE has jurisdiction. Any show cause order issued shall identify...

  17. 25 CFR 141.56 - Show cause procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Show cause procedures. 141.56 Section 141.56 Indians... NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS Enforcement Powers, Procedures and Remedies § 141.56 Show cause... from the date of receipt of notice in which to show cause why the contemplated remedial action...

  18. Effects of TV Crime Shows on Behavioural Development of Children

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Mudassar; Abd Rahman Nik Adzrieman B.

    2017-01-01

    Television crime dramas and shows are very popular all over the world. This popularity is not bound to a certain age group, rather all the TV viewers like these shows very much. Like other countries, dozens of TV channels are telecasting these crime shows in Pakistan. Furthermore, few of the channels telecast crime shows at prime time which attests the popularity of such genre. Some of the media contents behave in morally disputed ways. The crime depictions as re-enactments of TV crime shows ...

  19. Snacking on Television: A Content Analysis of Adolescents’ Favorite Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole I.; Gollust, Sarah E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Snacking is a complex behavior that may be influenced by entertainment media. Research suggests that snacking and unhealthy foods are commonly shown in programming that targets young audiences, but shows selected for study have been limited. We conducted a content analysis on shows that were named as favorites by adolescents to characterize portrayals of snacking on popular television. Methods A diverse sample of 2,130 adolescents (mean age, 14.3 y) listed 3 favorite television shows in a 2010 school-based survey. Three episodes each of the 25 most popular shows were coded for food-related content, including healthfulness, portion size, screen time use, setting, and social context. We also analyzed the characteristics of characters involved in eating incidents, the show type, and the show rating. We used χ2 tests, binomial tests, and multilevel regression models to compare incidence of snacks versus meals, the characteristics of those involved, and snacking across show characteristics. Results Almost half of food incidents on television shows were snacks. Snacks were significantly more likely than meals to be “mostly unhealthy” (69.3% vs 22.6%, P Sitcoms and shows rated for a youth audience were significantly more likely to portray snacking than were shows for adult audiences. Conclusion Media awareness and literacy programs should include foods and snacking behaviors among the issues they address. More healthful portrayals of food and dietary intake in entertainment shows’ content would create a healthier media environment for youth. PMID:27197079

  20. China Sport Show: More Professional and on a Larger Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The 26th China Sport Show will be held in New China International Exhibition Center, Beijing, from May 20 to 23, 2010. As a fast-growing sport show, it has been playing an important role in promoting the development of Chinese brands and the cooperation of the enterprises. This year, the sport show is welcoming over 1000 exhibitors and 50,000 trade visitors from over 60 countries and regions.

  1. Branding through trade shows in the automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Narui, Jahan

    2013-01-01

    The automotive industry is a major global industry with a great history of exhibitions. As trade shows are getting more attention within studies, the same is not the case for automotive trade shows. Noteworthy, automotive trade shows emphasize non-selling roles such as image-building. This paper seeks to investigate image-building purposes of exhibiting automotive companies using integrated marketing communications (IMC). Data has been gathered from four participating companies in the Geneva ...

  2. 34 CFR 300.193 - Request to show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Request to show cause. 300.193 Section 300.193... show cause. An SEA, LEA or other public agency in receipt of a notice under § 300.192 that seeks an opportunity to show cause why a by-pass should not be implemented must submit a written request for a...

  3. Branding through trade shows in the automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Narui, Jahan

    2013-01-01

    The automotive industry is a major global industry with a great history of exhibitions. As trade shows are getting more attention within studies, the same is not the case for automotive trade shows. Noteworthy, automotive trade shows emphasize non-selling roles such as image-building. This paper seeks to investigate image-building purposes of exhibiting automotive companies using integrated marketing communications (IMC). Data has been gathered from four participating companies in the Geneva ...

  4. A Study on Person Deixis Used in TV Talk Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖晓

    2014-01-01

    Deixis means“pointing” via language. There are many scholars who study person deixis in different discourses. However, few of them have analyzed person deixis used in TV talk show, which is more popular in our daily life. TV talk show is an important face-to-face conversation in which the participants use some person deixis to reach certain goal. This thesis studies the person deixis used in TV talk show especial y three types of unconventional usage of person deixis in the TV talk show discourse.

  5. Uudised : Otsman taas Riias show'l. Rokkstaarist ministriks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Drag-kabareeartist Erkki Otsman esineb detsembris Riias "Sapnu Fabrikas" toimuval jõulu-show'l. Austraalia rokkansambli Midnight Oil endine laulja Peter Garrett nimetati valitsuse keskkonnaministriks

  6. Uudised : Otsman taas Riias show'l. Rokkstaarist ministriks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Drag-kabareeartist Erkki Otsman esineb detsembris Riias "Sapnu Fabrikas" toimuval jõulu-show'l. Austraalia rokkansambli Midnight Oil endine laulja Peter Garrett nimetati valitsuse keskkonnaministriks

  7. Quantifying show jumping horse rider expertise using IMUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, M; Doyle, J; Cahill, E; Caulfield, B; McCarthy Persson, U

    2010-01-01

    Horse rider ability has long been measured using horse performance, competition results and visual observation. Scientific methods of measuring rider ability on the flat are emerging such as measuring position angles and harmony of the horse-rider system. To date no research has quantified rider ability in show jumping. Kinematic analysis and motion sensors have been used in sports other than show jumping to measure the quality of motor control patterns in humans. The aim of this study was to quantify rider ability in show jumping using body-mounted IMUs. Preliminary results indicate that there are clear differences in experienced and novice riders during show jumping.

  8. 36 CFR 14.24 - Showing as to citizenship required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Procedures § 14.24 Showing as to citizenship required. (a) Individuals. An individual applicant applying for a right-of-way under any right-of-way act, except the Act of March 3, 1891... marital status is not required. In other cases, a married woman or widow must show the date of her...

  9. TV shows on Light Pollution Education for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigore, Valentin

    2015-03-01

    TV shows have the biggest impact for the public, so we can use them to inform and educate the public about light pollution and the importance of the dark sky for humanity and for the contemporary society. Some examples used in the TV show Us and the Sky at Columna TV, Romania, are presented.

  10. TV Talk: Instant Classroom Celebrities With TV Game Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Marti

    1977-01-01

    Suggests some learning activities that can be used to capitalize on the popularity of TV game shows so that students can build their learning skills. These game show formats can also strengthen and reinforce many areas of the elementary curriculum. (Author/RK)

  11. Effects of TV Crime Shows on Behavioural Development of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mudassar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Television crime dramas and shows are very popular all over the world. This popularity is not bound to a certain age group, rather all the TV viewers like these shows very much. Like other countries, dozens of TV channels are telecasting these crime shows in Pakistan. Furthermore, few of the channels telecast crime shows at prime time which attests the popularity of such genre. Some of the media contents behave in morally disputed ways. The crime depictions as re-enactments of TV crime shows are questionable in the field of research signifying diverse cultural contexts. A large number of people are habitual to watch these shows, which may probably come out with negative behavioural outcomes. Especially the children who are at their behavioural developmental phase; are more susceptible to adopt negative behavioural leanings. In this research effort, introduction and detail of TV crime shows in Pakistan are provided, the literature concerning “media as risk factor“ in children development is discussed, and relevant theories inferences are deliberated.it was found that media has powerful role in behaviour formulating of children and violence media portrayal (TV crime shows may appear with grave concerns. Previous scientific literature was reviewed to find and discuss the problem in hand. In the research effort, the literature review provides research propositions to explore further dimensions to TV crime shows’ effects and possible negative or positive behavioural outcomes in children behaviour.

  12. The Daily Show with Jon Stewart: Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is one of the best critical literacy programs on television, and in this Media Literacy column the author suggests ways that teachers can use video clips from the show in their classrooms. (For Part 1, see EJ784683.)

  13. "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart": Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    Comedy Central's popular program "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is the best critical media literacy program on television, and it can be used in valuable ways in the classroom as part of a media literacy pedagogy. This Media Literacy column provides an overview of the show and its accompanying website and considers ways it might be used in the…

  14. The Presentation of Science in Everyday Life: The Science Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermeyer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper constitutes a case-study of the "science show" model of public engagement employed by a company of science communicators focused on the popularization of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subject disciplines with learner constituencies. It examines the potential of the science show to foster the interest…

  15. Computer Slide Shows: A Trap for Bad Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, W. R.

    2007-01-01

    Slide shows presented with software such as PowerPoint or WordPerfect Presentations can trap instructors into bad teaching practices. Research on memory suggests that slide-show instruction can actually be less effective than traditional lecturing when the teacher uses a blackboard or overhead projector. The author proposes a model of classroom…

  16. Game Show Mathematics: Specializing, Conjecturing, Generalizing, and Convincing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Catherine Pullin; Harkness, Shelly Sheats

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the authors' use of three game shows--"Survivor," "The Biggest Loser," and "Deal or No Deal?"--to determine to what degree students engaged in mathematical thinking: specializing, conjecturing, generalizing, and convincing (Burton, 1984). Student responses to the task of creating winning strategies to these shows were…

  17. 41 CFR 60-300.64 - Show cause notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Show cause notices. 60... VETERANS General Enforcement and Complaint Procedures § 60-300.64 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe that the contractor has violated the Act or this...

  18. 14 CFR 303.44 - Show cause proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Show cause proceedings. 303.44 Section 303... cause proceedings. If the Assistant Secretary determines that an application, or review of a previously granted application, will be considered in a show cause proceeding, a tentative decision shall be...

  19. 18 CFR 808.15 - Show cause proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Show cause proceeding... HEARINGS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Compliance and Enforcement § 808.15 Show cause proceeding. (a) The... cause why a penalty should not be assessed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and...

  20. 41 CFR 60-250.64 - Show cause notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Show cause notices. 60... VETERANS General Enforcement and Complaint Procedures § 60-250.64 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe that the contractor has violated the Act or this...

  1. 16 CFR 5.57 - Order to show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order to show cause. 5.57 Section 5.57... CONDUCT Disciplinary Actions Concerning Postemployment Conflict of Interest § 5.57 Order to show cause. (a) Upon a Commission determination that there exists reasonable cause to believe a former...

  2. 41 CFR 60-4.8 - Show cause notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cause which shall contain the items specified in paragraphs (i) through (iv) of 41 CFR 60-2.2(c)(1). If... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Show cause notice. 60-4.8...-CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTORS-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS § 60-4.8 Show cause notice. If an investigation...

  3. 14 CFR 314.14 - Show-cause order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Show-cause order. 314.14 Section 314.14... REGULATIONS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION PROGRAM Determination of Qualifying Dislocation § 314.14 Show-cause order. When the Department makes a preliminary determination of whether the major cause of the bankruptcy...

  4. 10 CFR 110.62 - Order to show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order to show cause. 110.62 Section 110.62 Energy NUCLEAR... Enforcement § 110.62 Order to show cause. (a) In response to an alleged violation, described in § 110.60, the... cause: (1) Stating the alleged violation and proposed enforcement action; and (2) Informing the...

  5. 41 CFR 60-741.64 - Show cause notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Show cause notices. 60... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES General Enforcement and Complaint Procedures § 60-741.64 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe that the contractor has...

  6. "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart": Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    Comedy Central's popular program "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is the best critical media literacy program on television, and it can be used in valuable ways in the classroom as part of a media literacy pedagogy. This Media Literacy column provides an overview of the show and its accompanying website and considers ways it might be used in the…

  7. The Daily Show with Jon Stewart: Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is one of the best critical literacy programs on television, and in this Media Literacy column the author suggests ways that teachers can use video clips from the show in their classrooms. (For Part 1, see EJ784683.)

  8. 9 CFR 354.247 - Table showing types of materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Table showing types of materials. 354... Sanitary Conditions and Precautions Against Contamination of Products § 354.247 Table showing types of materials. Equipment, utensils, and facilities Iron Stainless steel and monel metal Aluminum Galvanized...

  9. 47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a) An application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and include...

  10. Dolphin shows and interaction programs: benefits for conservation education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L J; Zeigler-Hill, V; Mellen, J; Koeppel, J; Greer, T; Kuczaj, S

    2013-01-01

    Dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs are two types of education programs within zoological institutions used to educate visitors about dolphins and the marine environment. The current study examined the short- and long-term effects of these programs on visitors' conservation-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs demonstrated a significant short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Three months following the experience, participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs retained the knowledge learned during their experience and reported engaging in more conservation-related behaviors. Additionally, the number of dolphin shows attended in the past was a significant predictor of recent conservation-related behavior suggesting that repetition of these types of experiences may be important in inspiring people to conservation action. These results suggest that both dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs can be an important part of a conservation education program for visitors of zoological facilities.

  11. ShowFlow: A practical interface for groundwater modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauxe, J.D.

    1990-12-01

    ShowFlow was created to provide a user-friendly, intuitive environment for researchers and students who use computer modeling software. What traditionally has been a workplace available only to those familiar with command-line based computer systems is now within reach of almost anyone interested in the subject of modeling. In the case of this edition of ShowFlow, the user can easily experiment with simulations using the steady state gaussian plume groundwater pollutant transport model SSGPLUME, though ShowFlow can be rewritten to provide a similar interface for any computer model. Included in this thesis is all the source code for both the ShowFlow application for Microsoft{reg sign} Windows{trademark} and the SSGPLUME model, a User's Guide, and a Developer's Guide for converting ShowFlow to run other model programs. 18 refs., 13 figs.

  12. 小麦T、 K、 V型胞质不育系和杂种mtDNA的RAPD分析及育性相关片段的克隆%RAPD Analysing of CMS-T, K, V mtDNAs and Cloning of mtDNA Fragments Associated with CMS-K in Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙兰珍; 姚方印; 李传友; 李利斌; 刘保申; 高庆荣

    2001-01-01

    用RAPD技术对细胞质分别来源于粘果山羊草(Ae. kotschyi)、偏凸山羊草(Ae. ventricosa)、提莫菲维小麦(T. timopheevii)的三种普通小麦雄性不育系--K型、 V型、 T型及相应的保持系、恢复系以及杂种F1代的线粒体DNA(mtDNA)进行了比较分析。结果如下:(1)发现在mtDNA组织结构上K型、 V型、 T型不育系之间以及与保持系之间均呈现差异,这从DNA水平上提供了三类不育系胞质来源不同的证据;(2)利用23个引物的扩增结果进行了聚类分析,绘制出了T型、 K型、 V型三种不育系、保持系和K、 V型共同的恢复系及杂种F1代树式遗传关系图;(3)对两个特异的多态性DNA片段进行了回收,克隆、并制备探针, Southern杂交结果显示不育系与保持系间存在多态性,有两个片段可能与育性有一定的联系。%Mitochondrial DNAs(mtDNAs) from three types of cytoplasmic male sterility lines (CMS-K, -V and -T) in wheat, of which the cytoplasm derived from Ae. kotschyi, Ae. ventricosa and T. timopheevii, respectively, were compared among CMSs and their maintainer, restorer and hybrids of CMS-K and -V. The results indicated that: (1) the mtDNAs from CMS-K, -V and -T were different from each other and from their maintainer, this provided some evidence at molecular level for three kinds of CMS lines with different cytoplasms; (2) the genetic dendrogram was made and the relative genetic distance among 7 different wheat materials was calculated by cluster analysis with amplification products from 23 primers; (3) two specific fragments of mtDNA were then cloned into plasmid vector and converted into RFLP probes.Southern hybridization patterns revealed polymorphism between sterile line and maintainer line .

  13. Reki-Show Authoring Tools : Risk, Space and History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Hanashima

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In social sciences, most events occur in specific time and space. We call such events here "Spatiotemporal Events". It is obvious that events, having always a beginning and an end, appear at a specific place or in particular space. Suppose there exists an conceptual data model regulating some rules to describe those factors, it enables us to store various spatiotemporal events as data and to refer with one another. We, therefore, define a simple spatiotemporal data model, calling "Reki-Show". We also call the information system, consisting of Reki-Show data model, "Reki-Show System", and consider Reki-Show System as the basic information system to deal with the various events in human society. Accordingly, we have recognized that it is indispensable in the future social sciences to have the database and tool for both the temporal and spatial attributes, and have been developing Reki-Show Authoring Tools based on the conceptual framework in Reki-Show System. At present, the fundamental component has been developed already through some steps, and the system is now applied to the empirical research. We would like to make a report of the outline at this stage. This paper explains the basic concept in Reki-Show (Conseptual Data Modeling, followed by the outline of the implemented system.

  14. QLab 3 show control projects for live performances & installations

    CERN Document Server

    Hopgood, Jeromy

    2013-01-01

    Used from Broadway to Britain's West End, QLab software is the tool of choice for many of the world's most prominent sound, projection, and integrated media designers. QLab 3 Show Control: Projects for Live Performances & Installations is a project-based book on QLab software covering sound, video, and show control. With information on both sound and video system basics and the more advanced functions of QLab such as MIDI show control, new OSC capabilities, networking, video effects, and microphone integration, each chapter's specific projects will allow you to learn the software's capabilitie

  15. Zika May Persist for Months in Newborns, Study Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160594.html Zika May Persist for Months in Newborns, Study Shows ... There's more bad news when it comes to Zika's effect on infants: A case study suggests the ...

  16. Parent-Led Autism Therapy Shows Lasting Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161690.html Parent-Led Autism Therapy Shows Lasting Benefits Early intervention reduced symptom ... may have lasting benefits for young children with autism, a new clinical trial suggests. Researchers from the ...

  17. Conservation Project Shows Substantial Reduction in Home Water Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, William E.; Smith, Donald

    1978-01-01

    Describes a water use study-conservation project conducted by the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission in Maryland. Results show a significant decrease in the amount of water used by home customers over a ten-year period. (Author/MA)

  18. RELATIONSHIP QUALITY AND EXHIBITOR'S PERFORMANCE IN LEISURE TRADE SHOWS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ainhoa Rodríguez; María Dolores Reina; Ramón Rufín

    2015-01-01

    .... Specifically, in the case of leisure trade shows the main purpose is to stimulate the rising leisure market and meet the needs of an increasingly demanding society that calls for new forms of entertainment...

  19. Chronic Bullying Can Show Up in Report Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163318.html Chronic Bullying Can Show Up in Report Cards Study found ... 2017 MONDAY, Jan. 30, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Chronic bullying can take a toll on kids' grades. That's ...

  20. When Should Zero Be Included on a Scale Showing Magnitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses an important problem of graphing quantitative data: should one include zero on the scale showing magnitude? Based on a real time series example, the problem is discussed and some recommendations are proposed.

  1. Do men and women show love differently in marriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Elizabeth A; Bredow, Carrie A; Huston, Ted L

    2012-11-01

    In Western societies, women are considered more adept than men at expressing love in romantic relationships. Although scholars have argued that this view of love gives short shrift to men's ways of showing love (e.g., Cancian, 1986; Noller, 1996), the widely embraced premise that men and women "love differently" has rarely been examined empirically. Using data collected at four time points over 13 years of marriage, the authors examined whether love is associated with different behaviors for husbands and wives. Multilevel analyses revealed that, counter to theoretical expectations, both genders were equally likely to show love through affection. But whereas wives expressed love by enacting fewer negative or antagonistic behaviors, husbands showed love by initiating sex, sharing leisure activities, and doing household work together with their wives. Overall, the findings indicate that men and women show their love in more nuanced ways than cultural stereotypes suggest.

  2. Protein Replacement Therapy Shows Promise in Treating Rare Skin Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1999 Spotlight on Research 2014 February 2014 (historical) Protein Replacement Therapy Shows Promise in Treating Rare Skin Disorder Replacing a protein that is crucial to ensuring that the skin’s ...

  3. Genital Herpes Vaccine Shows Promise in Animal Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163137.html Genital Herpes Vaccine Shows Promise in Animal Trials Two-pronged approach tested on lab monkeys, guinea ... vaccines have not shown very robust protection in animal and human trials. Friedman and his colleagues decided that an effective ...

  4. Web-Based Help for Insomnia Shows Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162290.html Web-Based Help for Insomnia Shows Promise Interactive program ... Now, insomnia might be one of them. A web-based interactive program may help chronically sleepless individuals ...

  5. [Keeping of horses in circus and show businesses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollmann, U

    2002-03-01

    The conditions under which horses are kept and the performance of acts in the circus ring may give rise to animal protection-relevant aspects for circus and show horses. A number of intolerable conditions under which horses are kept and procedures adopted for the work with circus and show horses are described. In addition, attention is drawn to monitoring methods capable of exposing the deplorable shortcomings of these businesses.

  6. Chronic pulmonary thromboembolism pathologically showing homogeneous cellular alveolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Seiichi; Shirai, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Kaida, Yusuke; Suda, Takafumi; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Chida, Kingo

    2011-01-01

    A 60-year-old man was admitted to our hospital complaining of general malaise. Examination of arterial blood gases on room air revealed hypoxia. Pulmonary function test showed restrictive abnormality. Chest high-resolution CT showed diffuse mosaic attenuation without evident pulmonary artery abnormality on contrast chest CT. Based on these findings, interstitial pneumonia or chronic pulmonary thromboembolism was suspected. The findings of bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 4.4×10(5) cells/mL, including 89.6% macrophages, 9.4% lymphocytes, and 1.0% neutrophils. TBLB showed marked alveolitis. Moreover video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical biopsy was performed. Biopsies of the lung specimen showed focal infarct with surrounding mild mononuclear cell infiltrates (homogenous cellular alveolitis). (99m)Tc pulmonary perfusion and (81m)Kr ventilation scintigraphy showed V/Q mismatch. Furthermore, pulmonary angiography also revealed inadequate artery flow corresponding to the mismatch area of scintigraphy. Collagen vascular diseases and abnormality of coagulation factors were not detected. Multiple perfusion defects persisted for more than 6 months. Thus, finally the patient was diagnosed with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism, pathologically showing homogenous cellular alveolitis.

  7. Pedagogical Techniques Employed by the Television Show "MythBusters"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavrel, Erik

    2016-11-01

    "MythBusters," the long-running though recently discontinued Discovery Channel science entertainment television program, has proven itself to be far more than just a highly rated show. While its focus is on entertainment, the show employs an array of pedagogical techniques to communicate scientific concepts to its audience. These techniques include: achieving active learning, avoiding jargon, employing repetition to ensure comprehension, using captivating demonstrations, cultivating an enthusiastic disposition, and increasing intrinsic motivation to learn. In this content analysis, episodes from the show's 10-year history were examined for these techniques. "MythBusters" represents an untapped source of pedagogical techniques, which science educators may consider availing themselves of in their tireless effort to better reach their students. Physics educators in particular may look to "MythBusters" for inspiration and guidance in how to incorporate these techniques into their own teaching and help their students in the learning process.

  8. Filming the freak show. Non-normative bodies on screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodesco, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on four films that display the exhibition for profit of non- normative bodies in a context that is variously called freak show, sideshow, monster show, odditorium. Freaks (Tod Browning, 1932), The Ape Woman (La donna scimmia, Marco Ferreri, 1964), Elephant Man (David Lynch, 1980) and Black Venus (Venus noire, Abdellatif Kechiche, 2010) are reflexive movies that tell stories of abnormal bodies and of people who buy a ticket to see them. They inquire the fictional nature of "freakness"--a cultural and historical artefact, a social construction, a frame of mind and a set of practices--and draw attention to the continuity between the world of the freak shows and the scientific and medical milieus. The article finally considers the new visibility of the corporeal freak in contemporary voyeuristic television programs.

  9. Five Kepler target stars that show multiple transiting exoplanet candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, Jason H; Borucki, William J; Buchhave, Lars A; Caldwell, Douglas A; Cochran, William D; Endl, Michael; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Fressin, François; Ford, Eric B; Fortney, Jonathan J; Haas, Michael J; Holman, Matthew J; Isaacson, Howard; Jenkins, Jon M; Koch, David; Latham, David W; Lissauer, Jack J; Moorhead, Althea V; Morehead, Robert C; Marcy, Geoffrey; MacQueen, Phillip J; Quinn, Samuel N; Ragozzine, Darin; Rowe, Jason F; Sasselov, Dimitar D; Seager, Sara; Torres, Guillermo; Welsh, William F

    2010-01-01

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets and provide new insights into the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. We discuss the methods used to identify multiple transiting objects from the Kepler photometry as well as the false-positive rejection methods that have been applied to these data. One system shows transits from three distinct objects while the remaining four systems show transits from two objects. Three systems have planet candidates that are near mean motion commensurabilities - two near 2:1 and one just outside 5:2. We discuss the implications that multitransiting systems have on the distribution of orbital inclinations in planetary systems, and hence their dynamical histories; as well as their likely masses and chemical compos...

  10. Uni Dufour | Ig Nobel Show with Marc Abrahams | 7 May

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On 7 May, Marc Abrahams, founder of the Ig Nobel Prize, will give an "Ig Nobel show", in English at Uni Dufour. The Ig Nobel Prizes are an American parody of the Nobel Prizes. In early October of each year, they are awarded to ten unusual or trivial achievements in scientific research. The stated aim of the prizes is to "first make people laugh, and then make them think". Marc Abrahams will introduce this funny and dynamic evening with a short presentation before handing over to a selection of recipients. The show is free and open to all. Tuesday 7 May Ig Nobel Show 6:30 p.m. - Room U600 Uni Dufour

  11. The Biochemistry Show: a new and fun tool for learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H Ono

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional methods to teach biochemistry in most universities are based on the memorization of chemical structures,  biochemical  pathways  and  reagent  names,  which  is  many  times  dismotivating  for  the  students.  We presently describe an innovative, interactive and alternative method for teaching biochemistry to medical and nutrition undergraduate students, called the Biochemistry Show (BioBio Show.The Biobio show is based on active participation of the students. They are divided in groups and the groups face each other. One group faces another one group at a time, in a game based on true or false questions that involve subjects of applied biochemistry (exercise, obesity, diabetes, cholesterol, free radicals, among others. The questions of the Show are previously elaborated by senior students. The Biobio Show has four phases, the first one is a selection exam, and from the second to the fourth phase, eliminatory confrontations happen. On a confrontation, the first group must select a certain quantity of questions for the opponent to answer.  The group who choses the questions must know how to answer and justify the selected questions. This procedure is repeated on all phases of the show. On the last phase, the questions used are taken from an exam previously performed by the students: either the 9-hour biochemistry exam (Sé et al. A 9-hour biochemistry exam. An iron man competition or a good way of evaluating undergraduate students? SBBq 2005, abstract K-6 or the True-or-False exam (TFE (Sé et al. Are tutor-students capable of writing good biochemistry exams? SBBq 2004, abstract K-18. The winner group receives an extra 0,5 point on the final grade. Over 70% of the students informed on a questionnaire that the Biobio Show is a valuable tool for learning biochemistry.    That is a new way to enrich the discussion of biochemistry in the classroom without the students getting bored. Moreover, learning

  12. CERN cars drive by the Geneva Motor Show

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    One of CERN's new gas-fuelled cars was a special guest at the press days of the Geneva motor show this year. The car enjoyed a prominent position on the Gazmobil stand, right next to the latest Mazeratis and Ferraris. Journalists previewing the motor show could discover CERN's support for green technologies and also find out more about the lab - home to the fastest racetrack on the planet, with protons in the LHC running at 99.9999991% of the speed of light.    

  13. Modelli televisivi e apprendimento. Il talk show “Gladiattori”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Denicolai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo presenta il talk show “Gladiattori”, format per web tv ideato e sviluppato dal centro interdipartimentale di ricerca Cinedumedia, Dipartimento di Filosofia e Scienze dell’Educazione, Università degli Studi di Torino. Lo scopo del progetto è sperimentare una metodologia didattica innovativa con il video e i linguaggi multimediali. Partendo dalla teoria del dialogo platonico e da alcuni studi di pragmatica, comunicazione, antropologia della performance e televisione, l’articolo analizza come il talk show (e, in genere, il video possa essere utilizzato nella didattica e nella formazione per acquisire competenze e conoscenza e applicare un nuovo interattivo, collaborativo e collettivo metodo di studio.

  14. Deaf Individuals Show a Leftward Bias in Numerical Bisection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Cecchetto, Carlo; Papagno, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    Consistent evidence suggests that deaf individuals conceive of numerical magnitude as a left-to-right-oriented mental number line, as typically observed in hearing individuals. When accessing this spatial representation of numbers, normally hearing individuals typically show an attentional bias to the left (pseudoneglect), resembling the attentional bias they show in physical space. Deaf individuals do not show pseudoneglect in representing external space, as assessed by a visual line bisection task. However, whether deaf individuals show attentional biases in representing numerical space has never been investigated before. Here we instructed groups of deaf and hearing individuals to quickly estimate (without calculating) the midpoint of a series of numerical intervals presented in ascending and descending order. Both hearing and deaf individuals were significantly biased toward lower numbers (i.e., the leftward side of the mental number line) in their estimations. Nonetheless, the underestimation bias was smaller in deaf individuals than in the hearing when bisecting pairs of numbers given in descending order. This result may depend on the use of different strategies by deaf and hearing participants or a less pronounced lateralization of deaf individuals in the control of spatial attention.

  15. Graduate Students' Pay and Benefits Vary Widely, Survey Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    June, Audrey Williams

    2008-01-01

    Graduate students face an array of choices when evaluating compensation-and-benefits packages that make comparisons difficult. A "Chronicle" survey shows that the offers to teaching assistants and research assistants vary widely. Some institutions cover 100 percent of graduate students' tuition, while others waive only a portion. It is possible to…

  16. Distributing and Showing Farmer Learning Videos in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Jeffery W.; Van Mele, Paul; Harun-ar-Rashid, Md.; Krupnik, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the results of showing farmer learning videos through different types of volunteers. Design/Methodology/Approach: Semi-structured interviews with volunteers from different occupational groups in Bangladesh, and a phone survey with 227 respondents. Findings: Each occupational group acted differently. Shop keepers, tillage…

  17. Using "The Daily Show" to Promote Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, H. James; Schmeichel, Mardi

    2012-01-01

    Social studies teachers are tasked with aiding their students' abilities to engage in public debate and make politically sound decisions. One way the authors have found to help facilitate this is to draw connections between content knowledge and current political conversations through the use of clips from "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart." While…

  18. French City Calais Shows Great Appetite for Chinese Stone Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hao

    2005-01-01

    @@ A French government delegation headed by the President of the Municipal Planning & Design Bureau of Calais City and Mr. Han Guogang, President of France China International Development Institution investigated Chinese stone materials market during April 28 to April 29, they showed great interest in some stone materials in good quality such as "China Black".

  19. Autopsied case of tuberculous meningitis showing interesting CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abiko, Takashi; Higuchi, Hiroshi; Imada, Ryuichi; Nagai, Kenichi (Iwate Prefectural Central Hospital (Japan))

    1983-11-01

    A 61-year-old female patient died of a neurological disorder of unknown origin one month after the first visit and was found to have had tuberculous meningitis at autopsy. CT revealed a low density area showing an enlargement of the cerebral ventricle but did not reveal contrast enhancement in the basal cistern peculiar to tuberculous meningitis.

  20. Five kepler target stars that show multiple transiting exoplanet candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffen..[], Jason H.; Batalha, N. M.; Broucki, W J.

    2010-01-01

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets...

  1. "Country Life"? Rurality, Folk Music and "Show of Hands"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarwood, Richard; Charlton, Clive

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution of folk music to understanding the dynamic, fluid and multi-experiential nature of the countryside. Drawing from literature on the geographies of music, it examines the work of "Show of Hands", a contemporary folk band from Devon in England. Three areas are studied. First, the paper examines the…

  2. Genoa Boat Show – Good Example of Event Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Demirović

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available International Boat Show, a business and tourist event, has been held annually in Italian city of Genoa since 1962. The fair is one of the oldest, largest and best known in the field of boating industry worldwide, primarily due to good management of the event and it can serve as case study for domestic fair organizers to improve the quality of their business and services. Since Belgrade is the city of fairs, but compared to Genoa still underdeveloped in terms of trade shows, the following tasks imposed naturally in this study: to determine the relationship of the organizers of Genoa Boat Show in the sector of preparation and fair offer, in the sector of selection and communication with specific target groups (especially visitors, services during the fair and functioning of the city during the fair. During the research the authors have mostly used historical method, comparison, synthesis and the interview method. The results of theoretical research, in addition, may help not only managers of fair shows and of exhibitions, but also to organizers of other events in our country

  3. Strobes: Pyrotechnic compositions that show a curious oscillatory combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbel, J.M.L.; Lingen, J.N.J. van; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Gijzeman, O.L.J.; Meijerink, A.

    2013-01-01

    Strobes are pyrotechnic compositions which show an oscillatory combustion; a dark phase and a flash phase alternate periodically. The strobe effect has applications in various fields, most notably in the fireworks industry and in the military area. All strobe compositions mentioned in the literature

  4. Strobes: Pyrotechnic Compositions That Show a Curious Oscillatory Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbel, J.M.L.; van Lingen, J.N.J.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Gijzeman, O.L.J.; Meijerink, A.

    2013-01-01

    Strobes are pyrotechnic compositions which show an oscillatory combustion; a dark phase and a flash phase alternate periodically. The strobe effect has applications in various fields, most notably in the fireworks industry and in the military area. All strobe compositions mentioned in the literature

  5. Teaching Job Interviewing Skills with the Help of Television Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Because of its potential for humor and drama, job interviewing is frequently portrayed on television. This article discusses how scenes from popular television series such as "Everybody Loves Raymond," "Friends," and "The Mary Tyler Moore Show" can be used to teach effective job interview skills in business communication courses. Television…

  6. Airline Overbooking Problem with Uncertain No-Shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an airline overbooking problem of a new single-leg flight with discount fare. Due to the absence of historical data of no-shows for a new flight, and various uncertain human behaviors or unexpected events which causes that a few passengers cannot board their aircraft on time, we fail to obtain the probability distribution of no-shows. In this case, the airlines have to invite some domain experts to provide belief degree of no-shows to estimate its distribution. However, human beings often overestimate unlikely events, which makes the variance of belief degree much greater than that of the frequency. If we still regard the belief degree as a subjective probability, the derived results will exceed our expectations. In order to deal with this uncertainty, the number of no-shows of new flight is assumed to be an uncertain variable in this paper. Given the chance constraint of social reputation, an overbooking model with discount fares is developed to maximize the profit rate based on uncertain programming theory. Finally, the analytic expression of the optimal booking limit is obtained through a numerical example, and the results of sensitivity analysis indicate that the optimal booking limit is affected by flight capacity, discount, confidence level, and parameters of the uncertainty distribution significantly.

  7. Data from the Television Game Show "Friend or Foe?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalist, David E.

    2004-01-01

    The data discussed in this paper are from the television game show "Friend or Foe", and can be used to examine whether age, gender, race, and the amount of prize money affect contestants' strategies. The data are suitable for a variety of statistical analyses, such as descriptive statistics, testing for differences in means or proportions, and…

  8. The neonicotinoid imidachloprid shows high chronic toxicity to mayfly nymphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessink, I.; Merga, L.B.; Zweers, A.J.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the acute and chronic toxicity of imidacloprid to a range of freshwater arthropods. Mayfly and caddisfly species were most sensitive to short-term imidacloprid exposures (10 tests), whereas the mayflies showed by far the most sensitive response to long-term exposure of al

  9. Mice lacking neuropeptide Y show increased sensitivity to cocaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gunnar; Woldbye, David Paul Drucker

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing data implicating neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the neurobiology of addiction. This study explored the possible role of NPY in cocaine-induced behavior using NPY knockout mice. The transgenic mice showed a hypersensitive response to cocaine in three animal models of cocaine addiction...

  10. Design Your Organization's Own Slide-Tape Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilden, Scott W.

    1975-01-01

    Slide-tape shows offer a relatively inexpensive, easy-to-assemble means of informing a wide variety of groups interested in education. This article outlines a seven-step procedure to produce a coherent, professional-looking slide-tape presentation. (DS)

  11. Authenticity and TV Shows: A Multidimensional Analysis Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Surmi, Mansoor

    2012-01-01

    Television shows, especially soap operas and sitcoms, are usually considered by English as a second language practitioners as a source of authentic spoken conversational materials presumably because they reflect the linguistic features of natural conversation. However, practitioners are faced with the dilemma of how to assess whether such…

  12. Using "The Daily Show" to Promote Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, H. James; Schmeichel, Mardi

    2012-01-01

    Social studies teachers are tasked with aiding their students' abilities to engage in public debate and make politically sound decisions. One way the authors have found to help facilitate this is to draw connections between content knowledge and current political conversations through the use of clips from "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart." While…

  13. Reciprocal Ontological Models Show Indeterminism Comparable to Quantum Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Banik, Manik; Bhattacharya, Some Sankar; Ghosh, Sibasish; Kar, Guruprasad; Mukherjee, Amit; Roy, Arup

    2016-12-01

    We show that within the class of ontological models due to Harrigan and Spekkens, those satisfying preparation-measurement reciprocity must allow indeterminism comparable to that in quantum theory. Our result implies that one can design quantum random number generator, for which it is impossible, even in principle, to construct a reciprocal deterministic model.

  14. Auto Show Exhibition:An Interests-Powered Lever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Many years in the segment,Li Cheng(not his real name )still can not tell for sure whether the auto development leads auto show exhibitions or the reverse."Both of them have been doing the leadership job,"he said.His passion

  15. Reciprocal Ontological Models Show Indeterminism Comparable to Quantum Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Banik, Manik; Bhattacharya, Some Sankar; Ghosh, Sibasish; Kar, Guruprasad; Mukherjee, Amit; Roy, Arup

    2017-02-01

    We show that within the class of ontological models due to Harrigan and Spekkens, those satisfying preparation-measurement reciprocity must allow indeterminism comparable to that in quantum theory. Our result implies that one can design quantum random number generator, for which it is impossible, even in principle, to construct a reciprocal deterministic model.

  16. Fun While Showing, Not Telling: Crafting Vivid Detail in Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Nero, Jennifer Renner

    2017-01-01

    This teaching tip highlights three writing minilessons that help students construct vivid sensory detail (textual detail related to the five senses) in their fiction and creative nonfiction writing. Learning to show, not tell, is a difficult task for novice writers. The author explores reasons why this is the case and provides directions for the…

  17. Giant primary angiosarcoma of the small intestine showing severe sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Mizuna; Ohara, Masanori; Kimura, Noriko; Domen, Hiromitsu; Yamabuki, Takumi; Komuro, Kazuteru; Tsuchikawa, Takahiro; Hirano, Satoshi; Iwashiro, Nozomu

    2014-11-21

    Primary malignant tumors of the small intestine are rare, comprising less than 2% of all gastrointestinal tumors. An 85-year-old woman was admitted with fever of 40 °C and marked abdominal distension. Her medical history was unremarkable, but blood examination showed elevated inflammatory markers. Abdominal computed tomography showed a giant tumor with central necrosis, extending from the epigastrium to the pelvic cavity. Giant gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the small intestine communicating with the gastrointestinal tract or with superimposed infection was suspected. Because no improvement occurred in response to antibiotics, surgery was performed. Laparotomy revealed giant hemorrhagic tumor adherent to the small intestine and occupying the peritoneal cavity. The giant tumor was a solid tumor weighing 3490 g, measuring 24 cm × 17.5 cm × 18 cm and showing marked necrosis. Histologically, the tumor comprised spindle-shaped cells with anaplastic large nuclei. Immunohistochemical studies showed tumor cells positive for vimentin, CD31, and factor VIII-related antigen, but negative for c-kit and CD34. Angiosarcoma was diagnosed. Although no postoperative complications occurred, the patient experienced enlargement of multiple metastatic tumors in the abdominal cavity and died 42 d postoperatively. The prognosis of small intestinal angiosarcoma is very poor, even after volume-reducing palliative surgery.

  18. Teaching Job Interviewing Skills with the Help of Television Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Because of its potential for humor and drama, job interviewing is frequently portrayed on television. This article discusses how scenes from popular television series such as "Everybody Loves Raymond," "Friends," and "The Mary Tyler Moore Show" can be used to teach effective job interview skills in business communication courses. Television…

  19. New Inspiring Planetarium Show Introduces ALMA to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    As part of a wide range of education and public outreach activities for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009), ESO, together with the Association of French Language Planetariums (APLF), has produced a 30-minute planetarium show, In Search of our Cosmic Origins. It is centred on the global ground-based astronomical Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) project and represents a unique chance for planetariums to be associated with the IYA2009. ESO PR Photo 09a/09 Logo of the ALMA Planetarium Show ESO PR Photo 09b/09 Galileo's first observations with a telescope ESO PR Photo 09c/09 The ALMA Observatory ESO PR Photo 09d/09 The Milky Way band ESO PR Video 09a/09 Trailer in English ALMA is the leading telescope for observing the cool Universe -- the relic radiation of the Big Bang, and the molecular gas and dust that constitute the building blocks of stars, planetary systems, galaxies and life itself. It is currently being built in the extremely arid environment of the Chajnantor plateau, at 5000 metres altitude in the Chilean Andes, and will start scientific observations around 2011. ALMA, the largest current astronomical project, is a revolutionary telescope, comprising a state-of-the-art array of 66 giant 12-metre and 7-metre diameter antennas observing at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. In Search of our Cosmic Origins highlights the unprecedented window on the Universe that this facility will open for astronomers. "The show gives viewers a fascinating tour of the highest observatory on Earth, and takes them from there out into our Milky Way, and beyond," says Douglas Pierce-Price, the ALMA Public Information Officer at ESO. Edited by world fulldome experts Mirage3D, the emphasis of the new planetarium show is on the incomparable scientific adventure of the ALMA project. A young female astronomer guides the audience through a story that includes unique animations and footage, leading the viewer from the first observations by Galileo

  20. Neuro-Behcet's disease showing severe atrophy of the cerebrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, T; Murayama, E; Deshimaru, M; Shikai, I; Kozuma, S

    1976-03-15

    A 38-year-old female died 6 years after the onset of what was, clinically and histopathologically, consistent with neuro-Behcet's disease. Pathologically the cerebrum showed severe atrophy. The main changes were observed in the grey and white matter, the diencephalon and the basal ganglia by light microscopy. All these changes originated in softenings around blood vessels, especially small vessels or capillaries. These foci fused together to form large regions of softening. Glial or mesenchymal reactions were minimal. In the white matter there was slight perivascular-infiltration, mainly consisting of lymphocytes. In view of these findings, it is suggested that these changes were caused by an allergic vasculitis. The present case of Neuro-Behcet's disease is the first one showing general atrophy of the cerebrum. It is very important in relation to demyelinating encephalitis.

  1. Preschoolers show less trust in physically disabled or obese informants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eJaffer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research examined whether preschool-aged children show less trust in physically disabled or obese informants. In Study 1, when learning about novel physical activities and facts, 4- and 5-year-olds preferred to endorse the testimony of a physically abled, non-obese informant rather than a physically disabled or obese one. In Study 2, after seeing that the physically disabled or obese informant was previously reliable whereas the physically abled, non-obese one was unreliable, 4- and 5-year-olds did not show a significant preference for either informant. We conclude that in line with the literature on children’s negative stereotypes of physically disabled or obese others, preschoolers are biased against these individuals as potential sources of new knowledge. This bias is robust in that past reliability might undermine its effect on children, but cannot reverse it.

  2. Severe weather as a spectacle: the Meteo-Show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Orbe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we focus on perhaps one of the worst journalist practice when dealing with severe weather, the Meteo-Show or the extended practice, especially in TV, for using weather and meteorology for spectacle. Journalism today has found weather information in a real goldmine in terms of audience due to the growing public interest in this matter. However, as it happens with other content, sensationalism and exaggeration have also reached weather information, primarily when episodes of adverse nature (snow, heavy rain, floods, etc. are addressed. In this paper we look to identify the worst practices in weather communication through analysis of examples from real journalist work. We present some keys to understand this trend, highlighting the ingredients that are present in the worst Meteo-show.

  3. El reality show a la hora de la merienda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Rosa María Ganga Ganga

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Los programas de testimonio, inscritos dentro del género televisivo del Reality Show, son una variante del más amplio subgénero del Talk Show y tienen ya una cierta tradición en nuestro país. El presente trabajo se centrará en este tipo de programas de testimonio que basan su estrategia discursiva en la presentación y representación del relato autobiográfico del hombre o la mujer anónimos, integrándose de esta forma en las corrientes más recientes de la sociología y la historiografía, y persigue esclarecer algunas de sus características y funciones, especialmente su función socializadora, a través del mecanismo biográfico y del concepto de habitus tomado de Pierre Bourdieu.

  4. Human DNA methylomes of neurodegenerative diseases show common epigenomic patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Mut, J V; Heyn, H; Vidal, E; Moran, S; Sayols, S; Delgado-Morales, R; Schultz, M D; Ansoleaga, B; Garcia-Esparcia, P; Pons-Espinal, M; de Lagran, M M; Dopazo, J; Rabano, A; Avila, J; Dierssen, M; Lott, I; Ferrer, I; Ecker, J R; Esteller, M

    2016-01-01

    Different neurodegenerative disorders often show similar lesions, such as the presence of amyloid plaques, TAU-neurotangles and synuclein inclusions. The genetically inherited forms are rare, so we wondered whether shared epigenetic aberrations, such as those affecting DNA methylation, might also exist. The studied samples were gray matter samples from the prefrontal cortex of control and neurodegenerative disease-associated cases. We performed the DNA methylation analyses of Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer-like neurodegenerative profile associated with Down's syndrome samples. The DNA methylation landscapes obtained show that neurodegenerative diseases share similar aberrant CpG methylation shifts targeting a defined gene set. Our findings suggest that neurodegenerative disorders might have similar pathogenetic mechanisms that subsequently evolve into different clinical entities. The identified aberrant DNA methylation changes can be used as biomarkers of the disorders and as potential new targets for the development of new therapies. PMID:26784972

  5. Cambrian stalked echinoderms show unexpected plasticity of arm construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, S; Smith, A B

    2012-01-22

    Feeding arms carrying coelomic extensions of the theca are thought to be unique to crinoids among stemmed echinoderms. However, a new two-armed echinoderm from the earliest Middle Cambrian of Spain displays a highly unexpected morphology. X-ray microtomographic analysis of its arms shows they are polyplated in their proximal part with a dorsal series of uniserial elements enclosing a large coelomic lumen. Distally, the arm transforms into the more standard biserial structure of a blastozoan brachiole. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that this taxon lies basal to rhombiferans as sister-group to pleurocystitid and glyptocystitid blastozoans, drawing those clades deep into the Cambrian. We demonstrate that Cambrian echinoderms show surprising variability in the way their appendages are constructed, and that the appendages of at least some blastozoans arose as direct outgrowths of the body in much the same way as the arms of crinoids.

  6. HUBBLE VISION: A Planetarium Show About Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Carolyn Collins

    1995-05-01

    In 1991, a planetarium show called "Hubble: Report From Orbit" outlining the current achievements of the Hubble Space Telescope was produced by the independent planetarium production company Loch Ness Productions, for distribution to facilities around the world. The program was subsequently converted to video. In 1994, that program was updated and re-produced under the name "Hubble Vision" and offered to the planetarium community. It is periodically updated and remains a sought-after and valuable resource within the community. This paper describes the production of the program, and the role of the astronomical community in the show's production (and subsequent updates). The paper is accompanied by a video presentation of Hubble Vision.

  7. Migraine patients consistently show abnormal vestibular bedside tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Teixeira Maranhão

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Migraine and vertigo are common disorders, with lifetime prevalences of 16% and 7% respectively, and co-morbidity around 3.2%. Vestibular syndromes and dizziness occur more frequently in migraine patients. We investigated bedside clinical signs indicative of vestibular dysfunction in migraineurs.Objective To test the hypothesis that vestibulo-ocular reflex, vestibulo-spinal reflex and fall risk (FR responses as measured by 14 bedside tests are abnormal in migraineurs without vertigo, as compared with controls.Method Cross-sectional study including sixty individuals – thirty migraineurs, 25 women, 19-60 y-o; and 30 gender/age healthy paired controls.Results Migraineurs showed a tendency to perform worse in almost all tests, albeit only the Romberg tandem test was statistically different from controls. A combination of four abnormal tests better discriminated the two groups (93.3% specificity.Conclusion Migraine patients consistently showed abnormal vestibular bedside tests when compared with controls.

  8. Revisiting Dystopia: the Reality Show Biopolitics of "The Hunger Games"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fani Cettl

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the dystopian imaginaries of the recent popular novel trilogy The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins and its film adaptations. Having put the narrative into a genealogy of dystopian fiction concerned with the historical nation-state totalitarianisms, I ask what is specifically contemporary about The Hunger Games. I explore this by focusing on the functioning of the reality show format in the narrative, which I link to G. Agamben’s understanding of the spectacle, as part of his wider biopolitical theories. I apply an Agambenian biopolitical reading to the narrative, seeing it as a production of bare life through the camp of the reality show arena. I suggest that The Hunger Games offer a critique of contemporary liberal democracies by calling attention to their production of underclassed and expendable life, which is imagined as an eruption of the nation-state right to kill, similarly as in Agamben’s theories.

  9. Earth, the "star" of an original Planetarium show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoulay, G.; Acker, A.

    2003-04-01

    Thanks the spatial observations, the astronomers are abble to complete their representations of the universe, and scientists can observe the Earth as a planet like Venus or Mars. A collaboration between the CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and the APLF (Association des Planétariums de Langue Française or French speaking Planetariums Association) allowed the presentation into the Planetariums of (1) images and data related to spatial news, and (2) a specific show constructed by the CNES and the APLF, and devoted to Earth as an astronomical object. This original show is presented in 5 langages by 36 Planétariums since 2002, April, and we report on the reactions of both the visitors and the animators.

  10. Face and body recognition show similar improvement during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Samantha; Rhodes, Gillian; Read, Ainsley; Jeffery, Linda

    2015-09-01

    Adults are proficient in extracting identity cues from faces. This proficiency develops slowly during childhood, with performance not reaching adult levels until adolescence. Bodies are similar to faces in that they convey identity cues and rely on specialized perceptual mechanisms. However, it is currently unclear whether body recognition mirrors the slow development of face recognition during childhood. Recent evidence suggests that body recognition develops faster than face recognition. Here we measured body and face recognition in 6- and 10-year-old children and adults to determine whether these two skills show different amounts of improvement during childhood. We found no evidence that they do. Face and body recognition showed similar improvement with age, and children, like adults, were better at recognizing faces than bodies. These results suggest that the mechanisms of face and body memory mature at a similar rate or that improvement of more general cognitive and perceptual skills underlies improvement of both face and body recognition.

  11. El reality show a la hora de la merienda

    OpenAIRE

    Lic. Rosa María Ganga Ganga

    2000-01-01

    Los programas de testimonio, inscritos dentro del género televisivo del Reality Show, son una variante del más amplio subgénero del Talk Show y tienen ya una cierta tradición en nuestro país. El presente trabajo se centrará en este tipo de programas de testimonio que basan su estrategia discursiva en la presentación y representación del relato autobiográfico del hombre o la mujer anónimos, integrándose de esta forma en las corrientes más recientes de la sociología y la historiografía, y persi...

  12. Sidelights on Peking Opera and Kabuki Joint Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Yaqin

    2015-01-01

    On April 2 and April 3,Chinese Peking Opera and Japanese Kabuki were performed on the same stage to sellout audiences at the Beijing Mei Lanfang Grand Theater.Two classics of Peking Opera,Farewell My Concubine and The Great Enthronement,were performed respectively in the first half of the show,followed in the second half by a famous Kabuki play,The Mirror Lion—A Spring Entertainment.

  13. Size and depth of vocabulary knowledge: what the research shows

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    When discussing vocabulary, a distinction is often made between size of vocabulary (number of known words) and depth of knowledge (how well those words are known). However, the relationship between the two constructs is still unclear. Some scholars argue that there is little real difference between the two, while regression analyses show that depth typically adds unique explanatory power compared to size alone. Ultimately, the relationship between size and depth of vocabulary knowledge depend...

  14. Attitudes towards disability showed by future physical education teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Abellán Hernández

    2015-01-01

    The present paper aims to study the attitudes towards disability of future physical education teachers. For this purpose two questionnaires were administered and the results were compared by gender (male and female), the participants' experience in dealing with people with disabilities and the particants’ course level (third or fourth grade). The results show that students in the Minor in Physical Education have a very positive attitude towards disability. Men obtain a more positive attitude ...

  15. Learning from a dive show in an aquarium setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Lori M.

    A study was conducted at an aquarium next to a theme park to understand information recalled from two versions of shows viewed at the largest display. The goal of this research was to determine if learning was enhanced by having a diver in water as the treatment group. This project focused on the knowledge recalled about shark and ray feeding adaptations, the information recalled about the mentioned conservation message about sustainable seafood and the potential of the two shows to make memorable experiences. During the project, 30 adult participants from each group were given a survey with five open-ended questions. Results suggest that the diver might distract from biological content information, or that the diver is such a novel element that it interferes with recall. While guests seemed to recall information about rays and sharks, the amount of information was not substantial. It appears that the diver does not affect content messaging but does impact whether guests attend to Seafood Watch messaging. The diver may have been so novel that the treatment group could not attend to the conservation message that was delivered, regardless of topic, or the control group recalled the message because the guests were not distracted by the diver or feeding. The absence of a diver seems to allow the guests to better attend to what is happening outside of the tank. While adding a diver increases photo opportunities and may bring guests to a show, the results seem to indicate that it does not significantly increase recall. The results of this study show that guests in a theme park setting can recall information from an educational program. Guests may not enter this hybrid aquarium with the intention of learning, but recall, one of the components in learning, does occur.

  16. A Solved Model to Show Insufficiency of Quantitative Adiabatic Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Long-Jiang; LIU Yu-Zhen; TONG Dian-Min

    2009-01-01

    The adiabatic theorem is a useful tool in processing quantum systems slowly evolving,but its practical application depends on the quantitative condition expressed by Hamiltonian's eigenvalues and eigenstates,which is usually taken as a sufficient condition.Recently,the sumciency of the condition was questioned,and several counterex amples have been reported.Here we present a new solved model to show the insufficiency of the traditional quantitative adiabatic condition.

  17. All the new Styles Showing on Auto China 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao; Canhua; Ren; Lin

    2006-01-01

      On the occasion of Auto China 2006 from November 18 to 27, 2006, as the representative of China independent brands, Land Wind will take the theme of "Roads in the World, I Drive Anywhere I Like",leads all the new styles of automobiles to show on Auto China 2006, including X6, X9, Land Wind Fashion, and the economical coupe Land Wind CV7,which will be put into market next year..……

  18. All the new Styles Showing on Auto China 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Canhua; Ren Lin

    2006-01-01

    @@ On the occasion of Auto China 2006 from November 18 to 27, 2006, as the representative of China independent brands, Land Wind will take the theme of "Roads in the World, I Drive Anywhere I Like",leads all the new styles of automobiles to show on Auto China 2006, including X6, X9, Land Wind Fashion, and the economical coupe Land Wind CV7,which will be put into market next year..

  19. Attitudes towards disability showed by future physical education teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Abellán Hernández

    2015-01-01

    The present paper aims to study the attitudes towards disability of future physical education teachers. For this purpose two questionnaires were administered and the results were compared by gender (male and female), the participants' experience in dealing with people with disabilities and the particants’ course level (third or fourth grade). The results show that students in the Minor in Physical Education have a very positive attitude towards disability. Men obtain a more positive attitude ...

  20. A duplex kidney with dromedary hump showing altered hilar anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tallapaneni S

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive knowledge of the wide range of variations of renal vasculature and renal pelvis is mandatory to the anatomists for a better understanding of the embryology. It remains as the key issue in determining the technical feasibility of various endourologic procedures and innumerable intervention techniques besides kidney retrievals for transplantation. In the present case the duplex kidney showed lobulations on the anterior surface just adjacent to the hilar region. The midlateral portion of the convex lateral border of the kidney showed a small focal bulge –dromedary hump. At the hilum reversed anterio-posterior disposition of renal vasculature with anteriorly placed renal artery which bifurcated into two upper and lower anterior segmental branches. The renal vein formed by large tributaries arising from the hilum running towards the inferior vena cava. The renal pelvis was most posteriorly placed which showed a double pelvis. The upper pelvis was seen arising behind the renal vein and the lower pelvis arising inferomedial to the lower anterior segmental artery.Both the pelvises were seen uniting medial to the lower part of hilum and continued as a single ureter which opened into the bladder. The thorough knowledge of these anatomical variations is necessary to avoid iatrogenic injuries and enable the surgeon and radiologists approach unusual situations with confidence rather than surprise.

  1. The postmitotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae after spaceflight showed higher viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zong-Chun; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Yan; Zhuang, Feng-Yuan

    2011-06-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been proposed as an ideal model organism for clarifying the biological effects caused by spaceflight conditions. The postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells onboard Practice eight recoverable satellite were subjected to spaceflight for 15 days. After recovery, the viability, the glycogen content, the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, the DNA content and the lipid peroxidation level in yeast cells were analyzed. The viability of the postmitotic yeast cells after spaceflight showed a three-fold increase as compared with that of the ground control cells. Compared to the ground control cells, the lipid peroxidation level in the spaceflight yeast cells markedly decreased. The spaceflight yeast cells also showed an increase in G2/M cell population and a decrease in Sub-G1 cell population. The glycogen content and the activities of hexokinase and succinate dehydrogenase significantly decreased in the yeast cells after spaceflight. In contrast, the activity of malate dehydrogenase showed an obvious increase after spaceflight. These results suggested that microgravity or spaceflight could promote the survival of postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells through regulating carbohydrate metabolism, ROS level and cell cycle progression.

  2. An Undergraduate Endeavor: Assembling a Live Planetarium Show About Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Allison M.

    2016-10-01

    Viewing the mysterious red planet Mars goes back thousands of years with just the human eye but in more recent years the growth of telescopes, satellites and lander missions unveil unrivaled detail of the Martian surface that tells a story worth listening to. This planetarium show will go through the observations starting with the ancients to current understandings of the Martian surface, atmosphere and inner-workings through past and current Mars missions. Visual animations of its planetary motions, display of high resolution images from the Hi-RISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) and CTX (Context Camera) data imagery aboard the MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) as well as other datasets will be used to display the terrain detail and imagery of the planet Mars with a digital projection system. Local planetary scientists and Mars specialists from the Lunar and Planetary Lab at the University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ) will be interviewed and used in the show to highlight current technology and understandings of the red planet. This is an undergraduate project that is looking for collaborations and insight in order gain structure in script writing that will teach about this planetary body to all ages in the format of a live planetarium show.

  3. Five Kepler target stars that show multiple transiting exoplanet candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab; Batalha, Natalie M.; /San Jose State U.; Borucki, William J.; /NASA, Ames; Buchhave, Lars A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Bohr Inst.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; /NASA, Ames /SETI Inst., Mtn. View; Cochran, William D.; /Texas U.; Endl, Michael; /Texas U.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Fressin, Francois; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Ford, Eric B.; /Florida U.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; /UC, Santa Cruz, Phys. Dept. /NASA, Ames

    2010-06-01

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets and provide new insights into the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. We discuss the methods used to identify multiple transiting objects from the Kepler photometry as well as the false-positive rejection methods that have been applied to these data. One system shows transits from three distinct objects while the remaining four systems show transits from two objects. Three systems have planet candidates that are near mean motion commensurabilities - two near 2:1 and one just outside 5:2. We discuss the implications that multitransiting systems have on the distribution of orbital inclinations in planetary systems, and hence their dynamical histories; as well as their likely masses and chemical compositions. A Monte Carlo study indicates that, with additional data, most of these systems should exhibit detectable transit timing variations (TTV) due to gravitational interactions - though none are apparent in these data. We also discuss new challenges that arise in TTV analyses due to the presence of more than two planets in a system.

  4. Slide shows vs graphic tablet live drawing for anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaid, B

    2016-12-01

    Blackboard drawing is the traditional and still widely learned method for anatomy teachers. However, for practical reasons, more and more lessons are done using slide shows. New digital learning tools are developed to create a more attractive teaching method. The objective of this study was to compare the use of graphic tablet live drawing versus slide shows. Sixty-five second-year students of the Faculty of Medicine participated in this study during their first semester of 2013-2014 academic year. The selected lecture dealt about neuroanatomy; two brain sections were taught: median sagittal and transverse. The sagittal section was presented via a slide show. The transverse section was taught using a graphics tablet using drawing software. Students were evaluated three times: before the lecture, immediately after the lecture and 8 weeks later. Means were compared using a t-test. Scores were significantly higher immediately after the lecture and 8 weeks later tests in comparing the transverse section (using the graphics tablet) versus the sagittal section (using PowerPoint(®)). Student satisfaction regarding the use of the tablet was high. The graphics tablet is a usable and efficient drawing tool in anatomy teaching. This tool requires a specific teacher training and preparation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Five Kepler Target Stars That Show Multiple Transiting Exoplanet Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Jason H.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Borucki, William J.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Fressin, François; Ford, Eric B.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Haas, Michael J.; Holman, Matthew J.; Howell, Steve B.; Isaacson, Howard; Jenkins, Jon M.; Koch, David; Latham, David W.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Moorhead, Althea V.; Morehead, Robert C.; Marcy, Geoffrey; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Quinn, Samuel N.; Ragozzine, Darin; Rowe, Jason F.; Sasselov, Dimitar D.; Seager, Sara; Torres, Guillermo; Welsh, William F.

    2010-12-01

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets and provide new insights into the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. We discuss the methods used to identify multiple transiting objects from the Kepler photometry as well as the false-positive rejection methods that have been applied to these data. One system shows transits from three distinct objects while the remaining four systems show transits from two objects. Three systems have planet candidates that are near mean motion commensurabilities—two near 2:1 and one just outside 5:2. We discuss the implications that multi-transiting systems have on the distribution of orbital inclinations in planetary systems, and hence their dynamical histories, as well as their likely masses and chemical compositions. A Monte Carlo study indicates that, with additional data, most of these systems should exhibit detectable transit timing variations (TTVs) due to gravitational interactions, though none are apparent in these data. We also discuss new challenges that arise in TTV analyses due to the presence of more than two planets in a system.

  6. Cystinosis (ctns) zebrafish mutant shows pronephric glomerular and tubular dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmonem, Mohamed A.; Khalil, Ramzi; Khodaparast, Ladan; Khodaparast, Laleh; Arcolino, Fanny O.; Morgan, Joseph; Pastore, Anna; Tylzanowski, Przemko; Ny, Annelii; Lowe, Martin; de Witte, Peter A.; Baelde, Hans J.; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P.; Levtchenko, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The human ubiquitous protein cystinosin is responsible for transporting the disulphide amino acid cystine from the lysosomal compartment into the cytosol. In humans, Pathogenic mutations of CTNS lead to defective cystinosin function, intralysosomal cystine accumulation and the development of cystinosis. Kidneys are initially affected with generalized proximal tubular dysfunction (renal Fanconi syndrome), then the disease rapidly affects glomeruli and progresses towards end stage renal failure and multiple organ dysfunction. Animal models of cystinosis are limited, with only a Ctns knockout mouse reported, showing cystine accumulation and late signs of tubular dysfunction but lacking the glomerular phenotype. We established and characterized a mutant zebrafish model with a homozygous nonsense mutation (c.706 C > T; p.Q236X) in exon 8 of ctns. Cystinotic mutant larvae showed cystine accumulation, delayed development, and signs of pronephric glomerular and tubular dysfunction mimicking the early phenotype of human cystinotic patients. Furthermore, cystinotic larvae showed a significantly increased rate of apoptosis that could be ameliorated with cysteamine, the human cystine depleting therapy. Our data demonstrate that, ctns gene is essential for zebrafish pronephric podocyte and proximal tubular function and that the ctns-mutant can be used for studying the disease pathogenic mechanisms and for testing novel therapies for cystinosis. PMID:28198397

  7. AirShow 1.0 CFD Software Users' Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Stanley R., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    AirShow is visualization post-processing software for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Upon reading binary PLOT3D grid and solution files into AirShow, the engineer can quickly see how hundreds of complex 3-D structured blocks are arranged and numbered. Additionally, chosen grid planes can be displayed and colored according to various aerodynamic flow quantities such as Mach number and pressure. The user may interactively rotate and translate the graphical objects using the mouse. The software source code was written in cross-platform Java, C++, and OpenGL, and runs on Unix, Linux, and Windows. The graphical user interface (GUI) was written using Java Swing. Java also provides multiple synchronized threads. The Java Native Interface (JNI) provides a bridge between the Java code and the C++ code where the PLOT3D files are read, the OpenGL graphics are rendered, and numerical calculations are performed. AirShow is easy to learn and simple to use. The source code is available for free from the NASA Technology Transfer and Partnership Office.

  8. PARK2 patient neuroprogenitors show increased mitochondrial sensitivity to copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Asad A; Tidball, Andrew M; Kumar, Kevin K; Neely, M Diana; Han, Bingying; Ess, Kevin C; Hong, Charles C; Erikson, Keith M; Hedera, Peter; Bowman, Aaron B

    2015-01-01

    Poorly-defined interactions between environmental and genetic risk factors underlie Parkinson's disease (PD) etiology. Here we tested the hypothesis that human stem cell derived forebrain neuroprogenitors from patients with known familial risk for early onset PD will exhibit enhanced sensitivity to PD environmental risk factors compared to healthy control subjects without a family history of PD. Two male siblings (SM and PM) with biallelic loss-of-function mutations in PARK2 were identified. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from SM, PM, and four control subjects with no known family histories of PD or related neurodegenerative diseases were utilized. We tested the hypothesis that hiPSC-derived neuroprogenitors from patients with PARK2 mutations would show heightened cell death, mitochondrial dysfunction, and reactive oxygen species generation compared to control cells as a result of exposure to heavy metals (PD environmental risk factors). We report that PARK2 mutant neuroprogenitors showed increased cytotoxicity with copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) exposure but not manganese (Mn) or methyl mercury (MeHg) relative to control neuroprogenitors. PARK2 mutant neuroprogenitors also showed a substantial increase in mitochondrial fragmentation, initial ROS generation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential following Cu exposure. Our data substantiate Cu exposure as an environmental risk factor for PD. Furthermore, we report a shift in the lowest observable effect level (LOEL) for greater sensitivity to Cu-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction in patients SM and PM relative to controls, correlating with their increased genetic risk for PD.

  9. Remembering Operación Triunfo: a Latin Music Reality Show in the Era of Talent Shows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savini, Paola

    2016-01-01

    abstractThe music format Operación Triunfo (2001–2011), which aired on RTVE for the first time in 2001, started as a television (TV) and musical success in Spain and today is one of the most famous shows around the world as well as an incredible socio-economic phenomenon in Spanish TV. This paper de

  10. "PH Value" Design Show Unveils the Shanghai Dream%"PH Value" Design Show Unveils the Shanghai Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanzy Wang

    2012-01-01

    "PH Value" Design Show, organized by China National Textile and Apparel Council (CNTAC), undertaken by the Sub- Council of Textile Industry, CCPIT (CCPIT-TEX), China Knitting industry Association, and China National Garment Association (CNGA), will be held from October 22rid to 23rd in Shanghai, unveiling the charming mysteries of "Shanghai Dream".

  11. E-health technologies show promise in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya, Joaquin A; Fraser, Hamish S F; Holt, Brian

    2010-02-01

    Is there any evidence that e-health-using information technology to manage patient care-can have a positive impact in developing countries? Our systematic review of evaluations of e-health implementations in developing countries found that systems that improve communication between institutions, assist in ordering and managing medications, and help monitor and detect patients who might abandon care show promise. Evaluations of personal digital assistants and mobile devices convincingly demonstrate that such devices can be very effective in improving data collection time and quality. Donors and funders should require and sponsor outside evaluations to ensure that future e-health investments are well-targeted.

  12. Patients with polymyositis show changes in muscle protein charges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, E M; Jacobsen, Søren; Rasmussen, L

    1989-01-01

    Polymyositis (PM) appears with indolent proximal muscle weakness and is an inflammatory disease with breakdown of muscle cells. In our study the protein charge concentrations of the contractile proteins in the A and I bands were determined, applying a microelectrode technique. Patients with PM show...... a lower protein charge concentration than healthy control subjects which may be caused by the breakdown and removal of the proteins in the contractile filaments. A tool to judge the state of the disease as well as an aid in diagnosis may have been found in this method....

  13. Attitudes towards disability showed by future physical education teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Abellán Hernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to study the attitudes towards disability of future physical education teachers. For this purpose two questionnaires were administered and the results were compared by gender (male and female, the participants' experience in dealing with people with disabilities and the particants’ course level (third or fourth grade. The results show that students in the Minor in Physical Education have a very positive attitude towards disability. Men obtain a more positive attitude in RICE variable, also is observed the trend of the previous contact with people with disabilities positively affects attitudes towards disability. Finally higher values in CG variable will be obtained by students of fourth grade.

  14. Electricity show and related educational programming. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-19

    The on-site version of Balance of Power reached a total audience of 21,331 between November 10, 1994 and January 31, 1996; in addition, the Physics on Wheels van offered exhibits and programs to an additional 30,000 students in the 1995-1996 school year. The program provided a groundbreaking new approach to informal science education, combining a dynamic demonstration with an intensely interactive game show. Between the on-site programming and the Physics on Wheels van programs, 51,331 students were impacted by the activities, exhibits and energy-conservation message of Balance of Power.

  15. DIY identity kit: the Great American Lesbian Art Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margo Hobbs

    2010-01-01

    The Great American Lesbian Art Show, which opened at the Woman's Building in Los Angeles in May 1980, was conceived to increase visibility for lesbian artists, and to forge bonds among lesbians across the United States. It comprised a curated Invitational of ten artists and scores of regional GALAS events mounted simultaneously by women from Boston to Honolulu. The art on view, documented in a slide archive, staged a critique of contemporary gender norms. Participating artists represented lesbian identities that claimed universality while they reflected the artists' particularized experience of woman-identification and sexual desire.

  16. Intracerebral metastasis showing restricted diffusion: Correlation with histopathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duygulu, G. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Ovali, G. Yilmaz [Radiology Department, Celal Bayar University Medicine School, Manisa (Turkey)], E-mail: gulgun.yilmaz@bayar.edu.tr; Calli, C.; Kitis, O.; Yuenten, N. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Akalin, T. [Pathology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Islekel, S. [Neurosurgery Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    Objective: We aimed to detect the frequency of restricted diffusion in intracerebral metastases and to find whether there is correlation between the primary tumor pathology and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) findings of these metastases. Material and methods: 87 patients with intracerebral metastases were examined with routine MR imaging and DWI. 11 hemorrhagic metastatic lesions were excluded. The routine MR imaging included three plans before and after contrast enhancement. The DWI was performed with spin-echo EPI sequence with three b values (0, 500 and 1000), and ADC maps were calculated. 76 patients with metastases were grouped according to primary tumor histology and the ratios of restricted diffusion were calculated according to these groups. ADCmin values were measured within the solid components of the tumors and the ratio of metastases with restricted diffusion to that which do not show restricted diffusion were calculated. Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Restricted diffusion was observed in a total of 15 metastatic lesions (19, 7%). Primary malignancy was lung carcinoma in 10 of these cases (66, 6%) (5 small cell carcinoma, 5 non-small cell carcinoma), and breast carcinoma in three cases (20%). Colon carcinoma and testicular teratocarcinoma were the other two primary tumors in which restricted diffusion in metastasis was detected. There was no statistical significant difference between the primary pathology groups which showed restricted diffusion (p > 0.05). ADCmin values of solid components of the metastasis with restricted diffusion and other metastasis without restricted diffusion also showed no significant statistical difference (0.72 {+-} 0.16 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s and 0.78 {+-} 21 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s respectively) (p = 0.325). Conclusion: Detection of restricted diffusion on DWI in intracerebral metastasis is not rare, particularly if the primary tumor is lung or breast

  17. PROTOTIPE VIDEO EDITOR DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN DIRECT X DAN DIRECT SHOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoni Haryadi Setiabudi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology development had given people the chance to capture their memorable moments in video format. A high quality digital video is a result of a good editing process. Which in turn, arise the new need of an editor application. In accordance to the problem, here the process of making a simple application for video editing needs. The application development use the programming techniques often applied in multimedia applications, especially video. First part of the application will begin with the video file compression and decompression, then we'll step into the editing part of the digital video file. Furthermore, the application also equipped with the facilities needed for the editing processes. The application made with Microsoft Visual C++ with DirectX technology, particularly DirectShow. The application provides basic facilities that will help the editing process of a digital video file. The application will produce an AVI format file after the editing process is finished. Through the testing process of this application shows the ability of this application to do the 'cut' and 'insert' of video files in AVI, MPEG, MPG and DAT formats. The 'cut' and 'insert' process only can be done in static order. Further, the aplication also provide the effects facility for transition process in each clip. Lastly, the process of saving the new edited video file in AVI format from the application. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Perkembangan teknologi memberi kesempatan masyarakat untuk mengabadikan saat - saat yang penting menggunakan video. Pembentukan video digital yang baik membutuhkan proses editing yang baik pula. Untuk melakukan proses editing video digital dibutuhkan program editor. Berdasarkan permasalahan diatas maka pada penelitian ini dibuat prototipe editor sederhana untuk video digital. Pembuatan aplikasi memakai teknik pemrograman di bidang multimedia, khususnya video. Perencanaan dalam pembuatan aplikasi tersebut dimulai dengan pembentukan

  18. A Technique for Showing Causal Arguments in Accident Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, C. W.

    2005-01-01

    In the prototypical accident report, specific findings, particularly those related to causes and contributing factors, are usually written out explicitly and clearly. Also, the evidence upon which these findings are based is typically explained in detail. Often lacking, however, is any explicit discussion, description, or depiction of the arguments that connect the findings and the evidence. That is, the reports do not make clear why the investigators believe that the specific evidence they found necessarily leads to the particular findings they enumerated. This paper shows how graphical techniques can be used to depict relevant arguments supporting alternate positions on the causes of a complex road-traffic accident.

  19. Platelets from pulmonary hypertension patients show increased mitochondrial reserve capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quyen L.; Corey, Catherine; White, Pamela; Watson, Annie; Gladwin, Mark T.; Simon, Marc A.

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that altered cellular metabolism is systemic in pulmonary hypertension (PH) and central to disease pathogenesis. However, bioenergetic changes in PH patients and their association with disease severity remain unclear. Here, we hypothesize that alteration in bioenergetic function is present in platelets from PH patients and correlates with clinical parameters of PH. Platelets isolated from controls and PH patients (n = 28) were subjected to extracellular flux analysis to determine oxygen consumption and glycolytic rates. Platelets from PH patients showed greater glycolytic rates than controls. Surprisingly, this was accompanied by significant increases in the maximal capacity for oxygen consumption, leading to enhanced respiratory reserve capacity in PH platelets. This increased platelet reserve capacity correlated with mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, and right ventricular stroke work index in PH patients and was abolished by the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Consistent with a shift to FAO, PH platelets showed augmented enzymatic activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and electron transport chain complex II. These data extend the observation of a metabolic alteration in PH from the pulmonary vascular axis to the hematologic compartment and suggest that measurement of platelet bioenergetics is potentially useful in assessment of disease progression and severity. PMID:28289721

  20. Herbarium specimens show contrasting phenological responses to Himalayan climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robbie; Salick, Jan; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Xu, Jianchu

    2014-07-22

    Responses by flowering plants to climate change are complex and only beginning to be understood. Through analyses of 10,295 herbarium specimens of Himalayan Rhododendron collected by plant hunters and botanists since 1884, we were able to separate these responses into significant components. We found a lack of directional change in mean flowering time over the past 45 y of rapid warming. However, over the full 125 y of collections, mean flowering time shows a significant response to year-to-year changes in temperature, and this response varies with season of warming. Mean flowering advances with annual warming (2.27 d earlier per 1 °C warming), and also is delayed with fall warming (2.54 d later per 1 °C warming). Annual warming may advance flowering through positive effects on overwintering bud formation, whereas fall warming may delay flowering through an impact on chilling requirements. The lack of a directional response suggests that contrasting phenological responses to temperature changes may obscure temperature sensitivity in plants. By drawing on large collections from multiple herbaria, made over more than a century, we show how these data may inform studies even of remote localities, and we highlight the increasing value of these and other natural history collections in understanding long-term change.

  1. Tropical Aquatic Archaea Show Environment-Specific Community Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Cynthia B.; Cardoso, Alexander M.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Lima, Joyce L.; Pinto, Leonardo H.; Albano, Rodolpho M.; Clementino, Maysa M.; Martins, Orlando B.; Vieira, Ricardo P.

    2013-01-01

    The Archaea domain is ubiquitously distributed and extremely diverse, however, environmental factors that shape archaeal community structure are not well known. Aquatic environments, including the water column and sediments harbor many new uncultured archaeal species from which metabolic and ecological roles remain elusive. Some environments are especially neglected in terms of archaeal diversity, as is the case of pristine tropical areas. Here we investigate the archaeal composition in marine and freshwater systems from Ilha Grande, a South Atlantic tropical environment. All sampled habitats showed high archaeal diversity. No OTUs were shared between freshwater, marine and mangrove sediment samples, yet these environments are interconnected and geographically close, indicating environment-specific community structuring. Group II Euryarchaeota was the main clade in marine samples, while the new putative phylum Thaumarchaeota and LDS/RCV Euryarchaeota dominated freshwaters. Group III Euryarchaeota, a rare clade, was also retrieved in reasonable abundance in marine samples. The archaeal community from mangrove sediments was composed mainly by members of mesophilic Crenarchaeota and by a distinct clade forming a sister-group to Crenarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. Our results show strong environment-specific community structuring in tropical aquatic Archaea, as previously seen for Bacteria. PMID:24086729

  2. Inconsistent handers show higher psychopathy than consistent handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobe, Elizabeth; Desimone, Kailey

    2016-01-01

    Three hundred and forty-two university students completed the Short Dark Triad (SD3) and the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (EHI). Inconsistent handers showed higher psychopathy scores than consistent handers, and no handedness differences were observed for narcissism or Machiavellianism. Participants were further subdivided by quartile into low, moderately low, moderately high, and high psychopathy groups (non-clinical). Absolute EHI scores were equally distributed among low and moderate groups, but were significantly lower for the high psychopathy group. These findings suggest that inconsistent handedness is only associated with the upper quartile of psychopathy scores. Also, males showed significantly higher psychopathy scores than females, and the ratio of male to female inconsistent handers decreased as psychopathy score increased. No gender × handedness interaction indicated that both female and male inconsistent handers have higher psychopathy scores than consistent handers. Although significant, the effects were small and 99.6% of participants were not in the range of a potential clinical diagnosis. The reader, therefore, is strongly cautioned against equating inconsistent handedness with psychopathy.

  3. Human hyolaryngeal movements show adaptive motor learning during swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Ianessa A; Christopherson, Heather; Lokhande, Akshay; German, Rebecca; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Marlis; Celnik, Pablo

    2013-06-01

    The hyoid bone and larynx elevate to protect the airway during swallowing. However, it is unknown whether hyolaryngeal movements during swallowing can adjust and adapt to predict the presence of a persistent perturbation in a feed-forward manner (adaptive motor learning). We investigated adaptive motor learning in nine healthy adults. Electrical stimulation was administered to the anterior neck to reduce hyolaryngeal elevation, requiring more strength to swallow during the perturbation period of this study. We assessed peak hyoid bone and laryngeal movements using videofluoroscopy across thirty-five 5-ml water swallows. Evidence of adaptive motor learning of hyolaryngeal movements was found when (1) participants showed systematic gradual increases in elevation against the force of electrical stimulation and (2) hyolaryngeal elevation overshot the baseline (preperturbation) range of motion, showing behavioral aftereffects, when the perturbation was unexpectedly removed. Hyolaryngeal kinematics demonstrates adaptive, error-reducing movements in the presence of changing and unexpected demands. This is significant because individuals with dysphagia often aspirate due to disordered hyolaryngeal movements. Thus, if rapid motor learning is accessible during swallowing in healthy adults, patients may be taught to predict the presence of perturbations and reduce errors in swallowing before they occur.

  4. Phytoceramide Shows Neuroprotection and Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seikwan Oh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The function and the role phytoceramide (PCER and phytosphingosine (PSO in the central nervous system has not been well studied. This study was aimed at investigating the possible roles of PCER and PSO in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal cells and memory function in mice. Phytoceramide showed neuro-protective activity in the glutamate-induced toxicity in cultured cortical neuronal cells. Neither phytosphingosine nor tetraacetylphytosphingosine (TAPS showed neuroproective effects in neuronal cells. PCER (50 mg/kg, p.o. recovered the scopolamine-induced reduction in step-through latency in the passive avoidance test; however, PSO did not modulate memory function on this task. The ameliorating effects of PCER on spatial memory were confirmed by the Morris water maze test. In conclusion, through behavioral and neurochemical experimental results, it was demonstrated that central administration of PCER produces amelioration of memory impairment. These results suggest that PCER plays an important role in neuroprotection and memory enhancement and PCER could be a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  5. Mixtures of thermostable enzymes show high performance in biomass saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallioinen, Anne; Puranen, Terhi; Siika-aho, Matti

    2014-07-01

    Optimal enzyme mixtures of six Trichoderma reesei enzymes and five thermostable enzyme components were developed for the hydrolysis of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw, alkaline oxidised sugar cane bagasse and steam-exploded bagasse by statistically designed experiments. Preliminary studies to narrow down the optimization parameters showed that a cellobiohydrolase/endoglucanase (CBH/EG) ratio of 4:1 or higher of thermostable enzymes gave the maximal CBH-EG synergy in the hydrolysis of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. The composition of optimal enzyme mixtures depended clearly on the substrate and on the enzyme system studied. The optimal enzyme mixture of thermostable enzymes was dominated by Cel7A and required a relatively high amount of xylanase, whereas with T. reesei enzymes, the high proportion of Cel7B appeared to provide the required xylanase activity. The main effect of the pretreatment method was that the required proportion of xylanase was higher and the proportion of Cel7A lower in the optimized mixture for hydrolysis of alkaline oxidised bagasse than steam-exploded bagasse. In prolonged hydrolyses, less Cel7A was generally required in the optimal mixture. Five-component mixtures of thermostable enzymes showed comparable hydrolysis yields to those of commercial enzyme mixtures.

  6. Drilling and production - Economics show CO2 EOR potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, M.K.; Byrnes, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    CO2 EOR may be the key to recovering hundreds of millions of bbl of trapped oil from the mature fields in central Kansas. A simple model aided in assessing the economics of CO2 EOR for central Kansas and the Midcontinent. The model used CO2 Prophet, a DOE freeware reservoir numerical simulation program, to determine reservoir performance, including injected and produced fluid rates, and CO2 utilization. Economic parameters, e.g., oil price, CO2 costs, capital costs, net revenue interest, production taxes, and lease operating expenses, are typical for anticipated conditions in the region and present price climate. Preliminary economic analysis shows that CO2 EOR should give an internal rate of return (IRR) > 20%, before income tax, assuming oil sells for $20/bbl, CO2 costs $1/million cu ft, and gross utilization is 10 million cu ft of CO2/bbl of oil recovered. If the CO2 is reduced to $0.75/million cu ft, an oil price of $17/bbl yields an IRR of 20%. Reservoir and economic modeling shows that IRR is most sensitive to oil price and CO2 cost.

  7. Dogs show left facial lateralization upon reunion with their owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Miho; Kawai, Emi; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2013-09-01

    Domestic dogs demonstrate behavioral laterality in response to emotional stimuli; those responses include tail wagging and head turning. The dog is the species with the closest relationship to humans; dogs can express strong social emotions (e.g., attachment and separation anxiety) to specific persons, such as their owners. In this study, we examined whether dogs demonstrate more facial laterality when reunited with their owners than when they encounter an unfamiliar person in an unfamiliar situation. We also examined whether the observed laterality was specific to positive social stimuli (i.e., the owner) or a general response to nonsocial positive stimuli (i.e., toys). The dogs' facial expressions were recorded by a high-speed video camera during the presentation of emotional stimuli and the acceleration rates of parts of their faces were analyzed. The results showed that the left eyebrow moved more when the owner was present than at baseline. No bias in terms of eyebrow movement was observed when the dogs saw attractive toys. These results suggest that dogs show facial laterality in response to emotional stimuli. This laterality was specific to social stimuli, probably reflecting the dog's attachment to the owner.

  8. Highly reflective reasoners show no signs of belief inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M

    2015-01-01

    The processes underlying individual differences in reasoning performance are not entirely understood. What do people who do well on reasoning tasks where beliefs and logic conflict do differently from other people? Because abundant evidence shows that even poorer reasoners detect these conflicts, it has been suggested that individual differences in reasoning performance arise from inhibition failures later in the reasoning process. The present paper argues that a minority of highly skilled reasoners may deviate from this general reasoning process from an early stage. Two studies investigated signs of belief inhibition using a lexical access paradigm (Study 1) and a negative priming paradigm (Study 2). Study 1 showed that while other people exhibited signs of belief inhibition following a belief-logic conflict, people with the highest disposition for cognitive reflection did not. In Study 2, this finding was replicated and similar results were also obtained when comparing groups with higher and lower general cognitive ability. Two possible explanations are discussed. The reasoners with a highly reflective cognitive style or high general cognitive ability may have engaged and inhibited belief processing but if so, they may have been exceptionally efficient at recovering from it, wherefore no belief inhibition effects were found. An alternative account is that these reasoners started Type 2 processing directly, without first engaging in and then inhibiting belief-based processing. Under either explanation, the results indicate that individual differences in reasoning may partly arise from differences that occur early in the reasoning process.

  9. Satellite signal shows storage-unloading subsidence in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiwo, J. P.; Tao, F.

    2015-06-01

    Worsening water storage depletion (WSD) contributes to environmental degradation, land subsidence and earthquake and could disrupt food production/security and social stability. There is need for efficient water use strategies in North China, a pivotal agrarian, industrial and political base in China with a widespread WSD. This study integrates satellite, model and field data products to investigate WSD and land subsidence in North China. In the first step, GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mass rates are used to show WSD in the region. Next, GRACE total water storage (TWS) is corrected for soil water storage (SWS) to derive groundwater storage (GWS) using GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) data products. The derived GWS is compared with GWS obtained from field-measured groundwater level to show land subsidence in the study area. Then GPS (Global Positioning System) data of relative land surface change (LSC) are used to confirm the subsidence due to WSD. A total of ~ 96 near-consecutive months (January 2002 through December 2009) of datasets are used in the study. Based on GRACE mass rates, TWS depletion is 23.76 ± 1.74 mm yr-1 or 13.73 ± 1.01 km3 yr-1 in the 578 000 km2 study area. This is ~ 31 % of the slated 45 km3 yr-1 water delivery in 2050 via the South-North Water Diversion Project. Analysis of relative LSC shows subsidence of 7.29 ± 0.35 mm yr-1 in Beijing and 2.74 ± 0.16 mm yr-1 in North China. About 11.53 % (2.74 ± 0.18 mm or 1.58 ± 0.12 km3) of the TWS and 8.37 % (1.52 ± 0.70 mm or 0.88 ± 0.03 km3) of the GWS are attributed to storage reductions accompanying subsidence in the region. Although interpretations of the findings require caution due to the short temporal and large spatial coverage, the concurrence of WSD and land subsidence could have adverse implications for the study area. It is critical that the relevant stakeholders embark on resource-efficient measures to ensure water availability, food security, ecological

  10. THE HEROIC CULT IN RADIO SHOWS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica IUHAȘ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A people’s cultural and historical past, represented as community’s destiny, is memorized and sent down, from one generation to the next, through the many channels of popular orality: legends, ballads, popular poetry and also through those chanels more specific to modern times, such as patriotic songs, cultivated poetry, fiction (especially historical novels, history, histories, films, etc. Through their educational purpose, but also through their emotional/affective packaging, all these do manage the collective past and determine the manner in which the historical time is perceived in a patromonial and affective fashion, as national past. The present study wishes to analyze the manner in which Romanian radio stations covered the events organized on the Heroes’ Day in 2014, to identify the themes of the radio coverage and to assess whether the current radio shows are able to ensure a memory link or connection between generations.

  11. Case histories show real-time information reduces uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, R. [Schlumberger Cambridge Research, Cambridge, MA (United States); Nutt, L. [Schlumberger Wireline and Testing, Houston, TX (United States); Dutta, N. [BP Exploration, Houston, TX (United States); Menzies, J. [Lasmo plc, London (United Kingdom)

    1998-05-18

    Drill-bit seismic technology provides useful real-time information that reduces uncertainty for the driller. This second part of a two-part series provides real examples, describes the current state of technology and experience, and discusses techniques that will add value through the incorporation of additional information sources. To date, this technology has been used on more than 50 wells in all areas of the world, including a deepwater job in 1,200 m of water. As of March 1998, there were five ongoing jobs in Oman, Indonesia, Malaysia, Gulf of Mexico, and South America. The following examples of oil and gas wells demonstrate the application of the drill-bit seismic technique and show benefits that can be brought to the drilling process.

  12. Impact Factors Show Increased Use of AGU Journals in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Barbara Meyers

    2009-07-01

    The latest numbers released from Journal Citation Reports (JCR), published annually by Thomson Reuters, show large increases in the impact factor (IF) for several AGU journals. IFs are one way for publishers to know that readers have found their journals useful and of value in research. A journal's IF is calculated by taking the total number of citations to articles published by a given journal in the past 2 years and dividing it by the total number of papers published by the journal in the same time period. More generally, it can be seen as the frequency with which articles in a journal have been cited over the past year. The numbers speak for themselves (see Table 1).

  13. Measuring Political Polarization: Twitter shows the two sides of Venezuela

    CERN Document Server

    Morales, A J; Losada, J C; Benito, R M

    2015-01-01

    We say that a population is perfectly polarized when divided in two groups of the same size and opposite opinions. In this paper, we propose a methodology to study and measure the emergence of polarization from social interactions. We begin by proposing a model to estimate opinions in which a minority of influential individuals propagate their opinions through a social network. The result of the model is an opinion probability density function. Next, we propose an index to quantify the extent to which the resulting distribution is polarized. Finally, we apply the proposed methodology to a Twitter conversation about the late Venezuelan president, Hugo Ch\\'avez, finding a good agreement between our results and offline data. Hence, we show that our methodology can detect different degrees of polarization, depending on the structure of the network.

  14. A distal renal tubular acidosis showing hyperammonemia and hyperlactacidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ripoli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA presents itself with variable clinical manifestations and often with late expressions that impact on prognosis. Case report: A 45-day-old male infant was admitted with stopping growth, difficult feeding and vomiting after meals. Clinical tests and labs revealed a type 1 renal tubular acidosis, even if the first blood tests showed ammonium and lactate increase. We had to exclude metabolic diseases before having a certain diagnosis. Conclusions: blood and urine investigations and genetic tests are fundamental to formulate dRTA diagnosis and to plan follow-up, according to possible phenotypic expressions of recessive and dominant autosomal forms in patients with dRTA.

  15. Measuring political polarization: Twitter shows the two sides of Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, A. J.; Borondo, J.; Losada, J. C.; Benito, R. M.

    2015-03-01

    We say that a population is perfectly polarized when divided in two groups of the same size and opposite opinions. In this paper, we propose a methodology to study and measure the emergence of polarization from social interactions. We begin by proposing a model to estimate opinions in which a minority of influential individuals propagate their opinions through a social network. The result of the model is an opinion probability density function. Next, we propose an index to quantify the extent to which the resulting distribution is polarized. Finally, we apply the proposed methodology to a Twitter conversation about the late Venezuelan president, Hugo Chávez, finding a good agreement between our results and offline data. Hence, we show that our methodology can detect different degrees of polarization, depending on the structure of the network.

  16. Astronomers Make "Movie" of Radio Images Showing Supernova Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Astronomers using an international network of radio telescopes have produced a "movie" showing details of the expansion of debris from an exploding star. Their sequence of images constitutes the best determination yet made of the details of a new supernova remnant, and already has raised new questions about such events. The scientists used radio telescopes in Europe and the United States, including the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), to make very high- resolution images of Supernova 1993J, which was discovered by a Spanish amateur astronomer on March 28, 1993 in the galaxy M81, some 11 million light-years distant in the constellation Ursa Major. Their results are reported in the December 1 issue of the journal Science. The "movie" is based on five images of the supernova, made during 1993 and 1994. The work was done by: Jon Marcaide and Eduardo Ros of the University of Valencia, Spain; Antxon Alberdi of the Special Laboratory for Astrophysics and Fundamental Physics of Madrid, Spain and the Institute of Astrophysics at Andalucia, Spain; Philip Diamond of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Socorro, NM; Irwin Shapiro of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA; Jose-Carlos Guirado, Dayton Jones and Robert Preston of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, CA; Thomas Krichbaum and Arno Witzel of the Max-Planck Institute for Radioastronomy in Bonn, Germany; Franco Mantovani of the Institute of Radioastronomy in Bologna, Italy; Antonio Rius of the Special Laboratory for Astrophysics and Fundamental Physics of Madrid, Spain and the Center for Advanced Studies at Blanes, Spain; Richard Schilizzi of the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe and Leiden Observatory in the Netherlands; Corrado Trigilio of the Institute of Radioastronomy in Noto, Italy; and Alan Whitney of the MIT- Haystack Observatory in Massachusetts. The capability to make such high-quality images with widely

  17. Children with specific language impairment show difficulties in sensory modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taal, Marion N; Rietman, André B; Meulen, Sjoeke V D; Schipper, Maria; Dejonckere, Philippe H

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a group of 116 Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) shows differences in sensory processing when compared to a control group of age-matched 4-7-year-old typical peers. The Sensory Profile-NL-a standardized questionnaire of 125 items-was completed by caregivers of children in both groups. Children with SLI differed significantly from the control group on all 14 section scores and 4 quadrant scores of the Sensory Profile-NL. The effect size of the difference in sensory modulation patterns of children with and without SLI on this measure was large (Cohen's d ≥ 0.80). Difficulties in sensory modulation can be characterized as frequent co-morbid problems in children with SLI.

  18. Ferrous polycrystalline shape-memory alloy showing huge superelasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y; Himuro, Y; Kainuma, R; Sutou, Y; Omori, T; Ishida, K

    2010-03-19

    Shape-memory alloys, such as Ni-Ti and Cu-Zn-Al, show a large reversible strain of more than several percent due to superelasticity. In particular, the Ni-Ti-based alloy, which exhibits some ductility and excellent superelastic strain, is the only superelastic material available for practical applications at present. We herein describe a ferrous polycrystalline, high-strength, shape-memory alloy exhibiting a superelastic strain of more than 13%, with a tensile strength above 1 gigapascal, which is almost twice the maximum superelastic strain obtained in the Ni-Ti alloys. Furthermore, this ferrous alloy has a very large damping capacity and exhibits a large reversible change in magnetization during loading and unloading. This ferrous shape-memory alloy has great potential as a high-damping and sensor material.

  19. Myopes Show Greater Visually Induced Postural Responses Than Emmetropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayah, Diane N; Asaad, Kristin; Hanssens, Jean-Marie; Giraudet, Guillaume; Faubert, Jocelyn

    2016-02-01

    The literature already establishes that vision plays a crucial role in postural control and that this visual dependence shows intra- and interindividual variability. However, does ametropia also have an effect on postural control? This question leads to our study, which aims primarily to determine if myopes and emmetropes behave differently in terms of postural control when subjected to visual stimulation, and secondarily, if this difference persists in the presence of barrel and pincushion distortions. The results could lead, among other things, to improved lens design. Twenty-four subjects (12 myopes of -2.00 to -9.00 diopters [D] and 12 emmetropes of -0.50 to +0.50 D), between 19 and 35 years of age, participated in the study after comprehensive eye examinations were carried out. Of the 12 myopes, the preferred type of correction was divided equally within the group. While standing in front of a projection system and fixating on an immobile point, a checkerboard stimulus was displayed in their peripheral visual field, in either a static or dynamic state. Three conditions of optical distortion (plan, pincushion, and barrel distortions) were presented to the subjects. Their postural response was measured and recorded using a system of infrared cameras and optical sensors positioned on a helmet. The results show that postural instability induced by a dynamic peripheral stimulus is higher for myopes compared with emmetropes (ANOVA Refractive Error, F1,22 = 5.92, P = 0.0235). When exposed to optical distortions, the two groups also have significant differences in postural behaviors (ANOVA Refractive Error*Optical Distortion, F2,44 = 5.67, P = 0.0064). These results suggest that refractive error could be a factor in explaining individual variations of the role of vision in postural control.

  20. Croton grewioides Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) Shows Antidiarrheal Activity in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Anne Dayse Soares; de Melo e Silva, Karoline; Neto, José Clementino; Costa, Vicente Carlos de Oliveira; Pessôa, Hilzeth de Luna F.; Tavares, Josean Fechine; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; Cavalcante, Fabiana de Andrade

    2016-01-01

    Based on chemotaxonomy, we decided to investigate the possible antidiarrheal activity in mice of a crude ethanolic extract obtained from aerial parts of Croton grewioides (CG-EtOH). We tested for any possible toxicity in rat erythrocytes and acute toxicity in mice. Antidiarrheal activity was assessed by determining the effect of CG-EtOH on defecation frequency, liquid stool, intestinal motility and intestinal fluid accumulation. CG-EtOH showed no in vitro cytotoxicity and was not orally lethal. In contrast, the extract given intraperitoneally (at 2000 mg/kg) was lethal, but only in females. CG-EtOH produced a significant and equipotent antidiarrheal activity, both in defecation frequency (ED50 = 106.0 ± 8.1 mg/kg) and liquid stools (ED50 = 105.0 ± 9.2 mg/kg). However, CG-EtOH (125 mg/kg) decreased intestinal motility by only 22.7% ± 4.4%. Moreover, extract markedly inhibited the castor oil-induced intestinal contents (ED50 = 34.6 ± 5.4 mg/kg). We thus conclude that CG-EtOH is not orally lethal and contains active principles with antidiarrheal activity, and this effect seems to involve mostly changes in intestinal secretion. SUMMARY CG-EtOH showed no in vitro cytotoxicity and was not orally lethal. In contrast, the extract given intraperitoneally (at 2000 mg/kg) was lethal, but only in females.CG-EtOH probably contains active metabolites with antidiarrheal activity.CG-EtOH reduced the frequency and number of liquid stools.Metabolites presents in the CG-EtOH act mainly by reducing intestinal fluid and, to a lesser extent, reducing intestinal motility. Abbreviations Used: CG-EtOH: crude ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of C. grewioides; WHO: World Health Organization; ED50: dose of a drug that produces 50% of its maximum effect; Emax: maximum effect PMID:27365990

  1. Structure of the replicative form of bacteriophage φX174 : VI. Studies on alkali-denatured double-stranded φX DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwels, P.H.; Knijnenburg, C.M.; Rotterdam, J. van; Cohen, J.A.; Jansz, H.S.

    1968-01-01

    Double-stranded φX DNA which accumulates after infection with bacteriophage φX174 in the presence of chloramphenicol consists mainly of twisted circular double-stranded DNA with no single-strand breaks (component I) and of circular double-stranded DNA, in which single-strand breaks are present (comp

  2. Venus Flytrap Seedlings Show Growth-Related Prey Size Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Hatcher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula has had a conservation status of vulnerable since the 1970s. Little research has focussed on the ecology and even less has examined its juvenile stages. For the first time, reliance on invertebrate prey for growth was assessed in seedling Venus flytrap by systematic elimination of invertebrates from the growing environment. Prey were experimentally removed from a subset of Venus flytrap seedlings within a laboratory environment. The amount of growth was measured by measuring trap midrib length as a function of overall growth as well as prey spectrum. There was significantly lower growth in prey-eliminated plants than those utilising prey. This finding, although initially unsurprising, is actually contrary to the consensus that seedlings (traps < 5 mm do not catch prey. Furthermore, flytrap was shown to have prey specificity at its different growth stages; the dominant prey size for seedlings did not trigger mature traps. Seedlings are capturing and utilising prey for nutrients to increase their overall trap size. These novel findings show Venus flytrap to have a much more complex evolutionary ecology than previously thought.

  3. Show: Dr. H, the life and death of pancakes

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Dr. H, the life and death of pancakes, a comic theatrical creation, written and performed by Heiko Buchholz.   Monday 2 April 2012 in German Tuesday 3 April 2012 in English Wednesday 4 April 2012 in French 8:30 p.m. at the Globe of Science and Innovation. This production takes a comic look at scientific methods, as applied to a common object: the pancake. More specifically, Dr H. regales his audience with statistics, experiments and scientific data surrounding this egg-and-milk-based culinary delight. And although these zany sketches are nothing short of absurd, the audience is drawn in more often than you might expect… and taken on quite an unexpected journey into the behavioural disorders, personality quirks and psychoanalysis of the base pancake. This show playfully mocks scientific logic and discourse, forcing the audience to reflect on their gullibility in the face of science and its impenetrable jargon. It purports to be neither explanation nor illustration of scientific fact,...

  4. Different training schedules influence platelet aggregation in show jumping horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetto, C; Arfuso, F; Fazio, F; Giudice, E; Pietro, S Di; Bruschetta, D; Piccione, G

    2017-03-28

    Depending on the intensity, duration and type of physical exercise, equine metabolism has to adapt to nervous, cardiovascular, endocrine and respiratory system requirements. In horses, exercise and training are known to have considerable effects on the mechanisms of hemostatic system involving platelet activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different training schedules on platelet aggregation in 15 Italian Saddle jumping horses. Animals were divided into three equal groups: Group A was subjected to a high intensity-training program; group B to a light training program, group C included sedentary horses. From each animal, blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture at rest on the 1st, 3rd and 5th days, and afterwards, once a week, for a total of 5 weeks data recording, in order to assess the maximum degree of platelet aggregation and the initial velocity of aggregation (slope) platelet aggregation. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant effect of the different training schedules on studied parameters. The results revealed a different degree of platelet aggregation and a different initial velocity of platelet aggregation that changes during the different training schedules in horses that could represent a different protective endothelial mechanism. These findings could have an important role for a clearer knowledge of the physiological reference values of platelet aggregation and for a better interpretation of these variations during the training.

  5. Earthquake data visualization shows ground motion in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-12-01

    On 11 March 2011 a magnitude 9.0 earthquake shattered the seabed off the eastern coast of Japan's Honshu Island. Visualizations of scientific data showing the peaks of a seismograph or maps overlain with the locations and magnitudes of the earthquake and its numerous aftershocks were brought out to help explain the devastation to the public. While dramatic, such displays can be difficult for the public to interpret clearly because people have trouble trying to picture what the recordings of a seismograph might look like on the ground or because they have trouble understanding the logarithmic relationship between earthquake magnitude and energy. Drawing on the three-dimensional position records of a dense web of high-frequency GPS ground receiver stations, Grapenthin and Freymueller developed an animation of the abrupt horizontal and vertical motions that pulled parts of the country more than 4 meters to the east and sank large portions of its eastern shore more than half a meter into the sea.

  6. Reactive glia show increased immunoproteasome activity in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orre, Marie; Kamphuis, Willem; Dooves, Stephanie; Kooijman, Lieneke; Chan, Elena T; Kirk, Christopher J; Dimayuga Smith, Vanessa; Koot, Sanne; Mamber, Carlyn; Jansen, Anne H; Ovaa, Huib; Hol, Elly M

    2013-05-01

    The proteasome is the major protein degradation system within the cell, comprised of different proteolytic subunits; amyloid-β is thought to impair its activity in Alzheimer's disease. Neuroinflammation is a prominent hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, which may implicate an activation of the immunoproteasome, a specific proteasome variant induced by immune signalling that holds slightly different proteolytic properties than the constitutive proteasome. Using a novel cell-permeable proteasome activity probe, we found that amyloid-β enhances proteasome activity in glial and neuronal cultures. Additionally, using a subunit-specific proteasome activity assay we showed that in the cortex of the APPswePS1dE9 plaque pathology mouse model, immunoproteasome activities were strongly increased together with increased messenger RNA and protein expression in reactive glia surrounding plaques. Importantly, this elevated activity was confirmed in human post-mortem tissue from donors with Alzheimer's disease. These findings are in contrast with earlier studies, which reported impairment of proteasome activity in human Alzheimer's disease tissue and mouse models. Targeting the increased immunoproteasome activity with a specific inhibitor resulted in a decreased expression of inflammatory markers in ex vivo microglia. This may serve as a potential novel approach to modulate sustained neuroinflammation and glial dysfunction associated with Alzheimer's disease.

  7. A structural approach in networks: showing patterns, possibilities and pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Alves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a noticeable shift in evaluation paradigms away from positivist, individualist and atomistic explanations of phenomena to those seeking a more relational, contextual and systemic understanding. This growing shift in interest to the interrelationships or networks of connections between entities is apparent in fields as organizations in networks, knowledge transmission between social groups and so. A growing theoretical and methodological base is providing enhanced capacities to uncover the actual topologies or patterns of connections between entities, elements, people, organizations or communities and deliver a more fine grained analysis of their elements. In this way network analysis differs from conventional evaluation and research modes since its focus is on the interrelationships of entities not the characteristics of individuals. In this paper, we review and analyze the emerging capacity of the network paradigm as an evaluation method and show how this model can be applied t a range of evaluation arenas. In doing so, we outline a framework to guide network evaluation, establish some key network indicators and highlight key methodological aspects and pitfalls.

  8. Insertion Sequences show diverse recent activities in Cyanobacteria and Archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ying

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mobile genetic elements (MGEs play an essential role in genome rearrangement and evolution, and are widely used as an important genetic tool. Results In this article, we present genetic maps of recently active Insertion Sequence (IS elements, the simplest form of MGEs, for all sequenced cyanobacteria and archaea, predicted based on the previously identified ~1,500 IS elements. Our predicted IS maps are consistent with the NCBI annotations of the IS elements. By linking the predicted IS elements to various characteristics of the organisms under study and the organism's living conditions, we found that (a the activities of IS elements heavily depend on the environments where the host organisms live; (b the number of recently active IS elements in a genome tends to increase with the genome size; (c the flanking regions of the recently active IS elements are significantly enriched with genes encoding DNA binding factors, transporters and enzymes; and (d IS movements show no tendency to disrupt operonic structures. Conclusion This is the first genome-scale maps of IS elements with detailed structural information on the sequence level. These genetic maps of recently active IS elements and the several interesting observations would help to improve our understanding of how IS elements proliferate and how they are involved in the evolution of the host genomes.

  9. Quantifying causal emergence shows that macro can beat micro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoel, Erik P; Albantakis, Larissa; Tononi, Giulio

    2013-12-01

    Causal interactions within complex systems can be analyzed at multiple spatial and temporal scales. For example, the brain can be analyzed at the level of neurons, neuronal groups, and areas, over tens, hundreds, or thousands of milliseconds. It is widely assumed that, once a micro level is fixed, macro levels are fixed too, a relation called supervenience. It is also assumed that, although macro descriptions may be convenient, only the micro level is causally complete, because it includes every detail, thus leaving no room for causation at the macro level. However, this assumption can only be evaluated under a proper measure of causation. Here, we use a measure [effective information (EI)] that depends on both the effectiveness of a system's mechanisms and the size of its state space: EI is higher the more the mechanisms constrain the system's possible past and future states. By measuring EI at micro and macro levels in simple systems whose micro mechanisms are fixed, we show that for certain causal architectures EI can peak at a macro level in space and/or time. This happens when coarse-grained macro mechanisms are more effective (more deterministic and/or less degenerate) than the underlying micro mechanisms, to an extent that overcomes the smaller state space. Thus, although the macro level supervenes upon the micro, it can supersede it causally, leading to genuine causal emergence--the gain in EI when moving from a micro to a macro level of analysis.

  10. Limb proportions show developmental plasticity in response to embryo movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, A. S.; Charlton, B. G.; Hutchinson, J. R.; Gustafsson, T.; McGonnell, I. M.; Timmons, J. A.; Pitsillides, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Animals have evolved limb proportions adapted to different environments, but it is not yet clear to what extent these proportions are directly influenced by the environment during prenatal development. The developing skeleton experiences mechanical loading resulting from embryo movement. We tested the hypothesis that environmentally-induced changes in prenatal movement influence embryonic limb growth to alter proportions. We show that incubation temperature influences motility and limb bone growth in West African Dwarf crocodiles, producing altered limb proportions which may, influence post-hatching performance. Pharmacological immobilisation of embryonic chickens revealed that altered motility, independent of temperature, may underpin this growth regulation. Use of the chick also allowed us to merge histological, immunochemical and cell proliferation labelling studies to evaluate changes in growth plate organisation, and unbiased array profiling to identify specific cellular and transcriptional targets of embryo movement. This disclosed that movement alters limb proportions and regulates chondrocyte proliferation in only specific growth plates. This selective targeting is related to intrinsic mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) pathway activity in individual growth plates. Our findings provide new insights into how environmental factors can be integrated to influence cellular activity in growing bones and ultimately gross limb morphology, to generate phenotypic variation during prenatal development. PMID:28165010

  11. Film showing - Higgs: into the heart of imagination

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    On 29 April at 7pm Dutch filmmakers, Hannie van den Bergh and Jan van den Berg, will introduce their directorial debut, Higgs: into the heart of imagination in CERN’s Main Auditorium.   This documentary is about the curiousity, passion and imaginative powers of science. Featuring physicists working at CERN, in particular in ATLAS, and filmed over four years, the film-makers have created a cinematic journey into the heart of imagination. They follow Stan Bentvelsen, head of the Dutch research group at CERN, and watch as he prepares his team for the start of the LHC, as well as the scientific competition to find the elusive Higgs particle. The film also features Peter Higgs as he discusses his work from 1964. The directors have created theatre productions and other multimedia projects under the title The Imagination of Invisible Dimensions, which allow for adventurous dialogues between art and science. All are welcome to attend this showing and afterwards there will be a short question...

  12. Warthin-starry Silver Method Showing Particulate Matter in Macrophage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG-GANG LIU

    2008-01-01

    Objective To verify whether Warthin-Starry(WS)silver method could detect the air particulate matter(PM)/dust particles(Ps)located within the macrophages in situ. Methods There were 26 antopsy cases that resulted from cerebral hemorrhage(group A),silicosis(group B),and fetal death during pregnancy(group C).Samples were collected separately and serial sections were prepared from the lungs and lymph nodes and stained with hematoxylin and eosin(HE),WS silver,immunohistochemistry of CD68.Furthermore,ultrathin sections were taken from the WS positive serial sections of groups A and B.Ps were observed under a transmission electron microscope(TEM)and the elements of Ps were measured by X-ray spectrum analysis(X-RSA).Results In both groups A and B,WS staining was positive for the larger and fine Ps,the so called"dust cells",but HE staining Was almost negative for fine Ps.In group C,no larger or fine Ps were found.Immunohistochemical staining of CD68 certified that the"dust cells"containing Ps were macrophages.The results of TEM and X-RSA proved that the structure and elements of Ps belonged to PM indeed.Conclusion WS staining is a better than HE staining in showing the location of PM within macrophages.

  13. Coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Faruk; Kilic, Leyla; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2014-06-01

    Activated coagulation and fibrinolytic system in cancer patients is associated with tumor stroma formation and metastasis in different cancer types. The aim of this study is to explore the correlation of blood coagulation assays for various clinicopathologic factors in breast cancer patients. A total of 123 female breast cancer patients were enrolled into the study. All the patients were treatment naïve. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including PT, APTT, PTA, INR, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels, and platelet counts were evaluated. Median age of diagnosis was 51 years old (range 26-82). Twenty-two percent of the group consisted of metastatic breast cancer patients. The plasma level of all coagulation tests revealed statistically significant difference between patient and control group except for PT (p50 years) was associated with higher D-dimer levels (p=0.003). Metastatic patients exhibited significantly higher D-dimer values when compared with early breast cancer patients (p=0.049). Advanced tumor stage (T3 and T4) was associated with higher INR (p=0.05) and lower PTA (p=0.025). In conclusion, coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

  14. Winter wren populations show adaptation to local climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Catriona A; Robinson, Robert A; Pearce-Higgins, James W

    2016-06-01

    Most studies of evolutionary responses to climate change have focused on phenological responses to warming, and provide only weak evidence for evolutionary adaptation. This could be because phenological changes are more weakly linked to fitness than more direct mechanisms of climate change impacts, such as selective mortality during extreme weather events which have immediate fitness consequences for the individuals involved. Studies examining these other mechanisms may be more likely to show evidence for evolutionary adaptation. To test this, we quantify regional population responses of a small resident passerine (winter wren Troglodytes troglodytes) to a measure of winter severity (number of frost days). Annual population growth rate was consistently negatively correlated with this measure, but the point at which different populations achieved stability (λ = 1) varied across regions and was closely correlated with the historic average number of frost days, providing strong evidence for local adaptation. Despite this, regional variation in abundance remained negatively related to the regional mean number of winter frost days, potentially as a result of a time-lag in the rate of evolutionary response to climate change. As expected from Bergmann's rule, individual wrens were heavier in colder regions, suggesting that local adaptation may be mediated through body size. However, there was no evidence for selective mortality of small individuals in cold years, with annual variation in mean body size uncorrelated with the number of winter frost days, so the extent to which local adaptation occurs through changes in body size, or another mechanism remains uncertain.

  15. Transcriptome characterization of Ishige okamurae (Phaeophyceae) shows strong environmental acclimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Jieqiong; WANG Xumin; CHI Shan; WU Shuangxiu; SUN Jing; LIU Cui; CHEN Shengping; YU Jun; LIU Tao

    2014-01-01

    Ishige okamurae, with leathery branched narrow fronds consisting of cylindrical hairs, is the typical species of the genus Ishige, which is considered as one of the most basal genera in the phylogeny of the Phaeophy-ceae. Apart from great public interest from the evolutionary respect, more attention has been brought on the abundant bioactive compounds in I. okamurae for therapeutic or economic considerations, such as di-phlorethohydroxycarmalol and ishigoside. Yet little is known about related key genes or metabolic pathways involved in I. okamurae, which calls upon us to carry out global analyses of transcriptome by next generation sequencing. Altogether, we obtained 78 583 assembled scaffolds with N50 of 1 709 nucleotides, and 25 357 unigenes with significant BLAST matches (E-value cutoff of 10-5). In terms of characterization of the tran-scriptome of I. okamurae, we focused on anti-stress metabolic pathways and synthetic routes of bioactive compounds in an attempt to obtain a better understanding of the interactive organism-environment regula-tory networks. Pathway-based analysis helped us to deepen our comprehension of the interaction between I. okamurae and its surroundings, with MAPK signal pathway as an example. Furthermore, we discovered a wide range of novel putative functional proteins that could be of wide application, such as Rab family, using sequence-based transcriptome. In conclusion, transcriptome characterization of I. okamurae (Phaeophy-ceae) shows strong environmental acclimation.

  16. Maps showing seismic landslide hazards in Anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibson, Randall W.

    2014-01-01

    The devastating landslides that accompanied the great 1964 Alaska earthquake showed that seismically triggered landslides are one of the greatest geologic hazards in Anchorage. Maps quantifying seismic landslide hazards are therefore important for planning, zoning, and emergency-response preparation. The accompanying maps portray seismic landslide hazards for the following conditions: (1) deep, translational landslides, which occur only during great subduction-zone earthquakes that have return periods of =300-900 yr; (2) shallow landslides for a peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 0.69 g, which has a return period of 2,475 yr, or a 2 percent probability of exceedance in 50 yr; and (3) shallow landslides for a PGA of 0.43 g, which has a return period of 475 yr, or a 10 percent probability of exceedance in 50 yr. Deep, translational landslide hazards were delineated based on previous studies of such landslides, with some modifications based on field observations of locations of deep landslides. Shallow-landslide hazards were delineated using a Newmark-type displacement analysis for the two probabilistic ground motions modeled.

  17. Papillary thyroid carcinoma shows elevated levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakheja, Dinesh; Boriack, Richard L; Mitui, Midori; Khokhar, Shama; Holt, Shelby A; Kapur, Payal

    2011-04-01

    Elevated levels of D: -2-hydroxyglutarate (D: -2-HG) occur in gliomas and myeloid leukemias associated with mutations of IDH1 and IDH2. L: -2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria, an inherited metabolic disorder, predisposes to brain tumors. Therefore, we asked whether sporadic cancers, without IDH1 or IDH2 hot-spot mutations, show elevated 2-hydroxyglutarate levels. We retrieved 15 pairs of frozen papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and adjacent non-neoplastic thyroid, and 14 pairs of hyperplastic nodule (HN) and adjacent non-hyperplastic thyroid. In all lesions, exon 4 sequencing confirmed the absence of known mutations of IDH1 and IDH2. We measured 2-hydroxyglutarate by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Compared to normal thyroid, PTCs had significantly higher D: -2-HG and L: -2-hydroxyglutarate (L: -2-HG) levels, and compared to HNs, PTCs had significantly higher D: -2-HG levels. D: -2-HG/L: -2-HG levels were not significantly different between HNs and normal thyroid. Further studies should clarify if elevated 2-hydroxyglutarate in PTC may be useful as cancer biomarker and evaluate the role of 2-hydroxyglutarate in cancer biology.

  18. RR Pictoris: an old nova showing superhumps and QPOs

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidtobreick, L; Tappert, C; Ederoclite, A

    2008-01-01

    We present time-resolved V-photometry of the old nova RR Pic. Apart from the hump-like variability, the light curves show the strong flickering and random variation typical for RR Pic. We do not find any convincing evidence for the previously reported eclipse. The extrapolated eclipse phase coincides with a broad minimum, but comparing the overall shape of the light curve suggests that the eclipse should actually be located around phase 0.2. The orbital period which we derive from these data agrees well with the old one, any uncertainty is too small to account for the possible phase shift. Apart from the 3.48h period, which is usually interpreted as the orbital one, we find an additional period at P=3.78h, which we interpret as the superhump period of the system; the corresponding precession period at 1.79d is also present in the data. We also find indications for the presence of a 13min quasi-periodic oscillation.

  19. Congenital myotonic dystrophy can show congenital fiber type disproportion pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Kayo; Hayashi, Yukiko K; Goto, Kanako; Minami, Narihiro; Noguchi, Satoru; Nonaka, Ikuya; Miki, Tetsuro; Nishino, Ichizo

    2010-04-01

    Congenital myotonic dystrophy (CDM) is associated with markedly expanded CTG repeats in DMPK. The presence of numerous immature fibers with peripheral halo is a characteristic feature of CDM muscles together with hypotrophy of type 1 fibers. Smaller type 1 fibers with no structural abnormality are a definitive criterion of congenital fiber type disproportion (CFTD). Nonetheless, we recently came across a patient who was genetically confirmed as CDM, but had been earlier diagnosed as CFTD when he was an infant. In this study, we performed clinical, pathological, and genetic analyses in infantile patients pathologically diagnosed as CFTD to evaluate CDM patients indistinguishable from CFTD. We examined CTG repeat expansion in DMPK in 28 infantile patients pathologically diagnosed as CFTD. Mutation screening of ACTA1 and TPM3 was performed, and we compared clinical and pathological findings of 20 CDM patients with those of the other cohorts. We identified four (14%) patients with CTG expansion in DMPK. ACTA1 mutation was identified in four (14%), and TPM3 mutation was found in two (7%) patients. Fiber size disproportion was more prominent in patients with ACTA1 or TPM3 mutations as compared to CFTD patients with CTG expansion. A further three patients among 20 CDM patients showed pathological findings similar to CFTD. From our results, CDM should be excluded in CFTD patients.

  20. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Full-Length cDNAs of Food Intake Regulation Factors in Japanese Seabass ( Lateolabrax japonicus)%花鲈摄食调控相关因子全长 cDNA的克隆和序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳; 许恒龙; 薛敏; 王嘉; 吴秀峰; 郑银桦; 韩芳; 张彦娇

    2015-01-01

    本试验采用反转录聚合酶链式反应( RT-PCR)和cDNA末端快速扩增( RACE)技术克隆花鲈( Lateolabrax japonicus)调控摄食因子雷帕霉素靶蛋白( mTOR)、核糖体蛋白S6激酶be-ta-1( S6K1)、神经肽Y前体( NPY precursor)和脑肠肽前体( preproghrelin) cDNA全长序列. 结果显示:花鲈mTOR( GenBank登录号KJ746670) cDNA全长8 296 bp,开放阅读框7 551 bp,编码2 516个氨基酸,预测其分子质量为286.14 ku,与其他物种的相似性为62.0%~98.0%;S6K1 ( GenBank登录号KJ746671) cDNA全长2 232 bp,开放阅读框1 539 bp,编码512个氨基酸,预测其分子质量为56.87 ku,与其他物种的相似性为80.4%~84.9%;NPY precursor( GenBank登录号KJ850326) cDNA全长676 bp,开放阅读框300 bp,编码99 个氨基酸,预测其分子质量为11.26 ku,与其他物种的相似性为 53. 6%~99. 0%;preproghrelin ( GenBank 登录号 KJ850327 ) cDNA全长1 201 bp,开放阅读框324 bp,编码107个氨基酸,预测其分子质量为12.03 ku,与其他物种的相似性为19.6%~85.0%. 花鲈摄食调控因子cDNA全长序列地获得将为进一步研究其摄食调控机理奠定基础.%The full-length cDNAs of food intake regulation factors, including mechanistic target of rapamycin ( mTOR) , ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta-1 ( S6K1) , neuropeptide Y ( NPY) precursor and preproghrelin were cloned from Japanese seabass ( Lateolabrax japonicus) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reac-tion ( RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end ( RACE) methods. The results showed as follows: the full-length mTOR cDNA of Japanese seabass ( GenBank accession No. KJ746670) was 8 296 bp, consisting of an open reading frame ( ORF) of 7 551 bp encoding a polypeptide of 2 516 amino acids with a theoretical molecular weight of 286.14 ku, and shared 62.0% to 98.0% similarity with other species. The full-length S6K1 cDNA of Japanese seabass ( GenBank accession No. KJ746671 ) was 2 232 bp, consisting of an ORF of 1 539 bp encoding a

  1. Can recurrence networks show small-world property?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Rinku, E-mail: rinku.jacob.vallanat@gmail.com [Department of Physics, The Cochin College, Cochin, 682002 (India); Harikrishnan, K.P., E-mail: kp_hk2002@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, The Cochin College, Cochin, 682002 (India); Misra, R., E-mail: rmisra@iucaa.in [Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, 411007 (India); Ambika, G., E-mail: g.ambika@iiserpune.ac.in [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune, 411008 (India)

    2016-08-12

    Recurrence networks are complex networks, constructed from time series data, having several practical applications. Though their properties when constructed with the threshold value ϵ chosen at or just above the percolation threshold of the network are quite well understood, what happens as the threshold increases beyond the usual operational window is still not clear from a complex network perspective. The present Letter is focused mainly on the network properties at intermediate-to-large values of the recurrence threshold, for which no systematic study has been performed so far. We argue, with numerical support, that recurrence networks constructed from chaotic attractors with ϵ equal to the usual recurrence threshold or slightly above cannot, in general, show small-world property. However, if the threshold is further increased, the recurrence network topology initially changes to a small-world structure and finally to that of a classical random graph as the threshold approaches the size of the strange attractor. - Highlights: • Properties of recurrence networks at intermediate-to-large values of recurrence threshold are analyzed from a complex network perspective. • Using a combined plot of characteristic path length and clustering coefficient, it is shown that the recurrence network constructed with recurrence threshold equal to or just above the percolation threshold cannot, in general, display small-world property. • As the recurrence threshold is increased from its usual operational window, the resulting network makes a smooth transition initially to a small-world network for an intermediate range of thresholds and finally to the classical random graph as the threshold becomes comparable to the size of the attractor.

  2. VLA's Sharpened Vision Shows Details of Still-Forming Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    available for routine astronomical observations last autumn. In late November, the scientists pointed the sharpened vision of the combined telescopes at an object called G192.16-3.82, more than 6,000 light-years distant in the constellation Orion. First observed in 1990, G192.16-3.82 was found to be a massive young star powering one of the largest stellar outflows -- extending more than 30 light years from end to end -- in the entire Milky Way Galaxy. Earlier observations showed the young star is surrounded by a large, rotating disk with a diameter greater than 1,000 times the Sun-Earth distance. Astronomers, however, believed that the outflow had to originate from a structure much smaller than this disk. The VLA-Pie Town system gave them their first glimpse of the suspected smaller structure, another disk slightly larger than our own Solar System containing enough gas and dust to make 20 Suns. In addition, they saw the inner portion of the outflow of material powered by that disk. The new observations also showed that the smaller disk probably is truncated by the gravitational pull of another, previously-unseen young star less massive than the first. Close to the larger protostar, the outflow is wide, covering an angle of about 40 degrees. "With smaller protostars, the outflow begins wide but then is narrowed down to a thin jet relatively close to its origin. However, when the protostar is more massive, the outflow tends to remain wide," Shepherd said. "We think that magnetic fields narrow down the flow from the smaller protostars. It's possible that when the flow contains much more mass, such as in this system, the magnetic fields may be just too weak in most cases to get this done," she said. "Our new observations now make it possible to test this idea by comparing computer simulations to what we see in the real universe," Shepherd said. The VLA is a system of 27 radio-telescope antennas distributed over the high desert west of Socorro, NM, in the shape of a giant "Y

  3. Human-directed social behaviour in dogs shows significant heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, M E; Roth, L S V; Johnsson, M; Wright, D; Jensen, P

    2015-04-01

    Through domestication and co-evolution with humans, dogs have developed abilities to attract human attention, e.g. in a manner of seeking assistance when faced with a problem solving task. The aims of this study were to investigate within breed variation in human-directed contact seeking in dogs and to estimate its genetic basis. To do this, 498 research beagles, bred and kept under standardized conditions, were tested in an unsolvable problem task. Contact seeking behaviours recorded included both eye contact and physical interactions. Behavioural data was summarized through a principal component analysis, resulting in four components: test interactions, social interactions, eye contact and physical contact. Females scored significantly higher on social interactions and physical contact and age had an effect on eye contact scores. Narrow sense heritabilities (h(2) ) of the two largest components were estimated at 0.32 and 0.23 but were not significant for the last two components. These results show that within the studied dog population, behavioural variation in human-directed social behaviours was sex dependent and that the utilization of eye contact seeking increased with age and experience. Hence, heritability estimates indicate a significant genetic contribution to the variation found in human-directed social interactions, suggesting that social skills in dogs have a genetic basis, but can also be shaped and enhanced through individual experiences. This research gives the opportunity to further investigate the genetics behind dogs' social skills, which could also play a significant part into research on human social disorders such as autism.

  4. Remembering Operación Triunfo: a Latin Music Reality Show in the Era of Talent Shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Savini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The music format Operación Triunfo (2001–2011, which aired on RTVE for the first time in 2001, started as a television (TV and musical success in Spain and today is one of the most famous shows around the world as well as an incredible socio-economic phenomenon in Spanish TV. This paper describes the format concept and results. Both commercial and social aspects are introduced to understand why, after 15 years, it is remembered with nostalgia and remains a shining example of a good communication project and a perfect balance between the global and the local, despite the lack of great success in the following years in Spain and abroad.

  5. Volcanic carbon dioxide vents show ecosystem effects of ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Martin, Sophie; Ransome, Emma; Fine, Maoz; Turner, Suzanne M; Rowley, Sonia J; Tedesco, Dario; Buia, Maria-Cristina

    2008-07-01

    The atmospheric partial pressure of carbon dioxide (p(CO(2))) will almost certainly be double that of pre-industrial levels by 2100 and will be considerably higher than at any time during the past few million years. The oceans are a principal sink for anthropogenic CO(2) where it is estimated to have caused a 30% increase in the concentration of H(+) in ocean surface waters since the early 1900s and may lead to a drop in seawater pH of up to 0.5 units by 2100 (refs 2, 3). Our understanding of how increased ocean acidity may affect marine ecosystems is at present very limited as almost all studies have been in vitro, short-term, rapid perturbation experiments on isolated elements of the ecosystem. Here we show the effects of acidification on benthic ecosystems at shallow coastal sites where volcanic CO(2) vents lower the pH of the water column. Along gradients of normal pH (8.1-8.2) to lowered pH (mean 7.8-7.9, minimum 7.4-7.5), typical rocky shore communities with abundant calcareous organisms shifted to communities lacking scleractinian corals with significant reductions in sea urchin and coralline algal abundance. To our knowledge, this is the first ecosystem-scale validation of predictions that these important groups of organisms are susceptible to elevated amounts of p(CO(2)). Sea-grass production was highest in an area at mean pH 7.6 (1,827 (mu)atm p(CO(2))) where coralline algal biomass was significantly reduced and gastropod shells were dissolving due to periods of carbonate sub-saturation. The species populating the vent sites comprise a suite of organisms that are resilient to naturally high concentrations of p(CO(2)) and indicate that ocean acidification may benefit highly invasive non-native algal species. Our results provide the first in situ insights into how shallow water marine communities might change when susceptible organisms are removed owing to ocean acidification.

  6. "The show must go on!" Beserings van dramastudente tydens opleiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Deacon

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "THE SHOW MUST GO ON!" LIABILITY WHEN IT COMES TO DRAMA STUDENTS WHEN INJURED WHILE IN TRAININGThis article emphasises the uncertainty in the relationship between a student undergoing practical training and his/her lecturer or university, if the student should be injured and wants to claim compensation. One must first establish whether the student can be described as an employee of the lecturer or university, or as a vocational worker or independent contractor. Once the status of the student has been established, the relevant legislation can be determined, whether it is the Labour Relations Act or the Basic Conditions of Employment. It is, however, not that simple and a person in the capacity of a student does not accord with the definition of an employee or an independent contractor or a vocational worker. One will have to rely on the assumption in section 83A in the Basic Conditions of Employment that a student is an employee when he does practical training for the benefit of the university. The Occupational Health and Safety Act requires employers to assure that the workplace is a safe environment for employees, with the minimum risks involved. The Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act makes it possible for an employee to claim compensation when such a risk becomes a reality.This article also tries to compare the situation of a student sports person injured while participating in university sports, and a drama student injured during a performance or rehearsal of a play. It is stated that the relationship between the drama student and lecturer is similar to the relationship between a sports person and his/her coach, but the relationship differs in that a sports person’s risk of getting hurt is much greater than that of a drama student, The contracts between sports players and their authorities are also stipulated in much more detail than the contracts (if any between the drama students and the university. It is concluded

  7. Anger, Cognition, Ideology: What Crash Can Show Us About Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue J. Kim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract (E: Sue J. Kim’s essay “Anger, Cognition, Ideology: What Crash Can Show Us About Emotion” argues for the relevance and importance of cognitive studies to ethnic and postcolonial literary studies, and vice versa. After surveying recent developments in the field of cognitive studies, the essay combines cultural and cognitive approaches in order to examine anger in and around the 2005 Paul Haggis film Crash.

     

    Abstract (F: Dans cet article, l’auteur fait un plaidoyer pour l’application des études cognitives aux études ethniques et postcoloniales et inversement. L’essai présente d’abord un survol des récents développements dans le domaine des études cognitives, puis combine les approches culturelles et cognitives dans une lecture détaillée du thème de la colère dans le film Crash de Paul Haggis (2005.

     

  8. Analysis of cDNAs and Genomic DNA of Snake Venom CTL-like Proteins Revealed An Extraordinary Post-transcriptional Processing Event%蛇毒C型凝集素类蛋白cDNA与基因组DNA序列分析显示特别的转录后加工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查向东; 周立志; 黄河胜; 刘兢; 徐康森

    2004-01-01

    为研究蛇毒C型凝集素类蛋白的快速进化机制和结构功能关系,使用PCR技术扩增了若干编码C型凝集素类蛋白β链的cDNA分子以及agkisasin β的基因组DNA,并将这些扩增产物进行克隆和测序.对测序结果与试验过程中的具体条件进行了因果关系分析,并且进行点阵图比较和多序列比对.结果表明,可能存在"转录后同源重组"等转录后的事件,在蛇毒C型凝集素类蛋白的多样性上起着重要的作用.对于解释基因数目与蛋白质数目的差异这一后基因组时代的重要问题,具有一定的参考价值.首次报告蛇毒C型凝集素类蛋白的基因组DNA序列,其中未发现有内含子.%To better understand the accelerated evolution of snake venom C-type lectin-like proteins (CTL-like proteins) and to investigate the structure-function relationships, PCR was conducted to amplify cDNAs coding for the β chains of snake venom CTL-like proteins and the genomic DNA of agkisasin β. The reaction products were cloned and sequenced. The causal relationships between the sequences and the experimental conditions were established. Dot plot analysis and multiple alignments were also performed. The results suggested the existence of a post-transcriptional processing event that was essentially homologous recombination at the RNA level, which might play an important role in the diversity of snake venom CTL-like proteins. This inference would provide a novel perspective for explaining a challenging problem of the post-genomic era: the discrepancy between the limited number of genes and the large collection of cDNAs, which was most prominent with regard to certain snake venom proteins. The genomic DNA of a snake venom C-type lectin-like protein was elucidated and no introns were found in the coding region.

  9. FASHION SHOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Star Wars x adidas香港星际大战活动展开adidas Originals系列即将在2010春夏发表的星际大战Star Wars系列商品,在先前已经为各位做过相当多的系列报导,而这次的联名盛事也即将在香港举办活动,本回找来星战迷的头号世界组织501 st Legion来合作,一系列相当有趣的照片,像是黑武士Darth Vader在香港街头以及帝国兵在茶餐厅用餐的kuso画面,都有部分的释出,而他们也都换上了本次的联名鞋款以及装备于其中,相当震撼。

  10. TIGER SHOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周洁

    2002-01-01

    TIGER SHOW时间——二零零七月八号。TIGER SHOW地点——厦门电视台四百坪演播大厅。TIGER SHOW原因——庆祝幼儿园两周岁生曰,参加这次演出的还有幼儿园里其他许多的小朋友,他们都是那么可爱。

  11. Soft show

    OpenAIRE

    Goitia Cruz, Aitor

    2010-01-01

    El artículo señala la ausencia de debate en torno a la proliferación de arquitecturas-esculturas derivadas de un manierismo sustentado en las nuevas aplicaciones informáticas, capaces de generar geometrías complejas de suaves contornos.

  12. Molecular cloning of hsf1 and hsbp1 cDNAs, and the expression of hsf1, hsbp1 and hsp70 under heat stress in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongxue; Sun, Lina; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

    2016-08-01

    The heat shock response (HSR) is known for the elevated synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs) under heat stress, which is mediated primarily by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). Heat shock factor binding protein 1 (HSBP1) and feedback control of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) are major regulators of the activity of HSF1. We obtained full-length cDNA of genes hsf1 and hsbp1 in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, which are the second available for echinoderm (after Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), and the first available for holothurian. The full-length cDNA of hsf1 was 2208bp, containing a 1326bp open reading frame encoding 441 amino acids. The full-length cDNA of hsbp1 was 2850bp, containing a 225bp open reading frame encoding 74 amino acids. The similarities of A. japonicus HSF1 with other species are low, and much higher similarity identities of A. japonicus HSBP1 were shared. Phylogenetic trees showed that A. japonicus HSF1 and HSBP1 were clustered with sequences from S. purpuratus, and fell into distinct clades with sequences from mollusca, arthropoda and vertebrata. Analysis by real-time PCR showed hsf1 and hsbp1 mRNA was expressed constitutively in all tissues examined. The expression of hsf1, hsbp1 and hsp70 in the intestine at 26°C was time-dependent. The results of this study might provide new insights into the regulation of heat shock response in this species.

  13. Water deficit modulates gene expression in growing zones of soybean seedlings. Analysis of differentially expressed cDNAs, a new beta-tubulin gene, and expression of genes encoding cell wall proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, R A; Mullet, J E

    1991-10-01

    Transfer of soybean seedlings to low-water-potential vermiculite (psi w = -0.3 MPa) results in a reversible decrease in hypocotyl growth and modulation of several polysomal mRNAs (Plant Physiol 92: 205-214). We report here the isolation of two cDNA clones (pGE16 and pGE95) which correspond to genes whose mRNA levels are increased, and one cDNA clone (pGE23) which corresponds to a gene whose mRNA level is decreased in the hypocotyl zone of cell elongation by water deficit. In well-watered seedlings mRNAs hybridizing to pGE16 and pGE95 are most abundant in mature regions of the seedling, but in water-deficient seedlings mRNA levels are reduced in mature regions and enhanced in elongating regions. RNA corresponding to soybean proline-rich protein 1 (sbPRP1) shows a similar tissue distribution and response to water deficit. In contrast, in well-watered seedlings, the gene corresponding to pGE23 was highly expressed in the hypocotyl and root growing zones. Transfer of seedlings to low-water-potential vermiculite caused a rapid decrease in mRNA hybridizing to pGE23. Sequence analysis revealed that pGE23 has high homology with beta-tubulin. Water deficit also reduced the level of mRNA hybridizing to JCW1, an auxin-modulated gene, although with different kinetics. Furthermore, mRNA encoding actin, glycine-rich proteins (GRPs), and hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) were down-regulated in the hypocotyl zone of elongation of seedlings exposed to water deficit. No effect of water deficit was observed on the expression of chalcone synthase. Decreased expression of beta-tubulin, actin, JCW1, HRGP and GRP and increased expression of sbPRP1, pGE95 and pGE16 in the hypocotyl zone of cell elongation could participate in the reversible growth inhibition observed in water-deficient soybean seedlings.

  14. AaeAP1 and AaeAP2: Novel Antimicrobial Peptides from the Venom of the Scorpion, Androctonus aeneas: Structural Characterisation, Molecular Cloning of Biosynthetic Precursor-Encoding cDNAs and Engineering of Analogues with Enhanced Antimicrobial and Anticancer Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main functions of the abundant polypeptide toxins present in scorpion venoms are the debilitation of arthropod prey or defence against predators. These effects are achieved mainly through the blocking of an array of ion channel types within the membranes of excitable cells. However, while these ion channel-blocking toxins are tightly-folded by multiple disulphide bridges between cysteine residues, there are additional groups of peptides in the venoms that are devoid of cysteine residues. These non-disulphide bridged peptides are the subject of much research interest, and among these are peptides that exhibit antimicrobial activity. Here, we describe two novel non-disulphide-bridged antimicrobial peptides that are present in the venom of the North African scorpion, Androctonus aeneas. The cDNAs encoding the biosynthetic precursors of both peptides were cloned from a venom-derived cDNA library using 3'- and 5'-RACE strategies. Both translated precursors contained open-reading frames of 74 amino acid residues, each encoding one copy of a putative novel nonadecapeptide, whose primary structures were FLFSLIPSVIAGLVSAIRN and FLFSLIPSAIAGLVSAIRN, respectively. Both peptides were C-terminally amidated. Synthetic versions of each natural peptide displayed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities, but were devoid of antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines. However, synthetic analogues of each peptide, engineered for enhanced cationicity and amphipathicity, exhibited increases in antimicrobial potency and acquired antiproliferative activity against a range of human cancer cell lines. These data clearly illustrate the potential that natural peptide templates provide towards the design of synthetic analogues for therapeutic exploitation.

  15. Oral bacterial DNAs in synovial fluids of arthritis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Moen, Ketil; Johan G. Brun; Eribe, Emenike R.K.; Olsen, Ingar; Jonsson, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Arthritis may be triggered by microbial constituents, more specifically, bacterial cell wall fragments, or bacterial DNA. The aim of this study was to analyze the amount of oral bacterial DNA in synovial fluids (SF) of arthritis patients. SF from 15 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, 15 arthritides (non-RA) patients and 9 osteoarthritis (control) patients were extracted for oral bacterial DNA. DNA was used in a checkerboard DNA/DNA hybridization set-up, in order to identify 40 different spec...

  16. Two rrn DNAs from periwinkle infected by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB, ex. greening,) is a highly destructive disease threatening citrus production worldwide. In southern China, HLB is currently believed to be caused by infection by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. The pathogen is not culturable in vitro. We have been maintaining a strain o...

  17. A Technology and Application of ShowModalDialog Popup Window Scraping%一种ShowModalDialog弹出窗口抓取技术及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙长翔; 陈秀国

    2014-01-01

    ShowModalDialog弹出窗口抓取问题上,介绍了Web数据抓取技术,分析了Web数据抓取的原理,并重点讨论了利用SPY++工具来实现ShowModalDialog弹出窗口中数据的抓取和处理.

  18. Radio Show on Books and Libraries as a Means of Promoting the Public Library: Marking the 200th Edition of the Show Tvoja,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pavletič

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTSince 2004, the Ciril Kosmač Library of Tolmin has been continuously preparing a radio show on books and libraries on the local radio station Alpski val. The show has been used as an advertising platform or as a means of primary library promotion. The radio show is regarded as one of the tools of what is termed market communication, and it is intended to provide broad public information on the services of a public library, to promote the library’s activities and holdings and to foster a reading culture. The aim of the show is to stimulate the potential user interest in visiting and using the services of a public library, to expand the circle of users and consequently raise the number of visits and library loans. The title of the show, its audio image, target audience, metapromotion and substantive concept are all key to planning the radio show on books and libraries. The radio show is an example of an effective tool that helps to establish the library’s ties with the local community. This example of best practices shows that it is worth pursuing this activity in Slovenia’s public libraries and highlighting it on their websites.

  19. Grab That Mike: communicative issues in French Talk Show "Grab That Mike": questões comunicativas em um "Talk Show" Francês

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwina Van Son

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this analysis we have chosen a recent French talk show to illustrate how communication is turned into some new kind of "ideology"nowadays: in other words, you have to communicate if you consider yourself a citizen of today's world. The main characteristic of issue-centered talk shows being the destabilization of the implicit rules and participation framework, we observe how the so-called democratic right to express ourselves is (misused by the talk show host to secure the dynamics of the show. In order to reveal the host's manipulations, we have examined the verbal interactions between host and guests on the following issues: topic choice, turn-taking mechanisms and identity construction of the talk show's guests. In the perspective that this kind of talk show presents itself as a public space where direct democracy can be exercised, the analysis of the discursive strategies of the talk show host reveals the impact of a mediatic participation framework.Para a presente análise escolhemos um "talk show" francês recente para ilustrar como a comunicação se transforma em um novo tipo de ideologia: em outras palavras, você deve se comunicar se você se considera um cidadão do mundo de hoje. Sendo a principal característica do talk show a desestabilização das regras implícitas e o framework de participação, observamos como o tal direito democrático de expressão é interpretado pelo apresentador para manter a dinâmica do programa. Para revelar suas manipulações, examinamos as interações verbais entre apresentador e convidados nos seguintes temas: escolha do tópico, mecanismos de tomada de turno e construção de identidade dos convidados. É nessa perspectiva que este tipo de programa se apresenta como um espaço público onde a democracia direta pode ser exercitada; a análise das estratégias discursivas do apresentador do talk show revela o impacto de um framework de participação mediada.

  20. Comparison of canine parvovirus with mink enteritis virus by restriction site mapping.

    OpenAIRE

    McMaster, G K; Tratschin, J D; Siegl, G

    1981-01-01

    The genomes of canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus were compared by restriction enzyme analysis of their replicative-form DNAs. Of 79 mapped sites, 68, or 86%, were found to be common for both types of DNA, indicating that canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus are closely related viruses. Whether they evolved from a common precursor or whether canine parvovirus is derived from mink enteritis virus, however, cannot be deduced from our present data.

  1. Demonstration Show That Promotes and Assesses Conceptual Understanding Using the Structure of Drama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter Kerby, Holly; DeKorver, Brittland K.; Cantor, Joanne; Weiland, Marcia J.; Babiarz, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    Demonstration shows are a widely used form of Informal Science Education. While there is evidence that the shows are highly enjoyable, little work has been done to investigate the cognitive impacts of these shows. This article describes the development and production of "The Boiling Point," a show that uses the structure of a play to…

  2. QUANDO A FICÇÃO CINEMATOGRÁFICA ENQUADRA O REALITY SHOW : UMA INTER-RELAÇÃO DE MÍDIAS AUDIOVISUAIS EM THE TRUMAN SHOW

    OpenAIRE

    Madalozzo, Tiago

    2009-01-01

    Em The Truman Show (Peter Weir, 1998) apresenta-se ao espectador uma complexa estrutura narrativa multimidiática em abismo. Além de cenas em que a moldura televisiva se faz evidente, em certos momentos o olhar televisivo é englobado pelo cinematográfico por meio de um efeito de incorporação de quadros, resultando em duas molduras coincidentes que orientam diferentes percursos narrativos dentro do filme. Assim, apresenta-se um trabalho elaborado de referencialidade midiática. Entendendo-se que...

  3. Americans with Wings—Air show institution in the United States%Americans with Wings——Air show institution in the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张步云

    2016-01-01

    Wright Brother's first flying machine's flight in 1903 declared the advent of aviation age. Further stimulated by two world wars, aviation technologies have become the most advanced ones among human's manufacturing industries. In order to feed the industries' demand for human intelligence, various interactions between aviation staff and other social members were developed. Consequently, certain kind of aviation culture has been cultivating. In this paper, the author will make an introduction of aviation culture in the United States, and focus on the most representative content of that culture, the air show institution in United States.

  4. More Research Shows Big Surge in U.S. Opioid Use, Addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Shows Big Surge in U.S. Opioid Use, Addictions Report from major insurer shows more than 20 ... Health News on Health Disparities Opioid Abuse and Addiction Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Health ...

  5. Comparison of Interruption in Relatively Formal and Informal Talk Show Programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晨宇

    2013-01-01

    Interruption, as a linguistic phenomenon, can be see everywhere. And talk show programs are common setting for in⁃terruptions. So in this thesis three questions are addressed as followed: What function does the interruption have in these two kinds of talk shows (relatively formal and informal) respectively; what are the similarities of relatively formal and informal talk show programs;what are the differences between relatively formal and informal talk shows.

  6. International trade shows: Structure, strategy and performance of exhibitors at individual booths vs. joint booths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines differences in exhibitors who participate at international trade shows at joint booths and those who participate at individual booths. The structure, strategy, and trade show performance of exhibitors at joint booths and those at individual booths are analysed. The analysis of...... implications for exhibitors at interna-tional trade shows and export marketing programmes and other marketing programmes offering services to international trade show exhibitors....

  7. 77 FR 47282 - Safety Zone; Milwaukee Air and Water Show, Lake Michigan, Milwaukee, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... safety zone during this year's air show. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion... spectators and vessels from the hazards associated with an air show over water. DATES: This rule will be... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Milwaukee Air and Water Show, Lake Michigan...

  8. 77 FR 49349 - Safety Zone; Chicago Air and Water Show, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... this year's air show. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Michigan during the Chicago Air and Water Show. This safety zone is necessary to protect spectators and vessels... necessary to ensure the safety of spectators and vessels during the air show. This zone will be enforced...

  9. 77 FR 43517 - Safety Zone; Flying Magazine Air Show, Lake Winnebago, Oshkosh, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Winnebago during the Flying Magazine Air show. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect spectators and vessels from the hazards associated with an air show... ability to protect spectators and vessels from the hazards associated with an air show and associated...

  10. 23 CFR Appendix C to Subpart D of... - Sample Show Cause Rescission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sample Show Cause Rescission C Appendix C to Subpart D... Appendix C to Subpart D of Part 230—Sample Show Cause Rescission Certified Mail, Return Receipt Requested...-day show cause notice from this office for failing to implement the required contract...

  11. 45 CFR 1303.12 - Summary suspension and opportunity to show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Summary suspension and opportunity to show cause... PROSPECTIVE DELEGATE AGENCIES Appeals by Grantees § 1303.12 Summary suspension and opportunity to show cause... financial assistance in whole or in part without prior notice and an opportunity to show cause if it...

  12. 45 CFR 1302.5 - Notice for show cause and hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice for show cause and hearing. 1302.5 Section... GRANTEES, AND FOR SELECTION OF REPLACEMENT GRANTEES General § 1302.5 Notice for show cause and hearing. (a... this chapter, to show cause why such action should not be taken. (b) The responsible HHS official...

  13. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Cocoa Beach Air Show. The Cocoa Beach Air Show will include aircraft engaging in...

  14. Producing a Radio Show about Psychological Science: The Story of "Psychological Frontiers"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Emily; Sachau, Daniel; Albertson, Dawn N.

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe the development of a campus-based radio show about psychological science. The authors' goals in creating the show were to inform the public about the science of psychology and to create a teaching and learning resource for faculty members and students. The show, "Psychological Frontiers," airs twice a week and consists of…

  15. Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder Show a Circumspect Reasoning Bias Rather than "Jumping-to-Conclusions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Mark; Chapman, Emma; Ashwin, Chris

    2014-01-01

    People with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often take longer to make decisions. The Autism-Psychosis Model proposes that people with autism and psychosis show the opposite pattern of results on cognitive tasks. As those with psychosis show a jump-to-conclusions reasoning bias, those with ASD should show a circumspect reasoning bias.…

  16. Ecological and toxicological responses in a multistressor scenario: Are monitoring programs showing the stressors or just showing stress? A case study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Doval, Julio C; Meirelles, Sergio Tadeu; Cardoso-Silva, Sheila; Moschini-Carlos, Viviane; Pompêo, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (MRSP) is located in the Brazilian State of São Paulo and reservoirs in this region are vital for water supply and energy production. Changes in economic, social, and demographic trends produced pollution of water bodies, decreasing water quality for human uses and affecting freshwater populations. The presence of emerging pollutants, classical priority substances, nutrient excess and the interaction with tropical-climate conditions require periodic reviews of water policies and monitoring programs in order to detect and manage these threats in a global change scenario. The objective of this work is to determine whether the monitoring program of the São Paulo's Environmental Agency, is sufficient to explain the toxicological and biological responses observed in organisms in reservoirs of the MRSP, and whether it can identify the possible agents causing these responses. For that, we used publicly available data on water quality compiled by this agency in their routine monitoring program. A general overview of these data and a chemometric approach to analyze the responses of biotic indexes and toxicological bioassays, as a function of the physical and chemical parameters monitored, were performed. Data compiled showed temporal and geographical information gaps on variables measured. Toxicological responses have been observed in the reservoirs of the MRSP, together with a high incidence of impairments of the zooplankton community. This demonstrates the presence of stressors that affect the viability of organisms and populations. The statistical approach showed that the data compiled by the environmental agency are insufficient to identify and explain the factors causing the observed ecotoxicological responses and impairments in the zooplankton community, and are therefore insufficient to identify clear cause-effect relationships. Stressors different from those analyzed could be responsible for the observed responses.

  17. Gun Shows and Gun Violence: Fatally Flawed Study Yields Misleading Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A.

    2010-01-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled “The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas” outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors’ prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy. PMID:20724672

  18. Gun shows and gun violence: fatally flawed study yields misleading results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintemute, Garen J; Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A

    2010-10-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled "The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas" outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors' prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy.

  19. What Makes the Difference? Pop Music Stars and TV Talent Show Contestants in Adolescents' Judgements

    OpenAIRE

    Lothwesen, Kai; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarises the approach, empirical methodologies, and part of the results of an empirical study that was conducted in early 2004, when musical TV talent shows reached their peak popularity among young media audiences in Germany. Our primary research interest was in the similarities and differences that the adolescent target group of this TV format might perceive between contestants in TV talent shows and real or ordinary pop music stars. Shows in this TV format all seem to...

  20. China Sport Show:More Professional and on a Larger Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The 26th China Sport Show will be held in New China International Exhibition Center,Beijing,from May 20 to 23,2010.As a fast-growing sport show,it has been playing an important role in promoting the development of Chinese brands and the cooperation of the enterprises.This year,the sport show is welcoming over 1000 exhibitors and 50,000 trade visitors from over 60 countries and regions.

  1. China Xiamen International Boat Show 2011——Making Yachting a new marine leisure fashion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The China (Xiamen) International Boat Show 2011 will be staged from November 4-7.Covering an area of 20,000 square meters with 300 berths,it will be China's largest boat show and an extravaganza for yacht manufacturers and enthusiasts.A series of other activities will be held alongside the boat show,such as a welcoming banquet,cruises,a seminar,a photography competition and a wedding upon one of the sailing vessels.The annual international boat show has become a unique attraction of southeast China's Xiamen City.

  2. Experimental research on showing automatic disappearance pen handwriting based on spectral imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi; Xu, Lei; Liu, Ningning; Huang, Wei; Xu, Xiaojing

    2016-10-01

    Purpose to find an efficient, non-destructive examining method for showing the disappearing words after writing with automatic disappearance pen. Method Using the imaging spectrometer to show the potential disappearance words on paper surface according to different properties of reflection absorbed by various substances in different bands. Results the disappeared words by using different disappearance pens to write on the same paper or the same disappearance pen to write on different papers, both can get good show results through the use of the spectral imaging examining methods. Conclusion Spectral imaging technology can show the disappearing words after writing by using the automatic disappearance pen.

  3. 75 FR 19307 - Safety Zone; Milwaukee Air and Water Show, Milwaukee, Lake Michigan, Milwaukee, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... surrounding public and their vessels from the hazards associated with a large-scale air show and fireworks... ensure the safety of the public and vessels from the hazards associated with the Milwaukee Air and Water... vessels and people during the Milwaukee Air and Water show. The safety zone is a 4,000 yard by 1,000 yard...

  4. 41 CFR 101-27.207-3 - Marking material to show extended shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Marking material to show extended shelf life. 101-27.207-3 Section 101-27.207-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.2-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.207-3 Marking material to show...

  5. Prisoner's Dilemma Applied and in the Classroom: The TV Game Show "Friend or Foe"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Paul R.; Alonzi, Loreto Peter; Condon, Daniel; Butterworth, William T.

    2007-01-01

    Prisoner's Dilemma is a common game theory scenario in which two players must choose between acting cooperatively or out of pure self-interest. What a player decides affects not only his own outcome but also that of the other player. "Friend or Foe," a TV game show that has appeared on the cable Game Show Network (GSN), places pairs of contestants…

  6. Using the "Mary Tyler Moore Show" as a Feminist Teaching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jule, Allyson

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the use of "The Mary Tyler Moore Show" as a teaching tool used with a group of final-year undergraduate students who gathered together last academic year (2007-8) to explore Women in Leadership, as part of a Communications course. The research focus was: How can the use of "The Mary Tyler Moore Show" (a 1970-7 American…

  7. Using Journals to Show Students What Social Psychology Is All about

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrod, Wendy J.

    2009-01-01

    Professional journals serve the vital scientific function of disseminating knowledge to colleagues. In so doing, journals become the "face" and "voice" of the professional disciplines they represent. Journal content shows the major topics of interest, the scope, and the boundaries of the profession. It shows the techniques and methods of research…

  8. 78 FR 45061 - Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski Show, Sister Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Sister Bay due to a fireworks display and ski show. This... with the fireworks display and ski show in Sister Bay on August 31, 2013. DATES: This rule is...

  9. "Of"-Constructions in the Predicate of "Demonstrate" and "Show" in Academic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyin; Chung, Siaw-Fong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates "of"-constructions in the predicates of two reporting verbs, "demonstrate" and "show," in academic discourse. A construction perspective is taken to examine how the two predicate constructions (["demonstrate" N1 "of" N2] and ["show" N1 "of" N2]) would…

  10. Are Educational Shows Teaching Our Children to Become Life-Long Learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullins, Jeremiah; Howard, Tiffany; Goza, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate various textual characteristics of popular children television shows. More specifically, researchers examined both the quantity and quality of question asked (i.e., question training). Furthermore, several readability components among the different shows (e.g., narrativity, syntactic simplicity,…

  11. 76 FR 18391 - Safety Zone; Texas International Boat Show Power Boat Races; Corpus Christi Marina, Corpus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... American Tri-Hull Championship scheduled to take place during the Texas International Boat Show. The North American Tri-Hull Championship will consist of a series of power boat races for approximately 8-12 vessels... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Texas International Boat Show Power Boat...

  12. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed...

  13. 23 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - Sample Show Cause Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sample Show Cause Notice A Appendix A to Subpart D of... to Subpart D of Part 230—Sample Show Cause Notice Certified Mail, Return Receipt Requested Date... skilled categories of employees. The Department of Labor regulations (41 CFR 60) implementing...

  14. Real Science: MIT Reality Show Tracks Experiences, Frustrations of Chemistry Lab Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    A reality show about a college course--a chemistry class no less? That's what "ChemLab Boot Camp" is. The 14-part series of short videos is being released one episode at a time on the online learning site of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The novel show follows a diverse group of 14 freshmen as they struggle to master the…

  15. Writing Games: Continuity and Change in the Design and Development of Quiz Shows in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scaglioni, Massimo; Fiacco, Axel

    2013-01-01

    abstractAs in the United States and in many countries across Europe, the quiz show was a founding genre for Italian television as far back as the 1950s: because of their broad appeal, such game shows as Lascia o raddoppia and Il musichiere contributed strongly to television’s burgeoning popularity d

  16. 20 CFR 416.1821 - Showing that you are married when you apply for SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Showing that you are married when you apply for SSI. 416.1821 Section 416.1821 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL... Showing that you are married when you apply for SSI. (a) General rule: Proof is unnecessary. If you tell...

  17. 20 CFR 416.1826 - Showing that you are not married when you apply for SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Showing that you are not married when you apply for SSI. 416.1826 Section 416.1826 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL... Showing that you are not married when you apply for SSI. (a) General rule: Proof is unnecessary. If you do...

  18. Large-Scale No-Show Patterns and Distributions for Clinic Operational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Davies

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Patient no-shows for scheduled primary care appointments are common. Unused appointment slots reduce patient quality of care, access to services and provider productivity while increasing loss to follow-up and medical costs. This paper describes patterns of no-show variation by patient age, gender, appointment age, and type of appointment request for six individual service lines in the United States Veterans Health Administration (VHA. This retrospective observational descriptive project examined 25,050,479 VHA appointments contained in individual-level records for eight years (FY07-FY14 for 555,183 patients. Multifactor analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed, with no-show rate as the dependent variable, and gender, age group, appointment age, new patient status, and service line as factors. The analyses revealed that males had higher no-show rates than females to age 65, at which point males and females exhibited similar rates. The average no-show rates decreased with age until 75–79, whereupon rates increased. As appointment age increased, males and new patients had increasing no-show rates. Younger patients are especially prone to no-show as appointment age increases. These findings provide novel information to healthcare practitioners and management scientists to more accurately characterize no-show and attendance rates and the impact of certain patient factors. Future general population data could determine whether findings from VHA data generalize to others.

  19. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1512 - Typical Handbrake Actuator Showing Grip Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Typical Handbrake Actuator Showing Grip Dimension 5 Figure 5 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS... Actuator Showing Grip Dimension EC03OC91.072 ...

  20. "Survivor": Three Principles of Economics Lessons as Taught by a Reality Television Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlan, Dean

    2017-01-01

    The reality television show "Survivor" has been a ratings success on CBS for over 16 years. In the show, 16 strangers are marooned in a remote location, required to compete in physical and mental challenges and periodically vote to eliminate players from the game. The last person remaining wins one million dollars. The author uses this…

  1. Using the "Mary Tyler Moore Show" as a Feminist Teaching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jule, Allyson

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the use of "The Mary Tyler Moore Show" as a teaching tool used with a group of final-year undergraduate students who gathered together last academic year (2007-8) to explore Women in Leadership, as part of a Communications course. The research focus was: How can the use of "The Mary Tyler Moore Show" (a…

  2. "What's (the) Matter?", A Show on Elementary Particle Physics with 28 Demonstration Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Dreiner, Herbi K; Borzyszkowski, Mikolaj; Braun, Maxim; Faßbender, Alexander; Hampel, Julia; Hansen, Maike; Hebecker, Dustin; Heepenstrick, Timo; Heinz, Sascha; Hortmanns, Katharina; Jost, Christian; Kortmann, Michael; Kruckow, Matthias U; Leuteritz, Till; Lütz, Claudia; Mahlberg, Philip; Müllers, Johannes; Opferkuch, Toby; Paul, Ewald; Pauli, Peter; Rossbach, Merlin; Schaepe, Steffen; Schiffer, Tobias; Schmidt, Jan F; Schüller-Ruhl, Jana; Schürmann, Christoph; Ubaldi, Lorenzo; Wagner-Carena, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    We present the screenplay of a physics show on particle physics, by the Physikshow of Bonn University. The show is addressed at non-physicists aged 14+ and communicates basic concepts of elementary particle physics including the discovery of the Higgs boson in an entertaining fashion. It is also demonstrates a successful outreach activity heavily relying on the university physics students. This paper is addressed at anybody interested in particle physics and/or show physics. This paper is also addressed at fellow physicists working in outreach, maybe the experiments and our choice of simple explanations will be helpful. Furthermore, we are very interested in related activities elsewhere, in particular also demonstration experiments relevant to particle physics, as often little of this work is published. Our show involves 28 live demonstration experiments. These are presented in an extensive appendix, including photos and technical details. The show is set up as a quest, where 2 students from Bonn with the aid...

  3. A Physics Show Performed by Students for Kids: From Mechanics to Elementary Particle Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Dreiner, H K

    2007-01-01

    We describe an initiative at the University of Bonn, where the students develop and perform a 2 hour physics show for school classes and the general public. The show is entertaining and educational and is aimed at children aged 10 and older. For the physics students this is a unique experience to apply their knowledge at an early stage and gives them the chance to develop skills in the public presentation of science, in front of 520 people per show. We have extended the activity to put on an elementary particle physics show for teenagers. Furthermore, local high schools have picked up the idea; their students put on similar shows for fellow students and parents. We would be interested in hearing about related activities elsewhere.

  4. MR findings of nasal cavity lesions showing the infundibular widening on

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Eun Kyung; Lee, Young Uk; Lee, Young Rae [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    Several kinds of nasal cavity lesions located in the region of the infundibulum on CT. At such time, the visualization of these lesions is very similar. The purpose of this study was to differentially diagnose these nasal cavity lesions through evaluation of the MR findings. In 51 cases of pathologically proven nasal cavity masses which on CT showed infundibular widening, we retrospectively evaluated the MR findings. The cases involved prolapsed antral mucosa from sinusitis(n=15), inverted papilloma(n=10), antrochoanal polyp(n=10), aspergillosis(n=9), and nasal polyp(n=7). All patients underwent both CT and MR. imaging. In all cases, CT findings were similar ; soft tissue masses filling the maxillary sinus and nasal cavity were associated with infundibular widening caused by pressure on the uncinate process, leading to erosion. Differential diagnosis by CT was very difficult ; MR T2 weighted imaging was most effective for differential diagnosis of these nasal cavity masses. Prolapsed antral mucosa showed central inhomogeneous mixed signal intensity, with a peripheral rim of hyperintensity along the sinus wall and nasal component. Antrochoanal polyps showed homogeneous bright signal intensity of the antral and nasal component. Aspergillosis showed central dark signal foci. Inverted papillomas showed mixed intermediate and high intensity mixed with high signal intensity. Nasal polyps showed striation mixed of intermediate and high signal intensity, while nasal polyp showed striation of intermediate and high intensity. On Gd-enhanced T1 weighted images, prolapsed antral mucosa and antrochoanal polyp showed peripheral rim enhancement of the antral and nasal component. In contrast, inverted papilloma and nasal polyp showed intense enhancement of the mass and can be separate from the sinus inflammatory disease. Various nasal cavity masses showing infundibular widening on CT can be differentiated on MR images, especially of these are T2 weighted or contrast enhanced T1

  5. ACCOMPLISHING COHERENCE IN TALK SHOWS: A COMPARISON BETWEEN ENGLISH AND INDONESIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Shanti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper tried to show how conversational coherence is achieved within talk shows, what strategies used by both host and interviewee to achieve coherence collaboratively. It was shown that in both English and Indonesian talk shows, conversational activity of asking questions can be employed to measure a coherence of a stretch of conversation. Question-answer adjacency pairs can provide the framework through which coherence is achieved, and they have two possibilities to be agreed or disagreed with. This is clear from the English talk show instead of the Indonesian one. The way speakers taking turn and the occurrence of overlap within the sequence of conversation can also determine mutual understanding among the participants. However, the Indonesian talk show offers a longer answer pair compared with the English one. Both talk shows, in fact, share the similar indicators and use similar strategies in order to achieve coherence across the talk show sessions. Speaker’s hesitation is found more in the Indonesian talk show instead of the English one. Another marker of coherence, overlap onset, also occurs a lot in both talk shows. The way speakers (host and interviewee maintain the topic throughout the talk supports the notion that mutual understanding is successfully achieved. Meanwhile, culture is considered not too influential in determining different ways of maintaining the flow of the talk. Both talk shows use similar patterns with no significant difference in terms of culture. They differ only in the level of conversational devices used which is related to language use instead of cultural background.   Keywords: coherence, adjacency pairs, turn-taking, talk shows   Abstrak: Studi ini mencoba menunjukkan bagaimana koherensi percakapan dicapai dalam talk show, strategi apa yang digunakan oleh pembawa acara serta tamu yang diwawancarai untuk mencapai koherensi secara kolaboratif. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa dalam talk show berbahasa

  6. What Makes the Difference? Pop Music Stars and TV Talent Show Contestants in Adolescents' Judgements

    OpenAIRE

    Lothwesen, Kai; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarises the approach, empirical methodologies, and part of the results of an empirical study that was conducted in early 2004, when musical TV talent shows reached their peak popularity among young media\\ud audiences in Germany. Our primary research interest was in the similarities and differences that the adolescent\\ud target group of this TV format might perceive between contestants in TV talent shows and real or ordinary pop\\ud music stars. Shows in this TV format all seem to...

  7. Assessing the Effect of a Digital Planetarium Show on the Astronomical Understanding of Fifth Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, K.; Bednarski, M.

    2011-09-01

    Although one-time planetarium shows have been popular field trips for elementary school classes over the past few decades, research on the effectiveness of these shows in increasing student understanding of astronomical concepts is spotty and mixed. There is even less research on the efficacy of new digital full-dome planetarium technology. This talk discusses the results of a study done with fifth grade students to test the relative efficacy of hands-on 3-D models and a digital full-dome planetarium show in teaching the sun-earth-moon system.

  8. The silence at trade shows: : A case study at Hannover Messe

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Daniel; Bengtsson, Nicklas

    2011-01-01

    This thesis studies the non-verbal communication such as the body language in the context of a trade show. The non-verbal communication is one of the primary conveyors of messages and trade shows are one of the major channels were firms attract new customers. However the combination of trade shows and non-verbal communication is overlooked. The method consists of interviews with visitors and observations of the booths and the visitors. The setting was chosen as the annual Hannover Messe were ...

  9. Nearly All Autopsied NFL Players Show Trauma-Linked Brain Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_167405.html Nearly All Autopsied NFL Players Show Trauma-Linked Brain Disease No position ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Ninety-nine percent of former NFL players who donated their brain to science turned ...

  10. New method for rearing Spodoptera frugiperda in laboratory shows that larval cannibalism is not obligatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherre Sade Bezerra Da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available New method for rearing Spodoptera frugiperda in laboratory shows that larval cannibalism is not obligatory. Here we show, for the first time, that larvae of the fall armyworm (FAW, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, can be successfully reared in a cohort-based manner with virtually no cannibalism. FAW larvae were reared since the second instar to pupation in rectangular plastic containers containing 40 individuals with a surprisingly ca. 90% larval survivorship. Adult females from the cohort-based method showed fecundity similar to that already reported on literature for larvae reared individually, and fertility higher than 99%, with the advantage of combining economy of time, space and material resources. These findings suggest that the factors affecting cannibalism of FAW larvae in laboratory rearings need to be reevaluated, whilst the new technique also show potential to increase the efficiency of both small and mass FAW rearings.

  11. CMS experiment : animation showing the construction of the main structural components of CMS together

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    This 17-minute long animation shows the construction of the main structural components of CMS in the surface hall in Cessy and offers a detailed overview of the installation in the experimental cavern.

  12. Suffering by comparison: Twitter users' reactions to the Victoria's Secret Fashion Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisler, Joan C; Fung, Kaitlin T; Lopez, Alexandra M; Gorman, Jennifer A

    2013-09-01

    Social comparison theory suggests that evaluating the self in comparison with others (e.g., peers, celebrities, models) can influence body image. Experimental studies that have tested effects of viewing idealized images in the media often show that women feel worse about themselves after seeing images that illustrate the beauty ideal. Twitter presents a naturally occurring opportunity to study viewers' reactions. An analysis was conducted of 977 tweets sent immediately before and during the 2011 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show that reference the show. Although the majority were idiosyncratic remarks, many tweets contain evidence of upward social comparisons to the fashion models. There were tweets about body image, eating disorders, weight, desires for food or alcohol, and thoughts about self-harm. The results support social comparison theory, and suggest that vulnerable viewers could experience negative affect, or even engage in harmful behaviors, during or after viewing the show or others like it.

  13. 75 FR 57857 - Safety Zone; Blue Angels at Kaneohe Bay Air Show, Oahu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ..., HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled: Safety Zone; Blue Angels at Kaneohe Bay Air Show, Oahu, HI in...

  14. EPA Analysis Shows 2014 Decrease of Toxic Chemical Releases in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's most recent Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data is now available for the reporting year of 2014. In Maine, the reporting data show that overall releases of pollutants to the environment decreased since the previous reporting year (2013).

  15. EPA Analysis Shows 2014 Decrease of Toxic Chemical Releases in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s most recent Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data is now available for the reporting year of 2014. In Massachusetts, the reporting data show that overall releases of pollutants to the environment decreased since the previous reporting year (2013).

  16. EPA Analysis Shows 2014 Decrease of Toxic Chemical Releases in Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s most recent Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) data is now available for the reporting year of 2014. In Connecticut, the reporting data show that overall releases of pollutants to the environment decreased since the previous reporting year (2013).

  17. Investigating CSI: portrayals of DNA testing on a forensic crime show and their potential effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Barbara L; Jankowski, Natalie; Brewer, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of forensic crime shows such as CSI has fueled debate about their potential social impact. This study considers CSI's potential effects on public understandings regarding DNA testing in the context of judicial processes, the policy debates surrounding crime laboratory procedures, and the forensic science profession, as well as an effect not discussed in previous accounts: namely, the show's potential impact on public understandings of DNA and genetics more generally. To develop a theoretical foundation for research on the "CSI effect," it draws on cultivation theory, social cognitive theory, and audience reception studies. It then uses content analysis and textual analysis to illuminate how the show depicts DNA testing. The results demonstrate that CSI tends to depict DNA testing as routine, swift, useful, and reliable and that it echoes broader discourses about genetics. At times, however, the show suggests more complex ways of thinking about DNA testing and genetics.

  18. Conformation-variable PDI@β-sheet nanohelices show stimulus-responsive supramolecular chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Damei; Tang, Ailing; Zhan, Chuanlang; Yao, Jiannian

    2013-05-28

    A tripeptide-perylene diimide (PDI) conjugate self-assembles into PDI@β-sheet nanohelices, whose local conformations are sensitive to the external stimuli of concentration, heating and ultrasound, showing stimulus-responsive supramolecular chirality.

  19. DO CHILDREN WITH FRAGILE X SYNDROME SHOW DECLINES OR PLATEAUS IN ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Laura J.; Brady, Nancy C.; Warren, Steven F.; Fleming, Kandace K.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores if children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) show advances, declines, or plateaus in adaptive behavior over time and the relationship of nonverbal cognitive abilities and autistic behavior on these trajectories. Parents of 55 children with FXS completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales between 3 and 6 times from 2 to 10 years of age. Using raw scores, results indicate that about half of the sample showed advances in adaptive behavior, while the other half showed declines, indicating a regression in skills. Children who were more cognitively advanced and had less autistic behaviors had higher trajectories. Understanding the developmental course of adaptive behavior in FXS has implications for educational planning and intervention, especially for those children showing declines. PMID:26322389

  20. CMS experiment : animation showing the construction of the main structural components of CMS together

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Multimedia Production Unit

    2003-01-01

    This 17-minute long animation shows the construction of the main structural components of CMS in the surface hall in Cessy and offers a detailed overview of the installation in the experimental cavern.