WorldWideScience

Sample records for replication electronic resource

  1. Selection of Electronic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the impact of electronic resources on collection development; selection of CD-ROMs, (platform, speed, video and sound, networking capability, installation and maintenance); selection of laser disks; and Internet evaluation (accuracy of content, authority, objectivity, currency, technical characteristics). Lists Web sites for evaluating…

  2. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ellingsen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  3. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  4. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  5. Electron microscopic analysis of rotavirus assembly-replication intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreaux, Crystal E.; Kelly, Deborah F. [Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine and Research Institute, Roanoke, VA (United States); McDonald, Sarah M., E-mail: mcdonaldsa@vtc.vt.edu [Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine and Research Institute, Roanoke, VA (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia—Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Rotaviruses (RVs) replicate their segmented, double-stranded RNA genomes in tandem with early virion assembly. In this study, we sought to gain insight into the ultrastructure of RV assembly-replication intermediates (RIs) using transmission electron microscopy (EM). Specifically, we examined a replicase-competent, subcellular fraction that contains all known RV RIs. Three never-before-seen complexes were visualized in this fraction. Using in vitro reconstitution, we showed that ~15-nm doughnut-shaped proteins in strings were nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2) bound to viral RNA transcripts. Moreover, using immunoaffinity-capture EM, we revealed that ~20-nm pebble-shaped complexes contain the viral RNA polymerase (VP1) and RNA capping enzyme (VP3). Finally, using a gel purification method, we demonstrated that ~30–70-nm electron-dense, particle-shaped complexes represent replicase-competent core RIs, containing VP1, VP3, and NSP2 as well as capsid proteins VP2 and VP6. The results of this study raise new questions about the interactions among viral proteins and RNA during the concerted assembly–replicase process. - Highlights: • Rotaviruses replicate their genomes in tandem with early virion assembly. • Little is known about rotavirus assembly-replication intermediates. • Assembly-replication intermediates were imaged using electron microscopy.

  6. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  7. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-11-05

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  8. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  9. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  10. Protocols for Bio-Inspired Resource Discovery and Erasure Coded Replication in P2P Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Thampi, Sabu M

    2010-01-01

    Efficient resource discovery and availability improvement are very important issues in unstructured P2P networks. In this paper, a bio-inspired resource discovery scheme inspired by the principle of elephants migration is proposed. A replication scheme based on Q-learning and erasure codes is also introduced. Simulation results show that the proposed schemes significantly increases query success rate and availability, and reduces the network traffic as the resources are effectively distributed to well-performing nodes.

  11. Resource Letter: TE-1: Teaching electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Dennis C.

    2002-01-01

    This Resource Letter examines the evolution, roles, and content of courses in electronics in the undergraduate physics curriculum, and provides a guide to resources for faculty teaching such courses. It concludes with a brief section addressing problems of electromagnetic interference in electronic systems, and provides an introduction to the literature and practice of electromagnetic compatibility. I have included textbooks, reference books, articles, collections of laboratory experiments and projects, sources of equipment and parts, software packages, videos, and websites.

  12. 78 FR 16707 - Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication Functionality and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    .... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication Functionality and...

  13. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  14. Library Training to Promote Electronic Resource Usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing the usage of electronic resources is an issue of concern for many libraries all over the world. Several studies stress the importance of information literacy and instruction in order to increase the usage. Design/methodology/approach: The present article presents the results...

  15. Reviewing the Electronic Resources & Libraries Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijerina, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    The third Electronic Resources & Libraries (ER&L) conference gathered at Georgia Institute of Technology's Global Learning and Conference Center in Atlanta, Georgia, March 18-21, 2008. Over 360 attendees, from six countries and from 80% of the United States, represented their libraries and organizations resulting in a diverse and…

  16. 78 FR 73563 - Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication Functionality and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication Functionality and Products... in Default; Termination of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION:...

  17. Making sense of the electronic resource marketplace: trends in health-related electronic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blansit, B D; Connor, E

    1999-07-01

    Changes in the practice of medicine and technological developments offer librarians unprecedented opportunities to select and organize electronic resources, use the Web to deliver content throughout the organization, and improve knowledge at the point of need. The confusing array of available products, access routes, and pricing plans makes it difficult to anticipate the needs of users, identify the top resources, budget effectively, make sound collection management decisions, and organize the resources effectively and seamlessly. The electronic resource marketplace requires much vigilance, considerable patience, and continuous evaluation. There are several strategies that librarians can employ to stay ahead of the electronic resource curve, including taking advantage of free trials from publishers; marketing free trials and involving users in evaluating new products; watching and testing products marketed to the clientele; agreeing to beta test new products and services; working with aggregators or republishers; joining vendor advisory boards; benchmarking institutional resources against five to eight competitors; and forming or joining a consortium for group negotiating and purchasing. This article provides a brief snapshot of leading biomedical resources; showcases several libraries that have excelled in identifying, acquiring, and organizing electronic resources; and discusses strategies and trends of potential interest to biomedical librarians, especially those working in hospital settings.

  18. GENRES OF ELECTRONIC LITERATURE IN THE CONTEXT OF GENRE REPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basova, M.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews some genres of electronic literary discourse that are prevalent in modern Russian literary Internet (“Rulinet”. Analyzing net literature works as secondary genres we reveal some features of primary genres. It is found that as the genre system of Internet communication develops, the models of discourse transformation become more complicated.

  19. GENRES OF ELECTRONIC LITERATURE IN THE CONTEXT OF GENRE REPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    BASOVA M.V.; Rozhdestvenskaya, O.Ju.; Usacheva, O.Ju.

    2016-01-01

    The article reviews some genres of electronic literary discourse that are prevalent in modern Russian literary Internet (“Rulinet”). Analyzing net literature works as secondary genres we reveal some features of primary genres. It is found that as the genre system of Internet communication develops, the models of discourse transformation become more complicated.

  20. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  1. JOSHUA: Symmetric Active/Active Replication for Highly Available HPC Job and Resource Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlemann, Kai [ORNL; Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Scott, Steven L [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    Most of today's HPC systems employ a single head node for control, which represents a single point of failure as it interrupts an entire HPC system upon failure. Furthermore, it is also a single point of control as it disables an entire HPC system until repair. One of the most important HPC system service running on the head node is the job and resource management. If it goes down, all currently running jobs loose the service they report back to. They have to be restarted once the head node is up and running again. With this paper, we present a generic approach for providing symmetric active/active replication for highly available HPC job and resource management. The JOSHUA solution provides a virtually synchronous environment for continuous availability without any interruption of service and without any loss of state. Replication is performed externally via the PBS service interface without the need to modify any service code. Test results as well as a reliability analysis of our proof-of-concept prototype implementation show that continuous availability can be provided by JOSHUA with an acceptable performance trade-off.

  2. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  3. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at Makerere University. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types ...

  4. Effectiveness Analysis of Electronic Resources at the Hacettepe University

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    It is important to collect and analyze the usage data of electronic databases and periodicals in order to make policies regarding the composition, improvement and more extensive utilization of electronic resources of libraries. The aim of this study is to investigate how efficiently the full text accessible electronic resources of Hacettepe University Libraries are used. For this purpose the usage data obtained from COUNTER Software regarding the electronic databases to which Hacettepe Univer...

  5. The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Yen Yu; Jiann-Cherng Shieh

    2014-01-01

    With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics ...

  6. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  7. Electronic resources preferred by pediatric hospitalists for clinical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jimmy B; Tieder, Joel S

    2015-10-01

    There is little research on pediatric hospitalists' use of evidence-based resources. The aim of this study was to determine the electronic resources that pediatric hospitalists prefer. Using a web-based survey, the authors determined hospitalists' preferred electronic resources, as well as their attitudes toward lifelong learning, practice, and experience characteristics. One hundred sixteen hospitalists completed the survey. The most preferred resource for general information, patient handouts, and treatment was UpToDate. Online search engines were ranked second for general information and patient handouts. Pediatric hospitalists tend to utilize less rigorous electronic resources such as UpToDate and Google. These results can set a platform for discussing the quality of resources that pediatric hospitalists use.

  8. The (non-)replicability of regulatory resource depletion: A field report employing non-invasive brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martijn, Carolien; Alberts, Hugo J. E. M.; Thomson, Alix C.; David, Bastian; Kessler, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive effort and self-control are exhausting. Although evidence is ambiguous, behavioural studies have repeatedly suggested that control-demanding tasks seem to deplete a limited cache of self-regulatory resources leading to performance degradations and fatigue. While resource depletion has indirectly been associated with a decline in right prefrontal cortex capacity, its precise neural underpinnings have not yet been revealed. This study consisted of two independent experiments, which set out to investigate the causal role of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in a classic dual phase depletion paradigm employing non-invasive brain stimulation. In Experiment 1 we demonstrated a general depletion effect, which was significantly eliminated by anodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation to the right DLPFC. In Experiment 2, however, we failed to replicate the basic psychological depletion effect within a second independent sample. The dissimilar results are discussed in the context of the current ‘replication crisis’ and suggestions for future studies are offered. While our current results do not allow us to firmly argue for or against the existence of resource depletion, we outline why it is crucial to further clarify which specific external and internal circumstances lead to limited replicability of the described effect. We showcase and discuss the current inter-lab replication problem based on two independent samples tested within one research group (intra-lab). PMID:28362843

  9. Cost and Performance-Based Resource Selection Scheme for Asynchronous Replicated System in Utility-Based Computing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Nor Shuhadah Wan Nik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A resource selection problem for asynchronous replicated systems in utility-based computing environment is addressed in this paper. The needs for a special attention on this problem lies on the fact that most of the existing replication scheme in this computing system whether implicitly support synchronous replication and/or only consider read-only job. The problem is undoubtedly complex to be solved as two main issues need to be concerned simultaneously, i.e. 1 the difficulty on predicting the performance of the resources in terms of job response time, and 2 an efficient mechanism must be employed in order to measure the trade-off between the performance and the monetary cost incurred on resources so that minimum cost is preserved while providing low job response time. Therefore, a simple yet efficient algorithm that deals with the complexity of resource selection problem in utility-based computing systems is proposed in this paper. The problem is formulated as a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM problem. The advantages of the algorithm are two-folds. On one fold, it hides the complexity of resource selection process without neglecting important components that affect job response time. The difficulty on estimating job response time is captured by representing them in terms of different QoS criteria levels at each resource. On the other fold, this representation further relaxed the complexity in measuring the trade-offs between the performance and the monetary cost incurred on resources. The experiments proved that our proposed resource selection scheme achieves an appealing result with good system performance and low monetary cost as compared to existing algorithms.

  10. Cataloging and Indexing of Electronic Information Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    digital library, but it facilitates the exchange of these objects among digital libraries . METS provides an XML DTD that can point to metadata in other...International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA). (2002). Digital Libraries : Metadata Resources. Retrieved May 3, 2002 from the

  11. Adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and frequency count). ... for doing assignment, Google search, for personal development, and getting ... major problems encountered when using electronic Information Resources.

  12. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  13. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  14. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  15. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  16. The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Yu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics does not include details about users and their affiliation. As a result, one cannot conduct advanced user analysis based on the usage of users, institutions, and departments. To overcome the difficulties, this study presents a feasible model to analyze electronic resource usage effectively and flexibly. We set up a proxy server to collect actual usage raw data. By analyzing items in internet browsing records, associated with original library automatic system, this study aims at exploring how to use effective ways to analyze big data of website log data. We also propose the process of how original data to be transformed, cleared, integrated, and demonstrated. This study adopted a medical university library and its subscription of medical electronic resources as a case. Our data analysis includes (1 year of subscription,(2 title of journal, (3 affiliation, (4 subjects, and (5 specific journal requirements, etc. The findings of the study are contributed to obtain further understanding in policy making and user behavior analysis. The integrated data provides multiple applications in informatics research, information behavior, bibliomining, presenting diverse views and extended issues for further discussion.

  17. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Dubnjakovic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  18. Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Torma

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

  19. Providing Access to Electronic Information Resources in Further Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Linda; Ray, Kathryn; Coulson, Graham; Urquhart, Christine; Lonsdale, Ray; Armstrong, Chris; Thomas, Rhian; Spink, Sin; Yeoman, Alison; Fenton, Roger; Rowley, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to provide a baseline for future studies on the provision and support for the use of digital or electronic information services (EIS) in further education. The analysis presented is based on a multi-level model of access, which encompasses access to and availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources,…

  20. ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF LATIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  1. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  2. Student Satisfaction with Electronic Library Resources at Wayne State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Robert P.; Powell, Ronald R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of student satisfaction with electronic library resources other than the online catalog at Wayne State University. Undertaken in Fall Term 2000 as a class project for a marketing course, a student team designed, administered, and analyzed a survey of a random sample of students. Almost 40% of the…

  3. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  4. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  5. Providing Access to Electronic Information Resources in Further Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Linda; Ray, Kathryn; Coulson, Graham; Urquhart, Christine; Lonsdale, Ray; Armstrong, Chris; Thomas, Rhian; Spink, Sin; Yeoman, Alison; Fenton, Roger; Rowley, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to provide a baseline for future studies on the provision and support for the use of digital or electronic information services (EIS) in further education. The analysis presented is based on a multi-level model of access, which encompasses access to and availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources,…

  6. Evaluating the appropriateness of electronic information resources for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparova, Dinara; Nolan, Nathanial S

    2016-01-01

    Current US medical students have begun to rely on electronic information repositories-such as UpToDate, AccessMedicine, and Wikipedia-for their pre-clerkship medical education. However, it is unclear whether these resources are appropriate for this level of learning due to factors involving information quality, level of evidence, and the requisite knowledgebase. This study evaluated appropriateness of electronic information resources from a novel perspective: amount of mental effort learners invest in interactions with these resources and effects of the experienced mental effort on learning. Eighteen first-year medical students read about three unstudied diseases in the above-mentioned resources (a total of fifty-four observations). Their eye movement characteristics (i.e., fixation duration, fixation count, visit duration, and task-evoked pupillary response) were recorded and used as psychophysiological indicators of the experienced mental effort. Post reading, students' learning was assessed with multiple-choice tests. Eye metrics and test results constituted quantitative data analyzed according to the repeated Latin square design. Students' perceptions of interacting with the information resources were also collected. Participants' feedback during semi-structured interviews constituted qualitative data and was reviewed, transcribed, and open coded for emergent themes. Compared to AccessMedicine and Wikipedia, UpToDate was associated with significantly higher values of eye metrics, suggesting learners experienced higher mental effort. No statistically significant difference between the amount of mental effort and learning outcomes was found. More so, descriptive statistical analysis of the knowledge test scores suggested similar levels of learning regardless of the information resource used. Judging by the learning outcomes, all three information resources were found appropriate for learning. UpToDate, however, when used alone, may be less appropriate for first

  7. MODEL OF AN ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE OF NEW GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy V. Loban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical structure of the modular architecture of an electronic educational resource (EER of new generation, which allows to decompose the process of studying the subjects of the course at a hierarchically ordered set of data (knowledge and procedures for manipulating them, to determine the roles of participants of process of training of and technology the development and use of EOR in the study procrate.

  8. How job demands, resources, and burnout predict objective performance: a constructive replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Arnold B; Van Emmerik, Hetty; Van Riet, Pim

    2008-07-01

    The present study uses the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007) to examine how job characteristics and burnout (exhaustion and cynicism) contribute to explaining variance in objective team performance. A central assumption in the model is that working characteristics evoke two psychologically different processes. In the first process, job demands lead to constant psychological overtaxing and in the long run to exhaustion. In the second process, a lack of job resources precludes actual goal accomplishment, leading to cynicism. In the present study these two processes were used to predict objective team performance. A total of 176 employees from a temporary employment agency completed questionnaires on job characteristics and burnout. These self-reports were linked to information from the company's management information system about teams' (N=71) objective sales performance (actual sales divided by the stated objectives) during the 3 months after the questionnaire data collection period. The results of structural equation modeling analyses did not support the hypothesis that exhaustion mediates the relationship between job demands and performance, but confirmed that cynicism mediates the relationship between job resources and performance suggesting that work conditions influence performance particularly through the attitudinal component of burnout.

  9. Evaluating increased resource use in fibromyalgia using electronic health records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margolis JM

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Jay M Margolis,1 Elizabeth T Masters,2 Joseph C Cappelleri,3 David M Smith,1 Steven Faulkner4 1Truven Health Analytics, Life Sciences, Outcomes Research, Bethesda, MD, 2Pfizer Inc, Outcomes & Evidence, New York, NY, 3Pfizer Inc, Statistics, Groton, CT, 4Pfizer Inc, North American Medical Affairs, Medical Outcomes Specialists, St Louis, MO, USA Objective: The management of fibromyalgia (FM, a chronic musculoskeletal disease, remains challenging, and patients with FM are often characterized by high health care resource utilization. This study sought to explore potential drivers of all-cause health care resource utilization and other factors associated with high resource use, using a large electronic health records (EHR database to explore data from patients diagnosed with FM. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of de-identified EHR data from the Humedica database. Adults (≥18 years with FM were identified based on ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for FM (729.1 ≥30 days apart between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 and were required to have evidence of ≥12 months continuous care pre- and post-index; first FM diagnosis was the index event; 12-month pre- and post-index reporting periods. Multivariable analysis evaluated relationships between variables and resource utilization. Results: Patients were predominantly female (81.4%, Caucasian (87.7%, with a mean (standard deviation age of 54.4 (14.8 years. The highest health care resource utilization was observed for the categories of “medication orders” and “physician office visits,” with 12-month post-index means of 21.2 (21.5 drug orders/patient and 15.1 (18.1 office visits/patient; the latter accounted for 73.3% of all health care visits. Opioids were the most common prescription medication, 44.3% of all patients. The chance of high resource use was significantly increased (P<0.001 26% among African-Americans vs Caucasians and for patients

  10. Online Electronic Resources and Slovenian Bibliography: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Škerget

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractConsidering the fact that the number of publications available online only is growing, the question whether to include online electronic resources into the Slovenian bibliography, and if so, in which way, and what are the requirements for the inclusion, is raised. To answer these questions, the research on the growth of the Slovenian online scientific production in comparison with production in printed form was conducted in the case of original scientific articles. Results showed a rapid growth of the number of original scientific articles available online only, which indicates the necessity to form a separate Slovenian bibliography of online resources. The selection criteria for the Slovenian bibliography of online resources are also presented. This kind of bibliography would, along with the informational value, add to the historical value of intellectual production in a given time frame, enriched with a link to the resource preserved in another location (archive, repository, in case of unavailability of the resource on its original location.

  11. Journals, Data and Abstracts Make an Integrated Electronic Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, P.

    1996-12-01

    Astronomy now has an integrated, Web-based information resource for research papers, data and bibliographic information. The major scholarly research journals, a comprehensive abstract service and the astronomical data centers are now linked together to provide an information resource which is not available to most other scientific disciplines. As of January, 1997, the Astrophysical Journal joins the ApJ Letters on the Web. Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplements now has a page image version. Elsevier's electronic journal New Astronomy has recently made its appearance. Over forty percent of the new peer-reviewed, astronomical literature is now available electronically. The main Astronomy and Astrophysics journal, the Astronomical Journal and others will be available by 1998, at which point ninety percent of the literature will be available electronically, a figure not approached by any other scientific discipline. With so many different sources, one of the challenges has been to integrate the on-line, peer-reviewed literature into a resource which serves the astronomical community in a unified and coherent manner. Following the lead of the AAS, the major publishers have chosen to rely upon the NASA-supported Astrophysics Data System (ADS) and the astronomical data centers to provide the means by which the various separate journals can interoperate. The data centers and the ADS have developed unique identification codes for journal articles. By adopting the existing standard "bibcodes" and integrating them into their WWW links, each of the major astronomical journals are able to link to the abstracts of most of the referenced articles. Since the ADS also serves as an on-line repository for page images of the past twenty years of the major astronomical journals, the full text of many of the referenced articles are available, too. The articles in the ADS have recently been linked through their references, both forward and backward in time. With the "bibcode" providing

  12. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  13. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Alzheimer's - resources Anorexia nervosa - resources Arthritis - resources Asthma and allergy - resources Autism - resources Blindness - resources BPH - resources Breastfeeding - resources Bulimia - resources Burns - resources Cancer - resources Cerebral ...

  14. Discipline, Availability of Electronic Resources and the Use of Finnish National Electronic Library-- FinELib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törmä, Sanna; Vakkari, Pertti

    2004-01-01

    This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib), Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic…

  15. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    of emerging electronic product, in order to understand the recovery fate of different materials and its linkage to product design. Ten different brands of RVC were dismantled and their material composition and design profiles were studied. Another 125 RVCs (349 kg) were used for an experimental trial......Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...

  16. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  17. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  18. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  19. The replication of Rocio virus in brain tissue of suckling mice. Study by electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, H; Weigl, D R; de Souza Lopes, O

    1983-01-01

    By electron microscopy studies, Rocio virus particles were about 43 nm and spherically shaped. They were found within the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex of infected neurons. No precursor particles were detected nor virus budding was evident.

  20. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  1. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  2. The Internet School of Medicine: use of electronic resources by medical trainees and the reliability of those resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half

  3. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  4. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  5. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  6. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  7. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  8. The Relevancy of Graduate Curriculum to Human Resource Professionals' Electronic Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Robert C.; Henry, Gordon O.

    2003-01-01

    Electronic communications of human resource professionals and the content of 23 university human resource management courses were categorized using the Human Resource Certification Institute's body of knowledge. Differences between proportion of topics discussed and topics covered in curricula suggest some topics are over- or undertaught.…

  9. 2015 Utilization of Electronic Information Resources in Ramat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intensely powerful and has permeated all segments and ... Web (WWW) and the internet to make information more accessible. On the other ... access points on the campus and computer literacy is till .... resources are often faster to consult than.

  10. Remote Electronic Resources and the OPAC: Illustrated by the Unisa Library Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Merwe, Ina; Van Eeden, Welna; Hartzer, Sandra

    This paper describes the Unisa (University of South Africa) Library's experience with cataloging remote electronic resources, including electronic journals, electronic text files, online databases, digital images, Unisa campus Web sites, and mailing list discussions. The first section discusses the decision to add bibliographic references for…

  11. The gap between research and practice: a replication study on the HR professionals' beliefs about effective human resource practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Karin; Riemsdijk, van Maarten; Groen, Bianca

    2008-01-01

    In 2002 Rynes, Colbert and Brown asked human resource (HR) professionals to what extent they agreed with various HR research findings. Responses from 959 American participants showed that there are large discrepancies between research findings and practitioners' beliefs about effective human resourc

  12. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2017-08-22

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  13. An Evaluation of Electronic Product Design Education Using Hypermedia-Resourced Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Tom; Thorsteinsson, Gisli

    2006-01-01

    The work outlined here provides a comprehensive report and formative observations of the development and implementation of hypermedia resources for learning and teaching used in conjunction with a managed learning environment (MLE). These resources are used to enhance teaching and learning of an electronics module in product design at final year…

  14. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  15. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  16. The gap between research and practice: a replication study on the HR professionals' beliefs about effective human resource practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Karin; van Riemsdijk, Maarten; Groen, B.A.C.

    2008-01-01

    In 2002 Rynes, Colbert and Brown asked human resource (HR) professionals to what extent they agreed with various HR research findings. Responses from 959 American participants showed that there are large discrepancies between research findings and practitioners' beliefs about effective human

  17. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  18. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  19. MULER: Building an Electronic Resource Management (ERM Solution at York University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron August Lupton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many university libraries now utilize an Electronic Resource Management (ERM system to assist with operations related to electronic resources. An ERM is a relational database containing information such as suppliers, costs, holdings, and renewal dates for electronic resources, both at the database and title levels. While commercial ERM products are widely available, some institutions are custom building their own ERM in- house. This article describes how York University in Toronto, Canada, did just that by building a system called Managing University Library Electronic Resources (MULER. The article details the background and history of how electronic resources were managed pre-MULER; why a new ERM was needed; the planning process; the current and innovative functions of MULER, including integration of MULER data into York University Libraries search and discovery layer, Vufind; subject tagging in MULER; new functions to be added; and lessons learned from the project. Positive and negative implications of choosing an in-house project over paying for a commercial product are also discussed.

  20. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  1. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Tyagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  2. Connecting knowledge resources to the veterinary electronic health record: opportunities for learning at point of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpi, Kristine M; Burnett, Heidi A; Bryant, Sheila J; Anderson, Katherine M

    2011-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) provide clinical learning opportunities through quick and contextual linkage of patient signalment, symptom, and diagnosis data with knowledge resources covering tests, drugs, conditions, procedures, and client instructions. This paper introduces the EHR standards for linkage and the partners-practitioners, content publishers, and software developers-necessary to leverage this possibility in veterinary medicine. The efforts of the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) Electronic Health Records Task Force to partner with veterinary practice management systems to improve the use of controlled vocabulary is a first step in the development of standards for sharing knowledge at the point of care. The Veterinary Medical Libraries Section (VMLS) of the Medical Library Association's Task Force on Connecting the Veterinary Health Record to Information Resources compiled a list of resources of potential use at point of care. Resource details were drawn from product Web sites and organized by a metric used to evaluate medical point-of-care resources. Additional information was gathered from questions sent by e-mail and follow-up interviews with two practitioners, a hospital network, two software developers, and three publishers. Veterinarians with electronic records use a variety of information resources that are not linked to their software. Systems lack the infrastructure to use the Infobutton standard that has been gaining popularity in human EHRs. While some veterinary knowledge resources are digital, publisher sites and responses do not indicate a Web-based linkage of veterinary resources with EHRs. In order to facilitate lifelong learning and evidence-based practice, veterinarians and educators of future practitioners must demonstrate to veterinary practice software developers and publishers a clinically-based need to connect knowledge resources to veterinary EHRs.

  3. Improving access to information – defining core electronic resources for research and wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Hormia-Poutanen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Research and innovation are listed as the key success factors for the future development of Finnish prosperity and the Finnish economy. The Finnish libraries have developed a scenario to support this vision. University, polytechnic and research institute libraries as well as public libraries have defined the core electronic resources necessary to improve access to information in Finland. The primary aim of this work has been to provide information and justification for central funding for electronic resources to support the national goals. The secondary aim is to help with the reallocation of existing central funds to better support access to information.

  4. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  5. Using Electronic Information Resources Centers by Faculty Members at University Education: Competencies, Needs and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelenein, Yousri

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the factual situation of electronic information resources centers to faculty members at university education. Competencies that faculty members should possess regarding this issue were determined. Also their needs for (scientific research skills and teaching) were assessed. In addition, problems that hinder their…

  6. Localising versus standardising electronic human resource management: complexities and tensions between HRM and IT departments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tate, Mary; Furtmueller, E.; Wilderom, C.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide an analysis of the complexities involved during global e-HRM (Electronic Human Resource Management) implementation. We present findings from a case study on the challenge of global integration versus local responsiveness of e-HRM systems. We take a local site lens, analysin

  7. Use of Electronic Information Resources among Research Scholars in the Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad, Anam; Ahmed, Shamshad; Bin Naeem, Salman

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use of electronic resources among academic scholars of The Islamia University of Bahawalpur (IUB), Punjab, Pakistan. A quantitative survey was found most convenient and useful for this study. The total population of the study was 169 research students in IUB. The response rate was 79% and 133 utilizable responses were coded…

  8. The Acquisition and Management of Electronic Resources: Can Use Justify Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Shona L.; Hawamdeh, Suliman

    2010-01-01

    As library collections increasingly become digital, libraries are faced with many challenges regarding the acquisition and management of electronic resources. Some of these challenges include copyright and fair use, the first-sale doctrine, licensing versus ownership, digital preservation, long-term archiving, and, most important, the issue of…

  9. 电子资源的编目策略%Cataloging Strategies of Electronic Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚林

    2012-01-01

    Compared with traditional paper resources, electronic resources have following characteristics which determine different cataloging strategies from paper resources. These characteristics are huge quantity, updating rapidly, coexistence of a variety of manifestations. The source data of electronic resources is usually provided by the database agent. The cataloging of electronic resources is based on the Chapter IX of Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, Library of Congress Rule Interpretations and rules of Cooperative Online Serials. There are two major cataloging methods for electronic resources abroad, they are single record approach and separate record approach. Peking University Library chooses the latter method and batches cataloging automatically using the source data.%电子资源吲传统纸质资源相比,具有数量大、更新快、多种载体表现并行等特点,且大部分出版机构能够提供数据源数据。这些特点决定了.电子资源应采取与纸质文献不同的编目策略。电子资源编日的主要依据是《英美编日条例》的第9章、美国《国会图书馆条例解释》及全美期刊合作编目计划的规定。对于电子资源的编目,国外有单一记录编目法和分散记录编目法。北京大学图书馆采用后者,同时利用数据源数据批舒自动编目。

  10. Power resource management and low-power remote wireless RF electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Degrood, Kevin; Lee, Kang; Gans, Eric; Walter, Kevin

    2009-05-01

    Battery power resource management becomes a critical issue in the case of self-powered remote wireless RF electronics, where the basic parameter is time of system operation before battery recharging or battery replacement. In such cases, very often related to physical protection against antitampering (AT), proper theoretical modeling of a battery driven power supply in the context of a given digital electronic system is of utmost importance. Such modeling should include various types of batteries (primary and secondary), various self-discharge processes in different temperatures, and even energy harvesting, the latter to supply power for long-term content, low-power electronic subsystems. In this paper we analyze simple modeling of resource power management, including variations of all of these parameters and energy harvesting.

  11. Identifying and evaluating electronic learning resources for use in adult-gerontology nurse practitioner education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Belza, Basia; Baker, Margaret; Christianson, Phyllis; Doorenbos, Ardith; Nguyen, Huong

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing existing curricula to meet newly published adult-gerontology advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) competencies in an efficient manner presents a challenge to nurse educators. Incorporating shared, published electronic learning resources (ELRs) in existing or new courses may be appropriate in order to assist students in achieving competencies. The purposes of this project were to (a) identify relevant available ELR for use in enhancing geriatric APRN education and (b) to evaluate the educational utility of identified ELRs based on established criteria. A multilevel search strategy was used. Two independent team members reviewed identified ELR against established criteria to ensure utility. Only resources meeting all criteria were retained. Resources were found for each of the competency areas and included formats such as podcasts, Web casts, case studies, and teaching videos. In many cases, resources were identified using supplemental strategies and not through traditional search or search of existing geriatric repositories. Resources identified have been useful to advanced practice educators in improving lecture and seminar content in a particular topic area and providing students and preceptors with additional self-learning resources. Addressing sustainability within geriatric APRN education is critical for sharing of best practices among educators and for sustainability of teaching and related resources. © 2014.

  12. Library Electronic Resource Sharing Among Liberal Arts Colleges: ACS Palladian Alliance Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxian Zhang

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available 無Effective electronic resource sharing is critical to library information services of the 1990s. Explosion of data and increased cost of information force libraries to work together, and technological advancements present the library service profession a platform for resource sharing. The Palladian Alliance Project of the Associated Colleges of the South is designed to provides ACS member institutions an effective means to enhance information access for their faculty and students, and achieve significant cost containment in the years to come.

  13. Database Replication

    CERN Document Server

    Kemme, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    Database replication is widely used for fault-tolerance, scalability and performance. The failure of one database replica does not stop the system from working as available replicas can take over the tasks of the failed replica. Scalability can be achieved by distributing the load across all replicas, and adding new replicas should the load increase. Finally, database replication can provide fast local access, even if clients are geographically distributed clients, if data copies are located close to clients. Despite its advantages, replication is not a straightforward technique to apply, and

  14. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  15. Replication data collection highlights value in diversity of replication attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSoto, K. Andrew; Schweinsberg, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Researchers agree that replicability and reproducibility are key aspects of science. A collection of Data Descriptors published in Scientific Data presents data obtained in the process of attempting to replicate previously published research. These new replication data describe published and unpublished projects. The different papers in this collection highlight the many ways that scientific replications can be conducted, and they reveal the benefits and challenges of crucial replication research. The organizers of this collection encourage scientists to reuse the data contained in the collection for their own work, and also believe that these replication examples can serve as educational resources for students, early-career researchers, and experienced scientists alike who are interested in learning more about the process of replication. PMID:28291224

  16. Potential resource and toxicity impacts from metals in waste electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Seung H; Lee, Dae Sung; Lim, Seong-Rin

    2016-04-01

    As a result of the continuous release of new electronic devices, existing electronic devices are quickly made obsolete and rapidly become electronic waste (e-waste). Because e-waste contains a variety of metals, information about those metals with the potential for substantial environmental impact should be provided to manufacturers, recyclers, and disposers to proactively reduce this impact. This study assesses the resource and toxicity (i.e., cancer, noncancer, and ecotoxicity) potentials of various heavy metals commonly found in e-waste from laptop computers, liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors, LCD TVs, plasma TVs, color cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs, and cell phones and then evaluates such potentials using life cycle impact-based methods. Resource potentials derive primarily from Cu, Sb, Ag, and Pb. Toxicity potentials derive primarily from Pb, Ni, and Hg for cancer toxicity; from Pb, Hg, Zn, and As for noncancer toxicity; and from Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn for ecotoxicity. Therefore, managing these heavy metals should be a high priority in the design, recycling, and disposal stages of electronic devices.

  17. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Loban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a

  18. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N

    2006-01-01

    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  19. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  20. Aufwand und Nutzen des Electronic Resource Management Systems RMS an der UB Kassel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Pohlmann

    2016-03-01

    The university library of Kassel therefore uses SemperTool’s web-based electronic resource management system RMS. This paper presents the functionality of this system and makes an estimate of the expenditure of work necessary to enter all relevant information about licensed databases, e-book and e-journal packages with the corresponding individual resources. It also describes existing and projected tools for analysis and evaluation, which are decisive for the usefulness of such a system, and concludes with the satisfaction reached at the university library of Kassel. These experiences may help other libraries to decide whether or not to introduce RMS or a comparable system.

  1. ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FOR ONLINE SUPPORT OF MODERN CHEMISTRY CLASSES IN SPECIALIZED SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Tukalo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains material of some modern electronic educational resources that can be used via the Internet to support the modern chemistry classes in specialized school. It was drawn attention to the educational chemical experiments as means of knowledge; simulated key motivational characteristics to enhance students interest for learning subjects, their cognitive and practical activity in the formation of self-reliance and self-creative; commented forecasts for creating of conditions to enhance the creative potential of students in a modern learning environment.

  2. Hierarchical Biosilicates by the 3-D Replication of Block Copolymer Templates in Supercritical Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-30

    replicated in metal oxides. The process involves the supercritical CO2-assisted infusion and phase selective condensation of silica precursors within one...cell biology of silica biomineralization . Protist 1998, 149, (3), 213-219. 19. Poulsen, N.; Sumper, M.; Kroger, N., Biosilica formation in diatoms...energy applications [electronic resource] : fabrication of mesoporous metal oxide films by 3-D replication of block copolymers. University of

  3. In Vitro Dosing Performance of the ELLIPTA® Dry Powder Inhaler Using Asthma and COPD Patient Inhalation Profiles Replicated with the Electronic Lung (eLung™).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Melanie; Leggett, Richard; Pang, Cheng; Charles, Stephen; Gillett, Ben; Prime, David

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the in vitro dose delivery characteristics of approved asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) therapies delivered via the ELLIPTA(®) dry powder inhaler across inhalation endpoints representative of the target patient population, using the Electronic Lung (eLung™) to replicate inhaler-specific patient inhalation profiles that were previously recorded in vivo. Selected profiles, representative of the range of inhalation endpoints achieved by patients with all severities of asthma and COPD, were replicated using the eLung breathing simulator in conjunction with an oropharyngeal cast. A Next Generation Impactor was coupled to the eLung to determine the aerodynamic particle size distribution of the ex-throat dose (ETD) of asthma and COPD therapies delivered via the ELLIPTA inhaler. Delivered dose (DD), ETD, and fine particle dose (FPD; defined as a mass of active substance less than 5 μm) were determined for fluticasone furoate (FF)/vilanterol (VI) 100/25 μg and 200/25 μg (asthma and COPD), umeclidinium (UMEC)/VI 62.5/25 μg (COPD only), FF 100 μg and 200μg monotherapy (asthma only), and UMEC 62.5 μg monotherapy (COPD only). Inhalation profiles replicated by eLung covered a wide range of peak inspiratory flow rates (41.6-136.9 L/min), pressure drops (1.2-13.8 kPa), and inhaled volumes through the inhaler (0.7-4.2L). DD was consistent across the range of patient representative inhalation parameters for all components (FF, VI, and UMEC) of each therapy assessed; although ETD and FPD were also generally consistent, some small variation was observed. Dose delivery was consistent for each of the components, whether delivered as mono- or combination therapy. The in vitro performance of the ELLIPTA inhaler has been demonstrated for the delivery of FF/VI, UMEC/VI, FF monotherapy, and UMEC monotherapy. Across a range of inspiratory profiles, DD was consistent, while ETD and FPD showed little flow dependency.

  4. Teachers' Link to Electronic Resources in the Library Media Center: A Local Study of Awareness, Knowledge, and Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Teresa D.; Grimble, Bonnie J.; Irwin, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    High school students often use online databases and the Internet in the school library media center (SLMC) to complete teachers' assignments. This case study used a survey to assess teachers' awareness of electronic resources, and to determine whether their directions influence student use of these resources in the SLMC. Participants were teachers…

  5. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  6. Reducing Clinical Trial Monitoring Resource Allocation and Costs Through Remote Access to Electronic Medical Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uren, Shannon C.; Kirkman, Mitchell B.; Dalton, Brad S.; Zalcberg, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: With electronic medical records (eMRs), the option now exists for clinical trial monitors to perform source data verification (SDV) remotely. We report on a feasibility study of remote access to eMRs for SDV and the potential advantages of such a process in terms of resource allocation and cost. Methods: The Clinical Trials Unit at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, in collaboration with Novartis Pharmaceuticals Australia, conducted a 6-month feasibility study of remote SDV. A Novartis monitor was granted dedicated software and restricted remote access to the eMR portal of the cancer center, thereby providing an avenue through which perform SDV. Results: Six monitoring visits were conducted during the study period, four of which were performed remotely. The ability to conduct two thirds of the monitoring visits remotely in this complex phase III study resulted in an overall cost saving to Novartis. Similarly, remote monitoring eased the strain on internal resources, particularly monitoring space and hospital computer terminal access, at the cancer center. Conclusion: Remote access to patient eMRs for SDV is feasible and is potentially an avenue through which resources can be more efficiently used. Although this feasibility study involved limited numbers, there is no limit to scaling these processes to any number of patients enrolled onto large clinical trials. PMID:23633977

  7. Electronic theses and dissertations: a review of this valuable resource for nurse scholars worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, L M

    2009-06-01

    A worldwide repository of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) could provide worldwide access to the most up-to-date research generated by masters and doctoral students. Until that international repository is established, it is possible to access some of these valuable knowledge resources. ETDs provide a technologically advanced medium with endless multimedia capabilities that far exceed the print and bound copies of theses and dissertations housed traditionally in individual university libraries. CURRENT USE: A growing trend exists for universities worldwide to require graduate students to submit theses or dissertations as electronic documents. However, nurse scholars underutilize ETDs, as evidenced by perusing bibliographic citation lists in many of the research journals. ETDs can be searched for and retrieved through several digital resources such as the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (http://www.ndltd.org), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (http://www.umi.com), the Australasian Digital Theses Program (http://adt.caul.edu.au/) and through individual university web sites and online catalogues. An international repository of ETDs benefits the community of nurse scholars in many ways. The ability to access recent graduate students' research electronically from anywhere in the world is advantageous. For scholars residing in developing countries, access to these ETDs may prove to be even more valuable. In some cases, ETDs are not available for worldwide access and can only be accessed through the university library from which the student graduated. Public access to university library ETD collections is not always permitted. Nurse scholars from both developing and developed countries could benefit from ETDs.

  8. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection methods were suggested for equipment types that currently have no specific collection systems in Japan, particularly for video games, notebook computers, and mid-size ICT and audio/video equipment.

  9. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-17

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  10. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  11. [HYGIENIC REGULATION OF THE USE OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MODERN SCHOOL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, M I; Aleksandrova, I E; Sazanyuk, Z I; Voronova, B Z; Lashneva, L P; Shumkova, T V; Berezina, N O

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of academic studies with the use a notebook computer and interactive whiteboard on the functional state of an organism of schoolchildren. Using a complex of hygienic and physiological methods of the study we established that regulation of the computer activity of students must take into account not only duration but its intensity either. Design features of a notebook computer were shown both to impede keeping the optimal working posture in primary school children and increase the risk offormation of disorders of vision and musculoskeletal system. There were established the activating influence of the interactive whiteboard on performance activities and favorable dynamics of indices of the functional state of the organism of students under keeping optimal density of the academic study and the duration of its use. There are determined safety regulations of the work of schoolchildren with electronic resources in the educational process.

  12. Medical Image Resource Center--making electronic teaching files from PACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, C C Tchoyoson; Yang, Guo Liang; Nowinski, Wieslaw L; Hui, Francis

    2003-12-01

    A picture archive and communications system (PACS) is a rich source of images and data suitable for creating electronic teaching files (ETF). However, the potential for PACS to support nonclinical applications has not been fully realized: at present there is no mechanism for PACS to identify and store teaching files; neither is there a standardized method for sharing such teaching images. The Medical Image Resource Center (MIRC) is a new central image repository that defines standards for data exchange among different centers. We developed an ETF server that retrieves digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) images from PACS, and enables users to create teaching files that conform to the new MIRC schema. We test-populated our ETF server with illustrative images from the clinical case load of the National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore. Together, PACS and MIRC have the potential to benefit radiology teaching and research.

  13. Electronic Human Resource Management (e-HRM of Hotel Business in Phuket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitimaporn Choochote

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the pattern of the electronic human resources management (e-HRM of the hotel business in Phuket. The study is conducted with the implementation of field data and in-depth interview of hotels’ HR managers. In consequence, the study reveals that the hotel business has applied the use of the e-HRM varying in job recruitment (15 percent, employee engagement (55 percent, organizational file structure (10 percent, idea and creativity exchanges (38 percent and assessment system (6 percent. However, considered as 100 percent, the hotel business has not prepared to apply the use of the e-HRM in salary system, learning and training program, welfare allocation and career development.

  14. Using mobile electronic devices to deliver educational resources in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazal, Jonathan Robert; Ludwig, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries have far fewer trained radiography professionals than developed countries, which exacerbates the limited access to imaging services. The lack of trained radiographers reflects, in part, limited availability of radiographer-specific educational resources. Historically, organizations that provided such resources in the developing world faced challenges related to the limited stock of current materials as well as expenses associated with shipping and delivery. Four mobile electronic devices (MEDs) were loaded with educational content (e-books, PDFs, and digital applications) spanning major radiography topics. The MEDs were distributed to 4 imaging departments in Ghana, India, Nepal, and Nigeria based on evidence of need for radiography-specific resources, as revealed by survey responses. A cost comparison of postal delivery vs digital delivery of educational content was performed. The effectiveness of delivering additional content via Wi-Fi transmission also was evaluated. Feedback was solicited on users' experience with the MEDs as a delivery tool for educational content. An initial average per e-book expense of $30.05, which included the cost of the device, was calculated for the MED delivery method compared with $15.56 for postal delivery of printed materials. The cost of the MED delivery method was reduced to an average of $10.05 for subsequent e-book deliveries. Additional content was successfully delivered via Wi-Fi transmission to all recipients during the 3-month follow-up period. Overall user feedback on the experience was positive, and ideas for enhancing the MED-based method were identified. Using MEDs to deliver radiography-specific educational content appears to be more cost effective than postal delivery of printed materials on a long-term basis. MEDs are more efficient for providing updates to educational materials. Customization of content to department needs, and using projector devices could enhance the usefulness of MEDs for

  15. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  16. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  17. A whole genome RNAi screen identifies replication stress response genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Gina; Ye, Fei; Mohni, Kareem N; Luzwick, Jessica W; Glick, Gloria; Cortez, David

    2015-11-01

    Proper DNA replication is critical to maintain genome stability. When the DNA replication machinery encounters obstacles to replication, replication forks stall and the replication stress response is activated. This response includes activation of cell cycle checkpoints, stabilization of the replication fork, and DNA damage repair and tolerance mechanisms. Defects in the replication stress response can result in alterations to the DNA sequence causing changes in protein function and expression, ultimately leading to disease states such as cancer. To identify additional genes that control the replication stress response, we performed a three-parameter, high content, whole genome siRNA screen measuring DNA replication before and after a challenge with replication stress as well as a marker of checkpoint kinase signalling. We identified over 200 replication stress response genes and subsequently analyzed how they influence cellular viability in response to replication stress. These data will serve as a useful resource for understanding the replication stress response.

  18. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  19. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  20. Human resource requirements for quality-assured electronic data capture of the tuberculosis case register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoa Nguyen B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources for national programs moving towards electronic recording and reporting. Methods Data from a representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from Cambodia and Viet Nam were double-entered and discordances resolved by rechecking the original case register. Computer-generated data entry time recorded the time elapsed between opening of a new record and saving it to disk. Results The dataset comprised 22,732 double-entered records of 11,366 patients (37.1% from Cambodia and 62.9% from Viet Nam. The mean data entry times per record were 97.5 (95% CI: 96.2-98.8 and 66.2 (95% CI: 59.5-73.0 seconds with medians of 90 and 31 s respectively in Cambodia and in Viet Nam. The percentage of records with an error was 6.0% and 39.0% respectively in Cambodia and Viet Nam. Data entry time was inversely associated with error frequency. We estimate that approximately 118-person-hours were required to produce 1,000 validated records. Conclusions This study quantifies differences between two countries for data entry time for the tuberculosis case register and frequencies of data entry errors and suggests that higher data entry speed is partially offset by requiring revisiting more records for corrections.

  1. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  2. Archaeal DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelman, Lori M; Kelman, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication is essential for all life forms. Although the process is fundamentally conserved in the three domains of life, bioinformatic, biochemical, structural, and genetic studies have demonstrated that the process and the proteins involved in archaeal DNA replication are more similar to those in eukaryal DNA replication than in bacterial DNA replication, but have some archaeal-specific features. The archaeal replication system, however, is not monolithic, and there are some differences in the replication process between different species. In this review, the current knowledge of the mechanisms governing DNA replication in Archaea is summarized. The general features of the replication process as well as some of the differences are discussed.

  3. DLESE Teaching Box Pilot Project: Developing a Replicable Model for Collaboratively Creating Innovative Instructional Sequences Using Exemplary Resources in the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingroff, M.

    2004-12-01

    Before the advent of digital libraries, it was difficult for teachers to find suitable high-quality resources to use in their teaching. Digital libraries such as DLESE have eased the task by making high quality resources more easily accessible and providing search mechanisms that allow teachers to 'fine tune' the criteria over which they search. Searches tend to return lists of resources with some contextualizing information. However, teachers who are teaching 'out of discipline' or who have minimal training in science often need additional support to know how to use and sequence them. The Teaching Box Pilot Project was developed to address these concerns, bringing together educators, scientists, and instructional designers in a partnership to build an online framework to fully support innovative units of instruction about the Earth system. Each box integrates DLESE resources and activities, teaching tips, standards, concepts, teaching outcomes, reviews, and assessment information. Online templates and best practice guidelines are being developed that will enable teachers to create their own boxes or customize existing ones. Two boxes have been developed so far, one on weather for high school students, and one on the evidence for plate tectonics for middle schoolers. The project has met with significant enthusiasm and interest, and we hope to expand it by involving individual teachers, school systems, pre-service programs, and universities in the development and use of teaching boxes. A key ingredient in the project's success has been the close collaboration between the partners, each of whom has brought unique experiences, perspectives, knowledge, and skills to the project. This first effort involved teachers in the San Francisco Bay area, the University of California Museum of Paleontology, San Francisco State University, U.S. Geological Survey, and DLESE. This poster will allow participants to explore one of the teaching boxes. We will discuss how the boxes were

  4. Use and User Perception of Electronic Information Resources: A Case Study of Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmurugan Chandran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to explore the use and user perception of electronic resources in Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India. A total number of 123 users were taken into account for the study through a questionnaire-based survey method. A well-structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to the selected 200 students and staff members. 123 copies of the questionnaires were returned dully filled in and the overall response rate was 61.50 percent. The questionnaire contained both open- and close-ended questions. The collected data were classified, analyzed, and tabulated by using simple statistical methods. This study covers the impact of electronic resources on students and faculty in their academic pursuit.

  5. How Human Resource Professionals Use Electronic Channels to Communicate CSR : A case study focused on Solvay's French industrial sites

    OpenAIRE

    Fournet, Clara; Pauly, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has become a large concern for many companies with the rise of globalization. Oftentimes, companies are encouraged to communicate CSR externally, but not internally. This research focuses upon the internal communication of CSR, specifically how Human Resource (HR) professionals use electronic channels to communicate to employees. The scope of this research is focused solely upon HR professionals within Solvay’s French industrial sites, which produce chemi...

  6. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Giselle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

  7. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  8. The impact of electronic healthcare associated infection surveillance software on infection prevention resources: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Philip L; Shaban, Ramon Z; MacBeth, Deborough; Carter, Abigail; Mitchell, Brett G

    2017-09-08

    Surveillance of healthcare-associated infections is fundamental for infection prevention. The methods and practices for surveillance have evolved as technology becomes more advanced. The availability of electronic surveillance software (ESS) has increased, and yet adoption of ESS is slow. It is argued that ESS deliver savings through automation, particularly in terms of human resourcing and infection prevention (IP) staff time. This paper describes the findings of a systematic review on the impact of ESS on IP resources. A systematic search was conducted of electronic databases Medline and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature published between 1st January 2006 and 31(st) December 2016 with analysis using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. 2832 articles were reviewed of which 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. IP resources were identified as time undertaken on surveillance. A reduction in IP staff time to undertake surveillance was demonstrated in 13 studies. The reduction proportion ranged from 12.5% - 98.4% (mean 73.9%). The remaining three did not allow for any estimation of the effect in terms of IP staff time. None of the studies demonstrated an increase in IP staff time. The results of this review demonstrate that adopting ESS yield considerable dividends in IP staff time relating to data collection and case ascertainment whilst maintaining high levels of sensitivity and specificity. This has the potential to enable reinvestment into other components of IP to maximise efficient use of scare IP resources. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. HELP (INFORMATION ELECTRONIC RESOURCE "CHRONICLE OF ONU: DATES, FACTS, EVENTS": HISTORY OF UNIVERSITY IN INFORMATION SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Гавриленко

    2016-03-01

    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  10. Effect of Access to an Electronic Medical Resource on Performance Characteristics of a Certification Examination: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipner, Rebecca S; Brossman, Bradley G; Samonte, Kelli M; Durning, Steven J

    2017-09-05

    Electronic resources are increasingly used in medical practice. Their use during high-stakes certification examinations has been advocated by many experts, but whether doing so would affect the capacity to differentiate between high and low abilities is unknown. To determine the effect of electronic resources on examination performance characteristics. Randomized controlled trial. Medical certification program. 825 physicians initially certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) who passed the Internal Medicine Certification examination or sat for the Internal Medicine Maintenance of Certification (IM-MOC) examination in 2012 to 2015. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: closed book using typical or additional time, or open book (that is, UpToDate [Wolters Kluwer]) using typical or additional time. All participants took the same modified version of the IM-MOC examination. Primary outcomes included item difficulty (how easy or difficult the question was), item discrimination (how well the question differentiated between high and low abilities), and average question response time. Secondary outcomes included examination dimensionality (that is, the number of factors measured) and test-taking strategy. Item response theory was used to calculate question characteristics. Analysis of variance compared differences among conditions. Closed-book conditions took significantly less time than open-book conditions (mean, 79.2 seconds [95% CI, 78.5 to 79.9 seconds] vs. 110.3 seconds [CI, 109.2 to 111.4 seconds] per question). Mean discrimination was statistically significantly higher for open-book conditions (0.34 [CI, 0.32 to 0.35] vs. 0.39 [CI, 0.37 to 0.41] per question). A strong single dimension showed that the examination measured the same factor with or without the resource. Only 1 electronic resource was evaluated. Inclusion of an electronic resource with time constraints did not adversely affect test performance and did not change

  11. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua

    2008-11-06

    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  12. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  13. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  14. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  15. Intention to use and actual use of electronic information resources: further exploring Technology Acceptance Model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua

    2009-11-14

    Following up a previous study that examined public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments, the present study proposed two models to investigate whether or not public health students actually used the e-resources they intended to use and whether or not the determinants of intention to use predict actual use of e-resources. Focus groups and pre- and post-questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that the determinants of intention-to-use significantly predict actual use behavior. Direct impact of perceived usefulness and indirect impact of perceived ease of use to both behavior intention and actual behavior indicated the importance of ease of use at the early stage of technology acceptance. Non-significant intention-behavior relationship prompted thoughts on the measurement of actual behavior and multidimensional characteristics of the intention construct.

  16. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  17. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  18. Electronic resources at the University of Sharjah medical library: an investigation of students' information-seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumarafi, Behdja

    2010-10-01

    Electronic information is becoming prevalent worldwide, and its use is growing exponentially as more and more users are recognizing the potential that it offers in terms of access and delivery. However, with the introduction of new tools for e-information searching and retrieval, users have to readjust their information-seeking behavior to cope with the corresponding changes. The University of Sharjah library is steadily increasing its investment in e-resources to offer ubiquitous access to the growing body of literature in areas that interest the community it serves. This study reports the findings of a survey conducted to investigate the information-seeking behavior of medical students at the medical library. Results showed evidence of use of e-resources, but they did not explicitly establish that some of the major problems mentioned by participants did hinder the information searches of the respondents. An extensive literature review sets the background for the study.

  19. 图书馆电子信息资源利用效果评价研究%Study on Utilization Effect Evaluation of Library Electronic Information Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晋晓强; 贺培风; 何忠印

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses utilization effect of electronic information resources combining with the characteristics of electronic information resources, makes evaluation system of library electronic information resource utilization effect from three aspects : the library, the users and the data providers, hoping for providing valuable reference for the efficient use of library electronic resources.%本文结合电子信息资源的特性对电子信息资源的利用进行初步探讨,从图书馆、用户和数据服务商三个角度构建图书馆电子信息资源利用效果的评价体系,希望能为图书馆电子信息资源的高效利用提供参考。

  20. Replication Restart in Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Bénédicte; Sandler, Steven J

    2017-07-01

    In bacteria, replication forks assembled at a replication origin travel to the terminus, often a few megabases away. They may encounter obstacles that trigger replisome disassembly, rendering replication restart from abandoned forks crucial for cell viability. During the past 25 years, the genes that encode replication restart proteins have been identified and genetically characterized. In parallel, the enzymes were purified and analyzed in vitro, where they can catalyze replication initiation in a sequence-independent manner from fork-like DNA structures. This work also revealed a close link between replication and homologous recombination, as replication restart from recombination intermediates is an essential step of DNA double-strand break repair in bacteria and, conversely, arrested replication forks can be acted upon by recombination proteins and converted into various recombination substrates. In this review, we summarize this intense period of research that led to the characterization of the ubiquitous replication restart protein PriA and its partners, to the definition of several replication restart pathways in vivo, and to the description of tight links between replication and homologous recombination, responsible for the importance of replication restart in the maintenance of genome stability. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-03

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  2. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    This paper describes an electronic guidebook, "Sotto Voce," that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each others guidebook activity. The first section discusses the design and implementation of the guidebook device, key aspects of its user interface, the design goals for the audio environment, the eavesdropping…

  3. Electronic Resources in a Next-Generation Catalog: The Case of WorldCat Local

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadle, Steve

    2009-01-01

    In April 2007, the University of Washington Libraries debuted WorldCat Local (WCL), a localized version of the WorldCat database that interoperates with a library's integrated library system and fulfillment services to provide a single-search interface for a library's physical and electronic content. This brief will describe how WCL incorporates a…

  4. Equalizing Access to Electronic Networked Resources: A Model for Rural Libraries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkevitch, Judith J.; Wolfram, Dietmar

    1994-01-01

    Provides an overview of the current state of networking technology in rural libraries and describes a model for educating rural librarians in accessing electronic networks. Topics discussed include information needs in rural libraries; telecommunications technology access in rural areas; and examples of services to enhance information access.…

  5. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  6. Collaboration in electronic resource provision in university libraries: SHEDL, a Scottish case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kidd, T

    2009-01-01

    This case study examines the growth of collaboration among Scottish higher education institutions. Following a summary of the work of the Scottish Confederation of University and Research Libraries (SCURL), more detailed information is provided on collaboration in the fields of acquisition, licensing, selection, and purchasing. Some of the UK background is outlined, relating to NESLi2 in particular, in order to illuminate the options within Scotland. The origins of negotiations on electronic ...

  7. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

    2012-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material.

  8. Replicated Data Management for Mobile Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Douglas, Terry

    2008-01-01

    Managing data in a mobile computing environment invariably involves caching or replication. In many cases, a mobile device has access only to data that is stored locally, and much of that data arrives via replication from other devices, PCs, and services. Given portable devices with limited resources, weak or intermittent connectivity, and security vulnerabilities, data replication serves to increase availability, reduce communication costs, foster sharing, and enhance survivability of critical information. Mobile systems have employed a variety of distributed architectures from client-server

  9. How frog embryos replicate their DNA reliably

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechhoefer, John; Marshall, Brandon

    2007-03-01

    Frog embryos contain three billion base pairs of DNA. In early embryos (cycles 2-12), DNA replication is extremely rapid, about 20 min., and the entire cell cycle lasts only 25 min., meaning that mitosis (cell division) takes place in about 5 min. In this stripped-down cell cycle, there are no efficient checkpoints to prevent the cell from dividing before its DNA has finished replication - a disastrous scenario. Even worse, the many origins of replication are laid down stochastically and are also initiated stochastically throughout the replication process. Despite the very tight time constraints and despite the randomness introduced by origin stochasticity, replication is extremely reliable, with cell division failing no more than once in 10,000 tries. We discuss a recent model of DNA replication that is drawn from condensed-matter theories of 1d nucleation and growth. Using our model, we discuss different strategies of replication: should one initiate all origins as early as possible, or is it better to hold back and initiate some later on? Using concepts from extreme-value statistics, we derive the distribution of replication times given a particular scenario for the initiation of origins. We show that the experimentally observed initiation strategy for frog embryos meets the reliability constraint and is close to the one that requires the fewest resources of a cell.

  10. DNA replication and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyer, Anne-Sophie; Walter, David; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    A dividing cell has to duplicate its DNA precisely once during the cell cycle to preserve genome integrity avoiding the accumulation of genetic aberrations that promote diseases such as cancer. A large number of endogenous impacts can challenge DNA replication and cells harbor a battery of pathways...... causing DNA replication stress and genome instability. Further, we describe cellular and systemic responses to these insults with a focus on DNA replication restart pathways. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of exploiting intrinsic replicative stress in cancer cells for targeted therapy....

  11. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminski Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  12. 试论图书馆电子资源与纸本资源的协调发展%The coordinated development of library electronic resources and paper resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯雷

    2012-01-01

      纸本资源和电子资源属于公共图书馆文献资源中两个非常重要的资源类型,纸本资源和电子资源的协调发展在图书馆的可持续发展过程中起着非常重要的作用。本文对如何实现图书馆电子资源和纸本资源之间的协调发展进行了探讨,希望能够为图书馆文献资源的管理提供一些参考。%  The paper and electronic resources are two very important types of literature resources of public libraries, the coordinated development of the paper and electronic resources play a very important role in the sustainable development process of the library. This article discusses how to realize the coordinated development of library electronic resources and paper resources, hope to provide some reference for library literature resource management.

  13. On the Development of Electronic Resources and Paper Resources%关于电子资源与纸本资源协调发展的思考和建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军武

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, a large number of electronic resources was introduced to the libraries, which has become an im- portant component of library resource system. However, there are also a lot of hot debates about the following issues, such as how to build a traditional paper resources, how to deal with the relationship between paper resources and electronic resources, how to build a library resources development system, etc. These problems also confused many librarians who are building resources in the library. With the combination with the opinions from some experts, research scholars, the paper proposed some guiding principles to deal with the relationship between electronic resources and paper resources. Taking all the aspects into consideration, such as the concepts of the library, the funding of the resources, the policies and structure of the library, cooperative development, the paper also proposes some measures for the development of electronic resources and paper resources.%在复合图书馆环境下,如何协调发展电子资源与纸本资源是图书馆界专家、学者研究和探讨的热点问题,也是许多图书馆工作者在文献资源建设实践中十分困惑的问题。文章结合有关专家、学者的研究成果及图书馆的相关案例,概述了电子资源与纸本资源协调发展应遵循的指导性原则,并从馆藏理念、经费投入、馆藏政策、馆藏结构、合作发展、服务利用等几个方面提出了协调发展电子资源与纸本资源的若干举措。

  14. Replicating animal mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. McKinney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA replication has been experiencing incredible progress in recent years, and yet little is certain about the mechanism(s used by animal cells to replicate this plasmid-like genome. The long-standing strand-displacement model of mammalian mtDNA replication (for which single-stranded DNA intermediates are a hallmark has been intensively challenged by a new set of data, which suggests that replication proceeds via coupled leading-and lagging-strand synthesis (resembling bacterial genome replication and/or via long stretches of RNA intermediates laid on the mtDNA lagging-strand (the so called RITOLS. The set of proteins required for mtDNA replication is small and includes the catalytic and accessory subunits of DNA polymerase y, the mtDNA helicase Twinkle, the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein, and the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (which most likely functions as the mtDNA primase. Mutations in the genes coding for the first three proteins are associated with human diseases and premature aging, justifying the research interest in the genetic, biochemical and structural properties of the mtDNA replication machinery. Here we summarize these properties and discuss the current models of mtDNA replication in animal cells.

  15. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  16. Electronic medical record data to identify variables associated with a fibromyalgia diagnosis: importance of health care resource utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masters ET

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth T Masters,1 Jack Mardekian,1 Birol Emir,1 Andrew Clair,1 Max Kuhn,2 Stuart L Silverman,31Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY, 2Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT, 3Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Diagnosis of fibromyalgia (FM is often challenging. Identifying factors associated with an FM diagnosis may guide health care providers in implementing appropriate diagnostic and management strategies.Methods: This retrospective study used the de-identified Humedica electronic medical record (EMR database to identify variables associated with an FM diagnosis. Cases (n=4,296 were subjects ≥18 years old with ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9 codes for FM (729.1 ≥30 days apart during 2012, associated with an integrated delivery network, with ≥1 encounter with a health care provider in 2011 and 2012. Controls without FM (no-FM; n=583,665 did not have the ICD-9 codes for FM. Demographic, clinical, and health care resource utilization variables were extracted from structured EMR data. Univariate analysis identified variables showing significant differences between the cohorts based on odds ratios (ORs.Results: Consistent with FM epidemiology, FM subjects were predominantly female (78.7% vs 64.5%; P<0.0001 and slightly older (mean age 53.3 vs 52.7 years; P=0.0318. Relative to the no-FM cohort, the FM cohort was characterized by a higher prevalence of nearly all evaluated comorbidities; the ORs suggested a higher likelihood of an FM diagnosis (P<0.0001, especially for musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain conditions (OR 3.1 for each condition. Variables potentially associated with an FM diagnosis included higher levels of use of specific health care resources including emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications. Units used per subject for emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications were also significantly higher in the FM cohort (P<0

  17. Survey on User Satisfaction of Electronic Resources in University Libraries%高校图书馆电子资源用户满意度调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈姚竹; 马东

    2011-01-01

    通过分析影响用户对图书馆电子资源利用的因素,以美国顾客满意度指数模型为基础,提出关于各个因素的测量指标,对高校图书馆电子资源用户满意度进行测量。%Through analyzing the influencing factors on utilizing library electronic resources, based on the model of American customer satisfaction index, the paper puts forward corresponding measurement indexes, and then measures the user satisfaction on electronic resources of university library

  18. The Replication Recipe: What makes for a convincing replication?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, M.J.; IJzerman, H.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.; Farach, F.J.; Geller, J.; Giner-Sorolla, R.; Grange, J.A.; Perugini, M.; Spies, J.R.; Veer, A. van 't

    2014-01-01

    Psychological scientists have recently started to reconsider the importance of close replications in building a cumulative knowledge base; however, there is no consensus about what constitutes a convincing close replication study. To facilitate convincing close replication attempts we have developed

  19. Development of an electronic medical record based alert for risk of HIV treatment failure in a low-resource setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk. METHODS: Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005-2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6-12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves. RESULTS: Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6-12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2% met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01. When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.

  20. Modeling DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Recommends the use of a model of DNA made out of Velcro to help students visualize the steps of DNA replication. Includes a materials list, construction directions, and details of the demonstration using the model parts. (DDR)

  1. Eukaryotic DNA Replication Fork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgers, Peter M J; Kunkel, Thomas A

    2017-06-20

    This review focuses on the biogenesis and composition of the eukaryotic DNA replication fork, with an emphasis on the enzymes that synthesize DNA and repair discontinuities on the lagging strand of the replication fork. Physical and genetic methodologies aimed at understanding these processes are discussed. The preponderance of evidence supports a model in which DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε) carries out the bulk of leading strand DNA synthesis at an undisturbed replication fork. DNA polymerases α and δ carry out the initiation of Okazaki fragment synthesis and its elongation and maturation, respectively. This review also discusses alternative proposals, including cellular processes during which alternative forks may be utilized, and new biochemical studies with purified proteins that are aimed at reconstituting leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis separately and as an integrated replication fork.

  2. Abiotic self-replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Adam J; Ellefson, Jared W; Ellington, Andrew D

    2012-12-18

    The key to the origins of life is the replication of information. Linear polymers such as nucleic acids that both carry information and can be replicated are currently what we consider to be the basis of living systems. However, these two properties are not necessarily coupled. The ability to mutate in a discrete or quantized way, without frequent reversion, may be an additional requirement for Darwinian evolution, in which case the notion that Darwinian evolution defines life may be less of a tautology than previously thought. In this Account, we examine a variety of in vitro systems of increasing complexity, from simple chemical replicators up to complex systems based on in vitro transcription and translation. Comparing and contrasting these systems provides an interesting window onto the molecular origins of life. For nucleic acids, the story likely begins with simple chemical replication, perhaps of the form A + B → T, in which T serves as a template for the joining of A and B. Molecular variants capable of faster replication would come to dominate a population, and the development of cycles in which templates could foster one another's replication would have led to increasingly complex replicators and from thence to the initial genomes. The initial genomes may have been propagated by RNA replicases, ribozymes capable of joining oligonucleotides and eventually polymerizing mononucleotide substrates. As ribozymes were added to the genome to fill gaps in the chemistry necessary for replication, the backbone of a putative RNA world would have emerged. It is likely that such replicators would have been plagued by molecular parasites, which would have been passively replicated by the RNA world machinery without contributing to it. These molecular parasites would have been a major driver for the development of compartmentalization/cellularization, as more robust compartments could have outcompeted parasite-ridden compartments. The eventual outsourcing of metabolic

  3. Adenovirus DNA Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeben, Rob C.; Uil, Taco G.

    2013-01-01

    Adenoviruses have attracted much attention as probes to study biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, splicing, and cellular transformation. More recently these viruses have been used as gene-transfer vectors and oncolytic agents. On the other hand, adenoviruses are notorious pathogens in people with compromised immune functions. This article will briefly summarize the basic replication strategy of adenoviruses and the key proteins involved and will deal with the new deve...

  4. The BRIGHTEN Program: Implementation and Evaluation of a Program to Bridge Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Erin E.; Lapidos, Stan; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ivan, Iulia I.; Golden, Robyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of the BRIGHTEN Program (Bridging Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking), an interdisciplinary team intervention for assessing and treating older adults for depression in outpatient primary and specialty medical clinics. The BRIGHTEN team collaborates "virtually"…

  5. The module of methodical support in system of electronic educational resources as the innovative element of the modern maintenance of formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Николаевна Крылова

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces some results of research, which were devoted to evaluation of tearches' mobility to introduce innovations in the contents of education. The author considers innovative potential of modules of the methodical support for system of electronic educational resources.

  6. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…

  7. The BRIGHTEN Program: Implementation and Evaluation of a Program to Bridge Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Erin E.; Lapidos, Stan; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ivan, Iulia I.; Golden, Robyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of the BRIGHTEN Program (Bridging Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking), an interdisciplinary team intervention for assessing and treating older adults for depression in outpatient primary and specialty medical clinics. The BRIGHTEN team collaborates "virtually"…

  8. Electronic Information Resources (EIR Adoption in Private University Libraries: The Moderating Effect of Productivity and Relative Advantage on Perceived Usefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izuagbe, Roland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study tested a hybrid model with constructs drawn from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM and Diffusion of Innovation (DOI theory in order to examine the moderating effect of productivity and relative advantage (RA on perceived usefulness (PU vis-à-vis electronic information resources (EIR adoption in private university libraries in Ogun and Osun States of Nigeria. The descriptive research design was adopted in the study. The population consisted of 61 (55.0% librarians and 50 (45.0% library officers (totaling 116—100% in Babcock University, Bells University, Covenant University, Bowen University, Oduduwa University, and Redeemer's University. Purposive sampling procedure was adopted after which total enumeration was used since the total population is small. The questionnaire was used for data collection. Of the 116 copies of the questionnaire administered, 111 (95.7% were found usable. The instrument was structured based on a 4-point Likert agreement scale of Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics like tables of frequency counts and percentage. The findings revealed that productivity and relative advantage are significant moderators of perceived usefulness of EIR adoption in private university libraries in Ogun and Osun States, Nigeria.

  9. Minichromosome replication in vitro: inhibition of re-replication by replicatively assembled nucleosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krude, T; Knippers, R

    1994-08-19

    Single-stranded circular DNA, containing the SV40 origin sequence, was used as a template for complementary DNA strand synthesis in cytosolic extracts from HeLa cells. In the presence of the replication-dependent chromatin assembly factor CAF-1, defined numbers of nucleosomes were assembled during complementary DNA strand synthesis. These minichromosomes were then induced to semiconservatively replicate by the addition of the SV40 initiator protein T antigen (re-replication). The results indicate that re-replication of minichromosomes appears to be inhibited by two independent mechanisms. One acts at the initiation of minichromosome re-replication, and the other affects replicative chain elongation. To directly demonstrate the inhibitory effect of replicatively assembled nucleosomes, two types of minichromosomes were prepared: (i) post-replicative minichromosomes were assembled in a reaction coupled to replication as above; (ii) pre-replicative minichromosomes were assembled independently of replication on double-stranded DNA. Both types of minichromosomes were used as templates for DNA replication under identical conditions. Replicative fork movement was found to be impeded only on post-replicative minichromosome templates. In contrast, pre-replicative minichromosomes allowed one unconstrained replication cycle, but re-replication was inhibited due to a block in fork movement. Thus, replicatively assembled chromatin may have a profound influence on the re-replication of DNA.

  10. Investigating variation in replicability: A "Many Labs" replication project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, R.A.; Ratliff, K.A.; Vianello, M.; Adams, R.B.; Bahnik, S.; Bernstein, M.J.; Bocian, K.; Brandt, M.J.; Brooks, B.; Brumbaugh, C.C.; Cemalcilar, Z.; Chandler, J.; Cheong, W.; Davis, W.E.; Devos, T.; Eisner, M.; Frankowska, N.; Furrow, D.; Galliani, E.M.; Hasselman, F.W.; Hicks, J.A.; Hovermale, J.F.; Hunt, S.J.; Huntsinger, J.R.; IJzerman, H.; John, M.S.; Joy-Gaba, J.A.; Kappes, H.B.; Krueger, L.E.; Kurtz, J.; Levitan, C.A.; Mallett, R.K.; Morris, W.L.; Nelson, A.J.; Nier, J.A.; Packard, G.; Pilati, R.; Rutchick, A.M.; Schmidt, K.; Skorinko, J.L.M.; Smith, R.; Steiner, T.G.; Storbeck, J.; Van Swol, L.M.; Thompson, D.; Veer, A.E. van 't; Vaughn, L.A.; Vranka, M.; Wichman, A.L.; Woodzicka, J.A.; Nosek, B.A.

    2014-01-01

    Although replication is a central tenet of science, direct replications are rare in psychology. This research tested variation in the replicability of 13 classic and contemporary effects across 36 independent samples totaling 6,344 participants. In the aggregate, 10 effects replicated consistently.

  11. Hepatitis B virus replication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Hepadnaviruses, including human hepatitis B virus (HBV), replicate through reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate, the pregenomic RNA (pgRNA). Despite this kinship to retroviruses, there are fundamental differences beyond the fact that hepadnavirions contain DNA instead of RNA. Most peculiar is the initiation of reverse transcription: it occurs by protein-priming, is strictly committed to using an RNA hairpin on the pgRNA,ε, as template, and depends on cellular chaperones;moreover, proper replication can apparently occur only in the specialized environment of intact nucleocapsids.This complexity has hampered an in-depth mechanistic understanding. The recent successful reconstitution in the test tube of active replication initiation complexes from purified components, for duck HBV (DHBV),now allows for the analysis of the biochemistry of hepadnaviral replication at the molecular level. Here we review the current state of knowledge at all steps of the hepadnaviral genome replication cycle, with emphasis on new insights that turned up by the use of such cellfree systems. At this time, they can, unfortunately,not be complemented by three-dimensional structural information on the involved components. However, at least for the s RNA element such information is emerging,raising expectations that combining biophysics with biochemistry and genetics will soon provide a powerful integrated approach for solving the many outstanding questions. The ultimate, though most challenging goal,will be to visualize the hepadnaviral reverse transcriptase in the act of synthesizing DNA, which will also have strong implications for drug development.

  12. Psychology, replication & beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Keith R

    2016-06-01

    Modern psychology is apparently in crisis and the prevailing view is that this partly reflects an inability to replicate past findings. If a crisis does exists, then it is some kind of 'chronic' crisis, as psychologists have been censuring themselves over replicability for decades. While the debate in psychology is not new, the lack of progress across the decades is disappointing. Recently though, we have seen a veritable surfeit of debate alongside multiple orchestrated and well-publicised replication initiatives. The spotlight is being shone on certain areas and although not everyone agrees on how we should interpret the outcomes, the debate is happening and impassioned. The issue of reproducibility occupies a central place in our whig history of psychology.

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis replicates within necrotic human macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Thomas R.; Repnik, Urska; Herbst, Susanne; Collinson, Lucy M.; Griffiths, Gareth

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis modulation of macrophage cell death is a well-documented phenomenon, but its role during bacterial replication is less characterized. In this study, we investigate the impact of plasma membrane (PM) integrity on bacterial replication in different functional populations of human primary macrophages. We discovered that IFN-γ enhanced bacterial replication in macrophage colony-stimulating factor–differentiated macrophages more than in granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor–differentiated macrophages. We show that permissiveness in the different populations of macrophages to bacterial growth is the result of a differential ability to preserve PM integrity. By combining live-cell imaging, correlative light electron microscopy, and single-cell analysis, we found that after infection, a population of macrophages became necrotic, providing a niche for M. tuberculosis replication before escaping into the extracellular milieu. Thus, in addition to bacterial dissemination, necrotic cells provide first a niche for bacterial replication. Our results are relevant to understanding the environment of M. tuberculosis replication in the host. PMID:28242744

  14. DNA replication origins in archaea

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenfang eWu; Jingfang eLiu; Haibo eYang; Hua eXiang

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication initiation, which starts at specific chromosomal site (known as replication origins), is the key regulatory stage of chromosome replication. Archaea, the third domain of life, use a single or multiple origin(s) to initiate replication of their circular chromosomes. The basic structure of replication origins is conserved among archaea, typically including an AT-rich unwinding region flanked by several conserved repeats (origin recognition box, ORB) that are located adjacent to ...

  15. Replication studies in longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varcasia, O; Garasto, S; Rizza, T

    2001-01-01

    In Danes we replicated the 3'APOB-VNTR gene/longevity association study previously carried out in Italians, by which the Small alleles (less than 35 repeats) had been identified as frailty alleles for longevity. In Danes, neither genotype nor allele frequencies differed between centenarians and 20...

  16. Replication-Fork Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duderstadt, Karl E.; Reyes-Lamothe, Rodrigo; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Sherratt, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The proliferation of all organisms depends on the coordination of enzymatic events within large multiprotein replisomes that duplicate chromosomes. Whereas the structure and function of many core replisome components have been clarified, the timing and order of molecular events during replication re

  17. Coronavirus Attachment and Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-28

    synthesis during RNA replication of vesicular stomatitis virus. J. Virol. 49:303-309. Pedersen, N.C. 1976a. Feline infectious peritonitis: Something old...receptors on intestinal brush border membranes from normal host species were developed for canine (CCV), feline (FIPV), porcine (TGEV), human (HCV...gastroenteritis receptor on pig BBMs ...... ................. ... 114 Feline infectious peritonitis virus receptor on cat BBMs ... .............. 117 Human

  18. A Study on the Model for Resources Matching of Electronic Bartering%电子易货资源匹配模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴剑云; 张嵩

    2012-01-01

    By exchanging idle goods and services, electronic bartering can help enterprises solve dull sale problems, shortage of funds, overstocks and other problems without sufficient cash. Relying on the Internet and the e-commerce platform, electronic bartering removes the traditional bartering limitations, greatly expands the trading object and range, improves the transaction efficiency, and provides additional channels for economic development. How to promote more successful barters among multiple barterers? A key factor is the matching of barter resources. Focusing on the automatic matching of resources in the electronic barter, this paper proposes a network model to help maximize resources matching and provide recommendation information for barter participants, thereby raising the transaction rate and making the barter market prosperous.According to the type and quantity of barter resources, barter market can be divided into two types. In the first type, the supply and demand of the barter market is related to the same type of resources and each barterer owns only one type of resource. In the second type, the supply and demand of the barter market is linked to many types of resources and each barterer owns multiple resources to be exchanged. The first case has been resolved in the relevant document by using the graph theory to solve digraph circuits. This paper is interested in studying the second type of barter. Suppose the barter market has m barterers and n resources. Each barterer owns diverse types of barter resources, and is interested in other types of resources. The barterer a will provide other barterers his own resources only if he gets the resources he needs from the barterer b. Note that each of the bartered resource is regarded as having equal value to any other resources. The main objective is to maximize the number of resources that are bartered.Next, this paper proposes a math model of automatic resources matching by systematically analyzing resource

  19. ReplicationDomain: a visualization tool and comparative database for genome-wide replication timing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokochi Tomoki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic DNA replication is regulated at the level of large chromosomal domains (0.5–5 megabases in mammals within which replicons are activated relatively synchronously. These domains replicate in a specific temporal order during S-phase and our genome-wide analyses of replication timing have demonstrated that this temporal order of domain replication is a stable property of specific cell types. Results We have developed ReplicationDomain http://www.replicationdomain.org as a web-based database for analysis of genome-wide replication timing maps (replication profiles from various cell lines and species. This database also provides comparative information of transcriptional expression and is configured to display any genome-wide property (for instance, ChIP-Chip or ChIP-Seq data via an interactive web interface. Our published microarray data sets are publicly available. Users may graphically display these data sets for a selected genomic region and download the data displayed as text files, or alternatively, download complete genome-wide data sets. Furthermore, we have implemented a user registration system that allows registered users to upload their own data sets. Upon uploading, registered users may choose to: (1 view their data sets privately without sharing; (2 share with other registered users; or (3 make their published or "in press" data sets publicly available, which can fulfill journal and funding agencies' requirements for data sharing. Conclusion ReplicationDomain is a novel and powerful tool to facilitate the comparative visualization of replication timing in various cell types as well as other genome-wide chromatin features and is considerably faster and more convenient than existing browsers when viewing multi-megabase segments of chromosomes. Furthermore, the data upload function with the option of private viewing or sharing of data sets between registered users should be a valuable resource for the

  20. Assembly of alphavirus replication complexes from RNA and protein components in a novel trans-replication system in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spuul, Pirjo; Balistreri, Giuseppe; Hellström, Kirsi; Golubtsov, Andrey V; Jokitalo, Eija; Ahola, Tero

    2011-05-01

    For positive-strand RNA viruses, the viral genomic RNA also acts as an mRNA directing the translation of the replicase proteins of the virus. Replication takes place in association with cytoplasmic membranes, which are heavily modified to create specific replication compartments. Here we have expressed by plasmid DNA transfection the large replicase polyprotein of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) in mammalian cells from a nonreplicating mRNA and provided a separate RNA containing the replication signals. The replicase proteins were able to efficiently and specifically replicate the template in trans, leading to accumulation of RNA and marker gene products expressed from the template RNA. The replicase proteins and double-stranded RNA replication intermediates localized to structures similar to those seen in SFV-infected cells. Using correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM) with fluorescent marker proteins to relocate those transfected cells, in which active replication was ongoing, abundant membrane modifications, representing the replication complex spherules, were observed both at the plasma membrane and in intracellular endolysosomes. Thus, replication complexes are faithfully assembled and localized in the trans-replication system. We demonstrated, using CLEM, that the replication proteins alone or a polymerase-negative polyprotein mutant together with the template did not give rise to spherule formation. Thus, the trans-replication system is suitable for cell biological dissection and examination in a mammalian cell environment, and similar systems may be possible for other positive-strand RNA viruses.

  1. Replicating Cardiovascular Condition-Birth Month Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Boland, Mary Regina; Miotto, Riccardo; Tatonetti, Nicholas P.; Dudley, Joel T.

    2016-01-01

    Independent replication is vital for study findings drawn from Electronic Health Records (EHR). This replication study evaluates the relationship between seasonal effects at birth and lifetime cardiovascular condition risk. We performed a Season-wide Association Study on 1,169,599 patients from Mount Sinai Hospital (MSH) to compute phenome-wide associations between birth month and CVD. We then evaluated if seasonal patterns found at MSH matched those reported at Columbia University Medical Center. Coronary arteriosclerosis, essential hypertension, angina, and pre-infarction syndrome passed phenome-wide significance and their seasonal patterns matched those previously reported. Atrial fibrillation, cardiomyopathy, and chronic myocardial ischemia had consistent patterns but were not phenome-wide significant. We confirm that CVD risk peaks for those born in the late winter/early spring among the evaluated patient populations. The replication findings bolster evidence for a seasonal birth month effect in CVD. Further study is required to identify the environmental and developmental mechanisms. PMID:27624541

  2. The Use and Maintenance of University Library Electronic Resources%浅议大学图书馆电子资源的利用与维护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鹏飞; 熊豫玲

    2011-01-01

    随着科学技术的飞速发展,高新信息技术的广泛应用,大学图书馆的工作内容和方法也面临新的挑战,为了使用户更好的利用大学图书馆的电子资源,提高电子资源利用率,实现大学图书馆数字化,本文主要从电子资源的利用和维护方面进行探讨。%With the rapid development of science and technology,the extensive application of high-tech information technology, University of content and methods of library work is also facing new challenges in order to make better use of university library users to electronic resources,improve the utilization of electronic resources to achieve the University Library digital,paper, from the use of electronic resources and maintenance were discussed.

  3. Reversible Switching of Cooperating Replicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urtel, Georg C.; Rind, Thomas; Braun, Dieter

    2017-02-01

    How can molecules with short lifetimes preserve their information over millions of years? For evolution to occur, information-carrying molecules have to replicate before they degrade. Our experiments reveal a robust, reversible cooperation mechanism in oligonucleotide replication. Two inherently slow replicating hairpin molecules can transfer their information to fast crossbreed replicators that outgrow the hairpins. The reverse is also possible. When one replication initiation site is missing, single hairpins reemerge from the crossbreed. With this mechanism, interacting replicators can switch between the hairpin and crossbreed mode, revealing a flexible adaptation to different boundary conditions.

  4. CIRS: A State-Conscious Concurrency Control Protocol for Replicated Real-Time Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Pathak,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Replication [5] is the technique of using multiple copies of a server or a resource for better availability and performance.Each copy is called a replica. The main goal of replication is to improve availability, since a service is available even if some of its replicas are not. This helps mission critical services, such as many financial systems or reservation systems, where even a short outage can be very disruptive and expensive.A prerequisite for realizing the banefits of replication, however, is the devlopement of high erformance concurrency machenism. Current applications, such as Web-based services, electronic commerce, mobile telecommunication system, etc., are distributed in nature and manipulate time-critical databases. In order to enhance the performance and the availability of such applications, one of the main techniques is to replicate data on multiple sites of the network. Therefore, the major issue is to develop efficient replica concurrency control protocols that are able to tolerate the overload of the distributed system. In fact, if the system is not designed to handle overloads, the effects can be catastrophic and some primordial transactions of the application can miss their deadlines. In this paper we present CIRS (Concurrency control In Replicated realtime Systems a state conscious concurrency control protocol in replicated distributed environment which is specially for firm realtime database system. CIRS mechanism uses S2PL (Static Two Phase Locking for deadlock free environment.It also includes veto power given to a cohort after receiving PREPARE message from its coordinator. Also with some more assumptions like sending an extra message in execution phase but after completionof execution at local copy which is described later in this paper the proposed mechanism has a significant increased performance over O2PL and MIRROR in decreasing execution time of the current transaction and it also decreases the waiting time of

  5. Barriers to electronic access and delivery of educational information in resource constrained public schools: a case of Greater Tubatse Municipality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pholotho, T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are capable of expanding access to quality education, educational resources and provide teachers with new skills. Nevertheless, a majority of rural public schools have limited ICTs, mainly due...

  6. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendiran, P

    2006-01-01

    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  7. Chromatin replication and epigenome maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alabert, Constance; Groth, Anja

    2012-01-01

    initiates, whereas the replication process itself disrupts chromatin and challenges established patterns of genome regulation. Specialized replication-coupled mechanisms assemble new DNA into chromatin, but epigenome maintenance is a continuous process taking place throughout the cell cycle. If DNA...

  8. Chromatin replication and epigenome maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alabert, Constance; Groth, Anja

    2012-01-01

    initiates, whereas the replication process itself disrupts chromatin and challenges established patterns of genome regulation. Specialized replication-coupled mechanisms assemble new DNA into chromatin, but epigenome maintenance is a continuous process taking place throughout the cell cycle. If DNA...

  9. Initiation of adenovirus DNA replication.

    OpenAIRE

    Reiter, T; Fütterer, J; Weingärtner, B; Winnacker, E L

    1980-01-01

    In an attempt to study the mechanism of initiation of adenovirus DNA replication, an assay was developed to investigate the pattern of DNA synthesis in early replicative intermediates of adenovirus DNA. By using wild-type virus-infected cells, it was possible to place the origin of adenovirus type 2 DNA replication within the terminal 350 to 500 base pairs from either of the two molecular termini. In addition, a variety of parameters characteristic of adenovirus DNA replication were compared ...

  10. Chromatin replication and epigenome maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alabert, Constance; Groth, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Stability and function of eukaryotic genomes are closely linked to chromatin structure and organization. During cell division the entire genome must be accurately replicated and the chromatin landscape reproduced on new DNA. Chromatin and nuclear structure influence where and when DNA replication...... initiates, whereas the replication process itself disrupts chromatin and challenges established patterns of genome regulation. Specialized replication-coupled mechanisms assemble new DNA into chromatin, but epigenome maintenance is a continuous process taking place throughout the cell cycle. If DNA...

  11. 电子资源许可使用的发展与创新%The Development and Innovation of the Use of the Electronic Resource License

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军

    2012-01-01

      电子资源许可使用在我国发展时间较短,在其建立过程中还存在许可定价、购买模式、馆际互借以及电子资源的长期保存许可方式等难题。电子资源许可使用的发展与创新,需要根据用户需求制定发展战略,建立图书馆的读者监督管理制度和数字化资源服务制度,规范文献编目制度等,以提高电子信息资源与图书馆信息资源的使用效果和广泛的使用需求%  It's been a short time since the use of electronic resource licenses has developed in China; in addition, many problems ap-pear in the establishment process in terms of license pricing, purchase pattern, inter-library loan and long-term preservation ways of electronic resources. In order to develop and innovate the use of the license, libraries should develop strategies in accordance with the users' needs, establish a reader supervision system and a digital resource service system, and normalize the document cataloging sys-tem to enhance the utilization effect and meet the extensive demand for electronic and library information resources.

  12. Replication Research and Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Jason C.; Cook, Bryan G.; Therrien, William J.; Coyne, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Replicating previously reported empirical research is a necessary aspect of an evidence-based field of special education, but little formal investigation into the prevalence of replication research in the special education research literature has been conducted. Various factors may explain the lack of attention to replication of special education…

  13. Replication Research and Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Jason C.; Cook, Bryan G.; Therrien, William J.; Coyne, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Replicating previously reported empirical research is a necessary aspect of an evidence-based field of special education, but little formal investigation into the prevalence of replication research in the special education research literature has been conducted. Various factors may explain the lack of attention to replication of special education…

  14. Anatomy of Mammalian Replication Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebayashi, Shin-ichiro; Ogata, Masato; Okumura, Katsuzumi

    2017-01-01

    Genetic information is faithfully copied by DNA replication through many rounds of cell division. In mammals, DNA is replicated in Mb-sized chromosomal units called “replication domains.” While genome-wide maps in multiple cell types and disease states have uncovered both dynamic and static properties of replication domains, we are still in the process of understanding the mechanisms that give rise to these properties. A better understanding of the molecular basis of replication domain regulation will bring new insights into chromosome structure and function. PMID:28350365

  15. Replication Attack Mitigations for Static and Mobile WSN

    CERN Document Server

    Manjula, V; 10.5121/ijnsa.2011.3210

    2011-01-01

    Security is important for many sensor network applications. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are often deployed in hostile environments as static or mobile, where an adversary can physically capture some of the nodes. once a node is captured, adversary collects all the credentials like keys and identity etc. the attacker can re-program it and replicate the node in order to eavesdrop the transmitted messages or compromise the functionality of the network. Identity theft leads to two types attack: clone and sybil. In particularly a harmful attack against sensor networks where one or more node(s) illegitimately claims an identity as replicas is known as the node replication attack. The replication attack can be exceedingly injurious to many important functions of the sensor network such as routing, resource allocation, misbehavior detection, etc. This paper analyzes the threat posed by the replication attack and several novel techniques to detect and defend against the replication attack, and analyzes their effect...

  16. Modeling inhomogeneous DNA replication kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel G Gauthier

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic organisms, DNA replication is initiated at a series of chromosomal locations called origins, where replication forks are assembled proceeding bidirectionally to replicate the genome. The distribution and firing rate of these origins, in conjunction with the velocity at which forks progress, dictate the program of the replication process. Previous attempts at modeling DNA replication in eukaryotes have focused on cases where the firing rate and the velocity of replication forks are homogeneous, or uniform, across the genome. However, it is now known that there are large variations in origin activity along the genome and variations in fork velocities can also take place. Here, we generalize previous approaches to modeling replication, to allow for arbitrary spatial variation of initiation rates and fork velocities. We derive rate equations for left- and right-moving forks and for replication probability over time that can be solved numerically to obtain the mean-field replication program. This method accurately reproduces the results of DNA replication simulation. We also successfully adapted our approach to the inverse problem of fitting measurements of DNA replication performed on single DNA molecules. Since such measurements are performed on specified portion of the genome, the examined DNA molecules may be replicated by forks that originate either within the studied molecule or outside of it. This problem was solved by using an effective flux of incoming replication forks at the model boundaries to represent the origin activity outside the studied region. Using this approach, we show that reliable inferences can be made about the replication of specific portions of the genome even if the amount of data that can be obtained from single-molecule experiments is generally limited.

  17. Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653‐9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour‐long interviews and think‐aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty‐five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple‐choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty‐three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword‐based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician‐selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of

  18. Competition and cooperation in dynamic replication networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadon, Zehavit; Wagner, Nathaniel; Alasibi, Samaa; Samiappan, Manickasundaram; Mukherjee, Rakesh; Ashkenasy, Gonen

    2015-01-07

    The simultaneous replication of six coiled-coil peptide mutants by reversible thiol-thioester exchange reactions is described. Experimental analysis of the time dependent evolution of networks formed by the peptides under different conditions reveals a complex web of molecular interactions and consequent mutant replication, governed by competition for resources and by autocatalytic and/or cross-catalytic template-assisted reactions. A kinetic model, first of its kind, is then introduced, allowing simulation of varied network behaviour as a consequence of changing competition and cooperation scenarios. We suggest that by clarifying the kinetic description of these relatively complex dynamic networks, both at early stages of the reaction far from equilibrium and at later stages approaching equilibrium, one lays the foundation for studying dynamic networks out-of-equilibrium in the near future.

  19. Replicated Spectrographs in Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Gary J

    2014-01-01

    As telescope apertures increase, the challenge of scaling spectrographic astronomical instruments becomes acute. The next generation of extremely large telescopes (ELTs) strain the availability of glass blanks for optics and engineering to provide sufficient mechanical stability. While breaking the relationship between telescope diameter and instrument pupil size by adaptive optics is a clear path for small fields of view, survey instruments exploiting multiplex advantages will be pressed to find cost-effective solutions. In this review we argue that exploiting the full potential of ELTs will require the barrier of the cost and engineering difficulty of monolithic instruments to be broken by the use of large-scale replication of spectrographs. The first steps in this direction have already been taken with the soon to be commissioned MUSE and VIRUS instruments for the Very Large Telescope and the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, respectively. MUSE employs 24 spectrograph channels, while VIRUS has 150 channels. We compa...

  20. Conceived on the City Electronic Waste Resource Mana oement Model%城市电子废弃物资源化管理模式构想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊贵琍; 余涛

    2012-01-01

    Investigated e- waste collection system the investigation, the whereabouts and electronic waste disposal in Httizhou city, the paper analyzed the Huizhou city e- waste collection and disposal of a series of problems, combined with the actual, conceived urban electronic waste resources management mode.%通过对惠州市电子废弃物收集体系组成、去向以及电子废弃物处置方式的调查,分析惠州市电子废弃物收集和处置存在的一系列问题,结合实际提出了城市电子废弃物资源化管理模式的初步构想。

  1. Chromatin Dynamics During DNA Replication and Uncharacterized Replication Factors determined by Nascent Chromatin Capture (NCC) Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabert, Constance; Bukowski-Wills, Jimi-Carlo; Lee, Sung-Bau; Kustatscher, Georg; Nakamura, Kyosuke; de Lima Alves, Flavia; Menard, Patrice; Mejlvang, Jakob; Rappsilber, Juri; Groth, Anja

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY To maintain genome function and stability, DNA sequence and its organization into chromatin must be duplicated during cell division. Understanding how entire chromosomes are copied remains a major challenge. Here, we use Nascent Chromatin Capture (NCC) to profile chromatin proteome dynamics during replication in human cells. NCC relies on biotin-dUTP labelling of replicating DNA, affinity-purification and quantitative proteomics. Comparing nascent chromatin with mature post-replicative chromatin, we provide association dynamics for 3995 proteins. The replication machinery and 485 chromatin factors like CAF-1, DNMT1, SUV39h1 are enriched in nascent chromatin, whereas 170 factors including histone H1, DNMT3, MBD1-3 and PRC1 show delayed association. This correlates with H4K5K12diAc removal and H3K9me1 accumulation, while H3K27me3 and H3K9me3 remain unchanged. Finally, we combine NCC enrichment with experimentally derived chromatin probabilities to predict a function in nascent chromatin for 93 uncharacterized proteins and identify FAM111A as a replication factor required for PCNA loading. Together, this provides an extensive resource to understand genome and epigenome maintenance. PMID:24561620

  2. SUMO and KSHV Replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Pei-Ching [Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Kung, Hsing-Jien, E-mail: hkung@nhri.org.tw [Institute for Translational Medicine, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); UC Davis Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Division of Molecular and Genomic Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan, Miaoli County 35053, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-29

    Small Ubiquitin-related MOdifier (SUMO) modification was initially identified as a reversible post-translational modification that affects the regulation of diverse cellular processes, including signal transduction, protein trafficking, chromosome segregation, and DNA repair. Increasing evidence suggests that the SUMO system also plays an important role in regulating chromatin organization and transcription. It is thus not surprising that double-stranded DNA viruses, such as Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), have exploited SUMO modification as a means of modulating viral chromatin remodeling during the latent-lytic switch. In addition, SUMO regulation allows the disassembly and assembly of promyelocytic leukemia protein-nuclear bodies (PML-NBs), an intrinsic antiviral host defense, during the viral replication cycle. Overcoming PML-NB-mediated cellular intrinsic immunity is essential to allow the initial transcription and replication of the herpesvirus genome after de novo infection. As a consequence, KSHV has evolved a way as to produce multiple SUMO regulatory viral proteins to modulate the cellular SUMO environment in a dynamic way during its life cycle. Remarkably, KSHV encodes one gene product (K-bZIP) with SUMO-ligase activities and one gene product (K-Rta) that exhibits SUMO-targeting ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) activity. In addition, at least two viral products are sumoylated that have functional importance. Furthermore, sumoylation can be modulated by other viral gene products, such as the viral protein kinase Orf36. Interference with the sumoylation of specific viral targets represents a potential therapeutic strategy when treating KSHV, as well as other oncogenic herpesviruses. Here, we summarize the different ways KSHV exploits and manipulates the cellular SUMO system and explore the multi-faceted functions of SUMO during KSHV’s life cycle and pathogenesis.

  3. Accessibility and Use of Web-Based Electronic Resources by Physicians in a Psychiatric Institution in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduwole, Adebambo Adewale; Oyewumi, Olatundun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the accessibility and use of web-based electronic databases on the Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative (HINARI) portal by physicians in the Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Aro--a psychiatry health institution in Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: Collection of data was through the use of a three-part…

  4. Efficient usage of Adabas replication

    CERN Document Server

    Storr, Dieter W

    2011-01-01

    In today's IT organization replication becomes more and more an essential technology. This makes Software AG's Event Replicator for Adabas an important part of your data processing. Setting the right parameters and establishing the best network communication, as well as selecting efficient target components, is essential for successfully implementing replication. This book provides comprehensive information and unique best-practice experience in the field of Event Replicator for Adabas. It also includes sample codes and configurations making your start very easy. It describes all components ne

  5. Solving the Telomere Replication Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestroni, Laetitia; Matmati, Samah; Coulon, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Telomeres are complex nucleoprotein structures that protect the extremities of linear chromosomes. Telomere replication is a major challenge because many obstacles to the progression of the replication fork are concentrated at the ends of the chromosomes. This is known as the telomere replication problem. In this article, different and new aspects of telomere replication, that can threaten the integrity of telomeres, will be reviewed. In particular, we will focus on the functions of shelterin and the replisome for the preservation of telomere integrity. PMID:28146113

  6. Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna M. Campbell

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

  7. 重庆高校图书馆电子文献资源建设现状及对策%The Present Situation and Countermeasure of Electronic Literature Resources Construction about Chongqing University Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子辉; 彭渝; 陈强; 吴晓英

    2014-01-01

    In the information society, Electronic document resources are very important for library development and the school's teaching and research. The university library should pay more at ention to the construction of electronic document resources. Through the survey of the electronic document resources in Chongqing, We have mastered the distribution of electronic document resources, analyzed the existing problems in resource construction, and proposed the related countermeasure. We hope to provide reference for the electronic document resources construction.%在信息社会,电子文献资源对高校图书馆建设、学校的教学与科研都起到非常重要的作用,各高校图书馆应该更加重视电子文献资源的建设。通过对重庆高校图书馆电子文献资源建设情况进行调查,掌握了本地区电子文献资源的分布情况,分析了资源建设中存在的问题,并提出了相关对策,希望为本地区高校图书馆电子文献资源建设提供参考。

  8. Charter School Replication. Policy Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Lauren Morando

    2009-01-01

    "Replication" is the practice of a single charter school board or management organization opening several more schools that are each based on the same school model. The most rapid strategy to increase the number of new high-quality charter schools available to children is to encourage the replication of existing quality schools. This policy guide…

  9. Autonomic Management of Object Replication for FT-CORBA Based Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Woonsuk; Lee, Eunseok

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) comprises the electronics, communications or information processing used singly or integrated to improve the efficiency or safety of surface transportation. Accordingly, the ITS has to perform collection, management, and provision of real time transport information reliably. It can be deployed based on the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) of the Object Management Group (OMG) because it consists of many interconnected heterogeneous systems deployed by independent organizations. Fault Tolerant CORBA (FT-CORBA) supports real time requirement of transport information stably through redundancy by replication of server objects. However, object replication, management, and related protocols of FT-CORBA require extra system resources of CPU and memory, and can degrade the system performance both locally and as a whole. This paper proposes an architecture to enhance performance of FT-CORBA based ITS in terms of CPU and memory by managing object replication adaptively during system operation with an agent. The application of the agent is expected to support fault tolerance of real ITS efficiently.

  10. LHCb experience with LFC replication

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifazi, F; Perez, E D; D'Apice, A; dell'Agnello, L; Düllmann, D; Girone, M; Re, G L; Martelli, B; Peco, G; Ricci, P P; Sapunenko, V; Vagnoni, V; Vitlacil, D

    2008-01-01

    Database replication is a key topic in the framework of the LHC Computing Grid to allow processing of data in a distributed environment. In particular, the LHCb computing model relies on the LHC File Catalog, i.e. a database which stores information about files spread across the GRID, their logical names and the physical locations of all the replicas. The LHCb computing model requires the LFC to be replicated at Tier-1s. The LCG 3D project deals with the database replication issue and provides a replication service based on Oracle Streams technology. This paper describes the deployment of the LHC File Catalog replication to the INFN National Center for Telematics and Informatics (CNAF) and to other LHCb Tier-1 sites. We performed stress tests designed to evaluate any delay in the propagation of the streams and the scalability of the system. The tests show the robustness of the replica implementation with performance going much beyond the LHCb requirements.

  11. DATABASE REPLICATION IN HETEROGENOUS PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendro Nindito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of diverse database technologies in enterprises today is increasingly a common practice. To provide high availability and survavibality of real-time information, a database replication technology that has capability to replicate databases under heterogenous platforms is required. The purpose of this research is to find the technology with such capability. In this research, the data source is stored in MSSQL database server running on Windows. The data will be replicated to MySQL running on Linux as the destination. The method applied in this research is prototyping in which the processes of development and testing can be done interactively and repeatedly. The key result of this research is that the replication technology applied, which is called Oracle GoldenGate, can successfully manage to do its task in replicating data in real-time and heterogeneous platforms.

  12. LHCb experience with LFC replication

    CERN Document Server

    Carbone, Angelo; Dafonte Perez, Eva; D'Apice, Antimo; dell'Agnello, Luca; Duellmann, Dirk; Girone, Maria; Lo Re, Giuseppe; Martelli, Barbara; Peco, Gianluca; Ricci, Pier Paolo; Sapunenko, Vladimir; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Vitlacil, Dejan

    2007-01-01

    Database replication is a key topic in the framework of the LHC Computing Grid to allow processing of data in a distributed environment. In particular, the LHCb computing model relies on the LHC File Catalog, i.e. database which stores information about files spread across the GRID, their logical names and the physical locations of all the replicas. The LHCb computing model requires the LFC to be replicated at Tier-1s. The LCG 3D project deals with the database replication issue and provides a replication service based on Oracle Streams technology. This paper describes the deployment of the LHC File Catalog replication to the INFN National Center for Telematics and Informations (CNAF) and to other LHCb Tier-1 sites. We performed stress tests designed to evaluate any delay in the propagation of the streams and the scalability of the system. The tests show the robustness of the replica implementation with performance going much beyond the LHCb requirements.

  13. Phosphorylation of NS5A Serine-235 is essential to hepatitis C virus RNA replication and normal replication compartment formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyre, Nicholas S., E-mail: nicholas.eyre@adelaide.edu.au [School of Biological Sciences and Research Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology, Adelaide (Australia); Hampton-Smith, Rachel J.; Aloia, Amanda L. [School of Biological Sciences and Research Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology, Adelaide (Australia); Eddes, James S. [Adelaide Proteomics Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Simpson, Kaylene J. [Victorian Centre for Functional Genomics, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia); Hoffmann, Peter [Adelaide Proteomics Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Institute for Photonics and Advanced Sensing (IPAS), University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Beard, Michael R. [School of Biological Sciences and Research Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology, Adelaide (Australia)

    2016-04-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A protein is essential for HCV RNA replication and virus assembly. Here we report the identification of NS5A phosphorylation sites Ser-222, Ser-235 and Thr-348 during an infectious HCV replication cycle and demonstrate that Ser-235 phosphorylation is essential for HCV RNA replication. Confocal microscopy revealed that both phosphoablatant (S235A) and phosphomimetic (S235D) mutants redistribute NS5A to large juxta-nuclear foci that display altered colocalization with known replication complex components. Using electron microscopy (EM) we found that S235D alters virus-induced membrane rearrangements while EM using ‘APEX2’-tagged viruses demonstrated S235D-mediated enrichment of NS5A in irregular membranous foci. Finally, using a customized siRNA screen of candidate NS5A kinases and subsequent analysis using a phospho-specific antibody, we show that phosphatidylinositol-4 kinase III alpha (PI4KIIIα) is important for Ser-235 phosphorylation. We conclude that Ser-235 phosphorylation of NS5A is essential for HCV RNA replication and normal replication complex formation and is regulated by PI4KIIIα. - Highlights: • NS5A residues Ser-222, Ser-235 and Thr-348 are phosphorylated during HCV infection. • Phosphorylation of Ser-235 is essential to HCV RNA replication. • Mutation of Ser-235 alters replication compartment localization and morphology. • Phosphatidylinositol-4 kinase III alpha is important for Ser-235 phosphorylation.

  14. NACSA Charter School Replication Guide: The Spectrum of Replication Options. Authorizing Matters. Replication Brief 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Paul

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important and high-profile issues in public education reform today is the replication of successful public charter school programs. With more than 5,000 failing public schools in the United States, there is a tremendous need for strong alternatives for parents and students. Replicating successful charter school models is an…

  15. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources Elektronik Kaynakların Seçimi ve Değerlendirilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined. İkinci dünya savaşından sonra görülen yayın patlaması, basılı kaynakların denetim ve erişiminde sorunlar yaşanmasına neden olmuştur. Bu da yayıncılık sektöründe yeni arayışlara yol açmıştır. 1980’li yıllardan sonra basılı yayın fiyatlarındaki hızlı artış da bu etmenlere eklenince elektronik yayıncılık sektörü gelişmeye başlamıştır. Öncelikle bilimsel ve akademik yayınlarla başlayan elektronik yayın günümüzde tüm yayın türlerini kapsamaktadır. Yayıncılıktaki bu gelişim bilgi merkezlerinin derme geliştirme ve hizmet politikalarını da önemli ölçüde değiştirmiştir. Bu çalışmada elektronik yayınların seçim, değerlendirme ve sağlama konularında genel bir girişten sonra bir devlet üniversitesinin bir de özel üniversitenin abone olduğu veritabanları ve bu veri tabanlarının kullanımının değerlendirilmesi yapılmaktadır.

  16. International Expansion through Flexible Replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Anna; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2011-01-01

    to local environments and under the impact of new learning. To illuminate these issues, we draw on a longitudinal in-depth study of Swedish home furnishing giant IKEA, involving more than 70 interviews. We find that IKEA has developed organizational mechanisms that support an ongoing learning process aimed......, etc.) are replicated in a uniform manner across stores, and change only very slowly (if at all) in response to learning (“flexible replication”). We conclude by discussing the factors that influence the approach to replication adopted by an international replicator....

  17. Utility of the electronic information resource UpToDate for clinical decision-making at bedside rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, J; See, K C; Khalizah, H J; Low, S P; Lim, T K

    2012-02-01

    Clinical questions often arise at daily hospital bedside rounds. Yet, little information exists on how the search for answers may be facilitated. The aim of this prospective study was, therefore, to evaluate the overall utility, including the feasibility and usefulness of incorporating searches of UpToDate, a popular online information resource, into rounds. Doctors searched UpToDate for any unresolved clinical questions during rounds for patients in general medicine and respiratory wards, and in the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. The nature of the questions and the results of the searches were recorded. Searches were deemed feasible if they were completed during the rounds and useful if they provided a satisfactory answer. A total of 157 UpToDate searches were performed during the study period. Questions were raised by all ranks of clinicians from junior doctors to consultants. The searches were feasible and performed immediately during rounds 44% of the time. Each search took a median of three minutes (first quartile: two minutes, third quartile: five minutes). UpToDate provided a useful and satisfactory answer 75% of the time, a partial answer 17% of the time and no answer 9% of the time. It led to a change in investigations, diagnosis or management 37% of the time, confirmed what was originally known or planned 38% of the time and had no effect 25% of the time. Incorporating UpToDate searches into daily bedside rounds was feasible and useful in clinical decision-making.

  18. The Psychology of Replication and Replication in Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory

    2012-11-01

    Like other scientists, psychologists believe experimental replication to be the final arbiter for determining the validity of an empirical finding. Reports in psychology journals often attempt to prove the validity of a hypothesis or theory with multiple experiments that replicate a finding. Unfortunately, these efforts are sometimes misguided because in a field like experimental psychology, ever more successful replication does not necessarily ensure the validity of an empirical finding. When psychological experiments are analyzed with statistics, the rules of probability dictate that random samples should sometimes be selected that do not reject the null hypothesis, even if an effect is real. As a result, it is possible for a set of experiments to have too many successful replications. When there are too many successful replications for a given set of experiments, a skeptical scientist should be suspicious that null or negative findings have been suppressed, the experiments were run improperly, or the experiments were analyzed improperly. This article describes the implications of this observation and demonstrates how to test for too much successful replication by using a set of experiments from a recent research paper.

  19. Regulation of Replication Recovery and Genome Integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, Camilla Skettrup

    Preserving genome integrity is essential for cell survival. To this end, mechanisms that supervise DNA replication and respond to replication perturbations have evolved. One such mechanism is the replication checkpoint, which responds to DNA replication stress and acts to ensure replication pausing...

  20. Biomarkers of replicative senescence revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehlin, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers of replicative senescence can be defined as those ultrastructural and physiological variations as well as molecules whose changes in expression, activity or function correlate with aging, as a result of the gradual exhaustion of replicative potential and a state of permanent cell cycle...... with their chronological age and present health status, help define their current rate of aging and contribute to establish personalized therapy plans to reduce, counteract or even avoid the appearance of aging biomarkers....

  1. Nucleotide Metabolism and DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Digby F; Evans, Joanna C; Mizrahi, Valerie

    2014-10-01

    The development and application of a highly versatile suite of tools for mycobacterial genetics, coupled with widespread use of "omics" approaches to elucidate the structure, function, and regulation of mycobacterial proteins, has led to spectacular advances in our understanding of the metabolism and physiology of mycobacteria. In this article, we provide an update on nucleotide metabolism and DNA replication in mycobacteria, highlighting key findings from the past 10 to 15 years. In the first section, we focus on nucleotide metabolism, ranging from the biosynthesis, salvage, and interconversion of purine and pyrimidine ribonucleotides to the formation of deoxyribonucleotides. The second part of the article is devoted to DNA replication, with a focus on replication initiation and elongation, as well as DNA unwinding. We provide an overview of replication fidelity and mutation rates in mycobacteria and summarize evidence suggesting that DNA replication occurs during states of low metabolic activity, and conclude by suggesting directions for future research to address key outstanding questions. Although this article focuses primarily on observations from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it is interspersed, where appropriate, with insights from, and comparisons with, other mycobacterial species as well as better characterized bacterial models such as Escherichia coli. Finally, a common theme underlying almost all studies of mycobacterial metabolism is the potential to identify and validate functions or pathways that can be exploited for tuberculosis drug discovery. In this context, we have specifically highlighted those processes in mycobacterial DNA replication that might satisfy this critical requirement.

  2. Plasmid Rolling-Circle Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Masó, J A; MachóN, C; Bordanaba-Ruiseco, L; Espinosa, M; Coll, M; Del Solar, G

    2015-02-01

    Plasmids are DNA entities that undergo controlled replication independent of the chromosomal DNA, a crucial step that guarantees the prevalence of the plasmid in its host. DNA replication has to cope with the incapacity of the DNA polymerases to start de novo DNA synthesis, and different replication mechanisms offer diverse solutions to this problem. Rolling-circle replication (RCR) is a mechanism adopted by certain plasmids, among other genetic elements, that represents one of the simplest initiation strategies, that is, the nicking by a replication initiator protein on one parental strand to generate the primer for leading-strand initiation and a single priming site for lagging-strand synthesis. All RCR plasmid genomes consist of a number of basic elements: leading strand initiation and control, lagging strand origin, phenotypic determinants, and mobilization, generally in that order of frequency. RCR has been mainly characterized in Gram-positive bacterial plasmids, although it has also been described in Gram-negative bacterial or archaeal plasmids. Here we aim to provide an overview of the RCR plasmids' lifestyle, with emphasis on their characteristic traits, promiscuity, stability, utility as vectors, etc. While RCR is one of the best-characterized plasmid replication mechanisms, there are still many questions left unanswered, which will be pointed out along the way in this review.

  3. 图书馆纸质资源与电子资源投入比例研究%The research of ratio between traditional and electronics resources in library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王以婧; 李明

    2012-01-01

    With the popularization of electronic product development,library is no longer the paper-based resources into a single information carrier the pattern,but has formed a paper resource and electronic resources coexist in the new situation.Because the library types of our country,the proportion of input between paper-based resources and other kinds of resources exist difference.This paper will discuss the relationship between the traditional and electronics resources,and also points out the existing problems and the countermeasures.%随着电子产品的普及发展,图书馆已不再以纸质资源为唯一的信息载体,而是形成了纸质资源和电子资源并存的新局面。由于国内图书馆类型的不同,纸质资源与电子资源的配比也会存在差异。通过讨论二者的关系,指出存在的问题及应对之策。

  4. There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012. Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2, 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie M. Hughes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions.Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents.Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions.Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is

  5. The Interstellar Ethics of Self-Replicating Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, K.

    Robotic spacecraft have been our primary means of exploring the Universe for over 50 years. Should interstellar travel become reality it seems unlikely that humankind will stop using robotic probes. These probes will be able to replicate themselves ad infinitum by extracting raw materials from the space resources around them and reconfiguring them into replicas of themselves, using technology such as 3D printing. This will create a colonising wave of probes across the Galaxy. However, such probes could have negative as well as positive consequences and it is incumbent upon us to factor self-replicating probes into our interstellar philosophies and to take responsibility for their actions.

  6. The evolution of self-replicating computer organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pargellis, A. N.

    A computer model is described that explores some of the possible behavior of biological life during the early stages of evolution. The simulation starts with a primordial soup composed of randomly generated sequences of computer operations selected from a basis set of 16 opcodes. With a probability of about 10 -4, these sequences spontaneously generate large and inefficient self-replicating “organisms”. Driven by mutations, these protobiotic ancestors more efficiently generate offspring by initially eliminating unnecessary code. Later they increase their complexity by adding additional subroutines as they compete for the system's two limited resources, computer memory and CPU time. The ensuing biology includes replicating hosts, parasites and colonies.

  7. Identification of Proteins at Active, Stalled, and Collapsed Replication Forks Using Isolation of Proteins on Nascent DNA (iPOND) Coupled with Mass Spectrometry*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirbu, Bianca M.; McDonald, W. Hayes; Dungrawala, Huzefa; Badu-Nkansah, Akosua; Kavanaugh, Gina M.; Chen, Yaoyi; Tabb, David L.; Cortez, David

    2013-01-01

    Both DNA and chromatin need to be duplicated during each cell division cycle. Replication happens in the context of defects in the DNA template and other forms of replication stress that present challenges to both genetic and epigenetic inheritance. The replication machinery is highly regulated by replication stress responses to accomplish this goal. To identify important replication and stress response proteins, we combined isolation of proteins on nascent DNA (iPOND) with quantitative mass spectrometry. We identified 290 proteins enriched on newly replicated DNA at active, stalled, and collapsed replication forks. Approximately 16% of these proteins are known replication or DNA damage response proteins. Genetic analysis indicates that several of the newly identified proteins are needed to facilitate DNA replication, especially under stressed conditions. Our data provide a useful resource for investigators studying DNA replication and the replication stress response and validate the use of iPOND combined with mass spectrometry as a discovery tool. PMID:24047897

  8. Defects of mitochondrial DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, William C

    2014-09-01

    Mitochondrial DNA is replicated by DNA polymerase γ in concert with accessory proteins such as the mitochondrial DNA helicase, single-stranded DNA binding protein, topoisomerase, and initiating factors. Defects in mitochondrial DNA replication or nucleotide metabolism can cause mitochondrial genetic diseases due to mitochondrial DNA deletions, point mutations, or depletion, which ultimately cause loss of oxidative phosphorylation. These genetic diseases include mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes such as Alpers or early infantile hepatocerebral syndromes, and mitochondrial DNA deletion disorders, such as progressive external ophthalmoplegia, ataxia-neuropathy, or mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy. This review focuses on our current knowledge of genetic defects of mitochondrial DNA replication (POLG, POLG2, C10orf2, and MGME1) that cause instability of mitochondrial DNA and mitochondrial disease.

  9. Regulation of beta cell replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Ying C; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2008-01-01

    Beta cell mass, at any given time, is governed by cell differentiation, neogenesis, increased or decreased cell size (cell hypertrophy or atrophy), cell death (apoptosis), and beta cell proliferation. Nutrients, hormones and growth factors coupled with their signalling intermediates have been...... suggested to play a role in beta cell mass regulation. In addition, genetic mouse model studies have indicated that cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that determine cell cycle progression are involved in beta cell replication, and more recently, menin in association with cyclin-dependent kinase...... inhibitors has been demonstrated to be important in beta cell growth. In this review, we consider and highlight some aspects of cell cycle regulation in relation to beta cell replication. The role of cell cycle regulation in beta cell replication is mostly from studies in rodent models, but whether...

  10. Shell Separation for Mirror Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Space Optics Manufacturing Center has been working to expand our view of the universe via sophisticated new telescopes. The Optics Center's goal is to develop low-cost, advanced space optics technologies for the NASA program in the 21st century - including the long-term goal of imaging Earth-like planets in distant solar systems. To reduce the cost of mirror fabrication, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed replication techniques, the machinery, and materials to replicate electro-formed nickel mirrors. Optics replication uses reusable forms, called mandrels, to make telescope mirrors ready for final finishing. MSFC optical physicist Bill Jones monitors a device used to chill a mandrel, causing it to shrink and separate from the telescope mirror without deforming the mirror's precisely curved surface.

  11. Multiprocessor Real-Time Locking Protocols for Replicated Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Unnecessary s- blocking can be reduced by employing a cutting-ahead mechanism [8] that sometimes allows a newly issued re- quest to be ordered before...of replicas re- quested and released, respectively, up to the current time. These counters are updated atomically using fetch&add in- structions.4 As...than blocking, pro - vided we are able to reap the benfits of rare blocking analyt- ically. In particular, if worst-case s-blocking is pessimisti- cally

  12. Personality and Academic Motivation: Replication, Extension, and Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martin H.; McMichael, Stephanie N.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work examines the relationships between personality traits and intrinsic/extrinsic motivation. We replicate and extend previous work to examine how personality may relate to achievement goals, efficacious beliefs, and mindset about intelligence. Approximately 200 undergraduates responded to the survey with a 150 participants replicating…

  13. If Information Wants To Be Free...Then Who's Going To Pay for It? [and] A Question of Access: SPARC, BioOne, and Society-Driven Electronic Publishing [and] Who Is Going To Mine Digital Library Resources? And How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser, Richard T.; Johnson, Richard K.; Rudner, Lawrence

    2000-01-01

    Discusses Fair Use and the public perception; models for funding information services; publishers illusion that information is/should be free; Internet's role in making information freely available; scholarly communication systems: Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) and BioOne (an electronic aggregation of bioscience…

  14. If Information Wants To Be Free...Then Who's Going To Pay for It? [and] A Question of Access: SPARC, BioOne, and Society-Driven Electronic Publishing [and] Who Is Going To Mine Digital Library Resources? And How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser, Richard T.; Johnson, Richard K.; Rudner, Lawrence

    2000-01-01

    Discusses Fair Use and the public perception; models for funding information services; publishers illusion that information is/should be free; Internet's role in making information freely available; scholarly communication systems: Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) and BioOne (an electronic aggregation of bioscience…

  15. Impact of two interventions on timeliness and data quality of an electronic disease surveillance system in a resource limited setting (Peru: a prospective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quispe Jose A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A timely detection of outbreaks through surveillance is needed in order to prevent future pandemics. However, current surveillance systems may not be prepared to accomplish this goal, especially in resource limited settings. As data quality and timeliness are attributes that improve outbreak detection capacity, we assessed the effect of two interventions on such attributes in Alerta, an electronic disease surveillance system in the Peruvian Navy. Methods 40 Alerta reporting units (18 clinics and 22 ships were included in a 12-week prospective evaluation project. After a short refresher course on the notification process, units were randomly assigned to either a phone, visit or control group. Phone group sites were called three hours before the biweekly reporting deadline if they had not sent their report. Visit group sites received supervision visits on weeks 4 & 8, but no phone calls. The control group sites were not contacted by phone or visited. Timeliness and data quality were assessed by calculating the percentage of reports sent on time and percentage of errors per total number of reports, respectively. Results Timeliness improved in the phone group from 64.6% to 84% in clinics (+19.4 [95% CI, +10.3 to +28.6]; p Conclusion Regular phone reminders significantly improved timeliness of reports in clinics and ships, whereas supervision visits led to improved data quality only among clinics. Further investigations are needed to establish the cost-effectiveness and optimal use of each of these strategies.

  16. Metadata for Electronic Information Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    among digital libraries . METS provides an XML DTD that can point to metadata in other schemes by declaring the scheme that is being used. For example...site: www.niso.org/news/Metadata_simpler.pdf International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA). (2002). Digital Libraries : Metadata

  17. Regulation of Replication Recovery and Genome Integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, Camilla Skettrup

    facilitate replication recovery after MMS-induced replication stress. Our data reveal that control of Mrc1 turnover through the interplay between posttranslational modifications and INQ localization adds another layer of regulation to the replication checkpoint. We also add replication recovery to the list...... is mediated by Mrc1, which ensures Mec1 presence at the stalled replication fork thus facilitating Rad53 phosphorylation. When replication can be resumed safely, the replication checkpoint is deactivated and replication forks restart. One mechanism for checkpoint deactivation is the ubiquitin......-targeted proteasomal degradation of Mrc1. In this study, we describe a novel nuclear structure, the intranuclear quality control compartment (INQ), which regulates protein turnover and is important for recovery after replication stress. We find that upon methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-induced replication stress, INQ...

  18. 基于ASP.NET的电子资源整合系统设计与实现%Design and Realization of an Integrated Electronic Resource System Based on ASP.NET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀宪武; 陈晓冬; 何燕; 杨方; 曹宇宾; 潘大丰

    2011-01-01

    电子信息资源的整合是数字图书馆建设中的一个非常重要的环节,论述了数字资源整合的必要性,结合农业图书馆的实际,开展了电子资源整合服务平台的设计与实现。%The integration of electronic information resources is a very important part in digital library construction.In this paper,the necessity for integration of digital resources was discussed,combined with the actuality of the agricultural library,the design and implementation about services platform of electronic resource integration were carried out.

  19. Hyperthermia stimulates HIV-1 replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Roesch

    Full Text Available HIV-infected individuals may experience fever episodes. Fever is an elevation of the body temperature accompanied by inflammation. It is usually beneficial for the host through enhancement of immunological defenses. In cultures, transient non-physiological heat shock (42-45°C and Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs modulate HIV-1 replication, through poorly defined mechanisms. The effect of physiological hyperthermia (38-40°C on HIV-1 infection has not been extensively investigated. Here, we show that culturing primary CD4+ T lymphocytes and cell lines at a fever-like temperature (39.5°C increased the efficiency of HIV-1 replication by 2 to 7 fold. Hyperthermia did not facilitate viral entry nor reverse transcription, but increased Tat transactivation of the LTR viral promoter. Hyperthermia also boosted HIV-1 reactivation in a model of latently-infected cells. By imaging HIV-1 transcription, we further show that Hsp90 co-localized with actively transcribing provirus, and this phenomenon was enhanced at 39.5°C. The Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG abrogated the increase of HIV-1 replication in hyperthermic cells. Altogether, our results indicate that fever may directly stimulate HIV-1 replication, in a process involving Hsp90 and facilitation of Tat-mediated LTR activity.

  20. Hyperthermia stimulates HIV-1 replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Ferdinand; Meziane, Oussama; Kula, Anna; Nisole, Sébastien; Porrot, Françoise; Anderson, Ian; Mammano, Fabrizio; Fassati, Ariberto; Marcello, Alessandro; Benkirane, Monsef; Schwartz, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    HIV-infected individuals may experience fever episodes. Fever is an elevation of the body temperature accompanied by inflammation. It is usually beneficial for the host through enhancement of immunological defenses. In cultures, transient non-physiological heat shock (42-45°C) and Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) modulate HIV-1 replication, through poorly defined mechanisms. The effect of physiological hyperthermia (38-40°C) on HIV-1 infection has not been extensively investigated. Here, we show that culturing primary CD4+ T lymphocytes and cell lines at a fever-like temperature (39.5°C) increased the efficiency of HIV-1 replication by 2 to 7 fold. Hyperthermia did not facilitate viral entry nor reverse transcription, but increased Tat transactivation of the LTR viral promoter. Hyperthermia also boosted HIV-1 reactivation in a model of latently-infected cells. By imaging HIV-1 transcription, we further show that Hsp90 co-localized with actively transcribing provirus, and this phenomenon was enhanced at 39.5°C. The Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG abrogated the increase of HIV-1 replication in hyperthermic cells. Altogether, our results indicate that fever may directly stimulate HIV-1 replication, in a process involving Hsp90 and facilitation of Tat-mediated LTR activity.

  1. Cellular Responses to Replication Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Budzowska (Magdalena)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractDuring every S-phase cells need to duplicate their genomes so that both daughter cells inherit complete copies of genetic information. It is a tremendous task, given the large sizes of mammalian genomes and the required precision of DNA replication. A major threat to the accuracy and eff

  2. Covert Reinforcement: A Partial Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripstra, Constance C.; And Others

    A partial replication of an investigation of the effect of covert reinforcement on a perceptual estimation task is described. The study was extended to include an extinction phase. There were five treatment groups: covert reinforcement, neutral scene reinforcement, noncontingent covert reinforcement, and two control groups. Each subject estimated…

  3. Crinivirus replication and host interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsofia A Kiss

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Criniviruses comprise one of the genera within the family Closteroviridae. Members in this family are restricted to the phloem and rely on whitefly vectors of the genera Bemisia and/or Trialeurodes for plant-to-plant transmission. All criniviruses have bipartite, positive-sense ssRNA genomes, although there is an unconfirmed report of one having a tripartite genome. Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV is the type species of the genus, the best studied so far of the criniviruses and the first for which a reverse genetics system was available. LIYV RNA 1 encodes for proteins predicted to be involved in replication, and alone is competent for replication in protoplasts. Replication results in accumulation of cytoplasmic vesiculated membranous structures which are characteristic of most studied members of the Closteroviridae. These membranous structures, often referred to as BYV-type vesicles, are likely sites of RNA replication. LIYV RNA 2 is replicated in trans when co-infecting cells with RNA 1, but is temporally delayed relative to RNA1. Efficient RNA 2 replication also is dependent on the RNA 1-encoded RNA binding protein, P34. No LIYV RNA 2-encoded proteins have been shown to affect RNA replication, but at least four, CP, CPm, Hsp70h, and p59 are virion structural components and CPm is a determinant of whitefly transmissibility. Roles of other LIYV RNA 2-encoded proteins are largely as yet unknown, but P26 is a non-virion protein that accumulates in cells as characteristic plasmalemma deposits which in plants are localized within phloem parenchyma and companion cells over plasmodesmata connections to sieve elements. The two remaining crinivirus-conserved RNA 2-encoded proteins are P5 and P9. P5 is 39 amino acid protein and is encoded at the 5’ end of RNA 2 as ORF1 and is part of the hallmark closterovirus gene array. The orthologous gene in BYV has been shown to play a role in cell-to-cell movement and indicated to be localized to the

  4. Nanoscale topographical replication of graphene architecture by manufactured DNA nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Youngkwon; Shin, Jihoon; Seo, Soonbeom; Park, Sung Ha; Ahn, Joung Real

    2015-03-01

    Despite many studies on how geometry can be used to control the electronic properties of graphene, certain limitations to fabrication of designed graphene nanostructures exist. Here, we demonstrate controlled topographical replication of graphene by artificial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) nanostructures. Owing to the high degree of geometrical freedom of DNA nanostructures, we controlled the nanoscale topography of graphene. The topography of graphene replicated from DNA nanostructures showed enhanced thermal stability and revealed an interesting negative temperature coefficient of sheet resistivity when underlying DNA nanostructures were denatured at high temperatures.

  5. Library resources on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Nancy L.

    1995-07-01

    Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.

  6. Replication-Uncoupled Histone Deposition during Adenovirus DNA Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Komatsu, Tetsuro; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2012-01-01

    In infected cells, the chromatin structure of the adenovirus genome DNA plays critical roles in its genome functions. Previously, we reported that in early phases of infection, incoming viral DNA is associated with both viral core protein VII and cellular histones. Here we show that in late phases of infection, newly synthesized viral DNA is also associated with histones. We also found that the knockdown of CAF-1, a histone chaperone that functions in the replication-coupled deposition of his...

  7. REPLICATION TOOL AND METHOD OF PROVIDING A REPLICATION TOOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    structured master surface (3a, 3b, 3c, 3d) having a lateral master pattern and a vertical master profile. The microscale structured master surface (3a, 3b, 3c, 3d) has been provided by localized pulsed laser treatment to generate microscale phase explosions. A method for producing a part with microscale......The invention relates to a replication tool (1, 1a, 1b) for producing a part (4) with a microscale textured replica surface (5a, 5b, 5c, 5d). The replication tool (1, 1a, 1b) comprises a tool surface (2a, 2b) defining a general shape of the item. The tool surface (2a, 2b) comprises a microscale...... energy directors on flange portions thereof uses the replication tool (1, 1a, 1b) to form an item (4) with a general shape as defined by the tool surface (2a, 2b). The formed item (4) comprises a microscale textured replica surface (5a, 5b, 5c, 5d) with a lateral arrangement of polydisperse microscale...

  8. Stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase 1 is associated with hepatitis C virus replication complex and regulates viral replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, LN; Lim, YS; Pham, Long

    2014-01-01

    exogenous supplementation of either oleate or palmitoleate, products of SCD1 activity, resurrected HCV replication in SCD1 knockdown cells. SCD1 was coimmunoprecipitated with HCV nonstructural proteins and colocalized with both double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and HCV nonstructural proteins, indicating that SCD1...... is associated with HCV replication complex. Moreover, SCD1 was fractionated and enriched with HCV nonstructural proteins at detergent-resistant membrane. Electron microscopy data showed that SCD1 is required for NS4B-mediated intracellular membrane rearrangement. These data further support the idea that SCD1...

  9. Entanglement Swapping Model of DNA Replication

    CERN Document Server

    Pusuluk, Onur

    2011-01-01

    Molecular biology explains function of molecules by their geometric and electronic structures which are mainly determined by utilization of quantum effects in chemistry. However, further quantum effects are not thought to play any significant role in the essential processes of life. On the contrary, consideration of quantum circuits/protocols and organic molecules as software and hardware of living systems that are co-optimized during evolution, may be useful to pass over the difficulties raised by biochemical complexity and to understand the physics of life. In this sense, we model DNA replication with a reliable qubit representation of the nucleotides: 1) molecular recognition of a nucleotide is assumed to trigger an intrabase entanglement corresponding to a superposition of different tautomer forms and 2) pairing of complementary nucleotides is described by swapping intrabase entanglements with interbase entanglements. We examine possible realizations of quantum circuits/protocols to be used to obtain intr...

  10. Replication of urban innovations - prioritization of strategies for the replication of Dhaka's community-based decentralized composting model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedla, Sudhakar

    2012-01-01

    Dhaka's community-based decentralized composting (DCDC) is a successful demonstration of solid waste management by adopting low-cost technology, local resources community participation and partnerships among the various actors involved. This paper attempts to understand the model, necessary conditions, strategies and their priorities to replicate DCDC in the other developing cities of Asia. Thirteen strategies required for its replication are identified and assessed based on various criteria, namely transferability, longevity, economic viability, adaptation and also overall replication. Priority setting by multi-criteria analysis by applying analytic hierarchy process revealed that immediate transferability without long-term and economic viability consideration is not advisable as this would result in unsustainable replication of DCDC. Based on the analysis, measures to ensure the product quality control; partnership among stakeholders (public-private-community); strategies to achieve better involvement of the private sector in solid waste management (entrepreneurship in approach); simple and low-cost technology; and strategies to provide an effective interface among the complementing sectors are identified as important strategies for its replication.

  11. 基于 EZproxy 日志的电子资源异常访问行为研究%Research on Abnormal Access to Electronic Resources Based on EZproxy Logs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷东升; 郭振英

    2016-01-01

    The off - campus access to electronic resources in the library benefits readers a lot .Meanwhile ,some abnormal access behavior arises .The paper analyzed the electronic resources access log with EZproxyog proxy server ,designed and devel-oped the EZproxy log analysis system so as to pretreat ,upload ,count and analyze the access log to electronic resources .To dis-cover the abnormal access behavior of readers on the basis of the characteristics of their access and to classify the abnormal behav -ior , the paper could avoid that IP is temporarily blocked by the supporters of database of electronic resources in the library so that can maintain the readers' rights and improve the efficiency of resource access .%校外访问图书馆电子资源在方便读者的同时也出现一些异常访问行为,利用 EZproxy 代理服务器日志信息分析异常访问行为特征,设计并开发 EZproxy 日志分析系统,完成对电子资源访问日志的预处理、上传、统计和分析,从访问特征发掘读者的异常访问行为,对异常行为情况分类处理,基本避免了异常访问行为导致图书馆电子资源被数据库商临时封掉 IP 的现象出现,维护图书馆读者的合法权利,提高资源访问效率。

  12. Replicator dynamics in value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantner, Uwe; Savin, Ivan; Vannuccini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The pure model of replicator dynamics though providing important insights in the evolution of markets has not found much of empirical support. This paper extends the model to the case of firms vertically integrated in value chains. We show that i) by taking value chains into account, the replicator...... dynamics may revert its effect. In these regressive developments of market selection, firms with low fitness expand because of being integrated with highly fit partners, and the other way around; ii) allowing partner's switching within a value chain illustrates that periods of instability in the early...... stage of industry life-cycle may be the result of an 'optimization' of partners within a value chain providing a novel and simple explanation to the evidence discussed by Mazzucato (1998); iii) there are distinct differences in the contribution to market selection between the layers of a value chain...

  13. Therapeutic targeting of replicative immortality

    OpenAIRE

    Yaswen, Paul; MacKenzie, Karen L.; Keith, W. Nicol; Hentosh, Patricia; Rodier, Francis; Zhu, Jiyue; Firestone, Gary L.; Matheu, Ander; Carnero, Amancio; Bilsland, Alan; Sundin, Tabetha; Honoki, Kanya; Fujii, Hiromasa; Georgakilas, Alexandros G.; Amedei, Amedeo

    2015-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of malignant cell populations is the ability to undergo continuous proliferation. This property allows clonal lineages to acquire sequential aberrations that can fuel increasingly autonomous growth, invasiveness, and therapeutic resistance. Innate cellular mechanisms have evolved to regulate replicative potential as a hedge against malignant progression. When activated in the absence of normal terminal differentiation cues, these mechanisms can result in a state of persis...

  14. Alphavirus polymerase and RNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietilä, Maija K; Hellström, Kirsi; Ahola, Tero

    2017-01-16

    Alphaviruses are typically arthropod-borne, and many are important pathogens such as chikungunya virus. Alphaviruses encode four nonstructural proteins (nsP1-4), initially produced as a polyprotein P1234. nsP4 is the core RNA-dependent RNA polymerase but all four nsPs are required for RNA synthesis. The early replication complex (RC) formed by the polyprotein P123 and nsP4 synthesizes minus RNA strands, and the late RC composed of fully processed nsP1-nsP4 is responsible for the production of genomic and subgenomic plus strands. Different parts of nsP4 recognize the promoters for minus and plus strands but the binding also requires the other nsPs. The alphavirus polymerase has been purified and is capable of de novo RNA synthesis only in the presence of the other nsPs. The purified nsP4 also has terminal adenylyltransferase activity, which may generate the poly(A) tail at the 3' end of the genome. Membrane association of the nsPs is vital for replication, and alphaviruses induce membrane invaginations called spherules, which form a microenvironment for RNA synthesis by concentrating replication components and protecting double-stranded RNA intermediates. The RCs isolated as crude membrane preparations are active in RNA synthesis in vitro, but high-resolution structure of the RC has not been achieved, and thus the arrangement of viral and possible host components remains unknown. For some alphaviruses, Ras-GTPase-activating protein (Src-homology 3 (SH3) domain)-binding proteins (G3BPs) and amphiphysins have been shown to be essential for RNA replication and are present in the RCs. Host factors offer an additional target for antivirals, as only few alphavirus polymerase inhibitors have been described.

  15. Microevolution in an electronic microcosm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedid, G; Bell, G

    2001-05-01

    The evolution of microbial populations in simple environments such as chemostats is still not fully understood. The classical interpretation of adaptation involves a process of successive substitution whereby a new dominant genotype arises by mutation from the genotype previously dominant and spreads more or less rapidly through the population until it is nearly fixed. The population is, thus, nearly uniform most of the time. Some observations suggest that the process may be more complicated, but it remains formidably difficult to assemble the phylogeny of an evolving culture in sufficient detail to be sure. We report experiments with an electronic microcosm inhabited by self-replicating computer programs whose phylogeny can be rendered completely transparent. The physiology of these programs is different in many respects from that of organic creatures, but their population biology has many features in common, including a very extensive, if not unbounded, range of variation. Experimental populations evolved through point mutations (many of which were quasi-neutral when they were viable) and through rearrangements that led to a change in genome size and often had large effects on fitness. As a general rule, smaller genomes execute fewer instructions in order to replicate, the rate of replication increases as the number of instructions executed declines, and the rate of replication in pure culture is a good predictor of success in mixture. When cultured with CPU (central processing unit) time as the sole limiting resource, smaller genomes, therefore, evolve as a correlated response to natural selection for faster replication. The genetic basis of adaptation was highly contingent and always differed in replicate experiments. The pattern of evolution depends on mutation rate. At low mutation rates of 0.01 per genome per generation or less, we observed classic periodic selection, with each dominant genotype descending from the previous dominant and rising to a frequency

  16. Dynamic replication of Web contents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenal growth of the World Wide Web has brought huge increase in the traffic to the popular web sites.Long delays and denial of service experienced by the end-users,especially during the peak hours,continues to be the common problem while accessing popular sites.Replicating some of the objects at multiple sites in a distributed web-server environment is one of the possible solutions to improve the response time/Iatency. The decision of what and where to replicate requires solving a constraint optimization problem,which is NP-complete in general.In this paper, we consider the problem of placing copies of objects in a distributed web server system to minimize the cost of serving read and write requests when the web servers have Iimited storage capacity.We formulate the problem as a 0-1 optimization problem and present a polynomial time greedy algorithm with backtracking to dynamically replicate objects at the appropriate sites to minimize a cost function.To reduce the solution search space,we present necessary condi tions for a site to have a replica of an object jn order to minimize the cost function We present simulation resuIts for a variety of problems to illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed algorithms and compare them with those of some well-known algorithms.The simulation resuIts demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithms.

  17. Evaluating replicability of laboratory experiments in economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerer, Colin F; Dreber, Anna; Forsell, Eskil; Ho, Teck-Hua; Huber, Jürgen; Johannesson, Magnus; Kirchler, Michael; Almenberg, Johan; Altmejd, Adam; Chan, Taizan; Heikensten, Emma; Holzmeister, Felix; Imai, Taisuke; Isaksson, Siri; Nave, Gideon; Pfeiffer, Thomas; Razen, Michael; Wu, Hang

    2016-03-25

    The replicability of some scientific findings has recently been called into question. To contribute data about replicability in economics, we replicated 18 studies published in the American Economic Review and the Quarterly Journal of Economics between 2011 and 2014. All of these replications followed predefined analysis plans that were made publicly available beforehand, and they all have a statistical power of at least 90% to detect the original effect size at the 5% significance level. We found a significant effect in the same direction as in the original study for 11 replications (61%); on average, the replicated effect size is 66% of the original. The replicability rate varies between 67% and 78% for four additional replicability indicators, including a prediction market measure of peer beliefs.

  18. Adenovirus sequences required for replication in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, K.; Pearson, G D

    1985-01-01

    We have studied the in vivo replication properties of plasmids carrying deletion mutations within cloned adenovirus terminal sequences. Deletion mapping located the adenovirus DNA replication origin entirely within the first 67 bp of the adenovirus inverted terminal repeat. This region could be further subdivided into two functional domains: a minimal replication origin and an adjacent auxillary region which boosted the efficiency of replication by more than 100-fold. The minimal origin occup...

  19. Replication Origin Specification Gets a Push.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plosky, Brian S

    2015-12-03

    During the gap between G1 and S phases when replication origins are licensed and fired, it is possible that DNA translocases could disrupt pre-replicative complexes (pre-RCs). In this issue of Molecular Cell, Gros et al. (2015) find that pre-RCs can be pushed along DNA and retain the ability to support replication.

  20. Exploiting replicative stress to treat cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobbelstein, Matthias; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication in cancer cells is accompanied by stalling and collapse of the replication fork and signalling in response to DNA damage and/or premature mitosis; these processes are collectively known as 'replicative stress'. Progress is being made to increase our understanding of the mechanisms...

  1. Analysis on the Thinking Modes of Medical Users Utilizing Library Electronic Resources%医药学用户使用图书馆电子资源的思维模式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东滨; 应峻; 辛继宾; 徐一新

    2012-01-01

    The paper studies the thinking modes of medical users utilizing electronic resources in college and university libraries. Combining with the questionnaires,in - depth analysis of utilization desire,utilization decision,impact factors of utilization behaviors are compiled,in order to provide references for college and university libraries formulating electronic resources marketing strategies.%研究高校图书馆医药学用户在使用电子资源过程中的思维模式,结合问卷调查结果深入分析思维模式中使用意愿、使用决策、使用行为的影响因素,为高校图书馆制定电子资源营销策略提供依据。

  2. A new fuzzy optimal data replication method for data grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Ghilavizadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available These days, There are several applications where we face with large data set and it has become an important part of common resources in different scientific areas. In fact, there are many applications where there are literally huge amount of information handled either in terabyte or in petabyte. Many scientists apply huge amount of data distributed geographically around the world through advanced computing systems. The huge volume data and calculations have created new problems in accessing, processing and distribution of data. The challenges of data management infrastructure have become very difficult under a large amount of data, different geographical spaces, and complicated involved calculations. Data Grid is a remedy to all mentioned problems. In this paper, a new method of dynamic optimal data replication in data grid is introduced where it reduces the total job execution time and increases the locality in accessibilities by detecting and impacting the factors influencing the data replication. Proposed method is composed of two main phases. During the first phase is the phase of file application and replication operation. In this phase, we evaluate three factors influencing the data replication and determine whether the requested file can be replicated or it can be used from distance. In the second phase or the replacement phase, the proposed method investigates whether there is enough space in the destination to store the requested file or not. In this phase, the proposed method also chooses a replica with the lowest value for deletion by considering three replica factors to increase the performance of system. The results of simulation also indicate the improved performance of our proposed method compared with other replication methods represented in the simulator Optorsim.

  3. Review of Researches on the Usage Standard Management of Electronic Resources in China from 2000 to 2010%2000—20l0年我国电子资源使用的规范管理研微

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宛玲; 杜坤

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, electronic resources play an increasingly important role in research, teaching and other works. Through the statistical analysis of the domestic research on the usage standard management of electronic resources from 2000 to 2010, we find that the issue of the usage standard management of electronic resources is increasingly concerned by the public and researchers. But there are still some problems, such as lack of systematic discussion and empirical research, scattered research topics, most research results on guidance proposals, and so on. Our researches about usage standard management of electronic resources should strengthen researches on the user, related technologies, licensing alliance, strengthen the communication between libraries and database providers, and strengthen the analysis and absorption of foreign experience.%目前,电子资源在科研、教学等工作中扮演着越来越重要的角色。通过对2000-2010年我国电子资源使用规范管理研究文献的统计分析发现,虽然公众及科研人员对电子资源使用的规范的关注程度越来越高,但是仍存在缺乏系统性的论述和实证性的研究、研究主题过于分散、研究成果多为指导性建议等问题。我国电子资源使用规范管理研究应加强对用户、相关技术、许可联盟的研究,加强对图书馆与数据库商交流的研究,加强对国外经验的分析与吸收。

  4. 高校图书馆电子资源购买过程中的委托-代理关系探究%Principal-agent Relationship During the Electronic Resources Purchase Process of University Libraries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂君; 吴冬曼

    2012-01-01

    The prineipal-agent relationship is throughout the whole process of the electronic resources purchase for university libraries. Based on the asymmetric informatiun theory the issues of information asymmetries in the purchase process of electronic resources for university libraries are analyzed. The major prineipal-agent relationships between the university libraries, the group organizers and the database providers ate studied. The operational characteristics and existing problems in the purchase process of electronic resources for university libraries are also discussed. Taking this opportunity to attention the principal-agent relationships existed in the electronic resources purchase of university libraries, the authors hope to solve some problems caused by the market information asymmetry.%委托-代理关系贯穿了高校图书馆电子资源的购买全过程,,基于信息不对称理论,分析高校图书馆电子资源购买中的信息不对称现象,并以高校图书馆、集团组织者、数据库提供者为主体,研究高校图书馆电子资源采购过程中存在的几种主要委托-代理关系、业务特点和存在的问题、通过对委托-代理关系的研究和分析,合理把握电子资源采购的规律,可以部分解决高校电子资源购买中由市场信息不平衡所带来的问题。

  5. A Comprehensive Analysis of the Dynamic Response to Aphidicolin-Mediated Replication Stress Uncovers Targets for ATM and ATMIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazouzi, Abdelghani; Stukalov, Alexey; Müller, André C; Chen, Doris; Wiedner, Marc; Prochazkova, Jana; Chiang, Shih-Chieh; Schuster, Michael; Breitwieser, Florian P; Pichlmair, Andreas; El-Khamisy, Sherif F; Bock, Christoph; Kralovics, Robert; Colinge, Jacques; Bennett, Keiryn L; Loizou, Joanna I

    2016-04-14

    The cellular response to replication stress requires the DNA-damage-responsive kinase ATM and its cofactor ATMIN; however, the roles of this signaling pathway following replication stress are unclear. To identify the functions of ATM and ATMIN in response to replication stress, we utilized both transcriptomics and quantitative mass-spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics. We found that replication stress induced by aphidicolin triggered widespread changes in both gene expression and protein phosphorylation patterns. These changes gave rise to distinct early and late replication stress responses. Furthermore, our analysis revealed previously unknown targets of ATM and ATMIN downstream of replication stress. We demonstrate ATMIN-dependent phosphorylation of H2AX and of CRMP2, a protein previously implicated in Alzheimer's disease but not in the DNA damage response. Overall, our dataset provides a comprehensive resource for discovering the cellular responses to replication stress and, potentially, associated pathologies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Comprehensive Analysis of the Dynamic Response to Aphidicolin-Mediated Replication Stress Uncovers Targets for ATM and ATMIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelghani Mazouzi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The cellular response to replication stress requires the DNA-damage-responsive kinase ATM and its cofactor ATMIN; however, the roles of this signaling pathway following replication stress are unclear. To identify the functions of ATM and ATMIN in response to replication stress, we utilized both transcriptomics and quantitative mass-spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics. We found that replication stress induced by aphidicolin triggered widespread changes in both gene expression and protein phosphorylation patterns. These changes gave rise to distinct early and late replication stress responses. Furthermore, our analysis revealed previously unknown targets of ATM and ATMIN downstream of replication stress. We demonstrate ATMIN-dependent phosphorylation of H2AX and of CRMP2, a protein previously implicated in Alzheimer’s disease but not in the DNA damage response. Overall, our dataset provides a comprehensive resource for discovering the cellular responses to replication stress and, potentially, associated pathologies.

  7. Printed Resources and Electronic Resources Integrated Services in Small and Medium-sized Libraries%中小型图书馆印本资源与电子资源一体化服务实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘胜

    2014-01-01

    Through analyzing the integrated service system of library resources, this paper sums up three methods for the integration of printed resources and digital resources including the digital resources catalog, digital resources navigate and open link system, and suggests that the libraries should give priority to books and periodicals integrated retrieval in the integrated service, and carry out the system construction within their capabilities by adopting the methods of making second development, introducing new system, and conducting independent development, etc.%通过对图书馆馆藏一体化服务系统的分析,归纳总结出印本资源与电子资源整合的3种主要模式———电子资源编目、电子资源导航与开放链接,并建议图书馆在进行一体化服务时,优先考虑图书和期刊的整合检索,在系统建设上量力而行,采取二次开发、引进新系统、自主开发等方式。

  8. 基于使用数据的馆藏电子资源评价方法与系统分析%Methods and Systems of Library Electronic Resources Evaluation Analysis Based on Usage Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹丹

    2014-01-01

    The origin and methods of library electronic resources evaluation were summarized;the statistical standards of library users' us-age data were reviewed. Then four library electronic resources evaluation systems based on library users' usage data which are ScholarlyS-tats,Journal Use Reports,360 Counter and Ustat were compared and contrasted. The related work which librarians need to do and the con-sidering factors about the selection of electronic resources evaluation system was also analyzed.%总结了图书馆馆藏电子资源评价的缘起与方法,梳理了图书馆用户使用数据的统计规范。以此为基础对比了四个基于使用数据的馆藏电子资源评价系统---ScholarlyStats,Journal Use Reports,360 Counter,UStat,分析了图书馆选择电子资源评价系统的考虑因素和需要预先做好的相关工作。

  9. Replication of micro and nano surface geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Hocken, R.J.; Tosello, Guido

    2011-01-01

    : manufacture of net-shape micro/nano surfaces, tooling (i.e. master making), and surface quality control (metrology, inspection). Replication processes and methods as well as the metrology of surfaces to determine the degree of replication are presented and classified. Examples from various application areas...... are given including replication for surface texture measurements, surface roughness standards, manufacture of micro and nano structured functional surfaces, replicated surfaces for optical applications (e.g. optical gratings), and process chains based on combinations of repeated surface replication steps....

  10. Replication of prions in differentiated muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Allen; Aiken, Judd M; McKenzie, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated that prions accumulate to high levels in non-proliferative C2C12 myotubes. C2C12 cells replicate as myoblasts but can be differentiated into myotubes. Earlier studies indicated that C2C12 myoblasts are not competent for prion replication. (1) We confirmed that observation and demonstrated, for the first time, that while replicative myoblasts do not accumulate PrP(Sc), differentiated post-mitotic myotube cultures replicate prions robustly. Here we extend our observations and describe the implication and utility of this system for replicating prions.

  11. Studies on the replication of Escherichia coli phage lambda DNA. I. The kinetics of DNA replication and requirements for the generation of rolling circles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Better, M; Freifelder, D

    1983-04-15

    Escherichia coli phage lambda DNA has been isolated from infected bacteria using a new technique by which virtually all phage DNA is recovered. Isolated DNA is examined by electron microscopy. Addition of phi X174 RF1 molecules as a counting standard enables us to determine the average number of lambda DNA molecules present in an infected cell. In this study, we have followed the kinetics of lambda DNA replication and examined rolling circle replication. The most important findings are the following: (1) Rolling circle replication is initiated at roughly the same time as is theta replication, indicating that the rolling circle is not solely a late-replicating form. (2) theta replication stops at about 16 min after infection. (3) Early in infection the number of DNA molecules per cell doubles every 2-3 min until theta replication stops, at which point most DNA synthesis consists of growth of the tails of about three rolling circles per cell. (4) Neither the timing of rolling circle replication nor the number of molecules is affected by the activity of the lambda red genes. (5). The red genes are responsible for the production of oligomeric circles late in infection.

  12. DNA replication stress: causes, resolution and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazouzi, Abdelghani; Velimezi, Georgia; Loizou, Joanna I

    2014-11-15

    DNA replication is a fundamental process of the cell that ensures accurate duplication of the genetic information and subsequent transfer to daughter cells. Various pertubations, originating from endogenous or exogenous sources, can interfere with proper progression and completion of the replication process, thus threatening genome integrity. Coordinated regulation of replication and the DNA damage response is therefore fundamental to counteract these challenges and ensure accurate synthesis of the genetic material under conditions of replication stress. In this review, we summarize the main sources of replication stress and the DNA damage signaling pathways that are activated in order to preserve genome integrity during DNA replication. We also discuss the association of replication stress and DNA damage in human disease and future perspectives in the field. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Replication Stress: A Lifetime of Epigenetic Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simran Khurana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available DNA replication is essential for cell division. Challenges to the progression of DNA polymerase can result in replication stress, promoting the stalling and ultimately collapse of replication forks. The latter involves the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs and has been linked to both genome instability and irreversible cell cycle arrest (senescence. Recent technological advances have elucidated many of the factors that contribute to the sensing and repair of stalled or broken replication forks. In addition to bona fide repair factors, these efforts highlight a range of chromatin-associated changes at and near sites of replication stress, suggesting defects in epigenome maintenance as a potential outcome of aberrant DNA replication. Here, we will summarize recent insight into replication stress-induced chromatin-reorganization and will speculate on possible adverse effects for gene expression, nuclear integrity and, ultimately, cell function.

  14. Replication in Overlay Networks: A Multi-objective Optimization Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haj Hassan, Osama; Ramaswamy, Lakshmish; Miller, John; Rasheed, Khaled; Canfield, E. Rodney

    Recently, overlay network-based collaborative applications such as instant messaging, content sharing, and Internet telephony are becoming increasingly popular. Many of these applications rely upon data-replication to achieve better performance, scalability, and reliability. However, replication entails various costs such as storage for holding replicas and communication overheads for ensuring replica consistency. While simple rule-of-thumb strategies are popular for managing the cost-benefit tradeoffs of replication, they cannot ensure optimal resource utilization. This paper explores a multi-objective optimization approach for replica management, which is unique in the sense that we view the various factors influencing replication decisions such as access latency, storage costs, and data availability as objectives, and not as constraints. This enables us to search for solutions that yield close to optimal values for these parameters. We propose two novel algorithms, namely multi-objective Evolutionary (MOE) algorithm and multi-objective Randomized Greedy (MORG) algorithm for deciding the number of replicas as well as their placement within the overlay. While MOE yields higher quality solutions, MORG is better in terms of computational efficiency. The paper reports a series of experiments that demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  15. Analysis on Current Situation and Countermeasure of Domestic Electronic Commerce Logistics in the Internet Age——Based on Resource Dependence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiapeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the status of electric business logistics in the current Internet era in China, and combines the SWOT analysis with AHP to do the empirical analysis, then puts forward the countermeasure that the electric business logistics resource should be shared based on the resource dependence theory. Through the empirical analysis, it is found that the disadvantages and opportunities of the logistics status are important in the Internet era.The resource sharing strategy based on the resource dependence theory is more scientific. The rational use of Internet technology in electric business logistics industry can achieve “sharing”. It is of great significance for its balanced development, intelligent development and optimization and development.

  16. Storage resource manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perelmutov, T.; Bakken, J.; Petravick, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    Storage Resource Managers (SRMs) are middleware components whose function is to provide dynamic space allocation and file management on shared storage components on the Grid[1,2]. SRMs support protocol negotiation and reliable replication mechanism. The SRM standard supports independent SRM implementations, allowing for a uniform access to heterogeneous storage elements. SRMs allow site-specific policies at each location. Resource Reservations made through SRMs have limited lifetimes and allow for automatic collection of unused resources thus preventing clogging of storage systems with ''orphan'' files. At Fermilab, data handling systems use the SRM management interface to the dCache Distributed Disk Cache [5,6] and the Enstore Tape Storage System [15] as key components to satisfy current and future user requests [4]. The SAM project offers the SRM interface for its internal caches as well.

  17. Fiber resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. J. Ince

    2004-01-01

    In economics, primary inputs or factors of production define the term ‘resources.’ Resources include land resources (plants, animals, and minerals), labor, capital, and entrepreneurship. Almost all pulp and paper fiber resources are plant materials obtained from trees or agricultural crops. These resources encompass plant materials harvested directly from the land (...

  18. Self-replication of DNA rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junghoon; Lee, Junwye; Hamada, Shogo; Murata, Satoshi; Ha Park, Sung

    2015-06-01

    Biology provides numerous examples of self-replicating machines, but artificially engineering such complex systems remains a formidable challenge. In particular, although simple artificial self-replicating systems including wooden blocks, magnetic systems, modular robots and synthetic molecular systems have been devised, such kinematic self-replicators are rare compared with examples of theoretical cellular self-replication. One of the principal reasons for this is the amount of complexity that arises when you try to incorporate self-replication into a physical medium. In this regard, DNA is a prime candidate material for constructing self-replicating systems due to its ability to self-assemble through molecular recognition. Here, we show that DNA T-motifs, which self-assemble into ring structures, can be designed to self-replicate through toehold-mediated strand displacement reactions. The inherent design of these rings allows the population dynamics of the systems to be controlled. We also analyse the replication scheme within a universal framework of self-replication and derive a quantitative metric of the self-replicability of the rings.

  19. Effective ANT based Routing Algorithm for Data Replication in MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.J. Nithya Nandhini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc network, the nodes often move and keep on change its topology. Data packets can be forwarded from one node to another on demand. To increase the data accessibility data are replicated at nodes and made as sharable to other nodes. Assuming that all mobile host cooperative to share their memory and allow forwarding the data packets. But in reality, all nodes do not share the resources for the benefits of others. These nodes may act selfishly to share memory and to forward the data packets. This paper focuses on selfishness of mobile nodes in replica allocation and routing protocol based on Ant colony algorithm to improve the efficiency. The Ant colony algorithm is used to reduce the overhead in the mobile network, so that it is more efficient to access the data than with other routing protocols. This result shows the efficiency of ant based routing algorithm in the replication allocation.

  20. DNA Replication via Entanglement Swapping

    CERN Document Server

    Pusuluk, Onur

    2010-01-01

    Quantum effects are mainly used for the determination of molecular shapes in molecular biology, but quantum information theory may be a more useful tool to understand the physics of life. Molecular biology assumes that function is explained by structure, the complementary geometries of molecules and weak intermolecular hydrogen bonds. However, both this assumption and its converse are possible if organic molecules and quantum circuits/protocols are considered as hardware and software of living systems that are co-optimized during evolution. In this paper, we try to model DNA replication as a multiparticle entanglement swapping with a reliable qubit representation of nucleotides. In the model, molecular recognition of a nucleotide triggers an intrabase entanglement corresponding to a superposition state of different tautomer forms. Then, base pairing occurs by swapping intrabase entanglements with interbase entanglements.

  1. Chikungunya triggers an autophagic process which promotes viral replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briant Laurence

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chikungunya Virus (ChikV surprised by a massive re-emerging outbreak in Indian Ocean in 2006, reaching Europe in 2007 and exhibited exceptional severe physiopathology in infants and elderly patients. In this context, it is important to analyze the innate immune host responses triggered against ChikV. Autophagy has been shown to be an important component of the innate immune response and is involved in host defense elimination of different pathogens. However, the autophagic process was recently observed to be hijacked by virus for their own replication. Here we provide the first evidence that hallmarks of autophagy are specifically found in HEK.293 infected cells and are involved in ChikV replication. Methods To test the capacity of ChikV to mobilize the autophagic machinery, we performed fluorescence microscopy experiments on HEK.GFP.LC3 stable cells, and followed the LC3 distribution during the time course of ChikV infection. To confirm this, we performed electron microscopy on HEK.293 infected cells. To test the effect of ChikV-induced-autophagy on viral replication, we blocked the autophagic process, either by pharmacological (3-MA or genetic inhibition (siRNA against the transcript of Beclin 1, an autophagic protein, and analyzed the percentage of infected cells and the viral RNA load released in the supernatant. Moreover, the effect of induction of autophagy by Rapamycin on viral replication was tested. Results The increasing number of GFP-LC3 positive cells with a punctate staining together with the enhanced number of GFP-LC3 dots per cell showed that ChikV triggered an autophagic process in HEK.293 infected cells. Those results were confirmed by electron microscopy analysis since numerous membrane-bound vacuoles characteristic of autophagosomes were observed in infected cells. Moreover, we found that inhibition of autophagy, either by biochemical reagent and RNA interference, dramatically decreases ChikV replication

  2. Therapeutic targeting of replicative immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaswen, Paul; MacKenzie, Karen L; Keith, W Nicol; Hentosh, Patricia; Rodier, Francis; Zhu, Jiyue; Firestone, Gary L; Matheu, Ander; Carnero, Amancio; Bilsland, Alan; Sundin, Tabetha; Honoki, Kanya; Fujii, Hiromasa; Georgakilas, Alexandros G; Amedei, Amedeo; Amin, Amr; Helferich, Bill; Boosani, Chandra S; Guha, Gunjan; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Chen, Sophie; Mohammed, Sulma I; Azmi, Asfar S; Bhakta, Dipita; Halicka, Dorota; Niccolai, Elena; Aquilano, Katia; Ashraf, S Salman; Nowsheen, Somaira; Yang, Xujuan

    2015-12-01

    One of the hallmarks of malignant cell populations is the ability to undergo continuous proliferation. This property allows clonal lineages to acquire sequential aberrations that can fuel increasingly autonomous growth, invasiveness, and therapeutic resistance. Innate cellular mechanisms have evolved to regulate replicative potential as a hedge against malignant progression. When activated in the absence of normal terminal differentiation cues, these mechanisms can result in a state of persistent cytostasis. This state, termed "senescence," can be triggered by intrinsic cellular processes such as telomere dysfunction and oncogene expression, and by exogenous factors such as DNA damaging agents or oxidative environments. Despite differences in upstream signaling, senescence often involves convergent interdependent activation of tumor suppressors p53 and p16/pRB, but can be induced, albeit with reduced sensitivity, when these suppressors are compromised. Doses of conventional genotoxic drugs required to achieve cancer cell senescence are often much lower than doses required to achieve outright cell death. Additional therapies, such as those targeting cyclin dependent kinases or components of the PI3K signaling pathway, may induce senescence specifically in cancer cells by circumventing defects in tumor suppressor pathways or exploiting cancer cells' heightened requirements for telomerase. Such treatments sufficient to induce cancer cell senescence could provide increased patient survival with fewer and less severe side effects than conventional cytotoxic regimens. This positive aspect is countered by important caveats regarding senescence reversibility, genomic instability, and paracrine effects that may increase heterogeneity and adaptive resistance of surviving cancer cells. Nevertheless, agents that effectively disrupt replicative immortality will likely be valuable components of new combinatorial approaches to cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors

  3. On the development and the utilization of library holding in electronic resources Taking the Library of Shandong University of Science and Technology%试论电子资源的馆藏发展与利用——以山东科技大学图书馆为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明华; 马圣芹

    2012-01-01

    通过分析电子资源馆藏发展的意义及模式,对电子资源发展的目标及有效管理进行了探讨,并提出一些提高电子资源利用率的措施。%This paper analyses the mode and the importance of library holding development in electronic resources. It also ex- plores the aim and the affective management in electronic resource development and put forwards some measures to improve the utilization ratio of electronic resources.

  4. Understanding how replication processes can maintain systems away from equilibrium using Algorithmic Information Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Sean D

    2016-02-01

    Replication can be envisaged as a computational process that is able to generate and maintain order far-from-equilibrium. Replication processes, can self-regulate, as the drive to replicate can counter degradation processes that impact on a system. The capability of replicated structures to access high quality energy and eject disorder allows Landauer's principle, in conjunction with Algorithmic Information Theory, to quantify the entropy requirements to maintain a system far-from-equilibrium. Using Landauer's principle, where destabilising processes, operating under the second law of thermodynamics, change the information content or the algorithmic entropy of a system by ΔH bits, replication processes can access order, eject disorder, and counter the change without outside interventions. Both diversity in replicated structures, and the coupling of different replicated systems, increase the ability of the system (or systems) to self-regulate in a changing environment as adaptation processes select those structures that use resources more efficiently. At the level of the structure, as selection processes minimise the information loss, the irreversibility is minimised. While each structure that emerges can be said to be more entropically efficient, as such replicating structures proliferate, the dissipation of the system as a whole is higher than would be the case for inert or simpler structures. While a detailed application to most real systems would be difficult, the approach may well be useful in understanding incremental changes to real systems and provide broad descriptions of system behaviour. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Phosphatidic acid produced by phospholipase D promotes RNA replication of a plant RNA virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiwamu Hyodo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic positive-strand RNA [(+RNA] viruses are intracellular obligate parasites replicate using the membrane-bound replicase complexes that contain multiple viral and host components. To replicate, (+RNA viruses exploit host resources and modify host metabolism and membrane organization. Phospholipase D (PLD is a phosphatidylcholine- and phosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing enzyme that catalyzes the production of phosphatidic acid (PA, a lipid second messenger that modulates diverse intracellular signaling in various organisms. PA is normally present in small amounts (less than 1% of total phospholipids, but rapidly and transiently accumulates in lipid bilayers in response to different environmental cues such as biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. However, the precise functions of PLD and PA remain unknown. Here, we report the roles of PLD and PA in genomic RNA replication of a plant (+RNA virus, Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV. We found that RCNMV RNA replication complexes formed in Nicotiana benthamiana contained PLDα and PLDβ. Gene-silencing and pharmacological inhibition approaches showed that PLDs and PLDs-derived PA are required for viral RNA replication. Consistent with this, exogenous application of PA enhanced viral RNA replication in plant cells and plant-derived cell-free extracts. We also found that a viral auxiliary replication protein bound to PA in vitro, and that the amount of PA increased in RCNMV-infected plant leaves. Together, our findings suggest that RCNMV hijacks host PA-producing enzymes to replicate.

  6. Regulation of Unperturbed DNA Replication by Ubiquitylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Priego Moreno

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Posttranslational modification of proteins by means of attachment of a small globular protein ubiquitin (i.e., ubiquitylation represents one of the most abundant and versatile mechanisms of protein regulation employed by eukaryotic cells. Ubiquitylation influences almost every cellular process and its key role in coordination of the DNA damage response is well established. In this review we focus, however, on the ways ubiquitylation controls the process of unperturbed DNA replication. We summarise the accumulated knowledge showing the leading role of ubiquitin driven protein degradation in setting up conditions favourable for replication origin licensing and S-phase entry. Importantly, we also present the emerging major role of ubiquitylation in coordination of the active DNA replication process: preventing re-replication, regulating the progression of DNA replication forks, chromatin re-establishment and disassembly of the replisome at the termination of replication forks.

  7. Chromosome replication and segregation in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Lamothe, Rodrigo; Nicolas, Emilien; Sherratt, David J

    2012-01-01

    In dividing cells, chromosome duplication once per generation must be coordinated with faithful segregation of newly replicated chromosomes and with cell growth and division. Many of the mechanistic details of bacterial replication elongation are well established. However, an understanding of the complexities of how replication initiation is controlled and coordinated with other cellular processes is emerging only slowly. In contrast to eukaryotes, in which replication and segregation are separate in time, the segregation of most newly replicated bacterial genetic loci occurs sequentially soon after replication. We compare the strategies used by chromosomes and plasmids to ensure their accurate duplication and segregation and discuss how these processes are coordinated spatially and temporally with growth and cell division. We also describe what is known about the three conserved families of ATP-binding proteins that contribute to chromosome segregation and discuss their inter-relationships in a range of disparate bacteria.

  8. Single-molecule analysis of DNA replication in Xenopus egg extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardimci, Hasan; Loveland, Anna B; van Oijen, Antoine M; Walter, Johannes C

    2012-06-01

    The recent advent in single-molecule imaging and manipulation methods has made a significant impact on the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying many essential cellular processes. Single-molecule techniques such as electron microscopy and DNA fiber assays have been employed to study the duplication of genome in eukaryotes. Here, we describe a single-molecule assay that allows replication of DNA attached to the functionalized surface of a microfluidic flow cell in a soluble Xenopus leavis egg extract replication system and subsequent visualization of replication products via fluorescence microscopy. We also explain a method for detection of replication proteins, through fluorescently labeled antibodies, on partially replicated DNA immobilized at both ends to the surface.

  9. Semiconservative replication in the quasispecies model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel; Deeds, Eric J.; Shakhnovich, Eugene I.

    2004-06-01

    This paper extends Eigen’s quasispecies equations to account for the semiconservative nature of DNA replication. We solve the equations in the limit of infinite sequence length for the simplest case of a static, sharply peaked fitness landscape. We show that the error catastrophe occurs when μ , the product of sequence length and per base pair mismatch probability, exceeds 2 ln [2/ ( 1+1/k ) ] , where k>1 is the first-order growth rate constant of the viable “master” sequence (with all other sequences having a first-order growth rate constant of 1 ). This is in contrast to the result of ln k for conservative replication. In particular, as k→∞ , the error catastrophe is never reached for conservative replication, while for semiconservative replication the critical μ approaches 2 ln 2 . Semiconservative replication is therefore considerably less robust than conservative replication to the effect of replication errors. We also show that the mean equilibrium fitness of a semiconservatively replicating system is given by k ( 2 e-μ/2 -1 ) below the error catastrophe, in contrast to the standard result of k e-μ for conservative replication (derived by Kimura and Maruyama in 1966). From this result it is readily shown that semiconservative replication is necessary to account for the observation that, at sufficiently high mutagen concentrations, faster replicating cells will die more quickly than more slowly replicating cells. Thus, in contrast to Eigen’s original model, the semiconservative quasispecies equations are able to provide a mathematical basis for explaining the efficacy of mutagens as chemotherapeutic agents.

  10. Electronic Library: A TERI Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Debal C.; Deb, Subrata; Kumar, Satish

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the development of Electronic Library at TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi). Highlights include: hardware and software used; the digital library/Virtual Electronic Library; directory of Internet journals; virtual reference resources; electronic collection/Physical Electronic Library; downloaded online full-length…

  11. Regulation of chromosomal replication in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Justine

    2012-03-01

    The alpha-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus is characterized by its asymmetric cell division, which gives rise to a replicating stalked cell and a non-replicating swarmer cell. Thus, the initiation of chromosomal replication is tightly regulated, temporally and spatially, to ensure that it is coordinated with cell differentiation and cell cycle progression. Waves of DnaA and CtrA activities control when and where the initiation of DNA replication will take place in C. crescentus cells. The conserved DnaA protein initiates chromosomal replication by directly binding to sites within the chromosomal origin (Cori), ensuring that DNA replication starts once and only once per cell cycle. The CtrA response regulator represses the initiation of DNA replication in swarmer cells and in the swarmer compartment of pre-divisional cells, probably by competing with DnaA for binding to Cori. CtrA and DnaA are controlled by multiple redundant regulatory pathways that include DNA methylation-dependent transcriptional regulation, temporally regulated proteolysis and the targeting of regulators to specific locations within the cell. Besides being critical regulators of chromosomal replication, CtrA and DnaA are also master transcriptional regulators that control the expression of many genes, thus connecting DNA replication with other events of the C. crescentus cell cycle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of three replication strategies in complex multicellular organisms: Asexual replication, sexual replication with identical gametes, and sexual replication with distinct sperm and egg gametes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the mutation-selection balance in three simplified replication models. The first model considers a population of organisms replicating via the production of asexual spores. The second model considers a sexually replicating population that produces identical gametes. The third model considers a sexually replicating population that produces distinct sperm and egg gametes. All models assume diploid organisms whose genomes consist of two chromosomes, each of which is taken to be functional if equal to some master sequence, and defective otherwise. In the asexual population, the asexual diploid spores develop directly into adult organisms. In the sexual populations, the haploid gametes enter a haploid pool, where they may fuse with other haploids. The resulting immature diploid organisms then proceed to develop into mature organisms. Based on an analysis of all three models, we find that, as organism size increases, a sexually replicating population can only outcompete an asexually replicating population if the adult organisms produce distinct sperm and egg gametes. A sexual replication strategy that is based on the production of large numbers of sperm cells to fertilize a small number of eggs is found to be necessary in order to maintain a sufficiently low cost for sex for the strategy to be selected for over a purely asexual strategy. We discuss the usefulness of this model in understanding the evolution and maintenance of sexual replication as the preferred replication strategy in complex, multicellular organisms.

  13. Innovative Resources for Education and Public Information: Electronic Services, Data and Information from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and Other NASA Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Carol A.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which supports the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope, is actively investigating and supporting innovative and experimental methods for improving science and math education content. The educational resources on the World Wide Web are derived from the latest data, scientific results, and advances…

  14. An implementation case study. Implementation of the Indian Health Service's Resource and Patient Management System Electronic Health Record in the ambulatory care setting at the Phoenix Indian Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnigan, Anthony; John, Karen; Scott, Andrea; Von Bibra, Lynda; Walling, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The Phoenix Indian Medical Center (PIMC) has successfully implemented the Resource and Patient Management System Electronic Health Record (RPMS-EHR) in its Ambulatory Care departments. One-hundred and twenty-six providers use the system for essentially all elements of documentation, ordering, and coding. Implementation of one function at a time, in one clinical area at a time, allowed for focused training and support. Strong departmental leadership and the development of 'super-users' were key elements. Detailed assessments of each clinic prior to implementation were vital, resulting in optimal workstation utilization and a greater understanding of each clinic's unique flow. Each phase saw an increasing reluctance to revert to old paper processes. The success of this implementation has placed pressure on the remainder of the hospital to implement the RPMS-EHR, and has given the informatics team an increased awareness of what resources are required to achieve this result.

  15. 大學圖書館電子資源之需求分析與行銷策略之研究 A Study of Demands Analysis and Marketing Strategy of Electronic Resources in University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang-Yu Liu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available 電子資源的出現,使得知識載體有了新的突破,提高了使用者的便利性與即時性。對於圖書館而言,如何使電子資源的使用效益達到最高,必須思考一套有效的行銷策略。電子資源行銷概念應以讀者為導向,尊重讀者的資訊需求,並利用各種宣傳技巧,行銷電子資源,使圖書館能提供更完善的服務。本研究之目的旨在探討讀者的使用需求及電子資源的推廣策略,以獲致最有效益的行銷方式。研究對象以開南大學日間部四學院(商學院、運輸觀光學院、資訊學院、人文社會學院)學生為樣本,佐以缺口分析模型為分析架構,藉以找出個案中讀者/學生對於電子資源使用的真實需求,並進而歸納出提供服務的大學圖書館在其推廣或行銷服務上可有的因應策略。The emergence of electronic resources has made new breakthrough in knowledge carriers because of their ease of use, instant availability, and the characteristic of no time and space constraints. For public libraries to achieve maximum efficiency in its electronic resources, it is necessary to seek the most effective marketing strategies. Therefore, the marketing concept of the electronic resources should be reader oriented, such as respecting and understanding library user’s information needs. Libraries also need to utilize various media and techniques to market the electronic resources, so that more comprehensive services and experiences can be provided to readers. The purpose of this study is to investigate library user’s needs and promotion strategies of electronic resources in order to identify the most effective ways of marketing. This study focuses on the students of the four colleges (College of Business, College of Tourism, College of Information, and College of Humanities and Social Science in Kainan University as subjects in the survey questionnaire. It uses the Gap Analysis

  16. Replicative Intermediates of Human Papillomavirus Type 11 in Laryngeal Papillomas: Site of Replication Initiation and Direction of Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auborn, K. J.; Little, R. D.; Platt, T. H. K.; Vaccariello, M. A.; Schildkraut, C. L.

    1994-07-01

    We have examined the structures of replication intermediates from the human papillomavirus type 11 genome in DNA extracted from papilloma lesions (laryngeal papillomas). The sites of replication initiation and termination utilized in vivo were mapped by using neutral/neutral and neutral/alkaline two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis methods. Initiation of replication was detected in or very close to the upstream regulatory region (URR; the noncoding, regulatory sequences upstream of the open reading frames in the papillomavirus genome). We also show that replication forks proceed bidirectionally from the origin and converge 180circ opposite the URR. These results demonstrate the feasibility of analysis of replication of viral genomes directly from infected tissue.

  17. Effect of monensin on Mayaro virus replication in monkey kidney and Aedes albopictus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Campos, R M; Ferreira, D F; Da Veiga, V F; Rebello, M A; Rebello, M C S

    2003-01-01

    The effect of a cationic ionophore, monensin, on the replication of Mayaro virus in monkey kidney TC7 and Aedes albopictus cells has been studied. Treatment of these cells with 1 micromol/l monensin during infection did not affect the virus protein synthesis but inhibited severely the virus replication. Electron microscopy of the cells infected with Mayaro virus and treated with monensin revealed that the morphogenesis of Mayaro virus was impaired in TC7 but not in A. albopictus cells.

  18. Chikungunya Virus Replication in Salivary Glands of the Mosquito Aedes albopictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubis Vega-Rúa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by mosquitoes such as Aedes albopictus. To be transmitted, CHIKV must replicate in the mosquito midgut, then disseminate in the hemocele and infect the salivary glands before being released in saliva. We have developed a standardized protocol to visualize viral particles in the mosquito salivary glands using transmission electron microscopy. Here we provide direct evidence for CHIKV replication and storage in Ae. albopictus salivary glands.

  19. Chikungunya Virus Replication in Salivary Glands of the Mosquito Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Rúa, Anubis; Schmitt, Christine; Bonne, Isabelle; Krijnse Locker, Jacomine; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2015-11-17

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by mosquitoes such as Aedes albopictus. To be transmitted, CHIKV must replicate in the mosquito midgut, then disseminate in the hemocele and infect the salivary glands before being released in saliva. We have developed a standardized protocol to visualize viral particles in the mosquito salivary glands using transmission electron microscopy. Here we provide direct evidence for CHIKV replication and storage in Ae. albopictus salivary glands.

  20. Ultrastructural study of Mayaro virus replication in BHK-21 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezencio, J M; de Souza, W; Fonseca, M E; Rebello, M A

    1990-01-01

    The replication of Mayaro virus in BHK-21 cells was studied by electron microscopy. The infected cells show an intense vacuolization and proliferation of membranous structures. At 5 h post-infection, precursor virus particles were seen in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Later, mature virus particles were found outside the cells and budding from the plasma membrane. Enveloped virus particles were also observed inside the vesicles and budding across their membrane. The release of virus particles into the extracellular space by exocytosis was also observed. In a later stage of the infection, inclusion bodies were sometimes present in the cytoplasm of infected cells. We conclude that in BHK-21 cells, budding from the plasma membrane is the main process of Mayaro virus maturation, and in this kind of cell replication differs significantly from that observed in Aedes albopictus cells.

  1. Membranous Replication Factories Induced by Plus-Strand RNA Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Romero-Brey

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the membranous replication factories of members of plus-strand (+ RNA viruses. We discuss primarily the architecture of these complex membrane rearrangements, because this topic emerged in the last few years as electron tomography has become more widely available. A general denominator is that two “morphotypes” of membrane alterations can be found that are exemplified by flaviviruses and hepaciviruses: membrane invaginations towards the lumen of the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER and double membrane vesicles, representing extrusions also originating from the ER, respectively. We hypothesize that either morphotype might reflect common pathways and principles that are used by these viruses to form their membranous replication compartments.

  2. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Induces Autophagy to Benefit Its Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhen Guo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The new porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED has caused devastating economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Despite extensive research on the relationship between autophagy and virus infection, the concrete role of autophagy in porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV infection has not been reported. In this study, autophagy was demonstrated to be triggered by the effective replication of PEDV through transmission electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and Western blot analysis. Moreover, autophagy was confirmed to benefit PEDV replication by using autophagy regulators and RNA interference. Furthermore, autophagy might be associated with the expression of inflammatory cytokines and have a positive feedback loop with the NF-κB signaling pathway during PEDV infection. This work is the first attempt to explore the complex interplay between autophagy and PEDV infection. Our findings might accelerate our understanding of the pathogenesis of PEDV infection and provide new insights into the development of effective therapeutic strategies.

  3. 电子商务系统内的人力资源管理模式解析%The analytic model of human resource management in electronic commerce system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌

    2013-01-01

      企业人力资源管理工作在现代电子商务环境下呈现出多方面的电子化新特征,且较之于传统的人力资源管理工作有非常多显著的优势可言,基本上已经成为了企业获取更大成功的基本导向。电子商务系统内的人力资源管理新模式E-HR就是在这样一种背景下应运而生的,E-HR管理模式不仅已经成为了众多企业发展的趋势,而且在实际应用的过程当中也已经给企业带来了非常多的利益。本文正是在此背景之下对电子商务系统内的人力资源管理模式E-HR进行解析,希望能够对其有更深入的理解并更好的应用到实践当中去。%The enterprise human resources management in modern electronic commerce environment presents many new characteristics of the electron,and compared with the traditional human resource management has many significant advantages,basically has become a basic guide for more successful enterprises.E-HR is a new mode of human resource management system emerge as the times require electronic commerce is in such a background,the E-HR management model not only has become the trend of development of many enterprises, but also in the process of practical application also has to the enterprise has brought a lot of benefits. This paper is analyzed under this background to the electronic commerce system within the human resources management mode of E-HR,the application wishes to have a deeper understanding and better on it into practice.

  4. Positive Perceptions of Access to Online Library Resources Correlates with Quality and Quantity of Scholarly Publications among Finnish Academics. A Review of: Vakkari, Pertti. “Perceived Influence of the Use of Electronic Information Resources on Scholarly Work and Publication Productivity.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.4 (Feb. 15, 2008: 602-12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Marsalis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the relationship between academics’ use of library electronic resources and their opinions regarding how these resources have impacted their work, and to investigate the association between this perceived influence and publication productivity during the previous two years.Design – Two specific questions added to an annual online user-survey questionnaire; additional data mined from surveySetting – Twenty-two Finnish Universities served by FinELib, the Finnish Electronic Library.Subjects – Seven hundred and sixty seven academic staff and full-time doctoral students.Methods – A questionnaire was posted in April 2007 on FinELib’s homepage and advertised on each university library’s mainpage, and focused on respondents’ experience in the previous two years. Participants selected answers either from a list of category choices, or, when measuring perceptions, by rating agreement with statements along a four-point scale. Controlled variables measured were the respondents’ academic position, their discipline, membership in a research group, whether their literature use was discipline-specific or interdisciplinary, and their perception of the availability online of the relevant core literature. The independent variable measured was the scholars’ perception of the impact of the use of electronic library resources on their work. The dependent variable measured was the scholars’ self-reported publications in the two years preceding the survey.Main Results – Participants reported a positive impact on the efficiency of their work, most strongly in areas of ease of access, with lesser impacts in the range of materials available to them and the ease with which they can keep up-to-date in their field. To a lesser extent, the scholars perceived a positive impact on the quality of their work. Upon analysis, the study found that access to online library resources improved scholars’ work by the interconnected

  5. Variety of DNA Replication Activity Among Cyanobacteria Correlates with Distinct Respiration Activity in the Dark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohbayashi, Ryudo; Yamamoto, Jun-Ya; Watanabe, Satoru; Kanesaki, Yu; Chibazakura, Taku; Miyagishima, Shin-Ya; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi

    2016-11-10

    Cyanobacteria exhibit light-dependent cell growth since most of their cellular energy is obtained by photosynthesis. In Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, one of the model cyanobacteria, DNA replication depends on photosynthetic electron transport. However, the critical signal for the regulatory mechanism of DNA replication has not been identified. In addition, conservation of this regulatory mechanism has not been investigated among cyanobacteria. To understand this regulatory signal and its dependence on light, we examined the regulation of DNA replication under both light and dark conditions among three model cyanobacteria, S. elongatus PCC 7942, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. Interestingly, DNA replication activity in Synechocystis and Anabaena was retained when cells were transferred to the dark, although it was drastically decreased in S. elongatus. Glycogen metabolism and respiration were higher in Synechocystis and Anabaena than in S. elongatus in the dark. Moreover, DNA replication activity in Synechocystis and Anabaena was reduced to the same level as that in S. elongatus by inhibition of respiratory electron transport after transfer to the dark. These results demonstrate that there is disparity in DNA replication occurring in the dark among cyanobacteria, which is caused by the difference in activity of respiratory electron transport.

  6. Surface micro topography replication in injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf

    of the mechanisms controlling topography replication. Surface micro topography replication in injection moulding depends on the main elements of  Process conditions  Plastic material  Mould topography In this work, the process conditions is the main factor considered, but the impact of plastic material...

  7. Replication and Robustness in Developmental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Engel, Mimi; Claessens, Amy; Dowsett, Chantelle J.

    2014-01-01

    Replications and robustness checks are key elements of the scientific method and a staple in many disciplines. However, leading journals in developmental psychology rarely include explicit replications of prior research conducted by different investigators, and few require authors to establish in their articles or online appendices that their key…

  8. Completion of DNA replication in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Brian M; Courcelle, Charmain T; Courcelle, Justin

    2014-11-18

    The mechanism by which cells recognize and complete replicated regions at their precise doubling point must be remarkably efficient, occurring thousands of times per cell division along the chromosomes of humans. However, this process remains poorly understood. Here we show that, in Escherichia coli, the completion of replication involves an enzymatic system that effectively counts pairs and limits cellular replication to its doubling point by allowing converging replication forks to transiently continue through the doubling point before the excess, over-replicated regions are incised, resected, and joined. Completion requires RecBCD and involves several proteins associated with repairing double-strand breaks including, ExoI, SbcDC, and RecG. However, unlike double-strand break repair, completion occurs independently of homologous recombination and RecA. In some bacterial viruses, the completion mechanism is specifically targeted for inactivation to allow over-replication to occur during lytic replication. The results suggest that a primary cause of genomic instabilities in many double-strand-break-repair mutants arises from an impaired ability to complete replication, independent from DNA damage.

  9. Replication and Robustness in Developmental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Engel, Mimi; Claessens, Amy; Dowsett, Chantelle J.

    2014-01-01

    Replications and robustness checks are key elements of the scientific method and a staple in many disciplines. However, leading journals in developmental psychology rarely include explicit replications of prior research conducted by different investigators, and few require authors to establish in their articles or online appendices that their key…

  10. Using Replication Projects in Teaching Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing, Lionel G.; Grenier, Manuel; Lane, Erica A.; Roberts, Meigan S.; Sykes, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested that replication projects may be valuable in teaching research methods, and also address the current need in psychology for more independent verification of published studies. Their use in an undergraduate methods course is described, involving student teams who performed direct replications of four well-known experiments, yielding…

  11. Mammalian RAD52 Functions in Break-Induced Replication Repair of Collapsed DNA Replication Forks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sotiriou, Sotirios K; Kamileri, Irene; Lugli, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Human cancers are characterized by the presence of oncogene-induced DNA replication stress (DRS), making them dependent on repair pathways such as break-induced replication (BIR) for damaged DNA replication forks. To better understand BIR, we performed a targeted siRNA screen for genes whose depl...

  12. Rescue from replication stress during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkos, Michalis; Naim, Valeria

    2017-04-03

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer and a common feature of human disorders, characterized by growth defects, neurodegeneration, cancer predisposition, and aging. Recent evidence has shown that DNA replication stress is a major driver of genomic instability and tumorigenesis. Cells can undergo mitosis with under-replicated DNA or unresolved DNA structures, and specific pathways are dedicated to resolving these structures during mitosis, suggesting that mitotic rescue from replication stress (MRRS) is a key process influencing genome stability and cellular homeostasis. Deregulation of MRRS following oncogene activation or loss-of-function of caretaker genes may be the cause of chromosomal aberrations that promote cancer initiation and progression. In this review, we discuss the causes and consequences of replication stress, focusing on its persistence in mitosis as well as the mechanisms and factors involved in its resolution, and the potential impact of incomplete replication or aberrant MRRS on tumorigenesis, aging and disease.

  13. A New Replication Norm for Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne P LeBel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a growing concern regarding the replicability of findings in psychology, including a mounting number of prominent findings that have failed to replicate via high-powered independent replication attempts. In the face of this replicability “crisis of confidence”, several initiatives have been implemented to increase the reliability of empirical findings. In the current article, I propose a new replication norm that aims to further boost the dependability of findings in psychology. Paralleling the extant social norm that researchers should peer review about three times as many articles that they themselves publish per year, the new replication norm states that researchers should aim to independently replicate important findings in their own research areas in proportion to the number of original studies they themselves publish per year (e.g., a 4:1 original-to-replication studies ratio. I argue this simple approach could significantly advance our science by increasing the reliability and cumulative nature of our empirical knowledge base, accelerating our theoretical understanding of psychological phenomena, instilling a focus on quality rather than quantity, and by facilitating our transformation toward a research culture where executing and reporting independent direct replications is viewed as an ordinary part of the research process. To help promote the new norm, I delineate (1 how each of the major constituencies of the research process (i.e., funders, journals, professional societies, departments, and individual researchers can incentivize replications and promote the new norm and (2 any obstacles each constituency faces in supporting the new norm.

  14. Lactation resources for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Maffei, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Breastfeeding is widely acknowledged as the optimal infant feeding choice. However, many clinicians working in maternal and child health do not receive adequate university preparation to support breastfeeding. Knowledge and skill are most often gained through on-the-job and personal experience. Myriad resources exist to support clinicians in delivering the best quality care to breastfeeding clients. Among the available resources are policies and protocols of professional organizations, governmental, and health advocacy groups. Breastfeeding-focused academic and continuing education programs are identified. Electronic and other resources for breastfeeding information are available for both professional and consumer audiences.

  15. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  16. Merge of terminological resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration...... – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....

  17. Recent advances in the genome-wide study of DNA replication origins in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong ePeng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available DNA replication, one of the central events in the cell cycle, is the basis of biological inheritance. In order to be duplicated, a DNA double helix must be opened at defined sites, which are called DNA replication origins (ORIs. Unlike in bacteria, where replication initiates from a single replication origin, multiple origins are utilized in the eukaryotic genome. Among them, the ORIs in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe have been best characterized. In recent years, advances in DNA microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies have increased the number of yeast species involved in ORIs research dramatically. The ORIs in some nonconventional yeast species such as Kluyveromyces lactis and Pichia pastoris have also been genome-widely identified. Relevant databases of replication origins in yeast were constructed, then the comparative genomic analysis can be carried out. Here, we review several experimental approaches that have been used to map replication origins in yeast and some of the available web resources related to yeast ORIs. We also discuss the sequence characteristics and chromosome structures of ORIs in the four yeast species, which can be utilized to improve the replication origins prediction.

  18. Data from Investigating Variation in Replicability: A “Many Labs” Replication Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Klein

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This dataset is from the Many Labs Replication Project in which 13 effects were replicated across 36 samples and over 6,000 participants. Data from the replications are included, along with demographic variables about the participants and contextual information about the environment in which the replication was conducted. Data were collected in-lab and online through a standardized procedure administered via an online link. The dataset is stored on the Open Science Framework website. These data could be used to further investigate the results of the included 13 effects or to study replication and generalizability more broadly.

  19. Replication forks reverse at high frequency upon replication stress in Physarum polycephalum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maric, Chrystelle; Bénard, Marianne

    2014-12-01

    The addition of hydroxyurea after the onset of S phase allows replication to start and permits the successive detecting of replication-dependent joint DNA molecules and chicken foot structures in the synchronous nuclei of Physarum polycephalum. We find evidence for a very high frequency of reversed replication forks upon replication stress. The formation of these reversed forks is dependent on the presence of joint DNA molecules, the impediment of the replication fork progression by hydroxyurea, and likely on the propensity of some replication origins to reinitiate replication to counteract the action of this compound. As hydroxyurea treatment enables us to successively detect the appearance of joint DNA molecules and then of reversed replication forks, we propose that chicken foot structures are formed both from the regression of hydroxyurea-frozen joint DNA molecules and from hydroxyurea-stalled replication forks. These experiments underscore the transient nature of replication fork regression, which becomes detectable due to the hydroxyurea-induced slowing down of replication fork progression.

  20. A quantitative model of DNA replication in Xenopus embryos: reliable replication despite stochasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng-Hsin Yang, Scott; Bechhoefer, John

    2008-03-01

    DNA synthesis in Xenopus frog embryos initiates stochastically in time at many sites (origins) along the chromosome. Stochastic initiation implies fluctuations in the replication time and may lead to cell death if replication takes longer than the cell cycle time (˜ 25 min.). Surprisingly, although the typical replication time is about 20 min., in vivo experiments show that replication fails to complete only about 1 in 250 times. How is replication timing accurately controlled despite the stochasticity? Biologists have proposed two mechanisms: the first uses a regular spatial distribution of origins, while the second uses randomly located origins but increases their probability of initiation as the cell cycle proceeds. Here, we show that both mechanisms yield similar end-time distributions, implying that regular origin spacing is not needed for control of replication time. Moreover, we show that the experimentally inferred time-dependent initiation rate satisfies the observed low failure probability and nearly optimizes the use of replicative proteins.

  1. Targeting DNA Replication Stress for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Dai, Qun; Park, Dongkyoo; Deng, Xingming

    2016-01-01

    The human cellular genome is under constant stress from extrinsic and intrinsic factors, which can lead to DNA damage and defective replication. In normal cells, DNA damage response (DDR) mediated by various checkpoints will either activate the DNA repair system or induce cellular apoptosis/senescence, therefore maintaining overall genomic integrity. Cancer cells, however, due to constitutive growth signaling and defective DDR, may exhibit “replication stress” —a phenomenon unique to cancer cells that is described as the perturbation of error-free DNA replication and slow-down of DNA synthesis. Although replication stress has been proven to induce genomic instability and tumorigenesis, recent studies have counterintuitively shown that enhancing replicative stress through further loosening of the remaining checkpoints in cancer cells to induce their catastrophic failure of proliferation may provide an alternative therapeutic approach. In this review, we discuss the rationale to enhance replicative stress in cancer cells, past approaches using traditional radiation and chemotherapy, and emerging approaches targeting the signaling cascades induced by DNA damage. We also summarize current clinical trials exploring these strategies and propose future research directions including the use of combination therapies, and the identification of potential new targets and biomarkers to track and predict treatment responses to targeting DNA replication stress. PMID:27548226

  2. Oncogene v-jun modulates DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasylyk, C; Schneikert, J; Wasylyk, B

    1990-07-01

    Cell transformation leads to alterations in both transcription and DNA replication. Activation of transcription by the expression of a number of transforming oncogenes is mediated by the transcription factor AP1 (Herrlich & Ponta, 1989; Imler & Wasylyk, 1989). AP1 is a composite transcription factor, consisting of members of the jun and fos gene-families. c-jun and c-fos are progenitors of oncogenes, suggestion that an important transcriptional event in cell transformation is altered activity of AP1, which may arise either indirectly by oncogene expression or directly by structural modification of AP1. We report here that the v-jun oncogene and its progenitor c-jun, as fusion proteins with the lex-A-repressor DNA binding domain, can activate DNA replication from the Polyoma virus (Py) origin of replication, linked to the lex-A operator. The transcription-activation region of v-jun is required for activation of replication. When excess v-jun is expressed in the cell, replication is inhibited or 'squelched'. These results suggest that one consequence of deregulated jun activity could be altered DNA replication and that there are similarities in the way v-jun activates replication and transcription.

  3. Targeting DNA Replication Stress for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The human cellular genome is under constant stress from extrinsic and intrinsic factors, which can lead to DNA damage and defective replication. In normal cells, DNA damage response (DDR mediated by various checkpoints will either activate the DNA repair system or induce cellular apoptosis/senescence, therefore maintaining overall genomic integrity. Cancer cells, however, due to constitutive growth signaling and defective DDR, may exhibit “replication stress” —a phenomenon unique to cancer cells that is described as the perturbation of error-free DNA replication and slow-down of DNA synthesis. Although replication stress has been proven to induce genomic instability and tumorigenesis, recent studies have counterintuitively shown that enhancing replicative stress through further loosening of the remaining checkpoints in cancer cells to induce their catastrophic failure of proliferation may provide an alternative therapeutic approach. In this review, we discuss the rationale to enhance replicative stress in cancer cells, past approaches using traditional radiation and chemotherapy, and emerging approaches targeting the signaling cascades induced by DNA damage. We also summarize current clinical trials exploring these strategies and propose future research directions including the use of combination therapies, and the identification of potential new targets and biomarkers to track and predict treatment responses to targeting DNA replication stress.

  4. Evaluating the use of a simulated electronic health record and online drug reference in a case study to enhance nursing students' understanding of pharmacologic concepts and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vana, Kimberly D; Silva, Graciela E

    2014-01-01

    Nursing students should learn to navigate the complexities of the healthcare arena, such as integrating use of electronic health records (EHRs) and online drug references into patient care. Using a simulated EHR in a nursing pharmacology course allowed students to interact with these technologies while learning and applying pharmacologic concepts to a case study. The authors discuss how they created and facilitated such a case study, as well as students' outcomes.

  5. 浅谈高职院校图书馆电子资源的管理和服务%On the Management and Service of the Electronic Resources of Higher Vocational College Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓正芳

    2014-01-01

    Under the background of rapid development of social economy, the computer technology, computer network technology, communication technology, database technology and other information technology, China has entered the information age ahead of time. In higher vocational colleges, the library electronic resources have become an important way for teachers and students to get teaching knowledge and scientific research information, providing reliable, timely and accurate books resources information service for teachers and students. In order to ensure the effective utilization of library electronic resources in higher vocational colleges, scientific and reasonable management is necessary, so as to promote the construction of digital libraries in higher vocational colleges, to achieve better and faster development.%在社会经济的快速发展背景下,我国计算机技术、计算机网络技术、通讯技术以及数据库技术等信息技术的产生,使我国提前进入信息化时代。在高职院校中,图书馆电子资源已经成为老师和学生获取教学知识、科研信息等方面的重要途径,为学校老师和学生提供了可靠、及时、准确的图书资源信息化服务。为了确保高职院校图书馆电子资源的有效利用,需要对其进行科学合理的管理,促进高职院校图书馆数字化建设,使其更好更快地发展。

  6. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  7. Electronic collection management

    CERN Document Server

    Mcginnis, Suzan D

    2013-01-01

    Build and manage your collection of digital resources with these successful strategies! This comprehensive volume is a practical guide to the art and science of acquiring and organizing electronic resources. The collections discussed here range in size from small college libraries to large research libraries, but all are facing similar problems: shrinking budgets, increasing demands, and rapidly shifting formats. Electronic Collection Management offers new ideas for coping with these issues. Bringing together diverse aspects of collection development, Electronic Collection

  8. Study on the micro-replication of shark skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Direct replication of creatural scarfskins to form biomimetic surfaces with relatively vivid morphology is a new attempt of the bio-replicated forming technology at animal body. Taking shark skins as the replication templates, and the micro-embossing and micro-molding as the material forming methods, the micro-replicating technology of the outward morphology on shark skins was demonstrated. The preliminary analysis on replication precision indicates that the bio-replicated forming technology can replicate the outward morphology of the shark scales with good precision, which validates the application of the bio-replicated forming technology in the direct morphology replication of the firm creatural scarfskins.

  9. A Gossip-based optimistic replication for efficient delay-sensitive streaming using an interactive middleware support system

    CERN Document Server

    Mavromoustakis, Constandinos X; 10.1109/JSYST.2010.2047172

    2010-01-01

    While sharing resources the efficiency is substantially degraded as a result of the scarceness of availability of the requested resources in a multiclient support manner. These resources are often aggravated by many factors like the temporal constraints for availability or node flooding by the requested replicated file chunks. Thus replicated file chunks should be efficiently disseminated in order to enable resource availability on-demand by the mobile users. This work considers a cross layered middleware support system for efficient delay-sensitive streaming by using each device's connectivity and social interactions in a cross layered manner. The collaborative streaming is achieved through the epidemically replicated file chunk policy which uses a transition-based approach of a chained model of an infectious disease with susceptible, infected, recovered and death states. The Gossip-based stateful model enforces the mobile nodes whether to host a file chunk or not or, when no longer a chunk is needed, to pur...

  10. Silver nanoparticles impair Peste des petits ruminants virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Nitin; Kaur, Gurpreet; Chaubey, Kundan Kumar; Singh, Pushpendra; Sharma, Shalini; Tiwari, Archana; Singh, Shoor Vir; Kumar, Naveen

    2014-09-22

    In the present study, we evaluated the antiviral efficacy of the silver nanoparticles (SNPs) against Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), a prototype Morbillivirus. The leaf extract of the Argemone maxicana was used as a reducing agent for biological synthesis of the SNPs from silver nitrate. The SNPs were characterized using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM analysis revealed particle size of 5-30 nm and the XRD analysis revealed their characteristic silver structure. The treatment of Vero cells with the SNPs at a noncytotoxic concentration significantly inhibited PPRV replication in vitro. The time-course and virus step-specific assays showed that the SNPs impair PPRV replication at the level of virus entry. The TEM analysis showed that the SNPs interact with the virion surface as well with the virion core. However, this interaction has no direct virucidal effect, instead exerts a blocking effect on viral entry into the target cells. This is the first documented evidence indicating that the SNPs are capable of inhibiting a Morbillivirus replication in vitro. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 基于高校图书馆电子资源的采访调查与分析——以海南大学图书馆为例%Survey and Analysis Based on the Electronic Resource of University Libraries Taking Hainan University library as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨莹

    2011-01-01

    随着信息化时代的到来,高校图书馆的馆藏资源建设模式已经发生了变化,形成了纸质资源与电子资源并存的局面,电子资源以其方便快捷深受读者喜爱,电子资源的采购比例越来越重,如何协调电子资源的采购比例,是图书馆界丞待解决的问题.文章通过对海南大学2006-2010年间的电子资源经费使用情况进行统计、对比和分析,对此问题进行了初步的探讨.%With the arrival of information age, college library collection resources construction mode has changed, and the paper-based resources and electroic resources coexist.With the convenience of electronic resources, the acquisition proportion of electronic resources grows.How to coordinate the acquisition of electronic resource proportion is a problem faced by the libraries.Through the funds statistics, contrast and analysis of electronic resources in hainan university 2006-2010 this article provides a preliminary discussion.

  12. A transcription and translation-coupled DNA replication system using rolling-circle replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakatani, Yoshihiro; Ichihashi, Norikazu; Kazuta, Yasuaki; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2015-05-27

    All living organisms have a genome replication system in which genomic DNA is replicated by a DNA polymerase translated from mRNA transcribed from the genome. The artificial reconstitution of this genome replication system is a great challenge in in vitro synthetic biology. In this study, we attempted to construct a transcription- and translation-coupled DNA replication (TTcDR) system using circular genomic DNA encoding phi29 DNA polymerase and a reconstituted transcription and translation system. In this system, phi29 DNA polymerase was translated from the genome and replicated the genome in a rolling-circle manner. When using a traditional translation system composition, almost no DNA replication was observed, because the tRNA and nucleoside triphosphates included in the translation system significantly inhibited DNA replication. To minimize these inhibitory effects, we optimized the composition of the TTcDR system and improved replication by approximately 100-fold. Using our system, genomic DNA was replicated up to 10 times in 12 hours at 30 °C. This system provides a step toward the in vitro construction of an artificial genome replication system, which is a prerequisite for the construction of an artificial cell.

  13. Using autonomous replication to physically and genetically define human origins of replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krysan, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The author previously developed a system for studying autonomous replication in human cells involving the use of sequences from the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome to provide extrachromosomal plasmids with a nuclear retention function. Using this system, it was demonstrated that large fragments of human genomic DNA could be isolated which replicate autonomously in human cells. In this study the DNA sequences which function as origins of replication in human cells are defined physically and genetically. These experiments demonstrated that replication initiates at multiple locations distributed throughout the plasmid. Another line of experiments addressed the DNA sequence requirements for autonomous replication in human cells. These experiments demonstrated that human DNA fragments have a higher replication activity than bacterial fragments do. It was also found, however, that the bacterial DNA sequence could support efficient replication if enough copies of it were present on the plasmid. These findings suggested that autonomous replication in human cells does not depend on extensive, specific DNA sequences. The autonomous replication system which the author has employed for these experiments utilizes a cis-acting sequence from the EBV origin and the trans-acting EBNA-1 protein to provide plasmids with a nuclear retention function. It was therefore relevant to verify that the autonomous replication of human DNA fragments did not depend on the replication activity associated with the EBV sequences utilized for nuclear retention. To accomplish this goal, the author demonstrated that plasmids carrying the EBV sequences and large fragments of human DNA could support long-term autonomous replication in hamster cells, which are not permissive for EBV replication.

  14. Mechanism of chromosomal DNA replication initiation and replication fork stabilization in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, LiHong; Liu, Yang; Kong, DaoChun

    2014-05-01

    Chromosomal DNA replication is one of the central biological events occurring inside cells. Due to its large size, the replication of genomic DNA in eukaryotes initiates at hundreds to tens of thousands of sites called DNA origins so that the replication could be completed in a limited time. Further, eukaryotic DNA replication is sophisticatedly regulated, and this regulation guarantees that each origin fires once per S phase and each segment of DNA gets duplication also once per cell cycle. The first step of replication initiation is the assembly of pre-replication complex (pre-RC). Since 1973, four proteins, Cdc6/Cdc18, MCM, ORC and Cdt1, have been extensively studied and proved to be pre-RC components. Recently, a novel pre-RC component called Sap1/Girdin was identified. Sap1/Girdin is required for loading Cdc18/Cdc6 to origins for pre-RC assembly in the fission yeast and human cells, respectively. At the transition of G1 to S phase, pre-RC is activated by the two kinases, cyclindependent kinase (CDK) and Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK), and subsequently, RPA, primase-polα, PCNA, topoisomerase, Cdc45, polδ, and polɛ are recruited to DNA origins for creating two bi-directional replication forks and initiating DNA replication. As replication forks move along chromatin DNA, they frequently stall due to the presence of a great number of replication barriers on chromatin DNA, such as secondary DNA structures, protein/DNA complexes, DNA lesions, gene transcription. Stalled forks must require checkpoint regulation for their stabilization. Otherwise, stalled forks will collapse, which results in incomplete DNA replication and genomic instability. This short review gives a concise introduction regarding the current understanding of replication initiation and replication fork stabilization.

  15. Ultrastructure of the replication sites of positive-strand RNA viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harak, Christian; Lohmann, Volker, E-mail: volker_lohmann@med.uni-heidelberg.de

    2015-05-15

    Positive strand RNA viruses replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells and induce intracellular membranous compartments harboring the sites of viral RNA synthesis. These replication factories are supposed to concentrate the components of the replicase and to shield replication intermediates from the host cell innate immune defense. Virus induced membrane alterations are often generated in coordination with host factors and can be grouped into different morphotypes. Recent advances in conventional and electron microscopy have contributed greatly to our understanding of their biogenesis, but still many questions remain how viral proteins capture membranes and subvert host factors for their need. In this review, we will discuss different representatives of positive strand RNA viruses and their ways of hijacking cellular membranes to establish replication complexes. We will further focus on host cell factors that are critically involved in formation of these membranes and how they contribute to viral replication. - Highlights: • Positive strand RNA viruses induce massive membrane alterations. • Despite the great diversity, replication complexes share many similarities. • Host factors play a pivotal role in replication complex biogenesis. • Use of the same host factors by several viruses hints to similar functions.

  16. Mapping vaccinia virus DNA replication origins at nucleotide level by deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkevich, Tatiana G; Bruno, Daniel; Martens, Craig; Porcella, Stephen F; Wolf, Yuri I; Moss, Bernard

    2015-09-01

    Poxviruses reproduce in the host cytoplasm and encode most or all of the enzymes and factors needed for expression and synthesis of their double-stranded DNA genomes. Nevertheless, the mode of poxvirus DNA replication and the nature and location of the replication origins remain unknown. A current but unsubstantiated model posits only leading strand synthesis starting at a nick near one covalently closed end of the genome and continuing around the other end to generate a concatemer that is subsequently resolved into unit genomes. The existence of specific origins has been questioned because any plasmid can replicate in cells infected by vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototype poxvirus. We applied directional deep sequencing of short single-stranded DNA fragments enriched for RNA-primed nascent strands isolated from the cytoplasm of VACV-infected cells to pinpoint replication origins. The origins were identified as the switching points of the fragment directions, which correspond to the transition from continuous to discontinuous DNA synthesis. Origins containing a prominent initiation point mapped to a sequence within the hairpin loop at one end of the VACV genome and to the same sequence within the concatemeric junction of replication intermediates. These findings support a model for poxvirus genome replication that involves leading and lagging strand synthesis and is consistent with the requirements for primase and ligase activities as well as earlier electron microscopic and biochemical studies implicating a replication origin at the end of the VACV genome.

  17. Replicating chromatin: a tale of histones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Anja

    2009-01-01

    Chromatin serves structural and functional roles crucial for genome stability and correct gene expression. This organization must be reproduced on daughter strands during replication to maintain proper overlay of epigenetic fabric onto genetic sequence. Nucleosomes constitute the structural...

  18. Control of chromosome replication in caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczynski, Gregory T; Shapiro, Lucy

    2002-01-01

    Caulobacter crescentus permits detailed analysis of chromosome replication control during a developmental cell cycle. Its chromosome replication origin (Cori) may be prototypical of the large and diverse class of alpha-proteobacteria. Cori has features that both affiliate and distinguish it from the Escherichia coli chromosome replication origin. For example, requirements for DnaA protein and RNA transcription affiliate both origins. However, Cori is distinguished by several features, and especially by five binding sites for the CtrA response regulator protein. To selectively repress and limit chromosome replication, CtrA receives both protein degradation and protein phosphorylation signals. The signal mediators, proteases, response regulators, and kinases, as well as Cori DNA and the replisome, all show distinct patterns of temporal and spatial organization during cell cycle progression. Future studies should integrate our knowledge of biochemical activities at Cori with our emerging understanding of cytological dynamics in C. crescentus and other bacteria.

  19. LHCb Data Replication During SC3

    CERN Multimedia

    Smith, A

    2006-01-01

    LHCb's participation in LCG's Service Challenge 3 involves testing the bulk data transfer infrastructure developed to allow high bandwidth distribution of data across the grid in accordance with the computing model. To enable reliable bulk replication of data, LHCb's DIRAC system has been integrated with gLite's File Transfer Service middleware component to make use of dedicated network links between LHCb computing centres. DIRAC's Data Management tools previously allowed the replication, registration and deletion of files on the grid. For SC3 supplementary functionality has been added to allow bulk replication of data (using FTS) and efficient mass registration to the LFC replica catalog.Provisional performance results have shown that the system developed can meet the expected data replication rate required by the computing model in 2007. This paper details the experience and results of integration and utilisation of DIRAC with the SC3 transfer machinery.

  20. Initiation of Replication in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimodt-Møller, Jakob

    The circular chromosome of Escherichia coli is replicated by two replisomes assembled at the unique origin and moving in the opposite direction until they meet in the less well defined terminus. The key protein in initiation of replication, DnaA, facilitates the unwinding of double-stranded DNA...... to single-stranded DNA in oriC. Although DnaA is able to bind both ADP and ATP, DnaA is only active in initiation when bound to ATP. Although initiation of replication, and the regulation of this, is thoroughly investigated it is still not fully understood. The overall aim of the thesis was to investigate...... the regulation of initiation, the effect on the cell when regulation fails, and if regulation was interlinked to chromosomal organization. This thesis uncovers that there exists a subtle balance between chromosome replication and reactive oxygen species (ROS) inflicted DNA damage. Thus, failure in regulation...

  1. Surface Micro Topography Replication in Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Kjær, Erik Michael

    2005-01-01

    carried out with rough EDM (electrical discharge machining) mould surfaces, a PS grade, and by applying established three-dimensional topography parameters. Significant quantitative relationships between process parameters and topography parameters were established. It further appeared that replication...

  2. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  3. Commercial Building Partnerships Replication and Diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Dillon, Heather E.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-09-16

    This study presents findings from survey and interview data investigating replication efforts of Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) partners that worked directly with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL partnered directly with 12 organizations on new and retrofit construction projects, which represented approximately 28 percent of the entire U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CBP program. Through a feedback survey mechanism, along with personal interviews, PNNL gathered quantitative and qualitative data relating to replication efforts by each organization. These data were analyzed to provide insight into two primary research areas: 1) CBP partners’ replication efforts of technologies and approaches used in the CBP project to the rest of the organization’s building portfolio (including replication verification), and, 2) the market potential for technology diffusion into the total U.S. commercial building stock, as a direct result of the CBP program. The first area of this research focused specifically on replication efforts underway or planned by each CBP program participant. Factors that impact replication include motivation, organizational structure and objectives firms have for implementation of energy efficient technologies. Comparing these factors between different CBP partners revealed patterns in motivation for constructing energy efficient buildings, along with better insight into market trends for green building practices. The second area of this research develops a diffusion of innovations model to analyze potential broad market impacts of the CBP program on the commercial building industry in the United States.

  4. Organization of Replication of Ribosomal DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linskens, Maarten H.K.; Huberman, Joel A.

    1988-01-01

    Using recently developed replicon mapping techniques, we have analyzed the replication of the ribosomal DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results show that (i) the functional origin of replication colocalizes with an autonomously replicating sequence element previously mapped to the

  5. Dynamics of Escherichia coli Chromosome Segregation during Multifork Replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Jørck; Youngren, Brenda; Hansen, Flemming G.

    2007-01-01

    Slowly growing Escherichia coli cells have a simple cell cycle, with replication and progressive segregation of the chromosome completed before cell division. In rapidly growing cells, initiation of replication occurs before the previous replication rounds are complete. At cell division...

  6. Determining host metabolic limitations on viral replication via integrated modeling and experimental perturbation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa W Birch

    Full Text Available Viral replication relies on host metabolic machinery and precursors to produce large numbers of progeny - often very rapidly. A fundamental example is the infection of Escherichia coli by bacteriophage T7. The resource draw imposed by viral replication represents a significant and complex perturbation to the extensive and interconnected network of host metabolic pathways. To better understand this system, we have integrated a set of structured ordinary differential equations quantifying T7 replication and an E. coli flux balance analysis metabolic model. Further, we present here an integrated simulation algorithm enforcing mutual constraint by the models across the entire duration of phage replication. This method enables quantitative dynamic prediction of virion production given only specification of host nutritional environment, and predictions compare favorably to experimental measurements of phage replication in multiple environments. The level of detail of our computational predictions facilitates exploration of the dynamic changes in host metabolic fluxes that result from viral resource consumption, as well as analysis of the limiting processes dictating maximum viral progeny production. For example, although it is commonly assumed that viral infection dynamics are predominantly limited by the amount of protein synthesis machinery in the host, our results suggest that in many cases metabolic limitation is at least as strict. Taken together, these results emphasize the importance of considering viral infections in the context of host metabolism.

  7. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    energy at the end-user should also be set up. Deregulation of energy has in the past lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources will be high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One...... is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...

  8. Study of time-lapse processing for dynamic hydrologic conditions. [electronic satellite image analysis console for Earth Resources Technology Satellites imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebreny, S. M.; Evans, W. E.; Wiegman, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    The usefulness of dynamic display techniques in exploiting the repetitive nature of ERTS imagery was investigated. A specially designed Electronic Satellite Image Analysis Console (ESIAC) was developed and employed to process data for seven ERTS principal investigators studying dynamic hydrological conditions for diverse applications. These applications include measurement of snowfield extent and sediment plumes from estuary discharge, Playa Lake inventory, and monitoring of phreatophyte and other vegetation changes. The ESIAC provides facilities for storing registered image sequences in a magnetic video disc memory for subsequent recall, enhancement, and animated display in monochrome or color. The most unique feature of the system is the capability to time lapse the imagery and analytic displays of the imagery. Data products included quantitative measurements of distances and areas, binary thematic maps based on monospectral or multispectral decisions, radiance profiles, and movie loops. Applications of animation for uses other than creating time-lapse sequences are identified. Input to the ESIAC can be either digital or via photographic transparencies.

  9. Dynamics of Escherichia coli chromosome segregation during multifork replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Henrik J; Youngren, Brenda; Hansen, Flemming G; Austin, Stuart

    2007-12-01

    Slowly growing Escherichia coli cells have a simple cell cycle, with replication and progressive segregation of the chromosome completed before cell division. In rapidly growing cells, initiation of replication occurs before the previous replication rounds are complete. At cell division, the chromosomes contain multiple replication forks and must be segregated while this complex pattern of replication is still ongoing. Here, we show that replication and segregation continue in step, starting at the origin and progressing to the replication terminus. Thus, early-replicated markers on the multiple-branched chromosomes continue to separate soon after replication to form separate protonucleoids, even though they are not segregated into different daughter cells until later generations. The segregation pattern follows the pattern of chromosome replication and does not follow the cell division cycle. No extensive cohesion of sister DNA regions was seen at any growth rate. We conclude that segregation is driven by the progression of the replication forks.

  10. Optical tweezers reveal how proteins alter replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasiya, Kathy

    Single molecule force spectroscopy is a powerful method that explores the DNA interaction properties of proteins involved in a wide range of fundamental biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, and repair. We use optical tweezers to capture and stretch a single DNA molecule in the presence of proteins that bind DNA and alter its mechanical properties. We quantitatively characterize the DNA binding mechanisms of proteins in order to provide a detailed understanding of their function. In this work, we focus on proteins involved in replication of Escherichia coli (E. coli ), endogenous eukaryotic retrotransposons Ty3 and LINE-1, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DNA polymerases replicate the entire genome of the cell, and bind both double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) during DNA replication. The replicative DNA polymerase in the widely-studied model system E. coli is the DNA polymerase III subunit alpha (DNA pol III alpha). We use optical tweezers to determine that UmuD, a protein that regulates bacterial mutagenesis through its interactions with DNA polymerases, specifically disrupts alpha binding to ssDNA. This suggests that UmuD removes alpha from its ssDNA template to allow DNA repair proteins access to the damaged DNA, and to facilitate exchange of the replicative polymerase for an error-prone translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerase that inserts nucleotides opposite the lesions, so that bacterial DNA replication may proceed. This work demonstrates a biophysical mechanism by which E. coli cells tolerate DNA damage. Retroviruses and retrotransposons reproduce by copying their RNA genome into the nuclear DNA of their eukaryotic hosts. Retroelements encode proteins called nucleic acid chaperones, which rearrange nucleic acid secondary structure and are therefore required for successful replication. The chaperone activity of these proteins requires strong binding affinity for both single- and double-stranded nucleic

  11. Self-replication with magnetic dipolar colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Joshua M; Zhang, Rui; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2015-10-01

    Colloidal self-replication represents an exciting research frontier in soft matter physics. Currently, all reported self-replication schemes involve coating colloidal particles with stimuli-responsive molecules to allow switchable interactions. In this paper, we introduce a scheme using ferromagnetic dipolar colloids and preprogrammed external magnetic fields to create an autonomous self-replication system. Interparticle dipole-dipole forces and periodically varying weak-strong magnetic fields cooperate to drive colloid monomers from the solute onto templates, bind them into replicas, and dissolve template complexes. We present three general design principles for autonomous linear replicators, derived from a focused study of a minimalist sphere-dimer magnetic system in which single binding sites allow formation of dimeric templates. We show via statistical models and computer simulations that our system exhibits nonlinear growth of templates and produces nearly exponential growth (low error rate) upon adding an optimized competing electrostatic potential. We devise experimental strategies for constructing the required magnetic colloids based on documented laboratory techniques. We also present qualitative ideas about building more complex self-replicating structures utilizing magnetic colloids.

  12. A Self-Replicating Ligase Ribozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Natasha; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2002-01-01

    A self-replicating molecule directs the covalent assembly of component molecules to form a product that is of identical composition to the parent. When the newly formed product also is able to direct the assembly of product molecules, the self-replicating system can be termed autocatalytic. A self-replicating system was developed based on a ribozyme that catalyzes the assembly of additional copies of Itself through an RNA-catalyzed RNA ligation reaction. The R3C ligase ribozyme was redesigned so that it would ligate two substrates to generate an exact copy of itself, which then would behave in a similar manner. This self-replicating system depends on the catalytic nature of the RNA for the generation of copies. A linear dependence was observed between the initial rate of formation of new copies and the starting concentration of ribozyme, consistent with exponential growth. The autocatalytic rate constant was 0.011 per min, whereas the initial rate of reaction in the absence of pre-existing ribozyme was only 3.3 x 10(exp -11) M per min. Exponential growth was limited, however, because newly formed ribozyme molecules had greater difficulty forming a productive complex with the two substrates. Further optimization of the system may lead to the sustained exponential growth of ribozymes that undergo self-replication.

  13. Spacetime replication of continuous variable quantum information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Patrick; Nezami, Sepehr; Salton, Grant; Sanders, Barry C.

    2016-08-01

    The theory of relativity requires that no information travel faster than light, whereas the unitarity of quantum mechanics ensures that quantum information cannot be cloned. These conditions provide the basic constraints that appear in information replication tasks, which formalize aspects of the behavior of information in relativistic quantum mechanics. In this article, we provide continuous variable (CV) strategies for spacetime quantum information replication that are directly amenable to optical or mechanical implementation. We use a new class of homologically constructed CV quantum error correcting codes to provide efficient solutions for the general case of information replication. As compared to schemes encoding qubits, our CV solution requires half as many shares per encoded system. We also provide an optimized five-mode strategy for replicating quantum information in a particular configuration of four spacetime regions designed not to be reducible to previously performed experiments. For this optimized strategy, we provide detailed encoding and decoding procedures using standard optical apparatus and calculate the recovery fidelity when finite squeezing is used. As such we provide a scheme for experimentally realizing quantum information replication using quantum optics.

  14. COPI is required for enterovirus 71 replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Wang

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71, a member of the Picornaviridae family, is found in Asian countries where it causes a wide range of human diseases. No effective therapy is available for the treatment of these infections. Picornaviruses undergo RNA replication in association with membranes of infected cells. COPI and COPII have been shown to be involved in the formation of picornavirus-induced vesicles. Replication of several picornaviruses, including poliovirus and Echovirus 11 (EV11, is dependent on COPI or COPII. Here, we report that COPI, but not COPII, is required for EV71 replication. Replication of EV71 was inhibited by brefeldin A and golgicide A, inhibitors of COPI activity. Furthermore, we found EV71 2C protein interacted with COPI subunits by co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assay, indicating that COPI coatomer might be directed to the viral replication complex through viral 2C protein. Additionally, because the pathway is conserved among different species of enteroviruses, it may represent a novel target for antiviral therapies.

  15. Extremal dynamics in random replicator ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kärenlampi, Petri P., E-mail: petri.karenlampi@uef.fi

    2015-10-02

    The seminal numerical experiment by Bak and Sneppen (BS) is repeated, along with computations with replicator models, including a greater amount of features. Both types of models do self-organize, and do obey power-law scaling for the size distribution of activity cycles. However species extinction within the replicator models interferes with the BS self-organized critical (SOC) activity. Speciation–extinction dynamics ruins any stationary state which might contain a steady size distribution of activity cycles. The BS-type activity appears as a dissimilar phenomenon in comparison to speciation–extinction dynamics in the replicator system. No criticality is found from the speciation–extinction dynamics. Neither are speciations and extinctions in real biological macroevolution known to contain any diverging distributions, or self-organization towards any critical state. Consequently, biological macroevolution probably is not a self-organized critical phenomenon. - Highlights: • Extremal Dynamics organizes random replicator ecosystems to two phases in fitness space. • Replicator systems show power-law scaling of activity. • Species extinction interferes with Bak–Sneppen type mutation activity. • Speciation–extinction dynamics does not show any critical phase transition. • Biological macroevolution probably is not a self-organized critical phenomenon.

  16. Resource Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Development Institute, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This manual was designed primarily for use by individuals with developmental disabilities and related conditions. The main focus of this manual is to provide easy-to-read information concerning available resources, and to provide immediate contact information for the purpose of applying for resources and/or locating additional information. The…

  17. Rethinking Resourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Donald M.; Olson, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    This adaptation of an excerpt from a book, "The Business Value Web: Resourcing Business Processes and Solutions in Higher Education," addresses ways to look at college business processes systematically, take fresh approaches to resourcing, and create real value for stakeholders. (EV)

  18. Assessment of use of library resources on research activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Library resources use contribute immensely to the research output of agricultural scientists and ... electronics Library resources such as electronic journals, e-books, scholarly databases, ... researchers to have access to a wide range of high quality electronic information resources.

  19. Chromatin Structure and Replication Origins: Determinants Of Chromosome Replication And Nuclear Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Owen K.; Aladjem, Mirit I.

    2014-01-01

    The DNA replication program is, in part, determined by the epigenetic landscape that governs local chromosome architecture and directs chromosome duplication. Replication must coordinate with other biochemical processes occurring concomitantly on chromatin, such as transcription and remodeling, to insure accurate duplication of both genetic and epigenetic features and to preserve genomic stability. The importance of genome architecture and chromatin looping in coordinating cellular processes ...

  20. Open Educational Resources in Canada 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreal, Rory; Anderson, Terry; Conrad, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Canada's important areas of expertise in open educational resources (OER) are beginning to be built upon or replicated more broadly in all education and training sectors. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in OER initiatives and open higher education in general in Canada, providing insights into what is happening nationally…

  1. Content replication and placement in mobile networks

    CERN Document Server

    La, Chi-Anh; Casetti, Claudio; Chiasserini, Carla-Fabiana; Fiore, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Performance and reliability of content access in mobile networks is conditioned by the number and location of content replicas deployed at the network nodes. Location theory has been the traditional, centralized approach to study content replication: computing the number and placement of replicas in a static network can be cast as a facility location problem. The endeavor of this work is to design a practical solution to the above joint optimization problem that is suitable for mobile wireless environments. We thus seek a replication algorithm that is lightweight, distributed, and reactive to network dynamics. We devise a solution that lets nodes (i) share the burden of storing and providing content, so as to achieve load balancing, and (ii) autonomously decide whether to replicate or drop the information, so as to adapt the content availability to dynamic demands and time-varying network topologies. We evaluate our mechanism through simulation, by exploring a wide range of settings, including different node ...

  2. Evolution of Database Replication Technologies for WLCG

    CERN Document Server

    Baranowski, Zbigniew; Blaszczyk, Marcin; Dimitrov, Gancho; Canali, Luca

    2015-01-01

    In this article we summarize several years of experience on database replication technologies used at WLCG and we provide a short review of the available Oracle technologies and their key characteristics. One of the notable changes and improvement in this area in recent past has been the introduction of Oracle GoldenGate as a replacement of Oracle Streams. We report in this article on the preparation and later upgrades for remote replication done in collaboration with ATLAS and Tier 1 database administrators, including the experience from running Oracle GoldenGate in production. Moreover, we report on another key technology in this area: Oracle Active Data Guard which has been adopted in several of the mission critical use cases for database replication between online and offline databases for the LHC experiments.

  3. Synchronization of DNA array replication kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manturov, Alexey O.; Grigoryev, Anton V.

    2016-04-01

    In the present work we discuss the features of the DNA replication kinetics at the case of multiplicity of simultaneously elongated DNA fragments. The interaction between replicated DNA fragments is carried out by free protons that appears at the every nucleotide attachment at the free end of elongated DNA fragment. So there is feedback between free protons concentration and DNA-polymerase activity that appears as elongation rate dependence. We develop the numerical model based on a cellular automaton, which can simulate the elongation stage (growth of DNA strands) for DNA elongation process with conditions pointed above and we study the possibility of the DNA polymerases movement synchronization. The results obtained numerically can be useful for DNA polymerase movement detection and visualization of the elongation process in the case of massive DNA replication, eg, under PCR condition or for DNA "sequencing by synthesis" sequencing devices evaluation.

  4. GFLV replication in electroporated grapevine protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valat; Toutain; Courtois; Gaire; Decout; Pinck; Mauro; Burrus

    2000-06-29

    Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), responsible for the economically important court-noué disease, is exclusively transmitted to its natural host in the vineyards through Xiphinema nematodes. We have developed direct inoculation of GFLV into grapevine through protoplast electroporation. Protoplasts were isolated from mesophyll of in vitro-grown plants and from embryogenic cell suspensions. Permeation conditions were determined by monitoring calcein uptake. Low salt poration medium was selected. Electrical conditions leading to strong transient gene expression were also tested for GFLV inoculation (isolate F13). GFLV replication was detected with either virus particles (2 µg) or viral RNA (10 ng) in both protoplast populations, as shown by anti-P38 Western blotting. Direct inoculation and replication were also observed with Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), a closely related nepovirus, as well as with another GFLV isolate. These results will be valuable in grapevine biotechnology, for GFLV replication studies, transgenic plant screening for GFLV resistance, and biorisk evaluation.

  5. Genetic toxicology: web resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert R

    2002-04-25

    Genetic toxicology is the scientific discipline dealing with the effects of chemical, physical and biological agents on the heredity of living organisms. The Internet offers a wide range of online digital resources for the field of Genetic Toxicology. The history of genetic toxicology and electronic data collections are reviewed. Web-based resources at US National Library of Medicine (NLM), including MEDLINE, PUBMED, Gateway, Entrez, and TOXNET, are discussed. Search strategies and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) are reviewed in the context of genetic toxicology. The TOXNET group of databases are discussed with emphasis on those databases with genetic toxicology content including GENE-TOX, TOXLINE, Hazardous Substances Data Bank, Integrated Risk Information System, and Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System. Location of chemical information including chemical structure and linkage to health and regulatory information using CHEMIDPLUS at NLM and other databases is reviewed. Various government agencies have active genetic toxicology research programs or use genetic toxicology data to assist fulfilling the agency's mission. Online resources at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences, and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) are outlined. Much of the genetic toxicology for pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and pesticides that is performed in the world is regulatory-driven. Regulatory web resources are presented for the laws mandating testing, guidelines on study design, Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations, and requirements for electronic data collection and reporting. The Internet provides a range of other supporting resources to the field of genetic toxicology. The web links for key professional societies and journals in genetic toxicology are listed. Distance education, educational media resources, and job placement services are also

  6. 地方高校的电子文献资源建设——以南京晓庄学院为例%Construction of Electronic Literature Resources of Local University Library —— A Case Study ofNanjing Xiaozhuang University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雯

    2012-01-01

    以南京晓庄学院图书馆为蓝本,从电子资源的文献价值入手,阐明了编制电子资源的采访标准和评价指标的意义,指出在当前网络环境下,地方高校加强电子文献资源建设的重要性和发展方向。%This paper is on the original version ofNanjing Xiaozhuang University library, from the literature value of electron- ic resource, expounds the meaning of compiling electronic resources acquisition standard and evaluation index, points out under current network environment, the importance of local university library strengthen electronic litera-ture resources construction and development direction.

  7. The Strategies for the Construction of the Electronic Journal Resources in Higher Vocational College Library in the Network Environment%网络环境下高职院校图书馆电子期刊资源建设策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄妙琼

    2015-01-01

    This paper expounds some main principles of the construction of the network electronic journal resources in higher vocational college library in the network environment, introduces several types of the network electronic journal resources, and probes into some strategies for the construction of electronic journal resources in higher vocational college library.%阐述了高职院校图书馆网络电子期刊资源建设的主要原则,介绍了网络电子期刊资源的几种类型, 探讨了高职院校图书馆电子期刊资源建设的策略.

  8. 区域性高校数字图书馆联盟电子资源建设研究--以湖南省高校数字图书馆为例%Study on the Electronic Resources Construction of Regional University Digital Library Alliance---Taking Hunan Academic Digital Library (HNADL)as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐婷

    2015-01-01

    介绍了湖南省高校数字图书馆电子资源建设情况,阐述了各联盟成员馆电子资源建设现状,探讨了湖南省高校数字图书馆电子资源建设存在的问题,并提出了相应的对策及建议。%ABSTRACT:This paper introduces the situation of the electronic resources construction of HNADL, expounds the current status of the electronic resources construction of each number library, probes into the problems existing in the electronic resources construction of HNADL,and puts forward some corresponding countermeasures and suggestions.

  9. Suppression of Adenovirus Replication by Cardiotonic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Filomena; Stoilov, Peter; Lingwood, Clifford; Brown, Martha; Cochrane, Alan

    2017-02-01

    The dependence of adenovirus on the host pre-RNA splicing machinery for expression of its complete genome potentially makes it vulnerable to modulators of RNA splicing, such as digoxin and digitoxin. Both drugs reduced the yields of four human adenoviruses (HAdV-A31, -B35, and -C5 and a species D conjunctivitis isolate) by at least 2 to 3 logs by affecting one or more steps needed for genome replication. Immediate early E1A protein levels are unaffected by the drugs, but synthesis of the delayed protein E4orf6 and the major late capsid protein hexon is compromised. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses revealed that both drugs altered E1A RNA splicing (favoring the production of 13S over 12S RNA) early in infection and partially blocked the transition from 12S and 13S to 9S RNA at late stages of virus replication. Expression of multiple late viral protein mRNAs was lost in the presence of either drug, consistent with the observed block in viral DNA replication. The antiviral effect was dependent on the continued presence of the drug and was rapidly reversible. RIDK34, a derivative of convallotoxin, although having more potent antiviral activity, did not show an improved selectivity index. All three drugs reduced metabolic activity to some degree without evidence of cell death. By blocking adenovirus replication at one or more steps beyond the onset of E1A expression and prior to genome replication, digoxin and digitoxin show potential as antiviral agents for treatment of serious adenovirus infections. Furthermore, understanding the mechanism(s) by which digoxin and digitoxin inhibit adenovirus replication will guide the development of novel antiviral therapies.

  10. Self-Replication of Localized Vegetation Patches in Scarce Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeu, Ignacio; Clerc, Marcel G.; Couteron, Piere; Lefever, René; Tlidi, Mustapha

    2016-09-01

    Desertification due to climate change and increasing drought periods is a worldwide problem for both ecology and economy. Our ability to understand how vegetation manages to survive and propagate through arid and semiarid ecosystems may be useful in the development of future strategies to prevent desertification, preserve flora—and fauna within—or even make use of scarce resources soils. In this paper, we study a robust phenomena observed in semi-arid ecosystems, by which localized vegetation patches split in a process called self-replication. Localized patches of vegetation are visible in nature at various spatial scales. Even though they have been described in literature, their growth mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Here, we develop an innovative statistical analysis based on real field observations to show that patches may exhibit deformation and splitting. This growth mechanism is opposite to the desertification since it allows to repopulate territories devoid of vegetation. We investigate these aspects by characterizing quantitatively, with a simple mathematical model, a new class of instabilities that lead to the self-replication phenomenon observed.

  11. Self-Replication of Localized Vegetation Patches in Scarce Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeu, Ignacio; Clerc, Marcel G.; Couteron, Piere; Lefever, René; Tlidi, Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    Desertification due to climate change and increasing drought periods is a worldwide problem for both ecology and economy. Our ability to understand how vegetation manages to survive and propagate through arid and semiarid ecosystems may be useful in the development of future strategies to prevent desertification, preserve flora—and fauna within—or even make use of scarce resources soils. In this paper, we study a robust phenomena observed in semi-arid ecosystems, by which localized vegetation patches split in a process called self-replication. Localized patches of vegetation are visible in nature at various spatial scales. Even though they have been described in literature, their growth mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Here, we develop an innovative statistical analysis based on real field observations to show that patches may exhibit deformation and splitting. This growth mechanism is opposite to the desertification since it allows to repopulate territories devoid of vegetation. We investigate these aspects by characterizing quantitatively, with a simple mathematical model, a new class of instabilities that lead to the self-replication phenomenon observed. PMID:27650430

  12. Telecommunications--Electronic Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Luke E.; Zuckerman, B. Michael

    1989-01-01

    This article identifies resources needed in order for physical education, recreation, and dance professionals to use computer-based telecommunications; discusses electronic mail; and explains how telecommunications can enhance communication in the field, both within and across professions. (IAH)

  13. The replication of expansive production knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Yang, Cheng; Madsen, Erik Skov

    2012-01-01

    . Design/methodology/approach – Two case studies are introduced. Empirical data were collected over a period of two years based on interviews and participating observations. Findings – The findings show that (1) knowledge transfer within the replication of a production line is a stepwise expansive process......Purpose – With the aim to support offshore production line replication, this paper specifically aims to explore the use of templates and principles to transfer expansive productive knowledge embedded in a production line and understand the contingencies that influence the mix of these approaches...... and principles to transfer productive knowledge in a specific context, which, in this paper, is a production line....

  14. Chromatin challenges during DNA replication and repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Anja; Rocha, Walter; Verreault, Alain

    2007-01-01

    Inheritance and maintenance of the DNA sequence and its organization into chromatin are central for eukaryotic life. To orchestrate DNA-replication and -repair processes in the context of chromatin is a challenge, both in terms of accessibility and maintenance of chromatin organization. To meet...... the challenge of maintenance, cells have evolved efficient nucleosome-assembly pathways and chromatin-maturation mechanisms that reproduce chromatin organization in the wake of DNA replication and repair. The aim of this Review is to describe how these pathways operate and to highlight how the epigenetic...

  15. Involvement of Autophagy in Coronavirus Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Britton

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Coronaviruses are single stranded, positive sense RNA viruses, which induce the rearrangement of cellular membranes upon infection of a host cell. This provides the virus with a platform for the assembly of viral replication complexes, improving efficiency of RNA synthesis. The membranes observed in coronavirus infected cells include double membrane vesicles. By nature of their double membrane, these vesicles resemble cellular autophagosomes, generated during the cellular autophagy pathway. In addition, coronavirus infection has been demonstrated to induce autophagy. Here we review current knowledge of coronavirus induced membrane rearrangements and the involvement of autophagy or autophagy protein microtubule associated protein 1B light chain 3 (LC3 in coronavirus replication.

  16. Adenovirus E1A/E1B Transformed Amniotic Fluid Cells Support Human Cytomegalovirus Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha Krömmelbein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV replicates to high titers in primary human fibroblast cell cultures. A variety of primary human cells and some tumor-derived cell lines do also support permissive HCMV replication, yet at low levels. Cell lines established by transfection of the transforming functions of adenoviruses have been notoriously resistant to HCMV replication and progeny production. Here, we provide first-time evidence that a permanent cell line immortalized by adenovirus type 5 E1A and E1B (CAP is supporting the full HCMV replication cycle and is releasing infectious progeny. The CAP cell line had previously been established from amniotic fluid cells which were likely derived from membranes of the developing fetus. These cells can be grown under serum-free conditions. HCMV efficiently penetrated CAP cells, expressed its immediate-early proteins and dispersed restrictive PML-bodies. Viral DNA replication was initiated and viral progeny became detectable by electron microscopy in CAP cells. Furthermore, infectious virus was released from CAP cells, yet to lower levels compared to fibroblasts. Subviral dense bodies were also secreted from CAP cells. The results show that E1A/E1B expression in transformed cells is not generally repressive to HCMV replication and that CAP cells may be a good substrate for dense body based vaccine production.

  17. Replication cycle of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 in duck embryonic hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Fangke; Chen, Yun; Shi, Jintong; Ming, Ke; Liu, Jiaguo, E-mail: liujiaguo@njau.edu.cn; Xiong, Wen; Song, Meiyun; Du, Hongxu; Wang, Yixuan; Zhang, Shuaibin; Wu, Yi; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang

    2016-04-15

    Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) is an important agent of duck viral hepatitis. Until recently, the replication cycle of DHAV-1 is still unknown. Here duck embryonic hepatocytes infected with DHAV-1 were collected at different time points, and dynamic changes of the relative DHAV-1 gene expression during replication were detected by real-time PCR. And the morphology of hepatocytes infected with DHAV was evaluated by electron microscope. The result suggested that the adsorption of DHAV-1 saturated at 90 min post-infection, and the virus particles with size of about 50 nm including more than 20 nm of vacuum drying gold were observed on the infected cells surface. What's more, the replication lasted around 13 h after the early protein synthesis for about 5 h, and the release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h. The replication cycle will enrich the data for DVH control and provide the foundation for future studies. - Highlights: • This is the first description of the replication cycle of DHAV-1. • Firstly find that DHAV-1 adsorption saturated at 90 min post-infection. • The replication lasted around 13 h after early protein synthesis for about 5 h. • The release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h.

  18. Replication, recombination, and repair: going for the gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Hannah L; Kreuzer, Kenneth N

    2002-03-01

    DNA recombination is now appreciated to be integral to DNA replication and cell survival. Recombination allows replication to successfully maneuver through the roadblocks of damaged or collapsed replication forks. The signals and controls that permit cells to transition between replication and recombination modes are now being identified.

  19. Direct visualization of replication dynamics in early zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriya, Kenji; Higashiyama, Eriko; Avşar-Ban, Eriko; Okochi, Nanami; Hattori, Kaede; Ogata, Shin; Takebayashi, Shin-Ichiro; Ogata, Masato; Tamaru, Yutaka; Okumura, Katsuzumi

    2016-05-01

    We analyzed DNA replication in early zebrafish embryos. The replicating DNA of whole embryos was labeled with the thymidine analog 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU), and spatial regulation of replication sites was visualized in single embryo-derived cells. The results unveiled uncharacterized replication dynamics during zebrafish early embryogenesis.

  20. Rethinking resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, W.L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1994-09-01

    We class energy and mineral resources as finite because we are reasonably certain that they do not form at a rate remotely approaching man`s rate of use. We have certain environments of the earth that have limits in carrying capacity, and we presume that the global environment does as well. These facts and presumptions, coupled with anxieties over growth in population and consumption, have posed pictures of impending catastrophe from Malthus through the Club of Rome and currently, among certain advocates of what is called sustainable development. To avoid future calamity, command and control management of resource use is urged by many. But, quite simply, such management would presume a wisdom that historical experience suggests does not exist. As a recent example, consider natural gas resources. A decade and a half ago, the resource base of natural gas in the United States was judged to be near exhaustion. Estimates of remaining resources by governmental agencies, academicians, and several major energy companies indicated the ultimate resource would be at about 100 tcf today, with essential depletion by the end of the century. Such was the near universal wisdom that compelled Congress to enact legislation to outright prohibit certain use of natural gas. Today, after nearly eight years of gas supply in excess of demand and with entirely new appreciation of the impact of technology, estimates of the remaining gas resource by industry, government, and others are an order of magnitude greater than those made just 15 yr ago, and the same government that then sought to husband a resource presumed to be near depletion now aggressively promotes its use and consumption. Limits to resources and limits to environmental carrying capacity do indeed exist, but we have yet to define those limits and the paths thereto.

  1. Spatial regulation and organization of DNA replication within the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Toyoaki; Tanaka, Tomoyuki U

    2010-01-01

    Duplication of chromosomal DNA is a temporally and spatially regulated process. The timing of DNA replication initiation at various origins is highly coordinated; some origins fire early and others late during S phase. Moreover, inside the nuclei, the bulk of DNA replication is physically organized in replication factories, consisting of DNA polymerases and other replication proteins. In this review article, we discuss how DNA replication is organized and regulated spatially within the nucleus and how this spatial organization is linked to temporal regulation. We focus on DNA replication in budding yeast and fission yeast and, where applicable, compare yeast DNA replication with that in bacteria and metazoans.

  2. Regulation of eukaryotic DNA replication and nuclear structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUJIARUI

    1999-01-01

    In eukaryote,nuclear structure is a key component for the functions of eukaryotic cells.More and more evidences show that the nuclear structure plays important role in regulating DNA replication.The nuclear structure provides a physical barrier for the replication licensing,participates in the decision where DNA replication initiates,and organizes replication proteins as replication factory for DNA replication.Through these works,new concepts on the regulation of DNA replication have emerged,which will be discussed in this minireview.

  3. Assembly of Slx4 signaling complexes behind DNA replication forks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Attila; Kim, TaeHyung; Gallo, David; Cussiol, Jose Renato; Bastos de Oliveira, Francisco M; Yimit, Askar; Ou, Jiongwen; Nakato, Ryuichiro; Gurevich, Alexey; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Smolka, Marcus B; Zhang, Zhaolei; Brown, Grant W

    2015-08-13

    Obstructions to replication fork progression, referred to collectively as DNA replication stress, challenge genome stability. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cells lacking RTT107 or SLX4 show genome instability and sensitivity to DNA replication stress and are defective in the completion of DNA replication during recovery from replication stress. We demonstrate that Slx4 is recruited to chromatin behind stressed replication forks, in a region that is spatially distinct from that occupied by the replication machinery. Slx4 complex formation is nucleated by Mec1 phosphorylation of histone H2A, which is recognized by the constitutive Slx4 binding partner Rtt107. Slx4 is essential for recruiting the Mec1 activator Dpb11 behind stressed replication forks, and Slx4 complexes are important for full activity of Mec1. We propose that Slx4 complexes promote robust checkpoint signaling by Mec1 by stably recruiting Dpb11 within a discrete domain behind the replication fork, during DNA replication stress.

  4. TRUST BASED NODE REPLICATION ATTACK DETECTION PROTOCOL FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chellappan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The harmful attack against Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN is Node Replication attack, where one or more node(s illegitimately claims an identity, are also called clone attack due to identity theft. The Node replication attack can be exceedingly injurious to many important functions of the sensor network such as routing, resource allocation, misbehavior detection, This study proposes a method Randomized and Trust based witness finding strategy for replication attack detection mechanisms in wireless sensor networks (RTRADP with trust factor. Resilient to malicious witness and increased detection rate by avoiding malicious witness selection. Performances are compared with the existing witness finding approach and how the malicious witness drops the claim without processing and how those malicious witnesses are avoided with trust based approach.

  5. Roles for endocytic trafficking and phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase III alpha in hepatitis C virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Kristi L; Cooper, Jacob D; Heaton, Nicholas S; Yoon, Rosa; Oakland, Todd E; Jordan, Tristan X; Mateu, Guaniri; Grakoui, Arash; Randall, Glenn

    2009-05-05

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) reorganizes cellular membranes to establish sites of replication. The required host pathways and the mechanism of cellular membrane reorganization are poorly characterized. Therefore, we interrogated a customized small interfering RNA (siRNA) library that targets 140 host membrane-trafficking genes to identify genes required for both HCV subgenomic replication and infectious virus production. We identified 7 host cofactors of viral replication, including Cdc42 and Rock2 (actin polymerization), EEA1 and Rab5A (early endosomes), Rab7L1, and PI3-kinase C2gamma and PI4-kinase IIIalpha (phospholipid metabolism). Studies of drug inhibitors indicate actin polymerization and phospholipid kinase activity are required for HCV replication. We found extensive co-localization of the HCV replicase markers NS5A and double-stranded RNA with Rab5A and partial co-localization with Rab7L1. PI4K-IIIalpha co-localized with NS5A and double-stranded RNA in addition to being present in detergent-resistant membranes containing NS5A. In a comparison of type II and type III PI4-kinases, PI4Ks were not required for HCV entry, and only PI4K-IIIalpha was required for HCV replication. Although PI4K-IIIalpha siRNAs decreased HCV replication and virus production by almost 100%, they had no effect on initial HCV RNA translation, suggesting that PI4K-IIIalpha functions at a posttranslational stage. Electron microscopy identified the presence of membranous webs, which are thought to be the site of HCV replication, in HCV-infected cells. Pretreatment with PI4K-IIIalpha siRNAs greatly reduced the accumulation of these membranous web structures in HCV-infected cells. We propose that PI4K-IIIalpha plays an essential role in membrane alterations leading to the formation of HCV replication complexes.

  6. Arthritis - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  7. Diabetes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes: American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  8. Seaweed resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukhe, G.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    The chapter summarizes our present knowledge of the seaweed resources of the Indian Ocean region with regard to the phytogeographical distribution, composition, biomass, utilization, cultivation, conservation and management. The voluminous data...

  9. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    (placers), biogenous (ooze, limestone) or chemogenous (phosphorites and polymetallic nodules) type. In recent years, hydrothermal deposits, cobalt crust and methane gas hydrates are considered as frontier resources. Their distribution depends upon proximity...

  10. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

  11. Land Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Anthony

    1998-08-01

    Unless action is taken, the developing world will face recurrent problems of food security and conflict. This volume provides a summary and perspective of the field of land resources and suggests improvements needed to conserve resources for future generations. Coverage provides an authoritative review of the resources of soils, water, climate, forests and pastures on which agriculture depends. It assesses the interactions between land resources and wider aspects of development, including population and poverty. It provides a strong critique of current methods of assessing land degradation and placing an economic value on land. It should be read by all involved in rural development, including scientists, economists, geographers, sociologists, planners, and students of development studies.

  12. Hemophilia - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

  13. Spatial regulation and organization of DNA replication within the nucleus

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Duplication of chromosomal DNA is a temporally and spatially regulated process. The timing of DNA replication initiation at various origins is highly coordinated; some origins fire early and others late during S phase. Moreover, inside the nuclei, the bulk of DNA replication is physically organized in replication factories, consisting of DNA polymerases and other replication proteins. In this review article, we discuss how DNA replication is organized and regulated spatially within the nucleu...

  14. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  15. Replication of biotinylated human immunodeficiency viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belshan, Michael; Matthews, John M; Madson, Christian J

    2011-01-01

    Previous work demonstrated recently the adaptation of the Escherichia coli biotin ligase BirA - biotin acceptor sequence (BAS) labeling system to produce human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viruses with biotinylated integrase (NLXIN(B)) and matrix (NLXMA(B)) proteins (Belshan et al., 2009). This report describes the construction of an HIV permissive cell line stably expressing BirA (SupT1.BirA). Consistent with the results in the previous report, NLXMA(B) replicated similar to wild-type levels and expressed biotinylated Gag and MA proteins in the SupT1.BirA cells, whereas the replication of NLXIN(B) was reduced severely. Three additional HIV type 2 (HIV-2) viruses were constructed with the BAS inserted into the vpx and vpr accessory genes. Two BAS insertions were made into the C-terminal half of the Vpx, including one internal insertion, and one at the N-terminus of Vpr. All three viruses were replication competent in the SupT1.BirA cells and their target proteins biotinylated efficiently and incorporated into virions. These results demonstrate the potential utility of the biotinylation system to label and capture HIV protein complexes in the context of replicating virus.

  16. Chemistry: Small molecular replicators go organic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Annette F.

    2016-09-01

    The emergence of complex, dynamic molecular behaviour might have had a role in the origin of life. Such behaviour has now been seen in a reaction network involving small, organic, self-replicating molecules of biological relevance. See Letter p.656

  17. Surface Micro Topography Replication in Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Kjær, Erik Michael

    2005-01-01

    The surface micro topography of injection moulded plastic parts can be important for aesthetical and technical reasons. The quality of replication of mould surface topography onto the plastic surface depends among other factors on the process conditions. A study of this relationship has been...

  18. The replication of expansive production knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Yang, Cheng; Madsen, Erik Skov

    2012-01-01

    exploration, the small sample size is an obvious limitation for generalisation. Practical implications – A roadmap for knowledge transfer within the replication of a production line is suggested, which, together with four managerial suggestions, provides strong support and clear directions to managers...

  19. Replication and Inhibitors of Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonneke van der Linden

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Enterovirus (EV and Parechovirus genera of the picornavirus family include many important human pathogens, including poliovirus, rhinovirus, EV-A71, EV-D68, and human parechoviruses (HPeV. They cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from a simple common cold to life-threatening diseases such as encephalitis and myocarditis. At the moment, no antiviral therapy is available against these viruses and it is not feasible to develop vaccines against all EVs and HPeVs due to the great number of serotypes. Therefore, a lot of effort is being invested in the development of antiviral drugs. Both viral proteins and host proteins essential for virus replication can be used as targets for virus inhibitors. As such, a good understanding of the complex process of virus replication is pivotal in the design of antiviral strategies goes hand in hand with a good understanding of the complex process of virus replication. In this review, we will give an overview of the current state of knowledge of EV and HPeV replication and how this can be inhibited by small-molecule inhibitors.

  20. Representation dimension of m-replicated algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Let A be a finite-dimensional hereditary algebra over an algebraically closed field and A(m) be the m-replicated algebra of A.We prove that the representation dimension of A(m) is at most 3,and that the dominant dimension of A(m) is at least m.

  1. Multiseason occupancy models for correlated replicate surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, James; Nichols, James; Collazo, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Occupancy surveys collecting data from adjacent (sometimes correlated) spatial replicates have become relatively popular for logistical reasons. Hines et al. (2010) presented one approach to modelling such data for single-season occupancy surveys. Here, we present a multiseason analogue of this model (with corresponding software) for inferences about occupancy dynamics. We include a new parameter to deal with the uncertainty associated with the first spatial replicate for both single-season and multiseason models. We use a case study, based on the brown-headed nuthatch, to assess the need for these models when analysing data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS), and we test various hypotheses about occupancy dynamics for this species in the south-eastern United States. The new model permits inference about local probabilities of extinction, colonization and occupancy for sampling conducted over multiple seasons. The model performs adequately, based on a small simulation study and on results of the case study analysis. The new model incorporating correlated replicates was strongly favoured by model selection for the BBS data for brown-headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla). Latitude was found to be an important source of variation in local colonization and occupancy probabilities for brown-headed nuthatch, with both probabilities being higher near the centre of the species range, as opposed to more northern and southern areas. We recommend this new occupancy model for detection–nondetection studies that use potentially correlated replicates.

  2. Structure and replication of hepatitis delta virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... Unidade de Biologia Molecular, Centro de Malária e outras Doenças Tropicais, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, ... molecules of both delta antigens (Ryu et al., 1993). This ..... Glenn JS, Watson JA, Havel CM, White JO (1992). ... HDV RNA encoding the large delta antigen cannot replicate. J. Gen.

  3. Are renal ciliopathies (replication) stressed out?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaats, Gisela G; Giles, R

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile renal failure is commonly caused by the ciliopathy nephronophthisis (NPHP). Since all NPHP genes regulate cilia function, it has been assumed that NPHP onset is due to cilia loss. However, recent data suggest that DNA damage caused by replication stress, possibly concomitant with or upstrea

  4. Suppression of Coronavirus Replication by Cyclophilin Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Sasaki

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Coronaviruses infect a variety of mammalian and avian species and cause serious diseases in humans, cats, mice, and birds in the form of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, feline infectious peritonitis (FIP, mouse hepatitis, and avian infectious bronchitis, respectively. No effective vaccine or treatment has been developed for SARS-coronavirus or FIP virus, both of which cause lethal diseases. It has been reported that a cyclophilin inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA, could inhibit the replication of coronaviruses. CsA is a well-known immunosuppressive drug that binds to cellular cyclophilins to inhibit calcineurin, a calcium-calmodulin-activated serine/threonine-specific phosphatase. The inhibition of calcineurin blocks the translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells from the cytosol into the nucleus, thus preventing the transcription of genes encoding cytokines such as interleukin-2. Cyclophilins are peptidyl-prolyl isomerases with physiological functions that have been described for many years to include chaperone and foldase activities. Also, many viruses require cyclophilins for replication; these include human immunodeficiency virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and hepatitis C virus. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to the suppression of viral replication differ for different viruses. This review describes the suppressive effects of CsA on coronavirus replication.

  5. Model for Presenting Resources in Scholar's Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Mary; Newby, Jill

    2005-01-01

    Presenting electronic resources to users through a federated search engine introduces unique opportunities and challenges to libraries. This article reports on the decision-making tools and processes used for selecting collections of electronic resources by a project team at the University of Arizona (UA) Libraries for the Association of Research…

  6. The hexameric structure of the human mitochondrial replicative helicase Twinkle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Millán, Pablo; Lázaro, Melisa; Cansız-Arda, Şirin; Gerhold, Joachim M; Rajala, Nina; Schmitz, Claus-A; Silva-Espiña, Cristina; Gil, David; Bernadó, Pau; Valle, Mikel; Spelbrink, Johannes N; Solà, Maria

    2015-04-30

    The mitochondrial replicative helicase Twinkle is involved in strand separation at the replication fork of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Twinkle malfunction is associated with rare diseases that include late onset mitochondrial myopathies, neuromuscular disorders and fatal infantile mtDNA depletion syndrome. We examined its 3D structure by electron microscopy (EM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and built the corresponding atomic models, which gave insight into the first molecular architecture of a full-length SF4 helicase that includes an N-terminal zinc-binding domain (ZBD), an intermediate RNA polymerase domain (RPD) and a RecA-like hexamerization C-terminal domain (CTD). The EM model of Twinkle reveals a hexameric two-layered ring comprising the ZBDs and RPDs in one layer and the CTDs in another. In the hexamer, contacts in trans with adjacent subunits occur between ZBDs and RPDs, and between RPDs and CTDs. The ZBDs show important structural heterogeneity. In solution, the scattering data are compatible with a mixture of extended hexa- and heptameric models in variable conformations. Overall, our structural data show a complex network of dynamic interactions that reconciles with the structural flexibility required for helicase activity.

  7. A structural and functional perspective of alphavirus replication and assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Joyce; Snyder, Jonathan E; Kuhn, Richard J

    2009-09-01

    Alphaviruses are small, spherical, enveloped, positive-sense ssRNA viruses responsible for a considerable number of human and animal diseases. Alphavirus members include Chikungunya virus, Sindbis virus, Semliki Forest virus, the western, eastern and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses, and the Ross River virus. Alphaviruses can cause arthritic diseases and encephalitis in humans and animals and continue to be a worldwide threat. The viruses are transmitted by blood-sucking arthropods, and replicate in both arthropod and vertebrate hosts. Alphaviruses form spherical particles (65-70 nm in diameter) with icosahedral symmetry and a triangulation number of four. The icosahedral structures of alphaviruses have been defined to very high resolutions by cryo-electron microscopy and crystallographic studies. In this review, we summarize the major events in alphavirus infection: entry, replication, assembly and budding. We focus on data acquired from structural and functional studies of the alphaviruses. These structural and functional data provide a broader perspective of the virus lifecycle and structure, and allow additional insight into these important viruses.

  8. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  9. Multilingual digital resources with Bulgarian language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Multilingual digital resources with Bulgarian language The paper presents in brief Bulgarian language resources as a part of multilingual digital resources developed in the frame of some international projects, among them parallel annotated and aligned corpora, comparable corpora, morpho-syntactic specifications for corpora annotation and dictionaries encoding, lexicons, lexical databases, and electronic dictionaries.

  10. Identification and functional characterization of Bet protein as a negative regulator of BFV3026 replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Tiejun; Wu, Kai; Cui, Xiaoxu; Shao, Peng; Zhang, Qicheng; Bai, Xiaobo; Tan, Juan; Qiao, Wentao

    2014-06-01

    Foamy virus (FV) establishes persistent infection in the host without causing apparent disease. Besides the transactivator Tas protein, another auxiliary protein--Bet--has been reported in prototype foamy virus, equine foamy virus, and feline foamy virus. Here, we found the putative bbet gene in clone C74 from a cDNA library of bovine foamy virus strain 3026 (BFV3026) by comparison of gene localization, composition, and splicing features with other known bet genes. Subsequently, BBet protein was detected in BFV3026-infected cells by Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. Analysis of the BBet mutant infectious clone (pBS-BFVdelBBet) revealed that BBet could inhibit BFV3026 replication. Consistent with this result, overexpression of BBet in Cf2Th cells reduced BFV replication by approximately threefold. Furthermore, virus replication levels similarly were reduced by approximately threefold in pBS-BFV-transfected and BFV3026-infected Cf2Th cells stably expressing BBet compared with control cells. After three passages, BFV3026 replicated more slowly in BBet-expressing cells. This study implicates BBet as a negative regulator of BFV replication and provides a resource for future studies on the function of this protein in the virus lifecycle.

  11. Study on the micro-replication of shark skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Xin; ZHANG DeYuan

    2008-01-01

    Direct replication of creatural scarfskins to form biomimetic surfaces with relatively vivid morphology is a new attempt of the bio-replicated forming technology at animal body.Taking shark skins as the replication templates,and the micro-em-bossing and micro-molding as the material forming methods,the micro-replicating technology of the outward morphology on shark skins was demonstrated.The pre-liminary analysis on replication precision indicates that the bio-replicated forming technology can replicate the outward morphology of the shark scales with good precision,which validates the application of the bio-replicated forming technology in the direct morphology replication of the firm creatural scarfskins.

  12. The Role of the Transcriptional Response to DNA Replication Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Anna E; de Bruin, Robertus A M

    2017-03-02

    During DNA replication many factors can result in DNA replication stress. The DNA replication stress checkpoint prevents the accumulation of replication stress-induced DNA damage and the potential ensuing genome instability. A critical role for post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, in the replication stress checkpoint response has been well established. However, recent work has revealed an important role for transcription in the cellular response to DNA replication stress. In this review, we will provide an overview of current knowledge of the cellular response to DNA replication stress with a specific focus on the DNA replication stress checkpoint transcriptional response and its role in the prevention of replication stress-induced DNA damage.

  13. A replication-time-controlling sequence element in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Vishnu P; Dubey, Dharani D

    2017-08-01

    Eukaryotic replication origins are highly variable in their activity and replication timing. The nature and role of cis-acting regulatory sequences that control chromosomal replication timing is not well defined. In the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a 200-bp late-replication-enforcing element (LRE), has been shown to enforce late replication of ARS elements in plasmids. Here, we show that a short (133-bp) fragment of the LRE (shLRE) is required for causing late replication of adjoining origins in its native as well as in an ectopic early-replicating chromosomal location. Active from both sides of an early-replicating origin, the shLRE is a bona fide cis-acting regulatory element that imposes late replication timing in the chromosome.

  14. Single molecule analysis of Trypanosoma brucei DNA replication dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderano, Simone Guedes; Drosopoulos, William C; Quaresma, Marina Mônaco; Marques, Catarina A; Kosiyatrakul, Settapong; McCulloch, Richard; Schildkraut, Carl L; Elias, Maria Carolina

    2015-03-11

    Eukaryotic genome duplication relies on origins of replication, distributed over multiple chromosomes, to initiate DNA replication. A recent genome-wide analysis of Trypanosoma brucei, the etiological agent of sleeping sickness, localized its replication origins to the boundaries of multigenic transcription units. To better understand genomic replication in this organism, we examined replication by single molecule analysis of replicated DNA. We determined the average speed of replication forks of procyclic and bloodstream form cells and we found that T. brucei DNA replication rate is similar to rates seen in other eukaryotes. We also analyzed the replication dynamics of a central region of chromosome 1 in procyclic forms. We present evidence for replication terminating within the central part of the chromosome and thus emanating from both sides, suggesting a previously unmapped origin toward the 5' extremity of chromosome 1. Also, termination is not at a fixed location in chromosome 1, but is rather variable. Importantly, we found a replication origin located near an ORC1/CDC6 binding site that is detected after replicative stress induced by hydroxyurea treatment, suggesting it may be a dormant origin activated in response to replicative stress. Collectively, our findings support the existence of more replication origins in T. brucei than previously appreciated.

  15. High-Resolution Replication Profiles Define the Stochastic Nature of Genome Replication Initiation and Termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Hawkins

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic genome replication is stochastic, and each cell uses a different cohort of replication origins. We demonstrate that interpreting high-resolution Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome replication data with a mathematical model allows quantification of the stochastic nature of genome replication, including the efficiency of each origin and the distribution of termination events. Single-cell measurements support the inferred values for stochastic origin activation time. A strain, in which three origins were inactivated, confirmed that the distribution of termination events is primarily dictated by the stochastic activation time of origins. Cell-to-cell variability in origin activity ensures that termination events are widely distributed across virtually the whole genome. We propose that the heterogeneity in origin usage contributes to genome stability by limiting potentially deleterious events from accumulating at particular loci.

  16. STEP electronic system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, R. H.; Johnson, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The STEP electronic system design is discussed. The purpose of the design is outlined. The electronic system design is summarized and it is found that: an effective conceptual system design is developed; the design represents a unique set of capabilities; makes efficient use of available orbiter resources; the system capabilities exceed identified potential experiment needs.

  17. Novel Mutant AAV2 Rep Proteins Support AAV2 Replication without Blocking HSV-1 Helpervirus Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyffert, Michael; Glauser, Daniel L.; Schraner, Elisabeth M.; de Oliveira, Anna-Paula; Mansilla-Soto, Jorge; Vogt, Bernd; Büning, Hildegard; Linden, R. Michael; Ackermann, Mathias; Fraefel, Cornel

    2017-01-01

    As their names imply, parvoviruses of the genus Dependovirus rely for their efficient replication on the concurrent presence of a helpervirus, such as herpesvirus, adenovirus, or papilloma virus. Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is such an example, which in turn can efficiently inhibit the replication of each helpervirus by distinct mechanisms. In a previous study we have shown that expression of the AAV2 rep gene is not compatible with efficient replication of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). In particular, the combined DNA-binding and ATPase/helicase activities of the Rep68/78 proteins have been shown to exert opposite effects on the replication of AAV2 and HSV-1. While essential for AAV2 DNA replication these protein activities account for the Rep-mediated inhibition of HSV-1 replication. Here, we describe a novel Rep mutant (Rep-D371Y), which displayed an unexpected phenotype. Rep-D371Y did not block HSV-1 replication, but still supported efficient AAV2 replication, at least when a double-stranded AAV2 genome template was used. We also found that the capacity of Rep-D371Y to induce apoptosis and a Rep-specific DNA damage response was significantly reduced compared to wild-type Rep. These findings suggest that AAV2 Rep-helicase subdomains exert diverging activities, which contribute to distinct steps of the AAV2 life cycle. More important, the novel AAV2 mutant Rep-D371Y may allow deciphering yet unsolved activities of the AAV2 Rep proteins such as DNA second-strand synthesis, genomic integration or packaging, which all involve the Rep-helicase activity. PMID:28125695

  18. Mcm10 regulates DNA replication elongation by stimulating the CMG replicative helicase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõoke, Marko; Maloney, Michael F.; Bell, Stephen P.

    2017-01-01

    Activation of the Mcm2–7 replicative DNA helicase is the committed step in eukaryotic DNA replication initiation. Although Mcm2–7 activation requires binding of the helicase-activating proteins Cdc45 and GINS (forming the CMG complex), an additional protein, Mcm10, drives initial origin DNA unwinding by an unknown mechanism. We show that Mcm10 binds a conserved motif located between the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide fold (OB-fold) and A subdomain of Mcm2. Although buried in the interface between these domains in Mcm2–7 structures, mutations predicted to separate the domains and expose this motif restore growth to conditional-lethal MCM10 mutant cells. We found that, in addition to stimulating initial DNA unwinding, Mcm10 stabilizes Cdc45 and GINS association with Mcm2–7 and stimulates replication elongation in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, we identified a lethal allele of MCM10 that stimulates initial DNA unwinding but is defective in replication elongation and CMG binding. Our findings expand the roles of Mcm10 during DNA replication and suggest a new model for Mcm10 function as an activator of the CMG complex throughout DNA replication. PMID:28270517

  19. Replicative Homeostasis: A fundamental mechanism mediating selective viral replication and escape mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sallie Richard

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatitis C (HCV, hepatitis B (HBV, the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV, and other viruses that replicate via RNA intermediaries, cause an enormous burden of disease and premature death worldwide. These viruses circulate within infected hosts as vast populations of closely related, but genetically diverse, molecules known as "quasispecies". The mechanism(s by which this extreme genetic and antigenic diversity is stably maintained are unclear, but are fundamental to understanding viral persistence and pathobiology. The persistence of HCV, an RNA virus, is especially problematic and HCV stability, maintained despite rapid genomic mutation, is highly paradoxical. This paper presents the hypothesis, and evidence, that viruses capable of persistent infection autoregulate replication and the likely mechanism mediating autoregulation – Replicative Homeostasis – is described. Replicative homeostasis causes formation of stable, but highly reactive, equilibria that drive quasispecies expansion and generates escape mutation. Replicative homeostasis explains both viral kinetics and the enigma of RNA quasispecies stability and provides a rational, mechanistic basis for all observed viral behaviours and host responses. More importantly, this paradigm has specific therapeutic implication and defines, precisely, new approaches to antiviral therapy. Replicative homeostasis may also modulate cellular gene expression.

  20. Cellular replication and atomic force microscope imaging using a UV-Bioimprint technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muys, J J; Alkaisi, M M; Evans, J J

    2006-09-01

    Replication and fixation techniques have been of considerable interest for imaging and analysis of biological cells since the introduction of electron and scanning probe microscopy. Although such tools as the atomic force microscope (AFM) permit in situ morphological studies at a magnitude of resolution beyond traditional optical microscopy, they are difficult to operate and their resolution capabilities are rarely realized. We used a UV-Bioimprint replication technique to imprint a polymer layer onto cells attached to a substrate and rapidly cure to create an impression of cell topography. Replicas of chemically fixed and untreated cells analyzed by atomic force microscopy demonstrate nanometer resolution in the transfer of replicated features. UV-Bioimprint presents an improvement over techniques using heat-curable polymers as well as an alternative technique to the direct imaging of cells. The motivation for UV-Bioimprint is to effectively integrate scanning probe microscopy tools for imaging of cellular ultrastructure.

  1. Escalation of error catastrophe for enzymatic self-replicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermayer, B.; Frey, E.

    2009-11-01

    It is a long-standing question in origin-of-life research whether the information content of replicating molecules can be maintained in the presence of replication errors. Extending standard quasispecies models of non-enzymatic replication, we analyze highly specific enzymatic self-replication mediated through an otherwise neutral recognition region, which leads to frequency-dependent replication rates. We find a significant reduction of the maximally tolerable error rate, because the replication rate of the fittest molecules decreases with the fraction of functional enzymes. Our analysis is extended to hypercyclic couplings as an example for catalytic networks.

  2. 高校图书馆外文电子资源的建设与利用研究——以安徽建筑大学图书馆为例%Study on the Construction and Utilization of Foreign Electronic Resources in University Library ——A Case Study of the Library of AUA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄静

    2015-01-01

    This paper makes an investigation and statistical analysis on the current construction ans utilization of foreign electronic resources of the library of AUA from the aspects of the quantities, funds as well as utilization rate of foreign database, discusses some factors influencing the construction and utilization of foreign electronic resources, and probes into the countermeasures for strengthening the construction of foreign electronic resources and improving the utilization rate of foreign electronic resources.%从外文数据库的数量、经费和利用率等方面,对安徽建筑大学图书馆外文电子资源建设与利用现状进行了调查研究与统计分析,论述了影响外文电子资源建设与利用的因素,探讨了加强外文电子资源建设、提高外文数据库利用率的对策.

  3. Interactive Technologies in Electronic Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimova, Tatyana Ivanovna; Krasnova, Lyubov Alekseevna

    2015-01-01

    Modern professional education in the transition to a tiered system of specialists training is focused not on the transfer of ready knowledge but on teaching to find this knowledge and to apply them in situations close to the professional conditions. The educational process, relying on use of interactive methods of teaching, which is organized with…

  4. Physically Embedded Minimal Self-Replicating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    Self-replication is a fundamental property of all living organisms, yet has only been accomplished to limited extend in manmade systems. This thesis is part of the ongoing research endeavor to bridge the two sides of this gap. In particular, we present simulation results of a minimal life......-like, artificial, molecular aggregate (i.e. protocell) that has been proposed by Steen Rasussen and coworkers and is currently pursued both experimentally and computationally in interdisciplinary international research projects. We develop a space-time continuous physically motivated simulation framework based...... computational models. This allows us to address key issues of the replicating subsystems – container, genome, and metabolism – both individually and in mutual coupling. We analyze each step in the life-cycle of the molecular aggregate, and a final integrated simulation of the entire life-cycle is prepared. Our...

  5. Choreography of bacteriophage T7 DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Joo; Richardson, Charles C

    2011-10-01

    The replication system of phage T7 provides a model for DNA replication. Biochemical, structural, and single-molecule analyses together provide insight into replisome mechanics. A complex of polymerase, a processivity factor, and helicase mediates leading strand synthesis. Establishment of the complex requires an interaction of the C-terminal tail of the helicase with the polymerase. During synthesis the complex is stabilized by other interactions to provide for a processivity of 5 kilobase (kb). The C-terminal tail also interacts with a distinct region of the polymerase to captures dissociating polymerase to increase the processivity to >17kb. The lagging strand is synthesized discontinuously within a loop that forms and resolves during each cycle of Okazaki fragment synthesis. The synthesis of a primer as well as the termination of a fragment signal loop resolution.

  6. Surface micro topography replication in injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf

    , the topography itself, and other factors were also investigated. The experimental work is based on a multi-purpose experimental injection mould with a collection of test surface inserts manufactured by EDM (electrical discharge machining). Experimental production took place with an injection moulding machine......Thermoplastic injection moulding is a widely used industrial process that involves surface generation by replication. The surface topography of injection moulded plastic parts can be important for aesthetical or technical reasons. With the emergence of microengineering and nanotechnology additional...... in a clean room environment. The mould and the injection moulding machine were fitted with transducers for subsequent process analysis. A total of 13 different plastic material grades were applied. Topographical characterisation was performed with an optical laser focus detection instrument. Replication...

  7. Entropy involved in fidelity of DNA replication

    CERN Document Server

    Arias-Gonzalez, J Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Information has an entropic character which can be analyzed within the Statistical Theory in molecular systems. R. Landauer and C.H. Bennett showed that a logical copy can be carried out in the limit of no dissipation if the computation is performed sufficiently slowly. Structural and recent single-molecule assays have provided dynamic details of polymerase machinery with insight into information processing. We introduce a rigorous characterization of Shannon Information in biomolecular systems and apply it to DNA replication in the limit of no dissipation. Specifically, we devise an equilibrium pathway in DNA replication to determine the entropy generated in copying the information from a DNA template in the absence of friction. Both the initial state, the free nucleotides randomly distributed in certain concentrations, and the final state, a polymerized strand, are mesoscopic equilibrium states for the nucleotide distribution. We use empirical stacking free energies to calculate the probabilities of incorpo...

  8. The Solution to Science's Replication Crisis

    CERN Document Server

    Knuteson, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    The solution to science's replication crisis is a new ecosystem in which scientists sell what they learn from their research. In each pairwise transaction, the information seller makes (loses) money if he turns out to be correct (incorrect). Responsibility for the determination of correctness is delegated, with appropriate incentives, to the information purchaser. Each transaction is brokered by a central exchange, which holds money from the anonymous information buyer and anonymous information seller in escrow, and which enforces a set of incentives facilitating the transfer of useful, bluntly honest information from the seller to the buyer. This new ecosystem, capitalist science, directly addresses socialist science's replication crisis by explicitly rewarding accuracy and penalizing inaccuracy.

  9. Experimental Replication of an Aeroengine Combustion Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J. M.; Hibshman, J. R.; Proscia, W.; Rosfjord, T. J.; Wake, B. E.; McVey, J. B.; Lovett, J.; Ondas, M.; DeLaat, J.; Breisacher, K.

    2000-01-01

    Combustion instabilities in gas turbine engines are most frequently encountered during the late phases of engine development, at which point they are difficult and expensive to fix. The ability to replicate an engine-traceable combustion instability in a laboratory-scale experiment offers the opportunity to economically diagnose the problem (to determine the root cause), and to investigate solutions to the problem, such as active control. The development and validation of active combustion instability control requires that the causal dynamic processes be reproduced in experimental test facilities which can be used as a test bed for control system evaluation. This paper discusses the process through which a laboratory-scale experiment was designed to replicate an instability observed in a developmental engine. The scaling process used physically-based analyses to preserve the relevant geometric, acoustic and thermo-fluid features. The process increases the probability that results achieved in the single-nozzle experiment will be scalable to the engine.

  10. Replicative DNA polymerase mutations in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzer, Ellen; Tomlinson, Ian

    2014-02-01

    Three DNA polymerases - Pol α, Pol δ and Pol ɛ - are essential for DNA replication. After initiation of DNA synthesis by Pol α, Pol δ or Pol ɛ take over on the lagging and leading strand respectively. Pol δ and Pol ɛ perform the bulk of replication with very high fidelity, which is ensured by Watson-Crick base pairing and 3'exonuclease (proofreading) activity. Yeast models have shown that mutations in the exonuclease domain of Pol δ and Pol ɛ homologues can cause a mutator phenotype. Recently, we identified germline exonuclease domain mutations (EDMs) in human POLD1 and POLE that predispose to 'polymerase proofreading associated polyposis' (PPAP), a disease characterised by multiple colorectal adenomas and carcinoma, with high penetrance and dominant inheritance. Moreover, somatic EDMs in POLE have also been found in sporadic colorectal and endometrial cancers. Tumors with EDMs are microsatellite stable and show an 'ultramutator' phenotype, with a dramatic increase in base substitutions.

  11. DNA ligase I, the replicative DNA ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Timothy R L; Tomkinson, Alan E

    2012-01-01

    Multiple DNA ligation events are required to join the Okazaki fragments generated during lagging strand DNA synthesis. In eukaryotes, this is primarily carried out by members of the DNA ligase I family. The C-terminal catalytic region of these enzymes is composed of three domains: a DNA binding domain, an adenylation domain and an OB-fold domain. In the absence of DNA, these domains adopt an extended structure but transition into a compact ring structure when they engage a DNA nick, with each of the domains contacting the DNA. The non-catalytic N-terminal region of eukaryotic DNA ligase I is responsible for the specific participation of these enzymes in DNA replication. This proline-rich unstructured region contains the nuclear localization signal and a PCNA interaction motif that is critical for localization to replication foci and efficient joining of Okazaki fragments. DNA ligase I initially engages the PCNA trimer via this interaction motif which is located at the extreme N-terminus of this flexible region. It is likely that this facilitates an additional interaction between the DNA binding domain and the PCNA ring. The similar size and shape of the rings formed by the PCNA trimer and the DNA ligase I catalytic region when it engages a DNA nick suggest that these proteins interact to form a double-ring structure during the joining of Okazaki fragments. DNA ligase I also interacts with replication factor C, the factor that loads the PCNA trimeric ring onto DNA. This interaction, which is regulated by phosphorylation of the non-catalytic N-terminus of DNA ligase I, also appears to be critical for DNA replication.

  12. Advanced Patient Data Replication and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    able to “dial” the bandwidth back down to the 10Mbps range to reduce 8 the cost of the data link back to EMC. EMC2 Centera replication is the...automation robot (which fills pharmacy orders) and the drug dispensing kiosks located near the nurse stations in the hospital. These systems have...with appropriate workspaces, including telephone and internet service, for several weeks if needed. 11. Hotels must be available within 15

  13. Ultrastructural Characterization of Zika Virus Replication Factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Cortese

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A global concern has emerged with the pandemic spread of Zika virus (ZIKV infections that can cause severe neurological symptoms in adults and newborns. ZIKV is a positive-strand RNA virus replicating in virus-induced membranous replication factories (RFs. Here we used various imaging techniques to investigate the ultrastructural details of ZIKV RFs and their relationship with host cell organelles. Analyses of human hepatic cells and neural progenitor cells infected with ZIKV revealed endoplasmic reticulum (ER membrane invaginations containing pore-like openings toward the cytosol, reminiscent to RFs in Dengue virus-infected cells. Both the MR766 African strain and the H/PF/2013 Asian strain, the latter linked to neurological diseases, induce RFs of similar architecture. Importantly, ZIKV infection causes a drastic reorganization of microtubules and intermediate filaments forming cage-like structures surrounding the viral RF. Consistently, ZIKV replication is suppressed by cytoskeleton-targeting drugs. Thus, ZIKV RFs are tightly linked to rearrangements of the host cell cytoskeleton.

  14. Break-Induced Replication and Genome Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Malkova

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic instabilities, including mutations and chromosomal rearrangements, lead to cancer and other diseases in humans and play an important role in evolution. A frequent cause of genetic instabilities is double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs, which may arise from a wide range of exogeneous and endogeneous cellular factors. Although the repair of DSBs is required, some repair pathways are dangerous because they may destabilize the genome. One such pathway, break-induced replication (BIR, is the mechanism for repairing DSBs that possesses only one repairable end. This situation commonly arises as a result of eroded telomeres or collapsed replication forks. Although BIR plays a positive role in repairing DSBs, it can alternatively be a dangerous source of several types of genetic instabilities, including loss of heterozygosity, telomere maintenance in the absence of telomerase, and non-reciprocal translocations. Also, mutation rates in BIR are about 1000 times higher as compared to normal DNA replication. In addition, micro-homology-mediated BIR (MMBIR, which is a mechanism related to BIR, can generate copy-number variations (CNVs as well as various complex chromosomal rearrangements. Overall, activation of BIR may contribute to genomic destabilization resulting in substantial biological consequences including those affecting human health.

  15. The molecular biology of Bluetongue virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Avnish; Roy, Polly

    2014-03-01

    The members of Orbivirus genus within the Reoviridae family are arthropod-borne viruses which are responsible for high morbidity and mortality in ruminants. Bluetongue virus (BTV) which causes disease in livestock (sheep, goat, cattle) has been in the forefront of molecular studies for the last three decades and now represents the best understood orbivirus at a molecular and structural level. The complex nature of the virion structure has been well characterised at high resolution along with the definition of the virus encoded enzymes required for RNA replication; the ordered assembly of the capsid shell as well as the protein and genome sequestration required for it; and the role of host proteins in virus entry and virus release. More recent developments of Reverse Genetics and Cell-Free Assembly systems have allowed integration of the accumulated structural and molecular knowledge to be tested at meticulous level, yielding higher insight into basic molecular virology, from which the rational design of safe efficacious vaccines has been possible. This article is centred on the molecular dissection of BTV with a view to understanding the role of each protein in the virus replication cycle. These areas are important in themselves for BTV replication but they also indicate the pathways that related viruses, which includes viruses that are pathogenic to man and animals, might also use providing an informed starting point for intervention or prevention.

  16. Continuously Cumulating Meta-Analysis and Replicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braver, Sanford L; Thoemmes, Felix J; Rosenthal, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The current crisis in scientific psychology about whether our findings are irreproducible was presaged years ago by Tversky and Kahneman (1971), who noted that even sophisticated researchers believe in the fallacious Law of Small Numbers-erroneous intuitions about how imprecisely sample data reflect population phenomena. Combined with the low power of most current work, this often leads to the use of misleading criteria about whether an effect has replicated. Rosenthal (1990) suggested more appropriate criteria, here labeled the continuously cumulating meta-analytic (CCMA) approach. For example, a CCMA analysis on a replication attempt that does not reach significance might nonetheless provide more, not less, evidence that the effect is real. Alternatively, measures of heterogeneity might show that two studies that differ in whether they are significant might have only trivially different effect sizes. We present a nontechnical introduction to the CCMA framework (referencing relevant software), and then explain how it can be used to address aspects of replicability or more generally to assess quantitative evidence from numerous studies. We then present some examples and simulation results using the CCMA approach that show how the combination of evidence can yield improved results over the consideration of single studies.

  17. Early steps of retrovirus replicative cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saïb Ali

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During the last two decades, the profusion of HIV research due to the urge to identify new therapeutic targets has led to a wealth of information on the retroviral replication cycle. However, while the late stages of the retrovirus life cycle, consisting of virus replication and egress, have been partly unraveled, the early steps remain largely enigmatic. These early steps consist of a long and perilous journey from the cell surface to the nucleus where the proviral DNA integrates into the host genome. Retroviral particles must bind specifically to their target cells, cross the plasma membrane, reverse-transcribe their RNA genome, while uncoating the cores, find their way to the nuclear membrane and penetrate into the nucleus to finally dock and integrate into the cellular genome. Along this journey, retroviruses hijack the cellular machinery, while at the same time counteracting cellular defenses. Elucidating these mechanisms and identifying which cellular factors are exploited by the retroviruses and which hinder their life cycle, will certainly lead to the discovery of new ways to inhibit viral replication and to improve retroviral vectors for gene transfer. Finally, as proven by many examples in the past, progresses in retrovirology will undoubtedly also provide some priceless insights into cell biology.

  18. Solving Two Deadlock Cycles through Neighbor Replication on Grid Deadlock Detection Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed N. Abdalla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A data grid is compose of hundreds of geographically distributed computers and storage resources usually locate under different places and enables users to share data and other resources. Problem statement: Data replication is one of the mechanisms in managing data grid architecture that receive particular attention since it can provide efficient access to data, fault tolerance, reduce access latency and also can enhance the performance of the system. However, during transaction deadlock may occur that can reduce the throughput by minimizing the available resources, so it becomes an important resource management problem in distributed systems. Approach: The Neighbor Replication on Grid Deadlock Detection (NRGDD transaction model has been developed to handle two deadlock cycle problems on grid. By deploying this method, the transactions communicate with each other by passing the probe messages. The victim message has been used to detect the deadlock when the number of waiting resource by other transaction is highest and become as the cause of deadlock occurs. In addition, this transaction must be aborted to solve the problem. Results: NRGDD transaction model are able to detect and solve more than one cycle of deadlocks. Conclusion: NRGDD has resolve the deadlock problem by sending the minimum number of probes message to detect the deadlock and it can resolve the deadlock to ensure the transaction can be done smoothly.

  19. DNA replication catalyzed by herpes simplex virus type 1 proteins reveals trombone loops at the fork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermek, Oya; Willcox, Smaranda; Griffith, Jack D

    2015-01-30

    Using purified replication factors encoded by herpes simplex virus type 1 and a 70-base minicircle template, we obtained robust DNA synthesis with leading strand products of >20,000 nucleotides and lagging strand fragments from 600 to 9,000 nucleotides as seen by alkaline gel electrophoresis. ICP8 was crucial for the synthesis on both strands. Visualization of the deproteinized products using electron microscopy revealed long, linear dsDNAs, and in 87%, one end, presumably the end with the 70-base circle, was single-stranded. The remaining 13% had multiple single-stranded segments separated by dsDNA segments 500 to 1,000 nucleotides in length located at one end. These features are diagnostic of the trombone mechanism of replication. Indeed, when the products were examined with the replication proteins bound, a dsDNA loop was frequently associated with the replication complex located at one end of the replicated DNA. Furthermore, the frequency of loops correlated with the fraction of DNA undergoing Okazaki fragment synthesis.

  20. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Alphavirus Replication and Assembly in Mammalian and Mosquito Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Jose

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sindbis virus (SINV [genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae] is an enveloped, mosquito-borne virus. Alphaviruses cause cytolytic infections in mammalian cells while establishing noncytopathic, persistent infections in mosquito cells. Mosquito vector adaptation of alphaviruses is a major factor in the transmission of epidemic strains of alphaviruses. Though extensive studies have been performed on infected mammalian cells, the morphological and structural elements of alphavirus replication and assembly remain poorly understood in mosquito cells. Here we used high-resolution live-cell imaging coupled with single-particle tracking and electron microscopy analyses to delineate steps in the alphavirus life cycle in both the mammalian host cell and insect vector cells. Use of dually labeled SINV in conjunction with cellular stains enabled us to simultaneously determine the spatial and temporal differences of alphavirus replication complexes (RCs in mammalian and insect cells. We found that the nonstructural viral proteins and viral RNA in RCs exhibit distinct spatial organization in mosquito cytopathic vacuoles compared to replication organelles from mammalian cells. We show that SINV exploits filopodial extensions for virus dissemination in both cell types. Additionally, we propose a novel mechanism for replication complex formation around glycoprotein-containing vesicles in mosquito cells that produced internally released particles that were seen budding from the vesicles by live imaging. Finally, by characterizing mosquito cell lines that were persistently infected with fluorescent virus, we show that the replication and assembly machinery are highly modified, and this allows continuous production of alphaviruses at reduced levels.

  1. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Alphavirus Replication and Assembly in Mammalian and Mosquito Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Joyce; Taylor, Aaron B.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sindbis virus (SINV [genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae]) is an enveloped, mosquito-borne virus. Alphaviruses cause cytolytic infections in mammalian cells while establishing noncytopathic, persistent infections in mosquito cells. Mosquito vector adaptation of alphaviruses is a major factor in the transmission of epidemic strains of alphaviruses. Though extensive studies have been performed on infected mammalian cells, the morphological and structural elements of alphavirus replication and assembly remain poorly understood in mosquito cells. Here we used high-resolution live-cell imaging coupled with single-particle tracking and electron microscopy analyses to delineate steps in the alphavirus life cycle in both the mammalian host cell and insect vector cells. Use of dually labeled SINV in conjunction with cellular stains enabled us to simultaneously determine the spatial and temporal differences of alphavirus replication complexes (RCs) in mammalian and insect cells. We found that the nonstructural viral proteins and viral RNA in RCs exhibit distinct spatial organization in mosquito cytopathic vacuoles compared to replication organelles from mammalian cells. We show that SINV exploits filopodial extensions for virus dissemination in both cell types. Additionally, we propose a novel mechanism for replication complex formation around glycoprotein-containing vesicles in mosquito cells that produced internally released particles that were seen budding from the vesicles by live imaging. Finally, by characterizing mosquito cell lines that were persistently infected with fluorescent virus, we show that the replication and assembly machinery are highly modified, and this allows continuous production of alphaviruses at reduced levels. PMID:28196962

  2. An Evaluation of Copy Cover and Compare Spelling Intervention for an Elementary Student with Learning Disabilities: A Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breach, Celena; McLaughlin, T. F.; Derby, K. Mark

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase the spelling performance for a 4th grade student with learning disabilities. The second objective was to replicate the document with the efficacy of Copy, Cover, and Compare (CCC) in spelling. The study was conducted in a resource room in a low socio-economic school in the Pacific Northwest. The skill…

  3. An Evaluation of Copy Cover and Compare Spelling Intervention for an Elementary Student with Learning Disabilities: A Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breach, Celena; McLaughlin, T. F.; Derby, K. Mark

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase the spelling performance for a 4th grade student with learning disabilities. The second objective was to replicate the document with the efficacy of Copy, Cover, and Compare (CCC) in spelling. The study was conducted in a resource room in a low socio-economic school in the Pacific Northwest. The skill…

  4. Resource Abundance and Resource Dependence in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, K.; Magnus, J.R.; Wang, W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the ‘curse of resources’ hypothesis for the case of China, and distinguishes between resource abundance, resource rents, and resource dependence. Resource abundance and resource rents are shown to be approximately equivalent, and their association with resource dependence vari

  5. Replicative intermediates of maize streak virus found during leaf development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Julia B; Shepherd, Dionne N; Martin, Darren P; Varsani, Arvind; Rybicki, Edward P; Jeske, Holger

    2010-04-01

    Geminiviruses of the genera Begomovirus and Curtovirus utilize three replication modes: complementary-strand replication (CSR), rolling-circle replication (RCR) and recombination-dependent replication (RDR). Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we now show for the first time that maize streak virus (MSV), the type member of the most divergent geminivirus genus, Mastrevirus, does the same. Although mastreviruses have fewer regulatory genes than other geminiviruses and uniquely express their replication-associated protein (Rep) from a spliced transcript, the replicative intermediates of CSR, RCR and RDR could be detected unequivocally within infected maize tissues. All replicative intermediates accumulated early and, to varying degrees, were already present in the shoot apex and leaves at different maturation stages. Relative to other replicative intermediates, those associated with RCR increased in prevalence during leaf maturation. Interestingly, in addition to RCR-associated DNA forms seen in other geminiviruses, MSV also apparently uses dimeric open circular DNA as a template for RCR.

  6. On the scattering of DNA replication completion times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilikhov, E. Z.; Farzetdinova, R. M.

    2015-07-01

    Stochasticity of Eukaryotes' DNA replication should not lead to large fluctuations of replication times, which could result in mitotic catastrophes. Fundamental problem that cells face is how to be ensured that entire genome is replicated on time. We develop analytic approach of calculating DNA replication times, that being simplified and approximate, leads, nevertheless, to results practically coincident with those that were obtained by some sophisticated methods. In the framework of that model we consider replication times' scattering and discuss the influence of repair stopping on kinetics of DNA replication. Our main explicit formulae for DNA replication time t r ∝ ( N is the total number of DNA base pairs) is of general character and explains basic features of DNA replication kinetics.

  7. Replication of plasmids in gram-negative bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Replication of plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is dependent on three stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. The first stage, initiation, depends on plasmid-encoded properties such as the replication origin and, in most cases, the replication initiation protein (Rep protein). In recent years the understanding of initiation and regulation of plasmid replication in Escherichia coli has increased considerably, but it is only for the ColE1-type plasmids that significant biochemical d...

  8. PCNA Modifications for Regulation of Post-Replication Repair Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Stalled DNA replication forks activate specific DNA repair mechanism called post-replication repair (PRR) pathways that simply bypass DNA damage. The bypassing of DNA damage by PRR prevents prolonged stalling of DNA replication that could result in double strand breaks (DSBs). Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) functions to initiate and choose different bypassing pathways of PRR. In yeast, DNA replication forks stalled by DNA damage induces monoubiquitination of PCNA at K164, which is ...

  9. Mathematical Framework for A Novel Database Replication Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divakar Singh Yadav

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the detailed overview of the database replication is presented. Thereafter, PDDRA (Pre-fetching based dynamic data replication algorithm algorithm as recently published is detailed. In this algorithm, further, modifications are suggested to minimize the delay in data replication. Finally a mathematical framework is presented to evaluate mean waiting time before a data can be replicated on the requested site.

  10. Checkpoint responses to replication stalling: inducing tolerance and preventing mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kai, Mihoko; Wang, Teresa S.-F

    2003-11-27

    Replication mutants often exhibit a mutator phenotype characterized by point mutations, single base frameshifts, and the deletion or duplication of sequences flanked by homologous repeats. Mutation in genes encoding checkpoint proteins can significantly affect the mutator phenotype. Here, we use fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) as a model system to discuss the checkpoint responses to replication perturbations induced by replication mutants. Checkpoint activation induced by a DNA polymerase mutant, aside from delay of mitotic entry, up-regulates the translesion polymerase DinB (Pol{kappa}). Checkpoint Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) complex, which is loaded onto chromatin by the Rad17-Rfc2-5 checkpoint complex in response to replication perturbation, recruits DinB onto chromatin to generate the point mutations and single nucleotide frameshifts in the replication mutator. This chain of events reveals a novel checkpoint-induced tolerance mechanism that allows cells to cope with replication perturbation, presumably to make possible restarting stalled replication forks. Fission yeast Cds1 kinase plays an essential role in maintaining DNA replication fork stability in the face of DNA damage and replication fork stalling. Cds1 kinase is known to regulate three proteins that are implicated in maintaining replication fork stability: Mus81-Eme1, a hetero-dimeric structure-specific endonuclease complex; Rqh1, a RecQ-family helicase involved in suppressing inappropriate recombination during replication; and Rad60, a protein required for recombinational repair during replication. These Cds1-regulated proteins are thought to cooperatively prevent mutagenesis and maintain replication fork stability in cells under replication stress. These checkpoint-regulated processes allow cells to survive replication perturbation by preventing stalled replication forks from degenerating into deleterious DNA structures resulting in genomic instability and cancer development.

  11. Systematic determination of replication activity type highlights interconnections between replication, chromatin structure and nuclear localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomit Farkash-Amar

    Full Text Available DNA replication is a highly regulated process, with each genomic locus replicating at a distinct time of replication (ToR. Advances in ToR measurement technology enabled several genome-wide profiling studies that revealed tight associations between ToR and general genomic features and a remarkable ToR conservation in mammals. Genome wide studies further showed that at the hundreds kb-to-megabase scale the genome can be divided into constant ToR regions (CTRs in which the replication process propagates at a faster pace due to the activation of multiple origins and temporal transition regions (TTRs in which the replication process propagates at a slower pace. We developed a computational tool that assigns a ToR to every measured locus and determines its replication activity type (CTR versus TTR. Our algorithm, ARTO (Analysis of Replication Timing and Organization, uses signal processing methods to fit a constant piece-wise linear curve to the measured raw data. We tested our algorithm and provide performance and usability results. A Matlab implementation of ARTO is available at http://bioinfo.cs.technion.ac.il/people/zohar/ARTO/. Applying our algorithm to ToR data measured in multiple mouse and human samples allowed precise genome-wide ToR determination and replication activity type characterization. Analysis of the results highlighted the plasticity of the replication program. For example, we observed significant ToR differences in 10-25% of the genome when comparing different tissue types. Our analyses also provide evidence for activity type differences in up to 30% of the probes. Integration of the ToR data with multiple aspects of chromosome organization characteristics suggests that ToR plays a role in shaping the regional chromatin structure. Namely, repressive chromatin marks, are associated with late ToR both in TTRs and CTRs. Finally, characterization of the differences between TTRs and CTRs, with matching ToR, revealed that TTRs are

  12. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  13. AliEn Resource Brokers

    CERN Document Server

    Saiz, P; Peters, A J; Saiz, Pablo; Buncic, Predrag; Peters, Andreas J.

    2003-01-01

    AliEn (ALICE Environment) is a lightweight GRID framework developed by the Alice Collaboration. When the experiment starts running, it will collect data at a rate of approximately 2 PB per year, producing O(109) files per year. All these files, including all simulated events generated during the preparation phase of the experiment, must be accounted and reliably tracked in the GRID environment. The backbone of AliEn is a distributed file catalogue, which associates universal logical file name to physical file names for each dataset and provides transparent access to datasets independently of physical location. The file replication and transport is carried out under the control of the File Transport Broker. In addition, the file catalogue maintains information about every job running in the system. The jobs are distributed by the Job Resource Broker that is implemented using a simplified pull (as opposed to traditional push) architecture. This paper describes the Job and File Transport Resource Brokers and sho...

  14. Building up and breaking down: mechanisms controlling recombination during replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branzei, Dana; Szakal, Barnabas

    2017-08-01

    The complete and faithful duplication of the genome is an essential prerequisite for proliferating cells to maintain genome integrity. This objective is greatly challenged by DNA damage encountered during replication, which causes fork stalling and in certain cases, fork breakage. DNA damage tolerance (DDT) pathways mitigate the effects on fork stability induced by replication fork stalling by mediating damage-bypass and replication fork restart. These DDT mechanisms, largely relying on homologous recombination (HR) and specialized polymerases, can however contribute to genome rearrangements and mutagenesis. There is a profound connection between replication and recombination: recombination proteins protect replication forks from nuclease-mediated degradation of the nascent DNA strands and facilitate replication completion in cells challenged by DNA damage. Moreover, in case of fork collapse and formation of double strand breaks (DSBs), the recombination factors present or recruited to the fork facilitate HR-mediated DSB repair, which is primarily error-free. Disruption of HR is inexorably linked to genome instability, but the premature activation of HR during replication often leads to genome rearrangements. Faithful replication necessitates the downregulation of HR and disruption of active RAD51 filaments at replication forks, but upon persistent fork stalling, building up of HR is critical for the reorganization of the replication fork and for filling-in of the gaps associated with discontinuous replication induced by DNA lesions. Here we summarize and reflect on our understanding of the mechanisms that either suppress recombination or locally enhance it during replication, and the principles that underlie this regulation.

  15. Uncoupling of Sister Replisomes during Eukaryotic DNA Replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yardimci, Hasan; Loveland, Anna B.; Habuchi, Satoshi; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Walter, Johannes C.

    2010-01-01

    The duplication of eukaryotic genomes involves the replication of DNA from multiple origins of replication. In S phase, two sister replisomes assemble at each active origin, and they replicate DNA in opposite directions. Little is known about the functional relationship between sister replisomes.

  16. Visualizing Single-molecule DNA Replication with Fluorescence Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanner, Nathan A.; Loparo, Joseph J.; Oijen, Antoine M. van

    2009-01-01

    We describe a simple fluorescence microscopy-based real-time method for observing DNA replication at the single-molecule level. A circular, forked DNA template is attached to a functionalized glass coverslip and replicated extensively after introduction of replication proteins and nucleotides. The

  17. Uncoupling of Sister Replisomes during Eukaryotic DNA Replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yardimci, Hasan; Loveland, Anna B.; Habuchi, Satoshi; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Walter, Johannes C.

    2010-01-01

    The duplication of eukaryotic genomes involves the replication of DNA from multiple origins of replication. In S phase, two sister replisomes assemble at each active origin, and they replicate DNA in opposite directions. Little is known about the functional relationship between sister replisomes. So

  18. Geminin: a major DNA replication safeguard in higher eukaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melixetian, Marina; Helin, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    Eukaryotes have evolved multiple mechanisms to restrict DNA replication to once per cell cycle. These mechanisms prevent relicensing of origins of replication after initiation of DNA replication in S phase until the end of mitosis. Most of our knowledge of mechanisms controlling prereplication...

  19. Anaphase onset before complete DNA replication with intact checkpoint responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Rosell, Jordi; De Piccoli, Giacomo; Cordon-Preciado, Violeta

    2007-01-01

    Cellular checkpoints prevent mitosis in the presence of stalled replication forks. Whether checkpoints also ensure the completion of DNA replication before mitosis is unknown. Here, we show that in yeast smc5-smc6 mutants, which are related to cohesin and condensin, replication is delayed, most...

  20. Visualizing Single-molecule DNA Replication with Fluorescence Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanner, Nathan A.; Loparo, Joseph J.; Oijen, Antoine M. van

    2009-01-01

    We describe a simple fluorescence microscopy-based real-time method for observing DNA replication at the single-molecule level. A circular, forked DNA template is attached to a functionalized glass coverslip and replicated extensively after introduction of replication proteins and nucleotides. The g

  1. Geminin: a major DNA replication safeguard in higher eukaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melixetian, Marina; Helin, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    Eukaryotes have evolved multiple mechanisms to restrict DNA replication to once per cell cycle. These mechanisms prevent relicensing of origins of replication after initiation of DNA replication in S phase until the end of mitosis. Most of our knowledge of mechanisms controlling prereplication...

  2. Replication NAND gate with light as input and output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiappan, Manickasundaram; Dadon, Zehavit; Ashkenasy, Gonen

    2011-01-14

    Logic operations can highlight information transfer within complex molecular networks. We describe here the design of a peptide-based replication system that can be detected by following its fluorescence quenching. This process is used to negate the signal of light-activated replication, and thus to prepare the first replication NAND gate.

  3. A URI-based approach for addressing fragments of media resources on the Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannens, E.; Deursen, D. van; Troncy, R.; Pfeiffer, S.; Parker, C.; Lafon, Y.; Jansen, A.J.; Hausenblas, M.; Walle, R. van de

    2011-01-01

    To make media resources a prime citizen on the Web, we have to go beyond simply replicating digital media files. The Web is based on hyperlinks between Web resources, and that includes hyperlinking out of resources (e.g., from a word or an image within a Web page) as well as hyperlinking into resour

  4. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Alphavirus Replication and Assembly in Mammalian and Mosquito Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Joyce; Taylor, Aaron B; Kuhn, Richard J

    2017-02-14

    Sindbis virus (SINV [genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae]) is an enveloped, mosquito-borne virus. Alphaviruses cause cytolytic infections in mammalian cells while establishing noncytopathic, persistent infections in mosquito cells. Mosquito vector adaptation of alphaviruses is a major factor in the transmission of epidemic strains of alphaviruses. Though extensive studies have been performed on infected mammalian cells, the morphological and structural elements of alphavirus replication and assembly remain poorly understood in mosquito cells. Here we used high-resolution live-cell imaging coupled with single-particle tracking and electron microscopy analyses to delineate steps in the alphavirus life cycle in both the mammalian host cell and insect vector cells. Use of dually labeled SINV in conjunction with cellular stains enabled us to simultaneously determine the spatial and temporal differences of alphavirus replication complexes (RCs) in mammalian and insect cells. We found that the nonstructural viral proteins and viral RNA in RCs exhibit distinct spatial organization in mosquito cytopathic vacuoles compared to replication organelles from mammalian cells. We show that SINV exploits filopodial extensions for virus dissemination in both cell types. Additionally, we propose a novel mechanism for replication complex formation around glycoprotein-containing vesicles in mosquito cells that produced internally released particles that were seen budding from the vesicles by live imaging. Finally, by characterizing mosquito cell lines that were persistently infected with fluorescent virus, we show that the replication and assembly machinery are highly modified, and this allows continuous production of alphaviruses at reduced levels.IMPORTANCE Reemerging mosquito-borne alphaviruses cause serious human epidemics worldwide. Several structural and imaging studies have helped to define the life cycle of alphaviruses in mammalian cells, but the mode of virus replication and

  5. Assembling semiconductor nanocomposites using DNA replication technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimer, Brandon W.; Crown, Kevin K.; Bachand, George David

    2005-11-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules represent Nature's genetic database, encoding the information necessary for all cellular processes. From a materials engineering perspective, DNA represents a nanoscale scaffold with highly refined structure, stability across a wide range of environmental conditions, and the ability to interact with a range of biomolecules. The ability to mass-manufacture functionalized DNA strands with Angstrom-level resolution through DNA replication technology, however, has not been explored. The long-term goal of the work presented in this report is focused on exploiting DNA and in vitro DNA replication processes to mass-manufacture nanocomposite materials. The specific objectives of this project were to: (1) develop methods for replicating DNA strands that incorporate nucleotides with ''chemical handles'', and (2) demonstrate attachment of nanocrystal quantum dots (nQDs) to functionalized DNA strands. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and primer extension methodologies were used to successfully synthesize amine-, thiol-, and biotin-functionalized DNA molecules. Significant variability in the efficiency of modified nucleotide incorporation was observed, and attributed to the intrinsic properties of the modified nucleotides. Noncovalent attachment of streptavidin-coated nQDs to biotin-modified DNA synthesized using the primer extension method was observed by epifluorescence microscopy. Data regarding covalent attachment of nQDs to amine- and thiol-functionalized DNA was generally inconclusive; alternative characterization tools are necessary to fully evaluate these attachment methods. Full realization of this technology may facilitate new approaches to manufacturing materials at the nanoscale. In addition, composite nQD-DNA materials may serve as novel recognition elements in sensor devices, or be used as diagnostic tools for forensic analyses. This report summarizes the results obtained over the course of this 1-year

  6. The IFITMs Inhibit Zika Virus Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Savidis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus has emerged as a severe health threat with a rapidly expanding range. The IFITM family of restriction factors inhibits the replication of a broad range of viruses, including the closely related flaviruses West Nile virus and dengue virus. Here, we show that IFITM1 and IFITM3 inhibit Zika virus infection early in the viral life cycle. Moreover, IFITM3 can prevent Zika-virus-induced cell death. These results suggest that strategies to boost the actions and/or levels of the IFITMs might be useful for inhibiting a broad range of emerging viruses.

  7. Multiscale modeling of virus replication and spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumberger, Peter; Frey, Felix; Schwarz, Ulrich S; Graw, Frederik

    2016-07-01

    Replication and spread of human viruses is based on the simultaneous exploitation of many different host functions, bridging multiple scales in space and time. Mathematical modeling is essential to obtain a systems-level understanding of how human viruses manage to proceed through their life cycles. Here, we review corresponding advances for viral systems of large medical relevance, such as human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). We will outline how the combination of mathematical models and experimental data has advanced our quantitative knowledge about various processes of these pathogens, and how novel quantitative approaches promise to fill remaining gaps.

  8. Accounting for PDMS shrinkage when replicating structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten Hannibal; Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Hansen, Poul-Erik

    2014-01-01

    are seldom applied to counteract the shrinkage of PDMS. Also, to perform metrological measurements using replica techniques one has to take the shrinkage into account. Thus we report a study of the shrinkage of PDMS with several different mixing ratios and curing temperatures. The shrinkage factor, with its...... associated uncertainty, for PDMS in the range 40 to 120 °C is provided. By applying this correction factor, it is possible to replicate structures with a standard uncertainty of less than 0.2% in lateral dimensions using typical curing temperatures and PDMS mixing ratios in the range 1:6 to 1:20 (agent:base)....

  9. Replication of DNA during barley endosperm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, H.

    1992-01-01

    The incorporation of [6-H-3]-thymidine into DNA of developing barley end sperm was examined by autoradiography of cross sections of seeds and DNA analysis. The majority of nuclear divisions took place in the very young endosperm, but as late as 25 days after anthesis there was evidence for DNA...... replication. The DNA content of the endosperm increases during development and in response to nitrogen application in parallel to the storage protein synthesis profile. The hordein genes were hypersensitive to DNase I treatment throughout development....

  10. The Nature of Stability in Replicating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addy Pross

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We review the concept of dynamic kinetic stability, a type of stability associated specifically with replicating entities, and show how it differs from the well-known and established (static kinetic and thermodynamic stabilities associated with regular chemical systems. In the process we demonstrate how the concept can help bridge the conceptual chasm that continues to separate the physical and biological sciences by relating the nature of stability in the animate and inanimate worlds, and by providing additional insights into the physicochemical nature of abiogenesis.

  11. Simulation Studies in Data Replication Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HarveyB.Newman; IosifC.Legrand

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present the simulation studies in evaluating different data replication strategies between Regional Centers.The simulation Framework developed within the "Models of Networked Analysis at Rgional Centers”(MONARC) project,as a design and optimization tool for large scale distributed systems,has been used for these modeling studies.Remote client-serer access to database servers as well as ftp-like data transfers have been ralistically simulated and the performance and limitations are presented as a function of the characteristics of the protocol used and the network parameters.

  12. Electronic Books for Secondary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Inman, Lynne; Horney, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the definition, purposes, and advantages and disadvantages of electronic books. Notes the types of embedded resources present in them, offers an example of an electronic book, and suggests three steps to evaluate and select electronic books for the curriculum. (SR)

  13. Replication intermediate analysis confirms that chromosomal replication origin initiates from an unusual intergenic region in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassinga, A K; Marczynski, G T

    2001-11-01

    The alpha-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus possesses a developmental cell cycle that restricts chromosome replication to a stalked cell type. The proposed C.crescentus chromosome replication origin (Cori) lies between hemE and RP001, an unusual intergenic region not previously associated with bacterial replication origins, although a similar genomic arrangement is also present at the putative replication origin in the related bacterium Rickettsia prowazekii. The cloned Cori supports autonomous plasmid replication selectively in the stalked cell type implying that replication of the entire chromosome also initiates between hemE and RP001. To confirm this location, we applied the 2-D (N/N) agarose gel electrophoresis technique to resolve and identify chromosome replication intermediates throughout a 30 kb region spanning Cori. Replication initiation in Cori was uniquely characterized by an 'origin bubble and Y-arc' pattern and this observation was supported by simple replication fork 'Y-arc' patterns that characterized the regions flanking Cori. These replication forks originated bi-directionally from within Cori as determined by the fork direction assay. Therefore, chromosomal replication initiates from the unusual hemE/RP001 intergenic region that we propose represents a new class of replication origins.

  14. Method of producing an item with enhanced wetting properties by fast replication and replication tool used in the method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The invention relates to a replication tool (1) for producing an item (4) with enhanced wetting properties by fast replication, such as injection moulding or extrusion coating. The replication tool (1) comprises a tool surface (2a, 2b) defining a general shape of the item (4). The tool surface (2a...

  15. Materials Chemistry and Performance of Silicone-Based Replicating Compounds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brumbach, Michael T.; Mirabal, Alex James; Kalan, Michael; Trujillo, Ana B; Hale, Kevin

    2014-11-01

    Replicating compounds are used to cast reproductions of surface features on a variety of materials. Replicas allow for quantitative measurements and recordkeeping on parts that may otherwise be difficult to measure or maintain. In this study, the chemistry and replicating capability of several replicating compounds was investigated. Additionally, the residue remaining on material surfaces upon removal of replicas was quantified. Cleaning practices were tested for several different replicating compounds. For all replicating compounds investigated, a thin silicone residue was left by the replica. For some compounds, additional inorganic species could be identified in the residue. Simple solvent cleaning could remove some residue.

  16. DNA replication origin activation in space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkos, Michalis; Ganier, Olivier; Coulombe, Philippe; Méchali, Marcel

    2015-06-01

    DNA replication begins with the assembly of pre-replication complexes (pre-RCs) at thousands of DNA replication origins during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. At the G1-S-phase transition, pre-RCs are converted into pre-initiation complexes, in which the replicative helicase is activated, leading to DNA unwinding and initiation of DNA synthesis. However, only a subset of origins are activated during any S phase. Recent insights into the mechanisms underlying this choice reveal how flexibility in origin usage and temporal activation are linked to chromosome structure and organization, cell growth and differentiation, and replication stress.

  17. Performance analysis of data intensive cloud systems based on data management and replication: a survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Saif Ur Rehman; Khan, Samee U.; Ewen, Sam J.; Tziritas, Nikos; Kolodziej, Joanna; Zomaya, Albert Y.; Madani, Sajjad A.; Min-Allah, Nasro; Wang, Lizhe; Xu, Cheng-Zhong; Malluhi, Qutaibah Marwan; Pecero, Johnatan E.; Balaji, Pavan; Vishnu, Abhinav; Ranjan, Rajiv; Zeadally, Sherali; Li, Hongxiang

    2015-03-14

    As we delve deeper into the ‘Digital Age’, we witness an explosive growth in the volume, velocity, and variety of the data available on the Internet. For example, in 2012 about 2.5 quintillion bytes of data was created on a daily basis that originated from myriad of sources and applications including mobiledevices, sensors, individual archives, social networks, Internet of Things, enterprises, cameras, software logs, etc. Such ‘Data Explosions’ has led to one of the most challenging research issues of the current Information and Communication Technology era: how to optimally manage (e.g., store, replicated, filter, and the like) such large amount of data and identify new ways to analyze large amounts of data for unlocking information. It is clear that such large data streams cannot be managed by setting up on-premises enterprise database systems as it leads to a large up-front cost in buying and administering the hardware and software systems. Therefore, next generation data management systems must be deployed on cloud. The cloud computing paradigm provides scalable and elastic resources, such as data and services accessible over the Internet Every Cloud Service Provider must assure that data is efficiently processed and distributed in a way that does not compromise end-users’ Quality of Service (QoS) in terms of data availability, data search delay, data analysis delay, and the like. In the aforementioned perspective, data replication is used in the cloud for improving the performance (e.g., read and write delay) of applications that access data. Through replication a data intensive application or system can achieve high availability, better fault tolerance, and data recovery. In this paper, we survey data management and replication approaches (from 2007 to 2011) that are developed by both industrial and research communities. The focus of the survey is to discuss and characterize the existing approaches of data replication and management that tackle the

  18. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  19. Energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Andrew L

    1975-01-01

    Energy Resources mainly focuses on energy, including its definition, historical perspective, sources, utilization, and conservation. This text first explains what energy is and what its uses are. This book then explains coal, oil, and natural gas, which are some of the common energy sources used by various industries. Other energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, water, and nuclear energy sources are also tackled. This text also looks into fusion energy and techniques of energy conversion. This book concludes by explaining the energy allocation and utilization crisis. This publ

  20. Optimal Allocation of Replicates for Measurement Evaluation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanislav O.Zakharkin; Kyoungmi Kim; Alfred A.Bartolucci; Grier P.Page; David B.Allison

    2006-01-01

    Optimal experimental design is important for the efficient use of modern highthroughput technologies such as microarrays and proteomics. Multiple factors including the reliability of measurement system, which itself must be estimated from prior experimental work, could influence design decisions. In this study, we describe how the optimal number of replicate measures (technical replicates) for each biological sample (biological replicate) can be determined. Different allocations of biological and technical replicates were evaluated by minimizing the variance of the ratio of technical variance (measurement error) to the total variance (sum of sampling error and measurement error). We demonstrate that if the number of biological replicates and the number of technical replicates per biological sample are variable, while the total number of available measures is fixed, then the optimal allocation of replicates for measurement evaluation experiments requires two technical replicates for each biological replicate. Therefore, it is recommended to use two technical replicates for each biological replicate if the goal is to evaluate the reproducibility of measurements.

  1. The Genomic Replication of the Crenarchaeal Virus SIRV2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Alvarez, Laura

    of the crenarchaeal virus SIRV2, a model among archaeal viruses. SIRV2 was found to employ multiple replication mechanisms, with DNA synthesis starting by a strand-displacement mode that later derived in a rolling-circle replication from a circular intermediate. Interestingly, evidence for a secondary, bidirectional...... reinitiation events may partially explain the branched topology of the viral replication intermediates. We also analyzed the intracellular location of viral replication, showing the formation of viral peripheral replication centers in SIRV2-infected cells, where viral DNA synthesis and replication......-related proteins are concentrated. Our data indicates that the host DNA polymerase Dpo1 is also the viral replicative polymerase. Moreover, additional data suggests that other processes, such as translation, are also reorganized after infection. Based on our results, a model for the organization of viral...

  2. Regulation of replication fork progression through histone supply and demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Anja; Corpet, Armelle; Cook, Adam J L

    2007-01-01

    DNA replication in eukaryotes requires nucleosome disruption ahead of the replication fork and reassembly behind. An unresolved issue concerns how histone dynamics are coordinated with fork progression to maintain chromosomal stability. Here, we characterize a complex in which the human histone...... chaperone Asf1 and MCM2-7, the putative replicative helicase, are connected through a histone H3-H4 bridge. Depletion of Asf1 by RNA interference impedes DNA unwinding at replication sites, and similar defects arise from overproduction of new histone H3-H4 that compromises Asf1 function. These data link Asf......1 chaperone function, histone supply, and replicative unwinding of DNA in chromatin. We propose that Asf1, as a histone acceptor and donor, handles parental and new histones at the replication fork via an Asf1-(H3-H4)-MCM2-7 intermediate and thus provides a means to fine-tune replication fork...

  3. Replication, falsification, and the crisis of confidence in social psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D. Earp

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The (latest crisis in confidence in social psychology has generated much heated discussion about the importance of replication, including how such replication should be carried out as well as interpreted by scholars in the field. What does it mean if a replication attempt fails—does it mean that the original results, or the theory that predicted them, have been falsified? And how should failed replications affect our belief in the validity of the original research? In this paper, we consider the replication debate from a historical and philosophical perspective, and provide a conceptual analysis of both replication and falsification as they pertain to this important discussion. Along the way, we introduce a Bayesian framework for assessing failed replications in terms of how they should affect our confidence in purported findings.

  4. Replication, falsification, and the crisis of confidence in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, Brian D; Trafimow, David

    2015-01-01

    The (latest) crisis in confidence in social psychology has generated much heated discussion about the importance of replication, including how it should be carried out as well as interpreted by scholars in the field. For example, what does it mean if a replication attempt "fails"-does it mean that the original results, or the theory that predicted them, have been falsified? And how should "failed" replications affect our belief in the validity of the original research? In this paper, we consider the replication debate from a historical and philosophical perspective, and provide a conceptual analysis of both replication and falsification as they pertain to this important discussion. Along the way, we highlight the importance of auxiliary assumptions (for both testing theories and attempting replications), and introduce a Bayesian framework for assessing "failed" replications in terms of how they should affect our confidence in original findings.

  5. The Alleged Crisis and the Illusion of Exact Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebe, Wolfgang; Strack, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    There has been increasing criticism of the way psychologists conduct and analyze studies. These critiques as well as failures to replicate several high-profile studies have been used as justification to proclaim a "replication crisis" in psychology. Psychologists are encouraged to conduct more "exact" replications of published studies to assess the reproducibility of psychological research. This article argues that the alleged "crisis of replicability" is primarily due to an epistemological misunderstanding that emphasizes the phenomenon instead of its underlying mechanisms. As a consequence, a replicated phenomenon may not serve as a rigorous test of a theoretical hypothesis because identical operationalizations of variables in studies conducted at different times and with different subject populations might test different theoretical constructs. Therefore, we propose that for meaningful replications, attempts at reinstating the original circumstances are not sufficient. Instead, replicators must ascertain that conditions are realized that reflect the theoretical variable(s) manipulated (and/or measured) in the original study.

  6. Replication, falsification, and the crisis of confidence in social psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, Brian D.; Trafimow, David

    2015-01-01

    The (latest) crisis in confidence in social psychology has generated much heated discussion about the importance of replication, including how it should be carried out as well as interpreted by scholars in the field. For example, what does it mean if a replication attempt “fails”—does it mean that the original results, or the theory that predicted them, have been falsified? And how should “failed” replications affect our belief in the validity of the original research? In this paper, we consider the replication debate from a historical and philosophical perspective, and provide a conceptual analysis of both replication and falsification as they pertain to this important discussion. Along the way, we highlight the importance of auxiliary assumptions (for both testing theories and attempting replications), and introduce a Bayesian framework for assessing “failed” replications in terms of how they should affect our confidence in original findings. PMID:26042061

  7. Prevention of DNA re-replication in eukaryotic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan N. Truong; Xiaohua Wu

    2011-01-01

    DNA replication is a highly regulated process involving a number of licensing and replication factors that function in a carefully orchestrated manner to faithfully replicate DNA during every cell cycle. Loss of proper licensing control leads to deregulated DNA replication including DNA re-replication, which can cause genome instability and tumorigenesis. Eukaryotic organisms have established several conserved mechanisms to prevent DNA re-replication and to counteract its potentially harmful effects. These mechanisms include tightly controlled regulation of licensing factors and activation of cell cycle and DNA damage checkpoints.Deregulated licensing control and its associated compromised checkpoints have both been observed in tumor cells, indicating that proper functioning of these pathways is essential for maintaining genome stability. In this review, we discuss the regulatory mechanisms of licensing control, the deleterious consequences when both licensing and checkpoints are compromised, and present possible mechanisms to prevent re-replication in order to maintain genome stability.

  8. Eukaryotic Mismatch Repair in Relation to DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Thomas A; Erie, Dorothy A

    2015-01-01

    Three processes act in series to accurately replicate the eukaryotic nuclear genome. The major replicative DNA polymerases strongly prevent mismatch formation, occasional mismatches that do form are proofread during replication, and rare mismatches that escape proofreading are corrected by mismatch repair (MMR). This review focuses on MMR in light of increasing knowledge about nuclear DNA replication enzymology and the rate and specificity with which mismatches are generated during leading- and lagging-strand replication. We consider differences in MMR efficiency in relation to mismatch recognition, signaling to direct MMR to the nascent strand, mismatch removal, and the timing of MMR. These studies are refining our understanding of relationships between generating and repairing replication errors to achieve accurate replication of both DNA strands of the nuclear genome.

  9. Control of DNA replication by anomalous reaction-diffusion kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechhoefer, John; Gauthier, Michel

    2010-03-01

    DNA replication requires two distinct processes: the initiation of pre-licensed replication origins and the propagation of replication forks away from the fired origins. Experiments indicate that these origins are triggered over the whole genome at a rate I(t) (the number of initiations per unreplicated length per time) that increases throughout most of the synthesis (S) phase, before rapidly decreasing to zero at the end of the replication process. We propose a simple model for the control of DNA replication in which the rate of initiation of replication origins is controlled by protein-DNA interactions. Analyzing recent data from Xenopus frog embryos, we find that the initiation rate is reaction limited until nearly the end of replication, when it becomes diffusion limited. Initiation of origins is suppressed when the diffusion-limited search time dominates. To fit the experimental data, we find that the interaction between DNA and the rate-limiting protein must be subdiffusive.

  10. Decreased replication origin activity in temporal transition regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zeqiang; Hughes, Christina M; Kosiyatrakul, Settapong; Norio, Paolo; Sen, Ranjan; Fiering, Steven; Allis, C David; Bouhassira, Eric E; Schildkraut, Carl L

    2009-11-30

    In the mammalian genome, early- and late-replicating domains are often separated by temporal transition regions (TTRs) with novel properties and unknown functions. We identified a TTR in the mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) locus, which contains replication origins that are silent in embryonic stem cells but activated during B cell development. To investigate which factors contribute to origin activation during B cell development, we systematically modified the genetic and epigenetic status of the endogenous Igh TTR and used a single-molecule approach to analyze DNA replication. Introduction of a transcription unit into the Igh TTR, activation of gene transcription, and enhancement of local histone modifications characteristic of active chromatin did not lead to origin activation. Moreover, very few replication initiation events were observed when two ectopic replication origin sequences were inserted into the TTR. These findings indicate that the Igh TTR represents a repressive compartment that inhibits replication initiation, thus maintaining the boundaries between early and late replication domains.

  11. Isolation of restriction fragments containing origins of replication from complex genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesner, Larry D; Hamlin, Joyce L

    2015-01-01

    The identification and isolation of origins of replication from mammalian genomes has been a demanding task owing to the great complexity of these genomes. However, two methods have been refined in recent years each of which allows significant enrichment of recently activated origins of replication from asynchronous cell cultures. In one of these, nascent strands are melted from the long template DNA, and the small, origin-centered strands are isolated on sucrose gradients. The second method involves the selective entrapment of bubble-containing fragments in gelling agarose and their subsequent recovery and isolation by molecular cloning. Libraries prepared by this method from Chinese hamster and human cells have been shown to be extremely pure, and provide a renewable resource of origins that can be used as probes on microarrays or sequenced by high-throughput techniques to localize them within the genomic source. The bubble-trapping method is described here for asynchronous mammalian cells that grow with reasonable doubling times and from which nuclear matrices can be reliably prepared. The method for nuclear matrix preparation and enrichment of replication intermediates is described in an accompanying chapter entitled "Purification of restriction fragments containing replication intermediates from mammalian cells for 2-D gel analysis" (Chapter 16 ).

  12. Le Chatelier's principle in replicator dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Galstyan, Aram

    2011-10-01

    The Le Chatelier principle states that physical equilibria are not only stable, but they also resist external perturbations via short-time negative-feedback mechanisms: a perturbation induces processes tending to diminish its results. The principle has deep roots, e.g., in thermodynamics it is closely related to the second law and the positivity of the entropy production. Here we study the applicability of the Le Chatelier principle to evolutionary game theory, i.e., to perturbations of a Nash equilibrium within the replicator dynamics. We show that the principle can be reformulated as a majorization relation. This defines a stability notion that generalizes the concept of evolutionary stability. We determine criteria for a Nash equilibrium to satisfy the Le Chatelier principle and relate them to mutualistic interactions (game-theoretical anticoordination) showing in which sense mutualistic replicators can be more stable than (say) competing ones. There are globally stable Nash equilibria, where the Le Chatelier principle is violated even locally: in contrast to the thermodynamic equilibrium a Nash equilibrium can amplify small perturbations, though both types of equilibria satisfy the detailed balance condition.

  13. DNA instability in replicating Huntington's disease lymphoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frati Luigi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expanded CAG repeat in the Huntington's disease (HD gene may display tissue-specific variability (e.g. triplet mosaicism in repeat length, the longest mutations involving mitotic (germ and glial cells and postmitotic (neurons cells. What contributes to the triplet mutability underlying the development of HD nevertheless remains unknown. We investigated whether, besides the increased DNA instability documented in postmitotic neurons, possible environmental and genetic mechanisms, related to cell replication, may concur to determine CAG repeat mutability. To test this hypothesis we used, as a model, cultured HD patients' lymphoblasts with various CAG repeat lengths. Results Although most lymphoblastoid cell lines (88% showed little or no repeat instability even after six or more months culture, in lymphoblasts with large expansion repeats beyond 60 CAG repeats the mutation size and triplet mosaicism always increased during replication, implying that the repeat mutability for highly expanded mutations may quantitatively depend on the triplet expansion size. None of the investigated genetic factors, potentially acting in cis to the mutation, significantly influence the repeat changes. Finally, in our experiments certain drugs controlled triplet expansion in two prone-to-expand HD cell lines carrying large CAG mutations. Conclusion Our data support quantitative evidence that the inherited CAG length of expanded alleles has a major influence on somatic repeat variation. The longest triplet expansions show wide somatic variations and may offer a mechanistic model to study triplet drug-controlled instability and genetic factors influencing it.

  14. Why threefold-replication of families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Gerald L.

    1998-04-01

    In spite of the many successes of the standard model of particle physics, the observed proliferation of matter-fields, in the form of ``replicated'' generations or families, is a major unsolved problem. In this paper, I explore some of the algebraic, geometric and physical consequences of a new organizing principle for fundamental fermions (quarks and leptons)(Gerald L. Fitzpatrick, phThe Family Problem--New Internal Algebraic and Geometric Regularities), Nova Scientific Press, Issaquah, Washington, 1997. Read more about this book (ISBN 0--9655695--0--0) and its subject matter at: http://www.tp.umu.se/TIPTOP and/or amazon.com>http://www.amazon.com.. The essence of the new organizing principle is the idea that the standard-model concept of scalar fermion numbers f can be generalized. In particular, a ``generalized fermion number,'' which consists of a 2× 2 matrix F that ``acts'' on an internal 2-space, instead of spacetime, is taken to describe certain internal properties of fundamental fermions. This generalization automatically introduces internal degrees of freedom that ``explain,'' among other things, family replication and the number (three) of families observed in nature.

  15. Replicative DNA polymerase mutations in cancer☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzer, Ellen; Tomlinson, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Three DNA polymerases — Pol α, Pol δ and Pol ɛ — are essential for DNA replication. After initiation of DNA synthesis by Pol α, Pol δ or Pol ɛ take over on the lagging and leading strand respectively. Pol δ and Pol ɛ perform the bulk of replication with very high fidelity, which is ensured by Watson–Crick base pairing and 3′exonuclease (proofreading) activity. Yeast models have shown that mutations in the exonuclease domain of Pol δ and Pol ɛ homologues can cause a mutator phenotype. Recently, we identified germline exonuclease domain mutations (EDMs) in human POLD1 and POLE that predispose to ‘polymerase proofreading associated polyposis’ (PPAP), a disease characterised by multiple colorectal adenomas and carcinoma, with high penetrance and dominant inheritance. Moreover, somatic EDMs in POLE have also been found in sporadic colorectal and endometrial cancers. Tumors with EDMs are microsatellite stable and show an ‘ultramutator’ phenotype, with a dramatic increase in base substitutions. PMID:24583393

  16. SARS-coronavirus replication is supported by a reticulovesicular network of modified endoplasmic reticulum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kèvin Knoops

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Positive-strand RNA viruses, a large group including human pathogens such as SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV, replicate in the cytoplasm of infected host cells. Their replication complexes are commonly associated with modified host cell membranes. Membrane structures supporting viral RNA synthesis range from distinct spherular membrane invaginations to more elaborate webs of packed membranes and vesicles. Generally, their ultrastructure, morphogenesis, and exact role in viral replication remain to be defined. Poorly characterized double-membrane vesicles (DMVs were previously implicated in SARS-CoV RNA synthesis. We have now applied electron tomography of cryofixed infected cells for the three-dimensional imaging of coronavirus-induced membrane alterations at high resolution. Our analysis defines a unique reticulovesicular network of modified endoplasmic reticulum that integrates convoluted membranes, numerous interconnected DMVs (diameter 200-300 nm, and "vesicle packets" apparently arising from DMV merger. The convoluted membranes were most abundantly immunolabeled for viral replicase subunits. However, double-stranded RNA, presumably revealing the site of viral RNA synthesis, mainly localized to the DMV interior. Since we could not discern a connection between DMV interior and cytosol, our analysis raises several questions about the mechanism of DMV formation and the actual site of SARS-CoV RNA synthesis. Our data document the extensive virus-induced reorganization of host cell membranes into a network that is used to organize viral replication and possibly hide replicating RNA from antiviral defense mechanisms. Together with biochemical studies of the viral enzyme complex, our ultrastructural description of this "replication network" will aid to further dissect the early stages of the coronavirus life cycle and its virus-host interactions.

  17. Late-replicating X-chromosome: replication patterns in mammalian females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunin Karen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The GTG-banding and 5-BrdU incorporation patterns of the late-replicating X-chromosome were studied in female dogs and cattle, and compared to human female patterns. The replication patterns of the short arm of the X-chromosomes did not show any difference between human, dog and cattle females. As to the long arm, some bands showed differences among the three studied species regarding the replication kinetics pattern. These differences were observed in a restricted region of the X-chromosome, delimited by Xq11 -> q25 in humans, by Xq1 -> q8 in dogs, and by Xq12 -> q32 in cattle. In an attempt to find out if these differences in the replication kinetics could be a reflection of differences in the localization of genes in that region of the X-chromosome, we used the probe for the human androgen receptor gene (AR localized at Xq12, which is in the region where we observed differences among the three studied species. We did not, however, observe hybridization signals. Our study goes on, using other human probes for genes located in the region Xq11 -> Xq25.

  18. Replication regions of two pairs of incompatible lactococcal theta-replicating plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravesen, A; von Wright, A; Josephsen, J; Vogensen, F K

    1997-01-01

    Incompatibility tests were performed employing 12 replicons belonging to a family of homologous lactococcal theta-replicating plasmids. Two pairs of incompatible plasmids were found, namely, pFV1001 and pFV1201, and pJW565 and pFW094. The replicons of plasmids pFV1001, pFV1201, pJW565, pJW566, and pFW094 were sequenced. Alignments were made of the replicational origins (repA) and putative replication proteins (RepB) of these and 11 related plasmid sequences. Comparison of the alignments with the incompatibility data indicated that the incompatibility determinant could be contained within the 22-bp tandem repeats DRII and/or the inverted repeat IR1 in repA. In support, the incompatibility determinant of pJW563 was localized to a 743-bp fragment encompassing repA. A stretch of 13 amino acids of RepB was proposed to be responsible for the plasmid-specific initiation of replication. This stretch is part of a domain containing features that are highly conserved within the proposed DNA binding regions of the initiation proteins from several well-characterized plasmids from Gram-negative bacteria, including pSC101, R6K, and mini-F.

  19. The Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable resource discovery in clinical and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Jessica D; Whetzel, Patricia L; Anderson, Kent; Borromeo, Charles D; Dinov, Ivo D; Gabriel, Davera; Kirschner, Beth; Mirel, Barbara; Morris, Tim; Noy, Natasha; Nyulas, Csongor; Rubenson, David; Saxman, Paul R; Singh, Harpreet; Whelan, Nancy; Wright, Zach; Athey, Brian D; Becich, Michael J; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Musen, Mark A; Smith, Kevin A; Tarantal, Alice F; Rubin, Daniel L; Lyster, Peter

    2011-02-01

    The biomedical research community relies on a diverse set of resources, both within their own institutions and at other research centers. In addition, an increasing number of shared electronic resources have been developed. Without effective means to locate and query these resources, it is challenging, if not impossible, for investigators to be aware of the myriad resources available, or to effectively perform resource discovery when the need arises. In this paper, we describe the development and use of the Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable semantic annotation and discovery of biomedical resources. We also describe the Resource Discovery System (RDS) which is a federated, inter-institutional pilot project that uses the BRO to facilitate resource discovery on the Internet. Through the RDS framework and its associated Biositemaps infrastructure, the BRO facilitates semantic search and discovery of biomedical resources, breaking down barriers and streamlining scientific research that will improve human health. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to Enable Resource Discovery in Clinical and Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Jessica D.; Whetzel, Patricia L.; Anderson, Kent; Borromeo, Charles D.; Dinov, Ivo D.; Gabriel, Davera; Kirschner, Beth; Mirel, Barbara; Morris, Tim; Noy, Natasha; Nyulas, Csongor; Rubenson, David; Saxman, Paul R.; Singh, Harpreet; Whelan, Nancy; Wright, Zach; Athey, Brian D.; Becich, Michael J.; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.; Musen, Mark A.; Smith, Kevin A.; Tarantal, Alice F.; Rubin, Daniel L; Lyster, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The biomedical research community relies on a diverse set of resources, both within their own institutions and at other research centers. In addition, an increasing number of shared electronic resources have been developed. Without effective means to locate and query these resources, it is challenging, if not impossible, for investigators to be aware of the myriad resources available, or to effectively perform resource discovery when the need arises. In this paper, we describe the development and use of the Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable semantic annotation and discovery of biomedical resources. We also describe the Resource Discovery System (RDS) which is a federated, inter-institutional pilot project that uses the BRO to facilitate resource discovery on the Internet. Through the RDS framework and its associated Biositemaps infrastructure, the BRO facilitates semantic search and discovery of biomedical resources, breaking down barriers and streamlining scientific research that will improve human health. PMID:20955817