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Sample records for replica immunogold labeling

  1. Immunogold labels: cell-surface markers in atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, Constant A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; de Grooth, B.G.; Hansma, Paul K.; van Hulst, N.F.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of using immunogold labels as cell-surface markers in atomic force microscopy is shown in this paper. The atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to image the surface of immunogold-labeled human lymphocytes. The lymphocytes were isolated from whole blood and labeled by an indirect

  2. Localization of viral antigens in leaf protoplasts and plants by immunogold labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lent, van J.W.M.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis describes the application of an immunocytochemical technique, immunogold labelling, new in the light and electron microscopic study of the plant viral infection. In Chapter 1 the present state of knowledge of the plant viral infection process, as revealed by

  3. Coreactant-free and Label-free Eletrochemiluminescence Immunosensor for Copeptin Based on Luminescent Immuno-Gold Nanoassemblys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhili; Shu, Jiangnan; Jiang, Qiaoshi; Cui, Hua

    2018-04-25

    In this work, the eletrochemiluminescence (ECL) behavior of Cu 2+ /cysteine complexes and N-(aminobutyl)-N-(ethylisoluminol) (ABEI) functionalized gold nanoparticles combined with chitosan (Cu 2+ -Cys-ABEI-GNPs-CS) were studied by cyclic voltammetry and a double-step potential, which exhibited excellent ECL properties without any coreactant. It was found that the ECL intensity of Cu 2+ -Cys-ABEI-GNPs-CS could increase at least one order of magnitude compared with that of Cu 2+ -Cys-ABEI-GNPs. Furthermore, a coreactant-free and label-free ECL immunosensor has been established for the determination of early acute myocardial infarction biomarker copeptin based on luminescent immuno-gold nanoassemblys consisting of Cu 2+ -Cys-ABEI-GNPs-CS and immuno-gold nanoparticles prepared by connecting copeptin antibody with trisodium citrate stabilized gold nanoparticles. In the presence of copeptin, an obvious decrease in ECL intensity was observed due to the formation of antibody-antigen immunocomplex, which could be used for the determination of copeptin in the range of 2.0×10 -14 -1.0×10 -11 mol/L with a detection limit of 5.18×10 -15 mol/L. The detection limit of the ECL immunosensor is at least two orders of magnitude lower than that of sandwich immunoassays based on labeling technology. And the ECL immunosensor does not need any coreactant, and avoids complicated labeling and purification procedure. It is ultrasensitive, simple, specific and low-cost. This work reveals that the proposed luminescent immuno-gold nanoassemblys are ideal nanointerfaces for the construction of immunosensors. The proposed strategy may be used for the determination of other antigens if corresponding antibodies are available.

  4. Labeling surface epitopes to identify Cryptosporidium life stages using a scanning electron microscopy-based immunogold approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Hanna; Thompson, R C Andrew; Koh, Wan H; Clode, Peta L

    2012-02-01

    The Apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum is responsible for the widespread disease cryptosporidiosis, in both humans and livestock. The nature of C. parvum infection is far from understood and many questions remain in regard to host-parasite interactions, limiting successful treatment of the disease. To definitively identify a range of C. parvum stages in cell culture and to begin to investigate host cell interactions in some of the lesser known life stages, we have utilized a combined scanning electron microscopy and immunolabeling approach, correlating high resolution microstructural information with definitive immunogold labeling of Cryptosporidium stages. Several life cycle stages, including oocysts, merozoites I, trophozoites, gamonts and microgametocytes, were successfully immunolabeled in an in vitro model system. Developing oocysts were clearly immunolabeled, but this did not persist once excystation had occurred. Immunolabeling visualized on the host cell surface adjacent to invasive merozoites is likely to be indicative of receptor shedding, with merozoites also initiating host responses that manifested as abnormal microvilli on the host cell surface. Small sub-micron stages such as microgametocytes, which were impossible to identify as single entities without immunolabeling, were readily visualized and observed to attach to host cells via novel membranous projections. Epicellular parasites also expressed Cryptosporidium-derived epitopes within their encapsulating membrane. These data have allowed us to confidently identify a variety of C. parvum stages in cell culture at high resolution. With this, we provide new insight into C. parvum - host cell interactions and highlight future opportunities for investigating and targeting receptor-mediated interactions between Cryptosporidium life cycle stages and host cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A novel immuno-gold labeling protocol for nanobody-based detection of HER2 in breast cancer cells using immuno-electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijanka, M; van Donselaar, E G; Müller, W H; Dorresteijn, B; Popov-Čeleketić, D; El Khattabi, M; Verrips, C T; van Bergen En Henegouwen, P M P; Post, J A

    2017-07-01

    Immuno-electron microscopy is commonly performed with the use of antibodies. In the last decade the antibody fragment indicated as nanobody (VHH or single domain antibody) has found its way to different applications previously done with conventional antibodies. Nanobodies can be selected to bind with high affinity and specificity to different antigens. They are small (molecular weight ca. 15kDa) and are usually easy to produce in microorganisms. Here we have evaluated the feasibility of a nanobody binding to HER2 for application in immuno-electron microscopy. To obtain highest labeling efficiency combined with optimal specificity, different labeling conditions were analysed, which included nanobody concentration, fixation and blocking conditions. The obtained optimal protocol was applied for post-embedment labeling of Tokuyasu cryosections and for pre-embedment labeling of HER2 for fluorescence microscopy and both transmission and scanning electron microscopy. We show that formaldehyde fixation after incubation with the anti-HER2 nanobody, improves labeling intensity. Among all tested blocking agents the best results were obtained with a mixture of cold water fish gelatine and acetylated bovine serum albumin, which prevented a-specific interactions causing background labeling while preserving specific interactions at the same time. In conclusion, we have developed a nanobody-based protocol for immuno-gold labeling of HER2 for Tokuyasu cryosections in TEM as well as for pre-embedment gold labeling of cells for both TEM and SEM. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Immunogold staining procedure for the localisation of regulatory peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varndell, I M; Tapia, F J; Probert, L; Buchan, A M; Gu, J; De Mey, J; Bloom, S R; Polak, J M

    1982-01-01

    The use of protein A- and IgG-conjugated colloidal gold staining methods for the immuno-localisation of peptide hormones and neurotransmitters at light- and electron microscope level are described and discussed. Bright-field and dark-ground illumination modes have been used to visualise the gold-labelled antigenic sites at the light microscope level. Immunogold staining procedures at the ultrastructural level using region-specific antisera have been adopted to localise specific molecular forms of peptides including gastrin (G17 and G34), glucagon and pro-glucagon, insulin and pro-insulin, in normal tissue and in tumours of the gastroenteropancreatic system. Similar methods have been used to demonstrate the heterogeneity of p-type nerves in the enteric nervous system. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) has been localised to granular sites (mean +/- S.D. granule diameter = 98 +/- 19 nm) in nerve terminals of the enteric plexuses and in tumour cells of diarrhoeogenic VIP-producing neoplasias (mean +/- S.D. granule diameter = 126 +/- 37 nm) using immunogold procedures applied to ultraviolet-cured ultrathin sections. Co-localisation of amines and peptides in carotid body type I cells and in chromaffin cells of normal adrenal medulla and phaeochromocytomas has also been demonstrated. Advantages of the immunogold procedures over alternative immunocytochemical techniques are discussed.

  7. Immunogold electron microscopic localization of timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen major allergens Phl p I and Phl p V after anhydrous fixation in acrolein vapor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grote, M.; Dolecek, C.; van Ree, R.; Valenta, R.

    1994-01-01

    We used the vapor phase of acrolein as an anhydrous fixative for timothy grass pollen in an immunogold double-labeling localization study of two different major allergens, Phl p I and Phl p V. More than 48 hr of fixation were needed for the subcellular pollen structures to be satisfactorily

  8. Hyper-V Replica essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Krstevski, Vangel

    2013-01-01

    a in various deployment scenarios.Hyper-V Replica Essentials is for Windows Server administrators who want to improve their system availability and speed up disaster recovery. You will need experience in Hyper-V deployment because Hyper-V Replica is built in the Hyper-V platform.

  9. Cryo-immunogold electron microscopy for prions: toward identification of a conversion site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsave, Susan F; Wille, Holger; Kujala, Pekka; Latawiec, Diane; DeArmond, Stephen J; Serban, Ana; Prusiner, Stanley B; Peters, Peter J

    2008-11-19

    Prion diseases are caused by accumulation of an abnormally folded isoform (PrP(Sc)) of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). The subcellular distribution of PrP(Sc) and the site of its formation in brain are still unclear. We performed quantitative cryo-immunogold electron microscopy on hippocampal sections from mice infected with the Rocky Mountain Laboratory strain of prions. Two antibodies were used: R2, which recognizes both PrP(C) and PrP(Sc); and F4-31, which only detects PrP(C) in undenatured sections. At a late subclinical stage of prion infection, both PrP(C) and PrP(Sc) were detected principally on neuronal plasma membranes and on vesicles resembling early endocytic or recycling vesicles in the neuropil. The R2 labeling was approximately six times higher in the infected than the uninfected hippocampus and gold clusters were only evident in infected tissue. The biggest increase in labeling density (24-fold) was found on the early/recycling endosome-like vesicles of small-diameter neurites, suggesting these as possible sites of conversion. Trypsin digestion of infected hippocampal sections resulted in a reduction in R2 labeling of >85%, which suggests that a high proportion of PrP(Sc) may be oligomeric, protease-sensitive PrP(Sc).

  10. Protein mapping of calcium carbonate biominerals by immunogold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Frédéric; Pokroy, Boaz; Luquet, Gilles; Layrolle, Pierre; De Groot, Klaas

    2007-05-01

    The construction of metazoan calcium carbonate skeletons is finely regulated by a proteinaceous extracellular matrix, which remains embedded within the exoskeleton. In spite of numerous biochemical studies, the precise localization of skeletal proteins has remained for a long time as an elusive goal. In this paper, we describe a technique for visualizing shell matrix proteins on the surface of calcium carbonate crystals or within the biominerals. The technique is as follows: freshly broken pieces of biominerals or NaOCl then EDTA-etched polished surfaces are incubated with an antibody elicited against one matrix protein, then with a secondary gold-coupled antibody. After silver enhancement, the samples are subsequently observed with scanning electron microscopy by using back-scattered electron mode. In the present case, the technique is applied to a particular example, the calcitic prisms that compose the outer shell layer of the mediterranean fan mussel Pinna nobilis. One major soluble protein, caspartin, which was identified recently, was partly de novo sequenced after enzymatic digestions. A polyclonal antibody raised against caspartin was used for its localization within and on the prisms. The immunogold localization indicated that caspartin surrounds the calcitic prisms, but is also dispersed within the biominerals. This example illustrates the deep impact of the technique on the definition of intracrystalline versus intercrystalline matrix proteins. Furthermore, it is an important tool for assigning a putative function to a matrix protein of interest.

  11. Immunogold localization of serotonin within synaptic terminals in the rat mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, RSB; Copray, JCVM

    1996-01-01

    With the use of postembedding electron-microscopic immunogold cytochemistry, the vesicular distribution of serotonin within serotonergic synaptic terminals in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus was determined in order to obtain further insight into the mechanisms and function, significance of

  12. File-based replica management

    CERN Document Server

    Kunszt, Peter Z; Stockinger, Heinz; Stockinger, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    Data replication is one of the best known strategies to achieve high levels of availability and fault tolerance, as well as minimal access times for large, distributed user communities using a world-wide Data Grid. In certain scientific application domains, the data volume can reach the order of several petabytes; in these domains, data replication and access optimization play an important role in the manageability and usability of the Grid. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a replica management Grid middleware that was developed within the EDG project left bracket European Data Grid Project (EDG), http://www.eu-egee.org right bracket and is designed to be extensible so that user communities can adjust its detailed behavior according to their QoS requirements.

  13. Validation of the replica trick for simple models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, Takashi

    2018-04-01

    We discuss the replica analytic continuation using several simple models in order to prove mathematically the validity of the replica analysis, which is used in a wide range of fields related to large-scale complex systems. While replica analysis consists of two analytical techniques—the replica trick (or replica analytic continuation) and the thermodynamical limit (and/or order parameter expansion)—we focus our study on replica analytic continuation, which is the mathematical basis of the replica trick. We apply replica analysis to solve a variety of analytical models, and examine the properties of replica analytic continuation. Based on the positive results for these models we propose that replica analytic continuation is a robust procedure in replica analysis.

  14. Replica Fourier Transform: Properties and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crisanti, A.; De Dominicis, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Replica Fourier Transform is the generalization of the discrete Fourier Transform to quantities defined on an ultrametric tree. It finds use in conjunction of the replica method used to study thermodynamics properties of disordered systems such as spin glasses. Its definition is presented in a systematic and simple form and its use illustrated with some representative examples. In particular we give a detailed discussion of the diagonalization in the Replica Fourier Space of the Hessian matrix of the Gaussian fluctuations about the mean field saddle point of spin glass theory. The general results are finally discussed for a generic spherical spin glass model, where the Hessian can be computed analytically

  15. Detection of serum anti-sperm antibody in infertile couples with dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Xiaoxian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To develop a new method for rapid detection of serum anti-sperm antibody in infertile couples. Methods: Human sperm antigen was prepared from pooled semen specimens of fertile males. Nitro-cellulose membrane was used as solid-phase carrier of the antigen. Colloidal gold pellet combined goat anti-human IgG was taken as labelled antibody. A dot-immunogold filtration assay system was established for test of serum anti-human sperm antibody. Serum specimens from 137 infertile couples were tested and the result compared with flat from ELISA. Results: The human sperm antigen would react with the anti-sperm antibody in the tested serum over the cellulose membrane through filtration and the result could be read with naked eye within 6 minutes. In this study of 137 infertile coupled, the anti-sperm antibody was positive in 21.9% of the female serum specimens and 13.19% of the males. Compared with the result from ELISA, the consistency rate was 96.1%. The sensitivity of the assay was 90.2% and specificity was 95.4%. The p reparation was stable after 6 months refrigerator storage. Conclusion: This newly developed DIGFA is very adequate for rap id detection of anti-sperm antibody and deserves popularization. (authors)

  16. Immunogold scanning electron microscopy can reveal the polysaccharide architecture of xylem cell walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuliang; Juzenas, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM) and immunogold transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are the two main techniques commonly used to detect polysaccharides in plant cell walls. Both are important in localizing cell wall polysaccharides, but both have major limitations, such as low resolution in IFM and restricted sample size for immunogold TEM. In this study, we have developed a robust technique that combines immunocytochemistry with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study cell wall polysaccharide architecture in xylem cells at high resolution over large areas of sample. Using multiple cell wall monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), this immunogold SEM technique reliably localized groups of hemicellulosic and pectic polysaccharides in the cell walls of five different xylem structures (vessel elements, fibers, axial and ray parenchyma cells, and tyloses). This demonstrates its important advantages over the other two methods for studying cell wall polysaccharide composition and distribution in these structures. In addition, it can show the three-dimensional distribution of a polysaccharide group in the vessel lateral wall and the polysaccharide components in the cell wall of developing tyloses. This technique, therefore, should be valuable for understanding the cell wall polysaccharide composition, architecture and functions of diverse cell types. PMID:28398585

  17. Replica consistency in a Data Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenici, Andrea; Donno, Flavia; Pucciani, Gianni; Stockinger, Heinz; Stockinger, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    A Data Grid is a wide area computing infrastructure that employs Grid technologies to provide storage capacity and processing power to applications that handle very large quantities of data. Data Grids rely on data replication to achieve better performance and reliability by storing copies of data sets on different Grid nodes. When a data set can be modified by applications, the problem of maintaining consistency among existing copies arises. The consistency problem also concerns metadata, i.e., additional information about application data sets such as indices, directories, or catalogues. This kind of metadata is used both by the applications and by the Grid middleware to manage the data. For instance, the Replica Management Service (the Grid middleware component that controls data replication) uses catalogues to find the replicas of each data set. Such catalogues can also be replicated and their consistency is crucial to the correct operation of the Grid. Therefore, metadata consistency generally poses stricter requirements than data consistency. In this paper we report on the development of a Replica Consistency Service based on the middleware mainly developed by the European Data Grid Project. The paper summarises the main issues in the replica consistency problem, and lays out a high-level architectural design for a Replica Consistency Service. Finally, results from simulations of different consistency models are presented

  18. Replica methods for loopy sparse random graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolen, ACC

    2016-01-01

    I report on the development of a novel statistical mechanical formalism for the analysis of random graphs with many short loops, and processes on such graphs. The graphs are defined via maximum entropy ensembles, in which both the degrees (via hard constraints) and the adjacency matrix spectrum (via a soft constraint) are prescribed. The sum over graphs can be done analytically, using a replica formalism with complex replica dimensions. All known results for tree-like graphs are recovered in a suitable limit. For loopy graphs, the emerging theory has an appealing and intuitive structure, suggests how message passing algorithms should be adapted, and what is the structure of theories describing spin systems on loopy architectures. However, the formalism is still largely untested, and may require further adjustment and refinement. (paper)

  19. Kinetics from Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzl, Lukas S; Hummer, Gerhard

    2017-08-08

    Transitions between metastable states govern many fundamental processes in physics, chemistry and biology, from nucleation events in phase transitions to the folding of proteins. The free energy surfaces underlying these processes can be obtained from simulations using enhanced sampling methods. However, their altered dynamics makes kinetic and mechanistic information difficult or impossible to extract. Here, we show that, with replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD), one can not only sample equilibrium properties but also extract kinetic information. For systems that strictly obey first-order kinetics, the procedure to extract rates is rigorous. For actual molecular systems whose long-time dynamics are captured by kinetic rate models, accurate rate coefficients can be determined from the statistics of the transitions between the metastable states at each replica temperature. We demonstrate the practical applicability of the procedure by constructing master equation (Markov state) models of peptide and RNA folding from REMD simulations.

  20. 3D printed replicas for endodontic education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymus, M; Fotiadou, C; Kessler, A; Heck, K; Hickel, R; Diegritz, C

    2018-06-14

    To assess the feasibility of producing artificial teeth for endodontic training using 3D printing technology, to analyse the accuracy of the printing process, and to evaluate the teeth by students when used during training. Sound extracted human teeth were selected, digitalized by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and appropriate software and finally reproduced by a stereolithographic printer. The printed teeth were scanned and compared with the original ones (trueness) and to one another (precision). Undergraduate dental students in the third and fourth years performed root canal treatment on printed molars and were subsequently asked to evaluate their experience with these compared to real teeth. The workflow was feasible for manufacturing 3D printed tooth replicas. The absolute deviation after printing (trueness) ranged from 50.9μm to 104.3μm. The values for precision ranged from 43.5μm to 68.2μm. Students reported great benefits in the use of the replicated teeth for training purposes. The presented workflow is feasible for any dental educational institution who has access to a CBCT unit and a stereolithographic printer. The accuracy of the printing process is suitable for the production of tooth replicas for endodontic training. Undergraduate students favoured the availability of these replicas and the fairness they ensured in training due to standardization. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. A critical inventory of preoperative skull replicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasel, J H D; Beinemann, J; Schaller, K; Gailloud, P

    2013-09-01

    Physical replicas of organs are used increasingly for preoperative planning. The quality of these models is generally accepted by surgeons. In view of the strong trend towards minimally invasive and personalised surgery, however, the aim of this investigation was to assess qualitatively the accuracy of such replicas, using skull models as an example. Skull imaging was acquired for three cadavers by computed tomography using clinical routine parameters. After digital three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction, physical replicas were produced by 3D printing. The facsimilia were analysed systematically and compared with the best gold standard possible: the macerated skull itself. The skull models were far from anatomically accurate. Non-conforming rendering was observed in particular for foramina, sutures, notches, fissures, grooves, channels, tuberosities, thin-walled structures, sharp peaks and crests, and teeth. Surgeons should be aware that preoperative models may not yet render the exact anatomy of the patient under consideration and are advised to continue relying, in specific conditions, on their own analysis of the native computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging.

  2. High-resolution immunogold localization of AMPA type glutamate receptor subunits at synaptic and non-synaptic sites in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baude, A; Nusser, Z; Molnár, E; McIlhinney, R A; Somogyi, P

    1995-12-01

    particles for the GluRA, GluRB/C and GluRD subunits were present at type 1 synaptic membrane specializations on dendritic spines of pyramidal cells throughout all layers of the CA1 and CA3 areas. The most densely labelled synapses tended to be on the largest spines and many smaller spines remained unlabelled. Immunoparticle density at type 1 synapses on dendritic shafts of some non-principal cells was consistently higher than at labelled synapses of dendritic spines of pyramidal cells. Synapses established between dendritic spines and mossy fibre terminals, were immunoreactive for all studied subunits in stratum lucidum of the CA3 area. The postembedding immunogold method revealed that the AMPA type receptors are concentrated within the main body of the anatomically defined type 1 (asymmetrical) synaptic junction. Often only a part of the membrane specialization showed clustered immunoparticles. There was a sharp decrease in immunoreactive receptor density at the edge of the synaptic specialization. Immunolabelling was consistently demonstrated at extrasynaptic sites on dendrites, dendritic spines and somata. The results demonstrate that the GluRA, B/C and D subunits of the AMPA type glutamate receptor are present in many of the glutamatergic synapses formed by the entorhinal, CA3 pyramidal and mossy fibre terminals. Some interneurons have a higher density of AMPA type receptors in their asymmetrical afferent synapses than pyramidal cells. This may contribute to a lower activation threshold of interneurons as compared to principal cells by the same afferents in the hippocampal formation.

  3. A Validation Study of the Impression Replica Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerström, Sofia; Wiking-Lima de Faria, Johanna; Braian, Michael; Ameri, Arman; Ahlgren, Camilla

    2018-04-17

    To validate the well-known and often-used impression replica technique for measuring fit between a preparation and a crown in vitro. The validation consisted of three steps. First, a measuring instrument was validated to elucidate its accuracy. Second, a specimen consisting of male and female counterparts was created and validated by the measuring instrument. Calculations were made for the exact values of three gaps between the male and female. Finally, impression replicas were produced of the specimen gaps and sectioned into four pieces. The replicas were then measured with the use of a light microscope. The values received from measuring the specimen were then compared with the values received from the impression replicas, and the technique was thereby validated. The impression replica technique overvalued all measured gaps. Depending on location of the three measuring sites, the difference between the specimen and the impression replicas varied from 47 to 130 μm. The impression replica technique overestimates gaps within the range of 2% to 11%. The validation of the replica technique enables the method to be used as a reference when testing other methods for evaluating fit in dentistry. © 2018 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  4. Modeling Vocal Fold Intravascular Flow using Synthetic Replicas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Aaron D.; Ricks, Matthew T.; Thomson, Scott L.

    2017-11-01

    Vocal fold vibration that is induced by air flowing from the lungs is believed to decrease blood flow through the vocal folds. This is important due to the critical role of blood flow in maintaining tissue health. However, the precise mechanical relationships between vocal fold vibration and blood perfusion remain understudied. A platform for studying liquid perfusion in a synthetic, life-size, self-oscillating vocal fold replica has recently been developed. The replicas are fabricated using molded silicone with material properties comparable to those of human vocal fold tissues and that include embedded microchannels through which liquid is perfused. The replicas are mounted on an air flow supply tube to initiate flow-induced vibration. A liquid reservoir is attached to the microchannel to cause liquid to perfuse through replica in the anterior-posterior direction. As replica vibration is initiated and amplitude increases, perfusion flow rate decreases. In this presentation, the replica design will be presented, along with data quantifying the relationships between parameters such as replica vibration amplitude, stiffness, microchannel diameter, and perfusion flow rate. This work was supported by Grant NIDCD R01DC005788 from the National Institutes of Health.

  5. Gamma-ray dosimetry measurements of the Little Boy replica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plassmann, E.A.; Pederson, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    We present the current status of our gamma-ray dosimetry results for the Little Boy replica. Both Geiger-Mueller and thermoluminescent detectors were used in the measurements. Future work is needed to test assumptions made in data analysis

  6. SRF Cavity Surface Topography Characterization Using Replica Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Xu, M.J. Kelley, C.E. Reece

    2012-07-01

    To better understand the roll of topography on SRF cavity performance, we seek to obtain detailed topographic information from the curved practical cavity surfaces. Replicas taken from a cavity interior surface provide internal surface molds for fine Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and stylus profilometry. In this study, we confirm the replica resolution both on surface local defects such as grain boundary and etching pits and compare the surface uniform roughness with the aid of Power Spectral Density (PSD) where we can statistically obtain roughness parameters at different scales. A series of sampling locations are at the same magnetic field chosen at the same latitude on a single cell cavity to confirm the uniformity. Another series of sampling locations at different magnetic field amplitudes are chosen for this replica on the same cavity for later power loss calculation. We also show that application of the replica followed by rinsing does not adversely affect the cavity performance.

  7. Patrol Detection for Replica Attacks on Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liang-Min; Shi, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Replica attack is a critical concern in the security of wireless sensor networks. We employ mobile nodes as patrollers to detect replicas distributed in different zones in a network, in which a basic patrol detection protocol and two detection algorithms for stationary and mobile modes are presented. Then we perform security analysis to discuss the defense strategies against the possible attacks on the proposed detection protocol. Moreover, we show the advantages of the proposed protocol by d...

  8. Accuracy of three-dimensional printing for manufacturing replica teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Keun-Young; Cho, Jin-Woo; Chang, Na-Young; Chae, Jong-Moon; Kang, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Cho, Jin-Hyoung

    2015-01-01

    Objective Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a recent technological development that may play a significant role in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment. It can be used to fabricate skull models or study models, as well as to make replica teeth in autotransplantation or tooth impaction cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of fabrication of replica teeth made by two types of 3D printing technologies. Methods Fifty extracted molar teeth were selected as samples. They were sc...

  9. Bayesian ensemble refinement by replica simulations and reweighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Gerhard; Köfinger, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    We describe different Bayesian ensemble refinement methods, examine their interrelation, and discuss their practical application. With ensemble refinement, the properties of dynamic and partially disordered (bio)molecular structures can be characterized by integrating a wide range of experimental data, including measurements of ensemble-averaged observables. We start from a Bayesian formulation in which the posterior is a functional that ranks different configuration space distributions. By maximizing this posterior, we derive an optimal Bayesian ensemble distribution. For discrete configurations, this optimal distribution is identical to that obtained by the maximum entropy "ensemble refinement of SAXS" (EROS) formulation. Bayesian replica ensemble refinement enhances the sampling of relevant configurations by imposing restraints on averages of observables in coupled replica molecular dynamics simulations. We show that the strength of the restraints should scale linearly with the number of replicas to ensure convergence to the optimal Bayesian result in the limit of infinitely many replicas. In the "Bayesian inference of ensembles" method, we combine the replica and EROS approaches to accelerate the convergence. An adaptive algorithm can be used to sample directly from the optimal ensemble, without replicas. We discuss the incorporation of single-molecule measurements and dynamic observables such as relaxation parameters. The theoretical analysis of different Bayesian ensemble refinement approaches provides a basis for practical applications and a starting point for further investigations.

  10. Replica Fourier Tansforms on Ultrametric Trees, and Block-Diagonalizing Multi-Replica Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dominicis, C.; Carlucci, D. M.; Temesvári, T.

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of objects living on ultrametric trees, in particular the block-diagonalization of 4-replica matrices M^{α β;γ^δ}, is shown to be dramatically simplified through the introduction of properly chosen operations on those objects. These are the Replica Fourier Transforms on ultrametric trees. Those transformations are defined and used in the present work. On montre que l'analyse d'objets vivant sur un arbre ultramétrique, en particulier, la diagonalisation par blocs d'une matrice M^{α β;γ^δ} dépendant de 4-répliques, se simplifie de façon dramatique si l'on introduit les opérations appropriées sur ces objets. Ce sont les Transformées de Fourier de Répliques sur un arbre ultramétrique. Ces transformations sont définies et utilisées dans le présent travail.

  11. Neurovascular Modeling: Small-Batch Manufacturing of Silicone Vascular Replicas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueh, J.Y.; Wakhloo, A.K.; Gounis, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Realistic, population based cerebrovascular replicas are required for the development of neuroendovascular devices. The objective of this work was to develop an efficient methodology for manufacturing realistic cerebrovascular replicas. MATERIALS AND METHODS Brain MR angiography data from 20 patients were acquired. The centerline of the vasculature was calculated, and geometric parameters were measured to describe quantitatively the internal carotid artery (ICA) siphon. A representative model was created on the basis of the quantitative measurements. Using this virtual model, we designed a mold with core-shell structure and converted it into a physical object by fused-deposit manufacturing. Vascular replicas were created by injection molding of different silicones. Mechanical properties, including the stiffness and luminal coefficient of friction, were measured. RESULTS The average diameter, length, and curvature of the ICA siphon were 4.15 ± 0.09 mm, 22.60 ± 0.79 mm, and 0.34 ± 0.02 mm-1 (average ± standard error of the mean), respectively. From these image datasets, we created a median virtual model, which was transformed into a physical replica by an efficient batch-manufacturing process. The coefficient of friction of the luminal surface of the replica was reduced by up to 55% by using liquid silicone rubber coatings. The modulus ranged from 0.67 to 1.15 MPa compared with 0.42 MPa from human postmortem studies, depending on the material used to make the replica. CONCLUSIONS Population-representative, smooth, and true-to-scale silicone arterial replicas with uniform wall thickness were successfully built for in vitro neurointerventional device-testing by using a batch-manufacturing process. PMID:19321626

  12. Accuracy of three-dimensional printing for manufacturing replica teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun-Young; Cho, Jin-Woo; Chang, Na-Young; Chae, Jong-Moon; Kang, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Cho, Jin-Hyoung

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a recent technological development that may play a significant role in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment. It can be used to fabricate skull models or study models, as well as to make replica teeth in autotransplantation or tooth impaction cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of fabrication of replica teeth made by two types of 3D printing technologies. Fifty extracted molar teeth were selected as samples. They were scanned to generate high-resolution 3D surface model stereolithography files. These files were converted into physical models using two types of 3D printing technologies: Fused deposition modeling (FDM) and PolyJet technology. All replica teeth were scanned and 3D images generated. Computer software compared the replica teeth to the original teeth with linear measurements, volumetric measurements, and mean deviation measurements with best-fit alignment. Paired t-tests were used to statistically analyze the measurements. Most measurements of teeth formed using FDM tended to be slightly smaller, while those of the PolyJet replicas tended to be slightly larger, than those of the extracted teeth. Mean deviation measurements with best-fit alignment of FDM and PolyJet group were 0.047 mm and 0.038 mm, respectively. Although there were statistically significant differences, they were regarded as clinically insignificant. This study confirms that FDM and PolyJet technologies are accurate enough to be usable in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Reconstruction of Monte Carlo replicas from Hessian parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Tie-Jiun [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University,Dallas, TX 75275-0181 (United States); Gao, Jun [INPAC, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology,Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory,Argonne, Illinois, 60439 (United States); Huston, Joey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University,East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Nadolsky, Pavel [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University,Dallas, TX 75275-0181 (United States); Schmidt, Carl; Stump, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University,East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Wang, Bo-Ting; Xie, Ke Ping [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University,Dallas, TX 75275-0181 (United States); Dulat, Sayipjamal [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University,East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); School of Physics Science and Technology, Xinjiang University,Urumqi, Xinjiang 830046 (China); Center for Theoretical Physics, Xinjiang University,Urumqi, Xinjiang 830046 (China); Pumplin, Jon; Yuan, C.P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University,East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2017-03-20

    We explore connections between two common methods for quantifying the uncertainty in parton distribution functions (PDFs), based on the Hessian error matrix and Monte-Carlo sampling. CT14 parton distributions in the Hessian representation are converted into Monte-Carlo replicas by a numerical method that reproduces important properties of CT14 Hessian PDFs: the asymmetry of CT14 uncertainties and positivity of individual parton distributions. The ensembles of CT14 Monte-Carlo replicas constructed this way at NNLO and NLO are suitable for various collider applications, such as cross section reweighting. Master formulas for computation of asymmetric standard deviations in the Monte-Carlo representation are derived. A correction is proposed to address a bias in asymmetric uncertainties introduced by the Taylor series approximation. A numerical program is made available for conversion of Hessian PDFs into Monte-Carlo replicas according to normal, log-normal, and Watt-Thorne sampling procedures.

  14. Standard practice for production and evaluation of field metallographic replicas

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers recognized methods for the preparation and evaluation of cellulose acetate or plastic film replicas which have been obtained from metallographically prepared surfaces. It is designed for the evaluation of replicas to ensure that all significant features of a metallographically prepared surface have been duplicated and preserved on the replica with sufficient detail to permit both LM and SEM examination with optimum resolution and sensitivity. 1.2 This practice may be used as a controlling document in commercial situations. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. Inch-pound units given in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  15. Patrol Detection for Replica Attacks on Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Shi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Replica attack is a critical concern in the security of wireless sensor networks. We employ mobile nodes as patrollers to detect replicas distributed in different zones in a network, in which a basic patrol detection protocol and two detection algorithms for stationary and mobile modes are presented. Then we perform security analysis to discuss the defense strategies against the possible attacks on the proposed detection protocol. Moreover, we show the advantages of the proposed protocol by discussing and comparing the communication cost and detection probability with some existing methods.

  16. Creating technical heritage object replicas in a virtual environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, Olga; Shcherbinin, Dmitry

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents innovative informatics methods for creating virtual technical heritage replicas, which are of significant scientific and practical importance not only to researchers but to the public in general. By performing 3D modeling and animation of aircrafts, spaceships, architectural-engineering buildings, and other technical objects, the process of learning is achieved while promoting the preservation of the replicas for future generations. Modern approaches based on the wide usage of computer technologies attract a greater number of young people to explore the history of science and technology and renew their interest in the field of mechanical engineering.

  17. Replica-Based High-Performance Tuple Space Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andric, Marina; De Nicola, Rocco; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    of concurrency and data access. We investigate issues related to replica consistency, provide an operational semantics that guides the implementation of the language, and discuss the main synchronization mechanisms of our prototypical run-time framework. Finally, we provide a performance analysis, which includes...

  18. Replica scaling studies of hard missile impacts on reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, P.; Carter, P.G.; Howe, W.D.; Neilson, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Missile and target combinations at three different liners scales have been used in an experimental assessment of the applicability of replica scaling to the dynamic behaviour of reinforced concrete structures impacted by rigid missiles. Experimental results are presented for models with relative linear scales of 1, 0.37 and 0.12. (orig.) [de

  19. Multiscale implementation of infinite-swap replica exchange molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tang-Qing; Lu, Jianfeng; Abrams, Cameron F; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric

    2016-10-18

    Replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) is a popular method to accelerate conformational sampling of complex molecular systems. The idea is to run several replicas of the system in parallel at different temperatures that are swapped periodically. These swaps are typically attempted every few MD steps and accepted or rejected according to a Metropolis-Hastings criterion. This guarantees that the joint distribution of the composite system of replicas is the normalized sum of the symmetrized product of the canonical distributions of these replicas at the different temperatures. Here we propose a different implementation of REMD in which (i) the swaps obey a continuous-time Markov jump process implemented via Gillespie's stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA), which also samples exactly the aforementioned joint distribution and has the advantage of being rejection free, and (ii) this REMD-SSA is combined with the heterogeneous multiscale method to accelerate the rate of the swaps and reach the so-called infinite-swap limit that is known to optimize sampling efficiency. The method is easy to implement and can be trivially parallelized. Here we illustrate its accuracy and efficiency on the examples of alanine dipeptide in vacuum and C-terminal β-hairpin of protein G in explicit solvent. In this latter example, our results indicate that the landscape of the protein is a triple funnel with two folded structures and one misfolded structure that are stabilized by H-bonds.

  20. Simulated Tempering Distributed Replica Sampling, Virtual Replica Exchange, and Other Generalized-Ensemble Methods for Conformational Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Sarah; Neale, Chris; Pomès, Régis

    2009-10-13

    Generalized-ensemble algorithms in temperature space have become popular tools to enhance conformational sampling in biomolecular simulations. A random walk in temperature leads to a corresponding random walk in potential energy, which can be used to cross over energetic barriers and overcome the problem of quasi-nonergodicity. In this paper, we introduce two novel methods: simulated tempering distributed replica sampling (STDR) and virtual replica exchange (VREX). These methods are designed to address the practical issues inherent in the replica exchange (RE), simulated tempering (ST), and serial replica exchange (SREM) algorithms. RE requires a large, dedicated, and homogeneous cluster of CPUs to function efficiently when applied to complex systems. ST and SREM both have the drawback of requiring extensive initial simulations, possibly adaptive, for the calculation of weight factors or potential energy distribution functions. STDR and VREX alleviate the need for lengthy initial simulations, and for synchronization and extensive communication between replicas. Both methods are therefore suitable for distributed or heterogeneous computing platforms. We perform an objective comparison of all five algorithms in terms of both implementation issues and sampling efficiency. We use disordered peptides in explicit water as test systems, for a total simulation time of over 42 μs. Efficiency is defined in terms of both structural convergence and temperature diffusion, and we show that these definitions of efficiency are in fact correlated. Importantly, we find that ST-based methods exhibit faster temperature diffusion and correspondingly faster convergence of structural properties compared to RE-based methods. Within the RE-based methods, VREX is superior to both SREM and RE. On the basis of our observations, we conclude that ST is ideal for simple systems, while STDR is well-suited for complex systems.

  1. Storing files in a parallel computing system using list-based index to identify replica files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faibish, Sorin; Bent, John M.; Tzelnic, Percy; Zhang, Zhenhua; Grider, Gary

    2015-07-21

    Improved techniques are provided for storing files in a parallel computing system using a list-based index to identify file replicas. A file and at least one replica of the file are stored in one or more storage nodes of the parallel computing system. An index for the file comprises at least one list comprising a pointer to a storage location of the file and a storage location of the at least one replica of the file. The file comprises one or more of a complete file and one or more sub-files. The index may also comprise a checksum value for one or more of the file and the replica(s) of the file. The checksum value can be evaluated to validate the file and/or the file replica(s). A query can be processed using the list.

  2. Immunogold study on lectin binding in the porcine zona pellucida and granulosa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Parillo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An ultrastructural localization of lectin receptors on the zona pellucida (ZP of porcine antral oocytes and on the granulosa cells was performed using a panel of horseradish peroxidase- labelled lectins in conjunction with antiperoxidase antibody and protein A-gold. In some cases, lectin incubation was preceded by sialidase digestion. WGA-, Con-A-, UEA-I-, RCA-I-, PNA- and SBA-reactive sites were distributed differently in the porcine ZP. Sialidase digestion increased the positivity obtained with RCA-I and it was necessary to promote PNA and SBA reactivity. These results indicated that the ZP contained N-acetylglucosamine, a-mannose, a- fucose, b-Gal-(1-4GlcNAc, b-Gal- (1-3GalNAc, b-GalNAc and sialic acid residues. We also observed the presence of vesicles in both the ooplasm and granulosa cells, showing a similar lectin binding pattern to that of the ZP, thus suggesting that the oocyte and granulosa cells are the site of synthesis of ZP glucidic determinants.

  3. Physical replicas and the Bose glass in cold atomic gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, S; Kantian, A; Daley, A J; Zoller, P; Katzgraber, H G; Lewenstein, M; Buechler, H P

    2008-01-01

    We study cold atomic gases in a disorder potential and analyse the correlations between different systems subjected to the same disorder landscape. Such independent copies with the same disorder landscape are known as replicas. While, in general, these are not accessible experimentally in condensed matter systems, they can be realized using standard tools for controlling cold atomic gases in an optical lattice. Of special interest is the overlap function which represents a natural order parameter for disordered systems and is a correlation function between the atoms of two independent replicas with the same disorder. We demonstrate an efficient measurement scheme for the determination of this disorder-induced correlation function. As an application, we focus on the disordered Bose-Hubbard model and determine the overlap function within the perturbation theory and a numerical analysis. We find that the measurement of the overlap function allows for the identification of the Bose-glass phase in certain parameter regimes

  4. Physical replicas and the Bose glass in cold atomic gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, S; Kantian, A; Daley, A J; Zoller, P [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Katzgraber, H G [Theoretische Physik, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Lewenstein, M [ICAO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Parc Mediterrani de la Tecnologia, E-08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain); Buechler, H P [Institute for Theoretical Physics III, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany)], E-mail: sarah.morrison@uibk.ac.at

    2008-07-15

    We study cold atomic gases in a disorder potential and analyse the correlations between different systems subjected to the same disorder landscape. Such independent copies with the same disorder landscape are known as replicas. While, in general, these are not accessible experimentally in condensed matter systems, they can be realized using standard tools for controlling cold atomic gases in an optical lattice. Of special interest is the overlap function which represents a natural order parameter for disordered systems and is a correlation function between the atoms of two independent replicas with the same disorder. We demonstrate an efficient measurement scheme for the determination of this disorder-induced correlation function. As an application, we focus on the disordered Bose-Hubbard model and determine the overlap function within the perturbation theory and a numerical analysis. We find that the measurement of the overlap function allows for the identification of the Bose-glass phase in certain parameter regimes.

  5. Replica approach to mean-variance portfolio optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga-Haszonits, Istvan; Caccioli, Fabio; Kondor, Imre

    2016-12-01

    We consider the problem of mean-variance portfolio optimization for a generic covariance matrix subject to the budget constraint and the constraint for the expected return, with the application of the replica method borrowed from the statistical physics of disordered systems. We find that the replica symmetry of the solution does not need to be assumed, but emerges as the unique solution of the optimization problem. We also check the stability of this solution and find that the eigenvalues of the Hessian are positive for r  =  N/T  optimal in-sample variance is found to vanish at the critical point inversely proportional to the divergent estimation error.

  6. Platinum replica electron microscopy: Imaging the cytoskeleton globally and locally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svitkina, Tatyana M

    2017-05-01

    Structural studies reveal how smaller components of a system work together as a whole. However, combining high resolution of details with full coverage of the whole is challenging. In cell biology, light microscopy can image many cells in their entirety, but at a lower resolution, whereas electron microscopy affords very high resolution, but usually at the expense of the sample size and coverage. Structural analyses of the cytoskeleton are especially demanding, because cytoskeletal networks are unresolvable by light microscopy due to their density and intricacy, whereas their proper preservation is a challenge for electron microscopy. Platinum replica electron microscopy can uniquely bridge the gap between the "comfort zones" of light and electron microscopy by allowing high resolution imaging of the cytoskeleton throughout the entire cell and in many cells in the population. This review describes the principles and applications of platinum replica electron microscopy for studies of the cytoskeleton. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Difficult Sudoku Puzzles Created by Replica Exchange Monte Carlo Method

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    An algorithm to create difficult Sudoku puzzles is proposed. An Ising spin-glass like Hamiltonian describing difficulty of puzzles is defined, and difficult puzzles are created by minimizing the energy of the Hamiltonian. We adopt the replica exchange Monte Carlo method with simultaneous temperature adjustments to search lower energy states efficiently, and we succeed in creating a puzzle which is the world hardest ever created in our definition, to our best knowledge. (Added on Mar. 11, the ...

  8. Replica treatment of the Calogero-Sutherland model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangardt, Dimitry M.; Kamenev, Alex

    2001-01-01

    Employing Forrester-Ha method of Jack polynomials, we derive an integral identity connecting certain N-fold coordinate average of the Calogero-Sutherland model with the n-fold replica integral. Subsequent analytical continuation in n leads to asymptotic expressions for the (static and dynamic) density-density correlation function of the model as well as the Green's function for an arbitrary coupling constant λ

  9. Replica exchange with solute tempering: A method for sampling biological systems in explicit water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pu; Kim, Byungchan; Friesner, Richard A.; Berne, B. J.

    2005-09-01

    An innovative replica exchange (parallel tempering) method called replica exchange with solute tempering (REST) for the efficient sampling of aqueous protein solutions is presented here. The method bypasses the poor scaling with system size of standard replica exchange and thus reduces the number of replicas (parallel processes) that must be used. This reduction is accomplished by deforming the Hamiltonian function for each replica in such a way that the acceptance probability for the exchange of replica configurations does not depend on the number of explicit water molecules in the system. For proof of concept, REST is compared with standard replica exchange for an alanine dipeptide molecule in water. The comparisons confirm that REST greatly reduces the number of CPUs required by regular replica exchange and increases the sampling efficiency. This method reduces the CPU time required for calculating thermodynamic averages and for the ab initio folding of proteins in explicit water. Author contributions: B.J.B. designed research; P.L. and B.K. performed research; P.L. and B.K. analyzed data; and P.L., B.K., R.A.F., and B.J.B. wrote the paper.Abbreviations: REST, replica exchange with solute tempering; REM, replica exchange method; MD, molecular dynamics.*P.L. and B.K. contributed equally to this work.

  10. Replica field theory for a polymer in random media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, Yadin Y.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we revisit the problem of a (non-self-avoiding) polymer chain in a random medium which was previously investigated by Edwards and Muthukumar (EM) [J. Chem. Phys. 89, 2435 (1988)]. As noticed by Cates and Ball (CB) [J. Phys. (France) 49, 2009 (1988)] there is a discrepancy between the predictions of the replica calculation of EM and the expectation that in an infinite medium the quenched and annealed results should coincide (for a chain that is free to move) and a long polymer should always collapse. CB argued that only in a finite volume one might see a ''localization transition'' (or crossover) from a stretched to a collapsed chain in three spatial dimensions. Here we carry out the replica calculation in the presence of an additional confining harmonic potential that mimics the effect of a finite volume. Using a variational scheme with five variational parameters we derive analytically for d -1/(4-d) ∼(g ln V) -1/(4-d) , where R is the radius of gyration, g is the strength of the disorder, μ is the spring constant associated with the confining potential, and V is the associated effective volume of the system. Thus the EM result is recovered with their constant replaced by ln V as argued by CB. We see that in the strict infinite volume limit the polymer always collapses, but for finite volume a transition from a stretched to a collapsed form might be observed as a function of the strength of the disorder. For d V ' ∼exp(g 2/(2-d) L (4-d)/(2-d) ) the annealed results are recovered and R∼(Lg) 1/(d-2) , where L is the length of the polymer. Hence the polymer also collapses in the large L limit. The one-step replica symmetry breaking solution is crucial for obtaining the above results. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  11. Replica Approach for Minimal Investment Risk with Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, Takashi

    2018-06-01

    In the present work, the optimal portfolio minimizing the investment risk with cost is discussed analytically, where an objective function is constructed in terms of two negative aspects of investment, the risk and cost. We note the mathematical similarity between the Hamiltonian in the mean-variance model and the Hamiltonians in the Hopfield model and the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, show that we can analyze this portfolio optimization problem by using replica analysis, and derive the minimal investment risk with cost and the investment concentration of the optimal portfolio. Furthermore, we validate our proposed method through numerical simulations.

  12. Replica Analysis for Portfolio Optimization with Single-Factor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, Takashi

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we use replica analysis to investigate the influence of correlation among the return rates of assets on the solution of the portfolio optimization problem. We consider the behavior of an optimal solution for the case where the return rate is described with a single-factor model and compare the findings obtained from our proposed methods with correlated return rates with those obtained with independent return rates. We then analytically assess the increase in the investment risk when correlation is included. Furthermore, we also compare our approach with analytical procedures for minimizing the investment risk from operations research.

  13. Application of extraction replicas and analytical electron microscopy to precipitate phase studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenik, E.A.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    Extraction replicas provide a powerful extension of AEM techniques for analysis of fine precipitates. In many cases, replicas allow more accurate analyses to be performed and, in some cases, allow unique analyses which cannot be performed in-foil. However, there are limitations to the use of extraction replicas in AEM, of which the analyst must be aware. Many can be eliminated by careful preparation. Often, combined AEM studies of precipitates in-foil and on extraction replicas provide complementary and corroborative information for the fullest analysis of precipitate phases

  14. Replica calibration artefacts for optical 3D scanning of micro parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Carmignato, S.; Cantatore, Angela

    2009-01-01

    This work deals with development of calibration artefacts produced by using hard replica materials, achieving high quality geometrical reproduction of suitable reference artefacts, high stability, and high surface cooperativeness. An investigation was carried out using a replica material for dental...... applications to reproduce the geometry of a step artefact, a miniature step gauge, and a curve standard for optical measuring machines. The replica artefacts were calibrated using a tactile coordinate measuring machine and measured on two different optical scanners. Replication quality and applicability...... of the artefacts to verify the accuracy of optical measurements as well as thermal expansion coefficient and stability of the replica artefacts over time were documented....

  15. The added value of the replica simulators in the exploitation of nuclear power plants; El valor anadido de los simuladores replica en la explotacion de las centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Giron, P. a.; Ortega, F.; Rivero, N.

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear power plants full scope replica simulators were in the past solely designed following operational personnel training criteria. Nevertheless, these simulators not only feature a high replica control room but also provide an accurate process response. Control room replica simulators are presently based on complex technological platforms permitting highest physical and functional fidelity, allowing to be used as versatile and value added tools in diverse plants operation and maintenance activities. In recent years. Tecnatom has extended the use of such simulators to different engineering applications. this article intends to identify the simulators use in training and other applications beyond training. (Author)

  16. Broken symmetry in the mean field theory of the ising spin glass: replica way and no replica way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Dominicis, C.

    1983-06-01

    We review the type of symmetry breaking involved in the solution discovered by Parisi and in the static derivation of the solution first introduced via dynamics by Sompolinsky. We turn to a formulation of the problem due to Thouless, Anderson and Palmer (TAP) that put a set of equations for the magnetization. A probability law for the magnetization is then built. We consider two cases: (i) a canonical distribution which is shown to give indentical results to the Hamiltonian formulation under a weak and physical assumption and (ii) a white distribution characterized by two matrices and a response. We show what symmetry breaking is necessary to recover Sompolinsky free energy. In section III we supplement replica indices in the Hamiltonian approach by ''time'' indices ans show in particular that the analytic continuation involved in Sompolinsky's equilibrium derivation, is trying to mimick a translational symmetry breaking in ''time'' that incorporates Sompolinsky's ansatz of a long time scale sequence. In section IV we apply the same treatment to the white average approach and show that, replicas can be altogether discorded and replaced by ''time''. Finally, we briefly discuss the attribution of distinct answers for the standard spin glass order parameter depending on the physical situation: equilibrium or non equilibrium associated with canonical or white (non canonical) initial conditions and density matrices

  17. Fabrication of free-standing replicas of fragile, laminar, chitinous biotemplates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Motyka, Michael A; MartIn-Palma, Raul J; Pantano, Carlo G

    2009-01-01

    The conformal-evaporated-film-by-rotation technique, followed by the dissolution of chitin in an aqueous solution of orthophosphoric acid, can be used to fabricate free-standing replicas of fragile, laminar, chitinous biotemplates. This novel approach was demonstrated using butterfly wings as biotemplates and GeSeSb chalcogenide glass for replicas. (communication)

  18. Fabrication of free-standing replicas of fragile, laminar, chitinous biotemplates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Motyka, Michael A [Materials Research Institute and Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); MartIn-Palma, Raul J; Pantano, Carlo G [Materials Research Institute and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)], E-mail: akhlesh@psu.edu

    2009-09-01

    The conformal-evaporated-film-by-rotation technique, followed by the dissolution of chitin in an aqueous solution of orthophosphoric acid, can be used to fabricate free-standing replicas of fragile, laminar, chitinous biotemplates. This novel approach was demonstrated using butterfly wings as biotemplates and GeSeSb chalcogenide glass for replicas. (communication)

  19. A Novel General Chemistry Laboratory: Creation of Biomimetic Superhydrophobic Surfaces through Replica Molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbanic, Samuel; Brady, Owen; Sanda, Ahmed; Gustafson, Carolina; Donhauser, Zachary J.

    2014-01-01

    Biomimetic replicas of superhydrophobic lotus and taro leaf surfaces can be made using polydimethylsiloxane. These replicas faithfully reproduce the microstructures of the leaves' surface and can be analyzed using contact angle goniometry, self-cleaning experiments, and optical microscopy. These simple and adaptable experiments were used to…

  20. Replica analysis for the duality of the portfolio optimization problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    In the present paper, the primal-dual problem consisting of the investment risk minimization problem and the expected return maximization problem in the mean-variance model is discussed using replica analysis. As a natural extension of the investment risk minimization problem under only a budget constraint that we analyzed in a previous study, we herein consider a primal-dual problem in which the investment risk minimization problem with budget and expected return constraints is regarded as the primal problem, and the expected return maximization problem with budget and investment risk constraints is regarded as the dual problem. With respect to these optimal problems, we analyze a quenched disordered system involving both of these optimization problems using the approach developed in statistical mechanical informatics and confirm that both optimal portfolios can possess the primal-dual structure. Finally, the results of numerical simulations are shown to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Replica analysis for the duality of the portfolio optimization problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    In the present paper, the primal-dual problem consisting of the investment risk minimization problem and the expected return maximization problem in the mean-variance model is discussed using replica analysis. As a natural extension of the investment risk minimization problem under only a budget constraint that we analyzed in a previous study, we herein consider a primal-dual problem in which the investment risk minimization problem with budget and expected return constraints is regarded as the primal problem, and the expected return maximization problem with budget and investment risk constraints is regarded as the dual problem. With respect to these optimal problems, we analyze a quenched disordered system involving both of these optimization problems using the approach developed in statistical mechanical informatics and confirm that both optimal portfolios can possess the primal-dual structure. Finally, the results of numerical simulations are shown to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Beyond Virtual Replicas: 3D Modeling and Maltese Prehistoric Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Stanco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, computer graphics have become strategic for the development of projects aimed at the interpretation of archaeological evidence and the dissemination of scientific results to the public. Among all the solutions available, the use of 3D models is particularly relevant for the reconstruction of poorly preserved sites and monuments destroyed by natural causes or human actions. These digital replicas are, at the same time, a virtual environment that can be used as a tool for the interpretative hypotheses of archaeologists and as an effective medium for a visual description of the cultural heritage. In this paper, the innovative methodology and aims and outcomes of a virtual reconstruction of the Borg in-Nadur megalithic temple, carried out by Archeomatica Project of the University of Catania, are offered as a case study for a virtual archaeology of prehistoric Malta.

  3. A novel immuno-gold labeling protocol for nanobody-based detection of HER2 in breast cancer cells using immuno-electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijanka, M; van Donselaar, E G; Müller, W H; Dorresteijn, B; Popov-Celeketic, Dusan; El Khattabi, M; Verrips, C T; van Bergen En Henegouwen, P M P; Post, J A

    Immuno-electron microscopy is commonly performed with the use of antibodies. In the last decade the antibody fragment indicated as nanobody (VHH or single domain antibody) has found its way to different applications previously done with conventional antibodies. Nanobodies can be selected to bind

  4. Internal structure analysis of particle-double network gels used in a gel organ replica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Mei; Arai, Masanori; Saito, Azusa; Sakai, Kazuyuki; Kawakami, Masaru; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, the fabrication of patient organ replicas using 3D printers has been attracting a great deal of attention in medical fields. However, the cost of these organ replicas is very high as it is necessary to employ very expensive 3D printers and printing materials. Here we present a new gel organ replica, of human kidney, fabricated with a conventional molding technique, using a particle-double network hydrogel (P-DN gel). The replica is transparent and has the feel of a real kidney. It is expected that gel organ replicas produced this way will be a useful tool for the education of trainee surgeons and clinical ultrasonography technologists. In addition to developing a gel organ replica, the internal structure of the P-DN gel used is also discussed. Because the P-DN gel has a complex structure comprised of two different types of network, it has not been possible to investigate them internally in detail. Gels have an inhomogeneous network structure. If it is able to get a more uniform structure, it is considered that this would lead to higher strength in the gel. In the present study we investigate the structure of P-DN gel, using the gel organ replica. We investigated the internal structure of P-DN gel using Scanning Microscopic Light Scattering (SMILS), a non-contacting and non-destructive.

  5. Fabrication of the replica templated from butterfly wing scales with complex light trapping structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiwu; Li, Bo; Mu, Zhengzhi; Yang, Meng; Niu, Shichao; Zhang, Junqiu; Ren, Luquan

    2015-11-01

    The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) positive replica templated twice from the excellent light trapping surface of butterfly Trogonoptera brookiana wing scales was fabricated by a simple and promising route. The exact SiO2 negative replica was fabricated by using a synthesis method combining a sol-gel process and subsequent selective etching. Afterwards, a vacuum-aided process was introduced to make PDMS gel fill into the SiO2 negative replica, and the PDMS gel was solidified in an oven. Then, the SiO2 negative replica was used as secondary template and the structures in its surface was transcribed onto the surface of PDMS. At last, the PDMS positive replica was obtained. After comparing the PDMS positive replica and the original bio-template in terms of morphology, dimensions and reflectance spectra and so on, it is evident that the excellent light trapping structures of butterfly wing scales were inherited by the PDMS positive replica faithfully. This bio-inspired route could facilitate the preparation of complex light trapping nanostructure surfaces without any assistance from other power-wasting and expensive nanofabrication technologies.

  6. The added value of the replica simulators in the exploitation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Giron, P. a.; Ortega, F.; Rivero, N.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power plants full scope replica simulators were in the past solely designed following operational personnel training criteria. Nevertheless, these simulators not only feature a high replica control room but also provide an accurate process response. Control room replica simulators are presently based on complex technological platforms permitting highest physical and functional fidelity, allowing to be used as versatile and value added tools in diverse plants operation and maintenance activities. In recent years. Tecnatom has extended the use of such simulators to different engineering applications. this article intends to identify the simulators use in training and other applications beyond training. (Author)

  7. Human skulls with turquoise inlays: pre hispanic origin or replicas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva V, Y.; Castillo M, M.T.; Bautista M, J.P.; Arenas A, J.

    2006-01-01

    The lack of archaeological context determining if the manufacture of two human skulls adorned with turquoise inlays have pre-Columbian origin or not (replicas), led to perform other studies. Under these conditions, besides orthodox methodology commonly used to assign chronology and cultural aspects as form, style, decoration, iconography, etc., it was necessary to obtain more results based on the use of characterization techniques. The techniques employed were Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), in order to determine the manufacture techniques and chemical composition of the materials used for the cementant. SEM analysis showed the presence of zones composed by Ca, O, C and Al. In some cases Mg, Cl, Fe and Pb were identified. High concentration of Cu was present in all samples, due to residues of turquoise inlays (CuAI 6 (PO 4 ) 4 (OH) 8 (H 2 O) 4 ) with which the skulls were decorated. In the cementant was identified the Ca as base element of the cementant, as well as particles < 100 nm with irregular morphology and other amorphous zones. FTIR spectrums indicated the presence of organic substances that could be used as agglutinating in the cementant. The current work shows a progress identifying involved techniques in the manufacturing of two human skulls with turquoise inlays. (Author)

  8. Parylene C coating for high-performance replica molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyries, Kevin A; Hansen, Carl L

    2011-12-07

    This paper presents an improvement to the soft lithography fabrication process that uses chemical vapor deposition of poly(chloro-p-xylylene) (parylene C) to protect microfabricated masters and to improve the release of polymer devices following replica molding. Chemical vapor deposition creates nanometre thick conformal coatings of parylene C on silicon wafers having arrays of 30 μm high SU8 pillars with densities ranging from 278 to 10,040 features per mm(2) and aspect ratios (height : width) from 1 : 1 to 6 : 1. A single coating of parylene C was sufficient to permanently promote poly(dimethyl)siloxane (PDMS) mold release and to protect masters for an indefinite number of molding cycles. We also show that the improved release properties of parylene treated masters allow for fabrication with hard polymers, such as poly(urethane), that would otherwise not be compatible with SU8 on silicon masters. Parylene C provides a robust and high performance mold release coating for soft lithography microfabrication that extends the life of microfabricated masters and improves the achievable density and aspect ratio of replicated features.

  9. Foundations and latest advances in replica exchange transition interface sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabriolu, Raffaela; Skjelbred Refsnes, Kristin M.; Bolhuis, Peter G.; van Erp, Titus S.

    2017-10-01

    Nearly 20 years ago, transition path sampling (TPS) emerged as an alternative method to free energy based approaches for the study of rare events such as nucleation, protein folding, chemical reactions, and phase transitions. TPS effectively performs Monte Carlo simulations with relatively short molecular dynamics trajectories, with the advantage of not having to alter the actual potential energy surface nor the underlying physical dynamics. Although the TPS approach also introduced a methodology to compute reaction rates, this approach was for a long time considered theoretically attractive, providing the exact same results as extensively long molecular dynamics simulations, but still expensive for most relevant applications. With the increase of computer power and improvements in the algorithmic methodology, quantitative path sampling is finding applications in more and more areas of research. In particular, the transition interface sampling (TIS) and the replica exchange TIS (RETIS) algorithms have, in turn, improved the efficiency of quantitative path sampling significantly, while maintaining the exact nature of the approach. Also, open-source software packages are making these methods, for which implementation is not straightforward, now available for a wider group of users. In addition, a blooming development takes place regarding both applications and algorithmic refinements. Therefore, it is timely to explore the wide panorama of the new developments in this field. This is the aim of this article, which focuses on the most efficient exact path sampling approach, RETIS, as well as its recent applications, extensions, and variations.

  10. Critiques, replicas and proposals for the New Urbanism Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaide Retana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The new urbanism (NU is a vision of planning and urban design emerged in 1993, which finds its basis in the design of traditional communities. This trend has had various criticisms and replicas, which were reviewed in relation to urban sprawl, transportation, re-densifying, mix of uses of land, design, gentrification, pedestrianization and safety, which were analyzed in the neighborhood of Santa Barbara in Toluca, Mexico. This area was chosen for being traditional and forming part of the historical center of the city, which even though it was not designed under the guidelines of the NU, it has the quality of traditional, from which the NU would theoretically has taken its essence. The objective of this analysis is to establish whether the NU has the essence of a traditional Mexican neighborhood, as well as to check if the criticisms of the NU are informed when applied to a space belonging to a Mexican historic center that has been abandoned by problems of insecurity and degradation. The general conclusion is that the traditional neighborhoods have provided design elements to the NU, which will refute some of the criticisms, however, proposals for NU in neighborhoods of his-toric centers have to be based on the community, the architecture and existing urbanism, since these elements are those that give the identity.

  11. Preserving the Boltzmann ensemble in replica-exchange molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Ben; Schmidler, Scott C

    2008-10-28

    We consider the convergence behavior of replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) [Sugita and Okamoto, Chem. Phys. Lett. 314, 141 (1999)] based on properties of the numerical integrators in the underlying isothermal molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We show that a variety of deterministic algorithms favored by molecular dynamics practitioners for constant-temperature simulation of biomolecules fail either to be measure invariant or irreducible, and are therefore not ergodic. We then show that REMD using these algorithms also fails to be ergodic. As a result, the entire configuration space may not be explored even in an infinitely long simulation, and the simulation may not converge to the desired equilibrium Boltzmann ensemble. Moreover, our analysis shows that for initial configurations with unfavorable energy, it may be impossible for the system to reach a region surrounding the minimum energy configuration. We demonstrate these failures of REMD algorithms for three small systems: a Gaussian distribution (simple harmonic oscillator dynamics), a bimodal mixture of Gaussians distribution, and the alanine dipeptide. Examination of the resulting phase plots and equilibrium configuration densities indicates significant errors in the ensemble generated by REMD simulation. We describe a simple modification to address these failures based on a stochastic hybrid Monte Carlo correction, and prove that this is ergodic.

  12. Replica Exchange Simulations of the Thermodynamics of Aβ Fibril Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Takako; Klimov, Dmitri K.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Replica exchange molecular dynamics and an all-atom implicit solvent model are used to probe the thermodynamics of deposition of Alzheimer's Aβ monomers on preformed amyloid fibrils. Consistent with the experiments, two deposition stages have been identified. The docking stage occurs over a wide temperature range, starting with the formation of the first peptide-fibril interactions at 500 K. Docking is completed when a peptide fully adsorbs on the fibril edge at the temperature of 380 K. The docking transition appears to be continuous, and occurs without free energy barriers or intermediates. During docking, incoming Aβ monomer adopts a disordered structure on the fibril edge. The locking stage occurs at the temperature of ≈360 K and is characterized by the rugged free energy landscape. Locking takes place when incoming Aβ peptide forms a parallel β-sheet structure on the fibril edge. Because the β-sheets formed by locked Aβ peptides are typically off-registry, the structure of the locked phase differs from the structure of the fibril interior. The study also reports that binding affinities of two distinct fibril edges with respect to incoming Aβ peptides are different. The peptides bound to the concave edge have significantly lower free energy compared to those bound on the convex edge. Comparison with the available experimental data is discussed. PMID:19167295

  13. Stability and replica symmetry in the ising spin glass: a toy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Dominicis, C.; Mottishaw, P.

    1986-01-01

    Searching for possible replica symmetric solutions in an Ising spin glass (in the tree approximation) we investigate a toy model whose bond distribution has two non vanishing cumulants (instead of one only as in a gaussian distribution)

  14. Designed-walk replica-exchange method for simulations of complex systems

    OpenAIRE

    Urano, Ryo; Okamoto, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new implementation of the replica-exchange method (REM) in which replicas follow a pre-planned route in temperature space instead of a random walk. Our method satisfies the detailed balance condition in the proposed route. The method forces tunneling events between the highest and lowest temperatures to happen with an almost constant period. The number of tunneling counts is proportional to that of the random-walk REM multiplied by the square root of moving distance in temperatur...

  15. Utility of replica techniques for x-ray microanalysis of second phase particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, J.

    1984-01-01

    X-ray microanalysis of second phase particles in ion-milled or electropolished thin foils is often complicated by the presence of the matrix nearby. Extraction replica techniques provide a means to avoid many of the complications of thin-foil analyses. In this paper, three examples of the analysis of second phase particles are described and illustrate the improvement obtained by the use of extraction replicas for qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis, and analysis of radioactive specimens

  16. Data Sets Replicas Placements Strategy from Cost-Effective View in the Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuguo Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Replication technology is commonly used to improve data availability and reduce data access latency in the cloud storage system by providing users with different replicas of the same service. Most current approaches largely focus on system performance improvement, neglecting management cost in deciding replicas number and their store places, which cause great financial burden for cloud users because the cost for replicas storage and consistency maintenance may lead to high overhead with the number of new replicas increased in a pay-as-you-go paradigm. In this paper, towards achieving the approximate minimum data sets management cost benchmark in a practical manner, we propose a replicas placements strategy from cost-effective view with the premise that system performance meets requirements. Firstly, we design data sets management cost models, including storage cost and transfer cost. Secondly, we use the access frequency and the average response time to decide which data set should be replicated. Then, the method of calculating replicas’ number and their store places with minimum management cost is proposed based on location problem graph. Both the theoretical analysis and simulations have shown that the proposed strategy offers the benefits of lower management cost with fewer replicas.

  17. Calculation of absolute protein-ligand binding free energy using distributed replica sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodinger, Tomas; Howell, P Lynne; Pomès, Régis

    2008-10-21

    Distributed replica sampling [T. Rodinger et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2, 725 (2006)] is a simple and general scheme for Boltzmann sampling of conformational space by computer simulation in which multiple replicas of the system undergo a random walk in reaction coordinate or temperature space. Individual replicas are linked through a generalized Hamiltonian containing an extra potential energy term or bias which depends on the distribution of all replicas, thus enforcing the desired sampling distribution along the coordinate or parameter of interest regardless of free energy barriers. In contrast to replica exchange methods, efficient implementation of the algorithm does not require synchronicity of the individual simulations. The algorithm is inherently suited for large-scale simulations using shared or heterogeneous computing platforms such as a distributed network. In this work, we build on our original algorithm by introducing Boltzmann-weighted jumping, which allows moves of a larger magnitude and thus enhances sampling efficiency along the reaction coordinate. The approach is demonstrated using a realistic and biologically relevant application; we calculate the standard binding free energy of benzene to the L99A mutant of T4 lysozyme. Distributed replica sampling is used in conjunction with thermodynamic integration to compute the potential of mean force for extracting the ligand from protein and solvent along a nonphysical spatial coordinate. Dynamic treatment of the reaction coordinate leads to faster statistical convergence of the potential of mean force than a conventional static coordinate, which suffers from slow transitions on a rugged potential energy surface.

  18. Conformational sampling enhancement of replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations using swarm particle intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamberaj, Hiqmet

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method based on swarm particle social intelligence for use in replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations. In this method, the replicas (representing the different system configurations) are allowed communicating with each other through the individual and social knowledge, in additional to considering them as a collection of real particles interacting through the Newtonian forces. The new method is based on the modification of the equations of motion in such way that the replicas are driven towards the global energy minimum. The method was tested for the Lennard-Jones clusters of N = 4,  5, and 6 atoms. Our results showed that the new method is more efficient than the conventional replica exchange method under the same practical conditions. In particular, the new method performed better on optimizing the distribution of the replicas among the thermostats with time and, in addition, ergodic convergence is observed to be faster. We also introduce a weighted histogram analysis method allowing analyzing the data from simulations by combining data from all of the replicas and rigorously removing the inserted bias

  19. Double epi-illumination microscopy with separate visualization of two antigens: a combination of epi-polarization for immunogold-silver staining and epi-fluorescence for alkaline phosphatase staining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Loos, C. M.; Becker, A. E.

    1994-01-01

    We present a method for an epi-illumination immunohistochemical double staining approach. The method combines the use of an immuno-alkaline phosphatase technique and the immunogold-silver technique, visualized with epifluorescence and epi-polarization illumination, respectively. Out of six tested

  20. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Labels KidsHealth / For Teens / Food Labels What's in ... to have at least 95% organic ingredients. Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  1. Synthesis and properties of ZnFe2O4 replica with biological hierarchical structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hongyan; Guo, Yiping; Zhang, Yangyang; Wu, Fen; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Di

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • ZFO replica with hierarchical structure was synthesized from butterfly wings. • Biotemplate has a significant impact on the properties of ZFO material. • Our method opens up new avenues for the synthesis of spinel ferrites. -- Abstract: ZnFe 2 O 4 replica with biological hierarchical structure was synthesized from Papilio paris by a sol–gel method followed by calcination. The crystallographic structure and morphology of the obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscope, and transmittance electron microscope. The results showed that the hierarchical structures were retained in the ZFO replica of spinel structure. The magnetic behavior of such novel products was measured by a vibrating sample magnetometer. A superparamagnetism-like behavior was observed due to nanostructuration size effects. In addition, the ZFO replica with “quasi-honeycomb-like structure” showed a much higher specific capacitance of 279.4 F g −1 at 10 mV s −1 in comparison with ZFO powder of 137.3 F g −1 , attributing to the significantly increased surface area. These results demonstrated that ZFO replica is a promising candidate for novel magnetic devices and supercapacitors

  2. A distance-aware replica adaptive data gathering protocol for Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yong; Gong, Haigang; Fan, Mingyu; Liu, Ming; Wang, Xiaomin

    2011-01-01

    In Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks (DTMSNs) that have the inherent features of intermitted connectivity and frequently changing network topology it is reasonable to utilize multi-replica schemes to improve the data gathering performance. However, most existing multi-replica approaches inject a large amount of message copies into the network to increase the probability of message delivery, which may drain each mobile node's limited battery supply faster and result in too much contention for the restricted resources of the DTMSN, so a proper data gathering scheme needs a trade off between the number of replica messages and network performance. In this paper, we propose a new data gathering protocol called DRADG (for Distance-aware Replica Adaptive Data Gathering protocol), which economizes network resource consumption through making use of a self-adapting algorithm to cut down the number of redundant replicas of messages, and achieves a good network performance by leveraging the delivery probabilities of the mobile sensors as main routing metrics. Simulation results have shown that the proposed DRADG protocol achieves comparable or higher message delivery ratios at the cost of the much lower transmission overhead than several current DTMSN data gathering schemes.

  3. Implementation and performance analysis of the LHCb LFC replica using Oracle streams technology

    CERN Document Server

    Düllmann, D; Martelli, B; Peco, G; Bonifazzi, F; Da Fonte Perez, E; Baranowski, Z; Vagnoni, V

    2007-01-01

    The presentation will describe the architecture and the deployment of the LHCb read-only File Catalogue for the LHC Computing Grid (LFC) replica implemented at the Italian INFN National Centre for Telematics and Informatics (CNAF), and evaluate a series of tests on the LFC with replica. The LHCb computing model foresees the replication of the central LFC database in every Tier-1, in order to assure more scalability and fault tolerance to LHCb applications Scientific data intensive applications use a large collection of files for storing data. In particular, as regards the HEP community, data generated by large detectors will be managed and stored using databases. The intensive access to information stored in databases by the Grid computing applications requires a distributed database replication in order to guarantee the scalability and, in case of failure, redundancy. Besides the results of the tests will be an important reference for all the Grid users This talk will describe the replica implementation of L...

  4. Microlens fabrication by replica molding of frozen laser-printed droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdo, Salvatore; Diaspro, Alberto; Duocastella, Martí

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we synergistically combine laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) and replica molding for the fabrication of microlenses with control of their geometry and size independent of the material or substrate used. Our approach is based on a multistep process in which liquid microdroplets of an aqueous solution are first printed on a substrate by LIFT. Following a freezing step, the microdroplets are used as a master to fabricate a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold. A subsequent replica molding step enables the creation of microlenses and microlens arrays on arbitrary selected substrates and by using different curable polymers. Thus, our method combines the rapid fabrication capabilities of LIFT and the perfectively smooth surface quality of the generated microdroplets, with the advantages of replica molding in terms of parallelization and materials flexibility. We demonstrate our strategy by generating microlenses of different photocurable polymers and by characterizing their optical and morphological properties.

  5. Surgery planning and navigation by laser lithography plastic replica. Features, clinical applications, and advantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihara, Tomohiko; Tanaka, Yuuko; Furuhata, Kentaro

    1995-01-01

    The use of three-dimensional replicas created using laserlithography has recently become popular for surgical planning and intraoperative navigation in plastic surgery and oral maxillofacial surgery. In this study, we investigated many clinical applications that we have been involved in regarding the production of three-dimensional replicas. We have also analyzed the features, application classes, and advantages of this method. As a result, clinical applications are categorized into three classes, which are 'three-dimensional shape recognition', 'simulated surgery', and 'template'. The distinct features of three-dimensional replicas are 'direct recognition', 'fast manipulation', and 'free availability'. Meeting the requirements of surgical planning and intraoperative navigation, they have produced satisfactory results in clinical applications. (author)

  6. Acceleration of Lateral Equilibration in Mixed Lipid Bilayers Using Replica Exchange with Solute Tempering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kun; García, Angel E

    2014-10-14

    The lateral heterogeneity of cellular membranes plays an important role in many biological functions such as signaling and regulating membrane proteins. This heterogeneity can result from preferential interactions between membrane components or interactions with membrane proteins. One major difficulty in molecular dynamics simulations aimed at studying the membrane heterogeneity is that lipids diffuse slowly and collectively in bilayers, and therefore, it is difficult to reach equilibrium in lateral organization in bilayer mixtures. Here, we propose the use of the replica exchange with solute tempering (REST) approach to accelerate lateral relaxation in heterogeneous bilayers. REST is based on the replica exchange method but tempers only the solute, leaving the temperature of the solvent fixed. Since the number of replicas in REST scales approximately only with the degrees of freedom in the solute, REST enables us to enhance the configuration sampling of lipid bilayers with fewer replicas, in comparison with the temperature replica exchange molecular dynamics simulation (T-REMD) where the number of replicas scales with the degrees of freedom of the entire system. We apply the REST method to a cholesterol and 1,2-dipalmitoyl- sn -glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) bilayer mixture and find that the lateral distribution functions of all molecular pair types converge much faster than in the standard MD simulation. The relative diffusion rate between molecules in REST is, on average, an order of magnitude faster than in the standard MD simulation. Although REST was initially proposed to study protein folding and its efficiency in protein folding is still under debate, we find a unique application of REST to accelerate lateral equilibration in mixed lipid membranes and suggest a promising way to probe membrane lateral heterogeneity through molecular dynamics simulation.

  7. Replica analysis of partition-function zeros in spin-glass models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kazutaka

    2011-01-01

    We study the partition-function zeros in mean-field spin-glass models. We show that the replica method is useful to find the locations of zeros in a complex parameter plane. For the random energy model, we obtain the phase diagram in the plane and find that there are two types of distributions of zeros: two-dimensional distribution within a phase and one-dimensional one on a phase boundary. Phases with a two-dimensional distribution are characterized by a novel order parameter defined in the present replica analysis. We also discuss possible patterns of distributions by studying several systems.

  8. The Efficacy of Epidemic Algorithms on Detecting Node Replicas in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimha Shashidhar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A node replication attack against a wireless sensor network involves surreptitious efforts by an adversary to insert duplicate sensor nodes into the network while avoiding detection. Due to the lack of tamper-resistant hardware and the low cost of sensor nodes, launching replication attacks takes little effort to carry out. Naturally, detecting these replica nodes is a very important task and has been studied extensively. In this paper, we propose a novel distributed, randomized sensor duplicate detection algorithm called Discard to detect node replicas in group-deployed wireless sensor networks. Our protocol is an epidemic, self-organizing duplicate detection scheme, which exhibits emergent properties. Epidemic schemes have found diverse applications in distributed computing: load balancing, topology management, audio and video streaming, computing aggregate functions, failure detection, network and resource monitoring, to name a few. To the best of our knowledge, our algorithm is the first attempt at exploring the potential of this paradigm to detect replicas in a wireless sensor network. Through analysis and simulation, we show that our scheme achieves robust replica detection with substantially lower communication, computational and storage requirements than prior schemes in the literature.

  9. Replicas Strategy and Cache Optimization of Video Surveillance Systems Based on Cloud Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongheng Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of video surveillance technology, especially the popularity of cloud-based video surveillance applications, video data begins to grow explosively. However, in the cloud-based video surveillance system, replicas occupy an amount of storage space. Also, the slow response to video playback constrains the performance of the system. In this paper, considering the characteristics of video data comprehensively, we propose a dynamic redundant replicas mechanism based on security levels that can dynamically adjust the number of replicas. Based on the location correlation between cameras, this paper also proposes a data cache strategy to improve the response speed of data reading. Experiments illustrate that: (1 our dynamic redundant replicas mechanism can save storage space while ensuring data security; (2 the cache mechanism can predict the playback behaviors of the users in advance and improve the response speed of data reading according to the location and time correlation of the front-end cameras; and (3 in terms of cloud-based video surveillance, our proposed approaches significantly outperform existing methods.

  10. Three-Dimensional Interpretation of Sculptural Heritage with Digital and Tangible 3D Printed Replicas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saorin, José Luis; Carbonell-Carrera, Carlos; Cantero, Jorge de la Torre; Meier, Cecile; Aleman, Drago Diaz

    2017-01-01

    Spatial interpretation features as a skill to acquire in the educational curricula. The visualization and interpretation of three-dimensional objects in tactile devices and the possibility of digital manufacturing with 3D printers, offers an opportunity to include replicas of sculptures in teaching and, thus, facilitate the 3D interpretation of…

  11. Evaluation of creep damage development by the replica method; Utvaerdering av krypskadeutveckling med replikmetoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, Jan [Det Norske Veritas AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Roennholm, Markku [Fortum (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    Creep damage development in high temperature components can be monitored by the replica method. Damage is classified and an experience based time period for safe operation is recommended where a re-inspection should be conducted. Original recommendations are still commonly used but there are also developed ones are mostly less conservative. A data base of more than 6000 replicas, collected from welded components in Swedish and Finnish power plants, has been evaluated with respect to damage development in the present project. The results are in general in good agreement to the existing developed recommendations for re-inspections. Important factors that should be considered for use of the recommendations are highlighted: Service history, Material, welding and heat treatment, Measure of pressure and temperature, System stresses, Geometrical stress concentrations, stress distributions, Design of components and welds, Creep crack growth, Starts and stops, Extent and performance of the replica method. These factors have been analysed with respect to the evaluated data resulting in comments to the existing recommendations. In addition, recommendations and conditions for a high reliability of the replica method are described. The comments and recommendations can be read in separate sections in the end of the report.

  12. Automated magnification calibration in transmission electron microscopy using Fourier analysis of replica images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laak, Jeroen A.W.M. van der; Dijkman, Henry B.P.M.; Pahlplatz, Martin M.M.

    2006-01-01

    The magnification factor in transmission electron microscopy is not very precise, hampering for instance quantitative analysis of specimens. Calibration of the magnification is usually performed interactively using replica specimens, containing line or grating patterns with known spacing. In the present study, a procedure is described for automated magnification calibration using digital images of a line replica. This procedure is based on analysis of the power spectrum of Fourier transformed replica images, and is compared to interactive measurement in the same images. Images were used with magnification ranging from 1,000x to 200,000x. The automated procedure deviated on average 0.10% from interactive measurements. Especially for catalase replicas, the coefficient of variation of automated measurement was considerably smaller (average 0.28%) compared to that of interactive measurement (average 3.5%). In conclusion, calibration of the magnification in digital images from transmission electron microscopy may be performed automatically, using the procedure presented here, with high precision and accuracy

  13. Systematic expansion in the order parameter for replica theory of the dynamical glass transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquin, Hugo; Zamponi, Francesco

    2013-03-28

    It has been shown recently that predictions from mode-coupling theory for the glass transition of hard-spheres become increasingly bad when dimensionality increases, whereas replica theory predicts a correct scaling. Nevertheless if one focuses on the regime around the dynamical transition in three dimensions, mode-coupling results are far more convincing than replica theory predictions. It seems thus necessary to reconcile the two theoretic approaches in order to obtain a theory that interpolates between low-dimensional, mode-coupling results, and "mean-field" results from replica theory. Even though quantitative results for the dynamical transition issued from replica theory are not accurate in low dimensions, two different approximation schemes--small cage expansion and replicated hyper-netted-chain (RHNC)--provide the correct qualitative picture for the transition, namely, a discontinuous jump of a static order parameter from zero to a finite value. The purpose of this work is to develop a systematic expansion around the RHNC result in powers of the static order parameter, and to calculate the first correction in this expansion. Interestingly, this correction involves the static three-body correlations of the liquid. More importantly, we separately demonstrate that higher order terms in the expansion are quantitatively relevant at the transition, and that the usual mode-coupling kernel, involving two-body direct correlation functions of the liquid, cannot be recovered from static computations.

  14. Fast Optimal Replica Placement with Exhaustive Search Using Dynamically Reconfigurable Processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Takeshita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new replica placement algorithm that expands the exhaustive search limit with reasonable calculation time. It combines a new type of parallel data-flow processor with an architecture tuned for fast calculation. The replica placement problem is to find a replica-server set satisfying service constraints in a content delivery network (CDN. It is derived from the set cover problem which is known to be NP-hard. It is impractical to use exhaustive search to obtain optimal replica placement in large-scale networks, because calculation time increases with the number of combinations. To reduce calculation time, heuristic algorithms have been proposed, but it is known that no heuristic algorithm is assured of finding the optimal solution. The proposed algorithm suits parallel processing and pipeline execution and is implemented on DAPDNA-2, a dynamically reconfigurable processor. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm expands the exhaustive search limit by the factor of 18.8 compared to the conventional algorithm search limit running on a Neumann-type processor.

  15. Comparison of pulsed versus continuous oxygen delivery using realistic adult nasal airway replicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen JZ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available John Z Chen,1 Ira M Katz,2 Marine Pichelin,2 Kaixian Zhu,3 Georges Caillibotte,2 Michelle L Noga,4 Warren H Finlay,1 Andrew R Martin1 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada; 2Medical R&D, Air Liquide Santé International, Centre de Recherche Paris-Saclay, Les Loges-en-Josas, 3Centre Explor!, Air Liquide Healthcare, Gentilly, France; 4Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Background: Portable oxygen concentrators (POCs typically include pulse flow (PF modes to conserve oxygen. The primary aims of this study were to develop a predictive in vitro model for inhaled oxygen delivery using a set of realistic airway replicas, and to compare PF for a commercial POC with steady flow (SF from a compressed oxygen cylinder. Methods: Experiments were carried out using a stationary compressed oxygen cylinder, a POC, and 15 adult nasal airway replicas based on airway geometries derived from medical images. Oxygen delivery via nasal cannula was tested at PF settings of 2.0 and 6.0, and SF rates of 2.0 and 6.0 L/min. A test lung simulated three breathing patterns representative of a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patient at rest, during exercise, and while asleep. Volume-averaged fraction of inhaled oxygen (FiO2 was calculated by analyzing oxygen concentrations sampled at the exit of each replica and inhalation flow rates over time. POC pulse volumes were also measured using a commercial O2 conserver test system to attempt to predict FiO2 for PF. Results: Relative volume-averaged FiO2 using PF ranged from 68% to 94% of SF values, increasing with breathing frequency and tidal volume. Three of 15 replicas failed to trigger the POC when used with the sleep breathing pattern at the 2.0 setting, and four of 15 replicas failed to trigger at the 6.0 setting. FiO2 values estimated from POC pulse characteristics followed similar trends but were lower than those derived from

  16. Effect of cation nature of zeolite on carbon replicas and their electrochemical capacitance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jin; Li, Wen; Zhang, Zhongshen; Wu, Xiaozhong; Xing, Wei; Zhuo, Shuping

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Cation nature of zeolite influences the porosity, surface chemical properties of carbon replicas of zeolite, resulting in different electrochemical capacitance. Highlights: ► The porosity of carbon replica strongly depends on zeolite's effective pore size. ► The surface chemical properties influence by the cation nature of zeolite. ► The N-doping introduces large pseudo-capacitance. ► The HYC800 carbon showed a high capacitance of up to 312 F g −1 in 1 M H 2 SO 4 . ► The prepared carbons show good durability of galvanostatic cycle. -- Abstract: N-doped carbon replicas of zeolite Y are prepared, and the effect of cation nature of zeolite (H + or Na + ) on the carbon replicas is studied. The morphology, structure and surface properties of the carbon materials are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N 2 adsorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The pore regularity, pore parameter and surface chemical properties of the carbons may strongly depend on the cation nature of the zeolite Y. The carbon replicas of zeolite HY (H-form of zeolite Y) possesses higher pore regularity and much larger surface area than those of zeolite NaY (Na-form of zeolite Y), while the latter carbons seem to possess higher carbonization degrees. Electrochemical measurements show a large faradaic capacitance related to the N- or O-containing groups for the prepared carbons. Owing to the large specific surface area, high pore regularity and heteroatom-doping, the HYC800 sample derived from zeolite HY presents very high gravimetric capacitance, up to 312.4 F g −1 in H 2 SO 4 electrolyte, and this carbon can operate at 1.2 V with good retention ratio in the range of 0.25 to 10 A g −1

  17. Coulomb replica-exchange method: handling electrostatic attractive and repulsive forces for biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Satoru G; Okumura, Hisashi

    2013-03-30

    We propose a new type of the Hamiltonian replica-exchange method (REM) for molecular dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo simulations, which we refer to as the Coulomb REM (CREM). In this method, electrostatic charge parameters in the Coulomb interactions are exchanged among replicas while temperatures are exchanged in the usual REM. By varying the atom charges, the CREM overcomes free-energy barriers and realizes more efficient sampling in the conformational space than the REM. Furthermore, this method requires only a smaller number of replicas because only the atom charges of solute molecules are used as exchanged parameters. We performed Coulomb replica-exchange MD simulations of an alanine dipeptide in explicit water solvent and compared the results with those of the conventional canonical, replica exchange, and van der Waals REMs. Two force fields of AMBER parm99 and AMBER parm99SB were used. As a result, the CREM sampled all local-minimum free-energy states more frequently than the other methods for both force fields. Moreover, the Coulomb, van der Waals, and usual REMs were applied to a fragment of an amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) in explicit water solvent to compare the sampling efficiency of these methods for a larger system. The CREM sampled structures of the Aβ fragment more efficiently than the other methods. We obtained β-helix, α-helix, 3(10)-helix, β-hairpin, and β-sheet structures as stable structures and deduced pathways of conformational transitions among these structures from a free-energy landscape. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Efficient Round-Trip Time Optimization for Replica-Exchange Enveloping Distribution Sampling (RE-EDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidler, Dominik; Cristòfol-Clough, Michael; Riniker, Sereina

    2017-06-13

    Replica-exchange enveloping distribution sampling (RE-EDS) allows the efficient estimation of free-energy differences between multiple end-states from a single molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. In EDS, a reference state is sampled, which can be tuned by two types of parameters, i.e., smoothness parameters(s) and energy offsets, such that all end-states are sufficiently sampled. However, the choice of these parameters is not trivial. Replica exchange (RE) or parallel tempering is a widely applied technique to enhance sampling. By combining EDS with the RE technique, the parameter choice problem could be simplified and the challenge shifted toward an optimal distribution of the replicas in the smoothness-parameter space. The choice of a certain replica distribution can alter the sampling efficiency significantly. In this work, global round-trip time optimization (GRTO) algorithms are tested for the use in RE-EDS simulations. In addition, a local round-trip time optimization (LRTO) algorithm is proposed for systems with slowly adapting environments, where a reliable estimate for the round-trip time is challenging to obtain. The optimization algorithms were applied to RE-EDS simulations of a system of nine small-molecule inhibitors of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT). The energy offsets were determined using our recently proposed parallel energy-offset (PEOE) estimation scheme. While the multistate GRTO algorithm yielded the best replica distribution for the ligands in water, the multistate LRTO algorithm was found to be the method of choice for the ligands in complex with PNMT. With this, the 36 alchemical free-energy differences between the nine ligands were calculated successfully from a single RE-EDS simulation 10 ns in length. Thus, RE-EDS presents an efficient method for the estimation of relative binding free energies.

  19. Zeolite-templated carbon replica: a Grand Canonical Monte-Carlo simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas Roussel; Roland J M Pellenq; Christophe Bichara; Roger Gadiou; Antoine Didion; Cathie Vix Guterl; Fabrice Gaslain; Julien Parmentier; Valentin Valtchev; Joel Patarin

    2005-01-01

    Microporous carbon materials are interesting for several applications such as hydrogen storage, catalysis or electrical double layer capacitors. The development of the negative templating method to obtain carbon replicas from ordered templates, has lead to the synthesis of several new materials which have interesting textural properties, attractive for energy storage. Among the possible templates, zeolites can be used to obtain highly microporous carbon materials. Nevertheless, the phenomena involved in the replica synthesis are not fully understood, and the relationships between the structure of the template, the carbon precursor and the resulting carbon material need to be investigated. Experimental results for carbon zeolite-templated nano-structures can be found in a series of papers; see for instance ref. [1] in which Wang et al describe a route to ultra-small Single Wall Carbon Nano-tubes (SWNTs) using the porosity of zeolite AlPO 4 -5. After matrix removal, the resulting structure is a free-standing bundle of 4 Angstroms large nano-tubes. However, it is highly desirable to obtain an ordered porous carbon structure that forms a real 3D network to be used for instance in gas storage applications. Carbon replica of faujasite and EMT zeolites can have these properties since these zeolites have a 3D porous network made of 10 Angstroms cages connected to each other through 7 Angstroms large windows. The first step of this study was to generate a theoretical carbon replica structure of various zeolites (faujasite, EMT, AlPO 4 -5, silicalite). For this purpose, we used the Grand Canonical Monte-Carlo (GCMC) technique in which the carbon-carbon interactions were described within the frame of a newly developed Tight Binding approach and the carbon-zeolite interactions assumed to be characteristic of physi-sorption. The intrinsic stability of the subsequent carbon nano-structures was then investigated after mimicking the removal of the inorganic phase by switching

  20. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  1. Private Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Kolmačková, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    This Bachelor Thesis titled Private labels deals with distribution strategy based on the introduction of private labels especially in retail chains. At the beginning it is focused on the general concept of private label offered by retailers, where is mentioned basic characteristics, history and structuring of distribution brands. Subsequently this thesis informs readers about the introduction of new special distribution brands, which focus primarily on the new consumption habits of customers....

  2. Evaluation of generalized degrees of freedom for sparse estimation by replica method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, A.

    2016-12-01

    We develop a method to evaluate the generalized degrees of freedom (GDF) for linear regression with sparse regularization. The GDF is a key factor in model selection, and thus its evaluation is useful in many modelling applications. An analytical expression for the GDF is derived using the replica method in the large-system-size limit with random Gaussian predictors. The resulting formula has a universal form that is independent of the type of regularization, providing us with a simple interpretation. Within the framework of replica symmetric (RS) analysis, GDF has a physical meaning as the effective fraction of non-zero components. The validity of our method in the RS phase is supported by the consistency of our results with previous mathematical results. The analytical results in the RS phase are calculated numerically using the belief propagation algorithm.

  3. Neutron and gamma dose and spectra measurements on the Little Boy replica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoots, S.; Wadsworth, D.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation-measurement team of the Weapons Engineering Division at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) measured neutron and gamma dose and spectra on the Little Boy replica at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in April 1983. This assembly is a replica of the gun-type atomic bomb exploded over Hiroshima in 1945. These measurements support the National Academy of Sciences Program to reassess the radiation doses due to atomic bomb explosions in Japan. Specifically, the following types of information were important: neutron spectra as a function of geometry, gamma to neutron dose ratios out to 1.5 km, and neutron attenuation in the atmosphere. We measured neutron and gamma dose/fission from close-in to a kilometer out, and neutron and gamma spectra at 90 and 30 0 close-in. This paper describes these measurements and the results. 12 references, 13 figures, 5 tables

  4. Proactive replica checking to assure reliability of data in cloud storage with minimum replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murarka, Damini; Maheswari, G. Uma

    2017-11-01

    The two major issues for cloud storage systems are data reliability and storage costs. For data reliability protection, multi-replica replication strategy which is used mostly in current clouds acquires huge storage consumption, leading to a large storage cost for applications within the loud specifically. This paper presents a cost-efficient data reliability mechanism named PRCR to cut back the cloud storage consumption. PRCR ensures data reliability of large cloud information with the replication that might conjointly function as a price effective benchmark for replication. The duplication shows that when resembled to the standard three-replica approach, PRCR will scale back to consume only a simple fraction of the cloud storage from one-third of the storage, thence considerably minimizing the cloud storage price.

  5. Fabrication of micropillar substrates using replicas of alpha-particle irradiated and chemically etched PADC films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.K.M.; Chong, E.Y.W.; Roy, V.A.L.; Cheung, K.M.C.; Yeung, K.W.K.; Yu, K.N.

    2012-01-01

    We proposed a simple method to fabricate micropillar substrates. Polyallyldiglycol carbonate (PADC) films were irradiated by alpha particles and then chemically etched to form a cast with micron-scale spherical pores. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) replica of this PADC film gave a micropillar substrate with micron-scale spherical pillars. HeLa cells cultured on such a micropillar substrate had significantly larger percentage of cells entering S-phase, attached cell numbers and cell spreading areas. - Highlights: ► We proposed a simple method to fabricate micropillar substrates. ► Polyallyldiglycol carbonate films were irradiated and etched to form casts. ► Polydimethylsiloxane replica then formed the micropillar substrates. ► Attachment and proliferation of HeLa cells were enhanced on these substrates.

  6. Fabrication of micropillar substrates using replicas of alpha-particle irradiated and chemically etched PADC films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, C.K.M. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Chong, E.Y.W. [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Roy, V.A.L. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Cheung, K.M.C.; Yeung, K.W.K. [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Yu, K.N., E-mail: appetery@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2012-07-15

    We proposed a simple method to fabricate micropillar substrates. Polyallyldiglycol carbonate (PADC) films were irradiated by alpha particles and then chemically etched to form a cast with micron-scale spherical pores. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) replica of this PADC film gave a micropillar substrate with micron-scale spherical pillars. HeLa cells cultured on such a micropillar substrate had significantly larger percentage of cells entering S-phase, attached cell numbers and cell spreading areas. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We proposed a simple method to fabricate micropillar substrates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyallyldiglycol carbonate films were irradiated and etched to form casts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polydimethylsiloxane replica then formed the micropillar substrates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Attachment and proliferation of HeLa cells were enhanced on these substrates.

  7. Neutron and gamma-ray dose-rates from the Little Boy replica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plassmann, E.A.; Pederson, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    We report dose-rate information obtained at many locations in the near vicinity of, and at distances out to 0.64 km from, the Little Boy replica while it was operated as a critical assembly. The measurements were made with modified conventional dosimetry instruments that used an Anderson-Braun detector for neutrons and a Geiger-Mueller tube for gamma rays with suitable electronic modules to count particle-induced pulses. Thermoluminescent dosimetry methods provide corroborative data. Our analysis gives estimates of both neutron and gamma-ray relaxation lengths in air for comparison with earlier calculations. We also show the neutron-to-gamma-ray dose ratio as a function of distance from the replica. Current experiments and further data analysis will refine these results. 7 references, 8 figures

  8. Impact of Channel Estimation Errors on Multiuser Detection via the Replica Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Husheng

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available For practical wireless DS-CDMA systems, channel estimation is imperfect due to noise and interference. In this paper, the impact of channel estimation errors on multiuser detection (MUD is analyzed under the framework of the replica method. System performance is obtained in the large system limit for optimal MUD, linear MUD, and turbo MUD, and is validated by numerical results for finite systems.

  9. Sustainability Labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability labeling originated from a need to protect the identity of alternative systems of food production and to increase market transparency. From the 1980s onwards sustainability labeling has changed into a policy instrument replacing direct government regulation of the food market, and a

  10. Replica Exchange Gaussian Accelerated Molecular Dynamics: Improved Enhanced Sampling and Free Energy Calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Ming M; McCammon, J Andrew; Miao, Yinglong

    2018-04-10

    Through adding a harmonic boost potential to smooth the system potential energy surface, Gaussian accelerated molecular dynamics (GaMD) provides enhanced sampling and free energy calculation of biomolecules without the need of predefined reaction coordinates. This work continues to improve the acceleration power and energy reweighting of the GaMD by combining the GaMD with replica exchange algorithms. Two versions of replica exchange GaMD (rex-GaMD) are presented: force constant rex-GaMD and threshold energy rex-GaMD. During simulations of force constant rex-GaMD, the boost potential can be exchanged between replicas of different harmonic force constants with fixed threshold energy. However, the algorithm of threshold energy rex-GaMD tends to switch the threshold energy between lower and upper bounds for generating different levels of boost potential. Testing simulations on three model systems, including the alanine dipeptide, chignolin, and HIV protease, demonstrate that through continuous exchanges of the boost potential, the rex-GaMD simulations not only enhance the conformational transitions of the systems but also narrow down the distribution width of the applied boost potential for accurate energetic reweighting to recover biomolecular free energy profiles.

  11. Biosynthesis of cathodoluminescent zinc oxide replicas using butterfly (Papilio paris) wing scales as templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wang; Zhang Di; Fan Tongxiang; Ding Jian; Gu Jiajun; Guo Qixin; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Papilio paris butterflies have an iridescent blue color patch on their hind wings which is visible over a wide viewing angle. Optical and scanning electron microscopy observations of scales from the wings show that the blue color scales have very different microstructure to the matt black ones which also populate the wings. Scanning electron micrographs of the blue scales show that their surfaces comprise a regular two-dimensional array of concavities. By contrast the matt black scales have fine, sponge-like structure, between the ridges and the cross ribs in the scales. Using both types of scale as bio-templates, we obtain zinc oxide (ZnO) replicas of the microstructures of the original scales. Room temperature (T = 300 K) cathodoluminescence spectra of these ZnO replicas have also been studied. Both spectra show a similar sharp near-band-edge emission, but have different green emission, which we associate with the different microstructures of the ZnO replicas

  12. Biosynthesis of cathodoluminescent zinc oxide replicas using butterfly (Papilio paris) wing scales as templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Wang [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240, Shanghai (China); Zhang Di [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240, Shanghai (China)], E-mail: zhangdi@sjtu.edu.cn; Fan Tongxiang; Ding Jian; Gu Jiajun [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240, Shanghai (China); Guo Qixin; Ogawa, Hiroshi [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2009-01-01

    Papilio paris butterflies have an iridescent blue color patch on their hind wings which is visible over a wide viewing angle. Optical and scanning electron microscopy observations of scales from the wings show that the blue color scales have very different microstructure to the matt black ones which also populate the wings. Scanning electron micrographs of the blue scales show that their surfaces comprise a regular two-dimensional array of concavities. By contrast the matt black scales have fine, sponge-like structure, between the ridges and the cross ribs in the scales. Using both types of scale as bio-templates, we obtain zinc oxide (ZnO) replicas of the microstructures of the original scales. Room temperature (T = 300 K) cathodoluminescence spectra of these ZnO replicas have also been studied. Both spectra show a similar sharp near-band-edge emission, but have different green emission, which we associate with the different microstructures of the ZnO replicas.

  13. Replica sizing strategy for aortic valve replacement improves haemodynamic outcome of the epic supra valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Lopez, David; Faerber, Gloria; Diab, Mahmoud; Amorim, Paulo; Zeynalov, Natig; Doenst, Torsten

    2017-10-01

    Current sizing strategies suggest valve selection based on annulus diameter despite supra-annular placement of biological prostheses potentially allowing placement of a larger size. We assessed the frequency of selecting a larger prosthesis if prosthesis size was selected using a replica (upsizing) and evaluated its impact on haemodynamics. We analysed all discharge echocardiograms between June 2012 and June 2014, where a replica sizer was used for isolated aortic valve replacement (Epic Supra: 266 patients, Trifecta: 49 patients). Upsizing was possible in 71% of the Epic Supra valves (by 1 size: 168, by 2 sizes: 20) and in 59% of the Trifectas (by 1 size: 26, by 2 sizes: 3). Patients for whom upsizing was possible had the lowest pressure gradients within their annulus size groups. The difference was significant in annulus diameters of 21-22 or 25-26 mm (Epic Supra) and 23-24 mm (Trifecta). Trifecta gradients were the lowest. However, the ability to upsize the Epic Supra by 2 sizes eliminated the differences between Epic Supra and Trifecta. Upsizing did not cause intraoperative complications. Using replica sizers for aortic prosthesis size selection allows the implantation of bigger prostheses than recommended in most cases and reduces postoperative gradients, specifically for Epic Supra. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of Nb SRF cavity materials by white light interferometry and replica techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Chen [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); The Applied Science Department, The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185 (United States); Reece, Charles [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Kelley, Michael, E-mail: mkelley@jlab.org [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); The Applied Science Department, The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Much work has shown that the topography of the interior surface is an important contributor to the performance of Nb superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) accelerator cavities. Micron-scale topography is implicated in non-linear loss mechanisms that limit the useful accelerating gradient range and impact cryogenic cost. Aggressive final chemical treatments in cavity production seek to reliably obtain “smoothest” surfaces with superior performance. Process development suffers because the cavity interior surface cannot be viewed directly without cutting out pieces, rendering the cavities unavailable for further study. Here we explore replica techniques as an alternative, providing imprints of cavity internal surface that can be readily examined. A second matter is the topography measurement technique used. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has proven successful, but too time intensive for routine use in this application. We therefore introduce white light interferometry (WLI) as an alternative approach. We examined real surfaces and their replicas, using AFM and WLI. We find that the replica/WLI is promising to provide the large majority of the desired information, recognizing that a trade-off is being made between best lateral resolution (AFM) and the opportunity to examine much more surface area (WLI).

  15. Tunable hydrodynamic characteristics in microchannels with biomimetic superhydrophobic (lotus leaf replica) walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Ranabir; Raj M, Kiran; Bhandaru, Nandini; Mukherjee, Rabibrata; Chakraborty, Suman

    2014-05-21

    The present work comprehensively addresses the hydrodynamic characteristics through microchannels with lotus leaf replica (exhibiting low adhesion and superhydrophobic properties) walls. The lotus leaf replica is fabricated following an efficient, two-step, soft-molding process and is then integrated with rectangular microchannels. The inherent biomimetic, superhydrophobic surface-liquid interfacial hydrodynamics, and the consequential bulk flow characteristics, are critically analyzed by the micro-particle image velocimetry technique. It is observed that the lotus leaf replica mediated microscale hydrodynamics comprise of two distinct flow regimes even within the low Reynolds number paradigm, unlike the commonly perceived solely apparent slip-stick dominated flows over superhydrophobic surfaces. While the first flow regime is characterized by an apparent slip-stick flow culminating in an enhanced bulk throughput rate, the second flow regime exhibits a complete breakdown of the aforementioned laminar and uni-axial flow model, leading to a predominantly no-slip flow. Interestingly, the critical flow condition dictating the transition between the two hydrodynamic regimes is intrinsically dependent on the micro-confinement effect. In this regard, an energetically consistent theoretical model is also proposed to predict the alterations in the critical flow condition with varying microchannel configurations, by addressing the underlying biomimetic surface-liquid interfacial conditions. Hence, the present research endeavour provides a new design-guiding paradigm for developing multi-functional microfluidic devices involving biomimetic, superhydrophobic surfaces, by judicious exploitation of the tunable hydrodynamic characteristics in the two regimes.

  16. Effect of roughness and material strength on the mechanical properties of fracture replicas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wibowo, J.; Amadei, B.; Sture, S.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of 11 rotary shear tests conducted on replicas of three hollow cylinders of natural fractures with JRC values of 7.7, 9.4 and 12.0. The JRC values were determined from the results of laser profilometer measurements. The replicas were created from gypsum cement. By varying the water-to-gypsum cement ratio from 30 to 45%, fracture replicas with different values of compressive strength (JCS) were created. The rotary shear experiments were performed under constant normal (nominal) stresses ranging between 0.2 and 1.6 MPa. In this report, the shear test results are compared with predictions using Barton's empirical peak shear strength equation. observations during the experiments indicate that only certain parts of the fracture profiles influence fracture shear strength and dilatancy. Under relatively low applied normal stresses, the JCS does not seem to have a significant effect on shear behavior. As an alternative, a new procedure for predicting the shear behavior of fractures was developed. The approach is based on basic fracture properties such as fracture surface profile data and the compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, and Poisson's ratio of the fracture walls. Comparison between predictions and actual shear test results shows that the alternative procedure is a reliable method

  17. A Replica Detection Scheme Based on the Deviation in Distance Traveled Sliding Window for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekha Kumar Mishra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Node replication attack possesses a high level of threat in wireless sensor networks (WSNs and it is severe when the sensors are mobile. A limited number of replica detection schemes in mobile WSNs (MWSNs have been reported till date, where most of them are centralized in nature. The centralized detection schemes use time-location claims and the base station (BS is solely responsible for detecting replica. Therefore, these schemes are prone to single point of failure. There is also additional communication overhead associated with sending time-location claims to the BS. A distributed detection mechanism is always a preferred solution to the above kind of problems due to significantly lower communication overhead than their counterparts. In this paper, we propose a distributed replica detection scheme for MWSNs. In this scheme, the deviation in the distance traveled by a node and its replica is recorded by the observer nodes. Every node is an observer node for some nodes in the network. Observers are responsible for maintaining a sliding window of recent time-distance broadcast of the nodes. A replica is detected by an observer based on the degree of violation computed from the deviations recorded using the time-distance sliding window. The analysis and simulation results show that the proposed scheme is able to achieve higher detection probability compared to distributed replica detection schemes such as Efficient Distributed Detection (EDD and Multi-Time-Location Storage and Diffusion (MTLSD.

  18. Pesticide Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  19. Labelling patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strudwick, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at how diagnostic radiographers label their patients. An ethnographic study of the workplace culture in one diagnostic imaging department was undertaken using participant observation for four months and semi-structured interviews with ten key informants. One of the key themes; the way in which radiographers label their patients, is explored in this article. It was found from the study that within the department studied the diagnostic radiographers labelled or categorised their patients based on the information that they had. This information is used to form judgements and these judgements were used to assist the radiographers in dealing with the many different people that they encountered in their work. This categorisation and labelling of the patient appears to assist the radiographer in their decision-making processes about the examination to be carried out and the patient they are to image. This is an important aspect of the role of the diagnostic radiographer. - Highlights: • I have studied the culture in one imaging department. • Radiographers label or categorise their patients. • These labels/categories are used to manage the patient. • This is an important aspect of the way in which radiographers work.

  20. Focal adhesion interactions with topographical structures: a novel method for immuno-SEM labelling of focal adhesions in S-phase cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, M J P; Richards, R G; Wilkinson, C D W; Dalby, M J

    2008-07-01

    Current understanding of the mechanisms involved in osseointegration following implantation of a biomaterial has led to adhesion quantification being implemented as an assay of cytocompatibility. Such measurement can be hindered by intra-sample variation owing to morphological changes associated with the cell cycle. Here we report on a new scanning electron microscopical method for the simultaneous immunogold labelling of cellular focal adhesions and S-phase nuclei identified by BrdU incorporation. Prior to labelling, cellular membranes are removed by tritonization and antigens of non-interest blocked by serum incubation. Adhesion plaque-associated vinculin and S-phase nuclei were both separately labelled with a 1.4 nm gold colloid and visualized by subsequent colloid enhancement via silver deposition. This study is specifically concerned with the effects microgroove topographies have on adhesion formation in S-phase osteoblasts. By combining backscattered electron (BSE) imaging with secondary electron (SE) imaging it was possible to visualize S-phase nuclei and the immunogold-labelled adhesion sites in one energy 'plane' and the underlying nanotopography in another. Osteoblast adhesion to these nanotopographies was ascertained by quantification of adhesion complex formation.

  1. Zeolite-templated carbon replica: a grand canonical Monte-Carlo simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, Th.; Pellenq, R.J.M.; Bichara, Ch.; Gadiou, R.; Didion, A.; Vix-Guterl, C.; Gaslain, F.; Parmentier, J.; Valtchev, V.; Patarin, J.

    2005-01-01

    Microporous carbon materials are interesting for several applications such as hydrogen storage, catalysis or electrical double layer capacitors. The development of the negative templating method to obtain carbon replicas from ordered templates, has lead to the synthesis of several new materials which have interesting textural properties, attractive for energy storage. Among the possible templates, zeolites can be used to obtain highly microporous carbon materials. Nevertheless, the phenomena involved in the replica synthesis are not fully understood, and the relationships between the structure of the template, the carbon precursor and the resulting carbon material need to be investigated. Experimental results for carbon zeolite-templated nano-structures can be found in a series of papers; see for instance ref. [1] in which Wang et al describe a route to ultra-small Single Wall Carbon Nano-tubes (SWNTs) using the porosity of zeolite AlPO 4 -5. After matrix removal, the resulting structure is a free-standing bundle of 4 Angstroms large nano-tubes. However, it is highly desirable to obtain an ordered porous carbon structure that forms a real 3D network to be used for instance in gas storage applications. Carbon replica of faujasite and EMT zeolites can have these properties since these zeolites have a 3D porous network made of 10 Angstroms cages connected to each other through 7 Angstroms large windows. The first step of this study was to generate a theoretical carbon replica structure of various zeolites (faujasite, EMT, AlPO 4 -5, silicalite). For this purpose, we used the Grand Canonical Monte-Carlo (GCMC) technique in which the carbon-carbon interactions were described within the frame of a newly developed Tight Binding approach and the carbon-zeolite interactions assumed to be characteristic of physisorption. The intrinsic stability of the subsequent carbon nano-structures was then investigated after mimicking the removal of the inorganic phase by switching

  2. Inferring predator behavior from attack rates on prey-replicas that differ in conspicuousness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoel E Stuart

    Full Text Available Behavioral ecologists and evolutionary biologists have long studied how predators respond to prey items novel in color and pattern. Because a predatory response is influenced by both the predator's ability to detect the prey and a post-detection behavioral response, variation among prey types in conspicuousness may confound inference about post-prey-detection predator behavior. That is, a relatively high attack rate on a given prey type may result primarily from enhanced conspicuousness and not predators' direct preference for that prey. Few studies, however, account for such variation in conspicuousness. In a field experiment, we measured predation rates on clay replicas of two aposematic forms of the poison dart frog Dendrobates pumilio, one novel and one familiar, and two cryptic controls. To ask whether predators prefer or avoid a novel aposematic prey form independently of conspicuousness differences among replicas, we first modeled the visual system of a typical avian predator. Then, we used this model to estimate replica contrast against a leaf litter background to test whether variation in contrast alone could explain variation in predator attack rate. We found that absolute predation rates did not differ among color forms. Predation rates relative to conspicuousness did, however, deviate significantly from expectation, suggesting that predators do make post-detection decisions to avoid or attack a given prey type. The direction of this deviation from expectation, though, depended on assumptions we made about how avian predators discriminate objects from the visual background. Our results show that it is important to account for prey conspicuousness when investigating predator behavior and also that existing models of predator visual systems need to be refined.

  3. Anti-stiction coating of PDMS moulds for rapid microchannel fabrication by double replica moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Guisheng; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2011-01-01

    ), which resulted in an anti-stiction layer for the improved release after PDMS casting. The deposition of FDTS on an O2 plasma-activated surface of PDMS produced a reproducible and well-performing anti-stiction monolayer of fluorocarbon, and we used the FDTS-coated moulds as micro-masters for rapid......In this paper, we report a simple and precise method to rapidly replicate master structures for fast microchannel fabrication by double replica moulding of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). A PDMS mould was surface-treated by vapour phase deposition of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS...

  4. A sequence of Clifford algebras and three replicas of Dirac particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolikowski, W.; Warsaw Univ.

    1990-01-01

    The embedding of Dirac algebra into a sequence N=1, 2, 3,... of Clifford algebras is discussed, leading to Dirac equations with N=1 additional, electromagnetically ''hidden'' spins 1/2. It is shown that there are three and only three replicas N=1, 3, 5 of Dirac particle if the theory of relativity together with the probability interpretation of wave function is applied both to the ''visible'' spin and ''hidden'' spins, and a new ''hidden exclusion principle''is imposed on the wave function (then ''hidden'' spins add up to zero). It is appealing to explore this idea in order to explain the puzzle of three generations of lepton and quarks. (author)

  5. Enhanced Sampling in Molecular Dynamics Using Metadynamics, Replica-Exchange, and Temperature-Acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Abrams

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We review a selection of methods for performing enhanced sampling in molecular dynamics simulations. We consider methods based on collective variable biasing and on tempering, and offer both historical and contemporary perspectives. In collective-variable biasing, we first discuss methods stemming from thermodynamic integration that use mean force biasing, including the adaptive biasing force algorithm and temperature acceleration. We then turn to methods that use bias potentials, including umbrella sampling and metadynamics. We next consider parallel tempering and replica-exchange methods. We conclude with a brief presentation of some combination methods.

  6. Time-reversal focusing of an expanding soliton gas in disordered replicas

    KAUST Repository

    Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2011-05-31

    We investigate the properties of time reversibility of a soliton gas, originating from a dispersive regularization of a shock wave, as it propagates in a strongly disordered environment. An original approach combining information measures and spin glass theory shows that time-reversal focusing occurs for different replicas of the disorder in forward and backward propagation, provided the disorder varies on a length scale much shorter than the width of the soliton constituents. The analysis is performed by starting from a new class of reflectionless potentials, which describe the most general form of an expanding soliton gas of the defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  7. Time-reversal focusing of an expanding soliton gas in disordered replicas

    KAUST Repository

    Fratalocchi, Andrea; Armaroli, A.; Trillo, S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the properties of time reversibility of a soliton gas, originating from a dispersive regularization of a shock wave, as it propagates in a strongly disordered environment. An original approach combining information measures and spin glass theory shows that time-reversal focusing occurs for different replicas of the disorder in forward and backward propagation, provided the disorder varies on a length scale much shorter than the width of the soliton constituents. The analysis is performed by starting from a new class of reflectionless potentials, which describe the most general form of an expanding soliton gas of the defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  8. Replica Node Detection Using Enhanced Single Hop Detection with Clonal Selection Algorithm in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Sindhuja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Security of Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks is a vital challenge as the sensor nodes are deployed in unattended environment and they are prone to various attacks. One among them is the node replication attack. In this, the physically insecure nodes are acquired by the adversary to clone them by having the same identity of the captured node, and the adversary deploys an unpredictable number of replicas throughout the network. Hence replica node detection is an important challenge in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks. Various replica node detection techniques have been proposed to detect these replica nodes. These methods incur control overheads and the detection accuracy is low when the replica is selected as a witness node. This paper proposes to solve these issues by enhancing the Single Hop Detection (SHD method using the Clonal Selection algorithm to detect the clones by selecting the appropriate witness nodes. The advantages of the proposed method include (i increase in the detection ratio, (ii decrease in the control overhead, and (iii increase in throughput. The performance of the proposed work is measured using detection ratio, false detection ratio, packet delivery ratio, average delay, control overheads, and throughput. The implementation is done using ns-2 to exhibit the actuality of the proposed work.

  9. Synthesis and properties of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} replica with biological hierarchical structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongyan; Guo, Yiping, E-mail: ypguo@sjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Yangyang; Wu, Fen; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Di, E-mail: zhangdi@sjtu.edu.cn

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: • ZFO replica with hierarchical structure was synthesized from butterfly wings. • Biotemplate has a significant impact on the properties of ZFO material. • Our method opens up new avenues for the synthesis of spinel ferrites. -- Abstract: ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} replica with biological hierarchical structure was synthesized from Papilio paris by a sol–gel method followed by calcination. The crystallographic structure and morphology of the obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscope, and transmittance electron microscope. The results showed that the hierarchical structures were retained in the ZFO replica of spinel structure. The magnetic behavior of such novel products was measured by a vibrating sample magnetometer. A superparamagnetism-like behavior was observed due to nanostructuration size effects. In addition, the ZFO replica with “quasi-honeycomb-like structure” showed a much higher specific capacitance of 279.4 F g{sup −1} at 10 mV s{sup −1} in comparison with ZFO powder of 137.3 F g{sup −1}, attributing to the significantly increased surface area. These results demonstrated that ZFO replica is a promising candidate for novel magnetic devices and supercapacitors.

  10. Phonon replica dynamics in high quality GaN epilayers and AlGaN/GaN quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alderighi, D.; Vinattieri, A.; Colocci, M. [Ist. Nazionale Fisica della Materia, Firenze (Italy); Dipt. di Fisica and LENS, Firenze (Italy); Bogani, F. [Ist. Nazionale Fisica della Materia, Firenze (Italy); Dipt. di Energetica, Firenze (Italy); Gottardo, S. [Dipt. di Fisica and LENS, Firenze (Italy); Grandjean, N.; Massies, J. [Centre de Recherche sur l' Hetero-Epitaxie et ses Applications, CNRS, Valbonne (France)

    2001-01-01

    We present an experimental study of the exciton and phonon replica dynamics in high quality GaN epilayers and AlGaN/GaN quantum wells (QW) by means of picosecond time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) measurements. A non-exponential decay is observed both at the zero phonon line (ZPL) and at the n = 1 LO replica. Time-resolved spectra unambiguously assign the replica to the free exciton A recombination. Optical migration effects are detected both in the epilayer and the QWs samples and disappear as the temperature increases up to 60-90 K. Even though the sample quality is comparable to state-of-the-art samples, localization effects dominate the exciton dynamics at low temperature in the studied GaN based structures. (orig.)

  11. Dynamical self-arrest in symmetric and asymmetric diblock copolymer melts using a replica approach within a local theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sangwook

    2009-03-01

    We investigate dynamical self-arrest in a diblock copolymer melt using a replica approach within a self-consistent local method based on dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). The local replica approach effectively predicts (chiN)_{A} for dynamical self-arrest in a block copolymer melt for symmetric and asymmetric cases. We discuss the competition of the cubic and quartic interactions in the Landau free energy for a block copolymer melt in stabilizing a glassy state depending on the chain length. Our local replica theory provides a universal value for the dynamical self-arrest in block copolymer melts with (chiN)_{A} approximately 10.5+64N;{-3/10} for the symmetric case.

  12. How could the replica method improve accuracy of performance assessment of channel coding?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabashima, Yoshiyuki [Department of Computational Intelligence and Systems Science, Tokyo Institute of technology, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)], E-mail: kaba@dis.titech.ac.jp

    2009-12-01

    We explore the relation between the techniques of statistical mechanics and information theory for assessing the performance of channel coding. We base our study on a framework developed by Gallager in IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory IT-11, 3 (1965), where the minimum decoding error probability is upper-bounded by an average of a generalized Chernoff's bound over a code ensemble. We show that the resulting bound in the framework can be directly assessed by the replica method, which has been developed in statistical mechanics of disordered systems, whereas in Gallager's original methodology further replacement by another bound utilizing Jensen's inequality is necessary. Our approach associates a seemingly ad hoc restriction with respect to an adjustable parameter for optimizing the bound with a phase transition between two replica symmetric solutions, and can improve the accuracy of performance assessments of general code ensembles including low density parity check codes, although its mathematical justification is still open.

  13. PHYSICAL DISABILITY, STIGMA, AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN CHILDREN: A REPLICA STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus GEBHARDT

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stereotypes can be reduced through positive descriptions. A stigma that able-bodied adults have towards children with physical disability can be reduced when the child is portrayed as being active. The study found out that a sporty active child, who uses a wheelchair, is perceived as more competent than the sporty active able-bodied child. Objective: This study is a replica study to support the hypotheses and to examine the stereotypes of able-bodied adults towards children with and without (physical disabilities. Methods: This study presents two experimental replica studies using a 2 (physical activity x 2 (sporty activities. The dependent variables were the perception of competencies and warmth according to Stereotype Content Model (SCM. Study 1 is an online experiment with 355 students of the Open University of Hagen. Study 2 surveys 1176 participants (from Munich and Graz with a paper-pencil-questionnaire. Results: The significant interaction effect was not supported by our studies. The sporty able-bodied child was rated higher in competences than the sporty child, who use a wheelchair. Sporting activity only reduces the stigma towards children with a physical disability slightly. Conclusion: The stigma towards children with physical disability can be reduced when the child is portrayed as being active, but the effect was not strong enough to chance the original classification by the SCM.

  14. Nuclear research emulsion neutron spectrometry at the Little-Boy replica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Preston, C.C.

    1985-10-01

    Nuclear research emulsions (NRE) have been used to characterize the neutron spectrum emitted by the Little-Boy replica. NRE were irradiated at the Little-Boy surface as well as approximately 2 m from the center of the Little-Boy replica using polar angles of 0 0 , 30 0 , 60 0 and 90 0 . For the NRE exposed at 2 m, neutron background was determined using shadow shields of borated polyethylene. Emulsion scanning to date has concentrated exclusively on the 2-m, 0 0 and 2-m, 90 0 locations. Approximately 5000 proton-recoil tracks have been measured in NRE irradiated at each of these locations. Neutron spectra obtained from these NRE proton-recoil spectra are compared with both liquid scintillator neutron spectrometry and Monte Carlo calculations. NRE and liquid scintillator neutron spectra generally agree within experimental uncertainties at the 2-m, 90 0 location. However, at the 2-m, 0 0 location, the neutron spectra derived from these two independent experimental methods differ significantly. NRE spectra and Monte Carlo calculations exhibit general agreement with regard to both intensity as well as energy dependence. Better agreement is attained between theory and experiment at the 2-m, 90 0 location, where the neutron intensity is considerably higher. 14 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs

  15. One step replica symmetry breaking and extreme order statistics of logarithmic REMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Cao, Yan V. Fyodorov, Pierre Le Doussal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Building upon the one-step replica symmetry breaking formalism, duly understood and ramified, we show that the sequence of ordered extreme values of a general class of Euclidean-space logarithmically correlated random energy models (logREMs behave in the thermodynamic limit as a randomly shifted decorated exponential Poisson point process. The distribution of the random shift is determined solely by the large-distance ("infra-red", IR limit of the model, and is equal to the free energy distribution at the critical temperature up to a translation. the decoration process is determined solely by the small-distance ("ultraviolet", UV limit, in terms of the biased minimal process. Our approach provides connections of the replica framework to results in the probability literature and sheds further light on the freezing/duality conjecture which was the source of many previous results for log-REMs. In this way we derive the general and explicit formulae for the joint probability density of depths of the first and second minima (as well its higher-order generalizations in terms of model-specific contributions from UV as well as IR limits. In particular, we show that the second min statistics is largely independent of details of UV data, whose influence is seen only through the mean value of the gap. For a given log-correlated field this parameter can be evaluated numerically, and we provide several numerical tests of our theory using the circular model of $1/f$-noise.

  16. A new creep-strain-replica method for evaluating the remaining life time of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joas, H.D.

    2001-01-01

    To realise a safe and economic operation of older power- or chemical plants a strategy for maintenance is necessary, which makes it possible to operate a component or the plant longer than 300,000 operating hours, this also for the situation that the mode of operation has changed meanwhile. In Germany a realistic evaluation of the remaining life-time is done by comparing the actual calculated test data of a component with the code TRD 301 and TRD 508 and additional non-destructive tests or other codes like ASME, Sec. II, BS 5500, AFCEN (1985). According to many boundary conditions, the calculated data are inaccurate and the measuring of creep-strain at temperatures of about 600 o C with capacitive strain-gauges very expensive. Description of the approach of the problems: spotwelding of two gauges to the surface of a component (in a defined distance), forming a gap, producing of replica of the gap after certain operating hours at shut-down conditions by trained personal, evaluation of the replica to gain the amount of creep-strain using a scanning electron microscope, assessment of the creep-strain data. (Author)

  17. Efficacy of independence sampling in replica exchange simulations of ordered and disordered proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuo Hao; Chen, Jianhan

    2017-11-15

    Recasting temperature replica exchange (T-RE) as a special case of Gibbs sampling has led to a simple and efficient scheme for enhanced mixing (Chodera and Shirts, J. Chem. Phys., 2011, 135, 194110). To critically examine if T-RE with independence sampling (T-REis) improves conformational sampling, we performed T-RE and T-REis simulations of ordered and disordered proteins using coarse-grained and atomistic models. The results demonstrate that T-REis effectively increase the replica mobility in temperatures space with minimal computational overhead, especially for folded proteins. However, enhanced mixing does not translate well into improved conformational sampling. The convergences of thermodynamic properties interested are similar, with slight improvements for T-REis of ordered systems. The study re-affirms the efficiency of T-RE does not appear to be limited by temperature diffusion, but by the inherent rates of spontaneous large-scale conformational re-arrangements. Due to its simplicity and efficacy of enhanced mixing, T-REis is expected to be more effective when incorporated with various Hamiltonian-RE protocols. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Laboratory studies of groundwater degassing in replicas of natural fractured rock for linear flow geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, J.T.

    1998-02-01

    Laboratory experiments to simulate two-phase (gas and water) flow in fractured rock evolving from groundwater degassing were conducted in transparent replicas of natural rock fractures. These experiments extend the work by Geller et al. (1995) and Jarsjo and Geller (1996) that tests the hypothesis that groundwater degassing caused observed flow reductions in the Stripa Simulated Drift Experiment (SDE). Understanding degassing effects over a range of gas contents is needed due to the uncertainty in the gas contents of the water at the SDE. The main objectives of this study were to: (1) measure the effect of groundwater degassing on liquid flow rates for lower gas contents than the values used in Geller for linear flow geometry in the same fracture replicas of Geller; (2) provide a data set to develop a predictive model of two-phase flow in fractures for conditions of groundwater degassing; and (3) improve the certainty of experimental gas contents (this effort included modifications to the experimental system used by Geller et al. and separate gas-water equilibration tests). The Stripa site is being considered for a high-level radioactive waste repository

  19. Mimicking the action of folding chaperones by Hamiltonian replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations : Application in the refinement of de novo models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Hao; Periole, Xavier; Mark, Alan E.

    The efficiency of using a variant of Hamiltonian replica-exchange molecular dynamics (Chaperone H-replica-exchange molecular dynamics [CH-REMD]) for the refinement of protein structural models generated de novo is investigated. In CH-REMD, the interaction between the protein and its environment,

  20. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention......The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... for the two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted...

  1. Geometry anisotropy and mechanical property isotropy in titanium foam fabricated by replica impregnation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manonukul, Anchalee, E-mail: anchalm@mtec.or.th [National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), 114 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Rd., Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Srikudvien, Pathompoom [National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), 114 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Rd., Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Tange, Makiko [Taisei Kogyo Thailand Co., Ltd., Room INC2d-409, Innovation Cluster 2 Building, Tower D, 141 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Rd., Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Puncreobutr, Chedtha [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2016-02-08

    Polyurethane (PU) foams have both geometry and mechanical property anisotropy. Metal foams, which are manufacturing by investment casting or melt deposition method and using PU foam as a template, also have mechanical property anisotropy. This work studied the mechanical properties in two directions of titanium foam with four different cell sizes fabricated using the replica impregnation method. The two directions are (1) the loading direction parallel to the foaming direction where the cells are elongated (EL direction) and (2) the loading direction perpendicular to the foaming direction where the cell are equiaxed (EQ direction). The results show that the compression responses for both EL and EQ directions are isotropy. Micrographs and X-ray micro-computed tomography show that the degree of geometry anisotropy is not strong enough to results in mechanical property anisotropy.

  2. Geometry anisotropy and mechanical property isotropy in titanium foam fabricated by replica impregnation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manonukul, Anchalee; Srikudvien, Pathompoom; Tange, Makiko; Puncreobutr, Chedtha

    2016-01-01

    Polyurethane (PU) foams have both geometry and mechanical property anisotropy. Metal foams, which are manufacturing by investment casting or melt deposition method and using PU foam as a template, also have mechanical property anisotropy. This work studied the mechanical properties in two directions of titanium foam with four different cell sizes fabricated using the replica impregnation method. The two directions are (1) the loading direction parallel to the foaming direction where the cells are elongated (EL direction) and (2) the loading direction perpendicular to the foaming direction where the cell are equiaxed (EQ direction). The results show that the compression responses for both EL and EQ directions are isotropy. Micrographs and X-ray micro-computed tomography show that the degree of geometry anisotropy is not strong enough to results in mechanical property anisotropy.

  3. Computing Relative Free Energies of Solvation using Single Reference Thermodynamic Integration Augmented with Hamiltonian Replica Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavrutskii, Ilja V; Wallqvist, Anders

    2010-11-09

    This paper introduces an efficient single-topology variant of Thermodynamic Integration (TI) for computing relative transformation free energies in a series of molecules with respect to a single reference state. The presented TI variant that we refer to as Single-Reference TI (SR-TI) combines well-established molecular simulation methodologies into a practical computational tool. Augmented with Hamiltonian Replica Exchange (HREX), the SR-TI variant can deliver enhanced sampling in select degrees of freedom. The utility of the SR-TI variant is demonstrated in calculations of relative solvation free energies for a series of benzene derivatives with increasing complexity. Noteworthy, the SR-TI variant with the HREX option provides converged results in a challenging case of an amide molecule with a high (13-15 kcal/mol) barrier for internal cis/trans interconversion using simulation times of only 1 to 4 ns.

  4. Pion emission from the T2K replica target: method, results and application

    CERN Document Server

    Abgrall, N.; Anticic, T.; Antoniou, N.; Argyriades, J.; Baatar, B.; Blondel, A.; Blumer, J.; Bogomilov, M.; Bravar, A.; Brooks, W.; Brzychczyk, J.; Bubak, A.; Bunyatov, S.A.; Busygina, O.; Christakoglou, P.; Chung, P.; Czopowicz, T.; Davis, N.; Debieux, S.; Di Luise, S.; Dominik, W.; Dumarchez, J.; Dynowski, K.; Engel, R.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L.S.; Feofilov, G.A.; Fodor, Z.; Ferrero, A.; Fulop, A.; Gazdzicki, M.; Golubeva, M.; Grabez, B.; Grebieszkow, K.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guber, F.; Haesler, A.; Hakobyan, H.; Hasegawa, T.; Idczak, R.; Igolkin, S.; Ivanov, Y.; Ivashkin, A.; Kadija, K.; Kapoyannis, A.; Katrynska, N.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikola, D.; Kirejczyk, M.; Kisiel, J.; Kiss, T.; Kleinfelder, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kochebina, O.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kolev, D.; Kondratiev, V.P.; Korzenev, A.; Kowalski, S.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kuleshov, S.; Kurepin, A.; Lacey, R.; Larsen, D.; Laszlo, A.; Lyubushkin, V.V.; Mackowiak-Pawlowska, M.; Majka, Z.; Maksiak, B.; Malakhov, A.I.; Maletic, D.; Marchionni, A.; Marcinek, A.; Maris, I.; Marin, V.; Marton, K.; Matulewicz, T.; Matveev, V.; Melkumov, G.L.; Messina, M.; Mrowczynski, St.; Murphy, S.; Nakadaira, T.; Nishikawa, K.; Palczewski, T.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Paul, T.; Peryt, W.; Petukhov, O.; Planeta, R.; Pluta, J.; Popov, B.A.; Posiadala, M.; Pulawski, S.; Puzovic, J.; Rauch, W.; Ravonel, M.; Renfordt, R.; Robert, A.; Rohrich, D.; Rondio, E.; Rossi, B.; Roth, M.; Rubbia, A.; Rustamov, A.; Rybczynski, M.; Sadovsky, A.; Sakashita, K.; Savic, M.; Sekiguchi, T.; Seyboth, P.; Shibata, M.; Sipos, M.; Skrzypczak, E.; Slodkowski, M.; Staszel, P.; Stefanek, G.; Stepaniak, J.; Strabel, C.; Strobele, H.; Susa, T.; Szuba, M.; Tada, M.; Taranenko, A.; Tereshchenko, V.; Tolyhi, T.; Tsenov, R.; Turko, L.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Vassiliou, M.; Veberic, D.; Vechernin, V.V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Wilczek, A.; Wlodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A.; Wyszynski, O.; Zambelli, L.; Zipper, W.; Hartz, M.; Ichikawa, A.K.; Kubo, H.; Marino, A.D.; Matsuoka, K.; Murakami, A.; Nakaya, T.; Suzuki, K.; Yuan, T.; Zimmerman, E.D.

    2013-01-01

    The T2K long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in Japan needs precise predictions of the initial neutrino flux. The highest precision can be reached based on detailed measurements of hadron emission from the same target as used by T2K exposed to a proton beam of the same kinetic energy of 30 GeV. The corresponding data were recorded in 2007-2010 by the NA61/SHINE experiment at the CERN SPS using a replica of the T2K graphite target. In this paper details of the experiment, data taking, data analysis method and results from the 2007 pilot run are presented. Furthermore, the application of the NA61/SHINE measurements to the predictions of the T2K initial neutrino flux is described and discussed.

  5. Behavioural responses of dogs to asymmetrical tail wagging of a robotic dog replica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artelle, K A; Dumoulin, L K; Reimchen, T E

    2011-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that bilateral asymmetry in the amplitude of tail wagging of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) is associated with approach (right wag) versus withdrawal (left wag) motivation and may be the by-product of hemispheric dominance. We consider whether such asymmetry in motion of the tail, a crucial appendage in intra-specific communication in all canids, provides visual information to a conspecific leading to differential behaviour. To evaluate this, we experimentally investigated the approach behaviour of free-ranging dogs to the asymmetric tail wagging of a life-size robotic dog replica. Our data, involving 452 separate interactions, showed a significantly greater proportion of dogs approaching the model continuously without stopping when the tail wagged to the left, compared with a right wag, which was more likely to yield stops. While the results indicate that laterality of a wagging tail provides behavioural information to conspecifics, the responses are not readily integrated into the predicted behaviour based on hemispheric dominance.

  6. Localization-Free Detection of Replica Node Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Similarity Estimation with Group Deployment Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the unattended nature and poor security guarantee of the wireless sensor networks (WSNs, adversaries can easily make replicas of compromised nodes, and place them throughout the network to launch various types of attacks. Such an attack is dangerous because it enables the adversaries to control large numbers of nodes and extend the damage of attacks to most of the network with quite limited cost. To stop the node replica attack, we propose a location similarity-based detection scheme using deployment knowledge. Compared with prior solutions, our scheme provides extra functionalities that prevent replicas from generating false location claims without deploying resource-consuming localization techniques on the resource-constraint sensor nodes. We evaluate the security performance of our proposal under different attack strategies through heuristic analysis, and show that our scheme achieves secure and robust replica detection by increasing the cost of node replication. Additionally, we evaluate the impact of network environment on the proposed scheme through theoretic analysis and simulation experiments, and indicate that our scheme achieves effectiveness and efficiency with substantially lower communication, computational, and storage overhead than prior works under different situations and attack strategies.

  7. New force replica exchange method and protein folding pathways probed by force-clamp technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouza, Maksim; Hu, Chin-Kun; Li, Mai Suan

    2008-01-28

    We have developed a new extended replica exchange method to study thermodynamics of a system in the presence of external force. Our idea is based on the exchange between different force replicas to accelerate the equilibrium process. This new approach was applied to obtain the force-temperature phase diagram and other thermodynamical quantities of the three-domain ubiquitin. Using the C(alpha)-Go model and the Langevin dynamics, we have shown that the refolding pathways of single ubiquitin depend on which terminus is fixed. If the N end is fixed then the folding pathways are different compared to the case when both termini are free, but fixing the C terminal does not change them. Surprisingly, we have found that the anchoring terminal does not affect the pathways of individual secondary structures of three-domain ubiquitin, indicating the important role of the multidomain construction. Therefore, force-clamp experiments, in which one end of a protein is kept fixed, can probe the refolding pathways of a single free-end ubiquitin if one uses either the polyubiquitin or a single domain with the C terminus anchored. However, it is shown that anchoring one end does not affect refolding pathways of the titin domain I27, and the force-clamp spectroscopy is always capable to predict folding sequencing of this protein. We have obtained the reasonable estimate for unfolding barrier of ubiquitin, using the microscopic theory for the dependence of unfolding time on the external force. The linkage between residue Lys48 and the C terminal of ubiquitin is found to have the dramatic effect on the location of the transition state along the end-to-end distance reaction coordinate, but the multidomain construction leaves the transition state almost unchanged. We have found that the maximum force in the force-extension profile from constant velocity force pulling simulations depends on temperature nonlinearly. However, for some narrow temperature interval this dependence becomes

  8. Long-time atomistic simulations with the Parallel Replica Dynamics method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Danny

    Molecular Dynamics (MD) -- the numerical integration of atomistic equations of motion -- is a workhorse of computational materials science. Indeed, MD can in principle be used to obtain any thermodynamic or kinetic quantity, without introducing any approximation or assumptions beyond the adequacy of the interaction potential. It is therefore an extremely powerful and flexible tool to study materials with atomistic spatio-temporal resolution. These enviable qualities however come at a steep computational price, hence limiting the system sizes and simulation times that can be achieved in practice. While the size limitation can be efficiently addressed with massively parallel implementations of MD based on spatial decomposition strategies, allowing for the simulation of trillions of atoms, the same approach usually cannot extend the timescales much beyond microseconds. In this article, we discuss an alternative parallel-in-time approach, the Parallel Replica Dynamics (ParRep) method, that aims at addressing the timescale limitation of MD for systems that evolve through rare state-to-state transitions. We review the formal underpinnings of the method and demonstrate that it can provide arbitrarily accurate results for any definition of the states. When an adequate definition of the states is available, ParRep can simulate trajectories with a parallel speedup approaching the number of replicas used. We demonstrate the usefulness of ParRep by presenting different examples of materials simulations where access to long timescales was essential to access the physical regime of interest and discuss practical considerations that must be addressed to carry out these simulations. Work supported by the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  9. Gamma-ray spectra and doses from the Little Boy replica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, C.E.; Lucas, M.C.; Tisinger, E.W.; Hamm, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    Most radiation safety guidelines in the nuclear industry are based on the data concerning the survivors of the nuclear explosions at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Crucial to determining these guidelines is the radiation from the explosions. We have measured gamma-ray pulse-height distributions from an accurate replica of the Little Boy device used at Hiroshima, operated at low power levels near critical. The device was placed outdoors on a stand 4 m from the ground to minimize environmental effects. The power levels were based on a monitor detector calibrated very carefully in independent experiments. High-resolution pulse-height distributions were acquired with a germanium detector to identify the lines and to obtain line intensities. The 7631 to 7645 keV doublet from neutron capture in the heavy steel case was dominant. Low-resolution pulse-height distributions were acquired with bismuth-germanate detectors. We calculated flux spectra from these distributions using accurately measured detector response functions and efficiency curves. We then calculated dose-rate spectra from the flux spectra using a flux-to-dose-rate conversion procedure. The integral of each dose-rate spectrum gave an integral dose rate. The integral doses at 2 m ranged from 0.46 to 1.03 mrem per 10 13 fissions. The output of the Little Boy replica can be calculated with Monte Carlo codes. Comparison of our experimental spectra, line intensities, and integral doses can be used to verify these calculations at low power levels and give increased confidence to the calculated values from the explosion at Hiroshima. These calculations then can be used to establish better radiation safety guidelines. 7 references, 7 figures, 2 tables

  10. A Probabilistic Framework for Constructing Temporal Relations in Replica Exchange Molecular Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditya; Zheng, Min; Waller, Mark Paul; Priyakumar, U Deva

    2018-05-23

    Knowledge of the structure and dynamics of biomolecules is essential for elucidating the underlying mechanisms of biological processes. Given the stochastic nature of many biological processes, like protein unfolding, it's almost impossible that two independent simulations will generate the exact same sequence of events, which makes direct analysis of simulations difficult. Statistical models like Markov Chains, transition networks etc. help in shedding some light on the mechanistic nature of such processes by predicting long-time dynamics of these systems from short simulations. However, such methods fall short in analyzing trajectories with partial or no temporal information, for example, replica exchange molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo simulations. In this work we propose a probabilistic algorithm, borrowing concepts from graph theory and machine learning, to extract reactive pathways from molecular trajectories in the absence of temporal data. A suitable vector representation was chosen to represent each frame in the macromolecular trajectory (as a series of interaction and conformational energies) and dimensionality reduction was performed using principal component analysis (PCA). The trajectory was then clustered using a density-based clustering algorithm, where each cluster represents a metastable state on the potential energy surface (PES) of the biomolecule under study. A graph was created with these clusters as nodes with the edges learnt using an iterative expectation maximization algorithm. The most reactive path is conceived as the widest path along this graph. We have tested our method on RNA hairpin unfolding trajectory in aqueous urea solution. Our method makes the understanding of the mechanism of unfolding in RNA hairpin molecule more tractable. As this method doesn't rely on temporal data it can be used to analyze trajectories from Monte Carlo sampling techniques and replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD).

  11. Flow field analysis in a compliant acinus replica model using particle image velocimetry (PIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Emily J; Weisman, Jessica L; Oldham, Michael J; Robinson, Risa J

    2010-04-19

    Inhaled particles reaching the alveolar walls have the potential to cross the blood-gas barrier and enter the blood stream. Experimental evidence of pulmonary dosimetry, however, cannot be explained by current whole lung dosimetry models. Numerical and experimental studies shed some light on the mechanisms of particle transport, but realistic geometries have not been investigated. In this study, a three dimensional expanding model including two generations of respiratory bronchioles and five terminal alveolar sacs was created from a replica human lung cast. Flow visualization techniques were employed to quantify the fluid flow while utilizing streamlines to evaluate recirculation. Pathlines were plotted to track the fluid motion and estimate penetration depth of inhaled air. This study provides evidence that the two generations immediately proximal to the terminal alveolar sacs do not have recirculating eddies, even for intense breathing. Results of Peclet number calculations indicate that substantial convective motion is present in vivo for the case of deep breathing, which significantly increases particle penetration into the alveoli. However, particle diffusion remains the dominant mechanism of particle transport over convection, even for intense breathing because inhaled particles do not reach the alveolar wall in a single breath by convection alone. Examination of the velocity fields revealed significant uneven ventilation of the alveoli during a single breath, likely due to variations in size and location. This flow field data, obtained from replica model geometry with realistic breathing conditions, provides information to better understand fluid and particle behavior in the acinus region of the lung. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Label triangulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    Label Triangulation (LT) with neutrons allows the investigation of the quaternary structure of biological multicomponent complexes under native conditions. Provided that the complex can be fully separated into and reconstituted from its single - protonated and deuterated - components, small angle neutron scattering (SANS) can give selective information on shapes and pair distances of these components. Following basic geometrical rules, the spatial arrangement of the components can be reconstructed from these data. LT has so far been successfully applied to the small and large ribosomal subunits and the transcriptase of E. coli. (author)

  13. Immunogold Labelling to Localize Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO) During Wilting of Red Clover Leaf Tissue and the Effect of Removing Cellular Matrices on PPO Protection of Glycerol-Based Lipid in the Rumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    The enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) reduces the extent of proteolysis and lipolysis within red clover fed to ruminants. PPO catalyses the conversion of phenols to quinones which can react with nucleophilic cellular constituents (e.g. proteins), forming protein-phenol complexes that may reduce protei...

  14. Precision of fit between implant impression coping and implant replica pairs for three implant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, Roxanna J; Sun, Albert; Haney, Stephan; Turkyilmaz, Ilser

    2013-01-01

    The fabrication of an accurately fitting implant-supported fixed prosthesis requires multiple steps, the first of which is assembling the impression coping on the implant. An imprecise fit of the impression coping on the implant will cause errors that will be magnified in subsequent steps of prosthesis fabrication. The purpose of this study was to characterize the 3-dimensional (3D) precision of fit between impression coping and implant replica pairs for 3 implant systems. The selected implant systems represent the 3 main joint types used in implant dentistry: external hexagonal, internal trilobe, and internal conical. Ten impression copings and 10 implant replicas from each of the 3 systems, B (Brånemark System), R (NobelReplace Select), and A (NobelActive) were paired. A standardized aluminum test body was luted to each impression coping, and the corresponding implant replica was embedded in a stone base. A coordinate measuring machine was used to quantify the maximum range of displacement in a vertical direction as a function of the tightening force applied to the guide pin. Maximum angular displacement in a horizontal plane was measured as a function of manual clockwise or counterclockwise rotation. Vertical and rotational positioning was analyzed by using 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The Fisher protected least significant difference (PLSD) multiple comparisons test of the means was applied when the F-test in the ANOVA was significant (α=.05). The mean and standard deviation for change in the vertical positioning of impression copings was 4.3 ±2.1 μm for implant system B, 2.8 ±4.2 μm for implant system R, and 20.6 ±8.8 μm for implant system A. The mean and standard deviation for rotational positioning was 3.21 ±0.98 degrees for system B, 2.58 ±1.03 degrees for system R, and 5.30 ±0.79 degrees for system A. The P-value for vertical positioning between groups A and B and between groups A and R was <.001. No significant differences were found for

  15. Additive Manufacturing: A Comparative Analysis of Dimensional Accuracy and Skin Texture Reproduction of Auricular Prostheses Replicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkovskiy, Alexey; Spintzyk, Sebastian; Axmann, Detlef; Engel, Eva-Maria; Weber, Heiner; Huettig, Fabian

    2017-11-10

    The use of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) and additive manufacturing in maxillofacial prosthetics has been widely acknowledged. Rapid prototyping can be considered for manufacturing of auricular prostheses. Therefore, so-called prostheses replicas can be fabricated by digital means. The objective of this study was to identify a superior additive manufacturing method to fabricate auricular prosthesis replicas (APRs) within a digital workflow. Auricles of 23 healthy subjects (mean age of 37.8 years) were measured in vivo with respect to an anthropometrical protocol. Landmarks were volumized with fiducial balls for 3D scanning using a handheld structured light scanner. The 3D CAD dataset was postprocessed, and the same anthropometrical measurements were made in the CAD software with the digital lineal. Each CAD dataset was materialized using fused deposition modeling (FDM), selective laser sintering (SLS), and stereolithography (SL), constituting 53 APR samples. All distances between the landmarks were measured on the APRs. After the determination of the measurement error within the five data groups (in vivo, CAD, FDM, SLS, and SL), the mean values were compared using matched pairs method. To this, the in vivo and CAD dataset were set as references. Finally, the surface structure of the APRs was qualitatively evaluated with stereomicroscopy and profilometry to ascertain the level of skin detail reproduction. The anthropometrical approach showed drawbacks in measuring the protrusion of the ear's helix. The measurement error within all groups of measurements was calculated between 0.20 and 0.28 mm, implying a high reproducibility. The lowest mean differences of 53 produced APRs were found in FDM (0.43%) followed by SLS (0.54%) and SL (0.59%)--compared to in vivo, and again in FDM (0.20%) followed by SL (0.36%) and SLS (0.39%)--compared to CAD. None of these values exceed the threshold of clinical relevance (1.5%); however, the qualitative

  16. Estradiol-promoted accumulation of receptor in nuclei of porcine endometrium cells. Immunogold electron microscopy of resting and estradiol-stimulated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierralta, W D; Jakob, F; Thole, H; Engel, P; Jungblut, P W

    1992-01-01

    Endometrium was collected by curettage from castrated pigs, either untreated or exposed to estradiol in vivo by intrauterine injection, and processed for electron microscopy. The resin LR Gold was used for embedding, and sections were floated on droplets of 10 nm diameter gold particles, coated with the immunoglobulin-G1 (IgG1) fraction or its Fab2 fragment of a monospecific polyclonal antiserum raised in goats against the C-terminal half of the estradiol receptor. On average, only one gold particle per microns 2 became attached in the cytoplasmic area of untreated cells, whereas four were found over the nuclear area. These figures rose to 2-3/microns 2 and 15-26/microns 2, respectively, within 10 min after exposure to estradiol. The labeling intensities of nuclei in cell clusters and of coprocessed nuclei released from cells ruptured during curettage were identical in all situations. Nuclear pores were frequently tagged after estradiol treatment. The proportions of tagging densities in nuclei of untreated and estradiol-exposed cells corresponded to those of receptor contents measured in extracts of isolated nuclei by ligand binding. This correlation was not seen for the cytoplasmic compartment of untreated cells, the scarce tagging of which is interpreted by hidden antigenic determinants. Our morphological analyses support the conclusions drawn from biochemical data (Sierralta et al., 1992) of an estradiol-promoted translocation of receptor from the cytoplasm into the nucleus.

  17. On the Application of Replica Molding Technology for the Indirect Measurement of Surface and Geometry of Micromilled Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baruffi, Federico; Parenti, Paolo; Cacciatore, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    the replica molding technology. The method consists of obtaining a replica of the feature that is inaccessible for standard measurement devices and performing its indirect measurement. This paper examines the performance of a commercial replication media applied to the indirect measurement of micromilled...... components. Two specifically designed micromilled benchmark samples were used to assess the accuracy in replicating both surface texture and geometry. A 3D confocal microscope and a focus variation instrument were employed and the associated uncertainties were evaluated. The replication method proved...... to be suitable for characterizing micromilled surface texture even though an average overestimation in the nano-metric level of the Sa parameter was observed. On the other hand, the replicated geometry generally underestimated that of the master, often leading to a different measurement output considering...

  18. An implementation of the maximum-caliber principle by replica-averaged time-resolved restrained simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, Riccardo; Tiana, Guido; Camilloni, Carlo

    2018-05-14

    Inferential methods can be used to integrate experimental informations and molecular simulations. The maximum entropy principle provides a framework for using equilibrium experimental data, and it has been shown that replica-averaged simulations, restrained using a static potential, are a practical and powerful implementation of such a principle. Here we show that replica-averaged simulations restrained using a time-dependent potential are equivalent to the principle of maximum caliber, the dynamic version of the principle of maximum entropy, and thus may allow us to integrate time-resolved data in molecular dynamics simulations. We provide an analytical proof of the equivalence as well as a computational validation making use of simple models and synthetic data. Some limitations and possible solutions are also discussed.

  19. Understanding Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding food labels There is lots of info on food ... need to avoid because of food allergies. Other food label terms top In addition to the Nutrition ...

  20. Metallic microwires obtained as replicas of etched ion tracks in polymer matrixes: Microscopy and emission properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, D.L.; Bedin, S.A.; Oleinikov, V.A.; Polyakov, N.B.; Rybalko, O.G.; Mchedlishvili, B.V.

    2009-01-01

    Specially prepared porous matrixes (with through and dead-end pores of cylindrical or conical forms) were used as the templates for making ensembles of microwires. The process of electrodeposition of metal (Cu) into these pores was investigated. AFM technique was used for studying the 'composite material' (metal microwires embedded into the polymer matrix). It was shown that the combination of different modes of AFM (tapping with phase-contrast mode, contact with lateral force mode) makes it possible to detect metal in the polymer matrix. Additional spread resistance mode in the contact regime allowed to measure the electrical conductivity of a single wire. The ensembles of free-standing microwires (metallic replicas of the pores obtained after removing of the polymer matrix) were used as the substrates (for deposition of the probe) for ion emission in the mass-spectrometer. It was shown that the intensity of formed ion beam increases with increasing of power of the laser pulse and with increasing of the mass of the probe. The intensity of mass-spectra signal on the power of laser pulse has a threshold character with saturation accompanied with the appearance of dimer ions. At the same time this intensity decreases with the increasing of the surface density of wires. The effect of degradation of wires during the laser pulse irradiation was found.

  1. From Dalek half balls to Daft Punk helmets: Mimetic fandom and the crafting of replicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Hills

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mimetic fandom is a surprisingly understudied mode of (culturally masculinized fan activity in which fans research and craft replica props. Mimetic fandom can be considered as (inauthentic and (immaterial, combining noncommercial status with grassroots marketing or brand reinforcement as well as fusing an emphasis on material artifacts with Web 2.0 collective intelligence. Simply analyzing mimetic fandom as part of fannish material culture fails to adequately assess the nonmaterial aspects of this collaborative creativity. Two fan cultures are taken as case studies: Dalek building groups and Daft Punk helmet constructors. These diverse cases indicate that mimetic fandom has a presence and significance that moves across media fandoms and is not restricted to the science fiction, fantasy, and horror followings with which it is most often associated. Mimetic fandom may be theorized as an oscillatory activity that confuses binaries and constructions of (academic/fan authenticity. This fan practice desires and pursues a kind of ontological bridging or unity—from text to reality—that is either absent or less dominant in many other fan activities such as cosplay, screen-used prop collecting, and geographical pilgrimage. Fan studies may benefit from reassessing the place of mimesis, especially in order to theorize fan practices that are less clearly transformative in character.

  2. Conformational Ensembles of α-Synuclein Derived Peptide with Different Osmolytes from Temperature Replica Exchange Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Jamal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDP are a class of proteins that do not have a stable three-dimensional structure and can adopt a range of conformations playing various vital functional role. Alpha-synuclein is one such IDP which can aggregate into toxic protofibrils and has been associated largely with Parkinson's disease (PD along with other neurodegenerative diseases. Osmolytes are small organic compounds that can alter the environment around the proteins by acting as denaturants or protectants for the proteins. In the present study, we have conducted a series of replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations to explore the role of osmolytes, urea which is a denaturant and TMAO (trimethylamine N-oxide, a protecting osmolyte, in aggregation and conformations of the synuclein peptide. We observed that both the osmolytes have significantly distinct impacts on the peptide and led to transitions of the conformations of the peptide from one state to other. Our findings highlighted that urea attenuated peptide aggregation and resulted in the formation of extended peptide structures whereas TMAO led to compact and folded forms of the peptide.

  3. Enhancing dry adhesives and replica molding with ethyl cyano-acrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovero, E; Menon, C

    2014-01-01

    The use of cyano-acrylate to improve the performance of dry adhesives and their method of fabrication is investigated. Specifically, the contributions of this work are: (1) a new adhesion method to adhere to a large variety of surfaces, (2) a strategy to increase the compliance of dry adhesives, and (3) an improved fabrication process for micro-structured dry adhesives based on replica molding. For the first contribution, the adhesion method consists of anchoring a micro-structured dry adhesive to a surface through a layer of hardened ethyl cyano-acrylate (ECA). This method increases the adhesion of the orders of magnitude at the expense of leaving residue after detachment. However, this method preserves reusability. For the second contribution, a double-sided dry adhesive is obtained by introducing a substrate with a millimeter-sized pillar structure, which enabled further increasing adhesion. For the third contribution, an ECA layer is used as a mold for the fabrication of new adhesives. These new types of molds proved able to produce dry adhesives with high reproducibility and low degradation. (paper)

  4. Partial replicas of uv-irradiated bacteriophage T4 genomes and their role in multiplicity reactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayssiguier, C.; Kozinski, A.W.; Doermann, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    A physicochemical study was made of the replication and transmission of uv-irradiated T4 genomes. The data presented in this paper justify the following conclusions. (i) For both low and high multiplicity of infection there was abundant replication from uv-irradiated parental templates. It exceeded by far the efficiency predicted by the hypothesis that a single lethal hit completely prevents replication of the killed phage DNA: i.e., some dead phage particles must replicate parts of their DNA. (ii) Replication of the uv-irradiated DNA was repetitive as shown by density reversal experiments. (iii) Newly synthesized progeny DNA originating from uv-irradiated templates appeared as significantly shorter segments of the genomes than progeny DNA produced from non-uv-irradiated templates. A good correlation existed between the number of uv hits and the number of random cuts that would be needed to reduce replication fragments to the length observed. (iv) The contribution of uv-irradiated parental DNA among progeny phage in multiplicity reactivation was disposed in shorter subunits than was the DNA from unirradiated parental phage. It is important to emphasize that it was mainly in the form of replicative hybrid. These conclusions appear to justify excluding interparental recombination as a prerequisite for multiplicity reactivation. They lead directly to some form of partial replica hypothesis for multiplicity reactivation

  5. Replica of human dentin treated with different desensitizing agents: a methodological SEM study in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Jose Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a preliminary study to determine a methodological sequence in vitro which may allow the reproduction of dentin for SEM analysis, after the use of different desensitizing agents. Dentin discs obtained from extracted human third molars were etched with 6% citric acid, an artificial smear layer was created and the surface dentin discs were divided into four quadrants. Quadrants 2, 3 and 4 of each disc were conditioned with 6% citric acid. The desensitizing agents (Oxa-Gel®, Gluma Desensitizer and an experimental agent were applied to quadrants 3 and 4. To evaluate the acid resistance of the treatment, quadrant 4 was etched again with 6% citric acid. An impression was then taken with Aquasil ULV. After a setting period of 6 min, each disc was removed from the impression and stored in a moist-free environment for 24 h at 37ºC. After that time, a low-viscosity epoxy resin (Araltec GY 1109 BR was poured into the impression and cured for 24 h. All specimens were metal-coated for SEM analysis. Comparison of the photomicrographs of dentin discs with their respective impressions and resin replicas showed that this technique can reproduce the characteristics of the dentin surface treated with desensitizing agents.

  6. Replicas in Cultural Heritage: 3d Printing and the Museum Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarin, M.; Balletti, C.; Vernier, P.

    2018-05-01

    3D printing has seen a recent massive diffusion for several applications, not least the field of Cultural Heritage. Being used for different purposes, such as study, analysis, conservation or access in museum exhibitions, 3D printed replicas need to undergo a process of validation also in terms of metrical precision and accuracy. The Laboratory of Photogrammetry of Iuav University of Venice has started several collaborations with Italian museum institutions firstly for the digital acquisition and then for the physical reproduction of objects of historical and artistic interest. The aim of the research is to analyse the metric characteristics of the printed model in relation to the original data, and to optimize the process that from the survey leads to the physical representation of an object. In fact, this could be acquired through different methodologies that have different precisions (multi-image photogrammetry, TOF laser scanner, triangulation based laser scanner), and it always involves a long processing phase. It should not be forgotten that the digital data have to undergo a series of simplifications, which, on one hand, eliminate the noise introduced by the acquisition process, but on the other one, they can lead to discrepancies between the physical copy and the original geometry. In this paper we will show the results obtained on a small archaeological find that was acquired and reproduced for a museum exhibition intended for blind and partially sighted people.

  7. Plasticity of 150-loop in influenza neuraminidase explored by Hamiltonian replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanyu Han

    Full Text Available Neuraminidase (NA of influenza is a key target for antiviral inhibitors, and the 150-cavity in group-1 NA provides new insight in treating this disease. However, NA of 2009 pandemic influenza (09N1 was found lacking this cavity in a crystal structure. To address the issue of flexibility of the 150-loop, Hamiltonian replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations were performed on different groups of NAs. Free energy landscape calculated based on the volume of 150-cavity indicates that 09N1 prefers open forms of 150-loop. The turn A (residues 147-150 of the 150-loop is discovered as the most dynamical motif which induces the inter-conversion of this loop among different conformations. In the turn A, the backbone dynamic of residue 149 is highly related with the shape of 150-loop, thus can function as a marker for the conformation of 150-loop. As a contrast, the closed conformation of 150-loop is more energetically favorable in N2, one of group-2 NAs. The D147-H150 salt bridge is found having no correlation with the conformation of 150-loop. Instead the intimate salt bridge interaction between the 150 and 430 loops in N2 variant contributes the stabilizing factor for the closed form of 150-loop. The clustering analysis elaborates the structural plasticity of the loop. This enhanced sampling simulation provides more information in further structural-based drug discovery on influenza virus.

  8. Simulated tempering distributed replica sampling: A practical guide to enhanced conformational sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauscher, Sarah; Pomes, Regis, E-mail: pomes@sickkids.ca

    2010-11-01

    Simulated tempering distributed replica sampling (STDR) is a generalized-ensemble method designed specifically for simulations of large molecular systems on shared and heterogeneous computing platforms [Rauscher, Neale and Pomes (2009) J. Chem. Theor. Comput. 5, 2640]. The STDR algorithm consists of an alternation of two steps: (1) a short molecular dynamics (MD) simulation; and (2) a stochastic temperature jump. Repeating these steps thousands of times results in a random walk in temperature, which allows the system to overcome energetic barriers, thereby enhancing conformational sampling. The aim of the present paper is to provide a practical guide to applying STDR to complex biomolecular systems. We discuss the details of our STDR implementation, which is a highly-parallel algorithm designed to maximize computational efficiency while simultaneously minimizing network communication and data storage requirements. Using a 35-residue disordered peptide in explicit water as a test system, we characterize the efficiency of the STDR algorithm with respect to both diffusion in temperature space and statistical convergence of structural properties. Importantly, we show that STDR provides a dramatic enhancement of conformational sampling compared to a canonical MD simulation.

  9. Perovskite Quantum Dots Modeled Using ab Initio and Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Buin, Andrei; Comin, Riccardo; Ip, Alexander H.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Organometal halide perovskites have recently attracted tremendous attention at both the experimental and theoretical levels. Much of this work has been dedicated to bulk material studies, yet recent experimental work has shown the formation of highly efficient quantum-confined nanocrystals with tunable band edges. Here we investigate perovskite quantum dots from theory, predicting an upper bound of the Bohr radius of 45 Å that agrees well with literature values. When the quantum dots are stoichiometric, they are trap-free and have nearly symmetric contributions to confinement from the valence and conduction bands. We further show that surface-associated conduction bandedge states in perovskite nanocrystals lie below the bulk states, which could explain the difference in Urbach tails between mesoporous and planar perovskite films. In addition to conventional molecular dynamics (MD), we implement an enhanced phase-space sampling algorithm, replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD). We find that in simulation of methylammonium orientation and global minima, REMD outperforms conventional MD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first REMD implementation for realistic-sized systems in the realm of DFT calculations.

  10. Perovskite Quantum Dots Modeled Using ab Initio and Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Buin, Andrei

    2015-06-18

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Organometal halide perovskites have recently attracted tremendous attention at both the experimental and theoretical levels. Much of this work has been dedicated to bulk material studies, yet recent experimental work has shown the formation of highly efficient quantum-confined nanocrystals with tunable band edges. Here we investigate perovskite quantum dots from theory, predicting an upper bound of the Bohr radius of 45 Å that agrees well with literature values. When the quantum dots are stoichiometric, they are trap-free and have nearly symmetric contributions to confinement from the valence and conduction bands. We further show that surface-associated conduction bandedge states in perovskite nanocrystals lie below the bulk states, which could explain the difference in Urbach tails between mesoporous and planar perovskite films. In addition to conventional molecular dynamics (MD), we implement an enhanced phase-space sampling algorithm, replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD). We find that in simulation of methylammonium orientation and global minima, REMD outperforms conventional MD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first REMD implementation for realistic-sized systems in the realm of DFT calculations.

  11. Obtain ceramic porous alumina-zirconia by replica method calcium phosphate coated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.D.R.; Rigoli, W.R.; Osiro, Denise; Pallone, E.M.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Biomaterials used in bone replacement, including porous bioceramics, are often used as support structure for bone formation and repair. The porous bioceramics are used because present features as biocompatibility, high porosity and pore morphology that confer adequate mechanical strength and induce bone growth. In this work were obtained porous specimens of alumina containing 5% by inclusion of volume of zirconia produced by the replica method. The porous specimens had its surface chemically treated with phosphoric acid and were coated with calcium phosphate. The coating was performed using the biomimetic method during 14 days and an initial pH of 6.1. The porous specimens were characterized using the follow techniques: porosity, axial compression tests, microtomography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and pH measurements SBF solution. The results showed specimens with suitable pore morphology for application as biomaterial, and even a reduced time of incubation favored the calcium phosphate phases formation on the material surfaces. (author)

  12. Parallel replica dynamics method for bistable stochastic reaction networks: Simulation and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Plecháč, Petr

    2017-12-01

    Stochastic reaction networks that exhibit bistable behavior are common in systems biology, materials science, and catalysis. Sampling of stationary distributions is crucial for understanding and characterizing the long-time dynamics of bistable stochastic dynamical systems. However, simulations are often hindered by the insufficient sampling of rare transitions between the two metastable regions. In this paper, we apply the parallel replica method for a continuous time Markov chain in order to improve sampling of the stationary distribution in bistable stochastic reaction networks. The proposed method uses parallel computing to accelerate the sampling of rare transitions. Furthermore, it can be combined with the path-space information bounds for parametric sensitivity analysis. With the proposed methodology, we study three bistable biological networks: the Schlögl model, the genetic switch network, and the enzymatic futile cycle network. We demonstrate the algorithmic speedup achieved in these numerical benchmarks. More significant acceleration is expected when multi-core or graphics processing unit computer architectures and programming tools such as CUDA are employed.

  13. Parallel replica dynamics method for bistable stochastic reaction networks: Simulation and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Plecháč, Petr

    2017-12-21

    Stochastic reaction networks that exhibit bistable behavior are common in systems biology, materials science, and catalysis. Sampling of stationary distributions is crucial for understanding and characterizing the long-time dynamics of bistable stochastic dynamical systems. However, simulations are often hindered by the insufficient sampling of rare transitions between the two metastable regions. In this paper, we apply the parallel replica method for a continuous time Markov chain in order to improve sampling of the stationary distribution in bistable stochastic reaction networks. The proposed method uses parallel computing to accelerate the sampling of rare transitions. Furthermore, it can be combined with the path-space information bounds for parametric sensitivity analysis. With the proposed methodology, we study three bistable biological networks: the Schlögl model, the genetic switch network, and the enzymatic futile cycle network. We demonstrate the algorithmic speedup achieved in these numerical benchmarks. More significant acceleration is expected when multi-core or graphics processing unit computer architectures and programming tools such as CUDA are employed.

  14. Replica analysis of overfitting in regression models for time-to-event data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolen, A. C. C.; Barrett, J. E.; Paga, P.; Perez-Vicente, C. J.

    2017-09-01

    Overfitting, which happens when the number of parameters in a model is too large compared to the number of data points available for determining these parameters, is a serious and growing problem in survival analysis. While modern medicine presents us with data of unprecedented dimensionality, these data cannot yet be used effectively for clinical outcome prediction. Standard error measures in maximum likelihood regression, such as p-values and z-scores, are blind to overfitting, and even for Cox’s proportional hazards model (the main tool of medical statisticians), one finds in literature only rules of thumb on the number of samples required to avoid overfitting. In this paper we present a mathematical theory of overfitting in regression models for time-to-event data, which aims to increase our quantitative understanding of the problem and provide practical tools with which to correct regression outcomes for the impact of overfitting. It is based on the replica method, a statistical mechanical technique for the analysis of heterogeneous many-variable systems that has been used successfully for several decades in physics, biology, and computer science, but not yet in medical statistics. We develop the theory initially for arbitrary regression models for time-to-event data, and verify its predictions in detail for the popular Cox model.

  15. Trillo NPP full scope replica simulator project: The last great NPP simulation challenge in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero, N.; Abascal, A.

    2006-01-01

    In the year 2000, Trillo NPP (Spanish PWR-KWU design nuclear power plant) and Tecnatom came to the agreement of developing a Trillo plant specific simulator, having as scope all the plant systems operated either from the main control room or from the emergency panels. The simulator operation should be carried out both through a control room replica and graphical user interface, this latter based on plant schematics and softpanels concept. Trillo simulator is to be primarily utilized as a pedagogical tool for the Trillo operational staff training. Because the engineering grade of the mathematical models, it will also have additional uses, such as: - Operation engineering (POE's validation, New Computerized Operator Support Systems Validation, etc).; - Emergency drills; -Plant design modifications assessment. This project has become the largest simulation task Tecnatom has ever undertaken, being structured in three different subprojects, namely: - Simulator manufacture, Simulator acceptance and Training material production. Most relevant technological innovations the project brings are: Highest accuracy in the Nuclear Island models, Advanced Configuration Management System, Open Software architecture, Human machine interface new design, Latest design I/O system and an Instructor Station with extended functionality. The Trillo simulator 'Ready for Training' event is due on September 2003, having started the Factory Acceptance Tests in Autumn 2002. (author)

  16. Order parameter free enhanced sampling of the vapor-liquid transition using the generalized replica exchange method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qing; Kim, Jaegil; Straub, John E

    2013-03-14

    The generalized Replica Exchange Method (gREM) is extended into the isobaric-isothermal ensemble, and applied to simulate a vapor-liquid phase transition in Lennard-Jones fluids. Merging an optimally designed generalized ensemble sampling with replica exchange, gREM is particularly well suited for the effective simulation of first-order phase transitions characterized by "backbending" in the statistical temperature. While the metastable and unstable states in the vicinity of the first-order phase transition are masked by the enthalpy gap in temperature replica exchange method simulations, they are transformed into stable states through the parameterized effective sampling weights in gREM simulations, and join vapor and liquid phases with a succession of unimodal enthalpy distributions. The enhanced sampling across metastable and unstable states is achieved without the need to identify a "good" order parameter for biased sampling. We performed gREM simulations at various pressures below and near the critical pressure to examine the change in behavior of the vapor-liquid phase transition at different pressures. We observed a crossover from the first-order phase transition at low pressure, characterized by the backbending in the statistical temperature and the "kink" in the Gibbs free energy, to a continuous second-order phase transition near the critical pressure. The controlling mechanisms of nucleation and continuous phase transition are evident and the coexistence properties and phase diagram are found in agreement with literature results.

  17. Using the multi-objective optimization replica exchange Monte Carlo enhanced sampling method for protein-small molecule docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongrui; Liu, Hongwei; Cai, Leixin; Wang, Caixia; Lv, Qiang

    2017-07-10

    In this study, we extended the replica exchange Monte Carlo (REMC) sampling method to protein-small molecule docking conformational prediction using RosettaLigand. In contrast to the traditional Monte Carlo (MC) and REMC sampling methods, these methods use multi-objective optimization Pareto front information to facilitate the selection of replicas for exchange. The Pareto front information generated to select lower energy conformations as representative conformation structure replicas can facilitate the convergence of the available conformational space, including available near-native structures. Furthermore, our approach directly provides min-min scenario Pareto optimal solutions, as well as a hybrid of the min-min and max-min scenario Pareto optimal solutions with lower energy conformations for use as structure templates in the REMC sampling method. These methods were validated based on a thorough analysis of a benchmark data set containing 16 benchmark test cases. An in-depth comparison between MC, REMC, multi-objective optimization-REMC (MO-REMC), and hybrid MO-REMC (HMO-REMC) sampling methods was performed to illustrate the differences between the four conformational search strategies. Our findings demonstrate that the MO-REMC and HMO-REMC conformational sampling methods are powerful approaches for obtaining protein-small molecule docking conformational predictions based on the binding energy of complexes in RosettaLigand.

  18. Application of carbon extraction replicas in grain-size measurements of high-strength steels using TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poorhaydari, Kioumars; Ivey, Douglas G.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the application of carbon extraction replicas in grain-size measurements is introduced and discussed. Modern high-strength microalloyed steels, used as structural or pipeline materials, have very small grains with substructures. Replicas used in transmission electron microscopes can resolve the grain boundaries and can be used for systematic measurement of grain size in cases where the small size of the grains pushes the resolution of conventional optical microscopes. The grain-size variations obtained from replicas are compared with those obtained from optical and scanning electron microscopy. An emphasis is placed on the importance of using the correct technique for imaging and the optimal magnification. Grain-size measurements are used for estimation of grain-boundary strengthening contribution to yield strength. The variation in grain size is also correlated with hardness in the base metal of several microalloyed steels, as well as the fine-grained heat-affected zone of a weld structure with several heat inputs

  19. Magnetic Nickel iron Electroformed Trap (MagNET): a master/replica fabrication strategy for ultra-high throughput (>100 mL h−1) immunomagnetic sorting†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jina; Yelleswarapu, Venkata; Singh, Anup; Shah, Nishal

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices can sort immunomagnetically labeled cells with sensitivity and specificity much greater than that of conventional methods, primarily because the size of microfluidic channels and micro-scale magnets can be matched to that of individual cells. However, these small feature sizes come at the expense of limited throughput (ϕ 10 mL whole blood. Here, we report a new approach to micromagnetic sorting that can achieve highly specific cell separation in unprocessed complex samples at a throughput (ϕ > 100 mL h−1) 100× greater than that of conventional microfluidics. To achieve this goal, we have devised a new approach to micromagnetic sorting, the magnetic nickel iron electroformed trap (MagNET), which enables high flow rates by having millions of micromagnetic traps operate in parallel. Our design rotates the conventional microfluidic approach by 90° to form magnetic traps at the edges of pores instead of in channels, enabling millions of the magnetic traps to be incorporated into a centimeter sized device. Unlike previous work, where magnetic structures were defined using conventional microfabrication, we take inspiration from soft lithography and create a master from which many replica electroformed magnetic micropore devices can be economically manufactured. These free-standing 12 µm thick permalloy (Ni80Fe20) films contain micropores of arbitrary shape and position, allowing the device to be tailored for maximal capture efficiency and throughput. We demonstrate MagNET's capabilities by fabricating devices with both circular and rectangular pores and use these devices to rapidly (ϕ = 180 mL h−1) and specifically sort rare tumor cells from white blood cells. PMID:27170379

  20. FTIR study of ageing of fast drying oil colour (FDOC) alkyd paint replicas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duce, Celia; Della Porta, Valentina; Tiné, Maria Rosaria; Spepi, Alessio; Ghezzi, Lisa; Colombini, Maria Perla; Bramanti, Emilia

    2014-09-01

    We propose ATR-FTIR spectroscopy for the characterization of the spectral changes in alkyd resin from the Griffin Alkyd Fast Drying Oil Colour range (Winsor & Newton), occurring over 550 days (˜18 months) of natural ageing and over six months of artificial ageing under an acetic acid atmosphere. Acetic acid is one of the atmospheric pollutants found inside museums in concentrations that can have a significant effect on the works exhibited. During natural ageing we observed an increase and broadening of the OH group band around 3300 cm-1 and an increase in bands in the region 1730-1680 cm-1 due to carbonyl stretching. We found a broad band around 1635 cm-1 likely due to Cdbnd O stretching vibrations of β dichetons. These spectral changes are the result of autooxidation reactions during natural ageing and crosslinking, which then form f alcohols and carbonyl species. The increase in absorbance at 1635 cm-1 was selected as a parameter to monitor the ageing process of paintings prepared with FDOC, without the need for any extractive procedure. FTIR spectra of paint replicas kept under an acetic acid atmosphere indicated the chemical groups involved in the reaction with acid, thus suggesting which spectral FTIR regions could be investigated in order to follow any degradation in real paintings. A red paint sample from a hyper-realistic artwork (“Racconta storie”, 2003) by the Italian painter Patrizia Zara was investigated by FTIR in order to evaluate the effects of 10 years natural ageing on alkyd colours. The results obtained suggested that after the end of chemical drying (autooxidation), alkyd colours are very stable.

  1. Issues in Data Labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cowie, Roddy; Cox, Cate; Martin, Jeam-Claude; Batliner, Anton; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Karpouzis, Kostas; Cowie, Roddy; Pelachaud, Catherine; Petta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Labelling emotion databases is not a purely technical matter. It is bound up with theoretical issues. Different issues affect labelling of emotional content, labelling of the signs that convey emotion, and labelling of the relevant context. Linked to these are representational issues, involving time

  2. Statistical-mechanics analysis of Gaussian labeled-unlabeled classification problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    The labeled-unlabeled classification problem in semi-supervised learning is studied via statistical-mechanics approach. We analytically investigate performance of a learner with an equal-weight mixture of two symmetrically-located Gaussians, performing posterior mean estimation of the parameter vector on the basis of a dataset consisting of labeled and unlabeled data generated from the same probability model as that assumed by the learner. Under the assumption of replica symmetry, we have analytically obtained a set of saddle-point equations, which allows us to numerically evaluate performance of the learner. On the basis of the analytical result we have observed interesting phenomena, in particular the coexistence of good and bad solutions, which may happen when the number of unlabeled data is relatively large compared with that of labeled data

  3. Mixed Map Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Löffler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Point feature map labeling is a geometric visualization problem, in which a set of input points must be labeled with a set of disjoint rectangles (the bounding boxes of the label texts. It is predominantly motivated by label placement in maps but it also has other visualization applications. Typically, labeling models either use internal labels, which must touch their feature point, or external (boundary labels, which are placed outside the input image and which are connected to their feature points by crossing-free leader lines. In this paper we study polynomial-time algorithms for maximizing the number of internal labels in a mixed labeling model that combines internal and external labels. The model requires that all leaders are parallel to a given orientation θ ∈ [0, 2π, the value of which influences the geometric properties and hence the running times of our algorithms.

  4. Replica symmetry breaking solution for two-sublattice fermionic Ising spin glass models in a transverse field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, F.M.; Magalhaes, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    The one-step replica symmetry breaking is used to study the competition between spin glass (SG) and antiferromagnetic order (AF) in two-sublattice fermionic Ising SG models in the presence of a transverse Γ and a parallel H magnetic fields. Inter- and intra-sublattice exchange interactions following Gaussian distributions are considered. The problem is formulated in a Grassmann path integral formalism within the static ansatz. Results show that H favors the non-ergodic mixed phase (AF+SG) and it destroys the AF. The Γ suppresses the magnetic orders, and the intra-sublattice interaction can introduce a discontinuous phase transition

  5. The use of extraction and electronic diffraction replicas for precipitates characterization in welded Cr-Mo Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez de Saiz-Solabarria, S.; San Juan Nunez, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The precipitates and phases found in the structure of welded joints of Heat Interchanges Tubes were studied and identified. The base material satisfied the requirements of ASME Sec II, SA 213 Gr T22 (2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo). Compositions of Filler Metals were: 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo and 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo 1/4 Nb. The chemical composition of base and weld materials were analyzed by atomic emission spectroscopy in high vacuum electric discharge and by inductive plasma coupled. For the constituents characterization extraction and diffraction microscopy replicas were used. (Author) 65 refs

  6. Succesful labelling schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    . In the spring of 2001 MAPP carried out an extensive consumer study with special emphasis on the Nordic environmentally friendly label 'the swan'. The purpose was to find out how much consumers actually know and use various labelling schemes. 869 households were contacted and asked to fill in a questionnaire...... it into consideration when I go shopping. The respondent was asked to pick the most suitable answer, which described her use of each label. 29% - also called 'the labelling blind' - responded that they basically only knew the recycling label and the Government controlled organic label 'Ø-mærket'. Another segment of 6...

  7. Synthesizing labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, R.E.; Matwiyoff, N.A.; Unkefer, C.J.; Walker, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    A metabolic study is presented of the chemical reactions provided by isotopic labeling and NMR spectroscopy. Synthesis of 13 C-labeled D-glucose, a 6-carbon sugar, involves adding a labeled nitrile group to the 5-carbon sugar D-arabinose by reaction with labeled hydrogen cyanide. The product of this reaction is then reduced and hydrolyzed to a mixture of the labeled sugars. The two sugars are separated by absorption chromotography. The synthesis of 13 C-labeled L-tyrosine, an amino acid, is also presented

  8. Electronic Submission of Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.

  9. Robust Active Label Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kremer, Jan; Sha, Fei; Igel, Christian

    2018-01-01

    for the noisy data lead to different active label correction algorithms. If loss functions consider the label noise rates, these rates are estimated during learning, where importance weighting compensates for the sampling bias. We show empirically that viewing the true label as a latent variable and computing......Active label correction addresses the problem of learning from input data for which noisy labels are available (e.g., from imprecise measurements or crowd-sourcing) and each true label can be obtained at a significant cost (e.g., through additional measurements or human experts). To minimize......). To select labels for correction, we adopt the active learning strategy of maximizing the expected model change. We consider the change in regularized empirical risk functionals that use different pointwise loss functions for patterns with noisy and true labels, respectively. Different loss functions...

  10. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  11. Semiotic labelled deductive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nossum, R.T. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.

  12. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  13. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dazomet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures. Find information from the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for products such as Basamid G, manufactured by Amvac.

  14. Soil Fumigant Labels - Chloropicrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company name, and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details on each fumigant. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  15. Effect of boundary conditions on the strength and deformability of replicas of natural fractures in welded tuff: Comparison between predicted and observed shear behavior using a graphical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wibowo, J.; Amadei, B.; Sture, S.; Robertson, A.B.

    1993-09-01

    Four series of cyclic direct-shear experiments were conducted on several replicas of three natural fractures and a laboratory-developed tensile fracture of welded tuff from Yucca Mountain to test the graphical load-displacement analysis method proposed by Saeb (1989) and Amadei and Saeb (1990). Based on the results of shear tests conducted on several joint replicas under different levels of constant normal load ranging between 0.6 and 25.6 kips (2.7 and 113.9 kN), the shear behavior of joint replicas under constant normal stiffness ranging between 14.8 and 187.5 kips/in. (25.9 and 328.1 kN/cm) was predicted by using the graphical method. The predictions were compared to the results of actual shear tests conducted for the same range of constant normal stiffness. In general, a good agreement was found between the predicted and the observed shear behavior

  16. Effect of boundary conditions on the strength and deformability of replicas of natural fractures in welded tuff: Data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wibowo, J.; Amadei, B.; Sture, S.

    1994-04-01

    Assessing the shear behavior of intact rock ampersand rock fractures is an important issue in the design of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain Nevada. Cyclic direct shear experiments were conducted on replicas of three natural fractures and a laboratory-developed tensile fracture of welded tuff. The tests were carried out under constant normal loads or constant normal stiffnesses with different initial normal load levels. Each test consisted of five cycles of forward and reverse shear motion. Based on the results of the shear tests conducted under constant normal load, the shear behavior of the joint replicas tested under constant normal stiffness was predicted by using the graphical analysis method of Saeb (1989), and Amadei and Saeb (1990). Comparison between the predictions and the actual constant stiffness direct shear experiment results can be found in a report by Wibowo et al. (1993b). Results of the constant normal load shear experiments are analyzed using several constitutive models proposed in the rock mechanics literature for joint shear strength, dilatancy, and joint surface damage. It is shown that some of the existing models have limitations. New constitutive models are proposed and are included in a mathematical analysis tool that can be used to predict joint behavior under various boundary conditions

  17. Replica symmetry breaking in short range spin glasses: A review of the theoretical foundations and of the numerical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinari, E.; Zuliani, F.; Parisi, G.; Ricci-Tersenghi, F.; Ruiz-Lorenzo, J.J.

    2000-04-01

    We discuss Replica Symmetry Breaking (RSB) in Spin Glasses. We present an update about the state of the matter, both from the analytical and from the numerical point of view. We put a particular attention in discussing the difficulties stressed by Newman and Stein concerning the problem of constructing pure states in spin glass systems. We mainly discuss about what happens in finite dimensional, realistic spin glasses. Together with a detailed review of some of most important features, facts, data, phenomena, we present some new theoretical ideas and numerical results. We discuss among others the basic idea of the RSB theory, correlation functions, interfaces, overlaps, pure states, random field and the dynamical approach. We present new numerical results for the behavior of coupled replicas and about the numerical verification of sum rules, and we review some of the available numerical results that we consider of larger importance (for example the determination of the phase transition point, the correlation functions, the window overlaps, the dynamical behavior of the system). (author)

  18. Measurements of the absolute neutron fluence spectrum emitted at 00 and 900 from the Little-Boy replica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.H.; Gold, R.; Preston, C.C.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear research emulsions (NRE) have been used to characterize the neutron spectrum emitted by the Little-Boy replica. NRE were irradiated at the Little-Boy surface, as well as approximately 2 m from the center of the Little-Boy replica, using polar angles of 0 0 , 30 0 , 60 0 , and 90 0 . For the NRE exposed at 2 m, neutron background was determined using shadow shields of borated polyethylene. Emulsion scanning to date has concentrated exclusively on the 2-m, 0 0 and 2-m, 90 0 locations. Approximately 5000 proton-recoil tracks have been measured in NRE irradiated at each of these locations. At the 2-m, 90 0 location, the NRE neutron spectrum extends from 0.37 MeV up to 8.2 MeV; whereas the NRE neutron spectrum at the 2-m, 0 0 location is much softer and extends only up to 2.7 MeV. NRE neutron spectrometry results at these two locations are compared with both liquid scintillator neutron spectrometry and Monte Carlo calculations. (author)

  19. Evaluating the Use of Synthetic Replicas for SEM Identification of Bloodstains (with Emphasis on Archaeological and Ethnographic Artifacts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortolà, Policarp

    2015-12-01

    Some archaeological or ethnographic specimens are unavailable for direct examination using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) due to methodological obstacles or legal issues. In order to assess the feasibility of using SEM synthetic replicas for the identification of bloodstains (BSs) via morphology of red blood cells (RBCs), three fragments of different natural raw material (inorganic, stone; plant, wood; animal, shell) were smeared with peripheral human blood. Afterwards, molds and casts of the bloodstained areas were made using vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) silicone impression and polyurethane (PU) resin casting material, respectively. Then, the original samples and the resulting casts were coated with gold and examined in secondary-electron mode using a high-vacuum SEM. Results suggest that PU resin casts obtained from VPS silicone molds can preserve RBC morphology in BSs, and consequently that synthetic replicas are feasible for SEM identification of BSs on cultural heritage specimens made of natural raw materials. Although the focus of this study was on BSs, the method reported in this paper may be applicable to organic residues other than blood, as well as to the surface of other specimens when, for any reason, the original is unavailable for an SEM.

  20. Computer simulation study of in-zeolites templated carbon replicas: structural and adsorption properties for hydrogen storage application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, T.

    2007-05-01

    Hydrogen storage is the key issue to envisage this gas for instance as an energy vector in the field of transportation. Porous carbons are materials that are considered as possible candidates. We have studied well-controlled microporous carbon nano-structures, carbonaceous replicas of meso-porous ordered silica materials and zeolites. We realized numerically (using Grand Canonical Monte Carlo Simulations, GCMC) the atomic nano-structures of the carbon replication of four zeolites: AlPO 4 -5, silicalite-1, and Faujasite (FAU and EMT). The faujasite replicas allow nano-casting of a new form of carbon crystalline solid made of tetrahedrally or hexagonally interconnected single wall nano-tubes. The pore size networks are nano-metric giving these materials optimized hydrogen molecular storage capacities (for pure carbon phases). However, we demonstrate that these new carbon forms are not interesting for room temperature efficient storage compared to the void space of a classical gas cylinder. We showed that doping with an alkaline element, such as lithium, one could store the same quantities at 350 bar compared to a classical tank at 700 bar. This result is a possible route to achieve interesting performances for on-board docking systems for instance. (author)

  1. Three-dimensional morphological characterization of the skin surface micro-topography using a skin replica and changes with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Y; Oguri, M; Morinaga, T; Hirao, T

    2014-08-01

    Skin surface micro-topography (SSMT), consisting of pores, ridges and furrows, reflects the skin condition and is an important factor determining the aesthetics of the skin. Most previous studies evaluating SSMT have employed two-dimensional image analysis of magnified pictures captured by a video microscope. To improve the accuracy of SSMT analysis, we established a three-dimensional (3D) analysis method for SSMT and developed various parameters including the skin ridge number, and applied the method to study the age-dependent change in skin. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used for 3D measurement of the surface morphology of silicon replicas taken from the cheek. We then used these data to calculate the parameters that reflect the nature of SSTM including the skin ridge number using originally developed software. Employing a superscription technique, we investigated the variation in SSMT with age for replicas taken from the cheeks of 103 Japanese females (5-85 years old). The skin surface area and roughness, the area of pores, the area, length, depth and width of skin furrows and the number of skin ridges were examined. The surface roughness, the area of pores and the depth of skin furrows increased with age. The area and length of skin furrows and the number of skin ridges decreased with age. The method proposed to analyse SSMT three dimensionally is an effective tool with which to characterize the condition of the skin. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A Label to Regulate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tricoire, Aurélie; Boxenbaum, Eva; Laurent, Brice

    This paper examines the role labelling plays in the government of the contemporary economy.1Drawing on a detailed study of BBC-Effinergy, a French label for sustainable construction, we showhow the adoption and evolution of voluntary labels can be seen as emblematic of a governmentthrough experim...

  3. Labelling subway lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrido, M.A.; Iturriaga, C.; Márquez, A.; Portillo, J.R.; Reyes, P.; Wolff, A.; Eades, P.; Takaoka, T.

    2001-01-01

    Graphical features on map, charts, diagrams and graph drawings usually must be annotated with text labels in order to convey their meaning. In this paper we focus on a problem that arises when labeling schematized maps, e.g. for subway networks. We present algorithms for labeling points on a line

  4. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the consequences of improper labeling.

  5. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Lists types of labels that do not require review.

  6. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the importance of labels and the role in enforcement.

  7. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about positive effects from proper labeling.

  8. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about types of labels.

  9. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about what labels require review.

  10. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section discusses the types of labels.

  11. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 26

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about mandatory and advisory label statements.

  12. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is about which labels require review.

  13. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 27

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See examples of mandatory and advisory label statements.

  14. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section covers supplemental distributor labeling.

  15. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See an overview of the importance of labels.

  16. Axial displacement of abutments into implants and implant replicas, with the tapered cone-screw internal connection, as a function of tightening torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Bruno; Jordan, Laurence; Blind, Olivier; Tavernier, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    The passive fit of a superstructure on implant abutments is essential to success. One source of error when using a tapered cone-screw internal connection may be the difference between the tightening torque level applied to the abutments by the laboratory technician compared to that applied by the treating clinician. The purpose of this study was to measure the axial displacement of tapered cone-screw abutments into implants and their replicas as a function of the tightening torque level. Twenty tapered cone-screw abutments were selected. Two groups were created: 10 abutments were secured into 10 implants, and 10 abutments were secured into 10 corresponding implant replicas. Each abutment was tightened in increasing increments of 5 Ncm, from 0 Ncm to 45 Ncm, with a torque controller. The length of each sample was measured repeatedly with an Electronic Digital Micrometer. The mean axial displacement for the implant group and the replica group was calculated. The data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney and Spearman tests. For both groups, there was always an axial displacement of the abutment upon each incremental application of torque. The mean axial displacement values varied between 7 and 12 microm for the implant group and between 6 and 21 microm for the replica group at each 5-Ncm increment. From 0 to 45 Ncm, the total mean axial displacement values were 89 microm for the implant group and 122 microm for the replica group. There was a continuous axial displacement of the abutments into implants and implant replicas when the applied torque was raised from 0 to 45 Ncm. Torque applied above the level recommended by the manufacturer increased the difference in displacement between the two groups.

  17. A replica exchange Monte Carlo algorithm for protein folding in the HP model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmygelska Alena

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ab initio protein folding problem consists of predicting protein tertiary structure from a given amino acid sequence by minimizing an energy function; it is one of the most important and challenging problems in biochemistry, molecular biology and biophysics. The ab initio protein folding problem is computationally challenging and has been shown to be NP MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8akY=wiFfYdH8Gipec8Eeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqai=hGuQ8kuc9pgc9s8qqaq=dirpe0xb9q8qiLsFr0=vr0=vr0dc8meaabaqaciaacaGaaeqabaqabeGadaaakeaat0uy0HwzTfgDPnwy1egaryqtHrhAL1wy0L2yHvdaiqaacqWFneVtcqqGqbauaaa@3961@-hard even when conformations are restricted to a lattice. In this work, we implement and evaluate the replica exchange Monte Carlo (REMC method, which has already been applied very successfully to more complex protein models and other optimization problems with complex energy landscapes, in combination with the highly effective pull move neighbourhood in two widely studied Hydrophobic Polar (HP lattice models. Results We demonstrate that REMC is highly effective for solving instances of the square (2D and cubic (3D HP protein folding problem. When using the pull move neighbourhood, REMC outperforms current state-of-the-art algorithms for most benchmark instances. Additionally, we show that this new algorithm provides a larger ensemble of ground-state structures than the existing state-of-the-art methods. Furthermore, it scales well with sequence length, and it finds significantly better conformations on long biological sequences and sequences with a provably unique ground-state structure, which is believed to be a characteristic of real proteins. We also present evidence that our REMC algorithm can fold sequences which exhibit significant interaction between termini in the hydrophobic core relatively easily. Conclusion We demonstrate that REMC utilizing the pull move

  18. Número de replicações de inquéritos dietéticos para estimativa da ingestão de nutrientes em gestantes brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Saes Sartorelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: determinar o número de replicações de inquéritos dietéticos necessários para estimar a ingestão usual de nutrientes e em categorias de consumo de gestantes no Brasil. Métodos: estudo prospectivo conduzido entre 82 gestantes, no qual as informações sobre energia e 18 nutrientes foram obtidas em três inquéritos recordatórios de 24 horas, sendo um em cada trimestre gestacional. Empregaram-se diferentes fórmulas para o cálculo do número de replicações do método necessárias para classificar as gestantes em categorias de ingestão, que considera a razão das variâncias intrapessoal/interpessoal, e para a estimativa da ingestão usual, baseado na variância intrapessoal. Resultados: para classificar as gestantes em categorias são necessárias entre 11 e 51 replicações do método, considerando-se coeficiente de correlação de 0,9. Admitindo coeficiente de correlação de 0,7, o número de replicações do método variou entre quatro e 19. Para a estimativa da ingestão usual são necessárias entre duas e 33 replicações, admitindo-se um erro de 10%. Considerando-se um erro de 20%, são necessárias entre uma e sete replicações de inquéritos dietéticos. Conclusões: é necessário um elevado número de replicações de inquéritos dietéticos na estimativa da ingestão de nutrientes na gestação e o emprego de um número reduzido de replicações poderá atenuar as associações entre a dieta e desfechos de saúde maternos e fetais.

  19. Atomic force microscopy recognition of protein A on Staphylococcus aureus cell surfaces by labelling with IgG-Au conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatlybaeva, Elena B; Nikiyan, Hike N; Vasilchenko, Alexey S; Deryabin, Dmitri G

    2013-01-01

    The labelling of functional molecules on the surface of bacterial cells is one way to recognize the bacteria. In this work, we have developed a method for the selective labelling of protein A on the cell surfaces of Staphylococcus aureus by using nanosized immunogold conjugates as cell-surface markers for atomic force microscopy (AFM). The use of 30-nm size Au nanoparticles conjugated with immunoglobulin G (IgG) allowed the visualization, localization and distribution of protein A-IgG complexes on the surface of S. aureus. The selectivity of the labelling method was confirmed in mixtures of S. aureus with Bacillus licheniformis cells, which differed by size and shape and had no IgG receptors on the surface. A preferential binding of the IgG-Au conjugates to S. aureus was obtained. Thus, this novel approach allows the identification of protein A and other IgG receptor-bearing bacteria, which is useful for AFM indication of pathogenic microorganisms in poly-component associations.

  20. Atomic force microscopy recognition of protein A on Staphylococcus aureus cell surfaces by labelling with IgG–Au conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena B. Tatlybaeva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The labelling of functional molecules on the surface of bacterial cells is one way to recognize the bacteria. In this work, we have developed a method for the selective labelling of protein A on the cell surfaces of Staphylococcus aureus by using nanosized immunogold conjugates as cell-surface markers for atomic force microscopy (AFM. The use of 30-nm size Au nanoparticles conjugated with immunoglobulin G (IgG allowed the visualization, localization and distribution of protein A–IgG complexes on the surface of S. aureus. The selectivity of the labelling method was confirmed in mixtures of S. aureus with Bacillus licheniformis cells, which differed by size and shape and had no IgG receptors on the surface. A preferential binding of the IgG–Au conjugates to S. aureus was obtained. Thus, this novel approach allows the identification of protein A and other IgG receptor-bearing bacteria, which is useful for AFM indication of pathogenic microorganisms in poly-component associations.

  1. Atomic force microscopy recognition of protein A on Staphylococcus aureus cell surfaces by labelling with IgG–Au conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatlybaeva, Elena B; Vasilchenko, Alexey S; Deryabin, Dmitri G

    2013-01-01

    Summary The labelling of functional molecules on the surface of bacterial cells is one way to recognize the bacteria. In this work, we have developed a method for the selective labelling of protein A on the cell surfaces of Staphylococcus aureus by using nanosized immunogold conjugates as cell-surface markers for atomic force microscopy (AFM). The use of 30-nm size Au nanoparticles conjugated with immunoglobulin G (IgG) allowed the visualization, localization and distribution of protein A–IgG complexes on the surface of S. aureus. The selectivity of the labelling method was confirmed in mixtures of S. aureus with Bacillus licheniformis cells, which differed by size and shape and had no IgG receptors on the surface. A preferential binding of the IgG–Au conjugates to S. aureus was obtained. Thus, this novel approach allows the identification of protein A and other IgG receptor-bearing bacteria, which is useful for AFM indication of pathogenic microorganisms in poly-component associations. PMID:24367742

  2. Measuring depths of sub-micron tracks in a CR-39 detector from replicas using Atomic Force Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.N.; Ng, F.M.F.; Nikezic, D.

    2005-01-01

    One of the challenging tasks in the application of solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) is the measurement of the depth of the tracks, in particular, the shallow ones resulting from short etching periods. In the present work, a method is proposed to prepare replicas of tracks from α particles in the CR-39 SSNTDs and to measure their heights using atomic force microscopy (AFM). After irradiation, the detectors were etched in a 6.25N aqueous solution of NaOH maintained at 70 deg. C. The etched detectors were immersed into a beaker of the replicating fluid, which was placed in a water bath under ultrasonic vibration and maintained at room temperature to facilitate the filling of the etched tracks with the replicating fluid. As an example of application, these results have been used to derive a V function for the CR-39 detectors used in the present study (for the specified etching conditions)

  3. A replica exchange transition interface sampling method with multiple interface sets for investigating networks of rare events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, David W. H.; Bolhuis, Peter G.

    2014-07-01

    The multiple state transition interface sampling (TIS) framework in principle allows the simulation of a large network of complex rare event transitions, but in practice suffers from convergence problems. To improve convergence, we combine multiple state TIS [J. Rogal and P. G. Bolhuis, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 224107 (2008)] with replica exchange TIS [T. S. van Erp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 268301 (2007)]. In addition, we introduce multiple interface sets, which allow more than one order parameter to be defined for each state. We illustrate the methodology on a model system of multiple independent dimers, each with two states. For reaction networks with up to 64 microstates, we determine the kinetics in the microcanonical ensemble, and discuss the convergence properties of the sampling scheme. For this model, we find that the kinetics depend on the instantaneous composition of the system. We explain this dependence in terms of the system's potential and kinetic energy.

  4. An application of computer image-processing and filmy replica technique to the copper electroplating method of stress analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, M.; Seika, M.

    1994-02-01

    In this study, a new technique to measure the density of slip-bands automatically is developed, namely, a TV image of the slip-bands observed through a microscope is directly processed by an image-processing system using a personal computer and an accurate value of the density of slip-bands is measured quickly. In the case of measuring the local stresses in machine parts of large size with the copper plating foil, the direct observation of slip-bands through an optical microscope is difficult. In this study, to facilitate a technique close to the direct microscopic observation of slip-bands in the foil attached to a large-sized specimen, the replica method using a platic film of acetyl cellulose is applied to replicate the slip-bands in the attached foil.

  5. The Membranes of the Basal Labyrinth in Kidney Cells of the Stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, Studied in Ultrathin Sections and Freeze-Etch Replicas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Veenhuis, M.

    1974-01-01

    The structure of the basal labyrinth in kidney cells of freshwater sticklebacks was studied in ultrathin sections (after fixation with permanganate, osmium tetroxide, and combinations of glutaraldehyde with osmium tetroxide) and in freeze-etch replicas (after pretreatment with glutaraldehyde and/or

  6. Autotransplantation of premolars with a 3-dimensional printed titanium replica of the donor tooth functioning as a surgical guide: proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.P.; Moin, D.A.; Mensink, G.; Nijkamp, P.; Wismeijer, D.; van Merkesteyn, J.P.R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Autotransplantation of premolars is a good treatment option for young patients who have missing teeth. This study evaluated the use of a preoperatively 3-dimensional (3D)-printed replica of the donor tooth that functions as a surgical guide during autotransplantation. Materials and Methods:

  7. Non-invasive Florentine Renaissance Panel Painting Replica Structures Investigation by Using Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI) Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Picollo, Marcello; Cucci, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    The potentials of the Terahertz Time-Domain Imaging (THz-TDI) technique for a non-invasive inspection of panel paintings have been considered in detail. The THz-TD data acquired on a replica of a panel painting made in imitation of Italian Renaissance panel paintings were processed in order to pr...

  8. Labelling of equipment dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D C

    1993-01-01

    A new labelling system for use on medical equipment dispensers is tested. This system uses one of the objects stored in each unit of the dispenser as the 'label', by attaching it to the front of the dispenser with tape. The new system was compared to conventional written labelling by timing subjects asked to select items from two dispensers. The new system was 27% quicker than the conventional system. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8110335

  9. Deuterium labeled cannabinoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driessen, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Complex reactions involving ring opening, ring closure and rearrangements hamper complete understanding of the fragmentation processes in the mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of cannabinoids. Specifically labelled compounds are very powerful tools for obtaining more insight into fragmentation mechanisms and ion structures and therefore the synthesis of specifically deuterated cannabinoids was undertaken. For this, it was necessary to investigate the preparation of cannabinoids, appropriately functionalized for specific introduction of deuterium atom labels. The results of mass spectrometry with these labelled cannabinoids are described. (Auth.)

  10. Novel approach to the fabrication of an artificial small bone using a combination of sponge replica and electrospinning methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yang-Hee; Lee, Byong-Taek, E-mail: lbt@sch.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Materials, School of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University 366-1, Ssangyong-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-090 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    In this study, a novel artificial small bone consisting of ZrO{sub 2}-biphasic calcium phosphate/polymethylmethacrylate-polycaprolactone-hydroxyapatite (ZrO{sub 2}-BCP/PMMA-PCL-HAp) was fabricated using a combination of sponge replica and electrospinning methods. To mimic the cancellous bone, the ZrO{sub 2}/BCP scaffold was composed of three layers, ZrO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}/BCP and BCP, fabricated by the sponge replica method. The PMMA-PCL fibers loaded with HAp powder were wrapped around the ZrO{sub 2}/BCP scaffold using the electrospinning process. To imitate the Haversian canal region of the bone, HAp-loaded PMMA-PCL fibers were wrapped around a steel wire of 0.3 mm diameter. As a result, the bundles of fiber wrapped around the wires imitated the osteon structure of the cortical bone. Finally, the ZrO{sub 2}/BCP scaffold was surrounded by HAp-loaded PMMA-PCL composite bundles. After removal of the steel wires, the ZrO{sub 2}/BCP scaffold and bundles of HAp-loaded PMMA-PCL formed an interconnected structure resembling the human bone. Its diameter, compressive strength and porosity were approximately 12 mm, 5 MPa and 70%, respectively, and the viability of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells was determined to be over 90% by the MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. This artificial bone shows excellent cytocompatibility and is a promising bone regeneration material.

  11. Effective sample labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.T.; Bryce, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Ground-water samples collected for hazardous-waste and radiological monitoring have come under strict regulatory and quality assurance requirements as a result of laws such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. To comply with these laws, the labeling system used to identify environmental samples had to be upgraded to ensure proper handling and to protect collection personnel from exposure to sample contaminants and sample preservatives. The sample label now used as the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is a complete sample document. In the event other paperwork on a labeled sample were lost, the necessary information could be found on the label

  12. Dynamic map labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, Ken; Daiches, Eli; Yap, Chee

    2006-01-01

    We address the problem of filtering, selecting and placing labels on a dynamic map, which is characterized by continuous zooming and panning capabilities. This consists of two interrelated issues. The first is to avoid label popping and other artifacts that cause confusion and interrupt navigation, and the second is to label at interactive speed. In most formulations the static map labeling problem is NP-hard, and a fast approximation might have O(nlogn) complexity. Even this is too slow during interaction, when the number of labels shown can be several orders of magnitude less than the number in the map. In this paper we introduce a set of desiderata for "consistent" dynamic map labeling, which has qualities desirable for navigation. We develop a new framework for dynamic labeling that achieves the desiderata and allows for fast interactive display by moving all of the selection and placement decisions into the preprocessing phase. This framework is general enough to accommodate a variety of selection and placement algorithms. It does not appear possible to achieve our desiderata using previous frameworks. Prior to this paper, there were no formal models of dynamic maps or of dynamic labels; our paper introduces both. We formulate a general optimization problem for dynamic map labeling and give a solution to a simple version of the problem. The simple version is based on label priorities and a versatile and intuitive class of dynamic label placements we call "invariant point placements". Despite these restrictions, our approach gives a useful and practical solution. Our implementation is incorporated into the G-Vis system which is a full-detail dynamic map of the continental USA. This demo is available through any browser.

  13. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  14. Edge colouring by total labellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Stiebitz, M.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This is a labelling of the vertices and the edges of a graph G with labels 1, 2, ..., k such that the weights of the edges define a proper edge colouring of G. Here the weight of an edge is the sum of its label and the labels of its...

  15. Radioiodine and its labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, Ana Maria

    1994-01-01

    Chemical characteristics and their nuclear characteristics, types of labelled molecules,labelling procedures, direct labelling with various oxidizing agents, indirect labelling with various conjugates attached to protein molecules, purification and quality control. Iodination damage.Safe handling of labelling procedures with iodine radioisotopes.Bibliography

  16. 'Naturemade' -- a new label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederhaeusern, A.

    2001-01-01

    This short article discusses the introduction of the 'Naturemade' two-level labelling scheme in the Swiss electricity market, which is to help provide transparency in the market for green power and promote the building of facilities for its production. In the form of an interview with the CEO of Swissolar and the president of Greenpeace Switzerland, the pros and contras of these labels are discussed. In particular, the interview partners' opinions on the possible misuse of the less stringent label and the influence of the labels on the construction of new installations for the generation of electricity from renewable sources are presented. The basic principles of the promotional model behind the labels are listed

  17. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review: clarity, accuracy, consistency with EPA policy, and enforceability.

  18. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is a quiz on Module 1.

  19. Soil Fumigant Labels - Methyl Bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search soil fumigant pesticide labels by EPA registration number, product name, or company, and follow the link to The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  20. Radioactive labelled orgotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The preparation and use of radioactively labelled orgotein, i.e. water-soluble protein congeners in pure, injectable form, is described. This radiopharmaceutical is useful in scintigraphy, especially for visualization of the kidneys where the orgotein is rapidly concentrated. Details of the processes for labelling bovine orgotein with sup(99m)Tc, 60 Co, 125 I or 131 I are specified. The pharmaceutical preparation of the labelled orgotein for intravenous and parenteral administration is also described. Examples using either sup(99m)TC or 125 I-orgotein in scintiscanning dogs' kidneys are given. (UK)

  1. On Online Labeling with Polynomially Many Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babka, Martin; Bulánek, Jan; Cunat, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    be necessary to change the labels of some items; such changes may be done at any time at unit cost for each change. The goal is to minimize the total cost. An alternative formulation of this problem is the file maintenance problem, in which the items, instead of being labeled, are maintained in sorted order...... in an array of length m, and we pay unit cost for moving an item. For the case m = cn for constant c > 1, there are known algorithms that use at most O(n log(n)2) relabelings in total [9], and it was shown recently that this is asymptotically optimal [1]. For the case of m = θ(nC) for C > 1, algorithms...

  2. Clinical applications of cells labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    Blood cells labelled with radionuclides are reviewed and main applications are described. Red blood cell labelling by both random and specific principle. A table with most important clinical uses, 99mTc labelling of RBC are described pre tinning and in vivo reduction of Tc, in vitro labelling and administration of labelled RBC and in vivo modified technique. Labelled leucocytes with several 99mTc-complex radiopharmaceuticals by in vitro technique and specific monoclonal s for white cells(neutrofiles). Labelled platelets for clinical use and research by in vitro technique and in vivo labelling

  3. Obtain ceramic porous alumina-zirconia by replica method calcium phosphate coated; Oobtencao de ceramicas porosas de alumina-zirconia pelo metodo da replica recobertas com fosfato de calcio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.D.R.; Rigoli, W.R.; Osiro, Denise; Pallone, E.M.J.A., E-mail: adinizrs@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FZEA/USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos; Lobo, A.O. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Biomaterials used in bone replacement, including porous bioceramics, are often used as support structure for bone formation and repair. The porous bioceramics are used because present features as biocompatibility, high porosity and pore morphology that confer adequate mechanical strength and induce bone growth. In this work were obtained porous specimens of alumina containing 5% by inclusion of volume of zirconia produced by the replica method. The porous specimens had its surface chemically treated with phosphoric acid and were coated with calcium phosphate. The coating was performed using the biomimetic method during 14 days and an initial pH of 6.1. The porous specimens were characterized using the follow techniques: porosity, axial compression tests, microtomography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and pH measurements SBF solution. The results showed specimens with suitable pore morphology for application as biomaterial, and even a reduced time of incubation favored the calcium phosphate phases formation on the material surfaces. (author)

  4. FDA Online Label Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The drug labels and other drug-specific information on this Web site represent the most recent drug listing information companies have submitted to the Food and Drug...

  5. Figuring Out Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It's also displayed in grocery stores near fresh foods, like fruits, vegetables, and fish. The nutrition facts label includes: a ... found in citrus fruits, other fruits, and some vegetables. Food companies might also list the amounts of other ...

  6. Energy efficiency labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This research assesses the likely effects on UK consumers of the proposed EEC energy-efficiency labeling scheme. Unless (or until) an energy-labeling scheme is introduced, it is impossible to do more than postulate its likely effects on consumer behavior. This report shows that there are indeed significant differences in energy consumption between different brands and models of the same appliance of which consumers are unaware. Further, the report suggests that, if a readily intelligible energy-labeling scheme were introduced, it would provide useful information that consumers currently lack; and that, if this information were successfully presented, it would be used and could have substantial effects in reducing domestic fuel consumption. Therefore, it is recommended that an energy labeling scheme be introduced.

  7. Like your labels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The descriptive “conventions” used on food labels are always evolving. Today, however, the changes are so complicated (partly driven by legislation requiring disclosures about environmental impacts, health issues, and geographical provenance) that these labels more often baffle buyers than enlighten them. In a light-handed manner, the article points to how sometimes reading label language can be like deciphering runes—and how if we are familiar with the technical terms, we can find a literal meaning, but still not see the implications. The article could be ten times longer because food labels vary according to cultures—but all food-exporting cultures now take advantage of our short attention-span when faced with these texts. The question is whether less is more—and if so, in this contest for our attention, what “contestant” is voted off.

  8. Labelling of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dettli, R.; Markard, J.

    2001-01-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a possible course of action to be taken to provide a means of declaring the sources of electrical power, as is foreseen in the draft of new Swiss electricity market legislation. The report presents the basic ideas behind the idea and defines the terms used such as labelling, certificates and declarations. Also, the legal situation in the European Union and in Switzerland is examined and a quantitative overview of electricity production and consumption is presented. Suggestions for a labelling scheme are made and some of the problems to be expected are looked at. The report also presents a series of examples of labelling schemes already implemented in other countries, such as Austria, Great Britain, Sweden and Germany. Tradable certificates and tracking systems are discussed as are initial quality labels like the Swiss 'Naturemade' label for green power. A concrete recommendation for the declaration and labelling of electricity in Switzerland is presented and various factors to be considered such as import/export, pumped storage, distribution losses, small-scale producers as well as the time-scales for introduction are discussed

  9. 78 FR 66826 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... raising of animals, such as ``no antibiotics administered'' or ``vegetarian fed''; (4) instructional or... Standards and Labeling Policy Book includes animal production claims; omega fatty acid guidance; allergen... inclusion of Country of Origin Labeling on all labels; the production and sale of labels by USDA; developing...

  10. Popularity framework to process dataset traces and its application on dynamic replica reduction in the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molfetas, Angelos; Megino, Fernando Barreiro; Tykhonov, Andrii; Lassnig, Mario; Garonne, Vincent; Barisits, Martin; Campana, Simone; Dimitrov, Gancho; Jezequel, Stephane; Ueda, Ikuo; Viegas, Florbela Tique Aires

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment's data management system is constantly tracing file movement operations that occur on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). Due to the large scale of the WLCG, statistical analysis of the traces is infeasible in real-time. Factors that contribute to the scalability problems include the capability for users to initiate on-demand queries, high dimensionality of tracer entries combined with very low cardinality parameters, and the large size of the namespace. These scalability issues are alleviated through the adoption of an incremental model that aggregates data for all combinations occurring in selected tracer fields on a daily basis. Using this model it is possible to query on-demand relevant statistics about system usage. We present an implementation of this popularity model in the experiment's distributed data management system, DQ2, and describe a direct application example of the popularity framework, an automated cleaning system, which uses the statistics to dynamically detect and reduce unpopular replicas from grid sites. This paper describes the architecture employed by the cleaning system and reports on the results collected from a prototype during the first months of the ATLAS collision data taking.

  11. Evaluation of unrestrained replica-exchange simulations using dynamic walkers in temperature space for protein structure refinement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Olson

    Full Text Available A central problem of computational structural biology is the refinement of modeled protein structures taken from either comparative modeling or knowledge-based methods. Simulations are commonly used to achieve higher resolution of the structures at the all-atom level, yet methodologies that consistently yield accurate results remain elusive. In this work, we provide an assessment of an adaptive temperature-based replica exchange simulation method where the temperature clients dynamically walk in temperature space to enrich their population and exchanges near steep energetic barriers. This approach is compared to earlier work of applying the conventional method of static temperature clients to refine a dataset of conformational decoys. Our results show that, while an adaptive method has many theoretical advantages over a static distribution of client temperatures, only limited improvement was gained from this strategy in excursions of the downhill refinement regime leading to an increase in the fraction of native contacts. To illustrate the sampling differences between the two simulation methods, energy landscapes are presented along with their temperature client profiles.

  12. Isolation of a spontaneous CHO amino acid transport mutant by a combination of tritium suicide and replica plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantzig, A.H.; Slayman, C.W.; Adelberg, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    A spontaneous transport mutant of Chinese hamster ovary cells, CHY-1, was isolated by a combination of [ 3 H]proline suicide and replica plating. The mutant took up less tritium than the parent, resulting in a lower killing rate during storage. Transport by four separate amino acid transport systems (A, ASC, L, Ly+) was examined. The CHY-1 mutant exhibited normal uptake via the ASC, L, and Ly+ systems. By contrast, uptake of the most specific substrate of the A system, 2-(methylamino)-isobutyric acid, was significantly reduced at low, but not high, concentrations, due to a 3.5-fold increase in Km and a 1.5-fold increase in Vmax. Taken together, these data suggest that the CHY-1 mutation may be in the structural gene coding for the A transport protein. The tritium suicide procedure is discussed, and general equations are derived to predict the maximum storage time for the survival of one mutant cell and the optimum size of the cell population for maximum mutant enrichment

  13. A brief account of Kozloduy 6 full-scope replica control room simulator upgrade experience: An engineering point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkov, Y.D.

    2006-01-01

    A short excursion throughout Kozloduy NPP history, and Kozloduy 6 Full-Scope Replica Control Room Simulator procurement, is proposed for a reader, which is not familiar with the Kozloduy circumstances. A brief account of five year operation and upgrade experience is presented as seen by the Kozloduy simulator engineering team. During the last five years Kozloduy 6 is going through a complex and expensive modernization programme so Simulator is a subject of a series of changes twice per year. Simulator is used for training six months of the year during spring and autumn most of this time in two shifts daily. Remaining six months during winter and summer are allocated to other simulator uses including five months downtime for hardware reconstruction, software integration, troubleshooting and testing. Quantitative information concerning scope of software and hardware changes is given. Kozloduy NPP simulator engineering team approach toward various upgrade projects is given in an attempt to facilitate a discussion about how a simulator upgrade should be performed. Projects mentioned vary from small to big, in-house or contracted, already completed or planned for future realization

  14. Hydrogen storage enhanced in Li-doped carbon replica of zeolites: a possible route to achieve fuel cell demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Thomas; Bichara, Christophe; Gubbins, Keith E; Pellenq, Roland J-M

    2009-05-07

    We first report the atomistic grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of the synthesis of two realistic ordered microporous carbon replica in two siliceous forms of faujasite zeolite (cubic Y-FAU and hexagonal EMT). Atomistic simulations of hydrogen adsorption isotherms in these two carbon structures and their Li-doped composites were carried out to determine their storage capacities at 77 and 298 K. We found that these new forms of carbon solids and their Li-doped versions show very attractive hydrogen storage capacities at 77 and 298 K, respectively. However, for a filling pressure of 300 bars and at room temperature, bare carbons do not show advantageous performances compared to a classical gas cylinder despite of their crystalline micropore network. In comparison, Li-doped nanostructures provide reversible gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen storage capacities twice larger (3.75 wt % and 33.7 kg/m(3)). The extreme lattice stiffness of their skeleton will prevent them from collapsing under large external applied pressure, an interesting skill compared to bundle of carbon nanotubes, and metal organic frameworks (MOFs). These new ordered composites are thus very promising materials for hydrogen storage issues by contrast with MOFs.

  15. Origin of two time-scale regimes in potentiometric titration of metal oxides. A replica kinetic Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarzycki, Piotr P.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2009-01-01

    Replica Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations were used to study the characteristic time scales of potentiometric titration of the metal oxides and (oxy)hydroxides. The effect of surface heterogeneity and surface transformation on the titration kinetics were also examined. Two characteristic relaxation times are often observed experimentally, with the trailing slower part attributed to surface non-uniformity, porosity, polymerization, amorphization, and other dynamic surface processes induced by unbalanced surface charge. However, our simulations show that these two characteristic relaxation times are intrinsic to the proton binding reaction for energetically homogeneous surfaces, and therefore surface heterogeneity or transformation do not necessarily need to be invoked. However, all such second-order surface processes are found to intensify the separation and distinction of the two kinetic regimes. The effect of surface energetic-topographic non-uniformity, as well dynamic surface transformation, interface roughening/smoothing were described in a statistical fashion. Furthermore, our simulations show that a shift in the point-of-zero charge is expected from increased titration speed and the pH-dependence of the titration measurement error is in excellent agreement with experimental studies.

  16. Origin of two time-scale regimes in potentiometric titration of metal oxides. A replica kinetic Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, Piotr; Rosso, Kevin M

    2009-06-16

    Replica kinetic Monte Carlo simulations were used to study the characteristic time scales of potentiometric titration of the metal oxides and (oxy)hydroxides. The effect of surface heterogeneity and surface transformation on the titration kinetics were also examined. Two characteristic relaxation times are often observed experimentally, with the trailing slower part attributed to surface nonuniformity, porosity, polymerization, amorphization, and other dynamic surface processes induced by unbalanced surface charge. However, our simulations show that these two characteristic relaxation times are intrinsic to the proton-binding reaction for energetically homogeneous surfaces, and therefore surface heterogeneity or transformation does not necessarily need to be invoked. However, all such second-order surface processes are found to intensify the separation and distinction of the two kinetic regimes. The effect of surface energetic-topographic nonuniformity, as well dynamic surface transformation, interface roughening/smoothing were described in a statistical fashion. Furthermore, our simulations show that a shift in the point-of-zero charge is expected from increased titration speed, and the pH-dependence of the titration measurement error is in excellent agreement with experimental studies.

  17. Effect of boundary conditions on the strength and deformability of replicas of natural fractures in welded tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wibowo, J.; Amadei, B.; Sture, S.; Robertson, A.B.

    1993-09-01

    Four series of cyclic direct-shear experiments were conducted on several replicas of three natural fractures and a tensile fracture of welded tuff from Yucca Mountain. The objective of these tests was to examine the effect of cyclic loading on joint shear behavior under different boundary conditions. The shear tests were performed under either different levels of constant normal load ranging between 0.6 and 25.6 kips (2.7 and 113.9 kN) or constant normal stiffness ranging between 14.8 and 187.5 kips/in (25.9 and 328.1 kn/cm) . Bach test in the two categories consisted of five cycles of forward and reverse shear. Normal compression tests were also performed both before and after each shear experiment to measure changes in joint normal deformability. In order to quantify fracture surface damage during shear, fracture-surface fractal dimensions were obtained from measurements before and after shear

  18. A deconvolution method for deriving the transit time spectrum for ultrasound propagation through cancellous bone replica models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Christian M; Wille, Marie-Luise; Flegg, Mark B

    2014-04-01

    The acceptance of broadband ultrasound attenuation for the assessment of osteoporosis suffers from a limited understanding of ultrasound wave propagation through cancellous bone. It has recently been proposed that the ultrasound wave propagation can be described by a concept of parallel sonic rays. This concept approximates the detected transmission signal to be the superposition of all sonic rays that travel directly from transmitting to receiving transducer. The transit time of each ray is defined by the proportion of bone and marrow propagated. An ultrasound transit time spectrum describes the proportion of sonic rays having a particular transit time, effectively describing lateral inhomogeneity of transit times over the surface of the receiving ultrasound transducer. The aim of this study was to provide a proof of concept that a transit time spectrum may be derived from digital deconvolution of input and output ultrasound signals. We have applied the active-set method deconvolution algorithm to determine the ultrasound transit time spectra in the three orthogonal directions of four cancellous bone replica samples and have compared experimental data with the prediction from the computer simulation. The agreement between experimental and predicted ultrasound transit time spectrum analyses derived from Bland-Altman analysis ranged from 92% to 99%, thereby supporting the concept of parallel sonic rays for ultrasound propagation in cancellous bone. In addition to further validation of the parallel sonic ray concept, this technique offers the opportunity to consider quantitative characterisation of the material and structural properties of cancellous bone, not previously available utilising ultrasound.

  19. Involvement of microbial mats in early fossilization by decay delay and formation of impressions and replicas of vertebrates and invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesto, Miguel; Buscalioni, Ángela D.; Carmen Guerrero, M.; Benzerara, Karim; Moreira, David; López-Archilla, Ana I.

    2016-05-01

    Microbial mats have been hypothesized to improve the persistence and the preservation of organic remains during fossilization processes. We test this hypothesis with long-term experiments (up to 5.5 years) using invertebrate and vertebrate corpses. Once placed on mats, the microbial community coats the corpses and forms a three-dimensional sarcophagus composed of microbial cells and exopolymeric substances (EPS). This coverage provides a template for i) moulding superficial features, resulting in negative impressions, and ii) generating replicas. The impressions of fly setulae, fish scales and frog skin verrucae are shaped mainly by small cells in an EPS matrix. Microbes also replicate delicate structures such as the three successive layers that compose a fish eye. The sarcophagus protects the body integrity, allowing the persistence of inner organs such as the ovaries and digestive apparatus in flies, the swim bladder and muscles in fish, and the bone marrow in frog legs. This study brings strong experimental evidence to the idea that mats favour metazoan fossilization by moulding, replicating and delaying decay. Rapid burial has classically been invoked as a mechanism to explain exceptional preservation. However, mats may play a similar role during early fossilization as they can preserve complex features for a long time.

  20. A procedure to analyze surface profiles of the protein molecules visualized by quick-freeze deep-etch replica electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimori, Yoshitaka [Division of Biomolecular Imaging, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Department of Bioscience and Bioinformatics, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8502 (Japan); Oguchi, Yosuke [Department of Electric Engineering, Kogakuin University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan); Ichise, Norihiko [Department of Visual Communication, Komazawa Women' s University, Inagi, Tokyo 206-8511 (Japan); Baba, Norio [Department of Electric Engineering, Kogakuin University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan); Katayama, Eisaku [Division of Biomolecular Imaging, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan)]. E-mail: ekatayam@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2007-01-15

    Quick-freeze deep-etch replica electron microscopy gives high contrast snapshots of individual protein molecules under physiological conditions in vitro or in situ. The images show delicate internal pattern, possibly reflecting the rotary-shadowed surface profile of the molecule. As a step to build the new system for the 'Structural analysis of single molecules', we propose a procedure to quantitatively characterize the structural property of individual molecules; e.g. conformational type and precise view-angle of the molecules, if the crystallographic structure of the target molecule is available. This paper presents a framework to determine the observed face of the protein molecule by analyzing the surface profile of individual molecules visualized in freeze-replica specimens. A comprehensive set of rotary-shadowed views of the protein molecule was artificially generated from the available atomic coordinates using light-rendering software. Exploiting new mathematical morphology-based image filter, characteristic features were extracted from each image and stored as template. Similar features were extracted from the true replica image and the most likely projection angle and the conformation of the observed particle were determined by quantitative comparison with a set of archived images. The performance and the robustness of the procedure were examined with myosin head structure in defined configuration for actual application.

  1. A procedure to analyze surface profiles of the protein molecules visualized by quick-freeze deep-etch replica electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimori, Yoshitaka; Oguchi, Yosuke; Ichise, Norihiko; Baba, Norio; Katayama, Eisaku

    2007-01-01

    Quick-freeze deep-etch replica electron microscopy gives high contrast snapshots of individual protein molecules under physiological conditions in vitro or in situ. The images show delicate internal pattern, possibly reflecting the rotary-shadowed surface profile of the molecule. As a step to build the new system for the 'Structural analysis of single molecules', we propose a procedure to quantitatively characterize the structural property of individual molecules; e.g. conformational type and precise view-angle of the molecules, if the crystallographic structure of the target molecule is available. This paper presents a framework to determine the observed face of the protein molecule by analyzing the surface profile of individual molecules visualized in freeze-replica specimens. A comprehensive set of rotary-shadowed views of the protein molecule was artificially generated from the available atomic coordinates using light-rendering software. Exploiting new mathematical morphology-based image filter, characteristic features were extracted from each image and stored as template. Similar features were extracted from the true replica image and the most likely projection angle and the conformation of the observed particle were determined by quantitative comparison with a set of archived images. The performance and the robustness of the procedure were examined with myosin head structure in defined configuration for actual application

  2. Autotransplantation of Premolars With a 3-Dimensional Printed Titanium Replica of the Donor Tooth Functioning as a Surgical Guide: Proof of Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Jop P; Moin, David Anssari; Mensink, Gertjan; Nijkamp, Peter; Wismeijer, Daniel; van Merkesteyn, J P Richard

    2016-06-01

    Autotransplantation of premolars is a good treatment option for young patients who have missing teeth. This study evaluated the use of a preoperatively 3-dimensional (3D)-printed replica of the donor tooth that functions as a surgical guide during autotransplantation. Five consecutive procedures were prospectively observed. Transplantations of maxillary premolars with optimal root development were included in this study. A 3D-printed replica of the donor tooth was used to prepare a precisely fitting new alveolus at the recipient site before extracting the donor tooth. Procedure time, extra-alveolar time, and number of attempts needed to achieve a good fit of the donor tooth in the new alveolus were recorded. For each transplantation procedure, the surgical time was shorter than 30 minutes. An immediate good fit of the donor tooth in the new alveolus was achieved with an extra-alveolar time shorter than 1 minute for all transplantations. These results show that the extra-alveolar time is very short when the surgical guide is used; therefore, the chance of iatrogenic damage to the donor tooth is minimized. The use of a replica of the donor tooth makes the autotransplantation procedure easier for the surgeon and facilitates optimal placement of the transplant. Copyright © 2016 The American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  4. Genetic algorithms for map labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Steven Ferdinand van

    2001-01-01

    Map labeling is the cartographic problem of placing the names of features (for example cities or rivers) on the map. A good labeling has no intersections between labels. Even basic versions of the problem are NP-hard. In addition, realistic map-labeling problems deal with many cartographic

  5. Development of isothermal-isobaric replica-permutation method for molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations and its application to reveal temperature and pressure dependence of folded, misfolded, and unfolded states of chignolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Masataka; Okumura, Hisashi

    2017-11-01

    We developed a two-dimensional replica-permutation molecular dynamics method in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble. The replica-permutation method is a better alternative to the replica-exchange method. It was originally developed in the canonical ensemble. This method employs the Suwa-Todo algorithm, instead of the Metropolis algorithm, to perform permutations of temperatures and pressures among more than two replicas so that the rejection ratio can be minimized. We showed that the isothermal-isobaric replica-permutation method performs better sampling efficiency than the isothermal-isobaric replica-exchange method and infinite swapping method. We applied this method to a β-hairpin mini protein, chignolin. In this simulation, we observed not only the folded state but also the misfolded state. We calculated the temperature and pressure dependence of the fractions on the folded, misfolded, and unfolded states. Differences in partial molar enthalpy, internal energy, entropy, partial molar volume, and heat capacity were also determined and agreed well with experimental data. We observed a new phenomenon that misfolded chignolin becomes more stable under high-pressure conditions. We also revealed this mechanism of the stability as follows: TYR2 and TRP9 side chains cover the hydrogen bonds that form a β-hairpin structure. The hydrogen bonds are protected from the water molecules that approach the protein as the pressure increases.

  6. Radioactive labelling of peptidic hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromageot, P.; Pradelles, P.; Morgat, J.L.; Levine, H.

    1976-01-01

    The labelling of peptidic hormones requires stability, specificity and sensitivity of the label. Introduction of a radioactive atome is one way to satisfy these criteria. Several processes have been described to prepare radioactive TRF: synthesis of the peptide with labelled aminoacids or introduction of the label into the hormone. In that approach, tritium can be substituted in the imidazole ring, via precursors activating the proper carbon. Monoiodo TRF leads essentially to tritium labelling of the 5 positions whereas monoazo TRF allows the preparation of 3 H TRF labelled in the 2 positions. Di-substituted TRF leads to labelling into the 2 and 5 carbons. Labelled analogs of TRF can be prepared with labelled iodine; further developments of peptide labelling, will be presented. In particular, the homolytic scission of the C-iodine, bond by photochemical activation. The nascent carbon radical can be stabilized by a tritiated scavenger. This approach eliminates the use of heavy metal catalysts

  7. Radiopharmaceutical labeling research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop methods of attaching radionuclides to monoclonal antibodies and antibody fragments for use in tumor imaging and internal radiation therapy. Monoclonal antibodies and their fragments are of interest because they enable the selective targeting of tumors. The labeled antibodies could be employed as carriers to transport radioisotopes to tumors, thus minimizing total-body radiation dose and radiation damage to normal tissue. Because the time required for labeled antibodies to find the tumor antigen and deliver the dose to the tumor is estimated to be about 1-3 days, radionuclides with a l- to 3-day half-life would be optimum for this purpose. Two of the radionuclides produced at LAMPF, 67 Cu and 77 Br, have the suitable half-life and nuclear-decay properties for use in tumor imaging or therapy with radiolabeled antibodies. These radionuclides and the efforts to prepare radiolabeled antibodies with them are described. We have used three different approaches to meet this objective of labeling antibodies: (1) labeling chelating agents with metal radionuclides, then conjugating the labeled chelating agents to antibodies; (2) conjugating activated chelating agents to antibodies, followed by metalation with metal radionuclides; and (3) radiobrominating small molecules that can be conjugated to antibodies

  8. Fluorine-18 labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleijn, J.P. de

    1978-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis deals with the problems involved in the adaption of reactor-produced fluorine-18 to the synthesis of 18 F-labelled organic fluorine compounds. Several 18 F-labelling reagents were prepared and successfully applied. The limitations to the synthetic possibilities of reactor-produced fluoride- 18 become manifest in the last part of the thesis. An application to the synthesis of labelled aliphatic fluoro amino acids has appeared to be unsuccessful as yet, although some other synthetic approaches can be indicated. Seven journal articles (for which see the availability note) are used to compose the four chapters and three appendices. The connecting text gives a survey of known 18 F-compounds and methods for preparing such compounds. (Auth.)

  9. Synthesis of labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, T.W.

    1977-01-01

    Intermediate compounds labeled with 13 C included methane, sodium cyanide, methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile. A new method for synthesizing 15 N-labeled 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide was developed. Studies were conducted on pathways to oleic-1- 13 C acid and a second pathway investigated was based on carbonation of 8-heptadecynylmagnesium bromide with CO 2 to prepare sterolic acid. Biosynthetic preparations included glucose- 13 C from starch isolated from tobacco leaves following photosynthetic incubation with 13 CO 2 and galactose- 13 C from galactosylglycerol- 13 C from kelp. Research on growth of organisms emphasized photosynthetic growth of algae in which all cellular carbon is labeled. Preliminary experiments were performed to optimize the growth of Escherichia coli on sodium acetate- 13 C

  10. Environmental Labels and Declarations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendal, Jeppe; Hansen, Lisbeth; Bonou, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    Based on the terminology and structure developed by the International Organization for Standardization, a description is given on the types of ecolabels that build on life cycle assessments. Focus is on type I labels that point out products and services with an overall environmental preferability...... of labelling, the use of ecolabels in marketing, and the way ecolabels help build a market for “greener products”. Type III labels—or Environmental Product Declarations—are also briefly described with indicative examples from the building sector, a declaration for office furniture, and an introduction is given...... to the European Commission’s programme for product—and organisational environmental footprints ....

  11. Semantic Role Labeling

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen

    2011-01-01

    This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

  12. Jendl-3.1 iron validation on the PCA-REPLICA (H2O/Fe) shielding benchmark experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescarini, M.; Borgia, M. G.

    1997-03-01

    The PCA-REPLICA (H 2 O/Fe) neutron shielding benchmarks experiment is analysed using the SN 2-D DOT 3.5-E code and the 3-D-equivalent flux synthesis method. This engineering benchmark reproduces the ex-core radial geometry of a PWR, including a mild steel reactor pressure vessel (RPV) simulator, and is designed to test the accuracy of the calculation of the in-vessel neutron exposure parameters. This accuracy is strongly dependent on the quality of the iron neutron cross sections used to describe the nuclear reactions within the RPV simulator. In particular, in this report, the cross sections based on the JENDL-3.1 iron data files are tested, through a comparison of the calculated integral and spectral results with the corresponding experimental data. In addition, the present results are compared, on the same benchmark experiment, with those of a preceding ENEA-Bologna validation of the ENDF/B VI iron cross sections. The integral result comparison indicates that, for all the threshold detectors considered (Rh-103 (n, n') Rh-103m, In-115 (n, n') In-115m and S-32 (n, p) P-32), the JENDL-3.1 natural iron data produce satisfactory results similar to those obtained with the ENDF/B VI iron data. On the contrary, when the JENDL/3.1 Fe-56 data file is used, strongly underestimated results are obtained for the lower energy threshold detectors, Rh-103 and In-115. This fact, in particular, becomes more evident with increasing the neutron penetration depth in the RPV simulator

  13. Competing Environmental Labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Carolyn; Lyon, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    We study markets in which consumers prefer green products but cannot determine the environmental quality of any given firm's product on their own. A nongovernmental organization (NGO) can establish a voluntary standard and label products that comply with it. Alternatively, industry can create its

  14. The Language of Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Darcy

    2005-01-01

    The author describes how the language of labels and her own cultural biases affect how she approaches teaching her students with disabilities. The author examines how the mythopoetic narratives of our past force us to examine the underlying assumptions of our culture that are expressed within our language and how understanding our own linguistic…

  15. Labeling of Cosmetic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Lionetti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The labeling of cosmetic products provides a set of obligations, as reported in the Regulation 1223/2009, which came into force in Europe in July 2013. The indications reported on the label are intended to enable the clear identification of the functionality and proper use of cosmetics, ensure the protection of the consumer from the commercial aspects and, above all, from the safety point of view. Moreover, it should allow quick tracing of the product details and all info of toxicological relevance. However, the misuse of this tool often leads, on one side, to confusion among cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and biocides. On the other side, it gives rise to fanciful interpretations by a huge number of web users, who pretend to be able to judge the quality of a cosmetic product just by reading the ingredients list. This article points out the concrete purpose of cosmetic labels, in order to shed light on the use of certain categories of ‘controversial’ ingredients and on the real quality concepts of cosmetic products. Indeed, when properly interpreted, cosmetic labels represent a good tool for the professional investigation of adverse reactions to cosmetics.

  16. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page 7, Label Training, Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human he

  17. Mixed electrical-chemical synapses in adult rat hippocampus are primarily glutamatergic and coupled by connexin-36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid eHamzei-Sichani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dendrodendritic electrical signaling via gap junctions is now an accepted feature of neuronal communication in the mammalian brain, whereas axodendritic and axosomatic gap junctions have rarely been described. We present ultrastructural, immunocytochemical, and dye-coupling evidence for mixed (electrical/chemical synapses in adult rat hippocampus on both principal cells and interneurons. Thin-section electron microscopic images of small gap junction-like appositions were found at mossy fiber (MF terminals on thorny excrescences of CA3 pyramidal neurons (CA3pyr, apparently forming glutamatergic mixed synapses. Lucifer Yellow injected into four weakly-fixed CA3pyr was detected in MF axons that contacted the injected CA3pyr, supporting gap junction-mediated coupling between those two types of principal cells. Freeze-fracture replica immunogold-labeling revealed diverse sizes and morphologies of connexin36-containing gap junctions throughout hippocampus. Of 20 immunogold-labeled gap junctions, seven were large (328-1140 connexons, three of which were consistent with electrical synapses between interneurons; but nine were at axon terminal synapses, three of which were immediately adjacent to distinctive glutamate receptor-containing postsynaptic densities, forming mixed glutamatergic synapses. Four others were adjacent to small clusters of immunogold-labeled 10-nm E-face intramembrane particles, apparently representing extrasynaptic glutamate receptor particles. Gap junctions also were on spines in stratum lucidum, stratum oriens, dentate gyrus, and hilus, on both interneurons and unidentified neurons. In addition, one putative GABAergic mixed synapse was found in thin section images of a CA3pyr, but none found by immunogold-labeling were at GABAergic mixed synapses, suggesting their rarity. Cx36-containing gap junctions throughout hippocampus suggest the possibility of reciprocal modulation of electrical and chemical signals in diverse hippocampal

  18. Spin labels. Applications in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frangopol, T.P.; Frangopol, M.; Ionescu, S.M.; Pop, I.V.; Benga, G.

    1980-11-01

    The main applications of spin labels in the study of biomembranes, enzymes, nucleic acids, in pharmacology, spin immunoassay are reviewed along with the fundamentals of the spin label method. 137 references. (author)

  19. Impact of airborne particle size, acoustic airflow and breathing pattern on delivery of nebulized antibiotic into the maxillary sinuses using a realistic human nasal replica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Lara; Pourchez, Jérémie; Aubert, Gérald; Leguellec, Sandrine; Vecellio, Laurent; Cottier, Michèle; Durand, Marc

    2014-09-01

    Improvement of clinical outcome in patients with sinuses disorders involves targeting delivery of nebulized drug into the maxillary sinuses. We investigated the impact of nebulization conditions (with and without 100 Hz acoustic airflow), particle size (9.9 μm, 2.8 μm, 550 nm and 230 nm) and breathing pattern (nasal vs. no nasal breathing) on enhancement of aerosol delivery into the sinuses using a realistic nasal replica developed by our team. After segmentation of the airways by means of high-resolution computed tomography scans, a well-characterized nasal replica was created using a rapid prototyping technology. A total of 168 intrasinus aerosol depositions were performed with changes of aerosol particle size and breathing patterns under different nebulization conditions using gentamicin as a marker. The results demonstrate that the fraction of aerosol deposited in the maxillary sinuses is enhanced by use of submicrometric aerosols, e.g. 8.155 ± 1.476 mg/L of gentamicin in the left maxillary sinus for the 2.8 μm particles vs. 2.056 ± 0.0474 for the 550 nm particles. Utilization of 100-Hz acoustic airflow nebulization also produced a 2- to 3-fold increase in drug deposition in the maxillary sinuses (e.g. 8.155 ± 1.476 vs. 3.990 ± 1.690 for the 2.8 μm particles). Our study clearly shows that optimum deposition was achieved using submicrometric particles and 100-Hz acoustic airflow nebulization with no nasal breathing. It is hoped that our new respiratory nasal replica will greatly facilitate the development of more effective delivery systems in the future.

  20. Modeling the effects of labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Fjord, Thomas Ahle; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    A new approach to evaluate the consequences of labeling is presented and applied to test the potential effect of a label on fresh fish. Labeling effects on quality perceptions and overall quality are studied. The empirical study is based on an experimental design and nearly 500 respondents...

  1. Source and replica calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whalen, P.P.

    1994-01-01

    The starting point of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki Dose Reevaluation Program is the energy and directional distributions of the prompt neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from the exploding bombs. A brief introduction to the neutron source calculations is presented. The development of our current understanding of the source problem is outlined. It is recommended that adjoint calculations be used to modify source spectra to resolve the neutron discrepancy problem

  2. ENDF/B VI iron validation onpca-replica (H2O/FE) shielding benchmark experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pescarini, M. [ENEA, Bologna (Italy). Centro Ricerche Energia `E. Clementel` - Area Energia e Innovazione

    1994-05-01

    The PCA-REPLICA (H2O/Fe) neutron shielding benchmark experiment is analysed using the SN 2-D DOT 3.5 code and the 3-D-equivalent flux synthesis method. This engineering benchmark reproduces the ex-core radial geometry of a PWR, including a mild steel reactor pressure vessel (RPV) simulator, and is dsigned to test the accuracy of the calculation of the in-vessel neutron exposure parameters (fast fluence and iron displacement rates). This accuracy is strongly dependent on the quality of the iron neutron cross section used to describe the nuclear reactions within the RPV simulator. In particular, in this report, the cross sections based on the ENDF/B VI iron data files are tested, through a comparison of the calculated integral and spectral results with the corresponding experimental data. In addition, the present results are compared, on the same benchmark experiment, with those of a preceding ENEA (Italian Agency for Energy, New Technologies and Environment)-Bologna validation of the JEF-2.1 iron cross sections. The integral result comparison indicates that, for all the thresold detectors considered (Rh-103 (n,n) Rh-103m, In-115 (n,n) In-115 (n,n) In-115m and S-32 (n.p) P-32), the ENDF/B VI iron data produce better results than the JEF-2.1 iron data. In particular, in the ENDF/B VI calcultaions, an improvement of the in-vessel C/E (Calculated/Experimental) activity ratios for the lower energy threshold detectors, Rh-103 and In-115, is observed. This improvement becomes more evident with increasing neutron penetration depth in the vessel. This is probably attributable to the fact that the inelastic scattering cross section values of the ENDF/B VI Fe-56 data file, approximately in the 0.86 - 1.5 MeV energy range, are lower then the corresponding values of the JEF-2.1 data file.

  3. Dynamical replica analysis of processes on finitely connected random graphs: II. Dynamics in the Griffiths phase of the diluted Ising ferromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozeika, A; Coolen, A C C

    2009-01-01

    We study the Glauber dynamics of Ising spin models with random bonds, on finitely connected random graphs. We generalize a recent dynamical replica theory with which to predict the evolution of the joint spin-field distribution, to include random graphs with arbitrary degree distributions. The theory is applied to Ising ferromagnets on randomly diluted Bethe lattices, where we study the evolution of the magnetization and the internal energy. It predicts a prominent slowing down of the flow in the Griffiths phase, it suggests a further dynamical transition at lower temperatures within the Griffiths phase, and it is verified quantitatively by the results of Monte Carlo simulations

  4. Isotopically labelled benzodiazepines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebman, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports on the benzodiazepines which are a class of therapeutic agents. Improvements in the analytical methodology in the areas of biochemistry and pharmacology were significant, particularly in the application of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. In addition, the discovery and subsequent development of tritium and carbon-14 as an analytical tool in the biological sciences were essentially post-world war II phenomena. Thus, as these new chemical entities were found to be biologically active, they could be prepared in labeled form for metabolic study, biological half-life determination (pharmacokinetics), tissue distribution study, etc. This use of tracer methodology has been liberally applied to the benzodiazepines and also more recently to the study of receptor-ligand interactions, in which tritium, carbon-11 or fluorine-18 isotopes have been used. The history of benzodiazepines as medicinal agents is indeed an interesting one; an integral part of that history is their use in just about every conceivable labeled form

  5. Review of nutrition labeling formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, C J; Wyse, B W; Parent, C R; Hansen, R G

    1991-07-01

    This article examines nutrition labeling history as well as the findings of nine research studies of nutrition labeling formats. Nutrition labeling regulations were announced in 1973 and have been periodically amended since then. In response to requests from consumers and health care professionals for revision of the labeling system, the Food and Drug Administration initiated a three-phase plan for reform of nutrition labeling in 1990. President Bush signed the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act in November 1990. Literature analysis revealed that only nine studies with an experimental design have focused on nutrition labeling since 1971. Four were conducted before 1975, which was the year that nutrition labeling was officially implemented, two were conducted in 1980, and three were conducted after 1986. Only two of the nine studies supported the traditional label format mandated by the Code of Federal Regulations, and one study partially supported it. Four of the nine studies that evaluated graphic presentations of nutrition information found that consumer comprehension of nutrition information was improved with a graphic format for nutrition labeling: three studies supported the use of bar graphs and one study supported the use of a pie chart. Full disclosure (ie, complete nutrient and ingredient labeling) was preferred by consumers in two of the three studies that examined this variable. The third study supported three types of information disclosure dependent upon socioeconomic class. In those studies that tested graphics, a bar graph format was significantly preferred and showed better consumer comprehension than the traditional format.

  6. Linerless label device and method

    KAUST Repository

    Binladen, Abdulkari

    2016-01-14

    This apparatus and method for applying a linerless label to an end user product includes a device with a printer for printing on a face surface of a linerless label, and a release coat applicator for applying a release coat to the face surface of the label; another device including an unwinder unit (103) to unwind a roll of printed linerless label; a belt (108); a glue applicator (102) for applying glue to the belt; a nip roller (106) for contacting and applying pressure to the face surface of the linerless label such that the glue on the belt transfers to the back surface of the linerless label; at least one slitting knife 105) positioned downstream the belt and a rewinder unit (104) positioned downstream the slitting knife; and a third device which die cuts and applies the linerless label to an end user object.

  7. Replica exchange enveloping distribution sampling (RE-EDS): A robust method to estimate multiple free-energy differences from a single simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidler, Dominik; Schwaninger, Arthur; Riniker, Sereina

    2016-10-21

    In molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, free-energy differences are often calculated using free energy perturbation or thermodynamic integration (TI) methods. However, both techniques are only suited to calculate free-energy differences between two end states. Enveloping distribution sampling (EDS) presents an attractive alternative that allows to calculate multiple free-energy differences in a single simulation. In EDS, a reference state is simulated which "envelopes" the end states. The challenge of this methodology is the determination of optimal reference-state parameters to ensure equal sampling of all end states. Currently, the automatic determination of the reference-state parameters for multiple end states is an unsolved issue that limits the application of the methodology. To resolve this, we have generalised the replica-exchange EDS (RE-EDS) approach, introduced by Lee et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 2738 (2014)] for constant-pH MD simulations. By exchanging configurations between replicas with different reference-state parameters, the complexity of the parameter-choice problem can be substantially reduced. A new robust scheme to estimate the reference-state parameters from a short initial RE-EDS simulation with default parameters was developed, which allowed the calculation of 36 free-energy differences between nine small-molecule inhibitors of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase from a single simulation. The resulting free-energy differences were in excellent agreement with values obtained previously by TI and two-state EDS simulations.

  8. Measurements of hadron yields from the T2K replica target in the NA61/SHINE experiment for neutrino flux prediction in T2K

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2086777

    T2K is an accelerator-based long-baseline neutrino experiment in Japan. The main goal of the T2K experiment is a search for CP violation in the lepton sector by measuring electron (anti)neutrino appearance in a muon (anti)neutrino beam. Initial (anti)neutrino flux is produced in decays of hadrons which originate from the interactions and the re-interactions of a $30\\:$GeV proton beam with a $90\\:$cm long graphite target. Knowledge of the T2K neutrino flux is limited due to large hadron production uncertainties. A series of hadron production measurements were done to solve this problem, in the NA61/SHINE experiment at CERN. Measurements were performed with a proton beam and two target types: a thin graphite target and a replica of the T2K target. Work presented in this thesis concentrates on the T2K replica target data taken in 2010 and the development of the analysis and calibration software. The aim of these measurements is to fully constrain production of $\\pi^+$, $\\pi^-$, $K^+$, $K^-$ and $p$ coming from t...

  9. Derivation of the probability distribution function for the local density of states of a disordered quantum wire via the replica trick and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunder, J.E.J.E.; McKenzie, R.H.Ross H.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the statistical properties of the local density of states of a one-dimensional Dirac equation in the presence of various types of disorder with Gaussian white-noise distribution. It is shown how either the replica trick or supersymmetry can be used to calculate exactly all the moments of the local density of states. Careful attention is paid to how the results change if the local density of states is averaged over atomic length scales. For both the replica trick and supersymmetry the problem is reduced to finding the ground state of a zero-dimensional Hamiltonian which is written solely in terms of a pair of coupled 'spins' which are elements of u(1,1). This ground state is explicitly found for the particular case of the Dirac equation corresponding to an infinite metallic quantum wire with a single conduction channel. The calculated moments of the local density of states agree with those found previously by Al'tshuler and Prigodin [Sov. Phys. JETP 68 (1989) 198] using a technique based on recursion relations for Feynman diagrams

  10. Autotransplantation of teeth using computer-aided rapid prototyping of a three-dimensional replica of the donor tooth: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, J P; Jongkees, F A; Anssari Moin, D; Wismeijer, D; van Merkesteyn, J P R

    2017-11-01

    This systematic review provides an overview of studies on autotransplantation techniques using rapid prototyping for preoperative fabrication of donor tooth replicas for preparation of the neo-alveolus. Different three-dimensional autotransplantation techniques and their treatment outcomes are discussed. The systematic literature search yielded 19 articles that satisfied the criteria for inclusion. These papers described one case-control study, four clinical observational studies, one study with a clinical and in vitro part, four in vitro studies, and nine case reports. The in vitro studies reported high accuracy for the printing and planning processes. The case reports all reported successful transplantation without any pathological signs. The clinical studies reported a short extraoral time of the donor tooth, with subsequent success and survival rates of 80.0-91.1% and 95.5-100%, respectively. The case-control study reported a significant decrease in extraoral time and high success rates with the use of donor tooth replicas. In conclusion, the use of a preoperatively designed surgical guide for autotransplantation enables accurate positional planning, increases the ease of surgery, and decreases the extraoral time. However, the quality of the existing body of evidence is low. Further research is therefore required to investigate the clinical advantages of this innovative autotransplantation technique. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Labelled compounds. (Pt. B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buncel, E.; Jones, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Since the end of World War II there has been a tremendous increase in the number of compounds that have been synthesized with radioactive or stable isotopes. They have found application in many diverse fields, so much so, that hardly a single area in pure and applied science has not benefited. Not surprisingly it has been reflected in appearance of related publications. The early proceedings of the Symposia on Advances in Trace Methodology were soon followed by various Euratom sponsored meetings in which methods of preparing and storing labelled compounds featured prominently. In due course a resurgence of interest in stable isotopes, brought about by their greater availability (also lower cost) and partly by development of new techniques such as gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (gc-ms), led to the publication of proceedings of several successful conferences. More recently conferences dealing with the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds have been established on a regular basis. In addition to the proceedings of conferences and journal publications individuals left their mark by producing definitive texts, usually on specific nuclides. Only the classic two volume publication of Murray and Williams (Organic syntheses with isotopes, New York 1985), now over 30 years old and out of print, attempted to do justice to several nuclides. With the large amount of work that has been undertaken since then it seems unlikely that an updated edition could be produced. The alternative strategy was to ask scientists currently active to review specific areas and this is the approach adopted in the present series of monographs. In this way it is intended to cover the broad advances that have been made in the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds in the physical and biomedical sciences. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  12. From Label to Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Strandgaard, Jesper; Svejenova, Silviya

    2013-01-01

    because NNC was conceived as an identity movement, triggered by active involvement of entrepreneurial leaders from the culinary profession, high-profile political supporters, legitimating scientists, disseminating media, and interpreting audiences. It was facilitated by three mechanisms: First, the use......This article examines the process of creation of new Nordic cuisine (NNC) as a culinary innovation, focusing on the main stages, actors, and mechanisms that shaped the new label and its practices and facilitated its diffusion in the region and internationally. Fast-paced diffusion was possible...

  13. Three-Dimensional (X,Y,Z) Deterministic Analysis of the PCA-Replica Neutron Shielding Benchmark Experiment using the TORT-3.2 Code and Group Cross Section Libraries for LWR Shielding and Pressure Vessel Dosimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Pescarini Massimo; Orsi Roberto; Frisoni Manuela

    2016-01-01

    The PCA-Replica 12/13 (H2O/Fe) neutron shielding benchmark experiment was analysed using the ORNL TORT-3.2 3D SN code. PCA-Replica, specifically conceived to test the accuracy of nuclear data and transport codes employed in LWR shielding and radiation damage calculations, reproduces a PWR ex-core radial geometry with alternate layers of water and steel including a PWR pressure vessel simulator. Three broad-group coupled neutron/photon working cross section libraries in FIDO-ANISN format with ...

  14. Validation of the BUGJEFF311.BOLIB, BUGENDF70.BOLIB and BUGLE-B7 broad-group libraries on the PCA-Replica (H2O/Fe) neutron shielding benchmark experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Pescarini Massimo; Orsi Roberto; Frisoni Manuela

    2016-01-01

    The PCA-Replica 12/13 (H2O/Fe) neutron shielding benchmark experiment was analysed using the TORT-3.2 3D SN code. PCA-Replica reproduces a PWR ex-core radial geometry with alternate layers of water and steel including a pressure vessel simulator. Three broad-group coupled neutron/photon working cross section libraries in FIDO-ANISN format with the same energy group structure (47 n + 20 γ) and based on different nuclear data were alternatively used: the ENEA BUGJEFF311.BOLIB (JEFF-3.1.1) and U...

  15. Label and Label-Free Detection Techniques for Protein Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Syahir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein microarray technology has gone through numerous innovative developments in recent decades. In this review, we focus on the development of protein detection methods embedded in the technology. Early microarrays utilized useful chromophores and versatile biochemical techniques dominated by high-throughput illumination. Recently, the realization of label-free techniques has been greatly advanced by the combination of knowledge in material sciences, computational design and nanofabrication. These rapidly advancing techniques aim to provide data without the intervention of label molecules. Here, we present a brief overview of this remarkable innovation from the perspectives of label and label-free techniques in transducing nano‑biological events.

  16. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoille...... variants such as, for example, small distances in trees [Alstrup et al., SODA, 2003]. We improve the known upper and lower bounds of exact distance labeling by showing that 1/4 log2(n) bits are needed and that 1/2 log2(n) bits are sufficient. We also give (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes using Theta...

  17. Co-Labeling for Multi-View Weakly Labeled Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinxing; Li, Wen; Xu, Dong; Tsang, Ivor W

    2016-06-01

    It is often expensive and time consuming to collect labeled training samples in many real-world applications. To reduce human effort on annotating training samples, many machine learning techniques (e.g., semi-supervised learning (SSL), multi-instance learning (MIL), etc.) have been studied to exploit weakly labeled training samples. Meanwhile, when the training data is represented with multiple types of features, many multi-view learning methods have shown that classifiers trained on different views can help each other to better utilize the unlabeled training samples for the SSL task. In this paper, we study a new learning problem called multi-view weakly labeled learning, in which we aim to develop a unified approach to learn robust classifiers by effectively utilizing different types of weakly labeled multi-view data from a broad range of tasks including SSL, MIL and relative outlier detection (ROD). We propose an effective approach called co-labeling to solve the multi-view weakly labeled learning problem. Specifically, we model the learning problem on each view as a weakly labeled learning problem, which aims to learn an optimal classifier from a set of pseudo-label vectors generated by using the classifiers trained from other views. Unlike traditional co-training approaches using a single pseudo-label vector for training each classifier, our co-labeling approach explores different strategies to utilize the predictions from different views, biases and iterations for generating the pseudo-label vectors, making our approach more robust for real-world applications. Moreover, to further improve the weakly labeled learning on each view, we also exploit the inherent group structure in the pseudo-label vectors generated from different strategies, which leads to a new multi-layer multiple kernel learning problem. Promising results for text-based image retrieval on the NUS-WIDE dataset as well as news classification and text categorization on several real-world multi

  18. The radioactive labeling of monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensing, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    With the aim of studying a possible relationship between circulating monocytes and Sternberg-Reed cells investigations were started on the specific labeling of monocytes. In this thesis the literature on the pertinent data has been reviewed and a series of experiments on the monocyte labeling procedure has been described. The principles of cell labeling with radioactive compounds were discussed. 1. Total separation of the particular cell population to be labeled and subsequent labeling with a non-specific radiopharmaceutical. 2. Specific cell labeling in a mixture of cell types based on a well defined affinity of the cell under study for the radiopharmaceutical used. Next the radionuclides that can be used for cell labeling purposes were discussed with special attention for 111 In and its chelates. The principles of radiodosimetry were also discussed shortly. This section was focussed on the radiation dose the labeled cells receive because of the intracellular localized radioactivity. The radiation burden is high in comparison to amounts of radiation known to affect cell viability. A newly developed method for labeling monocytes specifically by phagocytosis of 111 In-Fe-colloid without apparent loss of cells was described in detail. (Auth.)

  19. Labelled molecules, modern research implements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichat, L.; Langourieux, Y.

    1974-01-01

    Details of the synthesis of carbon 14- and tritium-labelled molecules are examined. Although the methods used are those of classical organic chemistry the preparation of carbon 14-labelled molecules differs in some respects, most noticeably in the use of 14 CO 2 which requires very special handling techniques. For the tritium labelling of organic molecules the methods are somewhat different, very often involving exchange reactions. The following are described in turn: the so-called Wilzbach exchange method; exchange by catalysis in solution; catalytic hydrogenation with tritium; reductions with borotritides. Some applications of labelled molecules in organic chemistry, biochemistry and pharmacology are listed [fr

  20. A Dual-Channel Acquisition Method Based on Extended Replica Folding Algorithm for Long Pseudo-Noise Code in Inter-Satellite Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongbo; Chen, Yuying; Feng, Wenquan; Zhuang, Chen

    2018-05-25

    Inter-satellite links are an important component of the new generation of satellite navigation systems, characterized by low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), complex electromagnetic interference and the short time slot of each satellite, which brings difficulties to the acquisition stage. The inter-satellite link in both Global Positioning System (GPS) and BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) adopt the long code spread spectrum system. However, long code acquisition is a difficult and time-consuming task due to the long code period. Traditional folding methods such as extended replica folding acquisition search technique (XFAST) and direct average are largely restricted because of code Doppler and additional SNR loss caused by replica folding. The dual folding method (DF-XFAST) and dual-channel method have been proposed to achieve long code acquisition in low SNR and high dynamic situations, respectively, but the former is easily affected by code Doppler and the latter is not fast enough. Considering the environment of inter-satellite links and the problems of existing algorithms, this paper proposes a new long code acquisition algorithm named dual-channel acquisition method based on the extended replica folding algorithm (DC-XFAST). This method employs dual channels for verification. Each channel contains an incoming signal block. Local code samples are folded and zero-padded to the length of the incoming signal block. After a circular FFT operation, the correlation results contain two peaks of the same magnitude and specified relative position. The detection process is eased through finding the two largest values. The verification takes all the full and partial peaks into account. Numerical results reveal that the DC-XFAST method can improve acquisition performance while acquisition speed is guaranteed. The method has a significantly higher acquisition probability than folding methods XFAST and DF-XFAST. Moreover, with the advantage of higher detection

  1. A Dual-Channel Acquisition Method Based on Extended Replica Folding Algorithm for Long Pseudo-Noise Code in Inter-Satellite Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Zhao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Inter-satellite links are an important component of the new generation of satellite navigation systems, characterized by low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, complex electromagnetic interference and the short time slot of each satellite, which brings difficulties to the acquisition stage. The inter-satellite link in both Global Positioning System (GPS and BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS adopt the long code spread spectrum system. However, long code acquisition is a difficult and time-consuming task due to the long code period. Traditional folding methods such as extended replica folding acquisition search technique (XFAST and direct average are largely restricted because of code Doppler and additional SNR loss caused by replica folding. The dual folding method (DF-XFAST and dual-channel method have been proposed to achieve long code acquisition in low SNR and high dynamic situations, respectively, but the former is easily affected by code Doppler and the latter is not fast enough. Considering the environment of inter-satellite links and the problems of existing algorithms, this paper proposes a new long code acquisition algorithm named dual-channel acquisition method based on the extended replica folding algorithm (DC-XFAST. This method employs dual channels for verification. Each channel contains an incoming signal block. Local code samples are folded and zero-padded to the length of the incoming signal block. After a circular FFT operation, the correlation results contain two peaks of the same magnitude and specified relative position. The detection process is eased through finding the two largest values. The verification takes all the full and partial peaks into account. Numerical results reveal that the DC-XFAST method can improve acquisition performance while acquisition speed is guaranteed. The method has a significantly higher acquisition probability than folding methods XFAST and DF-XFAST. Moreover, with the advantage of higher

  2. SEM/EDX and vis spectrophotometry study of the stability of resin-bound mortars used for casting replicas and filling missing parts of historic stone fountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig-Salom, José-Luis; Doménech-Carbó, María-Teresa; de la Cruz-Cañizares, Juana; Bolívar-Galiano, Fernando; Pelufo-Carbonell, María-José; Peraza-Zurita, Yaiza

    2003-04-01

    A study by SEM/EDX and spectrophotometry in the visible region attempting to assess the stability of new resin-bound mortars used for casting replicas of marble historic fountains is presented in this paper. Different accelerating tests such as thermal ageing, UV light ageing, ageing in an SO(2) pollutant chamber, freezing cycles ageing, salt crystallisation ageing, natural ageing and biological attack have been applied to a series of test specimens prepared with polyester-, epoxy- and gel-coat-bound mortars. Examination of morphology, measurement of chemical composition and chromatic coordinates before and after ageing treatments establish the higher stability and resistance properties of these resin-bound mortars by comparison to those from the natural marbles.

  3. Large sample NAA of a pottery replica utilizing thermal neutron flux at AHWR critical facility and X-Z rotary scanning unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.; Dasari, K.B.; Pujari, P.K.; Swain, K.K.; Shinde, A.D.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2013-01-01

    Large sample neutron activation analysis (LSNAA) of a clay pottery replica from Peru was carried out using low neutron flux graphite reflector position of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) critical facility. This work was taken up as a part of inter-comparison exercise under IAEA CRP on LSNAA of archaeological objects. Irradiated large size sample, placed on an X-Z rotary scanning unit, was assayed using a 40% relative efficiency HPGe detector. The k 0 -based internal monostandard NAA (IM-NAA) in conjunction with insitu relative detection efficiency was used to calculate concentration ratios of 12 elements with respect to Na. Analyses of both small and large size samples were carried out to check homogeneity and to arrive at absolute concentrations. (author)

  4. Statistical mechanics of stochastic neural networks: Relationship between the self-consistent signal-to-noise analysis, Thouless-Anderson-Palmer equation, and replica symmetric calculation approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiino, Masatoshi; Yamana, Michiko

    2004-01-01

    We study the statistical mechanical aspects of stochastic analog neural network models for associative memory with correlation type learning. We take three approaches to derive the set of the order parameter equations for investigating statistical properties of retrieval states: the self-consistent signal-to-noise analysis (SCSNA), the Thouless-Anderson-Palmer (TAP) equation, and the replica symmetric calculation. On the basis of the cavity method the SCSNA can be generalized to deal with stochastic networks. We establish the close connection between the TAP equation and the SCSNA to elucidate the relationship between the Onsager reaction term of the TAP equation and the output proportional term of the SCSNA that appear in the expressions for the local fields

  5. Radioactive decay and labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter on radioactive decay and labeled compounds has numerous intext equations and worked, sample problems. Topics covered include the following: terms and mathematics of radioactive decay; examples of calculations; graphs of decay equations; radioactivity or activity; activity measurements; activity decay; half-life determinations; labeled compounds. A 20 problem set is also included. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. Linerless label device and method

    KAUST Repository

    Binladen, Abdulkari

    2016-01-01

    This apparatus and method for applying a linerless label to an end user product includes a device with a printer for printing on a face surface of a linerless label, and a release coat applicator for applying a release coat to the face surface

  7. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  8. 21 CFR 201.70 - Calcium labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium labeling. 201.70 Section 201.70 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.70 Calcium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the calcium content per...

  9. 49 CFR 172.450 - EMPTY label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EMPTY label. 172.450 Section 172.450... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.450 EMPTY label. (a) Each EMPTY label, except for size, must be as follows....) in height. (2) The label must be white with black printing. (b) [Reserved] ...

  10. 21 CFR 610.60 - Container label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Container label. 610.60 Section 610.60 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.60 Container label. (a) Full label. The following items shall appear on the label affixed to each container of a product capable of bearing a full...

  11. 49 CFR 172.442 - CORROSIVE label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CORROSIVE label. 172.442 Section 172.442... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.442 CORROSIVE label. (a) Except for size and color, the CORROSIVE label must... CORROSIVE label must be white in the top half and black in the lower half. [Amdt. 172-123, 56 FR 66259, Dec...

  12. 16 CFR 460.12 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labels. 460.12 Section 460.12 Commercial....12 Labels. If you are a manufacturer, you must label all packages of your insulation. The labels must... chart. Labels for these products must state the minimum net weight of the insulation in the package. You...

  13. 49 CFR 172.441 - FISSILE label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FISSILE label. 172.441 Section 172.441... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.441 FISSILE label. (a) Except for size and color, the FISSILE label must be... FISSILE label must be white. [69 FR 3669, Jan. 26, 2004] ...

  14. 49 CFR 172.426 - OXIDIZER label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false OXIDIZER label. 172.426 Section 172.426... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.426 OXIDIZER label. (a) Except for size and color, the OXIDIZER label must be... OXIDIZER label must be yellow. [Amdt. 172-123, 56 FR 66257, Dec. 20, 1991] ...

  15. Replica exchange simulation of reversible folding/unfolding of the Trp-cage miniprotein in explicit solvent: on the structure and possible role of internal water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschek, Dietmar; Nymeyer, Hugh; García, Angel E

    2007-03-01

    We simulate the folding/unfolding equilibrium of the 20-residue miniprotein Trp-cage. We use replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of the AMBER94 atomic detail model of the protein explicitly solvated by water, starting from a completely unfolded configuration. We employ a total of 40 replicas, covering the temperature range between 280 and 538 K. Individual simulation lengths of 100 ns sum up to a total simulation time of about 4 micros. Without any bias, we observe the folding of the protein into the native state with an unfolding-transition temperature of about 440 K. The native state is characterized by a distribution of root mean square distances (RMSD) from the NMR data that peaks at 1.8A, and is as low as 0.4A. We show that equilibration times of about 40 ns are required to yield convergence. A folded configuration in the entire extended ensemble is found to have a lifetime of about 31 ns. In a clamp-like motion, the Trp-cage opens up during thermal denaturation. In line with fluorescence quenching experiments, the Trp-residue sidechain gets hydrated when the protein opens up, roughly doubling the number of water molecules in the first solvation shell. We find the helical propensity of the helical domain of Trp-cage rather well preserved even at very high temperatures. In the folded state, we can identify states with one and two buried internal water molecules interconnecting parts of the Trp-cage molecule by hydrogen bonds. The loss of hydrogen bonds of these buried water molecules in the folded state with increasing temperature is likely to destabilize the folded state at elevated temperatures.

  16. A better carbon footprint label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Nielsen, Kristian S.

    2016-01-01

    , participants saw the original Carbon Trust label and in the other condition they saw the same label, but with traffic light colors added to communicate the product’s relative performance in terms of carbon footprint. All included attributes were found to have a significant impact on consumer choices....... As expected, price and carbon footprint were negatively related to choice. Further, participants preferred organic to non-organic coffee and certification by a public authority. The effect of the carbon label is significantly stronger the more environmentally concerned the consumer is. Using colors...... to indicate relative carbon footprint significantly increases carbon label effectiveness. Hence, a carbon footprint label is more effective if it uses traffic light colors to communicate the product’s relative performance....

  17. Photoaffinity labeling of bacteriorhodopsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Weidong; Tsipouras, Athanasios; Ok, Hyun; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Gawinowicz, M.A.; Nakanishi, Koji

    1990-01-01

    14 C-Labeled optically pure 3S- and 3R-(diazoacetoxy)-all-trans-retinals were incorporated separately into bacterioopsin to reconstitute functional bacteriorhodopsin (bR) analogues, 3S- and 3R-diazo-bRs. UV irradiation at 254 nm generated highly reactive carbenes, which cross-linked the radiolabeled retinals to amino acid residues in the vicinity of the β-ionone ring. The 3S- and 3R-diazo analogues were found to cross-link, respectively, to cyanogen bromide fragments CN 7/CN 9 and CN 8/CN 9. More specifically, Thr121 and Gly122 in fragment CN 7 were found to be cross-linked to the 3S-diazo analogue. The identification of cross-linked residues and fragments favors assignments of the seven helices A-G-F-E-D-C-B or B-C-D-E-F-G-A to helices 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 in the two-dimensional electron density map. The present results show that the chromophore chain is oriented with the ionone ring inclined toward the outside of the membrane (the 9-methyl group also faces the extracellular side of the membrane)

  18. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dimethyl Disulfide (DMDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for label details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  19. Mobile Application for Pesticide Label Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    The label matching application will give inspectors the ability to instantly compare pesticide product labels against state and federal label databases via their cell phone, tablet or other mobile device.

  20. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should ... for Parents Figuring Out Food Labels Smart Supermarket Shopping Figuring Out Fat and Calories Food Labels View ...

  1. 21 CFR 1302.04 - Location and size of symbol on label and labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Location and size of symbol on label and labeling... AND PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 1302.04 Location and size of symbol on label and labeling. The symbol shall be prominently located on the label or the labeling of the commercial...

  2. Regularized Label Relaxation Linear Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaozhao; Xu, Yong; Li, Xuelong; Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Fang, Bingwu

    2018-04-01

    Linear regression (LR) and some of its variants have been widely used for classification problems. Most of these methods assume that during the learning phase, the training samples can be exactly transformed into a strict binary label matrix, which has too little freedom to fit the labels adequately. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose a novel regularized label relaxation LR method, which has the following notable characteristics. First, the proposed method relaxes the strict binary label matrix into a slack variable matrix by introducing a nonnegative label relaxation matrix into LR, which provides more freedom to fit the labels and simultaneously enlarges the margins between different classes as much as possible. Second, the proposed method constructs the class compactness graph based on manifold learning and uses it as the regularization item to avoid the problem of overfitting. The class compactness graph is used to ensure that the samples sharing the same labels can be kept close after they are transformed. Two different algorithms, which are, respectively, based on -norm and -norm loss functions are devised. These two algorithms have compact closed-form solutions in each iteration so that they are easily implemented. Extensive experiments show that these two algorithms outperform the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of the classification accuracy and running time.

  3. Selective backbone labelling of ILV methyl labelled proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibille, Nathalie; Hanoulle, Xavier; Bonachera, Fanny; Verdegem, Dries; Landrieu, Isabelle; Wieruszeski, Jean-Michel; Lippens, Guy

    2009-01-01

    Adding the 13 C labelled 2-keto-isovalerate and 2-oxobutanoate precursors to a minimal medium composed of 12 C labelled glucose instead of the commonly used ( 2 D, 13 C) glucose leads not only to the 13 C labelling of (I, L, V) methyls but also to the selective 13 C labelling of the backbone C α and CO carbons of the Ile and Val residues. As a result, the backbone ( 1 H, 15 N) correlations of the Ile and Val residues and their next neighbours in the (i + 1) position can be selectively identified in HN(CA) and HN(CO) planes. The availability of a selective HSQC spectrum corresponding to the sole amide resonances of the Ile and Val residues allows connecting them to their corresponding methyls by the intra-residue NOE effect, and should therefore be applicable to larger systems

  4. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  5. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page 6, Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment

  6. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  7. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  8. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human he

  9. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  10. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  11. 16 CFR 306.12 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labels. 306.12 Section 306.12 Commercial..., CERTIFICATION AND POSTING Label Specifications § 306.12 Labels. All labels must meet the following specifications: (a) Layout—(1) For gasoline labels. The label is 3″ (7.62 cm) wide × 21/2″ (6.35 cm) long. The...

  12. New labels for radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Susumu; Mukai, Minoru; Kato, Hirotoshi (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    In simulating radiotherapy, the bone and trachea identified by plain X-P and the other organs, such as the esophagus and bladder, outlined by contrast medium have so far been used as labels. However, irradiation with a high therapeutic ratio is required for an intracorporeal insertion of artificial labels that are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy. For this purpose, metal clips and seed dummies are available, although they cause artifacts in CT scans. Therefore, the authors are using an acupuncture needle and lipiodol for tracing as new artificial labels, since both are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy and CT scan and create few artifacts. (J.P.N.).

  13. Patient identification and tube labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dongen-Lases, Edmée C; Cornes, Michael P; Grankvist, Kjell

    2016-01-01

    of phlebotomy procedures with the CLSI H3-A6 guideline was unacceptably low, and that patient identification and tube labelling are amongst the most critical steps in need of immediate attention and improvement. The process of patient identification and tube labelling is an essential safety barrier to prevent...... patient identity mix-up. Therefore, the EFLM Working Group aims to encourage and support worldwide harmonisation of patient identification and tube labelling procedures in order to reduce the risk of preanalytical errors and improve patient safety. With this Position paper we wish to raise awareness...... and provide recommendations for proper patient and sample identification procedures....

  14. New labels for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Susumu; Mukai, Minoru; Kato, Hirotoshi

    1992-01-01

    In simulating radiotherapy, the bone and trachea identified by plain X-P and the other organs, such as the esophagus and bladder, outlined by contrast medium have so far been used as labels. However, irradiation with a high therapeutic ratio is required for an intracorporeal insertion of artificial labels that are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy. For this purpose, metal clips and seed dummies are available, although they cause artifacts in CT scans. Therefore, the authors are using an acupuncture needle and lipiodol for tracing as new artificial labels, since both are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy and CT scan and create few artifacts. (J.P.N.)

  15. Selenium-75-labelled foliate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A saturation method to analyze a foliate is presented; it uses competitive reaction of the compound to be measured and of a radioactive-labelled version of this compound with a reagent specific to this compound present in insufficient quantity to combine with the whole of the compound and its labelled version, separation of the bound compound from its non-bound homologue and measurement of the radioactivity concentration in the bound compound, the non-bound compound or both. The radioactive isotope used in the labelled foliate is selenium 75 [fr

  16. Quality control of labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matucha, M.

    1979-01-01

    Some advantages and disadvantages of methods used for quality control of organic labelled compounds (1 31 I, 14 C) are shortly discussed. The methods used are electrophoresis, ultraviolet and infrared spectrometry, radiogas and thin-layer chromatography. (author)

  17. Labelling GM-free Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Punt, Maarten; Venus, Thomas; Wesseler, Justus

    2016-01-01

    Food suppliers in the EU must comply with labelling regulations for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). However, excluded from mandatory labelling are food products derived from animals fed with GM feed (mainly GM soybean in the EU). Because of this labelling exemption, consumers are unable....... We asked them whether they produce ‘GM-free’ and to assess the ‘GM-free’ market in terms of (1) the current status, (2) potential benefits, (3) limitations and (4) risks. We find that smaller dairy companies mostly switch completely, whereas ‘GM-free’ production of larger dairy companies is often...... to identify which animal products were derived without the use of GMOs. Therefore, Germany and other countries introduced voluntary ‘GM-free’ labelling legislations or guidelines that allow companies to signal that their products are ‘GM-free’. We present the results of a survey among German dairy companies...

  18. Canonical Labelling of Site Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Oury

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate algorithms for canonical labelling of site graphs, i.e. graphs in which edges bind vertices on sites with locally unique names. We first show that the problem of canonical labelling of site graphs reduces to the problem of canonical labelling of graphs with edge colourings. We then present two canonical labelling algorithms based on edge enumeration, and a third based on an extension of Hopcroft's partition refinement algorithm. All run in quadratic worst case time individually. However, one of the edge enumeration algorithms runs in sub-quadratic time for graphs with "many" automorphisms, and the partition refinement algorithm runs in sub-quadratic time for graphs with "few" bisimulation equivalences. This suite of algorithms was chosen based on the expectation that graphs fall in one of those two categories. If that is the case, a combined algorithm runs in sub-quadratic worst case time. Whether this expectation is reasonable remains an interesting open problem.

  19. Synthesis of isotopically labelled salicylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.R.; Pryor, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    [ 13 C-carboxyl]Salicylic acid has been prepared by carbonation of 2-benzyloxybromobenzene followed by reductive debenzylation. Deuterium and tritium labelled salicylic acid and 2 H 2 / 13 C-salicylic acid were prepared by reduction of the 3,5-dibromo derivatives using Raney Ni-Al. Deuterium labelled salicylic acid containing up to four deuterium atoms was prepared by catalytic exchange with Raney Ni-Al in 5% NaOD/D 2 O. (author)

  20. Mindboggle: Automated brain labeling with multiple atlases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Arno; Mensh, Brett; Ghosh, Satrajit; Tourville, Jason; Hirsch, Joy

    2005-01-01

    To make inferences about brain structures or activity across multiple individuals, one first needs to determine the structural correspondences across their image data. We have recently developed Mindboggle as a fully automated, feature-matching approach to assign anatomical labels to cortical structures and activity in human brain MRI data. Label assignment is based on structural correspondences between labeled atlases and unlabeled image data, where an atlas consists of a set of labels manually assigned to a single brain image. In the present work, we study the influence of using variable numbers of individual atlases to nonlinearly label human brain image data. Each brain image voxel of each of 20 human subjects is assigned a label by each of the remaining 19 atlases using Mindboggle. The most common label is selected and is given a confidence rating based on the number of atlases that assigned that label. The automatically assigned labels for each subject brain are compared with the manual labels for that subject (its atlas). Unlike recent approaches that transform subject data to a labeled, probabilistic atlas space (constructed from a database of atlases), Mindboggle labels a subject by each atlas in a database independently. When Mindboggle labels a human subject's brain image with at least four atlases, the resulting label agreement with coregistered manual labels is significantly higher than when only a single atlas is used. Different numbers of atlases provide significantly higher label agreements for individual brain regions. Increasing the number of reference brains used to automatically label a human subject brain improves labeling accuracy with respect to manually assigned labels. Mindboggle software can provide confidence measures for labels based on probabilistic assignment of labels and could be applied to large databases of brain images

  1. 21 CFR 332.31 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 332.31 Section 332.31 Food... HUMAN USE ANTIFLATULENT PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 332.31 Professional labeling. (a) The labeling of the product provided to health professionals (but not to the general public) may...

  2. 21 CFR 349.80 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 349.80 Section 349.80 Food... HUMAN USE OPHTHALMIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 349.80 Professional labeling. The labeling of any OTC ophthalmic demulcent drug product provided to health professionals (but...

  3. 21 CFR 341.90 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 341.90 Section 341.90 Food... HUMAN USE Labeling § 341.90 Professional labeling. The labeling of the product provided to health professionals (but not to the general public) may contain the following additional dosage information for...

  4. 21 CFR 336.80 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 336.80 Section 336.80 Food... HUMAN USE ANTIEMETIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 336.80 Professional labeling. The labeling provided to health professionals (but not to the general public) may contain the...

  5. Use of labeled compounds in tracer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The use of radiotracers in research has become common. This chapter looks at some of the underlying assumptions and advantages of labeled compounds: advantages of radiotracers; availability of suitable tracers and labeled compounds; purity of labeled compounds; autoradiolysis; storage of labeled compounds; detection systems for chromatography and electrophoretic methods. 14 refs., 2 figs

  6. 40 CFR 211.108 - Sample label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample label. 211.108 Section 211.108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.108 Sample label. Examples of labels conforming to the requirements of...

  7. 21 CFR 610.61 - Package label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Package label. 610.61 Section 610.61 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.61 Package label. The following items shall appear on the label affixed to each package containing a product: (a) The proper name of the product; (b...

  8. 16 CFR 309.17 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labels. 309.17 Section 309.17 Commercial... ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND ALTERNATIVE FUELED VEHICLES Requirements for Alternative Fuels Label Specifications § 309.17 Labels. All labels must meet the following specifications: (a) Layout: (1) Non-liquid...

  9. A brief history of cell labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The term cell labelling is usually used in the context of labelled leukocytes for imaging inflammation and labelled platelets for imaging thrombosis. Erythrocyte labelling for in vitro measurements of red cell life span, in vivo measurements of splenic red cell pooling, radionuclide ventriculography and imaging sites of bleeding has developed rather separately and has a different history. Labelled platelets and leukocytes were originally developed for cell kinetic studies. Since the current-day applications of labelled platelets and leukocytes depend on a clear understanding of cell kinetics, these classical studies are important and relevant to the history of cell labelling

  10. Measurements of charged pion differential yields from the surface of the T2K replica target for incoming 31 GeV/c protons with the NA61/SHINE spectrometer at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Abgrall, N.; Ajaz, M.; Ali, Y.; Andronov, E.; Anticic, T.; Antoniou, N.; Baatar, B.; Bay, F.; Blondel, A.; Blümer, J.; Bogomilov, M.; Brandin, A.; Bravar, A.; Brzychczyk, J.; Bunyatov, S.A.; Busygina, O.; Christakoglou, P.; Cirkovic, M.; Czopowicz, T.; Davis, N.; Debieux, S.; Dembinski, H.; Deveaux, M.; Diakonos, F.; Di Luise, S.; Dominik, W.; Dumarchez, J.; Dynowski, K.; Engel, R.; Ereditato, A.; Feofilov, G.A.; Fodor, Z.; Garibov, A.; Gazdzicki, M.; Golubeva, M.; Grebieszkow, K.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guber, F.; Haesler, A.; Hasegawa, T.; Hervé, A.E.; Hierholzer, M.; Igolkin, S.; Ivashkin, A.; Johnson, S.R.; Kadija, K.; Kapoyannis, A.; Kaptur, E.; Kisiel, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kolev, D.; Kondratiev, V.P.; Korzenev, A.; Kowalik, K.; Kowalski, S.; Koziel, M.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kuich, M.; Kurepin, A.; Larsen, D.; László, A.; Lewicki, M.; Lyubushkin, V.V.; Mackowiak-Pawłowska, M.; Maksiak, B.; Malakhov, A.I.; Manic, D.; Marcinek, A.; Marino, A.D.; Marton, K.; Mathes, H.-J.; Matulewicz, T.; Matveev, V.; Melkumov, G.L.; Messerly, B.; Mills, G.B.; Morozov, S.; Mrówczynski, S.; Nagai, Y.; Nakadaira, T.; Naskret, M.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Paolone, V.; Pavin, M.; Petukhov, O.; Pistillo, C.; Płaneta, R.; Popov, B.A.; Posiadała-Zezula, M.; Puławski, S.; Puzovic, J.; Rauch, W.; Ravonel, M.; Redij, A.; Renfordt, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Robert, A.; Röhrich, D.; Rondio, E.; Roth, M.; Rubbia, A.; Rumberger, B.T.; Rustamov, A.; Rybczynski, M.; Sadovsky, A.; Sakashita, K.; Sarnecki, R.; Schmidt, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seryakov, A.; Seyboth, P.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shibata, M.; Słodkowski, M.; Staszel, P.; Stefanek, G.; Stepaniak, J.; Ströbele, H.; Šuša, T.; Szuba, M.; Tada, M.; Taranenko, A.; Tefelska, A.; Tefelski, D.; Tereshchenko, V.; Tsenov, R.; Turko, L.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Vassiliou, M.; Veberic, D.; Vechernin, V.V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vinogradov, L.; Wilczek, A.; Włodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A.; Wyszynski, O.; Yarritu, K.; Zambelli, L.; Zimmerman, E.D.; Friend, M.; Galymov, V.; Hartz, M.; Hiraki, T.; Ichikawa, A.; Kubo, H.; Matsuoka, K.; Murakami, A.; Nakaya, T.; Suzuki, K.; Tzanov, M.; Yu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of particle emission from a replica of the T2K 90 cm-long carbon target were performed in the NA61/SHINE experiment at CERN SPS, using data collected during a high-statistics run in 2009. An efficient use of the long-target measurements for neutrino flux predictions in T2K requires dedicated reconstruction and analysis techniques. Fully-corrected differential yields of charged pions from the surface of the T2K replica target for incoming 31 GeV/c protons are presented. A possible strategy to implement these results into the T2K neutrino beam predictions is discussed and the propagation of the uncertainties of these results to the final neutrino flux is performed

  11. Measurements of π{sup ±} differential yields from the surface of the T2K replica target for incoming 31 GeV/c protons with the NA61/SHINE spectrometer at the CERN SPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, N.; Ajaz, M.; Blondel, A.; Bravar, A.; Debieux, S.; Haesler, A.; Korzenev, A.; Ravonel, M. [University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Aduszkiewicz, A.; Dominik, W.; Kuich, M.; Matulewicz, T.; Posiadala-Zezula, M. [University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland); Ali, Y. [Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Physics, Islamabad (Pakistan); Andronov, E.; Feofilov, G.A.; Igolkin, S.; Kondratiev, V.P.; Seryakov, A.; Vechernin, V.V.; Vinogradov, L. [St. Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Anticic, T.; Kadija, K.; Susa, T. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Antoniou, N.; Christakoglou, P.; Davis, N.; Diakonos, F.; Kapoyannis, A.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Vassiliou, M. [University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Baatar, B.; Bunyatov, S.A.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Krasnoperov, A.; Lyubushkin, V.V.; Malakhov, A.I.; Matveev, V.; Melkumov, G.L.; Tereshchenko, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Bay, F.; Di Luise, S.; Rubbia, A.; Sgalaberna, D. [ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Bluemer, J.; Dembinski, H.; Engel, R.; Herve, A.E.; Mathes, H.J.; Roth, M.; Szuba, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Veberic, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Bogomilov, M.; Kolev, D.; Tsenov, R. [University of Sofia, Faculty of Physics, Sofia (Bulgaria); Brandin, A.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Taranenko, A. [National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Brzychczyk, J.; Larsen, D.; Planeta, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Staszel, P.; Wyszynski, O. [Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Busygina, O.; Golubeva, M.; Guber, F.; Ivashkin, A.; Kurepin, A.; Sadovsky, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Cirkovic, M.; Manic, D.; Puzovic, J. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Czopowicz, T.; Dynowski, K.; Grebieszkow, K.; Mackowiak-Pawlowska, M.; Maksiak, B.; Sarnecki, R.; Slodkowski, M.; Tefelska, A.; Tefelski, D. [Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Deveaux, M.; Koziel, M.; Renfordt, R.; Stroebele, H. [University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Dumarchez, J.; Robert, A. [LPNHE, University of Paris VI and VII, Paris (France); Ereditato, A.; Hierholzer, M.; Nirkko, M.; Pistillo, C.; Redij, A. [University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Fodor, Z. [Wigner Research Centre for Physics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw (Poland); Garibov, A. [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan); Gazdzicki, M. [University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce, Kielce (Poland); Grzeszczuk, A.; Kaptur, E.; Kisiel, J.; Kowalski, S.; Pulawski, S.; Schmidt, K.; Wilczek, A. [University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland); Hasegawa, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nishikawa, K.; Sakashita, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Shibata, M.; Tada, M.; Friend, M. [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Johnson, S.R.; Marino, A.D.; Rumberger, B.T.; Zimmerman, E.D. [University of Colorado, Boulder (United States); Kowalik, K.; Rondio, E.; Stepaniak, J. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland); Laszlo, A.; Marton, K.; Vesztergombi, G. [Wigner Research Centre for Physics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Lewicki, M.; Naskret, M.; Turko, L. [University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw (Poland); Marcinek, A. [Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw (PL); Messerly, B.; Nagai, Y.; Paolone, V. [University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh (US); Mills, G.B.; Yarritu, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos (US); Morozov, S.; Petukhov, O. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (RU); National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (RU); Mrowczynski, S.; Rybczynski, M.; Seyboth, P.; Stefanek, G.; Wlodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A. [Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce, Kielce (PL); Pavin, M. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (HR); LPNHE, University of Paris VI and VII, Paris (FR); Popov, B.A. [LPNHE, University of Paris VI and VII, Paris (FR); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (RU); Rauch, W. [Fachhochschule Frankfurt, Frankfurt (DE); Roehrich, D. [University of Bergen, Bergen (NO); Rustamov, A. [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (AZ); University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt (DE); Zambelli, L. [LPNHE, University of Paris VI and VII, Paris (FR); Institute for Particle and Nuclear Studies, Tsukuba (JP); Galymov, V. [IPNL, University of Lyon, Villeurbanne (FR); Hartz, M. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba (JP); TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (CA); Hiraki, T.; Ichikawa, A.; Kubo, H.; Matsuoka, K.; Murakami, A.; Nakaya, T.; Suzuki, K. [Kyoto University, Department of Physics, Kyoto (JP); Tzanov, M. [Louisiana State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Baton Rouge, LA (US); Yu, M. [York University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Toronto, ON (CA); Collaboration: NA61/SHINE Collaboration

    2016-11-15

    Measurements of particle emission from a replica of the T2K 90 cm-long carbon target were performed in the NA61/SHINE experiment at CERN SPS, using data collected during a high-statistics run in 2009. An efficient use of the long-target measurements for neutrino flux predictions in T2K requires dedicated reconstruction and analysis techniques. Fully-corrected differential yields of π{sup ±}-mesons from the surface of the T2K replica target for incoming 31 GeV/c protons are presented. A possible strategy to implement these results into the T2K neutrino beam predictions is discussed and the propagation of the uncertainties of these results to the final neutrino flux is performed. (orig.)

  12. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label must...

  13. ML-MG: Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using a Mixed Graph

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan; Lyu, Siwei; Ghanem, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e. some

  14. Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using Mixed Dependency Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan; Jia, Fan; Liu, Wei; Ghanem, Bernard; Lyu, Siwei

    2018-01-01

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e., some

  15. A Study of Hydraulic Properties in a Single Fracture with In-plane Heterogeneity: An Evaluation Using Optical Measurements of a Transparent Replica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Atsushi; Ssto, Hisashi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Experimental examinations for evaluating fractures were conducted by using transparent replicas of a single fracture in order to obtain the fracture data to contribute to the methodology on how to improve the definition of representative parameter values used for a parallel plate fracture model. Quantitative aperture distribution and quantitative tracer concentration data at each point in time were obtained by measuring the attenuation of transmitted light through the fracture in high spatial resolution. The representative aperture values evaluated from the multiple different measurement methods, such as arithmetic mean of aperture distribution measured by the optical method, transport aperture evaluated from the tracer test, and average aperture evaluated from the fracture void volume measurement converged to a unique value that indicates the accuracy of this experimental study. The aperture data was employed for verifying the numerical simulation under the assumption of Local Cubic Law and showed that the calculated flow rate through the fracture is 10% . 100% larger than hydraulic test results. The quantitative tracer concentration data is also very valuable for validating existing numerical code for advection dispersion transport in-plane heterogeneous fractures

  16. A Study of Hydraulic Properties in a Single Fracture with In-plane Heterogeneity: An Evaluation Using Optical Measurements of a Transparent Replica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Atsushi; Ssto, Hisashi

    2010-01-01

    Experimental examinations for evaluating fractures were conducted by using transparent replicas of a single fracture in order to obtain the fracture data to contribute to the methodology on how to improve the definition of representative parameter values used for a parallel plate fracture model. Quantitative aperture distribution and quantitative tracer concentration data at each point in time were obtained by measuring the attenuation of transmitted light through the fracture in high spatial resolution. The representative aperture values evaluated from the multiple different measurement methods, such as arithmetic mean of aperture distribution measured by the optical method, transport aperture evaluated from the tracer test, and average aperture evaluated from the fracture void volume measurement converged to a unique value that indicates the accuracy of this experimental study. The aperture data was employed for verifying the numerical simulation under the assumption of Local Cubic Law and showed that the calculated flow rate through the fracture is 10% . 100% larger than hydraulic test results. The quantitative tracer concentration data is also very valuable for validating existing numerical code for advection dispersion transport in-plane heterogeneous fractures

  17. Ultra-Fine Bubble Distributions in a Plant Factory Observed by Transmission Electron Microscope with a Freeze-Fracture Replica Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Uchida

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Water containing ultra-fine bubbles (UFB may promote plant growth. But, as UFBs are too small to distinguish from other impurities in a nutrient solution, it is not known if UFBs survive transport from the water source to the rhizosphere. Here we use the freeze-fracture replica method and a transmission electron microscope (TEM to observe UFBs in the nutrient solutions used in a crop-growing system known as a plant factory. In this factory, TEM images taken from various points in the supply line indicate that the concentration of UFBs in the nutrient solution is conserved, starting from their addition to the nutrient solution in the buffer tank, through the peat-moss layer, all the way to the rhizosphere. Measurements also show that a thin film formed on the surface of UFBs in the nutrient solution, with greater film thickness at the rhizosphere. This film is considered to be made from the accumulation of impurities coming from solute and the peat-moss layer.

  18. Material versatility using replica molding for large-scale fabrication of high aspect-ratio, high density arrays of nano-pillars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y; Menon, C; Ng, H W; Gates, B D

    2014-01-01

    Arrays of high aspect-ratio (AR) nano-pillars have attracted a lot of interest for various applications, such as for use in solar cells, surface acoustic sensors, tissue engineering, bio-inspired adhesives and anti-reflective surfaces. Each application may require a different structural material, which can vary in the required chemical composition and mechanical properties. In this paper, a low cost fabrication procedure is proposed for large scale, high AR and high density arrays of nano-pillars. The proposed method enables the replication of a master with high fidelity, using the subsequent replica molds multiple times, and preparing arrays of nano-pillars in a variety of different materials. As an example applied to bio-inspired dry adhesion, polymeric arrays of nano-pillars are prepared in this work. Thermoset and thermoplastic nano-pillar arrays are examined using an atomic force microscope to assess their adhesion strength and its uniformity. Results indicate the proposed method is robust and can be used to reliably prepare nano-structures with a high AR. (paper)

  19. Using a replica of Leeuwenhoek's microscope to teach the history of science and to motivate students to discover the vision and the contributions of the first microscopists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepel, Lenira M N; Loreto, Elgion L S; Rocha, João B T

    2009-01-01

    The history of science should be incorporated into science teaching as a means of improving learning and also to increase the students' understanding about the nature of science. In biology education, the history of microscopy deserves a special place. The discovery of this instrument not only opened a new and fantastic microworld but also led to the development of one unifying principle of biological sciences (i.e., cell theory). The microscopes of Leeuwenhoek and Hooke opened windows into the microworld of living organisms. In the present work, the knowledge of these themes was analyzed in a group of students beginning an undergraduate biology course. Our data suggest that the history of microscopy is poorly treated at the secondary school level. We propose a didactic activity using a replica of Leeuwenhoek's microscope made with Plexiglas and a lens obtained from a key chain laser pointer or from a broken CD drive. The proposed activity motivated students to learn about microscopy and helped them to appreciate scientific knowledge from a historical perspective.

  20. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.; Langstrom, B.

    1990-01-01

    This invention involves a new strategy for imagining and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography

  1. Sustainability labels on food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Wills, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    of sustainability was limited, but understanding of four selected labels (Fair Trade, Rainforest Alliance, Carbon Footprint, and Animal Welfare) was better, as some of them seem to be self-explanatory. The results indicated a low level of use, no matter whether use was measured as self-reported use of different......This study investigates the relationship between consumer motivation, understanding and use of sustainability labels on food products (both environmental and ethical labels), which are increasingly appearing on food products. Data was collected by means of an online survey implemented in the UK......, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, and Poland, with a total sample size of 4408 respondents. Respondents expressed medium high to high levels of concern with sustainability issues at the general level, but lower levels of concern in the context of concrete food product choices. Understanding of the concept...

  2. Fabrication of porous TiO{sub 2} films using a spongy replica prepared by layer-by-layer self-assembly method: Application to dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuge, Yosuke [Department of Applied Physics and Physico-informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi 223-8522 (Japan)]. E-mail: yotsuge@appi.keio.ac.jp; Inokuchi, Kohei [Department of Applied Physics and Physico-informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi 223-8522 (Japan); Onozuka, Katsuhiro [Department of Applied Physics and Physico-informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi 223-8522 (Japan); Shingo, Ohno [Research and Development Division, Bridgestone Corporation, 3-1-1 Ogawahigashi-cho, Kodaira-shi, Tokyo-to 187-8531 (Japan); Sugi, Shinichiro [Research and Development Division, Bridgestone Corporation, 3-1-1 Ogawahigashi-cho, Kodaira-shi, Tokyo-to 187-8531 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Masato [Research and Development Division, Bridgestone Corporation, 3-1-1 Ogawahigashi-cho, Kodaira-shi, Tokyo-to 187-8531 (Japan); Shiratori, Seimei [Department of Applied Physics and Physico-informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi 223-8522 (Japan)]. E-mail: shiratori@appi.keio.ac.jp

    2006-03-21

    In this study, we report the fabrication of the anatase TiO{sub 2} films with high porosity using a new spongy replica which prepared by layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. The scanning electron microscope photographs revealed that the spongy replica has an extremely porous microstructure and high surface area. Moreover, this porous replica was easily fabricated from a very flat film through the action with silver acetate solution. This method facilitated the porous TiO{sub 2} films with a high surface area. Additionally, by this method, a necking between the TiO{sub 2} films was strong and the amount of loaded dye was increased, so that the increase of forward electron transfer between the TiO{sub 2} films on the surface and the TiO{sub 2} films on the substrate. By using the fabricated porous TiO{sub 2} films as the photoelectrode for dye-sensitized solar cell, the improvement of the photocurrent-voltage characteristic was achieved, resulting in an energy conversion efficiency of Eff = 2.66% with the thickness of approximately 5 {mu}m.

  3. Melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrevskaya, L.I.; Smushkevich, Yu.I.; Kurkovskaya, L.N.; Ponomarenko, N.K.; Suvorov, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    A study has been made of isotope exchange between melatonin and deuterium (D 2 O) or tritium (HTO) oxide under different conditions. The ease of isotope exchange for the indole ring hydrogens of melatonin in an acidic medium decreases over the series H 4 > H 2 H 6 >> H 7 , enabling the authors to process a route for production of melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes at positions 4,6, and 2 of the indole ring. A method has been suggested for producing melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes at position 2 by desulfurization of 2-(2,4-dinitro-phenylsulfenyl)melatonin at Ni(Re) (D)

  4. Fluorine-18 labeling of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilbourn, M.R.; Dence, C.S.; Welch, M.J.; Mathias, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    Two fluorine-18-labeled reagents, methyl 3-[ 18 F]fluoro-5-nitrobenzimidate and 4-[ 18 F]fluorophenacyl bromide, have been prepared for covalent attachment of fluorine-18 to proteins. Both reagents can be prepared in moderate yields (30-50%, EOB) in synthesis times of 50-70 min. Reaction of these reagents with proteins (human serum albumin, human fibrinogen, and human immunoglobulin A) is pH independent, protein concentration dependent, and takes 5-60 min at mild pH (8.0) and temperature (25-37 degrees C), in yields up to 95% (corrected). The 18 F-labeled proteins are purified by size exclusion chromatography

  5. Melatonin labelled by hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrevskaya, L.I.; Smushkevich, Yu.I.; Kurkovskaya, L.N.; Ponomarenko, N.K.; Suvorov, N.N.

    1988-01-01

    Isotope exchange of melatonin with deuterium (D 2 O) and tritium (HTO) oxides under different conditions is studied. Simplicity of isotope exchange of hydrogens of the indole ring of melatonin in the acidic medium decreases in series H 4 >H 2 >H 6 >>H 7 , that permits to suggest the way of melatonin preparation labelled by hydrogen isotopes in positions 4,6 and 2 of the indole ring. The way of melatonin preparation labelled by hydrogen isotopes in position 2 according to the reaction of desulfation 2-(2,4-dinitrophenylsulphenyl) melatonin at catalyst Ni(Re)(D) is suggested

  6. Radioisotope methods for leucocyte labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinova, I.; Kovacheva, S.

    1988-01-01

    A review is made of the labelling methods with the following tracers: 3 H-thymidine, 32 P-DP, 111 In (oxine, tropolon, acetylacetone, MERC), 99m Tc (reduced 99m Tc, lypophyl 99m Tc-complexes and 99m Tc-colloids). The main diagnosis areas are mentioned: abdominal abscesses and inflammations, inflammation foci of skeleton or of implanted prosthesis; acute myocardial infarction, bacterial endocarditis, rejection of kydney transplantations or vascular grafts. It is concluded that labelled leucocytes are very reliable for noninvasive diagnosis of inflammation foci with unclear localization

  7. Radioisotope methods for leucocyte labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostadinova, I; Kovacheva, S [Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Katedra po Rentgenologiya i Radiologiya

    1988-01-01

    A review is made of the labelling methods with the following tracers: {sup 3}H-thymidine, {sup 32}P-DP, {sup 111}In (oxine, tropolon, acetylacetone, MERC), {sup 99m}Tc (reduced {sup 99m}Tc, lypophyl {sup 99m}Tc-complexes and {sup 99m}Tc-colloids). The main diagnosis areas are mentioned: abdominal abscesses and inflammations, inflammation foci of skeleton or of implanted prosthesis; acute myocardial infarction, bacterial endocarditis, rejection of kydney transplantations or vascular grafts. It is concluded that labelled leucocytes are very reliable for noninvasive diagnosis of inflammation foci with unclear localization.

  8. Synthesis of radioiodinated labeled peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matloobi, M.; Rafii, H.; Beigi, D.; Khalaj, A.; Kamali-Dehghan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Optimization of radioiodination of peptides is covered by both a direct method in which a constituent tyrosine residue is labeled and indirect method by using an iodinated derivative (SIB) of N succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate (ATE) as the intermediate. Radioiodination of IgG and FMLF were performed by direct method using Chloramine-T as an oxidant but since Formyl-Methyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine, FMLF, does not lend itself for direct radioiodination we performed labeling of FMLF by indirect method via radioiodined SIB at different pH. (author)

  9. Food quality labels from the producers’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Velčovská

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysing the food producer attitudes towards quality labels. The Klasa label, as the most known and the most frequently used food quality label in the Czech Republic, have become the subject of investigation. The aim of the research was to identify the benefits and problems arising from the certification process and the label use. Primary data were collected in online survey based on standardized questionnaire. In census, 86 respondents from the total 218 producers with the Klasa label in the Czech Republic completed the questionnaire. The most of producers (72% have a longer experience with the label, they are using the label for more than four years. The producers’ expectations from the label were fulfilled only partially. A poor state marketing support and missing marketing strategy were identified as general problems of the label. Specific perceived problems are formalities connected with the certification process and certification of poor-quality products. Correlation analysis, t-test and Pearson chi-square test were calculated to discover relations between variables. The results of the study can be beneficial to both, food producers as well as administrator of the label. Identified problems could help them to improve marketing strategy of the label in order to manage the label in effective way and use all benefits arising from the certification. Administrator of the label should make the certification process more effective and transparent, promotion should be focused on the explanation to consumers what the Klasa label guarantees.

  10. Tritium-labelled abscisic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluciennik, H.; Michalski, L.

    1991-01-01

    A simple method for the preparation of biologically active abscisic acid (growth inhibiting plant hormone) labelled with tritium is described. The product obtained has a specific radioactivity of 1.12 GBq mmol -1 : the yield is about 60% as compared to the initial amount of the substance used. (author) 7 refs.; 2 figs

  11. On Labeled Traveling Salesman Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couetoux, Basile; Gourves, Laurent; Monnot, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    We consider labeled Traveling Salesman Problems, defined upon a complete graph of n vertices with colored edges. The objective is to find a tour of maximum (or minimum) number of colors. We derive results regarding hardness of approximation, and analyze approximation algorithms for both versions ...

  12. Synthesis of labelled ecdysone precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, T.; Hetru, C.; Nakatani, Y.; Luu, B.; Meister, M.; Pichat, L.; Audinot, M.

    1985-01-01

    High specific activity tritiated 3β,14α-dihydroxy-5β-cholest-7-en-6-one, has been prepared using a precursor which permits rapid and easy labelling. This compound is converted to ecdysone under in vitro conditions by insect prothoracic glands, a well known site of ecdysone biosynthesis. (author)

  13. Two new French quality labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresler, Ines

    2012-07-01

    'Origine France Garantie' and 'AQPV' are the new product labels that were presented in France in 2011. While the first is aimed at the entire industry, the latter is an effort to strengthen the PV industry. By raising the enthusiasm for local products, the French government hopes to keep the flood of foreign imports at bay. (orig.)

  14. Rock Music Gets a Label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutietta, Robert

    1986-01-01

    A group called Parents Music Resource Center (PMRC) has captured the media spotlight with a proposal to have warning labels placed on music albums containing sexually explicit or violent lyrics. Major record companies have agreed to a version of the PMRC's demands for a one-year trial period, beginning in 1986. (RM)

  15. Improving the energy labelling scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    This report summarises the main results of an EU project on consumer response to energy labels in buildings. This report is mainly directed at Danish policy makers. The main focus is therefore on results that are relevant from a Danish point of view and on how they can be used to further strengthen...

  16. Psychological effectiveness of carbon labelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Geoffrey

    2012-04-01

    Despite the decision by supermarket-giant Tesco to delay its plan to add carbon-footprint information onto all of its 70,000 products, carbon labelling, if carefully designed, could yet change consumer behaviour. However, it requires a new type of thinking about consumers and much additional work.

  17. When Diagnostic Labels Mask Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Robert; Dang, Sidney; Daniels, Brian; Doyle, Hillary; McFee, Scott; Quisenberry, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that many seriously troubled children and adolescents are reacting to adverse life experiences. Yet traditional diagnostic labels are based on checklists of surface symptoms. Distracted by disruptive behavior, the common response is to medicate, punish, or exclude rather than respond to needs of youth who have…

  18. Synthesis of positron labeled photoactive compounds: 18F labeled aryl azides for positron labeling of biochemical molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Kazunari; Hashimoto, Naota; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    1995-01-01

    The authors have prepared various [ 18 F] fluorine labeled aryl azides as a novel photoactive compounds suitable for positron labeling of biochemical molecules. The introduction of fluorine substituents to aryl azides can be expected to have dramatic effects on their nature and reactivity toward photolysis. Positron labeled reagents for labeling proteins or peptides have recently attracted considerable attention due to their wide applicability in biochemistry and positron emission tomography (PET). Various labeled azide compounds are often used in biochemistry for radiolabeling biological molecules by photolysis, but there have been no reports on the preparation or use of fluorine-18 labeled azides. The authors now report a novel synthesis of 18 F-labeled aryl azides which will have wide application in the biochemistry and nuclear medicine as a means for 18 F-fluorine labeling for proteins, peptides, and nucleic acids. 2 tabs

  19. Labelling fashion magazine advertisements: Effectiveness of different label formats on social comparison and body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Brown, Zoe

    2018-06-01

    The experiment investigated the impact on women's body dissatisfaction of different forms of label added to fashion magazine advertisements. Participants were 340 female undergraduate students who viewed 15 fashion advertisements containing a thin and attractive model. They were randomly allocated to one of five label conditions: no label, generic disclaimer label (indicating image had been digitally altered), consequence label (indicating that viewing images might make women feel bad about themselves), informational label (indicating the model in the advertisement was underweight), or a graphic label (picture of a paint brush). Although exposure to the fashion advertisements resulted in increased body dissatisfaction, there was no significant effect of label type on body dissatisfaction; no form of label demonstrated any ameliorating effect. In addition, the consequence and informational labels resulted in increased perceived realism and state appearance comparison. Yet more extensive research is required before the effective implementation of any form of label. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assemblies of amyloid-β30-36 hexamer and its G33V/L34T mutants by replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Qian

    Full Text Available The aggregation of amyloid-β peptides is associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, in which the 30-36 fragments play an important part as a fiber-forming hydrophobic region. The fibrillar structure of Aβ30-36 has been detected by means of X-ray diffraction, but its oligomeric structural determination, biophysical characterization, and pathological mechanism remain elusive. In this study, we have investigated the structures of Aβ30-36 hexamer as well as its G33V and L34T mutants in explicit water environment using replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD simulations. Our results show that the wild-type (WT Aβ30-36 hexamer has a preference to form β-barrel and bilayer β-sheet conformations, while the G33V or L34T mutation disrupts the β-barrel structures: the G33V mutant is homogenized to adopt β-sheet-rich bilayers, and the structures of L34T mutant on the contrary get more diverse. The hydrophobic interaction plays a critical role in the formation and stability of oligomeric assemblies among all the three systems. In addition, the substitution of G33 by V reduces the β-sheet content in the most populated conformations of Aβ30-36 oligomers through a steric effect. The L34T mutation disturbs the interpeptide hydrogen bonding network, and results in the increased coil content and morphological diversity. Our REMD runs provide structural details of WT and G33V/L34T mutant Aβ30-36 oligomers, and molecular insight into the aggregation mechanism, which will be helpful for designing novel inhibitors or amyloid-based materials.

  1. Jendl-3.1 iron validation on the PCA-REPLICA (H{sub 2}O/Fe) shielding benchmark experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pescarini, M.; Borgia, M. G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche ``Ezio Clementel``, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Energia

    1997-03-01

    The PCA-REPLICA (H{sub 2}O/Fe) neutron shielding benchmarks experiment is analysed using the SN 2-D DOT 3.5-E code and the 3-D-equivalent flux synthesis method. This engineering benchmark reproduces the ex-core radial geometry of a PWR, including a mild steel reactor pressure vessel (RPV) simulator, and is designed to test the accuracy of the calculation of the in-vessel neutron exposure parameters. This accuracy is strongly dependent on the quality of the iron neutron cross sections used to describe the nuclear reactions within the RPV simulator. In particular, in this report, the cross sections based on the JENDL-3.1 iron data files are tested, through a comparison of the calculated integral and spectral results with the corresponding experimental data. In addition, the present results are compared, on the same benchmark experiment, with those of a preceding ENEA-Bologna validation of the ENDF/B VI iron cross sections. The integral result comparison indicates that, for all the threshold detectors considered (Rh-103 (n, n`) Rh-103m, In-115 (n, n`) In-115m and S-32 (n, p) P-32), the JENDL-3.1 natural iron data produce satisfactory results similar to those obtained with the ENDF/B VI iron data. On the contrary, when the JENDL/3.1 Fe-56 data file is used, strongly underestimated results are obtained for the lower energy threshold detectors, Rh-103 and In-115. This fact, in particular, becomes more evident with increasing the neutron penetration depth in the RPV simulator.

  2. Labelling schemes: From a consumer perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2000-01-01

    Labelling of food products attracts a lot of political attention these days. As a result of a number of food scandals, most European countries have acknowledged the need for more information and better protection of consumers. Labelling schemes are one way of informing and guiding consumers....... However, initiatives in relation to labelling schemes seldom take their point of departure in consumers' needs and expectations; and in many cases, the schemes are defined by the institutions guaranteeing the label. It is therefore interesting to study how consumers actually value labelling schemes....... A recent MAPP study has investigated the value consumers attach the Government-controlled labels 'Ø-mærket' and 'Den Blå Lup' and the private supermarket label 'Mesterhakket' when they purchase minced meat. The results reveal four consumer segments that use labelling schemes for food products very...

  3. Soil Fumigant Labels - Metam Sodium/Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company; and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  4. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators ... packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of important information — on fat and calories, serving sizes, sodium content, ...

  5. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... topic for: Parents Kids Teens Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for When Reading Food Labels? ...

  6. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... labels have a lot of important information — on fat and calories, serving sizes, sodium content, and more — but ... Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for ...

  7. Different approaches to labelling parasitoids using strontium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, H.; Wäckers, F.L.; Steindl, P.; Günther, D.; Dorn, S.

    2001-01-01

    Labelling parasitoids with trace elements is a potentially powerful technique for studying dispersal and trophic interactions in these usually small insects. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility and efficiency of different methods for trace element labelling of the

  8. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs ... las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels ...

  9. 21 CFR 357.280 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 357.280 Section 357.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Drug Products § 357.280 Professional labeling. The labeling provided to health professionals (but not...

  10. 21 CFR 357.180 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 357.180 Section 357.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Products § 357.180 Professional labeling. The labeling provided to health professionals (but not to the...

  11. 21 CFR 333.280 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 333.280 Section 333.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Drug Products § 333.280 Professional labeling. The labeling provided to health professionals (but not...

  12. Injective Labeled Oriented Trees are Aspherical

    OpenAIRE

    Harlander, Jens; Rosebrock, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    A labeled oriented tree is called injective if each generator occurs at most once as an edge label. We show that injective labeled oriented trees are aspherical. The proof relies on a new relative asphericity test based on a lemma of Stallings.

  13. Link Label Prediction in Signed Citation Network

    KAUST Repository

    Akujuobi, Uchenna Thankgod

    2016-01-01

    such as using regression, trust propagation and matrix factorization. These approaches have tried to solve the problem of link label prediction by using ideas from social theories, where most of them predict a single missing label given that labels of other

  14. Three rules suffice for good label placement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, F.; Wolff, A.; Kapoor, V.; Strijk, T.

    2001-01-01

    The general label-placement problem consists in labeling a set of features (points, lines, regions) given a set of candidates (rectangles, circles, ellipses, irregularly shaped labels) for each feature. The problem arises when annotating classical cartographical maps, diagrams, or graph drawings.

  15. A combinatorial framework for map labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, F.; Wolff, A.; Whitesides, S.

    1998-01-01

    The general map labeling problem consists in labeling a set of sites (points, lines, regions) given a set of candidates (rectangles, circles, ellipses, irregularly shaped labels) for each site. A map can be a classical cartographical map, a diagram, a graph or any other figure that needs to be

  16. Gluten-Free Labeling of Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... issued a final rule defining “gluten-free” for food labeling, which will help consumers, especially those living with ... free” label on foods. Food Facts: Gluten and Food Labeling: FDA’s Regulation of “Gluten-Free” Claims Blog: A ...

  17. Obstacles to nutrition labeling in restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanza, B A; Nelson, D; Chai, S

    1997-02-01

    This study determined the major obstacles that foodservices face regarding nutrition labeling. Survey questionnaire was conducted in May 1994. In addition to demographic questions, the directors were asked questions addressing willingness, current practices, and perceived obstacles related to nutrition labeling. Sixty-eight research and development directors of the largest foodservice corporations as shown in Restaurants & Institutions magazine's list of the top 400 largest foodservices (July 1993). P tests were used to determine significance within a group for the number of foodservices that were currently using nutrition labeling, perceived impact of nutrition labeling on sales, and perceived responsibility to add nutrition labels. Regression analysis was used to determine the importance of factors on willingness to label. Response rate was 45.3%. Most companies were neutral about their willingness to use nutrition labeling. Two thirds of the respondents were not currently using nutrition labels. Only one third thought that it was the foodservice's responsibility to provide such information. Several companies perceived that nutrition labeling would have a potentially negative effect on annual sales volume. Major obstacles were identified as menu or personnel related, rather than cost related. Menu-related obstacles included too many menu variations, limited space on the menu for labeling, and loss of flexibility in changing the menu. Personnel-related obstacles included difficulty in training employees to implement nutrition labeling, and not enough time for foodservice personnel to implement nutrition labeling. Numerous opportunities will be created for dietetics professionals in helping foodservices overcome these menu- or personnel-related obstacles.

  18. Predictive labeling with dependency pairs using SAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koprowski, A.; Middeldorp, A.; Pfenning, F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper combines predictive labeling with dependency pairs and reports on its implementation. Our starting point is the method of proving termination of rewrite systems using semantic labeling with infinite models in combination with lexicographic path orders. We replace semantic labeling with

  19. On the Lucky labeling of Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Ahadi, Arash; Dehghan, Ali; Mollaahmadi, Esmael

    2010-01-01

    Suppose the vertices of a graph $G$ were labeled arbitrarily by positive integers, and let $Sum(v)$ denote the sum of labels over all neighbors of vertex $v$. A labeling is lucky if the function $Sum$ is a proper coloring of $G$, that is, if we have $Sum(u) \

  20. 27 CFR 19.604 - Caution label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Caution label. 19.604... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Containers and Marks Marks § 19.604 Caution label... denaturer may be printed on such label, but no other extraneous matter will be permitted thereon without the...

  1. 47 CFR 15.19 - Labelling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labelling requirements. 15.19 Section 15.19 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.19 Labelling... label shall be located in a conspicuous location on the device and shall contain the unique...

  2. 27 CFR 26.39 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labels. 26.39 Section 26.39 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... United States From Puerto Rico § 26.39 Labels. All labels affixed to bottles of liquors coming into the...

  3. 27 CFR 18.55 - Label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Label. 18.55 Section 18.55... TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Operations § 18.55 Label. Each container of concentrate will have affixed thereto, before transfer, a label identifying the product and...

  4. 27 CFR 19.704 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labels. 19.704 Section 19... TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Samples of Spirits § 19.704 Labels. (a) On each container of spirits to be withdrawn under the provisions of § 19.701, the proprietor shall affix a label showing the...

  5. 46 CFR 188.10-37 - Label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Label. 188.10-37 Section 188.10-37 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-37 Label. This term means the label required by 49 CFR part 172...

  6. 21 CFR 820.120 - Device labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... designed to prevent mixups. (d) Labeling operations. Each manufacturer shall control labeling and packaging... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device labeling. 820.120 Section 820.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...

  7. What determines consumer attention to nutrition labels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, S.E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    To identify the key determinants of consumer attention to nutrition labels, visual search tasks (present – absent; one – two targets) were used as an effective experimental tool. The main manipulation concerned: set size (number of labels on front of pack); label characteristics (display size,

  8. Synthesis of isotopically labeled ketamine

    OpenAIRE

    Stuchlíková, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    In this work were synthesized ketamine isotopomers. Ketamine is used in human medicine and veterinary sectors. It has very broad spectrum of pharmacological effects: anesthetic, analgesic, hallucinogenic, bronchodilator, cardiovascular and antidepressive, which is currently in the research. At first was synthesized precursor of ketamine, N- desmethylketamine which was subsequently labeled the deuterium, tritium and carbon- 14. For the determination of purity and identity mass spectrometry and...

  9. Radioactively labelled vitamin B12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlton, J C; Lewis, A

    1976-12-01

    A method is described for preparing radioactively labelled vitamin B 12 (cyanocobalamin) by reacting ..cap alpha..-(5,6-dimethylbenzimidazolyl) hydrogenobamide with active (sup(57,58)Co) cobaltous ion. The latter may be in the form of cobaltous chloride or sulphate in aqueous or aqueous alcoholic medium. The reaction is effected by heating the reactants in darkness at pH 4 to 8. An excess of cyanide is added to convert the hydroxocobalamin formed to cyanocobalamin.

  10. Radioactively labelled vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Lewis, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for preparing radioactively labelled vitamin B 12 (cyanocobalamin) by reacting α-(5,6-dimethylbenzimidazolyl) hydrogenobamide with active (sup(57,58)Co) cobaltous ion. The latter may be in the form of cobaltous chloride or sulphate in aqueous or aqueous alcoholic medium. The reaction is effected by heating the reactants in darkness at pH 4 to 8. An excess of cyanide is added to convert the hydroxocobalamin formed to cyanocobalamin. (U.K.)

  11. Menakar Label Fundamentalisme Untuk Muslim

    OpenAIRE

    Wibisono, Susilo

    2014-01-01

    This study was developed referring to the negative connotation in using the word “fundamentalism ” and its using as an individual or group label. The method used in this study were literature review using many literatures about Islam and fundamentalism in any perspectives. Based on psychology perspective, it said that fundamentalism is an individual psychological construct associated with beliefs and individual interpretation of something, such as ideology, nationality, and religion. Accordin...

  12. Synthesis of deuterium labelled ibuprofen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappon, V.J.; Halstead, G.W.; Theis, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The preparations of [ar- 2 H 4 ]-ibuprofen and [ar, 3,3,3- 2 H 7 ]-ibuprofen are described. The deuterium was incorporated into the aromatic ring of [ar- 2 H 4 ]-ibuprofen which is a metabolically stable position. [ar, 3,3,3- 2 H 7 ]-ibuprofen was synthesized by the same route using [ 2 H 3 ]-CH 3 I instead of CH 3 I for use as a GC/MS internal standard in stable isotope labelled bioavailability studies. (author)

  13. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.

    1986-11-01

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2 H, 13 C, and 15 N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  14. Nutrition marketing on food labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Marketing strategy, nutrient label information, if the product was fruit/or milk based, and target age. Frequency distributions were computed. Forty-nine percent of all products contained nutrition marketing and of those, 48% had both nutrition marketing and were high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar (11%, 17%, and 31% respectively). Seventy-one percent of products marketed to children had nutrition marketing. Of those, 59% were high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar content, with more than half being high in sugar. The most commonly used nutrition marketing statements were "good source of calcium", "reduced/low/fat free", and "food company's health symbol". Nutrition marketing is commonly used on products high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar and is more often used on products marketed toward children than products marketed toward adults. Current food industry symbols may not be helping consumers select foods low in saturated fat, sodium or sugar. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Biomolecule labelling by 186 Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lungu, Valeria Viorica; Mihailescu, Gabriela; Dumitrescu, Gabriela

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and improve the existing radiolabelling techniques of peptides and monoclonal antibodies with 186 Re and 188 Re as potential agents for cancer targeted radiotherapy. We selected the following methods and techniques for direct labelling of peptides and monoclonal antibody: 1. Prereduction of -S-S- bridges of biomolecule to sulfhydryls using reducing agents: ascorbic acid, cysteine, active hydrogen, 2,3 dimercaptopropanol. The prereduction reactions are controlled by massic ratios of reduction agents/biomolecule, pH, temperature and time of incubation; 2. Reduction of 186 Re O 4 - stannous chloride in acid and alkaline pH; 3. Coupling reaction of 186 Re (red) with the biomolecule controlled by the time and temperature of incubation, the influence of pH regarding the binding of 186 Re to the biomolecules. The quality control was effected by chromatography techniques (paper and elution gel chromatography) on labeled biomolecule before and after purification. The elution gel chromatography was spectrophotometricaly monitored at 280 nm. In the same time the radioactivity of samples was measured using a gamma counter. All the results confirm in vitro stability of labeled biomolecule. The biological evaluation studies regarding accumulation and biological affinity will be controlled by scintigraphy method. Biodistribution studies will be effected to Walker tumor bearing animals at 4 and 24 hours after injections. (authors)

  16. Isotopically labelled pyrimidines and purines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaban, A.T.; Bally, I.

    1987-01-01

    Among the three diazines, pyrimidine is by far the most important one because its derivatives uracil, thymine and cytosine are constituents of the ubiquitous deoxynucleic acids (DNA) and ribonucleic acids (RNA). Other derivatives of pyrimidine without condensed rings include barbiturates, alloxan, orotic acid and thiamine or vitamin B 1 . From the polycyclic derivatives of pyrimidine such as pteridine, alloxazine, and purine, the latter, through its derivatives adenine and guanine complete the list of bases which occur in DNA and RNA: in addition, other purine derivatives such as hypoxanthine, xanthine, theobromine, theophylline, caffeine and uric acid are important natural products with biological activity. The paper presents methods for preparing isotopically labeled pyrimidines as well as purine derivatives. For convenience, the authors describe separately carbon-labeled with radioisotopes 11 C (T 1/2 = 20.3 min) and 14 C (T 1/2 = 5736 years) or the stable isotope 13 C (natural abundance 1.1%) and then hydrogen-labeled systems with the radioisotope 3 H ≡ T (T 1/2 = 12.346 years) or with the stable isotope 2 H ≡ D (natural abundance 0.015%). We do not separate stable from radioactive isotopes because the synthetic methods are identical for the same element; however, the introduction of hydrogen isotopes into organic molecules is often performed by reactions such as isotope exchange which cannot take place in the case of carbon isotopes

  17. Imaging Cytoskeleton Components by Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svitkina, Tatyana

    2016-01-01

    The cytoskeleton is a complex of detergent-insoluble components of the cytoplasm playing critical roles in cell motility, shape generation, and mechanical properties of a cell. Fibrillar polymers-actin filaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments-are major constituents of the cytoskeleton, which constantly change their organization during cellular activities. The actin cytoskeleton is especially polymorphic, as actin filaments can form multiple higher order assemblies performing different functions. Structural information about cytoskeleton organization is critical for understanding its functions and mechanisms underlying various forms of cellular activity. Because of the nanometer-scale thickness of cytoskeletal fibers, electron microscopy (EM) is a key tool to determine the structure of the cytoskeleton. This article describes application of rotary shadowing (or metal replica) EM for visualization of the cytoskeleton. The procedure is applicable to thin cultured cells growing on glass coverslips and consists of detergent extraction of cells to expose their cytoskeleton, chemical fixation to provide stability, ethanol dehydration and critical point drying to preserve three-dimensionality, rotary shadowing with platinum to create contrast, and carbon coating to stabilize replicas. This technique provides easily interpretable three-dimensional images, in which individual cytoskeletal fibers are clearly resolved, and individual proteins can be identified by immunogold labeling. More importantly, replica EM is easily compatible with live cell imaging, so that one can correlate the dynamics of a cell or its components, e.g., expressed fluorescent proteins, with high resolution structural organization of the cytoskeleton in the same cell.

  18. Scintigraphy with In-111 labeled leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kazuo; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Furudate, Masayori; Saito, Chihoko.

    1987-01-01

    With increasing necessity for In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy (ILLS) as a routine examination, a problem of complicated labeling of leukocytes has arisen. In this study, simplified labeling of leukocytes was examined with respect to its ability to detect abscesses. Simplified labeling method yielded significantly satisfactory results for recovery and labeling rates of leukocytes, as compared with conventional recommended method. Therefore, ILLS by simplified technique was clinically applied in 58 patients with suppurative or non-suppurative diseases who gave informed consent. In an analysis of ILLS for detecting suppurative region, the sensitivity, specificity, and corrected specificity were found to be 81 %, 75 %, and 82 %, respectively. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. METHOD AND MODULE FOR OPTICAL SUBCARRIER LABELLING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention relates to optical labelling in WDM networks, in that it provides a method and a module to be used in subcarrier label generation and switching in network edge nodes and core switch nodes. The methods and modules are typically employed in Optical Subcarrier Multiplexing (OSCM......) transmitters. The payload and the label are encoded independently on optical carrier and subcarrier signals respectively, using electro-optical modulators. The invention applies single or double sideband carrier-suppressed modulation to generate subcarrier signals for encoding of the label. Thereby the payload...... encoded carrier signal and the label encoded subcarrier signal can be coupled directly without prior filtering....

  20. Protein labelling with stable isotopes: strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lirsac, P.N.; Gilles, N.; Jamin, N.; Toma, F.; Gabrielsen, O.; Boulain, J.C.; Menez, A.

    1994-01-01

    A protein labelling technique with stable isotopes has been developed at the CEA: a labelled complete medium has been developed, performing as well as the Luria medium, but differing from it because it contains not only free aminated acids and peptides, but also sugars (96% of D-glucopyrannose) and labelled nucleosides. These precursors are produced from a labelled photosynthetic micro-organisms biomass, obtained with micro-algae having incorporated carbon 13, nitrogen 15 and deuterium during their culture. Labelling costs are reduced. 1 fig., 1 tab., 3 refs

  1. Spin labelling of human erythrocytes with nitroxide radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagalj, C.; DePaoli, T.C.P.; Hager, A.A.; Palaoro, L.A.; Rubin de Celis, E.; Farach, H.A.; Poole, C.P. jr

    1984-01-01

    Human erythrocytes were labelled with nitroxide, the spin label SYNVAR 101, under various experimantal conditions. A study was made of the influence of antireductants on the labelling efficiency and the kinetics of the radical decay during the labelling process

  2. Research of private label development in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Horvat

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Private labels have been present on the market since 19th century but their intensive market growth began in the last thirty years after retailers realized what their potential could be in the fight against ever-growing competition. Their market growth has not been distributed equally thought the world so Europe became the region with the highest private label market share, which exceeds 40% on some markets. Although the private label market share in Croatia is considerably smaller, it has also increased steadily over the last decade since private labels were introduced on the market. This paper presents the findings of a research conducted for the purpose of identifying trends in private label development on the Croatian market. The research was conducted through in-depth interviews with private label managers in retail companies in Croatia, and with the managers responsible for private label production in manufacturing companies. The research identified three expected trends of private label development in Croatia and these are: an increase in private label quality, the maintenance of a price gap between private labels and manufacturers’ brands and a further increase in the private label market share.

  3. Effects of force fields on the conformational and dynamic properties of amyloid β(1-40) dimer explored by replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Charles R; Gregory, Andrew; Frisbie, Cole; Lovas, Sándor

    2018-03-01

    The conformational space and structural ensembles of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides and their oligomers in solution are inherently disordered and proven to be challenging to study. Optimum force field selection for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and the biophysical relevance of results are still unknown. We compared the conformational space of the Aβ(1-40) dimers by 300 ns replica exchange MD simulations at physiological temperature (310 K) using: the AMBER-ff99sb-ILDN, AMBER-ff99sb*-ILDN, AMBER-ff99sb-NMR, and CHARMM22* force fields. Statistical comparisons of simulation results to experimental data and previously published simulations utilizing the CHARMM22* and CHARMM36 force fields were performed. All force fields yield sampled ensembles of conformations with collision cross sectional areas for the dimer that are statistically significantly larger than experimental results. All force fields, with the exception of AMBER-ff99sb-ILDN (8.8 ± 6.4%) and CHARMM36 (2.7 ± 4.2%), tend to overestimate the α-helical content compared to experimental CD (5.3 ± 5.2%). Using the AMBER-ff99sb-NMR force field resulted in the greatest degree of variance (41.3 ± 12.9%). Except for the AMBER-ff99sb-NMR force field, the others tended to under estimate the expected amount of β-sheet and over estimate the amount of turn/bend/random coil conformations. All force fields, with the exception AMBER-ff99sb-NMR, reproduce a theoretically expected β-sheet-turn-β-sheet conformational motif, however, only the CHARMM22* and CHARMM36 force fields yield results compatible with collapse of the central and C-terminal hydrophobic cores from residues 17-21 and 30-36. Although analyses of essential subspace sampling showed only minor variations between force fields, secondary structures of lowest energy conformers are different. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Development of SAAP3D force field and the application to replica-exchange Monte Carlo simulation for chignolin and C-peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, Michio; Suzuki, Toshiki; Shoji, Yuya; Dedachi, Kenichi; Shimosato, Taku; Minezaki, Toshiya; Hojo, Hironobu; Onuki, Hiroyuki; Hirota, Hiroshi

    2017-12-01

    Single amino acid potential (SAAP) would be a prominent factor to determine peptide conformations. To prove this hypothesis, we previously developed SAAP force field for molecular simulation of polypeptides. In this study, the force field was renovated to SAAP3D force field by applying more accurate three-dimensional main-chain parameters, instead of the original two-dimensional ones, for the amino acids having a long side-chain. To demonstrate effectiveness of the SAAP3D force field, replica-exchange Monte Carlo (REMC) simulation was performed for two benchmark short peptides, chignolin (H-GYDPETGTWG-OH) and C-peptide (CHO-AETAAAKFLRAHA-NH 2 ). For chignolin, REMC/SAAP3D simulation correctly produced native β-turn structures, whose minimal all-atom root-mean-square deviation value measured from the native NMR structure (except for H) was 1.2 Å, at 300 K in implicit water, along with misfolded β-hairpin structures with unpacked aromatic side chains of Tyr2 and Trp9. Similar results were obtained for chignolin analog [G1Y,G10Y], which folded more tightly to the native β-turn structure than chignolin did. For C-peptide, on the other hand, the α-helix content was larger than the β content on average, suggesting a significant helix-forming propensity. When the imidazole side chain of His12 was protonated (i.e., [His12Hip]), the α content became larger. These observations as well as the representative structures obtained by clustering analysis were in reasonable agreement not only with the structures of C-peptide that were determined in this study by NMR in 30% CD 3 CD in H 2 O at 298 K but also with the experimental and theoretical behaviors having been reported for protonated C-peptide. Thus, accuracy of the SAAP force field was improved by applying three-dimensional main-chain parameters, supporting prominent importance of SAAP for peptide conformations.

  5. Topological phase transition in the two-dimensional anisotropic Heisenberg model: A study using the Replica Exchange Wang-Landau sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, T. P.; Rocha, J. C. S.; Costa, B. V.

    2017-12-01

    Although the topological Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition was for the first time described by 40 years ago, it is still a matter of discussion. It has been used to explain several experiments in the most diverse physical systems. In contrast with the ordinary continuous phase transitions the BKT-transition does not break any symmetry. However, in some contexts it can easily be confused with other continuous transitions, in general due to an insufficient data analysis. The two-dimensional XY (or sometimes called planar rotator) spin model is the fruit fly model describing the BKT transition. As demonstrated by Bramwell and Holdsworth (1993) the finite-size effects are more important in two-dimensions than in others due to the logarithmic system size dependence of the properties of the system. Closely related is the anisotropic two dimensional Heisenberg model (AH). Although they have the same Hamiltonian the spin variable in the former has only two degrees of freedom while the AH has three. Many works treat the AH model as undergoing a transition in the same universality class as the XY model. However, its characterization as being in the BKT class of universality deserve some investigation. This paper has two goals. First, we describe an analytical evidence showing that the AH model is in the BKT class of universality. Second, we make an extensive simulation, using the numerical Replica Exchange Wang-Landau method that corroborate our analytical calculations. From our simulation we obtain the BKT transition temperature as TBKT = 0 . 6980(10) by monitoring the susceptibility, the two point correlation function and the helicity modulus. We discuss the misuse of the fourth order Binder's cumulant to locate the transition temperature. The specific heat is shown to have a non-critical behavior as expected in the BKT transition. An analysis of the two point correlation function at low temperature, C(r) ∝r - η(T), shows that the exponent, η, is consistent

  6. Development of SAAP3D force field and the application to replica-exchange Monte Carlo simulation for chignolin and C-peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, Michio; Suzuki, Toshiki; Shoji, Yuya; Dedachi, Kenichi; Shimosato, Taku; Minezaki, Toshiya; Hojo, Hironobu; Onuki, Hiroyuki; Hirota, Hiroshi

    2017-12-01

    Single amino acid potential (SAAP) would be a prominent factor to determine peptide conformations. To prove this hypothesis, we previously developed SAAP force field for molecular simulation of polypeptides. In this study, the force field was renovated to SAAP3D force field by applying more accurate three-dimensional main-chain parameters, instead of the original two-dimensional ones, for the amino acids having a long side-chain. To demonstrate effectiveness of the SAAP3D force field, replica-exchange Monte Carlo (REMC) simulation was performed for two benchmark short peptides, chignolin (H-GYDPETGTWG-OH) and C-peptide (CHO-AETAAAKFLRAHA-NH2). For chignolin, REMC/SAAP3D simulation correctly produced native β-turn structures, whose minimal all-atom root-mean-square deviation value measured from the native NMR structure (except for H) was 1.2 Å, at 300 K in implicit water, along with misfolded β-hairpin structures with unpacked aromatic side chains of Tyr2 and Trp9. Similar results were obtained for chignolin analog [G1Y,G10Y], which folded more tightly to the native β-turn structure than chignolin did. For C-peptide, on the other hand, the α-helix content was larger than the β content on average, suggesting a significant helix-forming propensity. When the imidazole side chain of His12 was protonated (i.e., [His12Hip]), the α content became larger. These observations as well as the representative structures obtained by clustering analysis were in reasonable agreement not only with the structures of C-peptide that were determined in this study by NMR in 30% CD3CD in H2O at 298 K but also with the experimental and theoretical behaviors having been reported for protonated C-peptide. Thus, accuracy of the SAAP force field was improved by applying three-dimensional main-chain parameters, supporting prominent importance of SAAP for peptide conformations.

  7. Tritium labeling of detonation nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Hugues A; El-Kharbachi, Abdelouahab; Garcia-Argote, Sébastien; Petit, Tristan; Bergonzo, Philippe; Rousseau, Bernard; Arnault, Jean-Charles

    2014-03-18

    For the first time, the radioactive labeling of detonation nanodiamonds was efficiently achieved using a tritium microwave plasma. According to our measurements, the total radioactivity reaches 9120 ± 120 μCi mg(-1), with 93% of (3)H atoms tightly bonded to the surface and up to 7% embedded into the diamond core. Such (3)H doping will ensure highly stable radiolabeled nanodiamonds, on which surface functionalization is still allowed. This breakthrough opens the way to biodistribution and pharmacokinetics studies of nanodiamonds, while this approach can be scalable to easily treat bulk quantities of nanodiamonds at low cost.

  8. Hemoglobin Labeled by Radioactive Lysine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; DeLaVergne, L.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1949-12-08

    This paper reports on the utilization of tagged epsilon carbon of DL-lysine by a dog both anemic and hypoproteinemic due to repeated bleeding plus a diet low in protein. The experiment extended over period of 234 days, a time sufficient to indicate an erythrocyte life span of at least 115 days based upon the rate of replacement of labeled red cell proteins. The proteins of broken down red cells seem not to be used with any great preference for the synthesis of new hemoglobin.

  9. Food nutrition labelling practice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yexuan; Li, Ji; Lo, Y Martin; Tang, Qingya; Wang, Youfa

    2011-03-01

    The present study aimed to scrutinize the food nutrition labelling practice in China before the Chinese Food Nutrition Labeling Regulation (CFNLR) era. Nutrition information of pre-packaged foods collected from a supermarket between December 2007 and January 2008 was analysed and compared with findings from a survey conducted in Beijing. Information collected from a supermarket in Shanghai. A total of 850 pre-packaged foods. In the Shanghai survey, the overall labelling rate was 30·9 %, similar to that found in the Beijing study (29·7 %). While only 20·5 % of the snacks in Shanghai had nutrition labelling, the percentage of food items labelled with SFA (8·6 %), trans fatty acid (4·7 %) or fibre (12·1 %) was very low. Of those food items with nutrition labels, a considerable proportion (7-15 %) did not label energy, fat, carbohydrate or protein. Food products manufactured by Taiwan and Hong Kong companies had a lower labelling rate (13·6 %) than those manufactured by domestic (31·6 %) or international manufacturers (33·8 %). The very low food nutrition labelling rate among products sold in large chain supermarkets in major cities of China before CFNLR emphasizes the need for such critical regulations to be implemented in order to reinforce industrial compliance with accurate nutrition labelling.

  10. Consumer knowledge and attitudes toward nutritional labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannoosamy, Komeela; Pugo-Gunsam, Prity; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    To determine Mauritian consumers' attitudes toward nutritional labels based on the Kano model and to identify determinants of the use and understanding of nutrition labels. The researchers also used a Kano model questionnaire to determine consumers' attitudes toward nutrition labeling. Four hundred consumers residing in Mauritius. Information was elicited via a questionnaire that assessed nutritional knowledge and information about the use and understanding of nutritional labels and demographic factors. Nutritional label use and understanding, nutrition knowledge, and association of demographic factors with label use. Statistical tests performed included 1-way ANOVA and independent samples t tests. Statistically significant relationships (P nutritional knowledge and nutritional label usage with demographic factors. All demographic factors with the exception of gender were significantly associated (P nutritional label understanding. Based on the outcome of the Kano survey, calorie content, trans fat content, protein content, and cholesterol content were found to be must-be attributes: that is, attributes that, when not present, result in consumer dissatisfaction. Age, education, income, household size, and nutrition knowledge had an impact on nutritional label use. Health promoters should aim to increase the use of nutritional labels. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Label Space Reduction in MPLS Networks: How Much Can A Single Stacked Label Do?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solano, Fernando; Stidsen, Thomas K.; Fabregat, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    Most network operators have considered reducing LSR label spaces (number of labels used) as a way of simplifying management of underlaying virtual private networks (VPNs) and therefore reducing operational expenditure (OPEX). The IETF outlined the label merging feature in MPLS-allowing the config......Most network operators have considered reducing LSR label spaces (number of labels used) as a way of simplifying management of underlaying virtual private networks (VPNs) and therefore reducing operational expenditure (OPEX). The IETF outlined the label merging feature in MPLS...

  12. Link Label Prediction in Signed Citation Network

    KAUST Repository

    Akujuobi, Uchenna

    2016-04-12

    Link label prediction is the problem of predicting the missing labels or signs of all the unlabeled edges in a network. For signed networks, these labels can either be positive or negative. In recent years, different algorithms have been proposed such as using regression, trust propagation and matrix factorization. These approaches have tried to solve the problem of link label prediction by using ideas from social theories, where most of them predict a single missing label given that labels of other edges are known. However, in most real-world social graphs, the number of labeled edges is usually less than that of unlabeled edges. Therefore, predicting a single edge label at a time would require multiple runs and is more computationally demanding. In this thesis, we look at link label prediction problem on a signed citation network with missing edge labels. Our citation network consists of papers from three major machine learning and data mining conferences together with their references, and edges showing the relationship between them. An edge in our network is labeled either positive (dataset relevant) if the reference is based on the dataset used in the paper or negative otherwise. We present three approaches to predict the missing labels. The first approach converts the label prediction problem into a standard classification problem. We then, generate a set of features for each edge and then adopt Support Vector Machines in solving the classification problem. For the second approach, we formalize the graph such that the edges are represented as nodes with links showing similarities between them. We then adopt a label propagation method to propagate the labels on known nodes to those with unknown labels. In the third approach, we adopt a PageRank approach where we rank the nodes according to the number of incoming positive and negative edges, after which we set a threshold. Based on the ranks, we can infer an edge would be positive if it goes a node above the

  13. Multimodal label-free microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pavillon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the different multimodal applications based on a large extent of label-free imaging modalities, ranging from linear to nonlinear optics, while also including spectroscopic measurements. We put specific emphasis on multimodal measurements going across the usual boundaries between imaging modalities, whereas most multimodal platforms combine techniques based on similar light interactions or similar hardware implementations. In this review, we limit the scope to focus on applications for biology such as live cells or tissues, since by their nature of being alive or fragile, we are often not free to take liberties with the image acquisition times and are forced to gather the maximum amount of information possible at one time. For such samples, imaging by a given label-free method usually presents a challenge in obtaining sufficient optical signal or is limited in terms of the types of observable targets. Multimodal imaging is then particularly attractive for these samples in order to maximize the amount of measured information. While multimodal imaging is always useful in the sense of acquiring additional information from additional modes, at times it is possible to attain information that could not be discovered using any single mode alone, which is the essence of the progress that is possible using a multimodal approach.

  14. Labeled receptor ligands for spect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, H.F.

    1989-01-01

    Receptor specific imaging agents for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can potentially be useful in the understanding of basic biochemistry and pharmacology of receptors. SPECT images may also provide tools for evaluation of density and binding kinetics of a specific receptor, information important for diagnosis and patient management. Basic requirements for receptor imaging agents are: (a) they are labeled with short-lived isotopes, (b) they show high selectivity and specific uptake, (c) they exhibit high target/background ratio, and (d) they can be modeled to obtain quantitative information. Several good examples of CNS receptor specific ligands labeled with I-123 have been developed, including iodoQNB, iodoestrogen iodobenzadiazepine, iodobenazepine, iodobenzamides for muscarinic, estrogen benzadiazepine, D-1 and D-2 dopamine receptors. With the advent of newer and faster SPECT imaging devices, it may be feasible to quantitate the receptor density by in vivo imaging techniques. These new brain imaging agents can provide unique diagnostic information, which may not be available through other imaging modalities, such as CT and MRI

  15. Labeling of the spent fuel waste package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culbreth, W.G.; Chagari, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the containers used to store spent fuel in an underground repository must meet federal guidelines that call for unique labels that identify the contents and processing history. Existing standards in the nuclear power industry and relevant ASME/ANSI codes have been reviewed for possible application to the spent-fuel container labeling. An Array of labeling techniques were found that include recommendations for: fonts, word spacing, color combinations, label materials and mounting methods, placement, and content. The use of bar code, optical character recognition, and RF labels were also studied to meet the requirement that the container labels be consistent with the methods used to maintain the repository records

  16. Radiopharmaceutical potential of I-131 labelled diazepam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurt, F.; Unek, P.; Asikoglu, M.; Baggi, S.; Erener, G.; Ozkilic, H.; Uluc, F.; Tuglular, I.

    1998-01-01

    In this study, diazepam is a derivative of the 1.4 benzodiazepine family that the most widely used drug as anticonvulsant agent has been labeled with I-131, as a new radiopharmaceutical and its radiopharmaceutical potential has been determined. Labeling of diazepam has been performed by iodogen method and optimum labeling conditions have been determined. Optimum reaction conditions are 1 mg for iodogen amount; 1-5 mg for diazepam amount, 15-20 minutes for reaction time and room temperature for reaction temperature. Specific activity of labeled compound was 0,15 Ci/mmol level. N-octanol/water ratio was found 1.9 for 131 IDZ ( 131 I labeled diazepam). In vivo experiments have been carried out to determine radiopharmaceutical potentials of labeled compound. Biodistribution studies on rats showed that 131 IDZ have accumulated in kidneys, liver, lungs and brain tissues. Scintigraphic results taken with gamma camera on rabbits agree with biodistribution results of rats. (author)

  17. Green power: naturemade - History of a label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lainsecq, M. de

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the history of the set of 'naturemade' labels that are used to designate power generated in facilities that use renewable energy. Electricity from hydropower, wind-power, biogas and solar energy plants that fulfil particular ecological conditions receives a special label, 'Naturemade Star'. 'Normal' hydropower can be awarded the 'Naturemade Basic' label. The development of the labels is discussed in the light of increasing liberalisation of European electricity markets and increasing sales of 'green power' by electricity utilities. The need for certification of production facilities and the founding of the label's certification authority, the 'Verein fuer umweltgerechte Elektrizitaet' (VUE), a society for the promotion of environment-friendly electricity, are discussed. Criticisms made by certain environmental protection organisations on the awarding of the 'Naturemade Basic' label to projects that in their opinion do not help protect the environment are quoted. The article is completed with an interview on the subject with Ursula Stocker from the VUE

  18. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of carbon-14 labelled antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deigner, H.P.; Freyberg, C.; Heck, R.

    1993-01-01

    The syntheses of [ 14 C] labelled antioxidants are described. We developed an efficient synthetic methodology to prepare a series of labelled amides with antioxidant activity, starting from [ 14 C] KCN and alkyl or aryl halides. By a combination of nucleophilic displacement of halides by [ 14 C] cyanide, mediated by ultrasound and subsequent mild and selective enzymatic hydrolysis of the resulting nitriles, labelled carboxylic acids were obtained. Labelled amines were prepared by reduction of the respective nitriles. Availability of [ 14 C] KCN, efficient introduction of the label by ultrasound mediated reaction and selective and mild hydrolysis by commercially available nitrilase (Rhodococcus sp.), makes possible a wide range of applications of this methodology in the synthesis of functionalized labelled compounds. (Author)

  19. Functional alterations of human platelets following indium-111 labelling using different incubation media and labelling agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaka, Yoshinari; Imaizumi, Masatoshi; Kimura, Kazufumi; Matsumoto, Masayasu; Kamada, Takenobu

    1991-01-01

    Human platelets were labelled in the absence of presence of plasma using 111 In-labelled oxine sulphate, tropolone or 2-mercaptopyridine-N-oxide (MPO). Under in vitro and in vivo conditions, platelet functions were evaluated by measuring their aggregability, survival, recovery and early distribution. High labelling efficiency was achieved in saline labelling, whereas with plasma labelling, it was necessary to concentrate the platelet-rich plasma to 4.8x10 6 platelets/μl. The aggregation of platelets labelled in plasma or saline was compared with that of controls; platelets labelled in saline showed lower aggregability in 2 μM ADP but not in 5 μM ADP nor with collagen. No significant differences in platelet survival and recovery were noted between platelets labelled in plasma and those labelled in saline. Our results indicate that partial loss of ADP aggregability in vitro does not influence the in vivo viability of platelets labelled in saline. Scintigraphic studies showed that platelets labelled in a saline medium were temporarily sequestrated in the liver but not in the spleen or heart. Thus, platelet labelling in saline does not affect platelet function adversely, but platelets labelled in plasma are more desirable for assessing the early distribution of platelets in the reticuloendothelial system. (orig.)

  20. ML-MG: Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using a Mixed Graph

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan

    2015-12-07

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e. some of their labels are missing). To handle missing labels, we propose a unified model of label dependencies by constructing a mixed graph, which jointly incorporates (i) instance-level similarity and class co-occurrence as undirected edges and (ii) semantic label hierarchy as directed edges. Unlike most MLML methods, We formulate this learning problem transductively as a convex quadratic matrix optimization problem that encourages training label consistency and encodes both types of label dependencies (i.e. undirected and directed edges) using quadratic terms and hard linear constraints. The alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) can be used to exactly and efficiently solve this problem. To evaluate our proposed method, we consider two popular applications (image and video annotation), where the label hierarchy can be derived from Wordnet. Experimental results show that our method achieves a significant improvement over state-of-the-art methods in performance and robustness to missing labels.

  1. Synthesis of carboxy-labelled 1-carnitine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodfellow, D.B.; Hoppel, C.L.; Turkaly, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    A method for the production of carboxy-labelled l-carnitine is described. The first step is the chemical synthesis of 4-N-trimethylammoniobutanoate (butyrobetaine) from the precursors 4-aminobutanoate and iodomethane. The second step involves the hydroxylation of butyrobetaine to form l-carnitine using butyrobetaine hydroxylase partially purified from bovine calf liver. The method also can be used to synthesize Me-labelled and uniformly-chain-labelled l-carnitine. (author)

  2. DOT 3.5-E (DOT 3.5-E/JEF-1) analysis of the PCA-Replica (H2O/FE) shielding benchmark for the LWR-PV damage prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescarini, M.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a DOT 3.5-E/JEF-1 validation on the (H2O/Fr) PCA-REPLICA (UKAEA-Winfith) low-flux shielding benchmark are presented. The PCA-REPLICA experiments reproduces the excore radial geometry of a PWR and is closely related to LWR safety since it is dedicated to test the accuracy of the calculated neutron exposure parameters (fast fluence and iron displacement rates) in a pressure vessel simulator. The NJOY/THEMIS data processing system is employed to obtain the neutron damage-energy cross sections for the JEF-1 iron file. The SN 1-D ANISN code is used to collapse cross sections from the VITAMIN-J (175 n) shielding library, based on the JEF-1 data, to a 28 group working library for 2-D calculations. A 3-D-equivalent synthesis (X,Y,Z) of 2-D and 1-D DOT 3.5-E SN calculations in a plane geometry, gives the integral and spectral results for comparison with the respective experimental data. The underprediction of the in-vessel dosimeter experimental activities depends probably on an overestimation of the iron inelastic scattering cross section of the JEF-1 file

  3. Validation of the BUGJEFF311.BOLIB, BUGENDF70.BOLIB and BUGLE-B7 broad-group libraries on the PCA-Replica (H2O/Fe neutron shielding benchmark experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pescarini Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The PCA-Replica 12/13 (H2O/Fe neutron shielding benchmark experiment was analysed using the TORT-3.2 3D SN code. PCA-Replica reproduces a PWR ex-core radial geometry with alternate layers of water and steel including a pressure vessel simulator. Three broad-group coupled neutron/photon working cross section libraries in FIDO-ANISN format with the same energy group structure (47 n + 20 γ and based on different nuclear data were alternatively used: the ENEA BUGJEFF311.BOLIB (JEFF-3.1.1 and UGENDF70.BOLIB (ENDF/B-VII.0 libraries and the ORNL BUGLE-B7 (ENDF/B-VII.0 library. Dosimeter cross sections derived from the IAEA IRDF-2002 dosimetry file were employed. The calculated reaction rates for the Rh-103(n,n′Rh-103m, In-115(n,n′In-115m and S-32(n,pP-32 threshold activation dosimeters and the calculated neutron spectra are compared with the corresponding experimental results.

  4. Validation of the BUGJEFF311.BOLIB, BUGENDF70.BOLIB and BUGLE-B7 broad-group libraries on the PCA-Replica (H2O/Fe) neutron shielding benchmark experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescarini, Massimo; Orsi, Roberto; Frisoni, Manuela

    2016-03-01

    The PCA-Replica 12/13 (H2O/Fe) neutron shielding benchmark experiment was analysed using the TORT-3.2 3D SN code. PCA-Replica reproduces a PWR ex-core radial geometry with alternate layers of water and steel including a pressure vessel simulator. Three broad-group coupled neutron/photon working cross section libraries in FIDO-ANISN format with the same energy group structure (47 n + 20 γ) and based on different nuclear data were alternatively used: the ENEA BUGJEFF311.BOLIB (JEFF-3.1.1) and UGENDF70.BOLIB (ENDF/B-VII.0) libraries and the ORNL BUGLE-B7 (ENDF/B-VII.0) library. Dosimeter cross sections derived from the IAEA IRDF-2002 dosimetry file were employed. The calculated reaction rates for the Rh-103(n,n')Rh-103m, In-115(n,n')In-115m and S-32(n,p)P-32 threshold activation dosimeters and the calculated neutron spectra are compared with the corresponding experimental results.

  5. Eye tracking and nutrition label use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Dan J.; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Visschers, Vivianne H.M.

    2012-01-01

    cameras monitoring consumer visual attention (i.e., eye tracking) has begun to identify ways in which label design could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to locate and effectively utilize nutrition information. The present paper reviews all published studies of nutrition label use that have...... utilized eye tracking methodology, identifies directions for further research in this growing field, and makes research-based recommendations for ways in which labels could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to use nutrition labels to select healthful foods....

  6. [Academic production on food labeling in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara, Maria Clara Coelho; Marinho, Carmem Luisa Cabral; Guilam, Maria Cristina; Braga, Ana Maria Cheble Bahia

    2008-01-01

    To review and discuss academic production (theses and dissertations) on the topic of labeling of prepackaged foods in Brazil. A search of the database maintained by the Coordination for the Development of Higher Education Professionals (CAPES), one of the two Brazilian government research funding and support agencies, was conducted on the following keywords: "rotulagem" (labeling), "rotulagem nutricional" (food labeling) and "rótulo de alimentos" (food labels). The search covered the years 1987 (earliest year available) to 2004. We identified 49 studies on this topic. Content analysis identified three major themes: the extent to which food labels meet specific legal requirements (57.2%); the degree to which consumers understand the information on labels (22.4%); and the labeling of transgenic or genetically-modified foods (20.4%). Food labeling is a frequent topic and is adequately covered by the Brazilian academic production. In most of the studies, ineffective law enforcement appears to be the main factor in the lack of compliance with and disrespect for the food labeling rules and regulations in Brazil.

  7. 40 CFR 86.1606 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emission Control Information Update; (2) Full corporate name and trademark of the vehicle manufactuer; (3... tuneup specifications (if changed from the original label specifications) at the applicable altitude. ...

  8. 75 FR 21007 - Food Labeling; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ..., particularly small businesses, with firsthand working knowledge of FDA's requirements and compliance policies... Consumer Protection Act of 2004, (3) nutrition labeling requirements, (4) health and nutrition claims, and...

  9. Labelled antibiotics as tumour-localizing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.; McCready, V.R.

    1976-01-01

    The published results of clinical and experimental studies of labelled bleomycins and tetracyclines are reviewed. None of the labelled antibiotics yet studied show anything approaching absolute tumour specificity. Clinical trials suggest that 57 Co-bleomycin is superior to either 111 In- or 99 Tcsup(m)-bleomycin and that it may possess some advantages over 67 Ga-citrate in respect of lower uptake in the abdomen and, possibly, lower uptakes in benign and inflammatory lesions. Radioiodine-labelled or 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled tetracyclines appear to be of little value in tumour localization. (author)

  10. Labeling schemes for bounded degree graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjiashvili, David; Rotbart, Noy Galil

    2014-01-01

    We investigate adjacency labeling schemes for graphs of bounded degree Δ = O(1). In particular, we present an optimal (up to an additive constant) log n + O(1) adjacency labeling scheme for bounded degree trees. The latter scheme is derived from a labeling scheme for bounded degree outerplanar...... graphs. Our results complement a similar bound recently obtained for bounded depth trees [Fraigniaud and Korman, SODA 2010], and may provide new insights for closing the long standing gap for adjacency in trees [Alstrup and Rauhe, FOCS 2002]. We also provide improved labeling schemes for bounded degree...

  11. Evaluation of fluorine-18-labeled alkylating agents as potential synthons for the labeling of oligonucleotides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, EFJ; Vroegh, J; Elsinga, PH; Vaalburg, W

    Six fluorine-18-labeled alkylating agents were selected as potentially suitable synthons for the labeling of antisense oligonucleotides. The selected synthons were evaluated in a model reaction with the monomer adenosine 5'-O-thiomonophosphate. Of these synthons,

  12. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  13. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  14. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  15. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  16. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  17. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  18. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  19. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  20. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  1. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  2. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  3. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  4. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  5. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  6. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  7. Tritium labelled steroids, preparation process and application to synthesis of tritium labelled estrane derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Process for preparing new steroids labelled with tritium in 6.7 and comprising in 3 a blocked ketonic group as ketal, thioketal or derivatives. Application of these products to the synthesis of tritium labelled estrane derivatives [fr

  8. 16 CFR Appendix L to Part 305 - Sample Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED... Part 305—Sample Labels ER29AU07.122 PROTOTYPE LABEL 1 ER29AU07.123 PROTOTYPE LABEL 2 ER29AU07.124 PROTOTYPE LABEL 3 ER29AU07.125 PROTOTYPE LABEL 4 ER29AU07.126 SAMPLE LABEL 1 ER29AU07.127 SAMPLE LABEL 2...

  9. Scintigraphy with /sup 111/In-labeled leukocytes. Simplified procedure for labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terada, Hitoshi; Shiire, Yasushi; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Aburano, Tamio; Tonami, Norihisa; Hisada, Kin-ichi

    1987-12-01

    To utilize /sup 111/In leukocytes in a routine work, simplified procedure for sterile leukocytes preparation and labeling with water soluble oxine sulfate was performed. Viability and chemotaxis of leukocytes were maintained during separation and labeling. Chelated rate of /sup 111/In with oxine sulfate was 93.5 %. Labeling efficiency of /sup 111/In leukocytes was 93.8 %. Obvious blood pool images due to remaind erythrocytes were not observed. /sup 111/In labeled leukocytes showed good migration into inflammatory focci.

  10. Synthesis and labelling of epidepride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Min; Pei Zhuguo; Hu Mingyang; Wang Bocheng; Zhou Xingqin

    2001-01-01

    S-(-)-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl) methyl]-5-iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide (proposed generic name, epidepride) is a very potent dopamine D2 antagonist. It was synthesized by five steps from 3-methoxysalicylic acid. [ 131 I]epidepride was obtained in 97.3% radiochemical yields from the corresponding 5-(tributyltin) derivative using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant. The aryltin precursor was prepared from non-labelled epidepride by palladium-catalyzed stannylene using bis (tri-n-butyltin) in triethylamine. [ 131 I] epidepride was stable under 4 degree C, and partition coefficient was 72.3 at pH 7.40. The biodistribution study in rats exhibited high localization in the striatum of the brain with the striatum/cerebellum ratio reaching 237/1 at 320 min postinjection. All these results suggest that [ 131 I] epidepride may be used widely as a useful dopamine D2 receptor imaging agent for SPECT

  11. Development of tire road noise chassis-dynamometer simulator. Effect of ISO surface replica model pad on tire road noise; Shisakushita tire romen soon shiken`yo jissha daijo simulator ni tsuite. ISO romen mogi pad wo sochakushita koka ni kansuru kisoteki kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T; Murakami, T; Ogata, S; Sakamoto, I [Traffic Safety and Nuisance Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    As a new test facility to clarify noise reduction method of tire road noise, Tire Road Noise Chassis-Dynamometer Simulator was developed. ISO surface replica pads made by copying the texture of ISO surface were attached on the roller surface of this system to simulate tire road noise. This paper described the specifications and characteristics of this system, and the effects of ISO surface replica pads on tire noise measurement by comparing the sound intensity in horizontal plane of tire noise measured in this system with that measured in a single drum tester with safety walk surface. 4 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Chain store management through private labels strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Sopta

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the market shares of private labels in the European Union and on the global market, and to compare the results of the analysis with the level of presence of private labels on the Croatian market. Moreover, through the application of macro and microeconomic tools, the author tried to estimate the future trends of private labels in Croatia.For the purpose of the paper secondary and primary data was used in the research. Relevant scientific and professional literature of local and foreign authors was analyzed. In addition, a few recent research studies were analyzed and their results compared. Field research has been conducted by the survey method, with 225 respondents included in the intentional sample.The main hypothesis of the paper based on research is that, in total sales, private labels are gaining a growing share in all markets, regardless of the development level of those markets. Alongside the main hypothesis of the work, three supporting hypotheses were tested to see which private labels are a good alternative to other brands on the world market. Private labels are generally developed on generic products. The third supporting hypothesis starts from the assumption that the investments in the promotion of private labels are negligible, resulting in lower prices of thoseproducts. The results of research and analyses in the work indicate that the position of private labels will strengthen internationally, as part of the process of liberalization and globalization of trade flows. In the process of purchase of private labels the positioning of the point of sale and price have an increasing contribution. With the concentration of commerce in chain stores, the share of private labels grows, approaching a half of the total sales in some countries. Considering the Croatian market, according to the international product life cycle theory, the share of private labels in the total sales will grow in the future

  13. Leukemic cell labeling with indium-111-oxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, T.; Takagi, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Yui, T.; Ishibashi, T.; Kimura, H.; Kariyone, S.

    1984-01-01

    Leukemic cells were labeled with In-111-oxine in patients with acute leukemia. In vitro labeling studies revealed that labeling efficiency reached maximum 80.8 +- 3.6% (mean +- 1SD) by 2 times washes after 20 minutes incubation time. Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion test and in vitro culture of leukemic cells, which showed no cellular damage during labeling procedure. Elution of In-111 from the labeled cells was 10.0 +- 1.2% at 12 hours after labeling. For in vivo leukemic cell kinetic studies, more than 10/sup 8/ leukemic cells separated from Ficoll-Hypacque sedimentation were labeled by 30 minutes of In-111-oxine incubation and two times washes at 37 0 C. In vivo studies were performed in 7 patients with acute myeloblastic, lymphoblastic leukemia and blastic crisis of chronic myelocytic leukemia. Labeled leukemic cells disappeared in single exponential fashion with half life of 9.6 to 31.8 hours. Total leukemic cell pool in peripheral circulation was calculated, which correlated well with peripheral leukemic cell counts (r=0.99). No relationship was observed between total leukemic cell pool and leukemic cell turnover rate. Migration patterns of labeled leukemic cells showed that pulmonary uptake was evident within 15 minutes after the infusion and returned to base-line. Splenic and hepatic uptake showed gradual increase up to 24 hours. Bone marrow accumulation was shown only in 2 cases. Presently, there are no suitable radionuclides for leukemic cell labeling. In-111-oxine labeled leukemic cells would overcome this difficulty

  14. Portion Size Labeling and Intended Soft Drink Consumption: The Impact of Labeling Format and Size Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Willemijn M.; Steenhuis, Ingrid H. M.; Leeuwis, Franca H.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess what portion size labeling "format" is most promising in helping consumers selecting appropriate soft drink sizes, and whether labeling impact depends on the size portfolio. Methods: An experimental study was conducted in fast-food restaurants in which 2 labeling formats (ie, reference portion size and small/medium/large…

  15. Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using Mixed Dependency Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan

    2018-04-06

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e., some of their labels are missing). The key point to handle missing labels is propagating the label information from the provided labels to missing labels, through a dependency graph that each label of each instance is treated as a node. We build this graph by utilizing different types of label dependencies. Specifically, the instance-level similarity is served as undirected edges to connect the label nodes across different instances and the semantic label hierarchy is used as directed edges to connect different classes. This base graph is referred to as the mixed dependency graph, as it includes both undirected and directed edges. Furthermore, we present another two types of label dependencies to connect the label nodes across different classes. One is the class co-occurrence, which is also encoded as undirected edges. Combining with the above base graph, we obtain a new mixed graph, called mixed graph with co-occurrence (MG-CO). The other is the sparse and low rank decomposition of the whole label matrix, to embed high-order dependencies over all labels. Combining with the base graph, the new mixed graph is called as MG-SL (mixed graph with sparse and low rank decomposition). Based on MG-CO and MG-SL, we further propose two convex transductive formulations of the MLML problem, denoted as MLMG-CO and MLMG-SL respectively. In both formulations, the instance-level similarity is embedded through a quadratic smoothness term, while the semantic label hierarchy is used as a linear constraint. In MLMG-CO, the class co-occurrence is also formulated as a quadratic smoothness term, while the sparse and low rank decomposition is incorporated into MLMG-SL, through two additional matrices (one is assumed as sparse, and the other is assumed as low

  16. 10 CFR 61.57 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.57 Labeling. Each package of waste must be clearly labeled to identify whether it is Class A waste, Class B waste, or Class C waste, in accordance with § 61.55. ...

  17. 21 CFR 355.60 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 355.60 Section 355.60 Food... HUMAN USE ANTICARIES DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 355.60 Professional... health professionals (but not to the general public) may contain the following additional dosage...

  18. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Educators Search English Español How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth / For Parents / How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print en español Cómo leer ...

  19. 21 CFR 660.55 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling. 660.55 Section 660.55 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL... name such as polyspecific may appear in smaller type. (4) Visual inspection. When the label has been...

  20. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) ... Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print en español Cómo leer las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) ...

  1. Synthesis and application of labelled growth regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyutte, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    For the investigation of the metabolism both of phytoeffectors like herbicides and plant growth regulators such compounds are needed in radioactive labelled form. The synthesis of radioactive labelled fluorodifen, nitrofen, ethephon, diphenylic acetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyisobutyric acid, abscisic acid, hydroxybenzoic acids and different conjugates are described. Some examples of these compounds metabolism in plants are discussed [ru

  2. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Watch this video for tips on figuring out food labels so you can make healthy choices. More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has ...

  3. 10 CFR 20.1904 - Labeling containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling containers. 20.1904 Section 20.1904 Energy....1904 Labeling containers. (a) The licensee shall ensure that each container of licensed material bears... handling or using the containers, or working in the vicinity of the containers, to take precautions to...

  4. The anatomy of a laser label

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser labeling of fruits and vegetables is an efficient alternative to adhesive tags. The advantages of this system are numerous. In general the label consists of alphanumerical characters formed by laser generated pinhole depressions that penetrate the produce’s surface creating visible markings. H...

  5. 76 FR 45715 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... foreign country equivalent, passport number, financial account number, or credit or debit card number. You..., the Commission assumes that the label design change will be implemented by graphic designers at an... label design change will be implemented by graphic designers at an hourly wage rate of $23.44 per hour...

  6. Do European consumers use nutrition labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition...... knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category....

  7. Synthesis of tritium-labeled fosfomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertel, H.E.; Meriwether, H.T.

    1982-01-01

    Tritium gas was used as a labeling agent for the preparation of [1,2- 3 H]fosfomycin. Introduction of tritium into a precursor, the synthesis including resolution of the intermediate racemic 1,2-epoxypropylphosphonic acid, and preparation of both amine and calcium salts of the labeled antibiotic are described. (author)

  8. A note on root projection and labelling*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Abstract. This paper identifies a problem with a hypothesis put forward in Chomsky (2013) in relation to his labelling algorithm. Chomsky suggests that category-neutral roots do not qualify as labels and cannot project. However, I provide evidence that the derivation of particle verbs involves the projection of a ...

  9. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... label. These labels have a lot of important information — on fat and calories, serving sizes, sodium content, ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  10. Radial contour labeling with straight leaders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niedermann, B.; Nöllenburg, M.; Rutter, I.

    2017-01-01

    The usefulness of technical drawings as well as scientific illustrations such as medical drawings of human anatomy essentially depends on the placement of labels that describe all relevant parts of the figure. In order to not spoil or clutter the figure with text, the labels are often placed around

  11. 21 CFR 895.25 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... labeling or advertising of the device. (d) If such voluntary action is not taken, the Commissioner may take... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES BANNED DEVICES General Provisions § 895.25 Labeling. (a) If the Commissioner determines that the...

  12. Imaging with 123I labelled fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudczak, R.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the clinical results obtained with radioiodinated aromatic and aliphatic fatty acids. The radiopharmaceuticals were 123 I labelled p-phenylpentadecanoic (p-IPPA) and 123 I labelled heptadecanoic acid (HDA). The possibility to evaluate the myocardial metabolic function in man noninvasively add a complementary diagnostic tool in the clinical follow-up of patients with heart disease. (Auth.)

  13. Hippuran-123 I: labelling and quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza, M.F. de; Colturato, M.T.; Herrerias, R.; Muramoto, E.

    1992-01-01

    The o-iodo hippuric acid labelling with radioiodine is a radiopharmaceutical used with more frequently for evaluation the kidney function. Several reactive kits for labelling with 123 I are prepared. Controls of radiochemical purity and biological distribution are made. The reactive kit of hippuran is kept at 4 C during 2 years. (C.G.C.)

  14. 49 CFR 172.407 - Label specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Design. (1) Except for size and color, the printing, inner border, and symbol on each label must be as... withstand, without deterioration or a substantial change in color, a 30-day exposure to conditions incident... shown in the appropriate section of this subpart. (d) Color. (1) The background color on each label must...

  15. Energy labelling of refrigerated display cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, S.M. van der

    1996-01-01

    Energy labelling of refrigerated display cabinets is a method to quickly assess the energy efficiency of a certain cabinet compared to the market average consumptions for similar cabinets. Labelling is also a method to obtain comparable data on cabinets from different manufacturers, which has time

  16. Mixed labelling in multitarget particle filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, Y.; Sviestins, Egils; Driessen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The so-called mixed labelling problem inherent to a joint state multitarget particle filter implementation is treated. The mixed labelling problem would be prohibitive for track extraction from a joint state multitarget particle filter. It is shown, using the theory of Markov chains, that the mixed

  17. 19 CFR 12.18 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labels. 12.18 Section 12.18 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Viruses, Serums, and Toxins for Treatment of Domestic Animals § 12.18 Labels. Each...

  18. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para ... nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of important ... Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  19. Conformational change of spin labelled myoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajnberg, E.; Ribeiro, P.C.; Nascimento, O.R.; Bemski, G.

    1978-01-01

    A conformational change of spin labelled myoglobin have been followed by measuring the spin label's (isothiocyanate) correlation time for temperatures between 18 0 C and 44 0 C. The correlation time was calculated from Electrom Paramagnetic Ressonance Spectra using the components of the espectroscopic and hiperfine tensors obtained by fitting the powder spectra using Lefebvre and Maruani's program- [pt

  20. Figuring Out Food Labels (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... English Español Figuring Out Food Labels KidsHealth / For Kids / Figuring Out Food Labels What's in this article? ...