WorldWideScience

Sample records for replenishable bioactive zone

  1. Hearing requires otoferlin-dependent efficient replenishment of synaptic vesicles in hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangrsic, Tina; Lasarow, Livia; Reuter, Kirsten; Takago, Hideki; Schwander, Martin; Riedel, Dietmar; Frank, Thomas; Tarantino, Lisa M; Bailey, Janice S; Strenzke, Nicola; Brose, Nils; Müller, Ulrich; Reisinger, Ellen; Moser, Tobias

    2010-07-01

    Inner hair cell ribbon synapses indefatigably transmit acoustic information. The proteins mediating their fast vesicle replenishment (hundreds of vesicles per s) are unknown. We found that an aspartate to glycine substitution in the C(2)F domain of the synaptic vesicle protein otoferlin impaired hearing by reducing vesicle replenishment in the pachanga mouse model of human deafness DFNB9. In vitro estimates of vesicle docking, the readily releasable vesicle pool (RRP), Ca(2+) signaling and vesicle fusion were normal. Moreover, we observed postsynaptic excitatory currents of variable size and spike generation. However, mutant active zones replenished vesicles at lower rates than wild-type ones and sound-evoked spiking in auditory neurons was sparse and only partially improved during longer interstimulus intervals. We conclude that replenishment does not match the release of vesicles at mutant active zones in vivo and a sufficient standing RRP therefore cannot be maintained. We propose that otoferlin is involved in replenishing synaptic vesicles.

  2. Photocathode device that replenishes photoemissive coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, Nathan A.; Lizon, David C.

    2016-06-14

    A photocathode device may replenish its photoemissive coating to replace coating material that desorbs/evaporates during photoemission. A linear actuator system may regulate the release of a replenishment material vapor, such as an alkali metal, from a chamber inside the photocathode device to a porous cathode substrate. The replenishment material deposits on the inner surface of a porous membrane and effuses through the membrane to the outer surface, where it replenishes the photoemissive coating. The rate of replenishment of the photoemissive coating may be adjusted using the linear actuator system to regulate performance of the photocathode device during photoemission. Alternatively, the linear actuator system may adjust a plasma discharge gap between a cartridge containing replenishment material and a metal grid. A potential is applied between the cartridge and the grid, resulting in ejection of metal ions from the cartridge that similarly replenish the photoemissive coating.

  3. Conditional replenishment using motion prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, D. N.; Jones, H. W., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Conditional replenishment is an interframe video compression method that uses correlation in time to reduce video transmission rates. This method works by detecting and sending only the changing portions of the image and by having the receiver use the video data from the previous frame for the non-changing portion. The amount of compression that can be achieved through this technique depends to a large extent on the rate of change within the image, and can vary from 10 to 1 to less than 2 to 1. An additional 3 to 1 reduction in rate is obtained by the intraframe coding of data blocks using a 2-dimensional variable rate Hadamard transform coder. A further additional 2 to 1 rate reduction is achieved by using motion prediction. Motion prediction works by measuring the relative displacements of a subpicture from one frame to the next. The subpicture can then be transmitted by sending only the value of the 2-dimensional displacement. Computer simulations have demonstrated that data rates of 2 to 4 Mega-bits/second can be achieved while still retaining good fidelity in the image.

  4. [Volume replenishment in haemorrhage: caution advised].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooter, Albertus J; Zweegman, Sonja; Smulders, Yvo M

    2011-01-01

    Acute haemorrhage is a frequent problem in medicine. Patients with acute bleeding may present with signs of hypotension and reduced organ perfusion. The physician's reflex action is often to treat such patients with intravenous volume replenishment using colloid or cristalloid liquids. Intravenous volume replenishment has, however, a downside: it increases the tendency to bleed and therefore can increase blood loss. Previous clinical observations and experimental animal and human studies addressing volume replenishment in haemorrhagic shock have repeatedly shown that accepting hypotension favourably affects prognosis. However, relevant practice guidelines, such as for gastrointestinal bleeding, usually advise liberal intravenous volume replenishment if hypotension is present. In this article we advocate caution when considering intravenous blood volume adjustment in haemorrhage.

  5. Desert shrub stemflow and its significance in soil moisture replenishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.-P. Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Stemflow of xerophytic shrubs represents a significant component of water replenishment to the soil-root system influencing water utilization of plant roots at the stand scale, especially in water scarce desert ecosystems. In this study, stemflow of Caragana korshinskii was quantified by an aluminum foil collar collection method on re-vegetated sand dunes of the Shapotou restored desert ecosystem in northwestern China. Time domain reflectometry probes were inserted horizontally at 20 different soil profile depths under the C. korshinskii shrub to monitor soil moisture variation at hourly intervals. Results indicated that 2.2 mm precipitation was necessary for the generation of stemflow for C. korshinskii. Stemflow averaged 8% of the gross precipitation and the average funnelling ratio was as high as 90. The soil moisture in the uppermost soil profile was strongly correlated with individual rainfall and the stemflow strengthened this relationship. Therefore, it is favourable for the infiltrated water redistribution in the deeper soil profile of the root zone. Consequently, stemflow contributes significantly to a positive soil moisture balance in the root zone and the replenishment of soil moisture at deeper soil layers. This plays an important role in plant survival and the general ecology of arid desert environments.

  6. Design requirements for ERD in diffusion-dominated media: how do injection interval, bioactive zones and reaction kinetics affect remediation performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Lemming, Gitte; Manoli, Gabriele

    Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination (ERD) has been successfully used in high permeability media, such as sand aquifers, and is considered to be a promising technology for low permeability settings. Pilot and full-scale applications of ERD at several sites in Denmark have shown that the main challenge...... transport processes, and this affects the timeframes for the remediation. Due to the limited ERD applications and the complex transport and reactive processes occurring in low-permeability media, design guidelines are currently not available for ERD in such settings, and remediation performance assessments...... are limited. The objective of this study is to combine existing knowledge from several sites with numerical modeling to assess the effect of the injection interval, development of bioactive zones and reaction kinetics on the remediation efficiency for ERD in diffusion-dominated media. A numerical model...

  7. 32 CFR 707.5 - Underway replenishment contour lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underway replenishment contour lights. 707.5... RULES WITH RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.5 Underway replenishment contour lights... underway replenishment operations, either red or blue lights at delivery-ship-deck-edge extremities....

  8. Source replenishment device for vacuum deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ronald A.

    1988-01-01

    A material source replenishment device for use with a vacuum deposition apparatus. The source replenishment device comprises an intermittent motion producing gear arrangement disposed within the vacuum deposition chamber. An elongated rod having one end operably connected to the gearing arrangement is provided with a multiarmed head at the opposite end disposed adjacent the heating element of the vacuum deposition apparatus. An inverted U-shaped source material element is releasably attached to the outer end of each arm member whereby said multiarmed head is moved to locate a first of said material elements above said heating element, whereupon said multiarmed head is lowered to engage said material element with the heating element and further lowered to release said material element on the heating element. After vaporization of said material element, second and subsequent material elements may be provided to the heating element without the need for opening the vacuum deposition apparatus to the atmosphere.

  9. Analyzing Underway Replenishments Through Spatial Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    dimensions of 1x1 day transit time and using the Pythagorean Theorem, it would take a CLF ship at least 1.4 days of total transit time to replenish a...Business Tree Map. (Available from http://www.smartmoney.com, 2012). This is a snapshot of the stock market after closing on August 14, 2012. Boxes...represent companies nested under a listed industry. Size of box is directly proportional to the size of their respective market capitalization

  10. Automatic Replenishment Of Dopant In Silicon Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochka, E. L.

    1988-01-01

    Dopant incorporated feed pellets to maintain required concentration. Technique of continuous replenishment of dopant in silicon melt helps ensure correct resistivity in solid silicon grown from melt. Technique used in dendritic-web growth process in which ribbon of silicon continously pulled from molten material. Providing uniform doping and resistivity in ribbon technique enables production of high-quality silicon ribbon at high yields for use in semiconductor devices.

  11. Bioactive substances

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.

    Chemistry related to certain bioactive molecules, from Indian Ocean Region, developed into drugs or which served as models for the synthesis of more effective bioactive substances or in use in fundamental studies of physiological and biochemical...

  12. Calcium regulates vesicle replenishment at the cone ribbon synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babai, Norbert; Bartoletti, Theodore M; Thoreson, Wallace B

    2010-11-24

    Cones release glutamate-filled vesicles continuously in darkness, and changing illumination modulates this release. Because sustained release in darkness is governed by vesicle replenishment rates, we analyzed how cone membrane potential regulates replenishment. Synaptic release from cones was measured by recording postsynaptic currents in Ambystoma tigrinum horizontal or OFF bipolar cells evoked by depolarization of simultaneously voltage-clamped cones. We measured replenishment after attaining a steady state between vesicle release and replenishment using trains of test pulses. Increasing Ca(2+) currents (I(Ca)) by changing the test step from -30 to -10 mV increased replenishment. Lengthening -30 mV test pulses to match the Ca(2+) influx during 25 ms test pulses to -10 mV produced similar replenishment rates. Reducing Ca(2+) driving force by using test steps to +30 mV slowed replenishment. Using UV flashes to reverse inhibition of I(Ca) by nifedipine accelerated replenishment. Increasing [Ca(2+)](i) by flash photolysis of caged Ca(2+) also accelerated replenishment. Replenishment, but not the initial burst of release, was enhanced by using an intracellular Ca(2+) buffer of 0.5 mm EGTA rather than 5 mm EGTA, and diminished by 1 mm BAPTA. This suggests that although release and replenishment exhibited similar Ca(2+) dependencies, release sites are replenishment sites are >200 nm away. Membrane potential thus regulates replenishment by controlling Ca(2+) influx, principally by effects on replenishment mechanisms but also by altering releasable pool size. This in turn provides a mechanism for converting changes in light intensity into changes in sustained release at the cone ribbon synapse.

  13. Unconventional molecular regulation of synaptic vesicle replenishment in cochlear inner hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Christian; Cooper, Benjamin H; Neef, Jakob; Wojcik, Sonja M; Reim, Kerstin; Reisinger, Ellen; Brose, Nils; Rhee, Jeong-Seop; Moser, Tobias; Wichmann, Carolin

    2015-02-15

    Ribbon synapses of cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) employ efficient vesicle replenishment to indefatigably encode sound. In neurons, neuroendocrine and immune cells, vesicle replenishment depends on proteins of the mammalian uncoordinated 13 (Munc13, also known as Unc13) and Ca(2+)-dependent activator proteins for secretion (CAPS) families, which prime vesicles for exocytosis. Here, we tested whether Munc13 and CAPS proteins also regulate exocytosis in mouse IHCs by combining immunohistochemistry with auditory systems physiology and IHC patch-clamp recordings of exocytosis in mice lacking Munc13 and CAPS isoforms. Surprisingly, we did not detect Munc13 or CAPS proteins at IHC presynaptic active zones and found normal IHC exocytosis as well as auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) in Munc13 and CAPS deletion mutants. Instead, we show that otoferlin, a C2-domain protein that is crucial for vesicular fusion and replenishment in IHCs, clusters at the plasma membrane of the presynaptic active zone. Electron tomography of otoferlin-deficient IHC synapses revealed a reduction of short tethers holding vesicles at the active zone, which might be a structural correlate of impaired vesicle priming in otoferlin-deficient IHCs. We conclude that IHCs use an unconventional priming machinery that involves otoferlin.

  14. Calcium regulates vesicle replenishment at the cone ribbon synapse

    OpenAIRE

    Babai, Norbert; Bartoletti, Theodore M.; Thoreson, Wallace B.

    2010-01-01

    Cones release glutamate-filled vesicles continuously in darkness and changing illumination modulates this release. Because sustained release in darkness is governed by vesicle replenishment rates, we analyzed how cone membrane potential regulates replenishment. Synaptic release from cones was measured by recording post-synaptic currents in Ambystoma tigrinum horizontal or OFF bipolar cells evoked by depolarization of simultaneously voltage-clamped cones. We measured replenishment after attain...

  15. Replenishing Humic Acids in Agricultural Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Susic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For many decades, it was commonly believed that humic acids were formed in soils by the microbial conversion of plant lignins. However, an experiment to test whether these humic acids were formed prior to plant matter reaching the soil was never reported until the late 1980s (and then only as a side issue, even though humic acids were first isolated and reported in 1786. This was a serious omission, and led to a poor understanding of how the humic acid content of soils could be maintained or increased for optimum fertility. In this study, commercial sugar cane mulch and kelp extracts were extracted with alkali and analyzed for humic acid content. Humic acids in the extracts were positively identified by fluorescence spectrophotometry, and this demonstrated that humic acids are formed in senescent plant and algal matter before they reach the soil, where they are then strongly bound to the soil and are also resistant to microbial metabolism. Humic acids are removed from soils by wind and water erosion, and by water leaching, which means that they must be regularly replenished. This study shows that soils can be replenished or fortified with humic acids simply by recycling plant and algal matter, or by adding outside sources of decomposed plant or algal matter such as composts, mulch, peat, and lignite coals.

  16. Generalized Solutions for the joint replenishment problem with correction factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Porras Musalem (Eric); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we give a complete analysis of the joint replenishment problem (JRP) under constant demands and continuous time. We present a solution method for the JRP when a correction is made for empty replenishments, and we test the solution procedures with real data. We show that the

  17. Bioactive Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Banan-Mwine Daliri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The increased consumer awareness of the health promoting effects of functional foods and nutraceuticals is the driving force of the functional food and nutraceutical market. Bioactive peptides are known for their high tissue affinity, specificity and efficiency in promoting health. For this reason, the search for food-derived bioactive peptides has increased exponentially. Over the years, many potential bioactive peptides from food have been documented; yet, obstacles such as the need to establish optimal conditions for industrial scale production and the absence of well-designed clinical trials to provide robust evidence for proving health claims continue to exist. Other important factors such as the possibility of allergenicity, cytotoxicity and the stability of the peptides during gastrointestinal digestion would need to be addressed. This review discusses our current knowledge on the health effects of food-derived bioactive peptides, their processing methods and challenges in their development.

  18. Bioactive Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daliri, Eric Banan-Mwine; Oh, Deog H; Lee, Byong H

    2017-04-26

    The increased consumer awareness of the health promoting effects of functional foods and nutraceuticals is the driving force of the functional food and nutraceutical market. Bioactive peptides are known for their high tissue affinity, specificity and efficiency in promoting health. For this reason, the search for food-derived bioactive peptides has increased exponentially. Over the years, many potential bioactive peptides from food have been documented; yet, obstacles such as the need to establish optimal conditions for industrial scale production and the absence of well-designed clinical trials to provide robust evidence for proving health claims continue to exist. Other important factors such as the possibility of allergenicity, cytotoxicity and the stability of the peptides during gastrointestinal digestion would need to be addressed. This review discusses our current knowledge on the health effects of food-derived bioactive peptides, their processing methods and challenges in their development.

  19. Replenishment policy for an inventory model under inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vikramjeet; Saxena, Seema; Singh, Pushpinder; Mishra, Nitin Kumar

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of replenishment is to keep the flow of inventory in the system. To determine an optimal replenishment policy is a great challenge in developing an inventory model. Inflation is defined as the rate at which the prices of goods and services are rising over a time period. The cost parameters are affected by the rate of inflation. High rate of inflation affects the organizations financial conditions. Based on the above backdrop the present paper proposes the retailers replenishment policy for deteriorating items with different cycle lengths under inflation. The shortages are partially backlogged. At last numerical examples validate the results.

  20. Power Replenishment Patch for Spacecraft Health Monitoring Sensors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Metis Design Corporation (MDC) proposes the development of a strain-based power replenishment technology to harvest energy for recharging remote sensors. MDC has...

  1. Managing periodic review inventory systems with capacitated replenishments

    OpenAIRE

    B. RAA; Dubois, T.; Dullaert, W

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies periodic review inventory systems in which replenishments are capacitated. This capacity restriction implies that the order-up-to level may not always be reached at each replenishment, such that additional safety stock is needed to achieve the same service level as in the uncapacitated case usually assumed in the existing literature. To determine the required level of safety stock, and hence the order-up-to level, an iterative procedure is proposed which can be adjusted to ...

  2. Harvesting and replenishment policies for renewable natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Aaron J.; Johnson, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    The current paper links the optimal intertemporal use of renewable natural resources to the harvesting activities of various economic agents. Previous contributions cite market forces as a causative factor inducing the extirpation of renewable natural resources. The analysis given here discusses investment in the stock of renewable resources and cites important examples of this activity. By introducing joint harvesting and replenishment strategies into a model of renewable resource use, the analysis adds descriptive reality and relevance to positive and normative discussions of renewable natural resource use. A high price for the yield or a high discount rate tend to diminish the size of the optimum stationary stock of the resource with a non-replenishment harvesting strategy. Optimal non-replenishment harvesting strategies for renewable natural resources will exhaustion or extirpation of the resource if the price of the yield or the discount rate are sufficiently large. However, the availability of a replenishment technology and the use of replenishment activities tends to buffer the resource against exhaustion or extirpation.

  3. Stemflow of desert shrub and its significance in soil moisture replenishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.-P. Wang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Stemflow of xerophytic shrubs represents a significant component of water replenishment to the soil-root systems influences water utilization of plant roots at the stand scale, especially for water scarce desert ecosystems. In this study, stemflow of Caragana korshinskii was quantified by aluminum foil collar collection method at re-vegetated sand dunes of the Shapotou restored desert ecosystem in Northwestern China. Meanwhile, time domain reflectometry probes were inserted horizontally at 20 different soil profile depths under the C. korshinskii shrub to monitor soil moisture variation at hourly intervals. Results indicated that 2.2 mm precipitation were necessary for the generation of stemflow for C. korshinskii. Stemflow averaged 8% of the gross precipitation, and the average funneling ratio was as high as 90. The soil moisture in the uppermost soil profile was strongly correlated with individual rainfall and the stemflow strengthened this relationship. Therefore, it is favorable for infiltrated water redistribution in the deeper soil profile of the root zone. We conclude that stemflow contributes significantly to a positive soil moisture balance in the root zone and the replenishment of soil moisture at deeper soil layers. This plays an important role in plant survival and the general ecology of arid desert environments.

  4. Video compression using conditional replenishment and motion prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, D. N.; Ahmed, N.

    1984-01-01

    A study of a low-rate monochrome video compression system is presentd in this paper. This system is a conditional-replenishment coder that uses two-dimensional Walsh-transform coding within each video frame. The conditional-replenishment algorithm works by transmitting only the portions of an image that are changing in time. This system is augmented with a motn-prediction algorithm that measures spatial dispalcement parameters from frame to frame, and codes the data using these parameters. A comparison is made between the conditional-replenishment system with, and without, the motion-predictinalgorthm. Subsampling in time is ued to maintain the data rate rate at a fixed value. Average bit rates of 1 bit/picture element (pel) to 1/16 bit/pel are considered. The resultant performance of the compression simulations is presented in terms of the average frame rates produced.

  5. Joint pricing and inventory replenishment decisions with returns and expediting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Stuart X.

    2012-01-01

    We study a single-item periodic-review model for the joint pricing and inventory replenishment problem with returns and expediting. Demand in consecutive periods are independent random variables and their distributions are price sensitive. At the end of each period, after the demand is realized, a

  6. A different approach to the Joint Replenishment Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, A.; Segerstedt, A.; van der Sluijs, E.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a heuristic method is presented which gives a novel approach in solving joint replenishment problems. Our heuristics is from the beginning a basic spreadsheet model that solves the JRP in an iterative procedure. The principle of the recursion procedure is to find a balance between the

  7. An environmental assessment of water replenishment to a floodplain lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lóczy, Dénes; Dezső, József; Czigány, Szabolcs; Prokos, Hedvig; Tóth, Gabriella

    2017-01-20

    There are numerous wetland rehabilitation projects worldwide, but their efficiency is seldom assessed comprehensively. Oxbow lakes are wetlands of particular sensitivity. Within a large-scale floodplain rehabilitation project in Hungary, the Old Drava Programme, water replenishment was first carried out for the Cún-Szaporca oxbow lakes, a key area in the project. To assess its sustainability, the entire hydrological system has been monitored. From the data of hydrological monitoring (infiltration, soil moisture, groundwater/lakewater interaction) it is claimed that water replenishment involves significant losses through seepage (4.1 and 1.46 mm d(-1)) and evaporation (3.01 and 1.44 mm d(-1)) in the studied pre-intervention and replenishment periods, resp. Infiltration alone is insufficient to replenish groundwater and raise oxbow lake levels. In the critical summer half-year evaporation is intensive in the neighbouring agricultural fields. Groundwater table dynamics are controlled by hyporheic and groundwater flow. Major impact on the water balance of the oxbow lakes is exerted by the regime of the Drava River. A deepened lakebed is recommended to ensure more effective water retention in the oxbow lake. From the local study conclusions are drawn for the feasibility of rehabilitation at floodplain scale and in areas with similar hydromorphological conditions.

  8. Replenishment success linked to fluctuating asymmetry in larval fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemberget, Tove; McCormick, Mark I

    2009-02-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), defined as random deviations from perfect symmetry, has become a popular tool with which to examine the effects of stress during the development of bilaterally symmetrical organisms. Recent studies have suggested that FA in otoliths may serve as an indicator of stress in fish larvae. We examined the relationship between otolith asymmetry and temporal patterns in the occurrence of late-stage larvae to a tropical reef (i.e. replenishment) for the Caribbean lizardfish, Saurida suspicio (family Synodontidae). Late-stage larvae were collected in light traps over a period of 18 consecutive lunar months in the San Blas Archipelago, Panama. Asymmetry within otolith pairs was calculated from 24 variables: area, perimeter, longest and shortest axis of the otolith and 20 shape descriptors (Fourier harmonics). Otolith asymmetry was correlated strongly with fluctuations in lunar light trap catches. Two measured variables, otolith area and one of the 20 shape descriptors, accounted for 60% of the variability in lunar replenishment of S. suspicio. Individuals from small replenishment pulses exhibited higher levels of asymmetry compared to larvae from large pulses. When dry and wet seasons were analysed separately, otolith asymmetry explained a surprising 70 and 97% of the variation, respectively. Although the generality of these results remain to be tested among other populations and species, otolith asymmetry may be an important indicator, and potentially a predictor, of larval quality and replenishment success.

  9. Replenishment of the podocyte compartment by parietal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Jeffrey B

    2015-11-01

    While progressive podocytopenia is a characteristic feature of chronic glomerular disease, the visceral epithelial niche can be replenished from the parietal epithelium. Two new reports demonstrate this process in genetically engineered mice, using fate mapping, and in human renal biopsies manifesting segmental glomerulosclerosis in diverse settings, using cellular and extracellular matrix markers.

  10. Fresh groundwater resources in a large sand replenishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizer, Sebastian; Oude Essink, G.H.P.; Bierkens, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The anticipation of sea-level rise and increases in extreme weather conditions has led to the initiation of an innovative coastal management project called the Sand Engine. In this pilot project a large volume of sand (21.5 million m3) – also called sand replenishment or nourishment – was placed on

  11. Computing replenishment cycle policy parameters for a perishable item

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, R.; Tarim, S.A.; Hnich, B.; Prestwich, S.

    2010-01-01

    In many industrial environments there is a significant class of problems for which the perishable nature of the inventory cannot be ignored in developing replenishment order plans. Food is the most salient example of a perishable inventory item. In this work, we consider the periodic-review,

  12. Volcanism, Earth Degassing and Replenished Lithosphere Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, D. K.

    1980-07-01

    Volcanism that pierces plate interiors is characteristically rich in alkalis and volatiles, and its cause and persistence are essentially expressions of the Earth's outgassing. The general balance of mobile elements (such as H, C, F and Cl) rules out recycling of sea floor, hydrosphere, sediments or atmosphere: furthermore, it is not in accord with accepted planet degassing budgets. The typical eruptive mode of volatile-rich magmatism means that the observed regional chemical variations, and even differences between adjacent volcanoes, must largely reflect source heterogeneity. In a broader context, this magmatism is also at odds with a concept of continental crust underlain by strongly depleted (refractory) mantle. Repetition of activity along crustal zones of weakness shows that the lithosphere mantle (a) is structurally complex and (b) still holds continuing (or continual) rich reserves of mobile elements. Unbroken lithosphere muffles the evolutionary escape of volatiles from the deep mantle: any lesion that appears then offers easy escape channels, whereby volatiles are drained from a large mantle region and funnelled through the plate. Horizontal movement of thick continental lithosphere releases volatiles from deep sources, imparting some of the special chemical characteristics of the stable continental magmatism. Present evidence requires consideration of the continental lithosphere as a site of primordial heterogeneity that has been accentuated rather than diminished by geological processes.

  13. Bassoon-disruption slows vesicle replenishment and induces homeostatic plasticity at a CNS synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Schulz, Alejandro; Jing, Zhizi; Sánchez Caro, Juan María; Wetzel, Friederike; Dresbach, Thomas; Strenzke, Nicola; Wichmann, Carolin; Moser, Tobias

    2014-03-03

    Endbulb of Held terminals of auditory nerve fibers (ANF) transmit auditory information at hundreds per second to bushy cells (BCs) in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN). Here, we studied the structure and function of endbulb synapses in mice that lack the presynaptic scaffold bassoon and exhibit reduced ANF input into the AVCN. Endbulb terminals and active zones were normal in number and vesicle complement. Postsynaptic densities, quantal size and vesicular release probability were increased while vesicle replenishment and the standing pool of readily releasable vesicles were reduced. These opposing effects canceled each other out for the first evoked EPSC, which showed unaltered amplitude. We propose that ANF activity deprivation drives homeostatic plasticity in the AVCN involving synaptic upscaling and increased intrinsic BC excitability. In vivo recordings from individual mutant BCs demonstrated a slightly improved response at sound onset compared to ANF, likely reflecting the combined effects of ANF convergence and homeostatic plasticity. Further, we conclude that bassoon promotes vesicular replenishment and, consequently, a large standing pool of readily releasable synaptic vesicles at the endbulb synapse.

  14. 40 CFR 280.115 - Replenishment of guarantees, letters of credit, or surety bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Replenishment of guarantees, letters... Replenishment of guarantees, letters of credit, or surety bonds. (a) If at any time after a standby trust is... were drawn upon, replenishment shall occur by the earliest anniversary date among the mechanisms....

  15. 75 FR 62345 - Minimum Balance Requirement and Automatic Replenishment Option for Deposit Account Holders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ...-4] Minimum Balance Requirement and Automatic Replenishment Option for Deposit Account Holders AGENCY... account holders the option of automatic replenishment of their account via their bank account or credit... notify the account holder that replenishment of the account is needed, and places the pending...

  16. Replenishing data descriptors in a DMA injection FIFO buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Cernohous, Bob R [Rochester, MN; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Kumar, Sameer [White Plains, NY; Parker, Jeffrey J [Rochester, MN

    2011-10-11

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for replenishing data descriptors in a Direct Memory Access (`DMA`) injection first-in-first-out (`FIFO`) buffer that include: determining, by a messaging module on an origin compute node, whether a number of data descriptors in a DMA injection FIFO buffer exceeds a predetermined threshold, each data descriptor specifying an application message for transmission to a target compute node; queuing, by the messaging module, a plurality of new data descriptors in a pending descriptor queue if the number of the data descriptors in the DMA injection FIFO buffer exceeds the predetermined threshold; establishing, by the messaging module, interrupt criteria that specify when to replenish the injection FIFO buffer with the plurality of new data descriptors in the pending descriptor queue; and injecting, by the messaging module, the plurality of new data descriptors into the injection FIFO buffer in dependence upon the interrupt criteria.

  17. The Economics of Groundwater Replenishment for Reliable Urban Water Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Gao; Connor, Jeffery D.; Peter Dillon

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the potential economic benefits of water banking in aquifers to meet drought and emergency supplies for cities where the population is growing and changing climate has reduced the availability of water. A simplified case study based on the city of Perth, Australia was used to estimate the savings that could be achieved by water banking. Scenarios for investment in seawater desalination plants and groundwater replenishment were considered over a 20 year period of growing de...

  18. Partial podocyte replenishment in experimental FSGS derives from nonpodocyte sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaverina, Natalya V; Eng, Diana G; Schneider, Remington R S; Pippin, Jeffrey W; Shankland, Stuart J

    2016-06-01

    The current studies used genetic fate mapping to prove that adult podocytes can be partially replenished following depletion. Inducible NPHS2-rtTA/tetO-Cre/RS-ZsGreen-R reporter mice were generated to permanently label podocytes with the ZsGreen reporter. Experimental focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) was induced with a cytotoxic podocyte antibody. On FSGS day 7, immunostaining for the podocyte markers p57, synaptopodin, and podocin were markedly decreased by 44%, and this was accompanied by a decrease in ZsGreen fluorescence. The nuclear stain DAPI was absent in segments of reduced ZsGreen and podocyte marker staining, which is consistent with podocyte depletion. Staining for p57, synaptopodin, podocin, and DAPI increased at FSGS day 28 and was augmented by the ACE inhibitor enalapril, which is consistent with a partial replenishment of podocytes. In contrast, ZsGreen fluorescence did not return and remained significantly low at day 28, indicating replenishment was from a nonpodocyte origin. Despite administration of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) thrice weekly throughout the course of disease, BrdU staining was not detected in podocytes, which is consistent with an absence of proliferation. Although ZsGreen reporting was reduced in the tuft at FSGS day 28, labeled podocytes were detected along the Bowman's capsule in a subset of glomeruli, which is consistent with migration from the tuft. Moreover, more than half of the migrated podocytes coexpressed the parietal epithelial cell (PEC) proteins claudin-1, SSeCKS, and PAX8. These results show that although podocytes can be partially replenished following abrupt depletion, a process augmented by ACE inhibition, the source or sources are nonpodocyte in origin and are independent of proliferation. Furthermore, a subset of podocytes migrate to the Bowman's capsule and begin to coexpress PEC markers.

  19. Islet neogenesis: a possible pathway for beta-cell replenishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner-Weir, Susan; Guo, Lili; Li, Wan-Chun; Ouziel-Yahalom, Limor; Lysy, Philippe A; Weir, Gordon C; Sharma, Arun

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes, particularly type 1 diabetes, results from the lack of pancreatic β-cells. β-cell replenishment can functionally reverse diabetes, but two critical challenges face the field: 1. protection of the new β-cells from autoimmunity and allorejection, and 2. development of β-cells that are readily available and reliably functional. This chapter will examine the potential of endogenous replenishment of pancreatic β-cells as a possible therapeutic tool if autoimmunity could be blunted. Two pathways for endogenous replenishment exist in the pancreas: replication and neogenesis, defined as the formation of new islet cells from pancreatic progenitor/stem cells. These pathways of β-cell expansion are not mutually exclusive and both occur in embryonic development, in postnatal growth, and in response to some injuries. Since the β-cell population is dramatically reduced in the pancreas of type 1 diabetes patients, with only a small fraction of the β-cells surviving years after onset, replication of preexisting β-cells would not be a reasonable start for replenishment. However, induction of neogenesis could provide a starting population that could be further expanded by replication. It is widely accepted that neogenesis occurs in the initial embryonic formation of the endocrine pancreas, but its occurrence anytime after birth has become controversial because of discordant data from lineage tracing experiments. However, the concept was built upon many observations from different models and species over many years. Herein, we discuss the role of neogenesis in normal growth and regeneration, as learned from rodent models, followed by an analysis of what has been found in humans.

  20. Design and development of an in vitro tear replenishment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Saman; Postnikoff, Cameron; Wright, Ann M; Gorbet, Maud

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the corneal tissue and translating them into effective therapies requires organotypic culture systems that can better model the physiological conditions of the front of the eye. Human corneal in vitro models currently exist, however, the lack of tear replenishment limits corneal in vitro models' ability to accurately simulate the physiological environment of the human cornea. The tear replenishment system (TRS), a micro-fluidic device, was developed to mimic the in vivo tear replenishment in the human eye in an in vitro corneal model. The TRS is capable of generating adjustable intermittent flow from 0.1 µL in every cycle. The TRS is a sterilizable device that is designed to fit standard 6-well cell culture plates. Experiments with the corneal models demonstrated that exposure to the TRS did not damage the integrity of the stratified cell culture. Contact lenses "worn" by the in vitro corneal model also remained moist at all times and the cytotoxicity of BAK could also be verified using this model. These in vitro results confirmed that the TRS presents novel avenues to assess lens-solution biocompatibility and drug delivery systems in a physiologically relevant milieu.

  1. Merchandise and Replenishment Planning Optimisation for Fashion Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Iannone

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The integration among different companies functions, collaborative planning and the elaboration of focused distribution plans are critical to the success of each kind of company working in the complex retail sector. In this contest, the present work proposes the description of a model able to support coordinated strategic choices continually made by Supply Chain (SC actors. The final objective is achievement of the full optimisation of Merchandise & Replenishment Planning phases, identifying the right replenishment quantities and periods. To test the proposed model’s effectiveness, it was applied to an important Italian fashion company in the complex field of fast-fashion, a sector in which promptness is a main competitive leverage and, therefore, the planning cannot exclude the time variable. The passage from a total push strategy, currently used by the company, to a push-pull one, suggested by the model, allowed us not only to estimate a reduction in goods quantities to purchase at the beginning of a sales period (with considerable economic savings, but also elaborate a focused replenishment plan that permits reduction and optimisation of departures from network warehouses to Points of Sale (POS.

  2. Fresh groundwater resources in a large sand replenishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizer, Sebastian; Oude Essink, Gualbert H. P.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2016-08-01

    The anticipation of sea-level rise and increases in extreme weather conditions has led to the initiation of an innovative coastal management project called the Sand Engine. In this pilot project a large volume of sand (21.5 million m3) - also called sand replenishment or nourishment - was placed on the Dutch coast. The intention is that the sand is redistributed by wind, current, and tide, reinforcing local coastal defence structures and leading to a unique, dynamic environment. In this study we investigated the potential effect of the long-term morphological evolution of the large sand replenishment and climate change on fresh groundwater resources. The potential effects on the local groundwater system were quantified with a calibrated three-dimensional (3-D) groundwater model, in which both variable-density groundwater flow and salt transport were simulated. Model simulations showed that the long-term morphological evolution of the Sand Engine results in a substantial growth of fresh groundwater resources, in all adopted climate change scenarios. Thus, the application of a local sand replenishment could provide coastal areas the opportunity to combine coastal protection with an increase of the local fresh groundwater availability.

  3. Effects of beach replenishment on intertidal invertebrates: A 15-month, eight beach study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Tyler; Henter, Heather J.; Kohn, Joshua R.

    2016-06-01

    Beach replenishment is an increasingly popular means to remediate coastal erosion, but no consensus exists regarding how long replenishment affects sandy beach intertidal invertebrates, key components of beach ecosystems. We monitored the intertidal invertebrate community for fifteen months following a replenishment project at eight beaches, each with replenished and control sections, across San Diego County. Nearly all taxa showed major declines in abundance immediately following replenishment. Populations of talitrid amphipods and the bean clam Donax gouldii recovered within one year, sooner than in previous studies. On some beaches, populations of the mole crab Emerita analoga bloomed four months after replenishment and were more numerous on replenished portions of beaches at that time. Mole crab populations subsequently declined and no longer differed by treatment. The polychaete community, composed of Scolelepis sp. and several other numerically important taxa, showed a strong replenishment-induced reduction in abundance that persisted through the end of the study. The large negative effect of replenishment on polychaetes, coupled with their overall importance to the invertebrate community, resulted in a more than twofold reduction in overall invertebrate abundance on replenished beaches at 15 months. Such reductions may have far reaching consequences for sandy beach ecosystems, as community declines can reduce prey availability for shorebirds and fish. As this and other recent studies have revealed longer times for the recovery of intertidal invertebrates than previously observed, longer study periods and more cautious estimates regarding the magnitude, variability, and duration of impacts of beach replenishment for management decision-making are warranted.

  4. Bioactive proteins from pipefishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. Rethna Priya; S. Ravichandran; R. Ezhilmathi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To screen antimicrobial potence of some pipefish species collected from Tuticorin coastal environment.Methods:Antimicrobial activity of pipefishes in methanol extract was investigated against 10 bacterial and 10 fungal human pathogenic strains.Results:Among the tested strains, in Centriscus scutatus, pipefish showed maximum zone of inhibition against Vibrio cholerae (8 mm) and minimum in the sample of Hippichthys cyanospilos against Klebseilla pneumoniae (2 mm). In positive control, maximum zone of inhibition was recorded in Vibrio cholerae (9 mm) and minimum in Klebseilla pneumoniae, and Salmonella paratyphi (5 mm). Chemical investigation indicated the presence of peptides as evidenced by ninhydrin positive spots on thin layer chromatography and presence of peptide. In SDS PAGE, in Centriscus scutatus, four bands were detected in the gel that represented the presence of proteins in the range nearly 25.8-75 kDa. In Hippichthys cyanospilos, five bands were detected in the gel that represented the presence of proteins in the range nearly 20.5-78 kDa. The result of FT-IR spectrum revealed that the pipe fishes extracts compriseed to have peptide derivatives as their predominant chemical groups.Conclusions:It can be conclude that this present investigation suggests the tested pipe fishes will be a potential source of natural bioactive compounds.

  5. Homogenization Theory for a Replenishing Passive Scalar Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter R.KRAMER; Shane R.KEATING

    2009-01-01

    Homogenization theory provides a rigorous framework for calculating the effective diffusivity of a decaying passive scalar field in a turbulent or complex flow.The authors extend this framework to the case where the passive scalar fluctuations ore continuously replenished by a source(and/or sink).The basic structure.of the homogenized equations carries over,but in some eases the homogenized source can involve a non-trivial coupling of the velocity field and the source.The authors derive expressions for the homogenized source term for various multiscale source structures and interpret them physically.

  6. Inventory Replenishment Policy with Time-Varying Demand and Shortages Considering Time-Varying Costs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a generalized EOQ model is developed with time-varying demand and shortages considering time-varying costs. The solution procedure is shown for determining the op timal replenishment policy over a finite time horizon during which the replenishment periods are assumed to be constant. The existence and uniqueness of the optimal replenishment policy are pre sented. The procedure is illustrated with two special cases of linear and non-linear demands and costs. Two numerical examples are also given.

  7. Is replenishment of the readily releasable pool associated with vesicular movement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Loc; Glavinović, Mladen I

    2014-04-01

    At the excitatory synapse of rat hippocampus the short-term synaptic depression observed during long high-frequency stimulation is associated with slower replenishment of the readily-releasable pool. Given that the replenishment rate is also not [Ca(++)]o sensitive this puts into question a widely held notion that the vesicles-constrained by the cytoskeleton and rendered free from such constraints by Ca(++) entry that renders them more mobile-are important in the replenishment of the readily-releasable pool. This raises a question-Is vesicular replenishment of the readily releasable pool associated with significant movement? To answer this question we evaluated how okadaic acid and staurosporine (compounds known to affect vesicular mobility) influence the replenishment rate. We used patterned stimulation on the Schaffer collateral fiber pathway and recorded the excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) from rat CA1 neurons, in the absence and presence of these drugs. The parameters of a circuit model with two vesicular pools were estimated by minimizing the squared difference between the ESPC amplitudes and simulated model output. [Ca(2+)]o did not influence the progressive decrease of the replenishment rate during long, high frequency stimulation. Okadaic acid did not significantly affect any parameters of the vesicular storage and release system, including the replenishment rate. Staurosporine reduced the replenishment coupling, but not the replenishment rate, and this is owing to the fact that it also reduces the ability of the readily releasable pool to contain quanta. Moreover, these compounds were ineffective in influencing how the replenishment rate decreases during long, high frequency stimulation. In conclusion at the excitatory synapses of rat hippocampus the replenishment of the readily releasable pool does not appear to be associated with a significant vesicular movement, and during long high frequency stimulation [Ca(++)]o does not influence the

  8. BASD: SIRTF Telescope Instrument Changeout and Cryogen Replenishment (STICCR) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mord, A. J.; Urbach, A. R.; Poyer, M. E.; Andreozzi, L. C.; Hermanson, L. A.; Snyder, H. A.; Blalock, W. R.; Haight, R. P.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is a long-life cryogenically cooled space-based telescope for infrared astronomy from 2 micrometer to 700 miocrometers currently under study by NASA-ARC, and planned for launch in approximately the mid 90's. SIRTF will operate as a multi-user facility, initially carrying 3 instruments at the focal plane. It will be cooled to below 2 K by superfluid liquid helium to achieve radiometric sensitivity limited only by the statistical fluctuations in the natural infrared background radiation over most of its spectral range. The lifetime of the mission will be limited by the lifetime of the liquid helium supply, and is currently baselined to be 2 years. The telescope changes required to allow in-space replenishment of the 2,000 liter superfluid helium tank are investigated. A preliminary design for the space services equipment is also developed. The impacts of basing the equipment and servicing on the space station are investigated. Space replenishment and changeout of instruments requires changes to the telescope design and preliminary concepts are presented.

  9. Self-Replenishing Vascularized Fouling-Release Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, C; Vu, TL; Lin, JJ; Kolle, S; Juthani, N; Watson, E; Weaver, JC; Alvarenga, J; Aizenberg, J

    2014-08-13

    Inspired by the long-term effectiveness of living antifouling materials, we have developed a method for the self-replenishment of synthetic biofouling-release surfaces. These surfaces are created by either molding or directly embedding 3D vascular systems into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and filling them with a silicone oil to generate a nontoxic oil-infused material. When replenished with silicone oil from an outside source, these materials are capable of self-lubrication and continuous renewal of the interfacial fouling-release layer. Under accelerated lubricant loss conditions, fully infused vascularized samples retained significantly more lubricant than equivalent nonvascularized controls. Tests of lubricant-infused PDMS in static cultures of the infectious bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli as well as the green microalgae Botryococcus braunii, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Dunaliella sauna, and Nannochloropsis oculata showed a significant reduction in biofilm adhesion compared to PDMS and glass controls containing no lubricant. Further experiments on vascularized versus nonvascularized samples that had been subjected to accelerated lubricant evaporation conditions for up to 48 h showed significantly less biofilm adherence on the vascularized surfaces. These results demonstrate the ability of an embedded lubricant-filled vascular network to improve the longevity of fouling-release surfaces.

  10. SIRTF Telescope Instrument Changeout and Cryogen Replenishment (STICCR) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nast, T. C.; Frank, D.; Liu, C. K.; Parmley, R. T.; Jaekle, D.; Builteman, H.; Schmidt, J.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is a long-life cryogenically cooled space-based telescope for infrared astronomy from 2 to 700 micrometers. SIRTF is currently under study by NASA-ARC (Reference AP) and planned for launch in approximately the mid 1990s. SIRTF will operate as a multiuser facility, initially carrying three instruments at the focal plane. It will be cooled to below 2 K by superfluid liquid helium to achieve radiometric sensitivity limited only by the statistical fluctuations in the natural infrared background radiation over most of its spectral range. The lifetime of the mission will be limited by the lifetime of the liquid helium supply, and baseline is currently to be 2 years. The telescope changes required to allow in-space replenishment of the 4,000-L superfluid helium tank was investigated. A preliminary design for the space services equipment was also developed. The impacts of basing the equipment and servicing on the space station were investigated. Space replenishment and changeout of instruments required changes to the telescope design. Preliminary concepts are presented.

  11. Self-replenishing vascularized fouling-release surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Caitlin; Vu, Thy L; Lin, Jennifer J; Kolle, Stefan; Juthani, Nidhi; Watson, Emily; Weaver, James C; Alvarenga, Jack; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2014-08-13

    Inspired by the long-term effectiveness of living antifouling materials, we have developed a method for the self-replenishment of synthetic biofouling-release surfaces. These surfaces are created by either molding or directly embedding 3D vascular systems into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and filling them with a silicone oil to generate a nontoxic oil-infused material. When replenished with silicone oil from an outside source, these materials are capable of self-lubrication and continuous renewal of the interfacial fouling-release layer. Under accelerated lubricant loss conditions, fully infused vascularized samples retained significantly more lubricant than equivalent nonvascularized controls. Tests of lubricant-infused PDMS in static cultures of the infectious bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli as well as the green microalgae Botryococcus braunii, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Dunaliella salina, and Nannochloropsis oculata showed a significant reduction in biofilm adhesion compared to PDMS and glass controls containing no lubricant. Further experiments on vascularized versus nonvascularized samples that had been subjected to accelerated lubricant evaporation conditions for up to 48 h showed significantly less biofilm adherence on the vascularized surfaces. These results demonstrate the ability of an embedded lubricant-filled vascular network to improve the longevity of fouling-release surfaces.

  12. Sediment replenishment: Influence of the geometrical configuration on the morphological evolution of channel-bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisacco, E.; Franca, M. J.; Schleiss, A. J.

    2016-11-01

    Dams trap sediment in the upstream reservoir, which may lead to river bed armoring, streambank erosion and failure, channel incision and reduction of the morphological diversity in the downstream river reaches. The replenishment of sediment is a mitigation measure for this problem to be applied in river reaches downstream of dams. Previously performed field experiments always used one single volume of sediment replenishment. To explore different alternatives, the replenished volume was here divided in four deposits with the motivation to influence also the morphological evolution downstream. Six different geometrical configurations together with three submergence conditions of sediment replenishment were tested for the first time in a laboratory experiment and are herein discussed. The results of the sediment replenishment mitigation technique are described in terms of occupied surface of the flume bed and the temporal evolution of erosion and transport of the introduced sediments. It is shown that, under our experimental conditions, complete submersion of the replenishment volume results in complete erosion of the placed sediment, with a high persistence of the added material along the channel length. The geometrical configuration of the replenishment volume plays a key role for the evolution of bed-forms downstream. Parallel configurations lead to a wider spread of material across the channel. Alternated configurations are suitable to produce sediment clustering and high persistence of placed material in the channel. Observed periodic mounds, considered as the initiating condition for alternate bars, follow a wavelength related to the length of the replenishment when the replenishment volumes are alternating.

  13. Self-Replenishable Anti-Waxing Organogel Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xi; Wu, Shuwang; Chen, Lie; Ju, Jie; Gu, Zhandong; Liu, Mingjie; Wang, Jianjun; Jiang, Lei

    2015-07-27

    Solid deposition, such as the formation of ice on outdoor facilities, the deposition of scale in water reservoirs, the sedimentation of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) in sewer systems, and the precipitation of wax in petroleum pipelines, cause a serious waste of resources and irreversible environmental pollution. Inspired by fish and pitcher plants, we present a self-replenishable organogel material which shows ultra-low adhesion to solidified paraffin wax and crude oil by absorption of low-molar-mass oil from its crude-oil environment. Adhesion of wax on the organogel surface was over 500 times lower than adhesion to conventional material surfaces and the wax was found to slide off under the force of gravity. This design concept of a gel with decreased adhesion to wax and oil can be extended to deal with other solid deposition problems.

  14. Self‐Replenishable Anti‐Waxing Organogel Materials†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xi; Wu, Shuwang; Chen, Lie; Ju, Jie; Gu, Zhandong; Liu, Mingjie; Jiang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Solid deposition, such as the formation of ice on outdoor facilities, the deposition of scale in water reservoirs, the sedimentation of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) in sewer systems, and the precipitation of wax in petroleum pipelines, cause a serious waste of resources and irreversible environmental pollution. Inspired by fish and pitcher plants, we present a self‐replenishable organogel material which shows ultra‐low adhesion to solidified paraffin wax and crude oil by absorption of low‐molar‐mass oil from its crude‐oil environment. Adhesion of wax on the organogel surface was over 500 times lower than adhesion to conventional material surfaces and the wax was found to slide off under the force of gravity. This design concept of a gel with decreased adhesion to wax and oil can be extended to deal with other solid deposition problems. PMID:26083324

  15. Optimal dynamic pricing and replenishment policies for deteriorating items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rabbani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Marketing strategies and proper inventory replenishment policies are often incorporated by enterprises to stimulate demand and maximize profit. The aim of this paper is to represent an integrated model for dynamic pricing and inventory control of deteriorating items. To reflect the dynamic characteristic of the problem, the selling price is defined as a time-dependent function of the initial selling price and the discount rate. In this regard, the price is exponentially discounted to compensate negative impact of the deterioration. The planning horizon is assumed to be infinite and the deterioration rate is time-dependent. In addition to price, the demand rate is dependent on advertisement as a powerful marketing tool. Several theoretical results and an iterative solution algorithm are developed to provide the optimal solution. Finally, to show validity of the model and illustrate the solution procedure, numerical results are presented.

  16. Effects of Breakdown, Backlog and Rework on Replenishment Lot Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-Ming Yeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study studies the effects of machine breakdown, backlog and rework on the replenishment lot size. In real-life manufacturing systems, random defective rate and breakdown of equipment are inevitable. When backlogging is permitted during a production run, a random machine failure may take place either in backlog filling stage or in inventory piling time; this study focuses on the former situation and considers all defective items produced are repairable through a rework process. The objective of this study is to determine the optimal run time that minimizes the long-run average production-inventory costs. The result can be directly applied to the practical production planning and control field to assist practitioner in production management cost reduction.

  17. Larger female fish contribute disproportionately more to self-replenishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldade, R; Holbrook, S J; Schmitt, R J; Planes, S; Malone, D; Bernardi, G

    2012-06-07

    While chance events, oceanography and selective pressures inject stochasticity into the replenishment of marine populations with dispersing life stages, some determinism may arise as a result of characteristics of breeding individuals. It is well known that larger females have higher fecundity, and recent laboratory studies have shown that maternal traits such as age and size can be positively associated with offspring growth, size and survival. Whether such fecundity and maternal effects translate into higher recruitment in marine populations remains largely unanswered. We studied a population of Amphiprion chrysopterus (orange-fin anemonefish) in Moorea, French Polynesia, to test whether maternal size influenced the degree of self-recruitment on the island through body size-fecundity and/or additional size-related maternal effects of offspring. We non-lethally sampled 378 adult and young juveniles at Moorea, and, through parentage analysis, identified the mothers of 27 self-recruits (SRs) out of 101 recruits sampled. We also identified the sites occupied by each mother of an SR and, taking into account variation in maternal size among sites, we found that females that produced SRs were significantly larger than those that did not (approx. 7% greater total length, approx. 20% greater biomass). Our analyses further reveal that the contribution of larger females to self-recruitment was significantly greater than expected on the basis of the relationship between body size and fecundity, indicating that there were important maternal effects of female size on traits of their offspring. These results show, for the first time in a natural population, that larger female fish contribute more to local replenishment (self-recruitment) and, more importantly, that size-specific fecundity alone could not explain the disparity.

  18. An efficient optimal solution method for the joint replenishment problem with minimum order quantities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Porras Musalem (Eric); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe study the joint replenishment problem (JRP) for M items under deterministic demand, with a minimum order quantity constraint for each item in the replenishment order. We first study an iterative procedure that proves to be not efficient in this case. Further, we derive bounds on the b

  19. Computing the non-stationary replenishment cycle inventory policy under stochastic supplier lead-times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, R.; Tarim, S.A.; Hnich, B.; Prestwich, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we address the general multi-period production/inventory problem with non-stationary stochastic demand and supplier lead-time under service level constraints. A replenishment cycle policy (Rn,Sn) is modeled, where Rn is the nth replenishment cycle length and Sn is the respective order-

  20. Determining Replenishment Lot Size and Shipment Policy for an EPQ Inventory Model with Delivery and Rework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Eduardo Cárdenas-Barrón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of production-shipment policies for a vendor-buyer system is dealt within this paper. The main objective is to derive the optimal replenishment lot size and shipment policy for an EPQ inventory model with multiple deliveries and rework. This inventory model contains two decision variables: the replenishment lot size and the number of deliveries. Previous researches solve this inventory model considering both variables to be continuous. However, the number of deliveries must be considered as a discrete variable. In this direction, this paper solves the inventory model considering two cases: Case 1: the replenishment lot size as a continuous variable and the number of shipments as a discrete variable and Case 2: the replenishment lot size and the number of shipments as discrete variables. The final results are two simple and easy-to-apply solution procedures to find the optimal values for the replenishment lot size and the number of deliveries for each case.

  1. Bioactivation of particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinaud, Fabien (Berkeley, CA); King, David (San Francisco, CA); Weiss, Shimon (Los Angeles, CA)

    2011-08-16

    Particles are bioactivated by attaching bioactivation peptides to the particle surface. The bioactivation peptides are peptide-based compounds that impart one or more biologically important functions to the particles. Each bioactivation peptide includes a molecular or surface recognition part that binds with the surface of the particle and one or more functional parts. The surface recognition part includes an amino-end and a carboxy-end and is composed of one or more hydrophobic spacers and one or more binding clusters. The functional part(s) is attached to the surface recognition part at the amino-end and/or said carboxy-end.

  2. The Economics of Groundwater Replenishment for Reliable Urban Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the potential economic benefits of water banking in aquifers to meet drought and emergency supplies for cities where the population is growing and changing climate has reduced the availability of water. A simplified case study based on the city of Perth, Australia was used to estimate the savings that could be achieved by water banking. Scenarios for investment in seawater desalination plants and groundwater replenishment were considered over a 20 year period of growing demand, using a Monte Carlo analysis that embedded the Markov model. An optimisation algorithm identified the minimum cost solutions that met specified criteria for supply reliability. The impact of depreciation of recharge credits was explored. The results revealed savings of more than A$1B (~US$1B or 37% to 33% of supply augmentation costs by including water banking in aquifers for 95% and 99.5% reliability of supply respectively. When the hypothetically assumed recharge credit depreciation rate was increased from 1% p.a. to 10% p.a. savings were still 33% to 31% for the same reliabilities. These preliminary results show that water banking in aquifers has potential to offer a highly attractive solution for efficiently increasing the security of urban water supplies where aquifers are suitable.

  3. Present and future cell therapies for pancreatic beta cell replenishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Bendala, Juan; Ricordi, Camillo

    2012-12-21

    If only at a small scale, islet transplantation has successfully addressed what ought to be the primary endpoint of any cell therapy: the functional replenishment of damaged tissue in patients. After years of less-than-optimal approaches to immunosuppression, recent advances consistently yield long-term graft survival rates comparable to those of whole pancreas transplantation. Limited organ availability is the main hurdle that stands in the way of the widespread clinical utilization of this pioneering intervention. Progress in stem cell research over the past decade, coupled with our decades-long experience with islet transplantation, is shaping the future of cell therapies for the treatment of diabetes. Here we review the most promising avenues of research aimed at generating an inexhaustible supply of insulin-producing cells for islet regeneration, including the differentiation of pluripotent and multipotent stem cells of embryonic and adult origin along the beta cell lineage and the direct reprogramming of non-endocrine tissues into insulin-producing cells.

  4. Parity Bit Replenishment for JPEG 2000-Based Video Streaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Olivier Devaux

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper envisions coding with side information to design a highly scalable video codec. To achieve fine-grained scalability in terms of resolution, quality, and spatial access as well as temporal access to individual frames, the JPEG 2000 coding algorithm has been considered as the reference algorithm to encode INTRA information, and coding with side information has been envisioned to refresh the blocks that change between two consecutive images of a video sequence. One advantage of coding with side information compared to conventional closed-loop hybrid video coding schemes lies in the fact that parity bits are designed to correct stochastic errors and not to encode deterministic prediction errors. This enables the codec to support some desynchronization between the encoder and the decoder, which is particularly helpful to adapt on the fly pre-encoded content to fluctuating network resources and/or user preferences in terms of regions of interest. Regarding the coding scheme itself, to preserve both quality scalability and compliance to the JPEG 2000 wavelet representation, a particular attention has been devoted to the definition of a practical coding framework able to exploit not only the temporal but also spatial correlation among wavelet subbands coefficients, while computing the parity bits on subsets of wavelet bit-planes. Simulations have shown that compared to pure INTRA-based conditional replenishment solutions, the addition of the parity bits option decreases the transmission cost in terms of bandwidth, while preserving access flexibility.

  5. Present and future cell therapies for pancreatic beta cell replenishment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Domínguez-Bendala; Camillo Ricordi

    2012-01-01

    If only at a small scale,islet transplantation has successfully addressed what ought to be the primary endpoint of any cell therapy:the functional replenishment of damaged tissue in patients.After years of less-thanoptimal approaches to immunosuppression,recent advances consistently yield long-term graft survival rates comparable to those of whole pancreas transplantation.Limited organ availability is the main hurdle that stands in the way of the widespread clinical utilization of this pioneering intervention.Progress in stem cell research over the past decade,coupled with our decades-long experience with islet transplantation,is shaping the future of cell therapies for the treatment of diabetes.Here we review the most promising avenues of research aimed at generating an inexhaustible supply of insulin-producing cells for islet regeneration,including the differentiation of pluripotent and multipotent stem cells of embryonic and adult origin along the beta cell lineage and the direct reprogramming of non-endocrine tissues into insulin-producing cells.

  6. TORC1 inhibition induces lipid droplet replenishment in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Juliana B; Masuda, Claudio A; Maya-Monteiro, Clarissa M; Matos, Gabriel Soares; Montero-Lomelí, Mónica; Bozaquel-Morais, Bruno L

    2015-02-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular structures that regulate neutral lipid homeostasis. In mammals, LD synthesis is inhibited by rapamycin, a known inhibitor of the mTORC1 pathway. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, LD dynamics are modulated by the growth phase; however, the regulatory pathways involved are unknown. Therefore, we decided to study the role of the TORC1 pathway on LD metabolism in S. cerevisiae. Interestingly, rapamycin treatment resulted in a fast LD replenishment and growth inhibition. The discovery that osmotic stress (1 M sorbitol) also induced LD synthesis but not growth inhibition suggested that the induction of LDs in yeast is not a secondary response to reduced growth. The induction of LDs by rapamycin was due to increased triacylglycerol but not sterol ester synthesis. Induction was dependent on the TOR downstream effectors, the PP2A-related phosphatase Sit4p and the regulatory protein Tap42p. The TORC1-controlled transcriptional activators Gln3p, Gat1p, Rtg1p, and Rtg3p, but not Msn2p and Msn4p, were required for full induction of LDs by rapamycin. Furthermore, we show that the deletion of Gln3p and Gat1p transcription factors, which are activated in response to nitrogen availability, led to abnormal LD dynamics. These results reveal that the TORC1 pathway is involved in neutral lipid homeostasis in yeast.

  7. Modelling and analysis of inventory replenishment for perishable agricultural products with buyer-seller collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dongjie; Lai, K. K.; Leung, Stephen C. H.; Liang, Liang

    2011-07-01

    In this article, we study the inventory replenishment model for perishable agricultural products in a simple two-level supply chain. Collaborative forecasting is introduced into the inventory replenishment decisions to avoid overstocking and understocking of agricultural products, and to maximise profits. We analyse the model with ordering cost, holding cost, shortage cost, deterioration cost and opportunity lost cost of perishable agricultural products. Extensive numerical analysis is carried out to study the performance of the inventory policy. The optimal replenishment policy that minimises the total cost can be obtained from the model. It has demonstrated that the supply chain cost decreases with supplier and retailer's collaborative forecasting.

  8. Low cost solar array project. Task 1: Silicon material, gaseous melt replenishment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, D. N.; Bates, H. E.; Hill, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    A system to combine silicon formation, by hydrogen reduction of trichlorosilane, with the capability to replenish a crystal growth system is described. A variety of process parameters to allow sizing and specification of gas handling system components was estimated.

  9. Product Selection and Components Replenishment Model of ATO Manufacturer under Heterogeneous Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyu Li

    2013-01-01

    their selling prices and qualities, as well as the purchase prices and holding costs of their components. This paper offers consultation for ATO manufacturers to make policies on product selection and components replenishment.

  10. Habitat degradation is threatening reef replenishment by making fish fearless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnstedt, Oona M; McCormick, Mark I; Chivers, Douglas P; Ferrari, Maud C O

    2014-09-01

    Habitat degradation is one of the 'Big Five' drivers of biodiversity loss. However, the mechanisms responsible for this progressive loss of biodiversity are poorly understood. In marine ecosystems, corals play the role of ecosystem engineers, providing essential habitat for hundreds of thousands of species and hence their health is crucial to the stability of the whole ecosystem. Climate change is causing coral bleaching and degradation, and while this has been known for a while, little do we know about the cascading consequences of these events on the complex interrelationships between predators and their prey. The goal of our study was to investigate, under completely natural conditions, the effect of coral degradation on predator-prey interactions. Settlement stage ambon damselfish (Pomacentrus amboinensis), a common tropical fish, were released on patches of healthy or dead corals, and their behaviours in situ were measured, along with their response to injured conspecific cues, a common risk indicator. This study also explored the effect of habitat degradation on natural levels of mortality at a critical life-history transition. We found that juveniles in dead corals displayed risk-prone behaviours, sitting further away and higher up on the reef patch, and failed to respond to predation cues, compared to those on live coral patches. In addition, in situ survival experiments over 48 h indicated that juveniles on dead coral habitats had a 75% increase in predation-related mortality, compared to fish released on live, healthy coral habitats. Our results provide the first of many potential mechanisms through which habitat degradation can impact the relationship between prey and predators in the coral reef ecosystem. As the proportion of dead coral increases, the recruitment and replenishment of coral reef fishes will be threatened, and so will the level of diversity in these biodiversity hot spots.

  11. Uncovering Adiponectin Replenishing Property of Sujiaonori Algal Biomaterial in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngatu, Nlandu Roger; Ikeda, Mitsunori; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Mamoru; Inoue, Masataka; Kanbara, Sakiko; Nojima, Sayumi

    2017-01-01

    The replenishment of adiponectin—an adipocyte-derived hormone with salutary health effects—has recently been proposed as a new approach to treat hypertension, also ameliorate cardiovascular and metabolic risks. We conducted a prospective placebo-controlled, non-randomized and investigator-blinded dietary intervention study to evaluate the health effects of dietary intake of Sujiaonori (Ulva/Enteromorpha prolifera Müller) algal biomaterial (SBM), especially on adiponectin production, blood pressure (BP), and body mass index (BMI) in human subjects. Participants (N = 32) were divided into two equally sized groups (n = 16 for each group): SBM group (subjects supplemented with 3 g SBM powder twice a day during meal) and the control group (subjects who took 3 g of a supplement made of 70% corn starch powder and 30% spinach twice a day) for four weeks. Two health survey questionnaires (dietary and current health questionnaires) were completed anonymously, saliva sampling was done for adiponectin measurement by ELISA, and blood pressure (BP) and anthropometric parameters were measured at baseline and four weeks later. Student paired t-test was performed to compare baseline and post-intervention data on outcome variables between the two study groups. Results showed a 2.24-fold increase in adiponectin level in SBM group (2.81 and 6.26 ng/mL at baseline and at the end of study, respectively) (p 0.05). In SBM subjects, an improvement of BP profile was noted with a significant decrease in systolic BP (p < 0.01). A positive correlation was found between SBM supplementation and adiponectin level, whereas an inverse correlation was noted between SBM supplementation and blood pressure, and also BMI. These findings suggest that SBM-increased adiponectin level and improved BP in a sample of Japanese young adults, and has the potential to improve blood pressure in humans. PMID:28208744

  12. Cell therapies for pancreatic beta-cell replenishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okere, Bernard; Lucaccioni, Laura; Dominici, Massimo; Iughetti, Lorenzo

    2016-07-11

    The current treatment approach for type 1 diabetes is based on daily insulin injections, combined with blood glucose monitoring. However, administration of exogenous insulin fails to mimic the physiological activity of the islet, therefore diabetes often progresses with the development of serious complications such as kidney failure, retinopathy and vascular disease. Whole pancreas transplantation is associated with risks of major invasive surgery along with side effects of immunosuppressive therapy to avoid organ rejection. Replacement of pancreatic beta-cells would represent an ideal treatment that could overcome the above mentioned therapeutic hurdles. In this context, transplantation of islets of Langerhans is considered a less invasive procedure although long-term outcomes showed that only 10 % of the patients remained insulin independent five years after the transplant. Moreover, due to shortage of organs and the inability of islet to be expanded ex vivo, this therapy can be offered to a very limited number of patients. Over the past decade, cellular therapies have emerged as the new frontier of treatment of several diseases. Furthermore the advent of stem cells as renewable source of cell-substitutes to replenish the beta cell population, has blurred the hype on islet transplantation. Breakthrough cellular approaches aim to generate stem-cell-derived insulin producing cells, which could make diabetes cellular therapy available to millions. However, to date, stem cell therapy for diabetes is still in its early experimental stages. This review describes the most reliable sources of stem cells that have been developed to produce insulin and their most relevant experimental applications for the cure of diabetes.

  13. Uncovering Adiponectin Replenishing Property of Sujiaonori Algal Biomaterial in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngatu, Nlandu Roger; Ikeda, Mitsunori; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Mamoru; Inoue, Masataka; Kanbara, Sakiko; Nojima, Sayumi

    2017-02-08

    The replenishment of adiponectin-an adipocyte-derived hormone with salutary health effects-has recently been proposed as a new approach to treat hypertension, also ameliorate cardiovascular and metabolic risks. We conducted a prospective placebo-controlled, non-randomized and investigator-blinded dietary intervention study to evaluate the health effects of dietary intake of Sujiaonori (Ulva/Enteromorpha prolifera Müller) algal biomaterial (SBM), especially on adiponectin production, blood pressure (BP), and body mass index (BMI) in human subjects. Participants (N = 32) were divided into two equally sized groups (n = 16 for each group): SBM group (subjects supplemented with 3 g SBM powder twice a day during meal) and the control group (subjects who took 3 g of a supplement made of 70% corn starch powder and 30% spinach twice a day) for four weeks. Two health survey questionnaires (dietary and current health questionnaires) were completed anonymously, saliva sampling was done for adiponectin measurement by ELISA, and blood pressure (BP) and anthropometric parameters were measured at baseline and four weeks later. Student paired t-test was performed to compare baseline and post-intervention data on outcome variables between the two study groups. Results showed a 2.24-fold increase in adiponectin level in SBM group (2.81 and 6.26 ng/mL at baseline and at the end of study, respectively) (p 0.05). In SBM subjects, an improvement of BP profile was noted with a significant decrease in systolic BP (p adiponectin level, whereas an inverse correlation was noted between SBM supplementation and blood pressure, and also BMI. These findings suggest that SBM-increased adiponectin level and improved BP in a sample of Japanese young adults, and has the potential to improve blood pressure in humans.

  14. Bioactives from microalgal dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Rodríguez, J; Sánchez-Mirón, A; García-Camacho, F; López-Rosales, L; Chisti, Y; Molina-Grima, E

    2012-01-01

    Dinoflagellate microalgae are an important source of marine biotoxins. Bioactives from dinoflagellates are attracting increasing attention because of their impact on the safety of seafood and potential uses in biomedical, toxicological and pharmacological research. Here we review the potential applications of dinoflagellate toxins and the methods for producing them. Only sparing quantities of dinoflagellate toxins are generally available and this hinders bioactivity characterization and evaluation in possible applications. Approaches to production of increased quantities of dinoflagellate bioactives are discussed. Although many dinoflagellates are fragile and grow slowly, controlled culture in bioreactors appears to be generally suitable for producing many of the metabolites of interest.

  15. Model of inventory replenishment in periodic review accounting for the occurrence of shortages

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisław Krzyżaniak

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite the development of alternative concepts of goods flow management, the inventory management under conditions of random variations of demand is still an important issue, both from the point of view of inventory keeping and replenishment costs and the service level measured as the level of inventory availability. There is a number of inventory replenishment systems used in these conditions, but they are mostly developments of two basic systems: reorder point-based and pe...

  16. A three-pool model dissecting readily releasable pool replenishment at the calyx of held.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun; Ge, Jian-long; Hao, Mei; Sun, Zhi-cheng; Wu, Xin-sheng; Zhu, Jian-bing; Wang, Wei; Yao, Pan-tong; Lin, Wei; Xue, Lei

    2015-03-31

    Although vesicle replenishment is critical in maintaining exo-endocytosis recycling, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Previous studies have shown that both rapid and slow endocytosis recycle into a very large recycling pool instead of within the readily releasable pool (RRP), and the time course of RRP replenishment is slowed down by more intense stimulation. This finding contradicts the calcium/calmodulin-dependence of RRP replenishment. Here we address this issue and report a three-pool model for RRP replenishment at a central synapse. Both rapid and slow endocytosis provide vesicles to a large reserve pool (RP) ~42.3 times the RRP size. When moving from the RP to the RRP, vesicles entered an intermediate pool (IP) ~2.7 times the RRP size with slow RP-IP kinetics and fast IP-RRP kinetics, which was responsible for the well-established slow and rapid components of RRP replenishment. Depletion of the IP caused the slower RRP replenishment observed after intense stimulation. These results establish, for the first time, a realistic cycling model with all parameters measured, revealing the contribution of each cycling step in synaptic transmission. The results call for modification of the current view of the vesicle recycling steps and their roles.

  17. Synaptic activity slows vesicular replenishment at excitatory synapses of rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Loc; Glavinović, Mladen I

    2013-04-01

    Short-term synaptic depression mainly reflects the depletion of the readily releasable pool (RRP) of quanta. Its dynamics, and especially the replenishment rate of the RRP, are still not well characterized in spite of decades of investigation. Main reason is that the vesicular storage and release system is treated as time-independent. If it is time-dependent all parameters thus estimated become problematic. Indeed the reports about how prolonged stimulation affects the dynamics are contradictory. To study this, we used patterned stimulation on the Schaeffer collateral fiber pathway and model-fitting of the excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSC) recorded from CA1 neurons in rat hippocampal slices. The parameters of a vesicular storage and release model with two pools were estimated by minimizing the squared difference between the ESPC amplitudes and simulated model output. This yields the 'basic' parameters (release coupling, replenishment coupling and RRP size) that underlie the 'derived' and commonly used parameters (fractional release and replenishment rate). The fractional release increases when [Ca(++)]o is raised, whereas the replenishment rate is [Ca(++)]o independent. Fractional release rises because release coupling increases, and the RRP becomes less able to contain quanta. During prolonged stimulation, the fractional release remains generally unaltered, whereas the replenishment rate decreases down to ~10 % of its initial value with a decay time of ~15 s, and this decrease in the replenishment rate significantly contributes to synaptic depression. In conclusion, the fractional release is [Ca(++)]o-dependent and stimulation-independent, whereas the replenishment rate is [Ca(++)]o-independent and stimulation-dependent.

  18. Modeling Replenishment of Ultrathin Liquid Perfluoropolyether Z Films on Solid Surfaces Using Monte Carlo Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Mayeed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Applying the reptation algorithm to a simplified perfluoropolyether Z off-lattice polymer model an NVT Monte Carlo simulation has been performed. Bulk condition has been simulated first to compare the average radius of gyration with the bulk experimental results. Then the model is tested for its ability to describe dynamics. After this, it is applied to observe the replenishment of nanoscale ultrathin liquid films on solid flat carbon surfaces. The replenishment rate for trenches of different widths (8, 12, and 16 nms for several molecular weights between two films of perfluoropolyether Z from the Monte Carlo simulation is compared to that obtained solving the diffusion equation using the experimental diffusion coefficients of Ma et al. (1999, with room condition in both cases. Replenishment per Monte Carlo cycle seems to be a constant multiple of replenishment per second at least up to 2 nm replenished film thickness of the trenches over the carbon surface. Considerable good agreement has been achieved here between the experimental results and the dynamics of molecules using reptation moves in the ultrathin liquid films on solid surfaces.

  19. Continuous replenishment of molten semiconductor in a Czochralski-process, single-crystal-growing furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegl, George (Inventor); Torbet, Walter (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A replenishment crucible is mounted adjacent the usual drawing crucible, from which a monocrystalline boule is drawn according to the Czochralski method. A siphon tube for molten semiconductor transfer extends from the replenishment crucible to the drawing crucible. Each crucible is enclosed within its own hermetic shell and is provided with its own heater. The siphon tube is initially filled with molten semiconductor by raising the inert atmospheric pressure in the shell surrounding the replenishment crucible above that surrounding the drawing crucible. Thereafter, adjustment of the level of molten semiconductor in the drawing crucible may be achieved by adjusting the level in either crucible, since the siphon tube will establish the same level in both crucibles. For continuous processing, solid semiconductor may be added to and melted in the replenishment crucible during the process of drawing crystals from the drawing crucible. A constant liquid level of melted semiconductor is maintained in the system by an optical monitoring device and any of several electromechanical controls of the rate of replenishment or crucible height.

  20. Beta cell dynamics: beta cell replenishment, beta cell compensation and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerf, Marlon E

    2013-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes, characterized by persistent hyperglycemia, arises mostly from beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance and remains a highly complex metabolic disease due to various stages in its pathogenesis. Glucose homeostasis is primarily regulated by insulin secretion from the beta cells in response to prevailing glycemia. Beta cell populations are dynamic as they respond to fluctuating insulin demand. Beta cell replenishment and death primarily regulate beta cell populations. Beta cells, pancreatic cells, and extra-pancreatic cells represent the three tiers for replenishing beta cells. In rodents, beta cell self-replenishment appears to be the dominant source for new beta cells supported by pancreatic cells (non-beta islet cells, acinar cells, and duct cells) and extra-pancreatic cells (liver, neural, and stem/progenitor cells). In humans, beta cell neogenesis from non-beta cells appears to be the dominant source of beta cell replenishment as limited beta cell self-replenishment occurs particularly in adulthood. Metabolic states of increased insulin demand trigger increased insulin synthesis and secretion from beta cells. Beta cells, therefore, adapt to support their physiology. Maintaining physiological beta cell populations is a strategy for targeting metabolic states of persistently increased insulin demand as in diabetes.

  1. Bioactive behaviour of sol-gel derived antibacterial bioactive glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellantone, M.; Hench, L.L. [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials

    2001-07-01

    A new four-component bioactive glass containing Ag{sub 2}O was produced via the sol-gel process. This system releases Ag{sup +} which is a powerful antibacterial agent. The work reported herein is a comparative study of the bioactivity levels of conventional bioactive glass and of the new antibacterial glass. On the basis of XRD patterns, FTIR spectra, and ICP data, the bioactive behaviour of the two biomaterials is nearly equivalent. (orig.)

  2. Littoral lichens as a novel source of potentially bioactive Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrot, Delphine; Antony-Babu, Sanjay; Intertaglia, Laurent; Grube, Martin; Tomasi, Sophie; Suzuki, Marcelino T

    2015-10-30

    Cultivable Actinobacteria are the largest source of microbially derived bioactive molecules. The high demand for novel antibiotics highlights the need for exploring novel sources of these bacteria. Microbial symbioses with sessile macro-organisms, known to contain bioactive compounds likely of bacterial origin, represent an interesting and underexplored source of Actinobacteria. We studied the diversity and potential for bioactive-metabolite production of Actinobacteria associated with two marine lichens (Lichina confinis and L. pygmaea; from intertidal and subtidal zones) and one littoral lichen (Roccella fuciformis; from supratidal zone) from the Brittany coast (France), as well as the terrestrial lichen Collema auriforme (from a riparian zone, Austria). A total of 247 bacterial strains were isolated using two selective media. Isolates were identified and clustered into 101 OTUs (98% identity) including 51 actinobacterial OTUs. The actinobacterial families observed were: Brevibacteriaceae, Cellulomonadaceae, Gordoniaceae, Micrococcaceae, Mycobacteriaceae, Nocardioidaceae, Promicromonosporaceae, Pseudonocardiaceae, Sanguibacteraceae and Streptomycetaceae. Interestingly, the diversity was most influenced by the selective media rather than lichen species or the level of lichen thallus association. The potential for bioactive-metabolite biosynthesis of the isolates was confirmed by screening genes coding for polyketide synthases types I and II. These results show that littoral lichens are a source of diverse potentially bioactive Actinobacteria.

  3. A systematic literature review on the joint replenishment problem solutions: 2006-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo dos Santos Lourenço Bastos

    Full Text Available Abstract Among all existing inventory replenishment models, this research was dedicated to the Joint Replenishment Problem (JRP, which consists in the replenishment of multiple items simultaneously, aiming total cost reduction. Literature has presented several optimal and approximated solutions to this problem, with different applications and techniques, which results in a large quantity of solution proposals. Therefore, this research aimed to map existing solutions to the problem in 2006-2015 in order to provide a guide for interested parts in JRP and to update previous reviews. Hence, systematic review was used to assess papers from that period interval. From a total of 128 papers, a general trend for seeking JRP extensions and practical applications was verified. Furthermore, the heuristic and metaheuristic methods were the most used and considered the most suitable due to their simplicity in understanding and application.

  4. Vitamin D deficiency: appropriate replenishment therapies and the effects of vitamin D toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Sean; Clopton, David; Cappuzzo, Kimberly A

    2010-03-01

    An 84-year-old patient diagnosed with a vitamin D deficiency was given a prescription for ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) 50,000 units weekly. The prescription was incorrectly filled for ergocalciferol 50,000 units daily. Incorrect therapy continued for two months. The patient's vitamin D level increased from Replenishment using high-dose ergocalciferol is one common replenishment therapy. Patients also are able to supplement with nonprescription vitamin D products of varying strengths. While many older patients can be expected to have vitamin D deficiencies, pharmacists should be aware of appropriate replenishment therapies and correct dosing of different vitamin D products. Pharmacists also should be familiar with possible toxic effects of vitamin D, particularly as public awareness of benefits continues to increase.

  5. The lognormal perfusion model for disruption replenishment measurements of blood flow: in vivo validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, John M; Leung, Kogee; Burns, Peter N

    2011-10-01

    Dynamic contrast enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) is evolving as a promising tool to noninvasively quantify relative tissue perfusion in organs and solid tumours. Quantification using the method of disruption replenishment is best performed using a model that accurately describes the replenishment of microbubble contrast agents through the ultrasound imaging plane. In this study, the lognormal perfusion model was validated using an exposed in vivo rabbit kidney model. Compared against an implanted transit time flow meter, longitudinal relative flow measurement was (×3) less variable and correlated better when quantification was performed with the lognormal perfusion model (Spearman r = 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.05) vs. the prevailing mono-exponential model (Spearman r = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.18). Disruption-replenishment measurements using the lognormal perfusion model were reproducible in vivo to within 12%.

  6. Determining the Optimum Ordering Policy in Multi-Item Joint Replenishment Problem Using a Novel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tsung Ho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the joint replenishment problem (JRP involving multiple items where economies exist for replenishing several items simultaneously. The demand rate for each item is known and constant. Shortages are not permitted and lead times are negligible. Many heuristic algorithms have been proposed to find quality solutions for the JRP. In this paper, cycle time division and recursive tightening methods are developed to calculate an efficient and optimal replenishment policy for JRP. Two theorems are demonstrated to guarantee that an optimal solution to the problem can be derived using cycle time division and recursive tightening methods. Restated, cycle time division and recursive tightening methods theoretically yield the optimal solution in 100% of instances. The complexity of cycle time division and recursive tightening methods is just O(NlogN, where N represents the number of items involved in the problem. Numerical examples are included to demonstrate the algorithmic procedures.

  7. Optimal pricing and replenishment policies for instantaneous deteriorating items with backlogging and trade credit under inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundara Rajan, R.; Uthayakumar, R.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we develop an economic order quantity model to investigate the optimal replenishment policies for instantaneous deteriorating items under inflation and trade credit. Demand rate is a linear function of selling price and decreases negative exponentially with time over a finite planning horizon. Shortages are allowed and partially backlogged. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a profit maximization problem to determine the optimal selling price, optimal order quantity and optimal replenishment time. An easy-to-use algorithm is developed to determine the optimal replenishment policies for the retailer. We also provide optimal present value of profit when shortages are completely backlogged as a special case. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the algorithm provided to obtain optimal profit. And we also obtain managerial implications from numerical examples to substantiate our model. The results show that there is an improvement in total profit from complete backlogging rather than the items being partially backlogged.

  8. Stimulation of flower nectar replenishment by removal: A survey of eleven animal-pollinated plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Y Luo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the interaction between reward-seeking flower feeding animals and plants requires consideration of the dynamic nature of nectar secretion. Studies on several plants suggest that nectar secretion may increase in response to its removal, but it is not clear whether the phenomenon is widespread. We determined whether 11 species of Colorado mountain wildflowers showed removal-enhanced nectar replenishment (RENR. We measured floral phenology, nectar volumes, rate of replenishment, and compared the cumulative nectar produced following five hourly removals with that accumulated after five hours. Nectar replenishment occurred rapidly, within minutes; statistically significant RENR was observed in 9 of our 11 study species, with the strongest effects in bee-pollinated species. We discuss the implications of RENR in plant species on the measurement of nectar, the adaptive advantage of RENR, and the energetic costs of RENR.

  9. Replenishment Decision Making with Permissible Shortage, Repairable Nonconforming Products and Random Equipment Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Hsin Chang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with replenishment decision making with repairable nonconforming products, backordering and random equipment failure during production uptime. In real world manufacturing systems, due to different factors generation of nonconforming items and unexpected machine breakdown are inevitable. Also, in certain business environments various situations between vendor and buyer, the backordering of shortage stocks sometimes is permissible with extra cost involved. This study incorporates backlogging, random breakdown and rework into a production system, with the objective of determination of the optimal replenishment lot size and optimal level of backordering that minimizes the long-run average system costs. Mathematical modeling along with the renewal reward theorem is employed for deriving system cost function. Hessian matrix equations are used to prove its convexity. Research result can be directly adopted by practitioners in the production planning and control field to assist them in making their own robust production replenishment decision.

  10. Optimal dynamic pricing and replenishment policy for perishable items with inventory-level-dependent demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lihao; Zhang, Jianxiong; Tang, Wansheng

    2016-04-01

    An inventory system for perishable items with limited replenishment capacity is introduced in this paper. The demand rate depends on the stock quantity displayed in the store as well as the sales price. With the goal to realise profit maximisation, an optimisation problem is addressed to seek for the optimal joint dynamic pricing and replenishment policy which is obtained by solving the optimisation problem with Pontryagin's maximum principle. A joint mixed policy, in which the sales price is a static decision variable and the replenishment rate remains to be a dynamic decision variable, is presented to compare with the joint dynamic policy. Numerical results demonstrate the advantages of the joint dynamic one, and further show the effects of different system parameters on the optimal joint dynamic policy and the maximal total profit.

  11. Model of inventory replenishment in periodic review accounting for the occurrence of shortages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Krzyżaniak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the development of alternative concepts of goods flow management, the inventory management under conditions of random variations of demand is still an important issue, both from the point of view of inventory keeping and replenishment costs and the service level measured as the level of inventory availability. There is a number of inventory replenishment systems used in these conditions, but they are mostly developments of two basic systems: reorder point-based and periodic review-based. The paper deals with the latter system. Numerous researches indicate the need to improve the classical models describing that system, the reason being mainly the necessity to adapt the model better to the actual conditions. This allows a correct selection of parameters that control the used inventory replenishment system and - as a result - to obtain expected economic effects. Methods: This research aimed at building a model of the periodic review system to reflect the relations (observed during simulation tests between the volume of inventory shortages and the degree of accounting for so-called deferred demand, and the service level expressed as the probability of satisfying the demand in the review and the inventory replenishment cycle. The following model building and testing method has been applied: numerical simulation of inventory replenishment - detailed analysis of simulation results - construction of the model taking into account the regularities observed during the simulations - determination of principles of solving the system of relations creating the model - verification of the results obtained from the model using the results from simulation. Results: Presented are selected results of calculations based on classical formulas and using the developed model, which describe the relations between the service level and the parameters controlling the discussed inventory replenishment system. The results are compared to the simulation

  12. Studies with the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method - Exercise wheels and oxygen replenishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Continuing efforts to improve the University of San Francisco/NASA toxicity screening test method have included the addition of exercise wheels to provide a different measure of incapacitation, and oxygen replenishment to offset any effect of oxygen depletion by the test animals. The addition of exercise wheels limited the number of animals in each test and doubled the required number of tests without any significant improvement in reproducibility. Oxygen replenishment appears to have an effect on survival in the last 5 minutes of the 30-minute test, but the effect is expected to be similar for most materials.

  13. The source of replenishment of geothermal water around Xi’an

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶书华

    2001-01-01

    The meteoric origin of the geothermal water in Xi’an is evidenced by its H and O isotope composition. Based on the temperature dependence of isotopic composition, the temperature of meteoric water that replenishes the geothermal aquifers in Xi’an and its neighboring regions is calculated to be -13.28℃. The age of the geothermal water based on 14C dating method is 10-30 kaBP, belonging to a secondary glacial period in Late Quaternary. The source of replenishment is considered to have mainly derived from glacial snow melt water from elevations higher than 2,000m (ASL) in Qinling Mountains.

  14. Porous bioactive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai

    Bioactive materials chemically bond to tissues through the development of biologically active apatite. Porous structures in biomaterials are designed to enhance bioactivity, grow artificial tissues and achieve better integration with host tissues in the body. The goal of this research is to design, fabricate and characterize novel porous bioactive materials. 3D ordered macroporous bioactive glasses (3DOM-BGs, pore size: 200--1000 nm) were prepared using a sol-gel process and colloidal crystal templates. 3DOM-BGs are more bioactive and degradable than mesoporous (pore size simulated body fluid (SBF). Apatite formation and 3DOM-BG degradation rates increased with the decrease of soaking ratio. Apatite induction time in SBF increased with 3DOM-BG calcination temperature (600--800°C). Apatite formation and 3DOMBG degradation were slightly enhanced for a phosphate containing composition. Large 3DOM-BG particles formed less apatite and degraded less completely as compared with small particles. An increase in macropore size slowed down 3DOM-BG degradation and apatite formation processes. After heating the converted apatite at a temperature higher than 700°C, highly crystalline hydroxyapatite and a minor tri-calcium phosphate phase formed. 3DOM-BGs have potential applications as bone/periodontal fillers, and drugs and biological factors delivery agents. Anchoring artificial soft tissues (e.g., cartilage) to native bone presents a challenge. Porous polymer/bioactive glass composites are candidate materials for engineering artificial soft tissue/bone interfaces. Porous composites consisting of polymer matrices (e.g., polysulfone, polylactide, and polyurethane) and bioactive glass particles were prepared by polymer phase separation techniques adapted to include ceramic particles. Composites (thickness: 200--500 mum) have asymmetric structures with dense top layers and porous structures beneath. Porous structures consist of large pores (>100 mum) in a network of smaller (<10

  15. 12 CFR 221.116 - Bank loans to replenish working capital used to purchase mutual fund shares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank loans to replenish working capital used to... Bank loans to replenish working capital used to purchase mutual fund shares. (a) In a situation... period of time the result would be the same. Accordingly, the Board concluded that bank loans made...

  16. Evidence for HI replenishment in massive galaxies through gas accretion from the cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Dane; Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Heath Jones, D.; Koribalski, Bärbel S.; Serra, Paolo

    2016-12-01

    We examine the HI -to-stellar mass ratio (HI fraction) for galaxies near filament backbones within the nearby Universe (d replenish some HI gas. This supports cold mode accretion where filament galaxies with a large gravitational potential can draw gas from the large scale structure.

  17. Self-regulatory depletion in dogs: insulin release is not necessary for the replenishment of persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Holly C; Pattison, Kristina F; Laude, Jennifer R; Zentall, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that self-control is constrained by a limited energy resource that can be depleted through exertion. Once depleted, this resource can be replenished by the consumption or even the taste of glucose. For example, the need to inhibit reduces subsequent persistence at problem solving by humans and dogs, an effect that is not observed when a glucose drink (but not a placebo) is administered following initial inhibition. The mechanism for replenishment by glucose is currently unknown. Energy transfer is not necessary, although insulin secretion may be involved. This possibility was investigated in the current study by having dogs exert self-control (sit-stay) and subsequently giving them (1) glucose that causes the release of insulin, (2) fructose that does not result in the release of insulin nor does it affect glucose levels (but it is a carbohydrate), or (3) a calorie-free drink. Persistence measures indicated that both glucose and fructose replenished canine persistence, whereas the calorie-free drink did not. These results indicate that insulin release is probably not necessary for the replenishment that is presumed to be responsible for the increase in persistence. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior.

  18. A new iterative heuristic to solve the joint replenishment problem using a spreadsheet technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, A.; Segerstedt, A.; van der Sluis, E.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a heuristic method is presented which gives a novel approach to solve joint replenishment problems (JRP) with strict cycle policies. The heuristic solves the JRP in an iterative procedure and is based on a spreadsheet technique. The principle of the recursion procedure is to find a ba

  19. Synaptotagmin 7 functions as a Ca2+-sensor for synaptic vesicle replenishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huisheng; Bai, Hua; Hui, Enfu; Yang, Lu; Evans, Chantell S; Wang, Zhao; Kwon, Sung E; Chapman, Edwin R

    2014-02-25

    Synaptotagmin (syt) 7 is one of three syt isoforms found in all metazoans; it is ubiquitously expressed, yet its function in neurons remains obscure. Here, we resolved Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent synaptic vesicle (SV) replenishment pathways, and found that syt 7 plays a selective and critical role in the Ca(2+)-dependent pathway. Mutations that disrupt Ca(2+)-binding to syt 7 abolish this function, suggesting that syt 7 functions as a Ca(2+)-sensor for replenishment. The Ca(2+)-binding protein calmodulin (CaM) has also been implicated in SV replenishment, and we found that loss of syt 7 was phenocopied by a CaM antagonist. Moreover, we discovered that syt 7 binds to CaM in a highly specific and Ca(2+)-dependent manner; this interaction requires intact Ca(2+)-binding sites within syt 7. Together, these data indicate that a complex of two conserved Ca(2+)-binding proteins, syt 7 and CaM, serve as a key regulator of SV replenishment in presynaptic nerve terminals. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01524.001.

  20. AN OPTIMAL REPLENISHMENT POLICY FOR DETERIORATING ITEMS WITH RAMP TYPE DEMAND UNDER PERMISSIBLE DELAY IN PAYMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sanjay Jain

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop an optimal replenishment policy for inventory models of deteriorating items with ramp type demand under permissible delay in payments. Deterioration of items begins on their arrival in stock.  An example is also presented to illustrate the application of developed model.

  1. On the efficiency of optimal algorithms for the joint replenishment problem: a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Porras Musalem (Eric); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we proposed an efficient algorithm to solve the joint replenishment problem to optimality. We perform a computational study to compare the performance of the proposed algorithm with the best one reported in Viswanathan [6]. The study reveals that for large minor set-up cost

  2. A hybrid replenishment model, the best fit in fast growing industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartevelt, R.

    2011-01-01

    During the design supply chain control processes, balancing cost versus service plays an important role. To select the most suitable replenishment strategy is the main enabler in reaching the goal of finding the optimal balance. In this article a framework is developed which will help to select the

  3. MILP for the Inventory and Routing for Replenishment Problem in the Car Assembly Line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Pulido

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The inbound logistic for feeding the workstation inside the factory represents a critical issue in the car manufacturing industry. Nowadays, this issue is even more critical than in the past since more types of car are being produced in the assembly lines. Consequently, as workstations have to install many types of components, they also need to have an inventory of different types of the component in a compact space.The replenishment is a critical issue since a lack of inventory could cause line stoppage or reworking. On the other hand, an excess of inventory could increase the holding cost or even block the replenishment paths. The decision of the replenishment routes cannot be made without taking into consideration the inventory needed by each station during the production time which will depend on the production sequence. This problem deals with medium-sized instances and it is solved using online solvers. The contribution of this paper is a MILP for the replenishment and inventory of the components in a car assembly line.

  4. Suboptimal and optimal order policies for fixed and varying replenishment interval with declining market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jonas C. P.; Wee, H. M.; Yang, P. C.; Wu, Simon

    2016-06-01

    One of the supply chain risks for hi-tech products is the result of rapid technological innovation; it results in a significant decline in the selling price and demand after the initial launch period. Hi-tech products include computers and communication consumer's products. From a practical standpoint, a more realistic replenishment policy is needed to consider the impact of risks; especially when some portions of shortages are lost. In this paper, suboptimal and optimal order policies with partial backordering are developed for a buyer when the component cost, the selling price, and the demand rate decline at a continuous rate. Two mathematical models are derived and discussed: one model has the suboptimal solution with the fixed replenishment interval and a simpler computational process; the other one has the optimal solution with the varying replenishment interval and a more complicated computational process. The second model results in more profit. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the two replenishment models. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to investigate the relationship between the parameters and the net profit.

  5. Value-based Q(s,S) policy for joint replenishments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren Glud; Thorstenson, Anders

    replenishment order is issued, if the expected cost of ordering immediately according to the (s, S) policy is less than the expected cost of deferring the order until the next demand or until the level Q is reached. We use simulation to evaluate our policy. Applying the value-based Q(s, S) policy to a standard...

  6. A hybrid replenishment model, the best fit in fast growing industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartevelt, R.

    2011-01-01

    During the design supply chain control processes, balancing cost versus service plays an important role. To select the most suitable replenishment strategy is the main enabler in reaching the goal of finding the optimal balance. In this article a framework is developed which will help to select the

  7. Applied bioactive polymeric materials

    CERN Document Server

    Carraher, Charles; Foster, Van

    1988-01-01

    The biological and biomedical applications of polymeric materials have increased greatly in the past few years. This book will detail some, but not all, of these recent developments. There would not be enough space in this book to cover, even lightly, all of the major advances that have occurred. Some earlier books and summaries are available by two of this book's Editors (Gebelein & Carraher) and these should be consul ted for additional information. The books are: "Bioactive Polymeric Systems" (Plenum, 1985); "Polymeric Materials In Medication" (Plenum, 1985); "Biological Acti vi ties of Polymers" (American Chemical Society, 1982). Of these three, "Bioacti ve Polymeric Systems" should be the most useful to a person who is new to this field because it only contains review articles written at an introductory level. The present book primarily consists of recent research results and applications, with only a few review or summary articles. Bioactive polymeric materials have existed from the creation of life...

  8. Bioactivities of chicken essence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y F; He, R R; Tsoi, B; Kurihara, H

    2012-04-01

    The special flavor and health effects of chicken essence are being widely accepted by people. Scientific researches are revealing its truth as a tonic food in traditional health preservation. Chicken essence has been found to possess many bioactivities including relief of stress and fatigue, amelioration of anxiety, promotion of metabolisms and post-partum lactation, improvement on hyperglycemia and hypertension, enhancement of immune, and so on. These activities of chicken essence are suggested to be related with its active components, including proteins, dipeptides (such as carnosine and anserine), polypeptides, minerals, trace elements, and multiple amino acids, and so on. Underlying mechanisms responsible for the bioactivities of chicken essence are mainly related with anti-stress, anti-oxidant, and neural regulation effects. However, the mechanisms are complicated and may be mediated via the combined actions of many active components, more than the action of 1 or 2 components alone. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Calmodulin enhances ribbon replenishment and shapes filtering of synaptic transmission by cone photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hook, Matthew J; Parmelee, Caitlyn M; Chen, Minghui; Cork, Karlene M; Curto, Carina; Thoreson, Wallace B

    2014-11-01

    At the first synapse in the vertebrate visual pathway, light-evoked changes in photoreceptor membrane potential alter the rate of glutamate release onto second-order retinal neurons. This process depends on the synaptic ribbon, a specialized structure found at various sensory synapses, to provide a supply of primed vesicles for release. Calcium (Ca(2+)) accelerates the replenishment of vesicles at cone ribbon synapses, but the mechanisms underlying this acceleration and its functional implications for vision are unknown. We studied vesicle replenishment using paired whole-cell recordings of cones and postsynaptic neurons in tiger salamander retinas and found that it involves two kinetic mechanisms, the faster of which was diminished by calmodulin (CaM) inhibitors. We developed an analytical model that can be applied to both conventional and ribbon synapses and showed that vesicle resupply is limited by a simple time constant, τ = 1/(Dρδs), where D is the vesicle diffusion coefficient, δ is the vesicle diameter, ρ is the vesicle density, and s is the probability of vesicle attachment. The combination of electrophysiological measurements, modeling, and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of single synaptic vesicles suggested that CaM speeds replenishment by enhancing vesicle attachment to the ribbon. Using electroretinogram and whole-cell recordings of light responses, we found that enhanced replenishment improves the ability of cone synapses to signal darkness after brief flashes of light and enhances the amplitude of responses to higher-frequency stimuli. By accelerating the resupply of vesicles to the ribbon, CaM extends the temporal range of synaptic transmission, allowing cones to transmit higher-frequency visual information to downstream neurons. Thus, the ability of the visual system to encode time-varying stimuli is shaped by the dynamics of vesicle replenishment at photoreceptor synaptic ribbons.

  10. Bioactive phytochemicals in flaxseed

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsson, Pernilla

    2009-01-01

    Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is rich in health-promoting bioactive compounds. Among plant foods, flaxseed has the highest content of lignans, mainly in the form of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG). Flaxseed oil also has a very high concentration of the essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). This thesis presents studies on both SDG and ALA. An HPLC method for quantification of SDG in hydrolysed flaxseed extracts was developed and used to compare the SDG content in ...

  11. Bioactive glass in tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Day, Delbert E.; Bal, B. Sonny; Fu, Qiang; Jung, Steven B.; Bonewald, Lynda F.; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on recent advances in the development and use of bioactive glass for tissue engineering applications. Despite its inherent brittleness, bioactive glass has several appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. New bioactive glasses based on borate and borosilicate compositions have shown the ability to enhance new bone formation when compared to silicate bioactive glass. Borate-based bioactive glasses also have controllable degradation rates, so the degradation of the bioactive glass implant can be more closely matched to the rate of new bone formation. Bioactive glasses can be doped with trace quantities of elements such as Cu, Zn and Sr, which are known to be beneficial for healthy bone growth. In addition to the new bioactive glasses, recent advances in biomaterials processing have resulted in the creation of scaffold architectures with a range of mechanical properties suitable for the substitution of loaded as well as non-loaded bone. While bioactive glass has been extensively investigated for bone repair, there has been relatively little research on the application of bioactive glass to the repair of soft tissues. However, recent work has shown the ability of bioactive glass to promote angiogenesis, which is critical to numerous applications in tissue regeneration, such as neovascularization for bone regeneration and the healing of soft tissue wounds. Bioactive glass has also been shown to enhance neocartilage formation during in vitro culture of chondrocyte-seeded hydrogels, and to serve as a subchondral substrate for tissue-engineered osteochondral constructs. Methods used to manipulate the structure and performance of bioactive glass in these tissue engineering applications are analyzed. PMID:21421084

  12. Modeling of replenishment of sediments on a water-worked gravel bed channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juez, Carmelo; Battisacco, Elena; Schleiss, Anton J.; Franca, Mário J.

    2016-04-01

    The presence of dams causes a sediment deficit downstream. Hence, the surface structure of the riverbeds is altered by this interruption in the sediment continuity and The presence of dams causes a sediment deficit downstream. The surface structure of the riverbed is altered by this interruption in the sediment continuity and becoming water-worked. The main morphological effects verified in these cases are thus the generation of armored layers, bank instability, riverbed incision, changes in the channel width and coarsening of the bed particles. These results impact on the riverbed topographic variability and structure of the bedforms. Surface complexity is thus reduced with further ecological implications. The lack of fine material and surface complexity leads to the loss of aquatic and riparian habitats, limiting the possibilities for fish spawning. Nowadays, the revitalization of disturbed river reaches forms an integral part of river management. Sediment transport and associated channel morphology are understood as key processes for recreating and maintaining aquatic ecosystems. For this purpose several replenishment techniques have been considered in order to supply sediments lacking in the downstream reaches. The replenishment techniques can be seen as a pulse-like addition of sedimentary material that initially disturbs the channel. In this work, the response of the flow to the complementary material which is added in the channel is studied by means of the 2D shallow water equations in combination with the Exner equation. The numerical scheme is built by means of a weakly-coupled treatment between the hydrodynamic and morphodynamic equations leading to an efficient and robust solution. Computational outcomes are compared with experimental data obtained from several replenishment configurations studied in the laboratory. The results are analyzed by means of: (i) temporal evolution of the material spreading, (ii) occupational ratio along the channel which is

  13. Synapsin-dependent reserve pool of synaptic vesicles supports replenishment of the readily releasable pool under intense synaptic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva, Mariya; Horstmann, Heinz; Geumann, Constanze; Gitler, Daniel; Kuner, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    Synapsins are abundant synaptic vesicle (SV)-associated proteins thought to mediate synaptic vesicle mobility and clustering at most synapses. We used synapsin triple knock-out (TKO) mice to examine the morphological and functional consequences of deleting all synapsin isoforms at the calyx of Held, a giant glutamatergic synapse located in the auditory brain stem. Quantitative three-dimensional (3D) immunohistochemistry of entire calyces showed lower amounts of the synaptic vesicle protein vGluT1 while the level of the active zone marker bassoon was unchanged in TKO terminals. Examination of brain lysates by ELISA revealed a strong reduction in abundance of several synaptic vesicle proteins, while proteins of the active zone cytomatrix or postsynaptic density were unaffected. Serial section scanning electron microscopy of large 3D-reconstructed segments confirmed a decrease in the number of SVs to approximately 50% in TKO calyces. Short-term depression tested at stimulus frequencies ranging from 10 to 300 Hz was accelerated only at frequencies above 100 Hz and the time course of recovery from depression was slowed in calyces lacking synapsins. These results reveal that in wild-type synapses, the synapsin-dependent reserve pool contributes to the replenishment of the readily releasable pool (RRP), although accounting only for a small fraction of the SVs that enter the RRP. In conclusion, our results suggest that synapsins may be required for normal synaptic vesicle biogenesis, trafficking and immobilization of synaptic vesicles, yet they are not essential for sustained high-frequency synaptic transmission at the calyx terminal.

  14. The optimal replenishment policy for time-varying stochastic demand under vendor managed inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan

    2015-01-01

    A Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) partnership places the responsibility on the vendor (rather than on buyers) to schedule purchase orders for inventory replenishment in the supply chain system. In this research, the supply chain network considers the Silver-Meal heuristic with an augmentation...... quantity replenishment policy between both traditional and VMI systems. We consider time-varying stochastic demand in two-echelon (one vendor, multiple retailers) supply chains. This paper seeks to find the supply chain that minimizes system cost through comparing performance between traditional and VMI...... systems. A mathematical model is developed, and total supply chain cost is used as the measure of comparison. The models are applied in both traditional and VMI supply chains based on pharmaceutical industry data, and we focus on total cost difference compared through the use of Adjusted Silver-Meal (ASM...

  15. The optimal replenishment policy for time-varying stochastic demand under vendor managed inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan

    2015-01-01

    A Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) partnership places the responsibility on the vendor (rather than on buyers) to schedule purchase orders for inventory replenishment in the supply chain system. In this research, the supply chain network considers the Silver-Meal heuristic with an augmentation...... quantity replenishment policy between both traditional and VMI systems. We consider time-varying stochastic demand in two-echelon (one vendor, multiple retailers) supply chains. This paper seeks to find the supply chain that minimizes system cost through comparing performance between traditional and VMI...... systems. A mathematical model is developed, and total supply chain cost is used as the measure of comparison. The models are applied in both traditional and VMI supply chains based on pharmaceutical industry data, and we focus on total cost difference compared through the use of Adjusted Silver-Meal (ASM...

  16. Ultrasound perfusion analysis combining bolus-tracking and burst-replenishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirik, Radovan; Nylund, Kim; Gilja, Odd H; Mezl, Martin; Harabis, Vratislav; Kolar, Radim; Standara, Michal; Taxt, Torfinn

    2013-02-01

    A new signal model and processing method for quantitative ultrasound perfusion analysis is presented, called bolus-and-burst. The method has the potential to provide absolute values of blood flow, blood volume, and mean transit time. Furthermore, it provides an estimate of the local arterial input function which characterizes the arterial tree, allowing accurate estimation of the bolus arrival time. The method combines two approaches to ultrasound perfusion analysis: bolus-tracking and burst-replenishment. A pharmacokinetic model based on the concept of arterial input functions and tissue residue functions is used to model both the bolus and replenishment parts of the recording. The pharmacokinetic model is fitted to the data using blind deconvolution. A preliminary assessment of the new perfusion-analysis method is presented on clinical recordings.

  17. A generalized multi-depot vehicle routing problem with replenishment based on LocalSolver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the multi depot heterogeneous vehicle routing problem with time windows in which vehicles may be replenished along their trips. Using the modeling technique in a new-generation solver, we construct a novel formulation considering a rich series of constraint conditions and objective functions. Computation results are tested on an example comes from the real-world application and some cases obtained from the benchmark problems. The results show the good performance of local search method in the efficiency of replenishment system and generalization ability. The variants can be used to almost all kinds of vehicle routing problems, without much modification, demonstrating its possibility of practical use.

  18. Replenishment policy and inventory optimization for supply-hub with liability period consideration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李果; 黄焜; 姚琦; 马士华

    2013-01-01

    A replenishment decision-making model for supply-hub is firstly established from the angle of supplier, and optimal replenishment decision of the supplier is analyzed. Then, inventory optimization model for supply-hub is formulated from the angle of the manufacturer, and the optimization algorithm for obtaining optimal inventory levels is given. The result shows that liability period decides the share of the inventory cost between two sides in supply chain. With the increase of liability period, the service level has been quickly reduced even though the manufacturer’s cost has been cut down by transferring the inventory cost to the supplier. As to the safety inventory, if the lower bound of components safety inventory increases, the supplier’s cost will rise up more slowly than the liability period does, while the service levels increases as the safety inventory’s lower bound is raised.

  19. Prostaglandin E₂ promotes post-infarction cardiomyocyte replenishment by endogenous stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Ying-Chang; Wu, Jasmine M F; Yu, Chun-Keung; Wu, Kenneth K; Hsieh, Patrick C H

    2014-04-01

    Although self-renewal ability of adult mammalian heart has been reported, few pharmacological treatments are known to promote cardiomyocyte regeneration after injury. In this study, we demonstrate that the critical period of stem/progenitor cell-mediated cardiomyocyte replenishment is initiated within 7 days and saturates on day 10 post-infarction. Moreover, blocking the inflammatory reaction with COX-2 inhibitors may also reduce the capability of endogenous stem/progenitor cells to repopulate lost cells. Injection of the COX-2 product PGE2 enhances cardiomyocyte replenishment in young mice and recovers cell renewal through attenuating TGF-β1 signaling in aged mice. Further analyses suggest that cardiac stem cells are PGE2-responsive and that PGE2 may regulate stem cell activity directly through the EP2 receptor or indirectly by modulating its micro-environment in vivo. Our findings provide evidence that PGE2 holds great potential for cardiac regeneration.

  20. Spontaneous calcium transients manifest in the regenerating muscle and are necessary for skeletal muscle replenishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Michelle Kim; Borodinsky, Laura Noemi

    2014-07-01

    Tissue regeneration entails replenishing of damaged cells, appropriate cell differentiation and inclusion of regenerated cells into functioning tissues. In adult humans, the capacity of the injured spinal cord and muscle to self-repair is limited. In contrast, the amphibian larva can regenerate its tail after amputation with complete recovery of muscle, notochord and spinal cord. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are still unclear. Here we show that upon injury muscle cell precursors exhibit Ca(2+) transients that depend on Ca(2+) release from ryanodine receptor-operated stores. Blockade of these transients impairs muscle regeneration. Furthermore, inhibiting Ca(2+) transients in the regenerating tail prevents the activation and proliferation of muscle satellite cells, which results in deficient muscle replenishment. These findings suggest that Ca(2+)-mediated activity is critical for the early stages of muscle regeneration, which may lead to developing effective therapies for tissue repair.

  1. Mexican immigrant replenishment and the continuing significance of ethnicity and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Tomás R

    2008-05-01

    The literature on assimilation and ethnic identity formation largely assumes that the durability of ethnic boundaries is a function of the assimilation measures that sociologists commonly employ. But this literature fails to account adequately for the role of immigration patterns in explaining the durability and nature of ethnic boundaries. Using 123 in-depth interviews with later-generation Mexican Americans, this article shows that Mexican immigrant replenishment shapes ethnic boundaries and ethnic identity formation. The sizable immigrant population sharpens intergroup boundaries through the indirect effects of nativism and by contributing to the continuing significance of race in the lives of later-generation Mexican Americans. The presence of a large immigrant population also creates intragroup boundaries that run through the Mexican-origin population and that are animated by expectations about ethnic authenticity. The article illustrates the importance of immigrant replenishment to processes of assimilation and ethnic identity formation.

  2. An analytical study of the Q(s, S) policy applied to the joint replenishment problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christina; Larsen, Christian

    2005-01-01

    We evaluate the performance of a joint replenishment inventory control policy, called the Q(s,S) policy, which was first suggested and characterized by Viswanathan (1997). We argue why joint replenishment problems can be seen as one product, multiple location problems, and hence why they should...... be considered supply chain management problems. The paper uses Markov decision theory to work out an analytical solution procedure to evaluate the costs of a particular Q(s,S) policy, and thereby a method for computing the optimal Q(s,S) policy, under the assumption that demands follow a Poisson Process....... For a fixed order size Q, the problem can be decomposed for each item to find an optimal (s,S) policy with a stochastic review period. These subproblems can be solved by the algorithm of Zheng and Federgruen (1991). Thereafter it remains to find the optimal value of Q, which is done by systematic search over...

  3. Assessment of developmental potential of caprine cloned embryos with ooplasm replenishment under two culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishna, R; Kumar, Dharmendra; Singh, Ajay Pratap; Pandey, Saurabh Kumar; Ranjan, Rakesh; Sarkhel, B C

    2014-03-12

    The present study was designed to assess the developmental potential of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos, with and without replenishment of ooplasm into enucleated oocytes, by culturing separately in two culture media. The enucleated oocytes were replenished with exogenous matured ooplasm under replenished nuclear transfer (RNT) method and compared with conventional nuclear transfer (CNT) method without replenishment. The fusion efficiency in RNT group was found to be significantly higher (P < 0.05) than CNT group (59.39 ± 7.36 vs 45.57 ± 3.68%). The completely fused reconstructed oocytes from both groups were cultured separately in research vitro cleave medium (RVCL) and RVCL-Blast medium. The embryonic development of 2 cell, 4 cell, 8-16 cell and 16-32 cell stages in the RNT group was superior to the CNT group regardless of the culture media used (P < 0.05). The embryonic development of the 8-16 cell, 16-32 cell, morula, and blastocyst stages in the RVCL-Blast medium was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the RVCL alone for both RNT as well as CNT groups. RNT method with RVCL-Blast produced highly significant (P < 0.01) embryonic development for 8-16 cell and 16-32 cell stage when compared to CNT with RVCL. Conclusively, the combination of RNT with RVCL-Blast culture media enabled an overall increase in the embryonic developmental potential.

  4. A task analysis of underway replenishment for virtual environment ship-handling simulator scenario development

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, Steven D.

    1998-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited While developing a Virtual Reality (VR) Ship handling simulator for the Surface Warfare Officer School (SWOS) in Newport, RI, researchers at the Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (NAWCTSD) in Orlando, FL discovered a need for a task analysis of a Conning Officer during an Underway Replenishment (UNREP). The purpose of this task analysis was to document the tasks the Conning Officer performs and cues used to accomplish ...

  5. Locating replenishment stations for electric vehicles: Application to Danish traffic data

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Min; Laporte, Gilbert; Oli B G Madsen; Nørrelund, Anders Vedsted; Olsen, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Environment-friendly electric vehicles have gained substantial attention in governments, industry and universities. The deployment of a network of recharging stations is essential given their limited travel range. This paper considers the problem of locating electronic replenishment stations for electric vehicles on a traffic network with flow-based demand. The objective is to optimize the network performance, for example to maximize the flow covered by a prefixed number of stations, or to mi...

  6. The role of the geothermal gradient in the emplacement and replenishment of ground ice on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Stephen M.

    1993-01-01

    Knowledge of the mechanisms by which ground ice is emplaced, removed, and potentially replenished, are critical to understanding the climatic and hydrologic behavior of water on Mars, as well as the morphologic evolution of its surface. Because of the strong temperature dependence of the saturated vapor pressure of H2O, the atmospheric emplacement or replenishment of ground ice is prohibited below the depth at which crustal temperatures begin to monotonically increase due to geothermal heating. In contrast, the emplacement and replenishment of ground ice from reservoirs of H2O residing deep within the crust can occur by at least three different thermally-driven processes, involving all three phases of water. In this regard, Clifford has discussed how the presence of a geothermal gradient as small as 15 K/km can give rise to a corresponding vapor pressure gradient sufficient to drive the vertical transport of 1 km of water from a reservoir of ground water at depth to the base of the cryosphere every 10(exp 6) - 10(exp 7) years. This abstract expands on this earlier treatment by considering the influence of thermal gradients on the transport of H2O at temperatures below the freezing point.

  7. Direct costs and benefits of multiple mating: Are high female mating rates due to ejaculate replenishment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Amy M; Kelly, Clint D

    2016-03-01

    Females often mate more than is necessary to ensure reproductive success even when they incur significant costs from doing so. Direct benefits are hypothesized to be the driving force of high female mating rates, yet species in which females only receive an ejaculate from their mate still realize increased fitness from multiple mating. Using the Texas field cricket, Gryllus texensis, we experimentally test the hypothesis that multiple mating via monandry or polyandry increases female fitness by replenishing ejaculates, thereby allowing females to produce more offspring for a longer period of time. We found that higher rates of female mating significantly increased lifetime fecundity and oviposition independent of whether females mated with one or two males. Further, although interactions with males significantly increased rates of injury or death, females that replenished ejaculates experienced an increased rate and duration of oviposition, demonstrating that the immediate benefits of multiple mating may greatly outweigh the long-term costs that mating poses to female condition and survival. We suggest that ejaculate replenishment is a driving factor of high mating rates in females that do not receive external direct benefits from mating and that a comparative study across taxa will provide additional insight into the role that ejaculate size plays in the evolution of female mating rates.

  8. Anti-fouling bioactive surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qian; Zhang, Yanxia; Wang, Hongwei; Brash, John; Chen, Hong

    2011-04-01

    Bioactive surfaces refer to surfaces with immobilized bioactive molecules aimed specifically at promoting or supporting particular interactions. Such surfaces are of great importance for various biomedical and biomaterials applications. In the past few years, considerable effort has been made to create bioactive surfaces by forming specific biomolecule-modified surfaces on a non-biofouling "base" or "background". Hydrophilic and bioinert polymers have been widely used as anti-fouling layers that resist non-specific protein interactions. They can also serve as "spacers" to effectively move the immobilized biomolecule away from the surface, thus enhancing its bioactivity. In this review we summarize several successful approaches for the design and preparation of bioactive surfaces based on different types of anti-fouling/spacer materials. Some perspectives on future research in this area are also presented.

  9. Stochastic joint replenishment problem : a new policy and analysis for single location and two eclehon inventory systems

    OpenAIRE

    Özkaya, Banu Yüksel

    2005-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. In this study we examine replenishment coordination strategies for multiple item or multiple location inventory systems In particular we propose a new parsimonious control policy for the stochastic joint replenishment problem We rst study the single location setting with multiple items under this policy An extensive numerical study indicates that the proposed policy achieves signi cant cost improvements in comparison with the existing ...

  10. Antibacterial polylactic acid/chitosan nanofibers decorated with bioactive glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Yi-fan; Akram, Muhammad; Alshemary, Ammarz [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Hussain, Rafaqat, E-mail: rafaqat@comsats.edu.pk [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • PLA/Chitosan nanofibers were coated with functional bioglass. • Polymer/ceramic composite fibers exhibited good in-vitro bioactivity. • Nanofibers coated with Ag doped bioglass exhibited good antibacterial activity. - Abstract: In this study, we have presented the structural and in vitro characterization of electrospun polylactic acid (PLA)/Chitosan nanofibers coated with cerium, copper or silver doped bioactive glasses (CeBG/CuBG/AgBG). Bead-free, smooth surfaced nanofibers were successfully prepared by using electrospinning technique. The nanocomposite fibers were obtained using a facile dip-coating method, their antibacterial activities against E. coliE. coli (ATCC 25922 strains) were measured by the disk diffusion method after 24 h of incubation at 37 °C. CeBG and CuBG decorated PLA/Chitosan nanofibers did not develop an inhibition zone against the bacteria. On the other hand, nanofibers coated with AgBG developed an inhibition zone against the bacteria. The as-prepared nanocomposite fibers were immersed in SBF for 1, 3 and 7 days in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) for evaluation of in vitro bioactivity. All samples induced the formation of crystallites with roughly ruffled morphology and the pores of fibers were covered with the extensive growth of crystallites. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) composition analysis showed that the crystallites possessed Ca/P ratio close to 1.67, confirming the good in-vitro bioactivity of the fibers.

  11. Microchemostat array with small-volume fraction replenishment for steady-state microbial culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaewon; Wu, Jianzhang; Polymenis, Michael; Han, Arum

    2013-11-07

    A chemostat is a bioreactor in which microorganisms can be cultured at steady-state by controlling the rate of culture medium inflow and waste outflow, thus maintaining media composition over time. Even though many microbial studies could greatly benefit from studying microbes in steady-state conditions, high instrument cost, complexity, and large reagent consumption hamper the routine use of chemostats. Microfluidic-based chemostats (i.e. microchemostats) can operate with significantly smaller reagent consumption while providing accurate chemostatic conditions at orders of magnitude lower cost compared to conventional chemostats. Also, microchemostats have the potential to significantly increase the throughput by integrating arrays of microchemostats. We present a microchemostat array with a unique two-depth culture chamber design that enables small-volume fraction replenishment of culture medium as low as 1% per replenishment cycle in a 250 nl volume. A system having an array of 8 microchemostats on a 40 × 60 mm(2) footprint could be automatically operated in parallel by a single controller unit as a demonstration for potential high throughput microbial studies. The model organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, successfully reached a stable steady-state of different cell densities as a demonstration of the chemostatic functionality by programming the dilution rates. Chemostatic functionality of the system was further confirmed by quantifying the budding index as a function of dilution rate, a strong indicator of growth-dependent cell division. In addition, the small-volume fraction replenishment feature minimized the cell density fluctuation during the culture. The developed system provides a robust, low-cost, and higher throughput solution to furthering studies in microbial physiology.

  12. Modulation of gene expression in precancerous rat esophagus by dietary zinc deficit and replenishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Gong; Zhang, Liang; Jiang, Yubao; Chatterjee, Devjani; Croce, Carlo M; Huebner, Kay; Fong, Louise Y Y

    2005-09-01

    Zinc deficiency in rats enhances esophageal cell proliferation, causes alteration in gene expression, and promotes esophageal carcinogenesis. Zinc replenishment rapidly induces apoptosis in the esophageal epithelium thereby reversing cell proliferation and carcinogenesis. To identify zinc-responsive genes responsible for these divergent effects, we did oligonucleotide array-based gene expression profiling analyses in the precancerous zinc-deficient esophagus and in zinc-replenished esophagi after treatment with intragastric zinc compared with zinc-sufficient esophagi. Thirty-three genes (21 up-regulated and 12 down-regulated) showed a > or = 2-fold change in expression in the hyperplastic zinc-deficient versus zinc-sufficient esophageal epithelia. Expression of genes involved in cell division, survival, adhesion, and tumorigenesis were markedly changed. The zinc-sensitive gene metallothionein-1 (MT-1 was up-regulated 7-fold, the opposite of results for small intestine and liver under zinc-deficient conditions. Keratin 14 (KRT14, a biomarker in esophageal tumorigenesis), carbonic anhydrase II (CAII, a regulator of acid-base homeostasis), and cyclin B were up-regulated >4-fold. Immunohistochemistry showed that metallothionein and keratin 14 proteins were overexpressed in zinc-deficient esophagus, as well as in lingual and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma from carcinogen-treated rats, emphasizing their roles in carcinogenesis. Calponin 1 (CNN1, an actin cross-linking regulator) was down-regulated 0.2-fold. Within hours after oral zinc treatment, the abnormal expression of 29 of 33 genes returned to near zinc-sufficient levels, accompanied by reversal of the precancerous phenotype. Thus, we have identified new molecular markers in precancerous esophagus and showed their restoration by zinc replenishment, providing insights into the interaction between zinc and gene expression in esophageal cancer development and prevention.

  13. A unified convergence theory of a numerical method,and applications to the replenishment policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MI Xiang-jiang(宓湘江); WANG Xing-hua(王兴华)

    2004-01-01

    In determining the replenishment policy for an inventory system, some researchers advocated that the iterative method of Newton could be applied to the derivative of the total cost function in order to get the optimal solution. But this approach requires calculation of the second derivative of the function. Avoiding this complex computation we use another iterative method presented by the second author. One of the goals of this paper is to present a unified convergence theory of this method. Then we give a numerical example to show the application of our theory.

  14. Optimal Replenishment Policy for Weibull-Distributed Deteriorating Items with Trapezoidal Demand Rate and Partial Backlogging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianxia Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An inventory model for Weibull-distributed deteriorating items is considered so as to minimize the total cost per unit time in this paper. The model starts with shortage, allowed partial backlogging, and trapezoidal demand rate. By analyzing the model, an efficient solution procedure is proposed to determine the optimal replenishment and the optimal order quantity and the average total costs are also obtained. Finally, numerical examples are provided to illustrate the theoretical results and a sensitivity analysis of the major parameters with respect to the stability of optimal solution is also carried out.

  15. A unified convergence theory of a numerical method, and applications to the replenishment policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宓湘江; 王兴华

    2004-01-01

    In determining the replenishment policy for an inventory system, some researchers advocated that the iterative method of Newton could be applied to the derivative of the total cost function in order to get the optimal solution. But this approach requires calculation of the second derivative of the function. Avoiding this complex computation we use another iterative method presented by the second author. One of the goals of this paper is to present a unified convergence theory of this method. Then we give a numerical example to show the application of our theory.

  16. An Innovative Heuristic in Multi-Item Replenishment Problem for One Warehouse and N Retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugowati Praharsi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint replenishment problem (JRP is a type of inventory model which aims to minimize the total inventory cost consisting of major ordering cost, minor ordering cost and inventory holding cost. Different from previous papers, this study considers one warehouse, multi items and N retailers. An innovative heuristic approach is developed to solve the problem. In this paper, we consider a multi echelon inventory system and seek to find a balance between the order cost and the inventory holding costs at each installation. The computational results show that the innovative heuristic provides a near exact optimal solution, but is more efficient in terms of the computational time and the iteration number.

  17. Constraints on the Rates of Replenishment, Magma Mixing, and Crystal Recycling at Santorini Volcano, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, V. M.; Davidson, J. P.; Morgan, D. J.; Jerram, D. A.

    2007-12-01

    Santorini is a young, active volcano, which preserves abundant evidence for open-system processes such as magma replenishment and crystal recycling, and thus represents an ideal system in which to study magma chamber dynamics. Santorini is the largest volcanic centre in the Aegean arc, with an eruptive history spanning more than 250,000 years over two eruptive cycles. The cycles are dominated by extended periods of effusive shield-building activity with occasional large-magnitude explosive eruptions, the Minoan eruption of ~3600 years ago being the most recent. Current activity consists of a phase of post-caldera reconstruction, focused recently on the intra-caldera Kameni islands. Microsampling to measure 87Sr/86Sr ratios of plagioclase cores indicates the presence of a complex plumbing system beneath Santorini. Large rhyodacitic deposits typically contain a mafic component, interpreted as the eruption trigger. In some cases, the mafic magma groundmass and phenocrysts are isotopically similar to their rhyodacite host; other deposits show the opposite, implying the coexistence of isotopically distinct magma batches. To add further complexity, plagioclase phenocrysts are in some cases in equilibrium with their groundmass while others show the reverse, implying modification due to crystal recycling or shallow mixing processes prior to eruption. Mafic enclaves in the recent Kameni lavas, again interpreted as the probable eruption trigger, provide some constraints on the rates of these recycling, mixing, and triggering processes. Glomerocrysts and xenocrysts of recycled gabbroic cumulate material are present in a number of Kameni enclaves. Isotopic and chemical disequilibrium between the cumulate crystals and the host indicate that these fragments are derived from pre- existing crystal mush piles pervaded by the replenishing melts as they migrated to shallow levels, creating disequilibrium between the cumulate mineral cores and the replenishing melts. 87Sr/86Sr isotope

  18. A unified convergence theory of a numerical method, and applications to the replenishment policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Xiang-jiang; Wang, Xing-hua

    2004-01-01

    In determining the replenishment policy for an inventory system, some researchers advocated that the iterative method of Newton could be applied to the derivative of the total cost function in order to get the optimal solution. But this approach requires calculation of the second derivative of the function. Avoiding this complex computation we use another iterative method presented by the second author. One of the goals of this paper is to present a unified convergence theory of this method. Then we give a numerical example to show the application of our theory.

  19. Investigating whether it is optimal to make replenishments simultaneously in dual source model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abginehchi, Soheil; Larsen, Christian

    be relaxed. We study a dual source system with non-identical suppliers and model the problem as a semi-Markov decision model, allowing the decision maker the choice whether he will simultaneously issue two orders to both suppliers or he will issue the orders to suppliers at two different times.......In multiple sourcing, when supplier lead times are stochastic it makes sense to split any replenishment order into several smaller orders to pool lead time risks. In literature it is always assumed these orders are issued simultaneously to the suppliers. Here we let this simultaneousness assumption...

  20. Bioactive glasses: Frontiers and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry L. Hench

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glasses were discovered in 1969 and provided for the first time an alternative to nearly inert implant materials. Bioglass formed a rapid, strong and stable bond with host tissues. This article examines the frontiers of research crossed to achieve clinical use of bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics. In the 1980’s it was discovered that bioactive glasses could be used in particulate form to stimulate osteogenesis, which thereby led to the concept of regeneration of tissues. Later, it was discovered that the dissolution ions from the glasses behaved like growth factors, providing signals to the cells. This article summarizes the frontiers of knowledge crossed during four eras of development of bioactive glasses that have led from concept of bioactivity to widespread clinical and commercial use, with emphasis on the first composition, 45S5 Bioglass®. The four eras are: a discovery; b clinical application; c tissue regeneration; and d innovation. Questions still to be answered for the fourth era are included to stimulate innovation in the field and exploration of new frontiers that can be the basis for a general theory of bioactive stimulation of regeneration of tissues and application to numerous clinical needs.

  1. Genetic connectivity among and self-replenishment within island populations of a restricted range subtropical reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Martin H; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Jones, Geoffrey P; van Herwerden, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly being advocated and implemented to protect biodiversity on coral reefs. Networks of appropriately sized and spaced reserves can capture a high proportion of species diversity, with gene flow among reserves presumed to promote long term resilience of populations to spatially variable threats. However, numerically rare small range species distributed among isolated locations appear to be at particular risk of extinction and the likely benefits of MPA networks are uncertain. Here we use mitochondrial and microsatellite data to infer evolutionary and contemporary gene flow among isolated locations as well as levels of self-replenishment within locations of the endemic anemonefish Amphiprion mccullochi, restricted to three MPA offshore reefs in subtropical East Australia. We infer high levels of gene flow and genetic diversity among locations over evolutionary time, but limited contemporary gene flow amongst locations and high levels of self-replenishment (68 to 84%) within locations over contemporary time. While long distance dispersal explained the species' integrity in the past, high levels of self-replenishment suggest locations are predominantly maintained by local replenishment. Should local extinction occur, contemporary rescue effects through large scale connectivity are unlikely. For isolated islands with large numbers of endemic species, and high local replenishment, there is a high premium on local species-specific management actions.

  2. Genetic connectivity among and self-replenishment within island populations of a restricted range subtropical reef fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin H van der Meer

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas (MPAs are increasingly being advocated and implemented to protect biodiversity on coral reefs. Networks of appropriately sized and spaced reserves can capture a high proportion of species diversity, with gene flow among reserves presumed to promote long term resilience of populations to spatially variable threats. However, numerically rare small range species distributed among isolated locations appear to be at particular risk of extinction and the likely benefits of MPA networks are uncertain. Here we use mitochondrial and microsatellite data to infer evolutionary and contemporary gene flow among isolated locations as well as levels of self-replenishment within locations of the endemic anemonefish Amphiprion mccullochi, restricted to three MPA offshore reefs in subtropical East Australia. We infer high levels of gene flow and genetic diversity among locations over evolutionary time, but limited contemporary gene flow amongst locations and high levels of self-replenishment (68 to 84% within locations over contemporary time. While long distance dispersal explained the species' integrity in the past, high levels of self-replenishment suggest locations are predominantly maintained by local replenishment. Should local extinction occur, contemporary rescue effects through large scale connectivity are unlikely. For isolated islands with large numbers of endemic species, and high local replenishment, there is a high premium on local species-specific management actions.

  3. National Defense: Department of Defense’s Waiver of Competitive Prototyping Requirement for the Navy’s Fleet Replenishment Oiler Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-08

    Defense: Department of Defense’s Waiver of Competitive Prototyping Requirement for the Navy’s Fleet Replenishment Oiler Program The Weapon Systems...Department of Defense’s Waiver of Competitive Prototyping Requirement for the Navy’s Fleet Replenishment Oiler Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...15, 2014, we received notice from DOD that it had waived the competitive prototyping requirement for the Fleet Replenishment Oiler (T-AO(X)) program

  4. Ethane's 12C/13C Ratio in Titan: Implications for Methane Replenishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Nixon, C. A.; Romani, P. N.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Sada, P. V.; Lunsford, A. W.; Boyle, R. J.; Hesman, B. E.; McCabe, G. H.

    2009-01-01

    As the .main destination of carbon in the destruction of methane in the atmosphere of Titan, ethane provides information about the carbon isotopic composition of the reservoir from which methane is replenished. If the amount of methane entering the atmosphere is presently equal to the amount converted to ethane, the 12C/13C ratio in ethane should be close to the ratio in the reservoir. We have measured the 12C/13C ratio in ethane both with Cassini CIRS(exp 1) and from the ground and find that it is very close to the telluric standard and outer planet values (89), consistent with a primordial origin for the methane reservoir. The lower 12C/13C ratio measured for methane by Huygens GCMS (82.3) can be explained if the conversion of CH4 to CH3 (and C2H6) favors 12C over 13C with a carbon kinetic isotope effect of 1.08. The time required for the atmospheric methane to reach equilibrium, i.e., for replenishment to equal destruction, is approximately 5 methane atmospheric lifetimes.

  5. Regulation of Dense-Core Granule Replenishment by Autocrine BMP Signalling in Drosophila Secondary Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redhai, Siamak; Hellberg, Josephine E E U; Wainwright, Mark; Perera, Sumeth W; Castellanos, Felix; Kroeger, Benjamin; Gandy, Carina; Leiblich, Aaron; Corrigan, Laura; Hilton, Thomas; Patel, Benjamin; Fan, Shih-Jung; Hamdy, Freddie; Goberdhan, Deborah C I; Wilson, Clive

    2016-10-01

    Regulated secretion by glands and neurons involves release of signalling molecules and enzymes selectively concentrated in dense-core granules (DCGs). Although we understand how many secretagogues stimulate DCG release, how DCG biogenesis is then accelerated to replenish the DCG pool remains poorly characterised. Here we demonstrate that each prostate-like secondary cell (SC) in the paired adult Drosophila melanogaster male accessory glands contains approximately ten large DCGs, which are loaded with the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) ligand Decapentaplegic (Dpp). These DCGs can be marked in living tissue by a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) lipid-anchored form of GFP. In virgin males, BMP signalling is sporadically activated by constitutive DCG secretion. Upon mating, approximately four DCGs are typically released immediately, increasing BMP signalling, primarily via an autocrine mechanism. Using inducible knockdown specifically in adult SCs, we show that secretion requires the Soluble NSF Attachment Protein, SNAP24. Furthermore, mating-dependent BMP signalling not only promotes cell growth, but is also necessary to accelerate biogenesis of new DCGs, restoring DCG number within 24 h. Our analysis therefore reveals an autocrine BMP-mediated feedback mechanism for matching DCG release to replenishment as secretion rates fluctuate, and might explain why in other disease-relevant systems, like pancreatic β-cells, BMP signalling is also implicated in the control of secretion.

  6. Active gas replenishment and sensing of the wetting state in a submerged superhydrophobic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Ben P; Bartlett, Philip N; Wood, Robert J K

    2017-02-15

    Previously superhydrophobic surfaces have demonstrated effective drag reduction by trapping a lubricious gas layer on the surface with micron-sized hydrophobic features. However, prolonged reduction of drag is hindered by the dissolution of the gas into the surrounding water. This paper demonstrates a novel combination of superhydrophobic surface design and electrochemical control methods which allow quick determination of the wetted area and a gas replenishment mechanism to maintain the desirable gas filled state. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is used to measure the capacitance of the surface which is shown to be proportional to the solid/liquid interface area. To maintain a full gas coverage for prolonged periods the surface is held at an electrical potential which leads to hydrogen evolution. In the desired gas filled state the water does not touch the metallic area of the surface, however after gas has dissolved the water touches the metal which closes the electrochemical circuit causing hydrogen to be produced replenishing the gas in the surface and returning to the gas filled state; in this way the system is self-actuating. This type of surface and electrochemical control shows promise for applications where the gas filled state of superhydrophobic surfaces must be maintained when submerged for long periods of time.

  7. Enhanced Promoter Activity by Replenishment of Sigma Factor rpoE in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liuni; Li, Ying; Tian, Pingfang

    2016-06-01

    Plasmid-dependent overexpression of enzyme(s) aims to divert carbon flux toward a desired compound. One drawback of this strategy is compromise of growth due to massive consumption of host resources. Here we show that replenishment of sigma factor rpoE improves the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae. The gene rpoE was expressed alone or coexpressed with Ald4 (an aldehyde dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in K. pneumoniae. We found that the Ald4 activity was higher in the strain coexpressing Ald4 and rpoE (32.3 U/mg) than that expressing Ald4 alone (29.9 U/mg). Additionally, under shake-flask conditions, the strain coexpressing Ald4 and rpoE produced 0.5 g 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) and 9.8 g 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) per liter in 24 h, which were 1.6- and 0.85-fold enhancement, respectively, compared to those expressing Ald4 alone. Notably, under non-optimized bioreactor conditions, the strain coexpressing Ald4 and rpoE produced 13.5 g 3-HP and 37.8 g 1,3-PD per liter with glycerol conversion ratio of 0.45 mol/mol. These results indicate that replenishment of rpoE enhanced promoter activity and stimulated glycerol consumption.

  8. Real-time ultrasound brain perfusion imaging with analysis of microbubble replenishment in acute MCA stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Rolf; Diels, Anna; Pettenpohl, Johanna; Kablau, Micha; Brade, Joachim; Hennerici, Michael G; Meairs, Stephen

    2011-08-01

    Real-time ultrasound perfusion imaging (rt-UPI) allows visualization of microbubbles flowing through the cerebral microvasculature. We hypothesized that analysis of microbubble tissue replenishment would enable for characterization of perfusion deficits in acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory stroke. Twenty-three patients (mean age 70.2 ± 13.2 years, 9 weeks) were included. Sequential images of bubble replenishment were acquired by transcranial rt-UPI at low mechanical index immediately after microbubble destruction. Different parameters were calculated from regions of interest (ROIs): real-time time to peak (rt-TTP), rise rate (β), and plateau (A) of acoustic intensity, and A × β was used as an index of blood flow. Results were compared with diffusion-weighted and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging. Parameters of rt-UPI had lower values in ROIs of ischemic as compared with normal tissue (β=0.58 ± 0.40 versus 1.25 ± 0.83; P=0.001; A=1.44 ± 1.75 versus 2.63 ± 2.31; P=0.05; A × β=1.14 ± 2.25 versus 2.98 ± 2.70; P=0.01). Real-time time to peak was delayed in ischemic tissue (11.43 ± 2.67 versus 8.88 ± 1.66 seconds; Preplenishment correctly identifies ischemic brain tissue in acute MCA stroke.

  9. Modeling and optimization of the multiobjective stochastic joint replenishment and delivery problem under supply chain environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Qu, Hui; Liu, Shan; Dun, Cai-xia

    2013-01-01

    As a practical inventory and transportation problem, it is important to synthesize several objectives for the joint replenishment and delivery (JRD) decision. In this paper, a new multiobjective stochastic JRD (MSJRD) of the one-warehouse and n-retailer systems considering the balance of service level and total cost simultaneously is proposed. The goal of this problem is to decide the reasonable replenishment interval, safety stock factor, and traveling routing. Secondly, two approaches are designed to handle this complex multi-objective optimization problem. Linear programming (LP) approach converts the multi-objective to single objective, while a multi-objective evolution algorithm (MOEA) solves a multi-objective problem directly. Thirdly, three intelligent optimization algorithms, differential evolution algorithm (DE), hybrid DE (HDE), and genetic algorithm (GA), are utilized in LP-based and MOEA-based approaches. Results of the MSJRD with LP-based and MOEA-based approaches are compared by a contrastive numerical example. To analyses the nondominated solution of MOEA, a metric is also used to measure the distribution of the last generation solution. Results show that HDE outperforms DE and GA whenever LP or MOEA is adopted.

  10. Modeling and Optimization of the Multiobjective Stochastic Joint Replenishment and Delivery Problem under Supply Chain Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As a practical inventory and transportation problem, it is important to synthesize several objectives for the joint replenishment and delivery (JRD decision. In this paper, a new multiobjective stochastic JRD (MSJRD of the one-warehouse and n-retailer systems considering the balance of service level and total cost simultaneously is proposed. The goal of this problem is to decide the reasonable replenishment interval, safety stock factor, and traveling routing. Secondly, two approaches are designed to handle this complex multi-objective optimization problem. Linear programming (LP approach converts the multi-objective to single objective, while a multi-objective evolution algorithm (MOEA solves a multi-objective problem directly. Thirdly, three intelligent optimization algorithms, differential evolution algorithm (DE, hybrid DE (HDE, and genetic algorithm (GA, are utilized in LP-based and MOEA-based approaches. Results of the MSJRD with LP-based and MOEA-based approaches are compared by a contrastive numerical example. To analyses the nondominated solution of MOEA, a metric is also used to measure the distribution of the last generation solution. Results show that HDE outperforms DE and GA whenever LP or MOEA is adopted.

  11. [Study on quality evaluation of Panax ginseng based on effects for replenishing qi and preventing exhaustion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liyan; Tian, Yixin; Li, Haitao; Wang, Li; Lv, Xiaojun

    2012-07-01

    Based on the effect for replenishing Qi and preventing exhaustion, this essay provides a method to rebuild the quality evaluation system of Panax ginseng. As an independent medical system, the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) science lacks enough credible evidences to support its theory and thereby wants more relevant studies. Current, it is a misunderstanding for experimental studies on TCM to prove TCM drugs from the angle of western medicine. Therefore, following study modes are recommended to researchers focusing on either the theory of the unique importance of class origin or the theory of the unique importance of techniques. Under the guidance of TCM theories, a new TCM assessment mode, consisting of clinical efficacy, pharmacological effect and effective components, is established in line with clinical application of TCMs. Studies on Chemical fingerprint or active ingredient are made on effective components. In-depth studies are worth to the viewpoint to rebuild the TCM quality reassessment system. On the basis of analysis on ancient herbal literatures and experience in clinical application of TCMs, the author proves the irreplaceable effect of P. ginseng. (pure ginseng decoction) is to replenish Qi and prevent exhaustion. Based on the major effect, a pharmacological model is established in combination with modern clinical efficacy to screen effective components of ginseng herbs and make a quality assessment on safety and efficiency of clinical application of P. ginseng, in order to provide theoretical and experimental basis for cultivation, development and utilization of P. ginseng resources on Changbai mountain.

  12. Optimizing Multi-Product Multi-Constraint Inventory Control Systems with Stochastic Replenishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allah Taleizadeh, Ata; Aryanezhad, Mir-Bahador; Niaki, Seyed Taghi Akhavan

    Multi-periodic inventory control problems are mainly studied employing two assumptions. The first is the continuous review, where depending on the inventory level orders can happen at any time and the other is the periodic review, where orders can only happen at the beginning of each period. In this study, we relax these assumptions and assume that the periodic replenishments are stochastic in nature. Furthermore, we assume that the periods between two replenishments are independent and identically random variables. For the problem at hand, the decision variables are of integer-type and there are two kinds of space and service level constraints for each product. We develop a model of the problem in which a combination of back-order and lost-sales are considered for the shortages. Then, we show that the model is of an integer-nonlinear-programming type and in order to solve it, a search algorithm can be utilized. We employ a simulated annealing approach and provide a numerical example to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed methodology.

  13. The future of bioactive ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hench, Larry L

    2015-02-01

    Two important worldwide needs must be satisfied in the future; (1) treatment of the deteriorating health of an aging population and, (2) decreasing healthcare costs to meet the needs of an increased population. The ethical and economic dilemma is how to achieve equality in quality of care while at the same time decreasing cost of care for an ever-expanding number of people. The limited lifetime of prosthetic devices made from first-generation nearly inert biomaterials requires new approaches to meet these two large needs. This paper advises an expanded emphasis on: (1) regeneration of tissues and (2) prevention of tissue deterioration to meet this growing need. Innovative use of bioactive ceramics with genetic control of in situ tissue responses offers the potential to achieve both tissue regeneration and prevention. Clinical success of use of bioactive glass for bone regeneration is evidence that this concept works. Likewise the use of micron sized bioactive glass powders in a dentifrice for re-mineralization of teeth provides evidence that prevention of tissue deterioration is also possible. This opinion paper outlines clinical needs that could be met by innovative use of bioactive glasses and ceramics in the near future; including: regeneration of skeletal tissues that is patient specific and genetic based, load-bearing bioactive glass-ceramics for skeletal and ligament and tendon repair, repair and regeneration of soft tissues, and rapid low-cost analysis of human cell-biomaterial interactions leading to patient specific diagnoses and treatments using molecularly tailored bioceramics.

  14. Synthesis and in vitro bioactivity of mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, C.J., E-mail: cjshih@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chen, H.T. [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Huang, L.F. [School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Lu, P.S.; Chang, H.F. [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chang, I.L., E-mail: 84004@cch.org.tw [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chang-Hua Christian Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China)

    2010-06-15

    The main objective of the present study was to determine the effect of thermal treatment procedures (calcination temperature, heating rate and duration time) on the synthesis of SiO{sub 2}-CaO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds. This is accomplished by thermogravimetric analyses, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by analysis of nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. In vitro bioactivity can also be assessed by the cytotoxic effect of the glasses on the NIH-3T3 cell line, and by characterization of MC-3T3-E1 cell attachment.

  15. Munc18-1 phosphorylation by protein kinase C potentiates vesicle pool replenishment in bovine chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nili, U; de Wit, H; Gulyas-Kovacs, A; Toonen, R F; Sørensen, J B; Verhage, M; Ashery, U

    2006-12-01

    Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) after robust stimulation is necessary for vesicle pool replenishment in secretory cells. Here we studied the contribution of a prominent downstream PKC target, Munc18-1, to this process in bovine chromaffin cells. In these cells, both activation of endogenous PKC and overexpressing of Munc18-1 promote vesicle pool replenishment after an extensive stimulation. In order to study the physiological relevance of PKC-dependent Munc18-1 phosphorylation, we generated two Munc18-1 phospho-mutants; one that mimics a constitutively PKC-phosphorylated Munc18-1 (i.e. a phosphomimetic mutant; Munc18-1(S313D)) and a second that cannot be PKC-phosphorylated (Munc18-1(3A)). Overexpression of Munc18-1(3A) caused a significant decrease in vesicle pool replenishment following a depleting stimulation, while Munc18-1(S313D) caused a significant increase in vesicle pool replenishment. These findings suggested that the phosphorylation of Munc18-1 by PKC potentiates vesicle pool replenishment. This hypothesis was further strengthened by the finding that overexpression of wild type Munc18-1 in the presence of a PKC inhibitor caused a significant reduction in vesicle pool replenishment, similar to that observed with Munc18-1(3A). Moreover, overexpression of Munc18-1(S313D) in the presence of the PKC inhibitor partly alleviated this attenuation, elucidating Munc18-1's unique contribution to vesicle pool replenishment. Finally, we demonstrate that Munc18-1 promotes vesicle docking in a phosphorylation-independent manner. This is deduced from the findings that both the wild type and the two Munc18-1 phospho-mutants enhanced docking to the same extent in bovine chromaffin cells. We conclude that Munc18-1 facilitates docking in a PKC phosphorylation-independent manner, and that its phosphorylation by PKC potentiates vesicle pool replenishment following a depleting stimulation, at a post-docking stage.

  16. A Clinical Study on Treatment of Senile Psoriasis by Replenishing Qi to Activate Blood--A Report of 40 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪普; 谭奇纹; 刘华昌

    2004-01-01

    40 cases of senile psoriasis were treated by the therapeutic principle of replenishing qi to activate blood,and the changes of T lymphocyte subgroups and indexes of haemorheology were observed. The results showed that CD4 was significantly increased, CDs significantly decreased, and the CD4/CD8 ratio significantly raised; and that the specific viscosity of whole blood at high shearing rate, and at low shearing rate, the specific viscosity of plasma, packed cell volume, and fibrinogen all significantly decreased after treatment. It is therefore concluded that the therapeutic method of replenishing qi to activate blood can exert an effect of improving immunologic function and blood circulation.

  17. Antibacterial polylactic acid/chitosan nanofibers decorated with bioactive glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yi-fan; Akram, Muhammad; Alshemary, Ammarz; Hussain, Rafaqat

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we have presented the structural and in vitro characterization of electrospun polylactic acid (PLA)/Chitosan nanofibers coated with cerium, copper or silver doped bioactive glasses (CeBG/CuBG/AgBG). Bead-free, smooth surfaced nanofibers were successfully prepared by using electrospinning technique. The nanocomposite fibers were obtained using a facile dip-coating method, their antibacterial activities against E. coliE. coli (ATCC 25922 strains) were measured by the disk diffusion method after 24 h of incubation at 37 °C. CeBG and CuBG decorated PLA/Chitosan nanofibers did not develop an inhibition zone against the bacteria. On the other hand, nanofibers coated with AgBG developed an inhibition zone against the bacteria. The as-prepared nanocomposite fibers were immersed in SBF for 1, 3 and 7 days in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) for evaluation of in vitro bioactivity. All samples induced the formation of crystallites with roughly ruffled morphology and the pores of fibers were covered with the extensive growth of crystallites. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) composition analysis showed that the crystallites possessed Ca/P ratio close to 1.67, confirming the good in-vitro bioactivity of the fibers.

  18. A System for Managing Replenishment of a Nutrient Solution Using an Electrical Conductivity Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, D.; Dogan, N.; Aglan, H.; Mortley, D.; Loretan, P.

    1998-01-01

    Control of nutrient solution parameters is very important for the growth and development of plants grown hydroponically. Protocols involving different nutrient solution replenishment times (e.g. one-week, two-week, or two-day replenishment) provide manual periodic control of the nutrient solution's electrical conductivity (EC). Since plants take-up nutrients as they grow, manual control has a drawback in that EC is not held constant between replenishments. In an effort to correct this problem the Center for Food and Environmental Systems for Human Exploration of Space at Tuskegee University has developed a system for managing and controlling levels of EC over a plant's entire growing cycle. A prototype system is being tested on sweetpotato production using the nutrient film technique (NFT), and it is being compared to a system in which sweetpotatoes are grown using NFT with manual control. NASA has played an important role in the development of environmental control systems. They have become a forerunner in growing plants hydroponically with some control systems through the use of networked data acquisition and control using environmental growth chambers. Data acquisition systems which involve the use of real-time, calibration, set points, user panel, and graphical representation programming provide a good method of controlling nutrient solution parameters such as EC and pH [Bledsoe, 19931]. In NASA's Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) at Kennedy Space Center, control is provided by a programmable logic controller (PLC). This is an industrial controller which combines ladder computer logic which has the ability to handle various levels of electrical power. The controller controls temperature, light and other parameters that affect the plant's environment, in the BPC, the Nutrient Delivery System (NIX), a sub-system of the PLC, controls nutrient solution parameters such as EC, pH, and solution levels. When the nutrient EC measurement goes outside a preset range (120

  19. Bioactivity of Minor Milk Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh

    . In particular, 3-15% of very low birth weight preterm infants suffer from the most servere form of intestinal inflammation, known as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). This disease is incurable with a high mortality rate of 15-30%. Mother’s breast milk consists of different bioactive constituents...... several steps of thermal processing, which are known to decrease/abolish bioactivity of milk constituents. This may explain for high NEC incidence in formula-fed preterm infants. We therefore in this PhD project investigated whether gentle thermal processing conditions increase the bioavailability...... of infant formula. Thereafter, bioactive milk components which were preserved in gently-processed infant formula were selected for further investigation of their immunomodulatory activity in cell and preterm pig models. We hope this project will contribute to the research on the development of new...

  20. Bioactivity of Minor Milk Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh

    . In particular, 3-15% of very low birth weight preterm infants suffer from the most servere form of intestinal inflammation, known as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). This disease is incurable with a high mortality rate of 15-30%. Mother’s breast milk consists of different bioactive constituents...... several steps of thermal processing, which are known to decrease/abolish bioactivity of milk constituents. This may explain for high NEC incidence in formula-fed preterm infants. We therefore in this PhD project investigated whether gentle thermal processing conditions increase the bioavailability...... of infant formula. Thereafter, bioactive milk components which were preserved in gently-processed infant formula were selected for further investigation of their immunomodulatory activity in cell and preterm pig models. We hope this project will contribute to the research on the development of new...

  1. Preparation and bioactivity of sol-gel macroporous bioactive glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihua Zhou; Jianming Ruan; Jianpeng Zou; Zhongcheng Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Bioactive glass is well known for its ability of bone regeneration, and sol-gel bioactive glass has many advantages com-pared with melt-derived bioactive glass. 3-D scaffold prepared by the sol-gel method is a promising substrate material for bone tissue engineering and large-scale bone repair. Porous sol-gel glass in the CaO-SiO2-P2O5 system with macropores larger than 100 μm was prepared by the addition of stearic acid as a pore former. The diameter of the pore created by the pore former varied from 100 to 300μm. The formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the glass was analyzed by studying the surface of the porous glass by scanning elec-tron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectra after they had been immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for some time, and the porous glass shows good bioactivity.

  2. Myeloid Growth Factors Promote Resistance to Mycobacterial Infection by Curtailing Granuloma Necrosis through Macrophage Replenishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, Antonio J; Yang, Chao-Tsung; Cameron, James; Swaim, Laura E; Ellett, Felix; Lieschke, Graham J; Ramakrishnan, Lalita

    2015-07-08

    The mycobacterial ESX-1 virulence locus accelerates macrophage recruitment to the forming tuberculous granuloma. Newly recruited macrophages phagocytose previously infected apoptotic macrophages to become new bacterial growth niches. Granuloma macrophages can then necrose, releasing mycobacteria into the extracellular milieu, which potentiates their growth even further. Using zebrafish with genetic or pharmacologically induced macrophage deficiencies, we find that global macrophage deficits increase susceptibility to mycobacterial infection by accelerating granuloma necrosis. This is because reduction in the macrophage supply below a critical threshold decreases granuloma macrophage replenishment to the point where apoptotic infected macrophages, failing to get engulfed, necrose. Reducing macrophage demand by removing bacterial ESX-1 offsets the susceptibility of macrophage deficits. Conversely, increasing macrophage supply in wild-type fish by overexpressing myeloid growth factors induces resistance by curtailing necrosis. These findings may explain the susceptibility of humans with mononuclear cytopenias to mycobacterial infections and highlight the therapeutic potential of myeloid growth factors in tuberculosis.

  3. DDeveloping and solving a bi-objective joint replenishment problem under storing space constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ommolbanin yousefi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, a bi-objective joint replenishment problem has been developed and solved with the assumption of one restricted resource. The proposed model has a storing space constraint and tries to optimize two objective functions simultaneously. They include minimizing annual holding and setup costs and minimizing annual inventory investment. Then, for solving this problem, a multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA has been developed. In order to analyze the algorithm efficiency, its performance has been examined in solving 1600 randomly produced problems using parameters extracted from literature. The findings imply that the proposed algorithm is capable of producing a good set of Pareto optimal solutions. Finally, the application of the problem solving approach and the findings of the proposed algorithm have been illustrated for a special problem, which has been randomly produced.

  4. Using the Min/Max Method for Replenishment of Picking Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apsalons Raitis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The irregularity of removing quantities from a definite picking location in a warehouse very often results in the stock out in the particular picking address. In practice, the Red Card principle is used to determine a critical level for each picking location when it is necessary to start the replenishment of stock in the picking address. The question is how to calculate an adequate critical level. The guidelines in this paper explain in detail the solution of the problem using the Min/Max stock control method and mathematical algorithms adjusted by authors. In order to check the validity of these mathematical algorithms of the Min/Max method, the simulation modelling has been also done and presented.

  5. Improved flow measurement using microbubble contrast agents and disruption-replenishment: clinical application to tumour monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, John M; Williams, Ross; Lloyd, Brendan; Atri, Mostafa; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Bjarnason, Georg; Burns, Peter N

    2011-08-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) and the method of disruption replenishment has been used for the past 10 years to measure flow noninvasively in the microcirculation. However, the method's perceived poor reproducibility remains a major impediment to widespread clinical acceptance. Poor reproducibility can be attributed, in part, to the curve fitting model that is used to quantify microbubble enhancement. Flow measurement in tumours is further complicated by the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of tumour blood flow. In this work, we evaluate three models of microbubble disruption and replenishment (mono-exponential, a simplified multivessel model by Krix and the lognormal perfusion model) using clinical data (11 patients, 41 sessions) from an antiangiogenic drug trial for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and evaluate their contribution to the measurement's variability. Compared with the mono-exponential model, the lognormal perfusion model decreased the variability of intra-session velocity and blood volume measurements by 33% and 34%, respectively. Blood volume assessment using the lognormal perfusion model was comparable to Krix's mutlivessel model. Flow velocity measurement was 18% less variable for the lognormal perfusion model compared with the multivessel model. To further decrease flow measurement variability, we examine a method that exploits microbubble flow dynamics to discard the contribution of flow in large arteries and isolate the portion of the tumour microvasculature that is most sensitive to vessel targeting therapies. The method is validated with an in vitro phantom study prior to its application to the RCC clinical data set. Combined with the lognormal perfusion model, this method decreased the inter-plane variability of clinical measurements of relative tumour blood volume, in some cases by up to 20%.

  6. Usefulness of intravenously administered fluid replenishment for detection of patent foramen ovale by transesophageal echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Luis; Kottam, Anupama; Niraj, Ashutosh; Ganguly, Joya; Hari, Pawan; Simegn, Mengistu; Sudhakar, Rajeev; Jacob, Sony; Chaturvedi, Seemant; Ensing, Greg J; Abraham, Theodore P

    2010-10-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is associated with cryptogenic stroke, migraine headache, decompression sickness, and platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome. Patients undergoing transesophageal echocardiography are often hypovolemic from preprocedural fasting and might not demonstrate right to left shunting owing to insufficient right atrial pressure generation, despite provocative maneuvers. We hypothesized that volume replenishment with saline loading could potentially unmask a PFO by favorably modulating the interatrial pressure gradient. Our study sought to examine the role of pre- or intraprocedural intravenous fluid replenishment on PFO detection during transesophageal echocardiography. A total of 103 patients were enrolled. An initial series of bubble injections was performed unprovoked and then with provocative maneuvers such as the Valsalva maneuver and coughing. The patients were then given a rapid 500 ml saline bolus, and the same sequence of bubble injections was repeated. The presence, type, and magnitude of the right to left shunts were noted before and after the saline bolus. The detection rate of PFO increased from 10.6% to 26.2% after saline loading without any provocative maneuvers. When combined with provocative maneuvers (Valsalva or cough), saline loading improved the detection rate from 17.4% to 32.0%. Overall, from amongst the 103 enrolled patients, saline bolusing resulted in a de novo diagnosis of PFO in 15 patients, atrial septal aneurysm in 15, PFO coexisting with an atrial septal aneurysm in 10, and pulmonary arteriovenous fistula in 5 patients. In conclusion, saline infusion in appropriately selected patients during transesophageal echocardiography significantly enhances the detection of PFOs and pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas.

  7. Long-term effect of beach replenishment on natural recovery of shallow Posidonia oceanica meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Correa, José M.; Torquemada, Yolanda Fernández; Sánchez Lizaso, José Luis

    2008-03-01

    The recovery capacity of shallow Posidonia oceanica meadows degraded by beach replenishment eighteen years before was assessed in two impacted meadows and compared with other two undisturbed localities. Inside each locality, we selected randomly three sites separated by 500-1000 m. At site level we study the vitality of P. oceanica meadow assessing the vegetative growth, leaf characteristics, and non-structural carbohydrates of the plants. Additionally, at locality level, silt-clay fraction, organic matter, pH and light intensity incident on the sea bottom were measured to evaluate the environmental conditions. Covering of P. oceanica was significantly lower at the impacted localities while amount of dead "matte" was higher. Leaf production of horizontal rhizomes (14.6 ± 1.11 vs 19.47 ± 1.45 leaves y -1), net total rhizomes recruitment (2.33 ± 0.17 vs 4.3 ± 0.33 branches y -1) and starch concentration (43.625 ± 0.67 vs 54.45 ± 0.74 mg per g of rhizome) at impacted meadows were significantly lower than controls. Leaf features, epiphytes biomass, colonization, elongation and horizontal and vertical rhizome production did not show significant differences. Sediments at impacted localities contained higher silt-clay fraction and higher organic matter load while pH was lower. Light intensity on the sea bottom measured at all localities was over the minimum light requirements estimated for P. oceanica. Our results show that the press impact produced by beach replenishment was enduring in the time slowing natural recovery by 45%. This impact may be related with changes in the sediment features.

  8. Bioactive glasses potential biomaterials for future therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Gurbinder

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the history, origin and basic characteristics of bioactive materials. It includes a chapter dedicated to hydroxyapatite mineral, its formation and its bioactive properties. The authors address how cytotoxicity is a determining step for bioactivity. Applications of bioactive materials in the contexts of tissue regeneration, bone regeneration and cancer therapy are also covered. Silicate, metallic and mesoporous glasses are described, as well as the challenges and future prospects of research in this field.

  9. Immunological Regulation by Bioactive Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Murakami, Makoto

    2017-01-01

     Mast cells originate from hematopoietic stem cells and undergo terminal maturation in the extravascular tissues, in which they are ultimately resident. Mast maturation, phenotype, and function are dictated by the local microenvironment, which has a significant influence on the ability of mast cells to recognize and respond to stimuli. Activation of mast cells can lead to the release of three distinct classes of mediators, including preformed mediators stored in secretory granules, newly transcribed cytokines and chemokines, and de novo-synthesized bioactive lipid mediators. It is currently recognized that bioactive lipids such as arachidonic acid metabolites (prostaglandins and leukotrienes) released from mast cells modulate innate and adaptive immune responses both directly and indirectly through communication with other microenvironmental immune cells or stroma cells. Moreover, mast cells express a variety of lipid receptors and, if activated by bioactive lipids such as arachidonic acid, ω3 fatty acids, lysophospholipids, and their metabolites, can alter the release and production of other mediators including histamine, cytokines, and chemokines, and thereby alter homeostatic or pathophysiological responses. This review focuses on newly identified functional aspects of bioactive lipids with regard to their immune regulation and functional outcomes in both homeostasis and allergic disease.

  10. Dynamic replenishment, production, and pricing decisions in the face of supply disruption and random price-sensitive demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Stuart X.

    2013-01-01

    We study a joint decision problem for replenishment, production, pricing strategies in the face of both supply and demand uncertainties. The supply of the raw material suffers from a potential supply disruption while the demand for the finished goods is price-sensitive and random. We assume that the

  11. An Inventory-Routing Problem with Pickups and Deliveries Arising in the Replenishment of Automated Teller Machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Anholt, Roel G.; Coelho, Leandro C.; Laporte, Gilbert; Vis, Iris F. A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce, model, and solve a rich multiperiod inventory-routing problem with pickups and deliveries motivated by the replenishment of automated teller machines in the Netherlands. Commodities can be brought to and from the depot, as well as being exchanged among cust

  12. Micron-scale copper wires printed using femtosecond laser-induced forward transfer with automated donor replenishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant-Jacob, J.A.; Mills, B.; Feinaeugle, M.; Sones, C.L.; Oosterhuis, G.; Hoppenbrouwers, M.B.; Eason, R.W.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) in combination with a novel donor replenishment scheme to print continuous copper wires. Wires of mm length, a few microns wide and submicron in height have been printed using a 800 nm, 1 kHz repetition rate, 150 fs pulsed laser. A 120

  13. Micron-scale copper wires printed using femtosecond laser-induced forward transfer with automated donor replenishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant-Jacob, J.A.; Mills, B.; Feinaeugle, M.; Sones, C.L.; Oosterhuis, G.; Hoppenbrouwers, M.B.; Eason, R.W.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) in combination with a novel donor replenishment scheme to print continuous copper wires. Wires of mm length, a few microns wide and submicron in height have been printed using a 800 nm, 1 kHz repetition rate, 150 fs pulsed laser. A 120

  14. Assessment of the performance of numerical modeling in reproducing a replenishment of sediments in a water-worked channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juez, C.; Battisacco, E.; Schleiss, A. J.; Franca, M. J.

    2016-06-01

    The artificial replenishment of sediment is used as a method to re-establish sediment continuity downstream of a dam. However, the impact of this technique on the hydraulics conditions, and resulting bed morphology, is yet to be understood. Several numerical tools have been developed during last years for modeling sediment transport and morphology evolution which can be used for this application. These models range from 1D to 3D approaches: the first being over simplistic for the simulation of such a complex geometry; the latter requires often a prohibitive computational effort. However, 2D models are computationally efficient and in these cases may already provide sufficiently accurate predictions of the morphology evolution caused by the sediment replenishment in a river. Here, the 2D shallow water equations in combination with the Exner equation are solved by means of a weak-coupled strategy. The classical friction approach considered for reproducing the bed channel roughness has been modified to take into account the morphological effect of replenishment which provokes a channel bed fining. Computational outcomes are compared with four sets of experimental data obtained from several replenishment configurations studied in the laboratory. The experiments differ in terms of placement volume and configuration. A set of analysis parameters is proposed for the experimental-numerical comparison, with particular attention to the spreading, covered surface and travel distance of placed replenishment grains. The numerical tool is reliable in reproducing the overall tendency shown by the experimental data. The effect of fining roughness is better reproduced with the approach herein proposed. However, it is also highlighted that the sediment clusters found in the experiment are not well numerically reproduced in the regions of the channel with a limited number of sediment grains.

  15. Annual replenishment of bed material by sediment transport in the Wind River near Riverton, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, M.L.; Emmett, W.W.; Wacker, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Transportation, conducted a study during 1985-87 to determine the annual replenishment of sand and gravel along a point bar in the Wind River near Riverton, Wyoming. Hydraulic- geometry relations determined from streamflow measurements; streamflow characteristics determined from 45 years of record at the study site; and analyses of suspended-sediment, bedload, and bed- material samples were used to describe river transport characteristics and to estimate the annual replenishment of sand and gravel. The Wind River is a perennial, snowmelt-fed stream. Average daily discharge at the study site is about 734 cubic feet per second, and bankfull discharge (recurrence interval about 1.5 years) is about 5,000 cubic feet per second. At bankfull discharge, the river is about 136 feet wide and has an average depth of about 5.5 feet and average velocity of about 6.7 feet per second. Streams slope is about 0.0010 foot per foot. Bed material sampled on the point bar before the 1986 high flows ranged from sand to cobbles, with a median diameter of about 22 millimeters. Data for sediment samples collected during water year 1986 were used to develop regression equations between suspended-sediment load and water discharge and between bedload and water discharge. Average annual suspended-sediment load was computed to be about 561,000 tons per year using the regression equation in combination with flow-duration data. The regression equation for estimating bedload was not used; instead, average annual bedload was computed as 1.5 percent of average annual suspended load about 8,410 tons per year. This amount of bedload material is estimated to be in temporary storage along a reach containing seven riffles--a length of approximately 1 river mile. On the basis of bedload material sampled during the 1986 high flows, about 75 percent (by weight) is sand (2 millimeters in diameter or finer); median particle size is

  16. Quantitative analysis of synaptic vesicle pool replenishment in cultured cerebellar granule neurons using FM dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Giselle; Cousin, Michael A

    2011-11-11

    After neurotransmitter release in central nerve terminals, SVs are rapidly retrieved by endocytosis. Retrieved SVs are then refilled with neurotransmitter and rejoin the recycling pool, defined as SVs that are available for exocytosis(1,2). The recycling pool can generally be subdivided into two distinct pools - the readily releasable pool (RRP) and the reserve pool (RP). As their names imply, the RRP consists of SVs that are immediately available for fusion while RP SVs are released only during intense stimulation(1,2). It is important to have a reliable assay that reports the differential replenishment of these SV pools in order to understand 1) how SVs traffic after different modes of endocytosis (such as clathrin-dependent endocytosis and activity-dependent bulk endocytosis) and 2) the mechanisms controlling the mobilisation of both the RRP and RP in response to different stimuli. FM dyes are routinely employed to quantitatively report SV turnover in central nerve terminals(3-8). They have a hydrophobic hydrocarbon tail that allows reversible partitioning in the lipid bilayer, and a hydrophilic head group that blocks passage across membranes. The dyes have little fluorescence in aqueous solution, but their quantum yield increases dramatically when partitioned in membrane(9). Thus FM dyes are ideal fluorescent probes for tracking actively recycling SVs. The standard protocol for use of FM dye is as follows. First they are applied to neurons and are taken up during endocytosis (Figure 1). After non-internalised dye is washed away from the plasma membrane, recycled SVs redistribute within the recycling pool. These SVs are then depleted using unloading stimuli (Figure 1). Since FM dye labelling of SVs is quantal(10), the resulting fluorescence drop is proportional to the amount of vesicles released. Thus, the recycling and fusion of SVs generated from the previous round of endocytosis can be reliably quantified. Here, we present a protocol that has been modified to

  17. Primary Neuronal Precursors in Adult Crayfish Brain: Replenishment from a Non-neuronal Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeman David C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult neurogenesis, the production and integration of new neurons into circuits in the brains of adult animals, is a common feature of a variety of organisms, ranging from insects and crustaceans to birds and mammals. In the mammalian brain the 1st-generation neuronal precursors, the astrocytic stem cells, reside in neurogenic niches and are reported to undergo self-renewing divisions, thereby providing a source of new neurons throughout an animal's life. In contrast, our work shows that the 1st-generation neuronal precursors in the crayfish (Procambarus clarkii brain, which also have glial properties and lie in a neurogenic niche resembling that of vertebrates, undergo geometrically symmetrical divisions and both daughters appear to migrate away from the niche. However, in spite of this continuous efflux of cells, the number of neuronal precursors in the crayfish niche continues to expand as the animals grow and age. Based on these observations we have hypothesized that (1 the neuronal stem cells in the crayfish brain are not self-renewing, and (2 a source external to the neurogenic niche must provide cells that replenish the stem cell pool. Results In the present study, we tested the first hypothesis using sequential double nucleoside labeling to track the fate of 1st- and 2nd-generation neuronal precursors, as well as testing the size of the labeled stem cell pool following increasing incubation times in 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU. Our results indicate that the 1st-generation precursor cells in the crayfish brain, which are functionally analogous to neural stem cells in vertebrates, are not a self-renewing population. In addition, these studies establish the cycle time of these cells. In vitro studies examining the second hypothesis show that Cell Tracker™ Green-labeled cells extracted from the hemolymph, but not other tissues, are attracted to and incorporated into the neurogenic niche, a phenomenon that appears to

  18. A simulation based approach to optimize inventory replenishment with RAND algorithm: An extended study of corrected demand using Holt's method for textile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Mohammad Sarwar; Kamal, Mostafa Mashnoon; Khan, Somaiya Islam

    2016-07-01

    Inventory has been a major concern in supply chain and numerous researches have been done lately on inventory control which brought forth a number of methods that efficiently manage inventory and related overheads by reducing cost of replenishment. This research is aimed towards providing a better replenishment policy in case of multi-product, single supplier situations for chemical raw materials of textile industries in Bangladesh. It is assumed that industries currently pursue individual replenishment system. The purpose is to find out the optimum ideal cycle time and individual replenishment cycle time of each product for replenishment that will cause lowest annual holding and ordering cost, and also find the optimum ordering quantity. In this paper indirect grouping strategy has been used. It is suggested that indirect grouping Strategy outperforms direct grouping strategy when major cost is high. An algorithm by Kaspi and Rosenblatt (1991) called RAND is exercised for its simplicity and ease of application. RAND provides an ideal cycle time (T) for replenishment and integer multiplier (ki) for individual items. Thus the replenishment cycle time for each product is found as T×ki. Firstly, based on data, a comparison between currently prevailing (individual) process and RAND is provided that uses the actual demands which presents 49% improvement in total cost of replenishment. Secondly, discrepancies in demand is corrected by using Holt's method. However, demands can only be forecasted one or two months into the future because of the demand pattern of the industry under consideration. Evidently, application of RAND with corrected demand display even greater improvement. The results of this study demonstrates that cost of replenishment can be significantly reduced by applying RAND algorithm and exponential smoothing models.

  19. NAD(+) Replenishment Improves Lifespan and Healthspan in Ataxia Telangiectasia Models via Mitophagy and DNA Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Evandro Fei; Kassahun, Henok; Croteau, Deborah L; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Marosi, Krisztina; Lu, Huiming; Shamanna, Raghavendra A; Kalyanasundaram, Sumana; Bollineni, Ravi Chand; Wilson, Mark A; Iser, Wendy B; Wollman, Bradley N; Morevati, Marya; Li, Jun; Kerr, Jesse S; Lu, Qiping; Waltz, Tyler B; Tian, Jane; Sinclair, David A; Mattson, Mark P; Nilsen, Hilde; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2016-10-11

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by progressive neurodegeneration and cerebellar ataxia. A-T is causally linked to defects in ATM, a master regulator of the response to and repair of DNA double-strand breaks. The molecular basis of cerebellar atrophy and neurodegeneration in A-T patients is unclear. Here we report and examine the significance of increased PARylation, low NAD(+), and mitochondrial dysfunction in ATM-deficient neurons, mice, and worms. Treatments that replenish intracellular NAD(+) reduce the severity of A-T neuropathology, normalize neuromuscular function, delay memory loss, and extend lifespan in both animal models. Mechanistically, treatments that increase intracellular NAD(+) also stimulate neuronal DNA repair and improve mitochondrial quality via mitophagy. This work links two major theories on aging, DNA damage accumulation, and mitochondrial dysfunction through nuclear DNA damage-induced nuclear-mitochondrial signaling, and demonstrates that they are important pathophysiological determinants in premature aging of A-T, pointing to therapeutic interventions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. An ultrarobust high-performance triboelectric nanogenerator based on charge replenishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hengyu; Chen, Jun; Yeh, Min-Hsin; Fan, Xing; Wen, Zhen; Li, Zhaoling; Hu, Chenguo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-05-26

    Harvesting ambient mechanical energy is a green route in obtaining clean and sustainable electric energy. Here, we report an ultrarobust high-performance triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) on the basis of charge replenishment by creatively introducing a rod rolling friction in the structure design. With a grating number of 30 and a free-standing gap of 0.5 mm, the fabricated TENG can deliver an output power of 250 mW/m(2) at a rotating rate of 1000 r/min. And it is capable of charging a 200 μF commercial capacitor to 120 V in 170 s, lighting up a G16 globe light as well as 16 spot lights connected in parallel. Moreover, the reported TENG holds an unprecedented robustness in harvesting rotational kinetic energy. After a continuous rotation of more than 14.4 million cycles, there is no observable electric output degradation. Given the superior output performance together with the unprecedented device robustness resulting from distinctive mechanism and novel structure design, the reported TENG renders an effective and sustainable technology for ambient mechanical energy harvesting. This work is a solid step in the development toward TENG-based self-sustained electronics and systems.

  1. New Roles of Syntaxin-1A in Insulin Granule Exocytosis and Replenishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tao; Qin, Tairan; Xie, Li; Dolai, Subhankar; Zhu, Dan; Prentice, Kacey J; Wheeler, Michael; Kang, Youhou; Osborne, Lucy; Gaisano, Herbert Y

    2017-02-10

    In type-2 diabetes (T2D), severely reduced islet syntaxin-1A (Syn-1A) levels contribute to insulin secretory deficiency. We generated β-cell-specific Syn-1A-KO (Syn-1A-βKO) mice to mimic β-cell Syn-1A deficiency in T2D. Glucose tolerance tests showed that Syn-1A-βKO mice exhibited blood glucose elevation corresponding to reduced blood insulin levels. Perifusion of Syn-1A-βKO islets showed impaired first- and second-phase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) resulting from reduction in readily releasable pool and granule pool refilling. To unequivocally determine the β-cell exocytotic defects caused by Syn-1A deletion, EM and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy showed that Syn-1A-KO β-cells had a severe reduction in the number of secretory granules (SGs) docked onto the plasma membrane (PM) at rest and reduced SG recruitment to the PM after glucose stimulation, the latter indicating defects in replenishment of releasable pools required to sustain second-phase GSIS. Whereas reduced predocked SG fusion accounted for reduced first-phase GSIS, selective reduction of exocytosis of short-dock (but not no-dock) newcomer SGs accounted for the reduced second-phase GSIS. These Syn-1A actions on newcomer SGs were partly mediated by Syn-1A interactions with newcomer SG VAMP8.

  2. Replenishment and mobilization of intracellular nitrogen pools decouples wine yeast nitrogen uptake from growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Alicia; Sancho, Marta; Beltran, Gemma; Guillamon, José Manuel; Warringer, Jonas

    2016-04-01

    Wine yeast capacity to take up nitrogen from the environment and catabolize it to support population growth, fermentation, and aroma production is critical to wine production. Under nitrogen restriction, yeast nitrogen uptake is believed to be intimately coupled to reproduction with nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) suggested mediating this link. We provide a time- and strain-resolved view of nitrogen uptake, population growth, and NCR activity in wine yeasts. Nitrogen uptake was found to be decoupled from growth due to early assimilated nitrogen being used to replenish intracellular nitrogen pools rather than being channeled directly into reproduction. Internally accumulated nitrogen was later mobilized to support substantial population expansion after external nitrogen was depleted. On good nitrogen sources, the decoupling between nitrogen uptake and growth correlated well with relaxation of NCR repression, raising the potential that the latter may be triggered by intracellular build-up of nitrogen. No link between NCR activity and nitrogen assimilation or growth on poor nitrogen sources was found. The decoupling between nitrogen uptake and growth and its influence on NCR activity is of relevance for both wine production and our general understanding of nitrogen use.

  3. DMRT1 Is Required for Mouse Spermatogonial Stem Cell Maintenance and Replenishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Teng; Oatley, Jon; Bardwell, Vivian J; Zarkower, David

    2016-09-01

    Male mammals produce sperm for most of postnatal life and therefore require a robust germ line stem cell system, with precise balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Prior work established doublesex- and mab-3-related transcription factor 1 (Dmrt1) as a conserved transcriptional regulator of male sexual differentiation. Here we investigate the role of Dmrt1 in mouse spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) homeostasis. We find that Dmrt1 maintains SSCs during steady state spermatogenesis, where it regulates expression of Plzf, another transcription factor required for SSC maintenance. We also find that Dmrt1 is required for recovery of spermatogenesis after germ cell depletion. Committed progenitor cells expressing Ngn3 normally do not contribute to SSCs marked by the Id4-Gfp transgene, but do so when spermatogonia are chemically depleted using busulfan. Removal of Dmrt1 from Ngn3-positive germ cells blocks the replenishment of Id4-GFP-positive SSCs and recovery of spermatogenesis after busulfan treatment. Our data therefore reveal that Dmrt1 supports SSC maintenance in two ways: allowing SSCs to remain in the stem cell pool under normal conditions; and enabling progenitor cells to help restore the stem cell pool after germ cell depletion.

  4. The effect of motivation and positive affect on ego depletion: Replenishment versus release mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ze; Li, Jian; Zhang, Bo; Li, Ye; Zhang, Houcan

    2015-11-12

    In this study, 2 experiments were conducted to investigate whether motivation and positive affect can alleviate ego depletion and to elucidate their possible mechanisms. In Experiment 1, a crossing-out-letter task was adapted to reach an ego depletion state for Chinese participants. Participants were then randomly assigned to the extrinsic motivation group, the positive affect group or the depletion control group. After the experimental treatment, a dumbbell task was used to measure participants' remaining self-regulatory resources. The results showed that participants in the motivation and positive affect groups performed better on the dumbbell task than participants in the depletion control group. Experiment 2 was similar to Experiment 1 except that participants were asked to perform an additional unexpected dumbbell task after a neutral video following the above procedure. The results of Experiment 1 were replicated; however, participants' performance on the additional dumbbell task differed. The positive affect group performed better than the depletion control group, indicating an increase in self-regulatory resources and thus supporting the replenishment effect of positive affect. No significant difference was found between the motivation group and the depletion control group.

  5. Substrate replenishment and byproduct removal improve yeast cell-free protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoborg, Jennifer A; Hodgman, C Eric; Anderson, Mark J; Jewett, Michael C

    2014-05-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) platforms are now considered a powerful tool for synthesizing a variety of proteins at scales from pL to 100 L with accelerated process development pipelines. We previously reported the advancement of a novel yeast-based CFPS platform. Here, we studied factors that cause termination of yeast CFPS batch reactions. Specifically, we characterized the substrate and byproduct concentrations in batch, fed-batch, and semi-continuous reaction formats through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and chemical assays. We discovered that creatine phosphate, the secondary energy substrate, and nucleoside triphosphates were rapidly degraded during batch CFPS, causing a significant drop in the reaction's energy charge (E.C.) and eventual termination of protein synthesis. As a consequence of consuming creatine phosphate, inorganic phosphate accumulated as a toxic byproduct. Additionally, we measured amino acid concentrations and found that aspartic acid was rapidly consumed. By adopting a semi-continuous reaction format, where passive diffusion enables substrate replenishment and byproduct removal, we achieved over a 70% increase in active superfolder green fluorescent protein (sfGFP) as compared with the batch system. This study identifies targets for the future improvement of the batch yeast CFPS reaction. Moreover, it outlines a detailed, generalized method to characterize and improve other CFPS platforms.

  6. Optimization of Setup Frequency for TOC Supply Chain Replenishment Systems Based on Pareto Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yun Jiang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The theory of constraints (TOC supply chain replenishment system (TOC-SCRS is an effective solution for coping with conflicts during the management of supply chain inventories. When it is deployed in a plant or a central warehouse with capacity constraints, TOC-SCRS encounters a problem comprised of 2 parts: first, how to establish a sound setup frequency (SF that can meet production needs and prevent losses from stock-outs, meaning a SF that allows the plant to make full use of its existing capacity to achieve maximal effective output. Second, it must determine how to establish a sound SF that can help the plant minimize its inventory and cut costs to the greatest possible extent. To resolve the problem, a SF optimization model for TOC-SCRS with capacity constraints is constructed and is then used in combination with Pareto particle swarm optimization (PSO to obtain SF optimization schemes in this paper. An illustrative example is conducted to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  7. A supplier-selection model with classification and joint replenishment of inventory items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammaditabar, Davood; Hassan Ghodsypour, Seyed

    2016-06-01

    Since inventory costs are closely related to suppliers, many models in the literature have selected the suppliers and also allocated orders, simultaneously. Such models usually consider either a single inventory item or multiple inventory items which have independent holding and ordering costs. However, in practice, ordering multiple items from the same supplier leads to a reduction in ordering costs. This paper presents a model in capacity-constrained supplier-selection and order-allocation problem, which considers the joint replenishment of inventory items with a direct grouping approach. In such supplier-selection problems, the following items are considered: a fixed major ordering cost to each supplier, which is independent from the items in the order; a minor ordering cost for each item ordered to each supplier; and the inventory holding and purchasing costs. To solve the developed NP-hard problem, a simulated annealing algorithm was proposed and then compared to a modified genetic algorithm of the literature. The numerical example represented that the number of groups and selected suppliers were reduced when the major ordering cost increased in comparison to other costs. There were also more savings when the number of groups was determined by the model in comparison to predetermined number of groups or no grouping scenarios.

  8. Glutamine is required for snakehead fish vesiculovirus propagation via replenishing the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lindan; Yi, Lizhu; Zhang, Chi; Liu, Xiaodan; Feng, Shuangshuang; Chen, Wenjie; Lan, Jiangfeng; Zhao, Lijuan; Tu, Jiagang; Lin, Li

    2016-11-01

    Snakehead fish vesiculovirus (SHVV), a member of the family Rhabdoviridae, has caused mass mortality in snakehead fish culture in China. Previous transcriptomic sequencing of SHVV-infected and non-infected striped snakehead fish cells (SSN-1) showed that glutaminase (GLS), the critical enzyme of glutamine metabolism, was upregulated upon SHVV infection. It therefore drew our attention to investigating the role of glutamine in SHVV propagation. Glutamine deprivation significantly reduced the expression of the mRNAs and proteins of SHVV, and the production of virus particles, indicating that glutamine was required for SHVV propagation. Glutamine can be converted to glutamate by GLS, and then be converted to α-ketoglutarate, to join in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Addition of the TCA cycle intermediate α-ketoglutarate, oxaloacetic acid or pyruvate significantly restored SHVV propagation, indicating that the requirement of glutamine for SHVV propagation was due to its replenishment of the TCA cycle. Inhibiting the activity of GLS in SSN-1 cells by an inhibitor, bis-2-(5-phenylacetamido-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)ethyl sulfide, decreased SHVV propagation, while overexpression of GLS increased SHVV propagation. Taken together, our data have revealed the relationship between glutamine metabolism and SHVV propagation.

  9. Short-term effect of beach replenishment on a shallow Posidonia oceanica meadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Correa, José M; Fernández-Torquemada, Yolanda; Sánchez-Lizaso, José Luis

    2009-09-01

    Putative perturbations on a Posidonia oceanica meadow produced by recent artificial beach nourishment were evaluated in relation to four undisturbed meadows. Temporal variations of putative impacted location vs. control locations of environmental (light availability and sediment features), plant (associated epiphytes, silt-clay fraction attached to epiphytes, herbivore attack, non-structural carbohydrate reserves) and structural parameters (cover and density) of meadows were tested by asymmetrical analysis of variance beyond BACI (Before/After, Control/Impact). Additionally, two asymmetrical analyses of variance were used to test for differences in vegetative growth of horizontal rhizomes (leaf production, horizontal rhizome growth, biomass production and net secondary rhizome recruitment) before and after beach replenishment. Environmental effects induced by dumping works were only detected in connection with a higher silt-clay deposition rate. This increase was consistent with the increase of silt-clay cover attached to epiphytes. As a consequence of silt-clay smothering, a decrease of filter feeding epiphytes, starch reserves, shoot surface and shoot biomass was observed. The sensitivity of plants to sediment inputs, leads us to recommend avoidance of dumping or sediment movement in the vicinity of P. oceanica meadows.

  10. An Optimization Framework for Combining the Petroleum Replenishment Problem with the Optimal Bidding in Combinatorial Auctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chefi Triki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We address in this paper a periodic petroleum station replenishment problem (PPSRP that aims to plan the delivery of petroleum products to a set of geographically dispatched stations. It is assumed that each station is characterized by its weekly demand and by its frequency of service. The main objective of the delivery process is to minimize the total travelled distance by the vailable trucks over an extended planning horizon. The problem configuration is described through a set of trucks with several compartments each and a set of stations with demands and prefixed delivery frequencies. Given such input data, the minimization of the total distance is subject to assignment and routing constraints that express the capacity limitations of each truck's compartment in terms of the frequency and the pathways' restrictions. In this paper, we develop and solve the full space mathematical formulation for the PPSRP with application to the Omani context. Our ultimate aim is to include such a model into an integrated framework having the objective of advising petroleum distribution companies on how to prepare bids in case of participation in combinatorial auctions of the transportation procurement.

  11. Relationship between starch and lipid accumulation induced by nutrient depletion and replenishment in the microalga Parachlorella kessleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Bruno; Teixeira, José; Dragone, Giuliano; Vicente, António A; Kawano, Shigeyuki; Bišová, Kateřina; Přibyl, Pavel; Zachleder, Vilém; Vítová, Milada

    2013-09-01

    Photosynthetic carbon partitioning into starch and neutral lipids, as well as the influence of nutrient depletion and replenishment on growth, pigments and storage compounds, were studied in the microalga, Parachlorella kessleri. Starch was utilized as a primary carbon and energy storage compound, but nutrient depletion drove the microalgae to channel fixed carbon into lipids as secondary storage compounds. Nutrient depletion inhibited both cellular division and growth and caused degradation of chlorophyll. Starch content decreased from an initial value of 25, to around 10% of dry weight (DW), while storage lipids increased from almost 0 to about 29% of DW. After transfer of cells into replenished mineral medium, growth, reproductive processes and chlorophyll content recovered within 2 days, while the content of both starch and lipids decreased markedly to 3 or less % of DW; this suggested that they were being used as a source of energy and carbon.

  12. Determining Inventory Replenishment Policy, Vehicle Type and Optimal Order Quantity in Critical Situation with Variable Lead Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadali Pirayesh Neghab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Iran Khodro Khorasan, inventory replenishment policy of some items is based on certain simple model (Wilson model. Sometimes because of some reasons, goods reception may not be achieved at the planned time. This state is called as critical situation because the production line is on the eve of stop. The purpose of this paper is to present different inventory replenishment policies in critical situation. For each policy, the cost function that includes cost of line stop, ordering cost, holding cost and transportation cost has been modeled and through its minimization, vehicle type and optimal order quantity have been determined. This model has been used numerically for two items of Iran Khodro Khorasan. Findings show that applying the proposed policy leads to saved cost compared to the current policy of Iran Khodro Khorasan.

  13. Using Complete Squares Method to Optimize Replenishment Policies in a Four-Stage Supply Chain with Planned Backorders

    OpenAIRE

    M. E. Seliaman

    2011-01-01

    We develop a four-stage, serial supply chain inventory model with planned backorders. This supply chain model is formulated for the integer multipliers coordination mechanism, where firms at the same stage of the supply chain use the same cycle time and the cycle time at each stage is an integer multiplier of the cycle time used at the adjacent downstream stage. We develop an optimal replenishment policy using a simple algebraic method to solve the problem without the use of differential calc...

  14. Hierarchical Structures and Shaped Particles of Bioactive Glass and Its In Vitro Bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Boonyang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bioactive glass particles with controllable structure and porosity were prepared using dual-templating methods. Block copolymers used as one template component produced mesopores in the calcined samples. Polymer colloidal crystals as the other template component yielded either three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM products or shaped bioactive glass nanoparticles. The in vitro bioactivity of these bioactive glasses was studied by soaking the samples in simulated body fluid (SBF at body temperature (37°C for varying lengths of time and monitoring the formation of bone-like apatite on the surface of the bioactive glass. A considerable bioactivity was found that all of bioactive glass samples have the ability to induce the formation of an apatite layer on its surface when in contact with SBF. The development of bone-like apatite is faster for 3DOM bioactive glasses than for nanoparticles.

  15. Bioactive Phenols in Small Fruits and Berries

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, R. P. F.

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive compounds are extra nutritional constituents occurring naturally in plant foods in small amounts, however in quantities enough to produce bioactive effects. Among bioactive compounds the phenolic compounds are a very large set of molecules, which include several groups such as for example flavonoids, phenolic acids or tannins. Small fruits and berries include a wide diversity of fruits, like grapes, strawberries, blackberries, blueberries, raspberries, cherries, hardi kiwi, gooseber...

  16. The Optimal Replenishment Policy under Trade Credit Financing with Ramp Type Demand and Demand Dependent Production Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the optimal replenishment policy for the retailer with the ramp type demand and demand dependent production rate involving the trade credit financing, which is not reported in the literatures. First, the two inventory models are developed under the above situation. Second, the algorithms are given to optimize the replenishment cycle time and the order quantity for the retailer. Finally, the numerical examples are carried out to illustrate the optimal solutions and the sensitivity analysis is performed. The results show that if the value of production rate is small, the retailer will lower the frequency of putting the orders to cut down the order cost; if the production rate is high, the demand dependent production rate has no effect on the optimal decisions. When the trade credit is less than the growth stage time, the retailer will shorten the replenishment cycle; when it is larger than the breakpoint of the demand, within the maturity stage of the products, the trade credit has no effect on the optimal order cycle and the optimal order quantity.

  17. Limited contemporary gene flow and high self-replenishment drives peripheral isolation in an endemic coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Martin H; Horne, John B; Gardner, Michael G; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Pratchett, Morgan; van Herwerden, Lynne

    2013-06-01

    Extensive ongoing degradation of coral reef habitats worldwide has lead to declines in abundance of coral reef fishes and local extinction of some species. Those most vulnerable are ecological specialists and endemic species. Determining connectivity between locations is vital to understanding recovery and long-term persistence of these species following local extinction. This study explored population connectivity in the ecologically-specialized endemic three-striped butterflyfish (Chaetodon tricinctus) using mt and msatDNA (nuclear microsatellites) to distinguish evolutionary versus contemporary gene flow, estimate self-replenishment and measure genetic diversity among locations at the remote Australian offshore coral reefs of Middleton Reef (MR), Elizabeth Reef (ER), Lord Howe Island (LHI), and Norfolk Island (NI). Mt and msatDNA suggested genetic differentiation of the most peripheral location (NI) from the remaining three locations (MR, ER, LHI). Despite high levels of mtDNA gene flow, there is limited msatDNA gene flow with evidence of high levels of self-replenishment (≥76%) at all four locations. Taken together, this suggests prolonged population recovery times following population declines. The peripheral population (NI) is most vulnerable to local extinction due to its relative isolation, extreme levels of self-replenishment (95%), and low contemporary abundance.

  18. Bioactive Triterpenes from the Fungus Piptoporus betulinus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zeyad Alresly; Ulrike Lindequist; Michael Lalk; Andrea Porzel; Norbert Arnold; Ludger AWessjohann

    2016-01-01

      Phytochemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fruiting bodies from the basidiomycete Piptoporus betulinus led to the isolation of a new bioactive lanostane triterpene identified...

  19. Bioactive glasses materials, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ylänen, Heimo

    2011-01-01

    Due to their biocompatibility and bioactivity, bioactive glasses are used as highly effective implant materials throughout the human body to replace or repair damaged tissue. As a result, they have been in continuous use since shortly after their invention in the late 1960s and are the subject of extensive research worldwide.Bioactive glasses provides readers with a detailed review of the current status of this unique material, its properties, technologies and applications. Chapters in part one deal with the materials and mechanical properties of bioactive glass, examining topics such

  20. Mitochondrial GSH replenishment as a potential therapeutic approach for Niemann Pick type C disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Torres

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Niemann Pick type C (NPC disease is a progressive lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in genes encoding NPC1/NPC2 proteins, characterized by neurological defects, hepatosplenomegaly and premature death. While the primary biochemical feature of NPC disease is the intracellular accumulation of cholesterol and gangliosides, predominantly in endolysosomes, mitochondrial cholesterol accumulation has also been reported. As accumulation of cholesterol in mitochondria is known to impair the transport of GSH into mitochondria, resulting in mitochondrial GSH (mGSH depletion, we investigated the impact of mGSH recovery in NPC disease. We show that GSH ethyl ester (GSH-EE, but not N-acetylcysteine (NAC, restored the mGSH pool in liver and brain of Npc1-/- mice and in fibroblasts from NPC patients, while both GSH-EE and NAC increased total GSH levels. GSH-EE but not NAC increased the median survival and maximal life span of Npc1-/- mice. Moreover, intraperitoneal therapy with GSH-EE protected against oxidative stress and oxidant-induced cell death, restored calbindin levels in cerebellar Purkinje cells and reversed locomotor impairment in Npc1-/- mice. High-resolution respirometry analyses revealed that GSH-EE improved oxidative phosphorylation, coupled respiration and maximal electron transfer in cerebellum of Npc1-/- mice. Lipidomic analyses showed that GSH-EE treatment had not effect in the profile of most sphingolipids in liver and brain, except for some particular species in brain of Npc1-/- mice. These findings indicate that the specific replenishment of mGSH may be a potential promising therapy for NPC disease, worth exploring alone or in combination with other options.

  1. Large-Scale Aquifer Replenishment and Seawater Intrusion Control Using Recycled Water in Southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herndon, R.; Markus, M.

    2014-10-01

    In 2008, eighteen years after determining that its Talbert Seawater Barrier required expansion, the Orange County Water District started up the worldss largest indirect potable reuse facility, the Groundwater Replenishment System (GWR System). The GWR System provides a reliable potable-quality water supply to the Talbert Barrier, which consists of 109 multi-depth injection wells. The Talbert Barrier began operation in 1976 with the completion of Water Factory 21, the first project in California permitted to inject recycled water into a potable-supply aquifer. By 1990, as groundwater pumping increased, it was evident that the barriers original injection wells were incapable of maintaining protective groundwater elevations to prevent seawater intrusion. Ten years of technical planning and public outreach culminated in the decision to demolish the undersized Water Factory 21 and build a state-of-the-art advanced recycled water treatment system and expanded barrier. Barrier expansion entailed construction of over 20 new injection wells in key areas where seawater intrusion was observed. Flow modeling indicated that average barrier injection needed to be doubled to 80 m{sup 3}/min (30 mgal/day). Based on seasonal groundwater pumping patterns, model simulations indicated that the barrier should inject up to 107 m{sup 3}/min (40 mgal/day) in the summer/fall months and one-half that rate in winter/spring months to maintain a protective hydraulic barrier. With a capacity of 187 m{sup 3}/min (70 mgd), the GWR System provides all of the high-quality water that the barrier requires, with the remainder conveyed to OCWDss infiltration basins in the city of Anaheim. Five years after start-up, the expanded seawater barrier has met all expectations in terms of capacity and groundwater elevation maintenance using a reliable locally-produced water supply. (Author)

  2. Coral assemblages in Tonga: spatial patterns, replenishment capacities, and implications for conservation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjeroud, Mehdi; Briand, Marine J; Kayal, Mohsen; Dumas, Pascal

    2013-07-01

    Coral reefs in Tonga have been confronted by multiple threats of various origins, including large-scale disturbances and human-induced stressors. These reef communities have been poorly studied, and efficient conservation actions are urgently needed. The aim of this study was to: (1) examine the spatial distribution of coral assemblages in the lagoon of Tongatapu; (2) determine the degree to which spatial heterogeneity of adult corals is influenced by recruitment processes; and (3) examine the implications of these results in terms of conservation actions. We recorded a total of 37 adult and 28 juvenile coral genera, a mean density of 11.6 adult and 5.5 juvenile colonies m(-2), and a dominance of Montipora, Acropora, and Porites. For seven of the 10 dominant genera, spatial patterns of adults were linked to the short-term recruitment pattern history. Despite a reduced diversity and abundance of adult corals in some areas, the lagoon of Tongatapu retains the potential for replenishment through recruitment of young corals. Consequently, we suggest that conservation actions should focus on reducing factors causing coral mortality and maintain suitable conditions for the establishment and growth of juvenile corals, thus increasing the probability that they will reach maturity and participate to the maintenance of local populations. Rather than establishing a large marine protected area, which will almost certainly suffer from a lack of control and poor enforcement, alternative conservation measures could be successfully implemented through the establishment of several small village-based marine reserves, as has been undertaken in other South Pacific islands with promising results.

  3. Mitochondrial GSH replenishment as a potential therapeutic approach for Niemann Pick type C disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Sandra; Matías, Nuria; Baulies, Anna; Nuñez, Susana; Alarcon-Vila, Cristina; Martinez, Laura; Nuño, Natalia; Fernandez, Anna; Caballeria, Joan; Levade, Thierry; Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Garcia-Rovés, Pablo; Balboa, Elisa; Zanlungo, Silvana; Fabrías, Gemma; Casas, Josefina; Enrich, Carlos; Garcia-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernández-Checa, José C

    2017-04-01

    Niemann Pick type C (NPC) disease is a progressive lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in genes encoding NPC1/NPC2 proteins, characterized by neurological defects, hepatosplenomegaly and premature death. While the primary biochemical feature of NPC disease is the intracellular accumulation of cholesterol and gangliosides, predominantly in endolysosomes, mitochondrial cholesterol accumulation has also been reported. As accumulation of cholesterol in mitochondria is known to impair the transport of GSH into mitochondria, resulting in mitochondrial GSH (mGSH) depletion, we investigated the impact of mGSH recovery in NPC disease. We show that GSH ethyl ester (GSH-EE), but not N-acetylcysteine (NAC), restored the mGSH pool in liver and brain of Npc1(-/-) mice and in fibroblasts from NPC patients, while both GSH-EE and NAC increased total GSH levels. GSH-EE but not NAC increased the median survival and maximal life span of Npc1(-/-) mice. Moreover, intraperitoneal therapy with GSH-EE protected against oxidative stress and oxidant-induced cell death, restored calbindin levels in cerebellar Purkinje cells and reversed locomotor impairment in Npc1(-/-) mice. High-resolution respirometry analyses revealed that GSH-EE improved oxidative phosphorylation, coupled respiration and maximal electron transfer in cerebellum of Npc1(-/-) mice. Lipidomic analyses showed that GSH-EE treatment had not effect in the profile of most sphingolipids in liver and brain, except for some particular species in brain of Npc1(-/-) mice. These findings indicate that the specific replenishment of mGSH may be a potential promising therapy for NPC disease, worth exploring alone or in combination with other options.

  4. Bioactive Egg Components and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Catherine J

    2015-09-16

    Inflammation is a normal acute response of the immune system to pathogens and tissue injury. However, chronic inflammation is known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Thus, the impact of dietary factors on inflammation may provide key insight into mitigating chronic disease risk. Eggs are recognized as a functional food that contain a variety of bioactive compounds that can influence pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, the effects of egg consumption on inflammation varies across different populations, including those that are classified as healthy, overweight, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetic. The following review will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of egg components, with a focus on egg phospholipids, cholesterol, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, and bioactive proteins. The effects of egg consumption of inflammation across human populations will additionally be presented. Together, these findings have implications for population-specific dietary recommendations and chronic disease risk.

  5. Bioactive Egg Components and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J. Andersen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a normal acute response of the immune system to pathogens and tissue injury. However, chronic inflammation is known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Thus, the impact of dietary factors on inflammation may provide key insight into mitigating chronic disease risk. Eggs are recognized as a functional food that contain a variety of bioactive compounds that can influence pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, the effects of egg consumption on inflammation varies across different populations, including those that are classified as healthy, overweight, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetic. The following review will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of egg components, with a focus on egg phospholipids, cholesterol, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, and bioactive proteins. The effects of egg consumption of inflammation across human populations will additionally be presented. Together, these findings have implications for population-specific dietary recommendations and chronic disease risk.

  6. Bioactive Components in Fish Venoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegman, Rebekah; Alewood, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Animal venoms are widely recognized excellent resources for the discovery of novel drug leads and physiological tools. Most are comprised of a large number of components, of which the enzymes, small peptides, and proteins are studied for their important bioactivities. However, in spite of there being over 2000 venomous fish species, piscine venoms have been relatively underrepresented in the literature thus far. Most studies have explored whole or partially fractioned venom, revealing broad pharmacology, which includes cardiovascular, neuromuscular, cytotoxic, inflammatory, and nociceptive activities. Several large proteinaceous toxins, such as stonustoxin, verrucotoxin, and Sp-CTx, have been isolated from scorpaenoid fish. These form pores in cell membranes, resulting in cell death and creating a cascade of reactions that result in many, but not all, of the physiological symptoms observed from envenomation. Additionally, Natterins, a novel family of toxins possessing kininogenase activity have been found in toadfish venom. A variety of smaller protein toxins, as well as a small number of peptides, enzymes, and non-proteinaceous molecules have also been isolated from a range of fish venoms, but most remain poorly characterized. Many other bioactive fish venom components remain to be discovered and investigated. These represent an untapped treasure of potentially useful molecules. PMID:25941767

  7. Bioactive Glasses in Dentistry: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasi Z

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glasses are silicate-based and can form a strong chemical bond with the tissues. These biomaterials are highly biocompatible and can form a hydroxyapatite layer when implanted in the body or soaked in the simulated body fluid. Due to several disadvantages, conventional glass processing method including melting of glass components, is replaced by sol-gel method with a large number of benefits such as low processing temperature, higher purity and homogeneity and therefore better control of bioactivity. Bioactive glasses have a wide range of applications, particularly in dentistry. These glasses can be used as particulates or monolithic shapes and porous or dense constructs in different applications such as remineralization or hypersensitivity treatment. Some properties of bioactive glasses such as antibacterial properties can be promoted by adding different elements into the glass. Bioactive glasses can also be used to modify different biocompatible materials that need to be bioactive. This study reviews the significant developments of bioactive glasses in clinical application, especially dentistry. Furthermore, we will discuss the field of bioactive glasses from beginning to the current developments, which includes processing methods, applications, and properties of these glasses.

  8. Laser cladding of bioactive glass coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesaña, R; Quintero, F; Lusquiños, F; Pascual, M J; Boutinguiza, M; Durán, A; Pou, J

    2010-03-01

    Laser cladding by powder injection has been used to produce bioactive glass coatings on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) substrates. Bioactive glass compositions alternative to 45S5 Bioglass were demonstrated to exhibit a gradual wetting angle-temperature evolution and therefore a more homogeneous deposition of the coating over the substrate was achieved. Among the different compositions studied, the S520 bioactive glass showed smoother wetting angle-temperature behavior and was successfully used as precursor material to produce bioactive coatings. Coatings processed using a Nd:YAG laser presented calcium silicate crystallization at the surface, with a uniform composition along the coating cross-section, and no significant dilution of the titanium alloy was observed. These coatings maintain similar bioactivity to that of the precursor material as demonstrated by immersion in simulated body fluid. Copyright 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Surface modification of bioactive glasses and preparation of PDLLA/bioactive glass composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Chang, Jiang

    2009-08-01

    In order to improve the homogeneous dispersion of particles in the polymeric matrix, 45S5, mesoporous 58S, and 58S bioactive glasses were surface modified by esterification reactions with dodecyl alcohol at reflux temperature of 260 degrees C (named as m-45S5, m-mesoporous 58S, and m-58S, respectively). The modified particles showed better hydrophobicity and longer time of suspension in organic matrix. The PDLLA/bioactive glass composite films were fabricated using surface modified bioactive glass particles through solvent casting-evaporation method. Surface morphology, mechanical property, and bioactivity were investigated. The results revealed that the inorganic particle distribution and tensile strength of the composite films with modified bioactive glass particles were significantly improved while great bioactive properties were maintained. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation illustrated that the modified bioactive glass particles were homogeneously dispersed in the PDLLA matrix. The maximum tensile strengths of composite films with modified bioactive glass particles were higher than that of composite films with unmodified bioactive glass particles. The bioactivity of the composite films were evaluated by being soaked in the simulated body fluid (SBF) and the SEM observation of the films suggested that the modified composite films were still bioactive in that they could induce the formation of HAp on its surface and the distribution of HAp was even more homogeneous on the film. The results mentioned above indicated that the surface modification of bioactive glasses with dodecyl alcohol was an effective method to prepare PDLLA/bioactive glass composites with enhanced properties. By studying the comparisons of modification effects among the three types of bioactive glasses, we could get the conclusion that the size and morphology of the inorganic particles would greatly affect the modification effects and the properties of composites.

  10. Development of an In-Flight Refill Unit for Replenishing Research Animal Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, P. D.; Hines, M. I.; Barnes, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Spacelab Life Sciences 2 (SLS-2) mission became NASA's longest duration Shuttle mission, lasting fourteen days, when Columbia landed on 1 Nov. 1993. Located within the Spacelab were a total of 48 laboratory rats which were housed in two Research Animal Holding Facilities (RAHF's) developed by the Space Life Sciences Payloads Office (SLSPO) at Ames Research Center. In order to properly maintain the health and well-being of these important research animals, sufficient quantities of food and water had to be available for the duration of the mission. An inflight Refill Unit was developed by the SLSPO to replenish the animals' drinking water inflight using the Shuttle potable water system in the middeck galley as the source of additional water. The Inflight Refill Unit consists of two major subsystems, a Fluid Pumping Unit (FPU) and a Collapsible Water Reservoir (CWR). The FPU provides the system measurement and controls, pump, water lines, and plumbing necessary to collect water coming into the unit from the potable water system and pump it out and into the RAHF drinking water tanks. The CWR is a Kevlar(trademark) reinforced storage bladder, connected to the FPU, which has a capacity of 6 liters in its expanded volume and functions to store the water collected from the potable water system and allows for the transport of the water back to the Spacelab where it is pumped into each of two RAHFs. Additional components of the FPU system include the inlet and outlet fluid hoses, a power cable for providing 28 volt direct current spacecraft electrical power to the pump within the FPU, a tether system for the unit when in use in Spacelab, and an adapter for mating the unit to the orbiter waste collection system in order to dump excess water after use in Spacelab. This paper will present the design process and development approach for the lnflight Refill Unit, define some of the key design issues which had to be addressed, and summarize the inflight operational performance

  11. Neuroprotective effect of ethyl pyruvate against Zn(2+) toxicity via NAD replenishment and direct Zn(2+) chelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Woo; Lee, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Ji; Yoon, Sung-Hwa; Lee, Ja-Kyeong

    2016-06-01

    Ethyl pyruvate (EP) is a simple aliphatic ester of pyruvic acid and has been shown to have robust protective effect in various pathological conditions. A variety of mechanisms have been reported to underlie the protective effects of EP, which include anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-apoptotic functions. Recently, we reported that EP suppressed high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) release from primary microglial cells via direct Ca(2+) chelation. In the present study, we investigated whether and how EP chelates Zn(2+) in neurons when it is present at toxic levels. In cortical neurons treated with 40 μM of Zn(2+) for 24 h, both EP and pyruvate significantly suppressed neuronal cell death, although the potency of pyruvate was greater than that of EP, and that NAD replenishment contributed to the neuroprotective effects of both pyruvate and EP. However, when cortical neurons were exposed to acute treatment of Zn(2+) (400 μM, 15 min), EP, but not pyruvate, significantly suppressed neuronal death, despite the fact that NAD replenishment by EP was weaker than that by pyruvate. Spectrophotometric studies revealed that EP directly chelates Zn(2+), and this was confirmed in physiological contexts, such as, NMDA-treated primary cortical cultures and OGD-subjected hippocampal slice cultures, in which EP suppressed intracellular Zn(2+) elevation and neuronal cell death. In addition, EP markedly reduced the expressions of PARP-1 and of the NADPH oxidase subunit in Zn(2+)-treated primary cortical neurons, well known Zn(2+)-induced downstream processes. Together, these results show EP suppresses Zn(2+) induced neurotoxicity via dual functions, chelating Zn(2+) and promoting NAD replenishment.

  12. Effects of dose rates on radiation-induced replenishment of intestinal stem cells determined by Lgr5 lineage tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Kensuke; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu

    2015-07-01

    An understanding of the dynamics of intestinal Lgr5(+) stem cells is important for elucidating the mechanism of colonic cancer development. We previously established a method for evaluating Lgr5(+) stem cells by tamoxifen-dependent Lgr5-lineage tracing and showed that high-dose-rate radiation stimulated replenishment of colonic stem cells. In this study, we evaluated the effects of low-dose-rate radiation on stem cell maintenance. Tamoxifen (4OHT)-injected Lgr5-EGFP-IRES-Cre(ERT2) × ROSA-LSL-LacZ mice were used, LacZ-labeled colonic crypts were enumerated, and the loss of LacZ(+) crypts under low-dose-rate radiation was estimated. After 4OHT treatment, the number of LacZ-labeled Lgr5(+) stem cells was higher in the colon of infant mice than in adult mice. The percentage of LacZ-labeled crypts in infant mice rapidly decreased after 4OHT treatment. However, the percentage of labeled crypts plateaued at ∼2% at 4 weeks post-treatment and remained unchanged for up to 7 months. Thus, it will be advantageous to evaluate the long-term effects of low-dose-rate radiation. Next, we determined the percentages of LacZ-labeled crypts irradiated with 1 Gy administered at different dose rates. As reported in our previous study, mice exposed to high-dose-rate radiation (30 Gy/h) showed a marked replenishment (P = 0.04). However, mice exposed to low-dose-rate radiation (0.003 Gy/h) did not exhibit accelerated stem-cell replenishment (P = 0.47). These findings suggest the percentage of labeled crypts can serve as a useful indicator of the effects of dose rate on the stem cell pool.

  13. THE EFFECT OF INSULIN AND CARBOHYDRATE SUPPLEMENTATION ON GLYCOGEN REPLENISHMENT AMONG DIFFERENT HINDLIMB MUSCLES IN RATS FOLLOWING PROLONGED SWIMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Chich Hsu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the interactive effects of insulin and carbohydrate on glycogen replenishment in different rat hindlimb muscles. Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to 5 groups, including 1 sedentary control with carbohydrate supplement (2 g glucose · kg body wt-1, 2 sedentary rats with 16 hours recovery, carbohydrate and insulin (0.5 U · kg body wt-1, 3 swimming without recovery, 4 swimming with 16 hours recovery and carbohydrate supplement, and 5 swimming with 16 hours recovery, carbohydrate and insulin. The swimming protocol consisted of two 3 h swimming sections, which were separated by a 45 min rest. The insulin and carbohydrate were administered to the rats immediately after exercise. At the end of the experiment, the soleus (S, plantaris (P, quadriceps (Q and gastrocnemius (G were surgically excised to evaluate glycogen utilization and replenishment. We observed that glycogen utilization was significantly lower in G and Q than S and P during swimming (p <0.05, and S showed the greatest capacity of glycogen resynthesis after post-exercise recovery (p <0.05. In the sedentary state, the glycogen synthesis did not differ among hindlimb muscles during insulin and carbohydrate treatments. Interestingly, with insulin and carbohydrate, the glycogen resynthesis in S and P were significantly greater than in Q and G following post-exercise recovery (p <0.05. We therefore concluded that the soleus and plantaris are the primary working muscles during swimming, and the greatest glycogen replenishment capacity of the soleus during post-exercise recovery is likely due to its highest insulin sensitivity.

  14. Using Complete Squares Method to Optimize Replenishment Policies in a Four-Stage Supply Chain with Planned Backorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Seliaman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a four-stage, serial supply chain inventory model with planned backorders. This supply chain model is formulated for the integer multipliers coordination mechanism, where firms at the same stage of the supply chain use the same cycle time and the cycle time at each stage is an integer multiplier of the cycle time used at the adjacent downstream stage. We develop an optimal replenishment policy using a simple algebraic method to solve the problem without the use of differential calculus.

  15. Planctomycetes as novel source of bioactive molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patrícia Graça

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine environments are a fruitful source of bioactive compounds some of which are the newest leading drugs in medicinal therapeutics. Of particular importance are organisms like sponges and macroalgae and their associated microbiome. Planctomycetes, abundant in macroalgae biofilms, are promising producers of bioactive compounds since they share characteristics, like large genomes and complex life cycles, with the most bioactive bacteria, the Actinobacteria. Furthermore, genome mining revealed the presence of secondary metabolite pathway genes or clusters in 13 analyzed Planctomycetes genomes.In order to assess the antimicrobial production of a large and diverse collection of Planctomycetes isolated from macroalgae from the Portuguese coast, molecular and bioactivity assays were performed in 40 bacteria from several taxa. Two genes commonly associated with the production of bioactive compounds, nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS and polyketide synthases (PKS genes were screened. Molecular analysis revealed that 95 % of the planctomycetes potentially have one or both secondary bioactive genes; 85 % amplified with PKS-I primers and 55 % with NRPS primers. Some of the amplified genes were confirmed to be involved in secondary metabolite pathways. Using bioinformatic tools their biosynthetic pathways were predicted. The secondary metabolite genomic potential of strains LF1, UC8 and FC18 was assessed using in silico analysis of their genomes. Aqueous and organic extracts of the Planctomycetes were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against an environmental Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and a clinical isolate of Candida albicans. The screening assays showed a high number of planctomycetes with bioactive extracts revealing antifungal (43 % and antibacterial (54 % activity against C. albicans and B. subtilis, respectively

  16. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-08-04

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits.

  17. Bioactivity of bioresorbable composite based on bioactive glass and poly-L-lactide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhi-hua; RUAN Jian-ming; ZOU Jian-peng; ZHOU Zhong-cheng; SHEN Xiong-jun

    2007-01-01

    Bioactive and bioresorbable composite was fabricated by a solvent evaporation technique using poly-L-lactide(PLLA) and bioactive glass (average particle size: 6.8 μm). Bioactive glass granules are homogeneously distributed in the composite with microcrack structure. The formation of hydroxyapatite(HA) on the composite in simulated body fluid(SBF) was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy(EDS), X-ray diffraction(XRD), and Raman spectra. Rod-like HA crystals deposit on the surface of PLLA/bioactive glass composite after soaking for 3 d. Both rod-like crystals and HA layer form on the surface for 14 d in SBF. The high bioactivity of PLLA/bioactive glass composite indicates the potential of materials for integration with bone.

  18. Sol-gel derived porous bioactive nanocomposites: Synthesis and in vitro bioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankhwar, Nisha; Kothiyal, G. P.; Srinivasan, A.

    2013-06-01

    Porous bioactive composites consisting of SiO2-CaO-Na2O-P2O5 bioactive glass-ceramic and synthetic water soluble polymer Polyvinylpyrrolidone [PVP (C6H9NO)n, MW˜40000 g/mol] have been synthesized by sol-gel route. As-prepared polymeric composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Two major bone mineral phases, viz., hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] and wollastonite [calcium silicate (CaSiO3)] have been identified in the XRD patterns of the composites. Presence of these bone minerals indicates the bioactive nature of the composites. In vitro bioactivity tests confirm bioactivity in the porous composites. The flexibility offered by these bioactive polymer composites is advantageous for its application as implant material.

  19. Bioactive Carbohydrates and Peptides in Foods: An Overview of Sources, Downstream Processing Steps and Associated Bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Maria; Tiwari, Brijesh K

    2015-09-17

    Bioactive peptides and carbohydrates are sourced from a myriad of plant, animal and insects and have huge potential for use as food ingredients and pharmaceuticals. However, downstream processing bottlenecks hinder the potential use of these natural bioactive compounds and add cost to production processes. This review discusses the health benefits and bioactivities associated with peptides and carbohydrates of natural origin and downstream processing methodologies and novel processes which may be used to overcome these.

  20. Bioactive Carbohydrates and Peptides in Foods: An Overview of Sources, Downstream Processing Steps and Associated Bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hayes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides and carbohydrates are sourced from a myriad of plant, animal and insects and have huge potential for use as food ingredients and pharmaceuticals. However, downstream processing bottlenecks hinder the potential use of these natural bioactive compounds and add cost to production processes. This review discusses the health benefits and bioactivities associated with peptides and carbohydrates of natural origin and downstream processing methodologies and novel processes which may be used to overcome these.

  1. Genetic connectivity and self-replenishment of inshore and offshore populations of the endemic anemonefish, Amphiprion latezonatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Rosemary; van der Meer, Martin; Walker, Emily; Berumen, Michael L.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; van Herwerden, Lynne

    2016-09-01

    Globally, marine species are under increasing pressure from human activities, including ocean warming, acidification, pollution, and overfishing. Species most vulnerable to these pressures tend to be ecological specialists that have low abundance and small distribution ranges (endemics). Marine endemics often exist as meta-populations distributed among few isolated locations. Determining genetic connectivity among these locations is essential to understanding the recovery potential of endemics after local extinction events. This study examined connectivity in the endemic anemonefish, Amphiprion latezonatus, a habitat specialist with low abundance at most locations. Evolutionary and contemporary migration, genetic diversity, and self-replenishment among the four main locations (Sunshine Coast, North Solitary Island, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island) that comprise the entire A. latezonatus geographic range were assessed using mtDNA and microsatellite markers. Though historical gene flow inferred from mtDNA appeared high, population genetic differentiation was evident and contemporary gene flow inferred from microsatellites was limited, alongside very high (≥89 %) self-replenishment at all locations. Together, these data suggest prolonged recovery times following severe population decline (or extirpation) and indicate a need to protect this species at all locations, particularly Norfolk Island and Sunshine Coast where marine protected areas are lacking.

  2. Genetic connectivity and self-replenishment of inshore and offshore populations of the endemic anemonefish, Amphiprion latezonatus

    KAUST Repository

    Steinberg, Rosemary

    2016-02-19

    Globally, marine species are under increasing pressure from human activities, including ocean warming, acidification, pollution, and overfishing. Species most vulnerable to these pressures tend to be ecological specialists that have low abundance and small distribution ranges (endemics). Marine endemics often exist as meta-populations distributed among few isolated locations. Determining genetic connectivity among these locations is essential to understanding the recovery potential of endemics after local extinction events. This study examined connectivity in the endemic anemonefish, Amphiprion latezonatus, a habitat specialist with low abundance at most locations. Evolutionary and contemporary migration, genetic diversity, and self-replenishment among the four main locations (Sunshine Coast, North Solitary Island, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island) that comprise the entire A. latezonatus geographic range were assessed using mtDNA and microsatellite markers. Though historical gene flow inferred from mtDNA appeared high, population genetic differentiation was evident and contemporary gene flow inferred from microsatellites was limited, alongside very high (≥89 %) self-replenishment at all locations. Together, these data suggest prolonged recovery times following severe population decline (or extirpation) and indicate a need to protect this species at all locations, particularly Norfolk Island and Sunshine Coast where marine protected areas are lacking.

  3. Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered Silica Aerogels a Proven Method for Water Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, W; Coleman, S; Love, A; Reynolds, J; O' Brien, K; Gammon, S

    2004-09-22

    Rapid deployment and the use of objective force aggressively reduce logistic footprints and replenishment demands. Maneuver Sustainment requires that Future Combat Systems be equipped with water systems that are lightweight, have small footprints, and are highly adaptable to a variety of environments. Technologies employed in these settings must be able to meet these demands. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has designed and previously field tested nano-engineered materials for the treatment of water. These materials have been either based on silica aerogel materials or consist of composites of these aerogels with granular activated carbon (GAC). Recent tests have proven successful for the removal of contaminants including uranium, hexavalent chromium, and arsenic. Silica aerogels were evaluated for their ability to purify water that had been spiked with the nerve agent VX (O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothiolate). These results demonstrated that silica aerogels were able to remove the VX from the supply water and were nearly 30 times more adsorbent than GAC. This performance could result in REDUCING CHANGEOUT FREQUENCY BY A FACTOR OF 30 or DECREASING the VOLUME of adsorbent BY A FACTOR OF 30; thereby significantly reducing logistic footprints and replenishment demands. The use of the nano-engineered Silica Aerogel/GAC composites would provide a water purification technology that meets the needs of Future Combat Systems.

  4. Assessment of nickel oxide substituted bioactive glass-ceramic on in vitro bioactivity and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar Vyas, V.; Sampath Kumar, A.; Ali, A.; Prasad, S.; Srivastava, P.; Prasanna Mallick, S.; Ershad, Md.; Prasad Singh, S.; Pyare, R.

    2016-07-01

    Many type of oxide substituted glass-ceramics like strontium, cobalt, barium and titanium have shown bioactivity with improved mechanical properties. The present work reports the in vitro bioactivity and mechanical properties of nickel oxide substituted in bioactive glass-ceramic and results were compared with 45S5 bioactive glass-ceramic. Bioactive glass ceramics were processed through controlled crystallization of their respective bioactive glasses. The formed crystalline phases in bioactive glass-ceramics were identified using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The formation of HA layer was assessed by immersing them in the simulated body fluid (SBF) for different soaking periods. The formation of hydroxyapatite was confirmed by FTIR spectrometry, SEM and pH measurement. Densities and mechanical properties of the samples were found to increase considerably with an increasing the concentration of nickel oxide. A decrease in glass transition temperature (Tg) with NiO addition showed that the nickel oxide had acted as an intermediate in smaller quantities in the bioactive glass. The cell culture studies demonstrated that the samples containing low concentration of NiO from 0 to 1.65mol% were non-cytotoxic against osteoblast cells. Finally, this investigation clearly concluded that NiO doped bioactive glass would be potential biomaterials for biomedical applications. (Author)

  5. Going viral: designing bioactive surfaces with bacteriophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinidoust, Zeinab; Olsson, Adam L J; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2014-12-01

    Bacteriophage-functionalized bioactive surfaces are functional materials that can be used as antimicrobial surfaces in medical applications (e.g., indwelling medical devices or wound dressings) or as biosensors for bacterial capture and detection. Despite offering immense potential, designing efficient phage-functionalized bioactive surfaces is hampered by a number of challenges. This review offers an overview of the current state of knowledge in this field and presents a critical perspective of the technological promises and challenges.

  6. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Ya Li; Jiao-Jiao Zhang; Dong-Ping Xu; Tong Zhou; Yue. Zhou; Sha Li; Hua-Bin Li

    2016-01-01

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we rev...

  7. Microencapsulation of bioactives for food applications

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Maria Inês; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira; Barreiro, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Health issues are an emerging concern to the world population, and therefore the food industry is searching for novel food products containing health-promoting bioactive compounds, with little or no synthetic ingredients. However, there are some challenges in the development of functional foods, particularly in which the direct use of some bioactives is involved. They can show problems of instability, react with other food matrix ingredients or present strong odour and/or flavours. In this co...

  8. Rosmarinus officinalis leaves as a natural source of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Stojanović, Zorica; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Arráez-Román, David; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-11-10

    In an extensive search for bioactive compounds from plant sources, the composition of different extracts of rosemary leaves collected from different geographical zones of Serbia was studied. The qualitative and quantitative characterization of 20 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) samples, obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). The high mass accuracy and true isotopic pattern in both MS and MS/MS spectra provided by the QTOF-MS analyzer enabled the characterization of a wide range of phenolic compounds in the extracts, including flavonoids, phenolic diterpenes and abietan-type triterpenoids, among others. According to the data compiled, rosemary samples from Sokobanja presented the highest levels in flavonoids and other compounds such as carnosol, rosmaridiphenol, rosmadial, rosmarinic acid, and carnosic acid. On the other hand, higher contents in triterpenes were found in the extracts of rosemary from Gložan (Vojvodina).

  9. Biomolecule immobilization techniques for bioactive paper fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanzhi; Hu, Yim Fun

    2012-04-01

    Research into paper-based sensors or functional materials that can perform analytical functions with active recognition capabilities is rapidly expanding, and significant research effort has been made into the design and fabrication of bioactive paper at the biosensor level to detect potential health hazards. A key step in the fabrication of bioactive paper is the design of the experimental and operational procedures for the immobilization of biomolecules such as antibodies, enzymes, phages, cells, proteins, synthetic polymers and DNA aptamers on a suitably prepared paper membrane. The immobilization methods are concisely categorized into physical absorption, bioactive ink entrapment, bioaffinity attachment and covalent chemical bonding immobilization. Each method has individual immobilization characteristics. Although every biomolecule-paper combination has to be optimized before use, the bioactive ink entrapment method is the most commonly used approach owing to its general applicability and biocompatibility. Currently, there are four common applications of bioactive paper: (1) paper-based bioassay or paper-based analytical devices for sample conditioning; (2) counterfeiting and countertempering in the packaging and construction industries; (3) pathogen detection for food and water quality monitoring; and (4) deactivation of pathogenic bacteria using antimicrobial paper. This article reviews and compares the different biomolecule immobilization techniques and discusses current trends. Current, emerging and future applications of bioactive paper are also discussed.

  10. Advances on Bioactive Polysaccharides from Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jian-Hua; Jin, Ming-Liang; Morris, Gordon A; Zha, Xue-Qiang; Chen, Han-Qing; Yi, Yang; Li, Jing-En; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Gao, Jie; Nie, Shao-Ping; Shang, Peng; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2016-07-29

    In recent decades, the polysaccharides from the medicinal plants have attracted a lot of attention due to their significant bioactivities, such as anti-tumor activity, antioxidant activity, anticoagulant activity, antidiabetic activity, radioprotection effect, anti-viral activity, hypolipidemic and immunomodulatory activities, which make them suitable for medicinal applications. Previous studies have also shown that medicinal plant polysaccharides are non-toxic and show no side effects. Based on these encouraging observations, most researches have been focusing on the isolation and identification of polysaccharides, as well as their bioactivities. A large number of bioactive polysaccharides with different structural features and biological effects from medicinal plants have been purified and characterized. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the most recent developments in physiochemical, structural features and biological activities of bioactive polysaccharides from a number of important medicinal plants, such as polysaccharides from Astragalus membranaceus, Dendrobium plants, Bupleurum, Cactus fruits, Acanthopanax senticosus, Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, Aloe barbadensis Miller, and Dimocarpus longan Lour. Moreover, the paper has also been focused on the applications of bioactive polysaccharides for medicinal applications. Recent studies have provided evidence that polysaccharides from medicinal plants can play a vital role in bioactivities. The contents and data will serve as a useful reference material for further investigation, production, and application of these polysaccharides in functional foods and therapeutic agents.

  11. Optimization of Replenishment Strategy Based on Fuzzy Evaluation Method%基于模糊评价的补给策略优选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海军; 彭绍雄; 张信明; 邹强

    2012-01-01

    By analyzing the chief factors of the optimization of replenishment stratety,aiming at the problem of replenishment strategy for the synthetic evaluation,this paper used fuzzy evaluation method to build a evaluative model that assemble qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis.At the end,the model is illustrate to be scientific and effectiveness for the optimization of replenishment strategy by example computing.%通过分析补给策略选择影响因素,针对补给策略综合评价问题,文章利用模糊评价方法,给出一种定性判断和定量分析相结合的评价模型,最后运用实例计算,证明模型在解决补给策略优选问题上的科学有效性。

  12. Observations on After-Effect Duration of Kidney-Nourishing and Marrow-Replenishing Therapy on 58 Cases of Mediterranean Anemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wen-juan; WU Zhi-kui; ZHANG Xin-hua; WANG Rong-xin; LIU Yong-mei; FANG Su-ping; ZHANG Chong; ZHOU Tian-hong; LI Ping-ping; LUO Rui-gui; DUAN Shu-min

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the after-effect duration of kidney-nourishing and marrow-replenishing therapy on Mediterranean anemia. Methods: To observe the kidney-nourishing and marrow-replenishing therapy on 58 cases of Mediterranean anemia and the influence of various relative factors on the after-effect duration. Results: The after-effect duration on 58 cases varied from 3-6 months, about 4 months on average, and was not influenced by sex, clinical types, genetic types, types of Mediterranean anemia and other factors. Conclusion: Kidney-nourishing and marrow-replenishing therapy used to treat Mediterranean anemia can not only produce good therapeutic effect during treatment but also keep after effect lasting for about 4 months, indicating that the therapy used to treat Mediterranean anemia has good clinical after effect.

  13. Bioactive polymers for cardiac tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Samuel Thomas

    2007-05-01

    Prevalent in the US and worldwide, acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) can cause ischemic injuries to the heart that persist and lead to progressive degradation of the organ. Tissue engineering techniques exploiting biomaterials present a hopeful means of treating these injuries, either by mechanically stabilizing the injured ventricle, or by fostering cell growth to replace myocytes lost to damage. This thesis describes the development and testing of a synthetic extracellular matrix for cardiac tissue engineering applications. The first stage of this process was using an advanced finite element model of an injured ovine left ventricle to evaluate the potential benefits of injecting synthetic materials into the heart. These simulations indicated that addition of small amounts non-contractile material (on the order of 1--5% total wall volume) to infarct border zone regions reduced pathological systolic fiber stress to levels near those found in normal remote regions. Simulations also determined that direct addition to the infarct itself caused increases in ventricle ejection fraction while the underlying performance of the pump, ascertained by the Starling relation, was not improved. From these theoretical results, biomaterials were developed specifically for injection into the injured myocardium, and were characterized and tested for their mechanical properties and ability to sustain the proliferation of a stem cell population suitable for transplantation. Thermoresponsive synthetic copolymer hydrogels consisting of N-isopropylacrylamide and acrylic acid, p(NIPAAm-co-AAc), crosslinked with protease degradable amino acid sequences and modified with integrin binding ligands were synthesized, characterized in vitro, and used for myocardial implantation. These injectable materials could maintain a population of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in both two dimensional and three dimensional culture, and when tested in vivo in a murine infarct model they

  14. Changes of functional and effective connectivity in smoking replenishment on deprived heavy smokers: a resting-state FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaoyu; Lee, Seong-Whan

    2013-01-01

    Previous researches have explored the changes of functional connectivity caused by smoking with the aid of fMRI. This study considers not only functional connectivity but also effective connectivity regarding both brain networks and brain regions by using a novel analysis framework that combines independent component analysis (ICA) and Granger causality analysis (GCA). We conducted a resting-state fMRI experiment in which twenty-one heavy smokers were scanned in two sessions of different conditions: smoking abstinence followed by smoking satiety. In our framework, group ICA was firstly adopted to obtain the spatial patterns of the default-mode network (DMN), executive-control network (ECN), and salience network (SN). Their associated time courses were analyzed using GCA, showing that the effective connectivity from SN to DMN was reduced and that from ECN/DMN to SN was enhanced after smoking replenishment. A paired t-test on ICA spatial patterns revealed functional connectivity variation in regions such as the insula, parahippocampus, precuneus, anterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, and ventromedial/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These regions were later selected as the regions of interest (ROIs), and their effective connectivity was investigated subsequently using GCA. In smoking abstinence, the insula showed the increased effective connectivity with the other ROIs; while in smoking satiety, the parahippocampus had the enhanced inter-area effective connectivity. These results demonstrate our hypothesis that for deprived heavy smokers, smoking replenishment takes effect on both functional and effective connectivity. Moreover, our analysis framework could be applied in a range of neuroscience studies.

  15. Evaluation of Drag Reduction via Superhydrophobic Surfaces and Active Gas Replenishment in a Fully-developed Turbulent Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gose, James W.; Golovin, Kevin; Ceccio, Steven L.; Perlin, Marc; Tuteja, Anish

    2014-11-01

    The development of superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS) for skin-friction drag reduction in the laminar regime has shown great promise. A team led by the University of Michigan is examining the potential of similar SHS in high-speed naval applications. Specifically, we have developed a recirculating facility to investigate the reduction of drag along robustly engineered SHS in a fully-developed turbulent boundary layer flow. The facility can accommodate both small and large SHS samples in a test section 7 mm (depth) × 100 mm (span) × 1200 mm (length). Coupled with an 11.2 kilowatt pump and a 30:1 contraction, the facility is capable of producing an average flow velocity of 20 m/s, yielding a height based (7 mm) Reynolds number of 140,000. The SHS tested were designed for large-scale application. The present investigation shows skin-friction drag reduction for various sprayable and chemically developed SHS that were applied over a 100 mm (span) × 1100 mm (length) area. The drag measurement methods include pressure drop across the test specimen and PIV measured boundary layers. Additional SHS investigations include the implementation of active gas replenishment, providing an opportunity to replace gas-pockets that would otherwise be disrupted in traditional passive SHS due to high shear stress and turbulent pressure fluctuations. Gas is evenly distributed through a 90 mm (span) × 600 mm (length) sintered porous media with pore sizes of 10 to 100 microns. The impact of the active gas replenishment is being evaluated with and without SHS.

  16. Microencapsulation of bioactives for food applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria Inês; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Barreiro, Maria Filomena

    2015-04-01

    Health issues are an emerging concern to the world population, and therefore the food industry is searching for novel food products containing health-promoting bioactive compounds, with little or no synthetic ingredients. However, there are some challenges in the development of functional foods, particularly in which the direct use of some bioactives is involved. They can show problems of instability, react with other food matrix ingredients or present strong odour and/or flavours. In this context, microencapsulation emerges as a potential approach to overcome these problems and, additionally, to provide controlled or targeted delivery or release. This work intends to contribute to the field of functional food development by performing a comprehensive review on the microencapsulation methods and materials, the bioactives used (extracts and isolated compounds) and the final application development. Although several studies dealing with microencapsulation of bioactives exist, they are mainly focused on the process development and the majority lack proof of concept for final applications. These factors, together with the lack of regulation, in Europe and in the United States, delay the development of new functional foods and, consequently, their market entry. In conclusion, the potential of microencapsulation to protect bioactive compounds ensuring their bioavailability is shown, but further studies are required, considering both its applicability and incentives by regulatory agencies.

  17. Bioactive glass-ceramics coatings on alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale Brovarone, C.; Verne, E.; Lupo, F. [Politecnico di Torino (Italy). Materials Science and Chemical Eng. Dept.; Moisescu, C. [Jena Univ. (Germany). Otto-Schott-Inst. fuer Glaschemie; Zanardi, L.; Bosetti, M.; Cannas, M. [Eastern Piemont Univ., Novara (Italy). Medical Science Dept.

    2001-07-01

    In this work, aiming to combine the mechanical performances of alumina with the surface properties of a bioactive material, we coated full density alumina substrates by a bioactive glass-ceramic GC. This latter was specially tailored, in term of costituents and specific quantity to have a thermal expansion coefficient close to that of alumina (8.5-9{sup *}10{sup -6}/ C) which is lower than most of the bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics already in use. In this way, we sought to avoid, as much as possible, the crack formation and propagation due to residual stresses generated by the thermal expansion coefficients mismatch. Furthermore, the high reactivity of alumina toward the glass-ceramic was carefully controlled to avoid deep compositional modification of the GC that will negatively affect its bioactivity. At this purpose, an intermediate layer of an appropriate glass G was coated prior to coat the bioactive glass-ceramic. On the materials obtained, preliminary biological tests have been done to evaluate glass-ceramic biocompatibility respect to alumina. (orig.)

  18. Milk proteins as precursors of bioactive peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Dziuba

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk proteins, a source of bioactive peptides, are the subject of numerous research studies aiming to, among others, evaluate their properties as precursors of biologically active peptides. Physiologically active peptides released from their precursors may interact with selected receptors and affect the overall condition and health of humans. By relying on the BIOPEP database of proteins and bioactive peptides, developed by the Department of Food Biochemistry at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (www.uwm.edu.pl/biochemia, the profiles of potential activity of milk proteins were determined and the function of those proteins as bioactive peptide precursors was evaluated based on a quantitative criterion, i.e. the occurrence frequency of bioactive fragments (A. The study revealed that milk proteins are mainly a source of peptides with the following types of activity: antihypertensive (Amax = 0.225, immunomodulating (0.024, smooth muscle contracting (0.011, antioxidative (0.029, dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors (0.148, opioid (0.073, opioid antagonistic (0.053, bonding and transporting metals and metal ions (0.024, antibacterial and antiviral (0.024, and antithrombotic (0.029. The enzymes capable of releasing bioactive peptides from precursor proteins were determined for every type of activity. The results of the experiment indicate that milk proteins such as lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin, β-casein and κ-casein hydrolysed by trypsin can be a relatively abundant source of biologically active peptides.

  19. Professor LI Tie's clinical experience in using Chinese herbs of replenishing blood%李铁教授临床应用补血中药的经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨坤

    2011-01-01

    中药补血药在临证中经常使用,笔者有幸跟随李铁教授临证学习,获益颇丰.总结李教授常用的补血中药,如当归、熟地黄、首乌、黄精、鸡血藤等.在补血的同时,或兼益气健脾,或兼滋养肝肾,或兼活血祛瘀,应究本溯源,审因论治,权衡用药,急则治标,更注重固本.在药对的配伍应用上独有特色,临床效果颇佳.%Chinese herbs of replenishing blood in clinic are frequently used, the author has the honor to follow Professor LI Tie to study the clinical knowledge, and have a lot of benefits. Summing up the Chinese herbs of replenishing blood used by teacher commonly, such as Danggui, Shudihuang, Heshouwu, Huangjing, Jixueteng and so on, when they palys a role of replenishing blood, they also invigorating spleen and replenishing qi, or nourishing liver and kidney, or activating blood circulation to dissipate blood stasis. It should be treated according to the source, measuring medication, symptomatic treatment in acute condition, pay more attention in radical treatment. There are unique characteristics in concerted application of couplet medicines, and the clinical efficacy is very good.

  20. The Q(s,S) control policy for the joint replenishment problem extended to the case of correlation among item-demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We develop an algorithm to compute an optimal Q(s,S) policy for the joint replenishment problem when demands follow a compound correlated Poisson process. It is a non-trivial generalization of the work by Nielsen and Larsen [2005. An analytical study of the Q(s,S) policy applied to the joint...

  1. The Q(s,S) control policy for the joint replenishment problem extended to the case of correlation among item-demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

      We develop an algorithm to compute an optimal Q(s,S) policy for the joint replenishment problem when demands follow a compound correlated Poisson process. It is a non-trivial generalization of the work by Nielsen and Larsen (2005). We make some numerical analyses on two-item problems where we...

  2. PREPARATION AND CATALYTIC ACTIVITY OF BIOACTIVE FIBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-yuan Yao; Wen-xing Chen; Bao-yan Zhao; Shen-shui Lü

    2006-01-01

    Two kinds of water-soluble metallophthalocyanines, binuclear cobalt phthalocyanine (Co2Pc2) and binuclear ferric phthalocyanine (Fe2Pc2), were synthesized through phenylanhydride-urea route and characterized by elemental analysis and FT-IR spectra. Binuclear metallophthalocyanine derivatives (Mt2Pc2) were immobilized on silk fibers and modified viscose fibers to construct bioactive fibers of mimic enzyme. Mt2Pc2 was used as the active center ofbioactive fibers, viscose and silk fibers as the microenvironments. The catalytic oxidation ability of bioactive fibers on the malodors of methanthiol and hydrogen sulfide was investigated at room temperature. The experimental results indicated that the catalytic activity of such bioactive fibers was closely correlative to the types ofbioactive fibers and substrates.

  3. Noble gases recycled into the mantle through cold subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smye, Andrew J.; Jackson, Colin R. M.; Konrad-Schmolke, Matthias; Hesse, Marc A.; Parman, Steve W.; Shuster, David L.; Ballentine, Chris J.

    2017-08-01

    Subduction of hydrous and carbonated oceanic lithosphere replenishes the mantle volatile inventory. Substantial uncertainties exist on the magnitudes of the recycled volatile fluxes and it is unclear whether Earth surface reservoirs are undergoing net-loss or net-gain of H2O and CO2. Here, we use noble gases as tracers for deep volatile cycling. Specifically, we construct and apply a kinetic model to estimate the effect of subduction zone metamorphism on the elemental composition of noble gases in amphibole - a common constituent of altered oceanic crust. We show that progressive dehydration of the slab leads to the extraction of noble gases, linking noble gas recycling to H2O. Noble gases are strongly fractionated within hot subduction zones, whereas minimal fractionation occurs along colder subduction geotherms. In the context of our modelling, this implies that the mantle heavy noble gas inventory is dominated by the injection of noble gases through cold subduction zones. For cold subduction zones, we estimate a present-day bulk recycling efficiency, past the depth of amphibole breakdown, of 5-35% and 60-80% for 36Ar and H2O bound within oceanic crust, respectively. Given that hotter subduction dominates over geologic history, this result highlights the importance of cooler subduction zones in regassing the mantle and in affecting the modern volatile budget of Earth's interior.

  4. Enhanced bioactivity, biocompatibility and mechanical behavior of strontium substituted bioactive glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arepalli, Sampath Kumar; Tripathi, Himanshu; Hira, Sumit Kumar; Manna, Partha Pratim; Pyare, Ram; S P Singh

    2016-12-01

    Strontium contained biomaterials have been reported as a potential bioactive material for bone regeneration, as it reduces bone resorption and stimulates bone formation. In the present investigation, the bioactive glasses were designed to partially substitute SrO for SiO2 in Na2O-CaO-SrO-P2O5-SiO2 system. This work demonstrates that the substitution of SrO for SiO2 has got significant benefit than substitution for CaO in the bioactive glass. Bioactivity was assessed by the immersion of the samples in simulated body fluid for different intervals. The formation of hydroxy carbonate apatite layer was identified by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The elastic modulus of the bioactive glasses was measured and found to increase with increasing SrO for SiO2. The blood compatibility of the samples was evaluated. In vitro cell culture studies of the samples were performed using human osteosarcoma U2-OS cell lines and found a significant improvement in cell viability and proliferation. The investigation showed enhancement in bioactivity, mechanical and biological properties of the strontia substituted for silica in glasses. Thus, these bioactive glasses would be highly potential for bone regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasmas Used to Embed Bioactive Compounds in Matrix Material for Active Packaging of Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Sulmer; Pedrow, Patrick; Powers, Joseph; Pitts, Marvin

    2009-10-01

    Active thin film packaging is a technology with the potential to provide consumers with new fruit and vegetable products-if the film can be applied without deactivating bioactive compounds.Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP) processing can be used to activate monomer with concomitant deposition of an organic plasma polymerized matrix material and to immobilize a bioactive compound all at or below room temperature.Aims of this work include: 1) immobilize an antimicrobial in the matrix; 2) determine if the antimicrobial retains its functionality and 3) optimize the reactor design.The plasma zone will be obtained by increasing the voltage on an electrode structure until the electric field in the feed material (argon + monomer) yields electron avalanches. Results will be described using Red Delicious apples.Prospective matrix precursors are vanillin and cinnamic acid.A prospective bioactive compound is benzoic acid.

  6. Hierarchically Nanoporous Bioactive Glasses for High Efficiency Immobilization of Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, W.; Min, D.D.; Zhang, X.D.

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive glasses with hierarchical nanoporosity and structures have been heavily involved in immobilization of enzymes. Because of meticulous design and ingenious hierarchical nanostructuration of porosities from yeast cell biotemplates, hierarchically nanostructured porous bioactive glasses can...

  7. Protein co-assembly for the delivery of bioactives.

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda-Tavares, Guilherme; Croguennec, Thomas; Hamon, Pascaline; Peres de sa Peixoto Junior, Paulo; De Carvahlo, Antonio Fernandes; Bouhallab, Said

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Protection and target delivery of food bioactives are main concerns when the manufacture of food products with health-benefit assets is involved. Natural delivery systems for bioactives for instance casein micelle for calcium phosphate are only encountered in some food products and allow the protection and control release of a limited number of bioactives. For this reason, the design of new devices that allow the encapsulation of any types of bioactives is required. Since a large...

  8. Zoning Districts, Zoning, Published in 2002, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Zoning Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2002. It is described as 'Zoning'. Data by this publisher are often...

  9. Encapsulation for preservation of functionality and targeted delivery of bioactive food components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Paul; Faas, Marijke M.; Spasojevic, Milica; Sikkema, Jan

    There has been a tremendous increase in the number of food products containing bioactive components with a health promoting or disease preventing effect. Bioactive food components can be divided into bioactive molecules and bioactive living cells (probiotics). Both bioactive molecules and bioactive

  10. Encapsulation for preservation of functionality and targeted delivery of bioactive food components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Paul; Faas, Marijke M.; Spasojevic, Milica; Sikkema, Jan

    2010-01-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in the number of food products containing bioactive components with a health promoting or disease preventing effect. Bioactive food components can be divided into bioactive molecules and bioactive living cells (probiotics). Both bioactive molecules and bioactive

  11. Five new bioactive compounds from Chenopodium ambrosioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kun; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Hong-Qing; Liu, Chao; Li, Bao-Ming; Kang, Jie; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2015-05-01

    Five new bioactive compounds, chenopodiumamines A-D (1-4) and chenopodiumoside A (5), were isolated from the ethanol extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by various spectroscopic means (UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). Compounds 1-3 had moderate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

  12. Glutathione conjugation as a bioactivation reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bladeren, P.J. van

    2000-01-01

    In general, glutathione conjugation is regarded as a detoxication reaction. However, depending on the properties of the substrate, bioactivation is also possible. Four types of activation reaction have been recognized: direct-acting compounds, conjugates that are activated through cysteine conjugate

  13. Marine Bioactives and Potential Application in Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alessandra Gammone

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An enriched diet with antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, β-carotene and phenolic compounds, has always been suggested to improve oxidative stress, preventing related diseases. In this respect, marine natural product (MNP, such as COX inhibitors, marine steroids, molecules interfering with factors involved in the modulation of gene expression (such as NF-κB, macrolides, many antioxidant agents, thermogenic substances and even substances that could help the immune system and that result in the protection of cartilage, have been recently gaining attention. The marine world represents a reserve of bioactive ingredients, with considerable potential as functional food. Substances, such as chitin, chitosan, n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive peptides, can provide several health benefits, such as the reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. In addition, new marine bioactive substances with potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and thermogenic capacity may provide health benefits and performance improvement, especially in those who practice physical activity, because of their increased free radical and Reacting Oxygen Species (ROS production during exercise, and, particularly, in athletes. The aim of this review is to examine the potential pharmacological properties and application of many marine bioactive substances in sports.

  14. Bioactive polymeric scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Stratton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A variety of engineered scaffolds have been created for tissue engineering using polymers, ceramics and their composites. Biomimicry has been adopted for majority of the three-dimensional (3D scaffold design both in terms of physicochemical properties, as well as bioactivity for superior tissue regeneration. Scaffolds fabricated via salt leaching, particle sintering, hydrogels and lithography have been successful in promoting cell growth in vitro and tissue regeneration in vivo. Scaffold systems derived from decellularization of whole organs or tissues has been popular due to their assured biocompatibility and bioactivity. Traditional scaffold fabrication techniques often failed to create intricate structures with greater resolution, not reproducible and involved multiple steps. The 3D printing technology overcome several limitations of the traditional techniques and made it easier to adopt several thermoplastics and hydrogels to create micro-nanostructured scaffolds and devices for tissue engineering and drug delivery. This review highlights scaffold fabrication methodologies with a focus on optimizing scaffold performance through the matrix pores, bioactivity and degradation rate to enable tissue regeneration. Review highlights few examples of bioactive scaffold mediated nerve, muscle, tendon/ligament and bone regeneration. Regardless of the efforts required for optimization, a shift in 3D scaffold uses from the laboratory into everyday life is expected in the near future as some of the methods discussed in this review become more streamlined.

  15. Glutathione conjugation as a bioactivation reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bladeren, P.J. van

    2000-01-01

    In general, glutathione conjugation is regarded as a detoxication reaction. However, depending on the properties of the substrate, bioactivation is also possible. Four types of activation reaction have been recognized: direct-acting compounds, conjugates that are activated through cysteine conjugate

  16. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much

  17. Bioactive motifs of agouti signal protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virador, V M; Santis, C; Furumura, M; Kalbacher, H; Hearing, V J

    2000-08-25

    The switch between the synthesis of eu- and pheomelanins is modulated by the interaction of two paracrine signaling molecules, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) and agouti signal protein (ASP), which interact with melanocytes via the MSH receptor (MC1R). Comparison of the primary sequence of ASP with the known MSH pharmacophore provides no suggestion about the putative bioactive domain(s) of ASP. To identify such bioactive motif(s), we synthesized 15-mer peptides that spanned the primary sequence of ASP and determined their effects on the melanogenic activities of murine melanocytes. Northern and Western blotting were used, together with chemical analysis of melanins and enzymatic assays, to identify three distinct bioactive regions of ASP that down-regulate eumelanogenesis. The decrease in eumelanin production was mediated by down-regulation of mRNA levels for tyrosinase and other melanogenic enzymes, as occurs in vivo, and these effects were comparable to those elicited by intact recombinant ASP. Shorter peptides in those motifs were synthesized and their effects on melanogenesis were further investigated. The amino acid arginine, which is present in the MSH peptide pharmacophore (HFRW), is also in the most active domain of ASP (KVARP). Our data suggest that lysines and an arginine (in motifs such as KxxxxKxxR or KxxRxxxxK) are important for the bioactivity of ASP. Identification of the specific ASP epitope that interacts with the MC1R has potential pharmacological applications in treating dysfunctions of skin pigmentation.

  18. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much i

  19. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much i

  20. Bioactive alkaloids in vertically transmitted fungal endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants form mutualistic symbioses with a variety of microorganisms, including endophytic fungi that live inside the plant and cause no symptoms of infection. Some endophytic fungi form defensive mutualisms based on the production of bioactive metabolites that protect the plant from herbivores in exc...

  1. Marine bioactives and potential application in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Gemello, Eugenio; Riccioni, Graziano; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2014-04-30

    An enriched diet with antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, β-carotene and phenolic compounds, has always been suggested to improve oxidative stress, preventing related diseases. In this respect, marine natural product (MNP), such as COX inhibitors, marine steroids, molecules interfering with factors involved in the modulation of gene expression (such as NF-κB), macrolides, many antioxidant agents, thermogenic substances and even substances that could help the immune system and that result in the protection of cartilage, have been recently gaining attention. The marine world represents a reserve of bioactive ingredients, with considerable potential as functional food. Substances, such as chitin, chitosan, n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive peptides, can provide several health benefits, such as the reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. In addition, new marine bioactive substances with potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and thermogenic capacity may provide health benefits and performance improvement, especially in those who practice physical activity, because of their increased free radical and Reacting Oxygen Species (ROS) production during exercise, and, particularly, in athletes. The aim of this review is to examine the potential pharmacological properties and application of many marine bioactive substances in sports.

  2. Citrus Limonoids: Analysis, Bioactivity, and Biomedical Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication is a review of the chemistry, biochemistry and bioactivity of limonoids occurring in citrus. The review chronologically relates the evolution of research in citrus limonoids beginning with their association with bitterness development in citrus juices. The chemical and biochemical...

  3. Bioactive Terpenes from Marine-Derived Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Elissawy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine-derived fungi continue to be a prolific source of secondary metabolites showing diverse bioactivities. Terpenoids from marine-derived fungi exhibit wide structural diversity including numerous compounds with pronounced biological activities. In this review, we survey the last five years’ reports on terpenoidal metabolites from marine-derived fungi with particular attention on those showing marked biological activities.

  4. Bioactive terpenes from marine-derived fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elissawy, Ahmed M; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Ebada, Sherif S; Singab, AbdelNasser B; Proksch, Peter

    2015-04-03

    Marine-derived fungi continue to be a prolific source of secondary metabolites showing diverse bioactivities. Terpenoids from marine-derived fungi exhibit wide structural diversity including numerous compounds with pronounced biological activities. In this review, we survey the last five years' reports on terpenoidal metabolites from marine-derived fungi with particular attention on those showing marked biological activities.

  5. Assessment of offshore New Jersey sources of Beach replenishment sand by diversified application of geologic and geophysical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, J.S.; Hall, D.W.; Uptegrove, J.; Sheridan, R.E.; Ashley, G.M.; Esker, D.

    1999-01-01

    Beach replenishment serves the dual purpose of maintaining a source of tourism and recreation while protecting life and property. For New Jersey, sources for beach sand supply are increasingly found offshore. To meet present and future needs, geologic and geophysical techniques can be used to improve the identification, volume estimation, and determination of suitability, thereby making the mining and managing of this resource more effective. Current research has improved both data collection and interpretation of seismic surveys and vibracore analysis for projects investigating sand ridges offshore of New Jersey. The New Jersey Geological Survey in cooperation with Rutgers University is evaluating the capabilities of digital seismic data (in addition to analog data) to analyze sand ridges. The printing density of analog systems limits the dynamic range to about 24 dB. Digital acquisition systems with dynamic ranges above 100 dB can permit enhanced seismic profiles by trace static correction, deconvolution, automatic gain scaling, horizontal stacking and digital filtering. Problems common to analog data, such as wave-motion effects of surface sources, water-bottom reverberation, and bubble-pulse-width can be addressed by processing. More than 160 line miles of digital high-resolution continuous profiling seismic data have been collected at sand ridges off Avalon, Beach Haven, and Barnegat Inlet. Digital multichannel data collection has recently been employed to map sand resources within the Port of New York/New Jersey expanded dredge-spoil site located 3 mi offshore of Sandy Hook, New Jersey. Multichannel data processing can reduce multiples, improve signal-to-noise calculations, enable source deconvolution, and generate sediment acoustic velocities and acoustic impedance analysis. Synthetic seismograms based on empirical relationships among grain size distribution, density, and velocity from vibracores are used to calculate proxy values for density and velocity

  6. Preparation and bioactive properties of nano bioactive glass and segmented polyurethane composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Pérez, Fernando J; Vargas-Coronado, Rossana F; Cervantes-Uc, Jose M; Cauich-Rodríguez, Juan V; Covarrubias, Cristian; Pedram-Yazdani, Merhdad

    2016-04-01

    Composites of glutamine-based segmented polyurethanes with 5 to 25 wt.% bioactive glass nanoparticles were prepared, characterized, and their mineralization potential was evaluated in simulated body fluid. Biocompatibility with dental pulp stem cells was assessed by MTS to an extended range of compositions (1 to 25 wt.% of bioactive glass nanoparticles). Physicochemical characterization showed that composites retained many of the matrix properties, i.e. those corresponding to semicrystalline elastomeric polymers as they exhibited a glass transition temperature (Tg) between -41 and -36℃ and a melting temperature (Tm) between 46 and 49℃ in agreement with X-ray reflections at 23.6° and 21.3°. However, with bioactive glass nanoparticles addition, tensile strength and strain were reduced from 22.2 to 12.2 MPa and 667.2 to 457.8%, respectively with 25 wt.% of bioactive glass nanoparticles. Although Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy did not show evidence of mineralization after conditioning of these composites in simulated body fluid, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis showed the formation of an apatite layer on the surface which increased with higher bioactive glass concentrations and longer conditioning time. Dental pulp stem cells proliferation at day 5 was improved in bioactive glass nanoparticles composites containing lower amounts of the filler (1-2.5 wt.%) but it was compromised at day 9 in composites containing high contents of nBG (5, 15, 25 wt.%). However, Runx2 gene expression was particularly upregulated for the dental pulp stem cells cultured with composites loaded with 15 and 25 wt.% of bioactive glass nanoparticles. In conclusion, low content bioactive glass nanoparticles and segmented polyurethanes composites deserve further investigation for applications such as guided bone regeneration membranes, where osteoconductivity is desirable but not a demanding mechanical performance.

  7. STUDY ON THE CATALYTIC ABILITY OF BIOACTIVE FIBERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Yuyuan; CHEN Wenxing

    2006-01-01

    Two kinds of water-soluble metallophthalocyanines (Mt2Pc2), binuclear cobalt phthalocyanine (Co2Pc2) and binuclear ferric phthalocyanine (Fe2Pc2), were supported on silk fibers and modified viscose fibers to construct bioactive fibers of mimic enzyme, Mt2Pc2 used as the active center of bioactive fibers, viscose and silk fibers as the microenvironments. The catalytic oxidation ability of bioactive fibers on the malodors of methanthiol and hydrogen sulfide was investigated at room temperature. The experimental results demonstrated that the catalytic activity of such bioactive fibers was tightly correlative to the types of bioactive fibers and substrates.

  8. A solvent replenishment solution for managing evaporation of biochemical reactions in air-matrix digital microfluidics devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebrail, Mais J; Renzi, Ronald F; Sinha, Anupama; Van De Vreugde, Jim; Gondhalekar, Carmen; Ambriz, Cesar; Meagher, Robert J; Branda, Steven S

    2015-01-07

    Digital microfluidics (DMF) is a powerful technique for sample preparation and analysis for a broad range of biological and chemical applications. In many cases, it is desirable to carry out DMF on an open surface, such that the matrix surrounding the droplets is ambient air. However, the utility of the air-matrix DMF format has been severely limited by problems with droplet evaporation, especially when the droplet-based biochemical reactions require high temperatures for long periods of time. We present a simple solution for managing evaporation in air-matrix DMF: just-in-time replenishment of the reaction volume using droplets of solvent. We demonstrate that this solution enables DMF-mediated execution of several different biochemical reactions (RNA fragmentation, first-strand cDNA synthesis, and PCR) over a range of temperatures (4-95 °C) and incubation times (up to 1 h or more) without use of oil, humidifying chambers, or off-chip heating modules. Reaction volumes and temperatures were maintained roughly constant over the course of each experiment, such that the reaction kinetics and products generated by the air-matrix DMF device were comparable to those of conventional benchscale reactions. This simple yet effective solution for evaporation management is an important advance in developing air-matrix DMF for a wide variety of new, high-impact applications, particularly in the biomedical sciences.

  9. The Confinement of Star-Forming Galaxies into a Main Sequence through Episodes of Gas Compaction, Depletion, and Replenishment

    CERN Document Server

    Tacchella, Sandro; Carollo, C Marcella; Ceverino, Daniel; DeGraf, Colin; Lapiner, Sharon; Mandelker, Nir; Primack, Joel R

    2015-01-01

    Using cosmological simulations, we address the properties of high-redshift star-forming galaxies (SFGs) across their main sequence (MS) in the plane of star-formation rate (SFR) versus stellar mass. We relate them to the evolution of galaxies through phases of gas compaction, depletion, possible replenishment, and eventual quenching. We find that the high-SFR galaxies in the upper envelope of the MS are compact, with high gas fractions and short depletion times ("blue nuggets"), while the lower-SFR galaxies in the lower envelope have lower central gas densities, lower gas fractions and longer depletion times, consistent with observed gradients across the MS. Stellar-structure gradients are negligible. The SFGs oscillate about the MS ridge on timescales $\\sim0.4~t_{\\mathrm{Hubble}}$ ($\\sim1$ Gyr at $z\\sim3$). The propagation upwards is due to gas compaction, triggered, e.g., by mergers, counter-rotating streams, and/or violent disc instabilities. The downturn at the upper envelope is due to central gas depleti...

  10. RIM-binding protein links synaptic homeostasis to the stabilization and replenishment of high release probability vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Martin; Genç, Özgür; Davis, Graeme W

    2015-03-04

    Here we define activities of RIM-binding protein (RBP) that are essential for baseline neurotransmission and presynaptic homeostatic plasticity. At baseline, rbp mutants have a ∼10-fold decrease in the apparent Ca(2+) sensitivity of release that we attribute to (1) impaired presynaptic Ca(2+) influx, (2) looser coupling of vesicles to Ca(2+) influx, and (3) limited access to the readily releasable vesicle pool (RRP). During homeostatic plasticity, RBP is necessary for the potentiation of Ca(2+) influx and the expansion of the RRP. Remarkably, rbp mutants also reveal a rate-limiting stage required for the replenishment of high release probability (p) vesicles following vesicle depletion. This rate slows ∼4-fold at baseline and nearly 7-fold during homeostatic signaling in rbp. These effects are independent of altered Ca(2+) influx and RRP size. We propose that RBP stabilizes synaptic efficacy and homeostatic plasticity through coordinated control of presynaptic Ca(2+) influx and the dynamics of a high-p vesicle pool.

  11. Oil fuel delivery optimization for multi product and multi depot: the case of petrol station replenishment problem (PSRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surjandari, Isti; Rachman, Amar; Dianawati, Fauzia; Wibowo, R. Pramono

    2011-10-01

    With the Oil and Gas Law No. 22 of 2001, national and foreign private enterprises can invest in all sectors of Oil and Gas in Indonesia. In anticipation of this free competition, Pertamina, as a state-owned enterprises, which previously had monopolized the oil and gas business activities in Indonesia, should be able to improve services as well as the efficiency in order to compete in the free market, especially in terms of cost efficiency of fuel distribution to gas station (SPBU). To optimize the distribution activity, it is necessary to design a scheduling system and its fuel delivery routes daily to every SPBU. The determination of routes and scheduling delivery of fuel to the SPBU can be modeled as a Petrol Station Replenishment Problem (PSRP) with the multi-depot, multi-product, time windows and split deliveries, which in this study will be completed by the Tabu Search algorithm (TS). This study was conducted in the area of Bandung, the capital of West Java province, which is a big city and the neighboring city of Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. By using the fuel delivery data for one day, the results showed a decrease of 16.38% of the distance of the route compared to the current conditions, which impacted on the reduction of distribution costs and decrease the number of total trips by 5.22% and 3.83%.

  12. Influence of barium substitution on bioactivity, thermal and physico-mechanical properties of bioactive glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arepalli, Sampath Kumar, E-mail: askumar.rs.cer11@iitbhu.ac.in; Tripathi, Himanshu; Vyas, Vikash Kumar; Jain, Shubham; Suman, Shyam Kumar; Pyare, Ram; Singh, S.P., E-mail: spsinghceram@gmail.com

    2015-04-01

    Barium with low concentration in the glasses acts as a muscle stimulant and is found in human teeth. We have made a primary study by substituting barium in the bioactive glass. The chemical composition containing (46.1 − X) SiO{sub 2−}–24.3 Na{sub 2}O–26.9 CaO–2.6 P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, where X = 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 mol% of BaO was chosen and melted in an electric furnace at 1400 ± 5 °C. The glasses were characterized to determine their use in biomedical applications. The nucleation and crystallization regimes were determined by DTA and the controlled crystallization was carried out by suitable heat treatment. The crystalline phase formed was identified by using XRD technique. Bioactivity of these glasses was assessed by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various time periods. The formation of hydroxy carbonate apatite (HCA) layer was identified by FTIR spectrometry, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and XRD which showed the presence of HCA as the main phase in all tested bioactive glass samples. Flexural strength and densities of bioactive glasses have been measured and found to increase with increasing the barium content. The human blood compatibility of the samples was evaluated and found to be pertinent. - Highlights: • In vitro bioactivity of soda-lime–baria-phospho-silicate glass was investigated. • HCA formed on surface of glasses was confirmed by XRD, SEM and FTIR spectrometry. • Mechanical properties of glasses were found to increase with barium addition. • Hemolysis showed that 1.2 mol% BaO bioactive glass exhibited better biocompatibility. • Barium substituted bioactive glasses can be used as bone implants.

  13. Replenishing teachers of rural elementary and secondary schools: an enduring mechanism%农村中小学教师补充长效机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶红英

    2012-01-01

    It is urgent to establish or perfect the systems of replenishment, supplement, secession, cultivation and training and personnel' s rational flow in view of the defect in the present replenishment mechanism. The establishment of such a creative enduring mechanism can promote the development of rural education.%针对当前农村中小学教师补充机制的缺陷,亟需建立农村中小学教师的流失补偿制度、健全农村中小学教师退出机制、完善农村中小学教师培养培训制度、建立县域内中小学教师全员流动制度,从而创新农村中小学教师补充长效机制,促进农村教育的发展。

  14. Effect of replacement interval of nutrients solution and concentration of replenishment solution on growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. under floating culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Barzegar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Floating culture of lettuce is developing because of the increase in water use efficiency and chemical fertilizers. In order to assess replacement time of nutrient solution and concentration of replenishment solution on growth and yield of Butterhead lettuce, a factorial experiment was conducted through completely randomized design with three replications. Each experimental unit was a 60×40×15 cm (36 L plastic box, and four plants were grown in a spacing of 20×25 cm apart on polyester sheets. The nutrient solutions were replaced with new solutions once every 3, 4 and 5 weeks. For compensating the removed water and depleted nutrients from the solution, replenishment solutions with ⅓ and ⅔ strength were added to the tank once a week. Plants were harvested 35 days after transplanting. Results showed that there was no significant difference in fresh head weight, head periphery, number of leaves per plant, leaf dry weight, root weight, and stem length and diameter among treatments. The interaction effects between replacement time × concentration of replenishment solution was not significant for none of the growth parameters. Fresh head weight and number of leaves per plant were 265-312 g (mean 286 g and 32-37 leaves, respectively. Chemical analysis of lettuce-head tissue indicated that concentration of macro-and-micronutrients was in optimum range in all the treatments. Head weight per plant was found significantly and positively correlated with number of leaves/plant, root weight, stem diameter and head periphery. Results of the present experiment indicated that lettuce growth and nutrients could be managed well by adding replenishment solution with ⅓ strength, without replacing the nutrients solution.

  15. 两阶段库存问题的最优补货策略%Optimal Replenishment Strategy for Two-stage Inventory System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马慧慧

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the two-stage inventory replenishment threshold problem with a major supplier and an emergency supplier. According to the surplus inventory levels of the end of the first stage,we determine to use which kind of suppliers and the replenishment threshold of the next stage to make the retailer get maximum benefits. We identify respectively replenishment threshold of two sup- ply modes through analysis of the profit functions ' properties, and establish a simple algorithm to choose which kind of suppliers. In the end, we give the simulation experiment and determine different replenish- ment strategy to the different of surplus inventory levels.%主要研究带有普通供应商和紧急供应商的两阶段库存问题的补货阀值问题.即根据运行周期中第一阶段结束后的剩余库存量,确定下一阶段调用哪种供应商进行供货以及补货阀值来使零售商取得最大的收益.通过利润函数性质分析确定两种供应商供货时分别的补货阀值,并建立了简单的算法来决策调用哪种供应商.最后给出仿真模拟实验,确定不同剩余量的不同补货策略.

  16. Inactivation dynamics of Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in wash water during simulated chlorine depletion and replenishment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Luo, Yaguang; Nou, Xiangwu; Lyu, Shuxia; Wang, Qin

    2015-09-01

    Maintaining effective sanitizer concentration is of critical importance for preventing pathogen survival and transference during fresh-cut produce wash operation and for ensuring the safety of finished products. However, maintaining an adequate level of sanitizer in wash water can be challenging for processors due to the large organic load in the wash system. In this study, we investigated how the survival of human pathogens was affected by the dynamic changes in water quality during chlorine depletion and replenishment in simulated produce washing operations. Lettuce extract was added incrementally into water containing pre-set levels of free chlorine to simulate the chlorine depletion process, and sodium hypochlorite was added incrementally into water containing pre-set levels of lettuce extract to simulate chlorine replenishment. Key water quality parameters were closely monitored and the bactericidal activity of the wash water was evaluated using three-strain cocktails of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes. In both chlorine depletion and replenishment processes, no pathogen survival was observed when wash water free chlorine level was maintained above 3.66 mg/L, irrespective of the initial free chlorine levels (10, 50, 100 and 200 mg/L) or organic loading (chemical oxidation demand levels of 0, 532, 1013 and 1705 mg/L). At this free chlorine concentration, the measured ORP was 843 mV and pH was 5.12 for the chlorine depletion process; the measured ORP was 714 mV and pH was 6.97 for the chlorine replenishment process. This study provides quantitative data needed by the fresh-cut produce industry and the regulatory agencies to establish critical operational control parameters to prevent pathogen survival and cross-contamination during fresh produce washing.

  17. Therapeutic and recurrence-preventing effects of Qi-Replenishing and Blood-Activating Formula in rats with acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Rong Jiang; Hui-Nan Ge; Guo-Qiang Liang; Liang Zhou; Lu-Rong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the therapeutic and recurrence-preventing effects of Qi-Replenishing and Blood-Activating Formula in rats with acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer. Methods: A total of 138 SD rats were selected to make rat models with gastric ulcer induced by acetic acid (24 rats with sham operation served as sham operation group), and were randomly divided into model group (n=30), western medicine group (n=30), traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) group (n=24) and combination group (combined western medicine and TCM group, n=30). Western medicine group was gavaged with omeprazole in the morning and with iso-volumetric distilled water in the afternoon; TCM group and TCM sham operation group were gavaged with iso-volumetric distilled water in the morning and with Qi-Replenishing and Blood-Activating Formula in the afternoon;combination group was gavaged with omeprazole in the morning and with Qi-Replenishing and Blood-Activating Formula in the afternoon; sham operation group and model group were gavaged with iso-volumetric distilled water both in the morning and afternoon. Ulcer indexes and degree of mucosal degree in rats at different time points after gavage were observed. Twenty-eight days after gavage, interleukin (IL)-1β was given to induce ulcer recurrence so as to observethe recurrent severity and rate of ulcer in each group. Results: Compared with model group and western medicine group, treatment in combination group could prominently reduce the ulcer index of rats with peptic ulcer, and increase the healing rate and inhibition rate of peptic ulcer. After IL-1β-induced ulcer recurrence, combination group was significantly superior to modelgroup and western medicine group in ulcer recurrent rate [50% (3/6) vs. 100% (6/6)] and severity. Conclusions: Basic acid-suppression therapy combined with Qi-Replenishing and Blood-Activating Formula can effectually improve the ulcer healing quality and reduce ulcer recurrence.

  18. Polyphenols from wolfberry and their bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng-Qun; Xiao, Jia; Fan, Hong-Xia; Yu, Yang; He, Rong-Rong; Feng, Xiao-Lin; Kurihara, Hiroshi; So, Kwok-Fai; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Gao, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Nine new phenylpropanoids, one new coumarin, and 43 known polyphenols were isolated from wolfberry. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses, chemical methods, and comparison of NMR data. Polyphenols, an important type of natural products, are notable constituents in wolfberry. 53 polyphenols, including 28 phenylpropanoids, four coumarins, eight lignans, five flavonoids, three isoflavonoids, two chlorogenic acid derivatives, and three other constituents, were identified from wolfberry. Lignans and isoflavonoids were firstly reported from wolfberry. 22 known polyphenols were the first isolates from the genus Lycium. This research presents a systematic study on wolfberry polyphenols, including their bioactivities. All these compounds exhibited oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and some compounds displayed DPPH radical scavenging activity. One compound had acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. The discovery of new polyphenols and their bioactivities is beneficial for understanding the scientific basis of the effects of wolfberry.

  19. Bioactivity of mica/apatite glass ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The bioactivity of mica/apatite glass ceramic composites, including the in vitro behavior in simulated body fluid and the histological appearance of the interface between the mica/apatite glass ceramics and the rabbit mandible defect in vivo under a dynamic condition. The results show that biological apatite layer forms on the surface of the mica/apatite glass ceramics after 1 d of immersion in the simulated body fluid, and becomes dense after 14 d. In vivo tests indicate that bone formation occurs after implantation for 14 d, and strong bonding of bone to the implant occurs after 42 d. No aseptic loosening occurs during 42 d of implantation. The finding shows that mica/apatite glass ceramics have good bioactivity and osteoconductivity for constructing bone graft, and can be promising for biomedical application.

  20. Bioactive lipids in kidney physiology and pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Sałata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipids not only have structural functions, but also play an important role as signaling and regulatory molecules and participate in many cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. Bioactive lipids act both as extracellular mediators, which are associated with receptors on the surface of cells, and intracellular mediators triggering different signal pathways. They are present and active in physiological conditions, and are also involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation, asthma, cancer, diabetes, and hypertension. Bioactive lipids such as derivatives of arachidonic acid and sphingolipids have an important role in renal development, physiology and in many renal diseases. Some of them are potential indicators of kidney damage degree and/or function of the transplanted kidneys.

  1. Bioactive foods and ingredients for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Connie M

    2014-05-01

    Bioactive compounds in foods have been gaining interest, and processes to consider them for public health recommendations are being discussed. However, the evidence base is difficult to assemble. It is difficult to demonstrate causality, and there often is not a single compound-single effect relation. Furthermore, health benefits may be due to metabolites produced by the host or gut microbiome rather than the food constituent per se. Properties that can be measured in a food may not translate to in vivo health effects. Compounds that are being pursued may increase gut microbial diversity, improve endothelial function, improve cognitive function, reduce bone loss, and so forth. A new type of bioactive component is emerging from epigenetic modifications by our diet, including microRNA transfer from our diet, which can regulate expression of human genes. Policy processes are needed to establish the level of evidence needed to determine dietary advice and policy recommendations and to set research agendas.

  2. Secondary metabolites and bioactivities of Myrtus communis

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud I Nassar; Aboutabl, El-Sayed A.; Rania F. Ahmed; EL-Khrisy, Ezzel-Din A.; Khaled M Ibrahim; Sleem, Amany A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Myrtus species are characterized by the presence of phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, volatile oils and fatty acids. They are remedies for variety of ailments. This study therefore investigated medicinal effects of Myrtus communis L. Methods: Bioactivity studies of Myrtus communis L. leaves were carried out on volatile oil, 7% methanol and aqueous extracts and the isolated compounds myricetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside, myricetin 3-O-∝-rhamnopyranoside and gallic acid. Results: Dete...

  3. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much in their content. The external fractions of the grain, the bran and specially the aleurone, are the richest. We observed that processing the bran in whole-grain breads increased three times the leve...

  4. Pinocembrine: a bioactive flavanone from Teloxys graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rayo Camacho, M; Sanchez, B; Quiroz, H; Contreras, J L; Mata, R

    1991-03-01

    Bioactivity directed fractionation of the acetone extract of Teloxys graveolens (Willd.) Weber (Chenopodiaceae), using the brine shrimp lethality test, led to the isolation of 5,7-dihydroxyflavanone (pinocembrine) (LC50 = 4.25 micrograms/ml) as the only active compound. Pinocembrine also exhibited fasciolicide, ovicide and larvicide activities on newly excysted Fasciola hepatica, on infective eggs of Ascaridi galli and on stage three larvae of Stomoxys calcitrans, respectively.

  5. [Analysis of 'treating different diseases by the same method' from aspect of theoretical research and clinical application of 'replenishing Qi and strengthening Shen'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing-Cheng; Wu, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Ying; Gong, Wei-Yi; Liu, Bao-Jun; Xu, Hai-lin

    2013-05-01

    Treating different diseases by the same method is one of the most important characteristics in Chinese medicine, and as the main principle of treatment it has been widely applied in Chinese clinics. Its clinical effect is clear. The integration of 'differentiation of diseases' and 'differentiation of syndrome' should be the prerequisite and basis of 'treating different diseases by the same method'. Only if different diseases have the same syndrome, the same treatment can be used on them. Replenishing qi and strengthening Shen is a widely used method that carries out 'treating different diseases by the same method'. It is indicated that the method of 'replenishing qi and strengthening Shen' has preferable effects on many diseases. Part of its mechanism is associated with the improvement of function of neuro-endocrine-immune network, and therefore, it has the clinical effect of 'adjustment of the whole and improvement of the part' on partial disorders. Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), uterine bleeding in puberty, anovulatory infertility, Kidney syndrome and aging, although they are attributed to different diseases and states, only if they have the syndrome of Shen deficiency, the principle of 'treating different diseases by the same method' and the method of 'replenishing qi 'and strengthening Shen' can be used effectively.

  6. Dynamic control of synaptic vesicle replenishment and short-term plasticity by Ca(2+)-calmodulin-Munc13-1 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipstein, Noa; Sakaba, Takeshi; Cooper, Benjamin H; Lin, Kun-Han; Strenzke, Nicola; Ashery, Uri; Rhee, Jeong-Seop; Taschenberger, Holger; Neher, Erwin; Brose, Nils

    2013-07-10

    Short-term synaptic plasticity, the dynamic alteration of synaptic strength during high-frequency activity, is a fundamental characteristic of all synapses. At the calyx of Held, repetitive activity eventually results in short-term synaptic depression, which is in part due to the gradual exhaustion of releasable synaptic vesicles. This is counterbalanced by Ca(2+)-dependent vesicle replenishment, but the molecular mechanisms of this replenishment are largely unknown. We studied calyces of Held in knockin mice that express a Ca(2+)-Calmodulin insensitive Munc13-1(W464R) variant of the synaptic vesicle priming protein Munc13-1. Calyces of these mice exhibit a slower rate of synaptic vesicle replenishment, aberrant short-term depression and reduced recovery from synaptic depression after high-frequency stimulation. Our data establish Munc13-1 as a major presynaptic target of Ca(2+)-Calmodulin signaling and show that the Ca(2+)-Calmodulin-Munc13-1 complex is a pivotal component of the molecular machinery that determines short-term synaptic plasticity characteristics.

  7. Danggui Buxue Decoction Being a Prescription of Replenishing Qi%当归补血汤可作为补气之方

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈耿杨; 黎同明

    2012-01-01

    历版教材均认为当归补血汤具有补气生血的功效而将其作为补血方剂的代表,笔者通过查阅大量文献,从该方的功效入手,探讨“血为气之母”的理论,结合当归补血汤的源流、衍化发展及临床应用现状,提出当归补血汤补血可,补气亦可,血虚、气虚皆可应用,不必拘于补血功效.%All the textbooks of Chinese Medicine consider that Danggui Buxue Decoction can replenish Qi to generate blood and represent it as the blood-replenishing prescription. The author investigates the theory of "blood is mother of qi" from the effect of this prescription by searching many literatures and combines its origin, developing, present situation of clinical application to propose that Danggui Buxue Decoction can be a prescription of replenishing qi. So this prescription can be the treatment of qi deficiency and blood deficiency.

  8. Self-replenishing ability of cross-linked low surface energy polymer films investigated by a complementary experimental-simulation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, A. C. C.; Lyakhova, K.; van Riel, J. M.; van der Ven, L. G. J.; van Benthem, R. A. T. M.; de With, G.

    2014-03-01

    Nowadays, many self-healing strategies are available for recovering mechanical damage of bulk polymeric materials. The recovery of surface-dependent functionalities on polymer films is, however, equally important and has been less investigated. In this work we study the ability of low surface energy cross-linked poly(ester urethane) networks containing perfluorinated dangling chains to self-replenish their surface, after being submitted to repeated surface damage. For this purpose we used a combined experimental-simulation approach. Experimentally, the cross-linked films were intentionally damaged by cryo-microtoming to remove top layers and create new surfaces which were characterized by water Contact Angle measurements and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The same systems were simultaneously represented by a Dissipative Particles Dynamics simulation method, where the damage was modeled by removing the top film layers in the simulation box and replacing it by new "air" beads. The influence of different experimental parameters, such as the concentration of the low surface energy component and the molecular mobility span of the dangling chains, on the surface recovery is discussed. The combined approach reveals important details of the self-replenishing ability of damaged polymer films such as the occurrence of multiple-healing events, the self-replenishing efficiency, and the minimum "healing agent" concentration for a maximum recovery.

  9. Fluoride-containing bioactive glasses: Glass design, structure, bioactivity, cellular interactions, and recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Furqan A

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive glasses (BGs) are known to bond to both hard and soft tissues. Upon exposure to an aqueous environment, BG undergoes ion exchange, hydrolysis, selective dissolution and precipitation of an apatite layer on their surface, which elicits an interfacial biological response resulting in bioactive fixation, inhibiting further dissolution of the glass, and preventing complete resorption of the material. Fluorine is considered one of the most effective in-vivo bone anabolic factors. In low concentrations, fluoride ions (F(-)) increase bone mass and mineral density, improve the resistance of the apatite structure to acid attack, and have well documented antibacterial properties. F(-) ions may be incorporated into the glass in the form of calcium fluoride (CaF2) either by part-substitution of network modifier oxides, or by maintaining the ratios of the other constituents relatively constant. Fluoride-containing bioactive glasses (FBGs) enhance and control osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and mineralisation. And with their ability to release fluoride locally, FBGs make interesting candidates for various clinical applications, dentinal tubule occlusion in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. This paper reviews the chemistry of FBGs and the influence of F(-) incorporation on the thermal properties, bioactivity, and cytotoxicity; and novel glass compositions for improved mechanical properties, processing, and bioactive potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Promiscuity progression of bioactive compounds over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ye; Jasial, Swarit; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    In the context of polypharmacology, compound promiscuity is rationalized as the ability of small molecules to specifically interact with multiple targets. To study promiscuity progression of bioactive compounds in detail, nearly 1 million compounds and more than 5.2 million activity records were analyzed. Compound sets were assembled by applying different data confidence criteria and selecting compounds with activity histories over many years. On the basis of release dates, compounds and activity records were organized on a time course, which ultimately enabled monitoring data growth and promiscuity progression over nearly 40 years, beginning in 1976. Surprisingly low degrees of promiscuity were consistently detected for all compound sets and there were only small increases in promiscuity over time. In fact, most compounds had a constant degree of promiscuity, including compounds with an activity history of 10 or 20 years. Moreover, during periods of massive data growth, beginning in 2007, promiscuity degrees also remained constant or displayed only minor increases, depending on the activity data confidence levels. Considering high-confidence data, bioactive compounds currently interact with 1.5 targets on average, regardless of their origins, and display essentially constant degrees of promiscuity over time. Taken together, our findings provide expectation values for promiscuity progression and magnitudes among bioactive compounds as activity data further grow.

  11. Bioactive lipids naturally occurring in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molkentin, J

    1999-06-01

    Bioactive properties of food components increasingly gain in importance in the modern diet. Bovine milk fat (BMF) exhibits bioactive substances mainly in the class of fatty acids. Currently, most interest is addressed to trans fatty acids (TFA) and particularly conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) with BMF being the main source of CLA in food. Whereas saturated fatty acids (C12-C16) and TFA are reported to be positively correlated (negatively for oleic acid) with atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, CLA are regarded as potent anticarcinogens. Also butyric acid (C4) as well as some phospholipids and either lipids present in BMF are thought to have anticarcinogenic properties. Furthermore, BMF contains the essential fatty acids C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 that have many and diverse functions in human metabolism and, thus, control a variety of biochemical and physiological processes. Altogether, BMF contains approximately 75 wt% of bioactive substances. However, the overall impact on human health can hardly be assessed.

  12. Nanotech: propensity in foods and bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Chiu-Yin; Yee-Fung, Wai; Yuen, Kah-Hay; Liong, Min-Tze

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology is seeing higher propensity in various industries, including food and bioactives. New nanomaterials are constantly being developed from both natural biodegradable polymers of plant and animal origins such as polysaccharides and derivatives, peptides and proteins, lipids and fats, and biocompatible synthetic biopolyester polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA), polyhydroxyalkonoates (PHA), and polycaprolactone (PCL). Applications in food industries include molecular synthesis of new functional food compounds, innovative food packaging, food safety, and security monitoring. The relevance of bioactives includes targeted delivery systems with improved bioavailability using nanostructure vehicles such as association colloids, lipid based nanoencapsulator, nanoemulsions, biopolymeric nanoparticles, nanolaminates, and nanofibers. The extensive use of nanotechnology has led to the need for parallel safety assessment and regulations to protect public health and adverse effects to the environment. This review covers the use of biopolymers in the production of nanomaterials and the propensity of nanotechnology in food and bioactives. The exposure routes of nanoparticles, safety challenges, and measures undertaken to ensure optimal benefits that outweigh detriments are also discussed.

  13. Minimum information about a bioactive entity (MIABE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, Sandra; Al-Lazikani, Bissan; Bryant, Steve; Clark, Dominic; Calder, Elizabeth; Dix, Ian; Engkvist, Ola; Forster, Mark; Gaulton, Anna; Gilson, Michael; Glen, Robert; Grigorov, Martin; Hammond-Kosack, Kim; Harland, Lee; Hopkins, Andrew; Larminie, Christopher; Lynch, Nick; Mann, Romeena K; Murray-Rust, Peter; Lo Piparo, Elena; Southan, Christopher; Steinbeck, Christoph; Wishart, David; Hermjakob, Henning; Overington, John; Thornton, Janet

    2011-08-31

    Bioactive molecules such as drugs, pesticides and food additives are produced in large numbers by many commercial and academic groups around the world. Enormous quantities of data are generated on the biological properties and quality of these molecules. Access to such data - both on licensed and commercially available compounds, and also on those that fail during development - is crucial for understanding how improved molecules could be developed. For example, computational analysis of aggregated data on molecules that are investigated in drug discovery programmes has led to a greater understanding of the properties of successful drugs. However, the information required to perform these analyses is rarely published, and when it is made available it is often missing crucial data or is in a format that is inappropriate for efficient data-mining. Here, we propose a solution: the definition of reporting guidelines for bioactive entities - the Minimum Information About a Bioactive Entity (MIABE) - which has been developed by representatives of pharmaceutical companies, data resource providers and academic groups.

  14. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Camarosa and Selva Strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Velde, Franco; Tarola, Anna M.; Güemes, Daniel; Pirovani, María E.

    2013-01-01

    Strawberries represent an important source of bioactive compounds due to their vitamin C and phenolic compound levels, which present high antioxidant effects, beneficial for the maintenance of consumer’s health. Argentina is the second largest strawberry producer in The Common Market of the Southern Cone (MERCOSUR), covering the main export destinations of Argentinian strawberries, i.e., Canada, United States, and European Union. Information about the bioactive compound occurrence and antioxidant capacity of these fruits is scarce or not available. Health related compounds of strawberry cultivars (Camarosa and Selva) from different zones of Argentina were investigated. Vitamin C content was in the same range for both studied cultivars. However, Camarosa strawberries, which are the most cultivated, consumed, and exported berries in Argentina, presented higher total phenolic and anthocyanins content, and consequently better in vitro antioxidant capacity. Moreover, there were differences in the occurrence and concentration in the phenolic compound profiles for both cultivars. Camarosa cultivar presented higher content of anthocyanidins, and Selva showed higher total ellagic acid content. The research shows that Argentina’s strawberries are an interesting source of bioactive compounds comparable to those in other parts of the world.

  15. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Camarosa and Selva Strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Van De Velde

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Strawberries represent an important source of bioactive compounds due to their vitamin C and phenolic compound levels, which present high antioxidant effects, beneficial for the maintenance of consumer’s health. Argentina is the second largest strawberry producer in The Common Market of the Southern Cone (MERCOSUR, covering the main export destinations of Argentinian strawberries, i.e., Canada, United States, and European Union. Information about the bioactive compound occurrence and antioxidant capacity of these fruits is scarce or not available. Health related compounds of strawberry cultivars (Camarosa and Selva from different zones of Argentina were investigated. Vitamin C content was in the same range for both studied cultivars. However, Camarosa strawberries, which are the most cultivated, consumed, and exported berries in Argentina, presented higher total phenolic and anthocyanins content, and consequently better in vitro antioxidant capacity. Moreover, there were differences in the occurrence and concentration in the phenolic compound profiles for both cultivars. Camarosa cultivar presented higher content of anthocyanidins, and Selva showed higher total ellagic acid content. The research shows that Argentina’s strawberries are an interesting source of bioactive compounds comparable to those in other parts of the world.

  16. Green algae Chlorococcum humicola- a new source of bioactive compounds with antimicrobial activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bhagavathy S; Sumathi P; Jancy Sherene Bell I

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the existence of bioactive phytochemicals and their antimicrobial role of green algae Chlorococcum humicola (C. humicola). Methods: The various organic solvents such as acetone, benzene, chloroform, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol, hexane and methanol were used for the preparation of the algal extracts then subjected to chemical analysis and further used for the screening of antimicrobial assay. The purified carotenoid pigments and chlorophylls were used for the antimicrobial studies against the harmful pathogens Escherichia coli, Pseudomonasaeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Vibreo cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. Results: The chemical analysis showed the existence of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, alkaloids, favanoids, fattyacids, saponins, aminoacids and carbohydrates. In vitro screening of organic solvent extracts of green algae C. humicola shows activity in inhibiting the growth of virulent strains of bacteria and fungi pathogenic to human. Eight different extracts showed effective inhibitory action against the selected pathogens. Depends upon their existence of the bioactive compounds the different organic algal extracts shows difference in their inhibitory zone against the microbes. Out of all the organic extracts benzene and ethyl acetate extracts showed excellent effect nearly 80% microbial growth inhibition. The separated carotenoid and chlorophyll fractions of C. humicola, also results in the microbial growth inhibition. Conclusions: The present study concludes that green algae C. humicola are a rich and varied source of pharmacologically active natural products and nutraceuticals. While nutraceutical and pharmaceutical content in the baseline algae strain is very small, they showed excellent effect against the microbial pathogens.

  17. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Camarosa and Selva Strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Velde, Franco; Tarola, Anna M; Güemes, Daniel; Pirovani, María E

    2013-03-25

    Strawberries represent an important source of bioactive compounds due to their vitamin C and phenolic compound levels, which present high antioxidant effects, beneficial for the maintenance of consumer's health. Argentina is the second largest strawberry producer in The Common Market of the Southern Cone (MERCOSUR), covering the main export destinations of Argentinian strawberries, i.e., Canada, United States, and European Union. Information about the bioactive compound occurrence and antioxidant capacity of these fruits is scarce or not available. Health related compounds of strawberry cultivars (Camarosa and Selva) from different zones of Argentina were investigated. Vitamin C content was in the same range for both studied cultivars. However, Camarosa strawberries, which are the most cultivated, consumed, and exported berries in Argentina, presented higher total phenolic and anthocyanins content, and consequently better in vitro antioxidant capacity. Moreover, there were differences in the occurrence and concentration in the phenolic compound profiles for both cultivars. Camarosa cultivar presented higher content of anthocyanidins, and Selva showed higher total ellagic acid content. The research shows that Argentina's strawberries are an interesting source of bioactive compounds comparable to those in other parts of the world.

  18. Optimal Stock Replenishment Model of Perishable Merchandise Based on Stochastic Replenishment Intervals and Nonlinear Deteriorating Rate%基于随机补货间隔和非线性变质率的易腐商品补货模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张川; 刘保政; 戢守峰; 张翠华

    2012-01-01

    A set of multi-cycle stock replenishment strategies of perishable merchandise with price -varying demands was researched. The deteriorating rate is a nonlinear time-varying function and the replenishment interval is a random variable, whose density function is evenly distributed at intervals. An optimal replenishment model with replenishment level as the decision-making variable was constructed. Matlab was utilized to seek the extremum optimization solution. An example was given and sensitivity of the replenishment intervals was analyzed. The example showed that because goods tend to deteriorate, stock-out often occurs. In order to avoid this from happening, the replenishment intervals can be shortened to reduce commodity vacancy periods. In sum, this model provides a decision-making method for goods delivery of distribution centers and stock replenishment of supermarkets.%研究了一类需求率随价格变动、有一定保鲜期的易变质商品的随机补货间隔的多周期补货策略.变质率是非线性的时变函数,补货间隔是随机变量.针对补货间隔的密度函数是一个区间上的均匀分布情形,构建了以补货水平为决策变量的补货优化模型,利用Matlab求出极值优化解.并给出了算例和补货间隔的灵敏度分析.算例表明由于商品存在保鲜期,保鲜期后有变质损失,取最优解时经常会出现商品有出空现象,为了提高顾客需求满足率,可以缩短补货间隔,减少商品空缺期.该模型为配送中心的配货决策和商场的补货策略提供了一种决策方法.

  19. Pharmacological evaluation of bioactive principle of Turnera aphrodisiaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, pharmacological evaluation of apigenin, a bioactive principle of Turnera aphrodisiaca Ward (Turneraceae was carried out. Apigenin was evaluated for antianxiety activity at a dose of 2 mg/kg using well established models of anxiety, the hole board test, light/dark test and mirrored chamber test. Apigenin significantly increased head dipping in hole board test. Further, apigenin increased latency to leave light zone and the time spent in light compartment of light/dark model of anxiety. Apigenin also decreased the latency time to enter the mirrored chamber, and increased the total time spent/number of entries in the mirrored chamber with respect to control. All these observations confirmed the anxiolytic activity of apigenin. At a higher dose (about 12 fold the anxiolytic dose, apigenin showed mild sedative activity in actophotometer as it decreased activity scores. It (2, 5 or 10 mg/kg was found to be devoid of anticonvulsant, antidepressant and antistress activity in MES-induced convulsion test, despair swim test and cold swimming endurance test, respectively. In tail immersion test for six hours, apigenin exhibited excellent dose dependent analgesic activity, which was comparable to that of morphine sulphate (5 mg/kg. Maximum activity was observed 30 min after the administration of 10 mg/kg dose of apigenin.

  20. Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaves as a Natural Source of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Borrás-Linares

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In an extensive search for bioactive compounds from plant sources, the composition of different extracts of rosemary leaves collected from different geographical zones of Serbia was studied. The qualitative and quantitative characterization of 20 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis samples, obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE, was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS. The high mass accuracy and true isotopic pattern in both MS and MS/MS spectra provided by the QTOF-MS analyzer enabled the characterization of a wide range of phenolic compounds in the extracts, including flavonoids, phenolic diterpenes and abietan-type triterpenoids, among others. According to the data compiled, rosemary samples from Sokobanja presented the highest levels in flavonoids and other compounds such as carnosol, rosmaridiphenol, rosmadial, rosmarinic acid, and carnosic acid. On the other hand, higher contents in triterpenes were found in the extracts of rosemary from Gložan (Vojvodina.

  1. New Bioactive Oleanane Type Compounds from Coriandrum sativum Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Five (1–5 new bioactive oleanane type triterpenoids have been isolated from ethyl acetate soluble fraction of ethanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum Linn. of Umbelliferae family. Ethanolic extract of the whole plant was fractionated in organic solvents. Ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography on HPLC RP-18 to get 1-oxo-11β,21β-dihydroxy-oleanane (1, 1-oxo-11β-hydroxy-21β-O-acetyloleanane (2, 1-oxo-11β-hydroxy-21β-O-angeloyloleanane (3, 1-oxo-11β-O-angeloyl-21β-O-acetyloleanane (4, and 1-oxo-11β,21β-O-dibenzoyloleanane (5. The structures were elucidated after analysis of spectroscopic data, UV, IR, NMR (1H, 13C, 1D, and 2D, and mass measurements. Suspension in water of crude ethyl acetate extract was employed to treat sheep with ringworm disease. All isolated compounds (1–5 displayed excellent activity in terms of inhibition zones, MICs, MBCs, and MFCs against both bacteria and fungi. Ethyl acetate extract showed excellent antiringworm activity in sheep.

  2. Magma replenishment and volcanic unrest inferred from the analysis of VT micro-seismicity and seismic velocity changes at Piton de la Fournaise Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenguier, F.; Rivemale, E.; Clarke, D. S.; Schmid, A.; Got, J.; Battaglia, J.; Taisne, B.; Staudacher, T.; Peltier, A.; Shapiro, N. M.; Tait, S.; Ferrazzini, V.; Di Muro, A.

    2011-12-01

    Piton de la Fournaise volcano (PdF) is among the most active basaltic volcanoes worldwide with more than one eruption per year on average. Also, PdF is densely instrumented with short-period and broad-band seismometers as well as with GPS receivers. Continuous seismic waveforms are available from 1999. Piton de la Fournaise volcano has a moderate inter-eruptive seismic activity with an average of five detected Volcano-Tectonic (VT) earthquakes per day with magnitudes ranging from 0.5 to 3.5. These earthquakes are shallow and located about 2.5 kilometers beneath the edifice surface. Volcanic unrest is captured on average a few weeks before eruptions by measurements of increased VT seismicity rate, inflation of the edifice summit, and decreased seismic velocities from correlations of seismic noise. Eruptions are usually preceded by seismic swarms of VT earthquakes. Recently, almost 50 % of seismic swarms were not followed by eruptions. Within this work, we aim to gather results from different groups of the UnderVolc research project in order to better understand the processes of deep magma transfer, volcanic unrest, and pre-eruptive magma transport initiation. Among our results, we show that the period 1999-2003 was characterized by a long-term increase of VT seismicity rate coupled with a long-term decrease of seismic velocities. These observations could indicate a long-term replenishment of the magma storage area. The relocation of ten years of inter-eruptive micro-seismicity shows a narrow (~300 m long) sub-vertical fault zone thus indicating a conduit rather than an extended magma reservoir as the shallow magma feeder system. Also, we focus on the processes of short-term volcanic unrest and prove that magma intrusions within the edifice leading to eruptions activate specific VT earthquakes that are distinct from magma intrusions that do not lead to eruptions. We thus propose that, among the different pathways of magma transport within the edifice, only one will

  3. Dynamics of depletion and replenishment of water storage in stem and roots of black spruce measured by dendrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey eTurcotte

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the short term, trees rely on the internal storage of water because it affects their ability to sustain photosynthesis and growth. However, water is not rapidly available for transpiration from all the compartments of the plant and the living tissues of the stem act as a buffer to preclude low water potentials during peaks of transpiration. In this paper, electronic dendrometers were used from mid-June to mid-September 2008 to compare the radius variations in stem and roots of black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P.] in two sites of the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada, with different soil characteristics and water retention. The duration of the daily cycles was similar between sites and measurement heights but greater amplitudes of contraction and expansion were observed on the stem and in the site with the shallowest soil organic layer. The expansion phase had higher amplitudes and lasted longer than contraction. On average, the contraction phase occurred between 07:00 and 16:30 (legal time, while expansion lasted 14.5 h. The roots in the site with the deepest organic layer showed a wider variation in the onset of contraction, which could be as late as 13:00. The probability of observing the contraction phase depended on precipitation. With a precipitation <0.5 mm h-1, the bivariate posterior probabilities estimated >60% probability of observing contraction between 05:00 and 21:00, decreasing to 20% with precipitation >1.1 mm h-1. These findings demonstrated that the depth of the organic layer plays an important role in maintaining the internal water reserve of trees. The dynamics of water depletion and replenishment can modify the water potential of xylem and cell turgor during the enlargement phase, thus affecting radial growth. Changes in temperature and precipitation regime could influence the dynamics of internal water storage in trees growing on shallower and drier soils.

  4. Effects of Chinese herbs capable of replenishing qi,nourishing yin and activating blood circulation and their compatibility on differentially expressed genes of ischemic myocardium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN HuiJun; GUO ChunYu; SHI DaZhuo

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Chinese herbs capable of replenishing qi,nourishing yin and activating blood circulation and their compatibility on differentially expressed genes of ischemic myocardium which were selected from differential expression profile we had established before,and to explore the underlying mechanism. The acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model was established by ligating the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery,then the model rats were randomly divided into the model group,the Metoprolol group,the replenishing qi nourishing yin (RN)group,the activating blood circulation (AB) group,and the replenishing qi,nourishing yin and activating blood circulation (RA) group. In addition,the normal group and the sham group were set up. The rats of medication groups were administered by intragastric gavage with corresponding drugs on the second day after operations,and the rats of the normal group and the sham group were given normal saline as the same time.Then the ischemic hearts were harvested on the 8th day after operation. The myocardial pathomorphological changes were observed under a light microscope. The mRNA changes of target genes such as COX5a and ATP5e were detected using Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (Q-PCR),and the activities of related enzymes were detected by colorimetric assay. The main results were as follows:the histological changes were observed by HE staining,and cardiocyte swelling,inflammatory cell infiltration and cytolysis were showed in regional ischemic myocardium of the model group,while the pathomorphological changes in all medication groups did not show obvious changes.Two genes related to energy metabolism,COX5a and ATP5e,were selected as the target genes which were down-regulated at the mRNA level in the medication groups. The activities of correlative functional enzymes also decreased in the RA group compared to that in the model group accordingly (P<0.05). The results indicated

  5. Bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Aza, P. N.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1960´s, a great interest in the use of bioceramic materials for biomedical applications has been developed. In a previous paper, the authors reviewed crystalline bioceramic materials “sensus stricto”, it is to say, those ceramic materials, constituted for non-metallic inorganic compounds, crystallines and consolidates by thermal treatment of powders at high temperature. In the present review, the authors deal with those called bioactive glasses and glassceramics. Although all of them are also obtained by thermal treatment at high temperature, the first are amorphous and the second are obtained by devitrification of a glass, although the vitreous phase normally prevails on the crystalline phases. After an introduction to the concept of bioactive materials, a short historical review of the bioactive glasses development is made. Its preparation, reactivity in physiological media, mechanism of bonding to living tissues and mechanical strength of the bone-implant interface is also reported. Next, the concept of glass-ceramic and the way of its preparation are exposed. The composition, physicochemical properties and biological behaviour of the principal types of bioactive glasses and glass-ceramic materials: Bioglass®, Ceravital®, Cerabone®, Ilmaplant® and Bioverit® are also reviewed. Finally, a short review on the bioactive-glass coatings and bioactive-composites and most common uses of bioactive-glasses and glass-ceramics are carried out too.

    Desde finales de los años sesenta, se ha despertado un gran interés por el uso de los materiales biocerámicos para aplicaciones biomédicas. En un trabajo previo, los autores hicieron una revisión de los denominados materiales biocerámicos cristalinos en sentido estricto, es decir, de aquellos materiales, constituidos por compuestos inorgánicos no metálicos, cristalinos y consolidados mediante tratamientos térmicos a altas temperaturas. En el presente trabajo, los autores

  6. Physicochemical properties and bioactivity of freeze-cast chitosan nanocomposite scaffolds reinforced with bioactive glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourhaghgouy, Masoud, E-mail: m.pourhaghgouy@merc.ac.ir [Department of Nanotechnology & Advanced Materials, Materials & Energy Research Center, Karaj, P.O. Box: 13145-1659 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zamanian, Ali, E-mail: a-zamanian@merc.ac.ir [Department of Nanotechnology & Advanced Materials, Materials & Energy Research Center, Karaj, P.O. Box: 13145-1659 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahrezaee, Mostafa, E-mail: moshahrezaee@yahoo.com [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Masouleh, Milad Pourbaghi, E-mail: miladpourbaghi@gmail.com [Department of Nanotechnology & Advanced Materials, Materials & Energy Research Center, Karaj, P.O. Box: 13145-1659 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan based nanocomposite scaffolds were prepared by freeze casting method through blending constant chitosan concentration with different portions of synthesized bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGNPs). Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) image showed that the particles size of bioactive glass (64SiO{sub 2}.28CaO.8P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) prepared by sol–gel method was approximately less than 20 nm. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis showed proper interfacial bonding between BGNPs and chitosan polymers. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images depicted a unidirectional structure with homogenous distribution of BGNPs among chitosan matrix associated with the absence of pure chitosan scaffold's wall pores after addition of only 10 wt.% BGNPs. As the BGNP content increased from 0 to 50 wt.%, the compressive strength and compressive module values increased from 0.034 to 0.419 MPa and 0.41 to 10.77 MPa, respectively. Biodegradation study showed that increase in BGNP content leads to growth of weight loss amount. The in vitro biomineralization studies confirmed the bioactive nature of all nanocomposites. Amount of 30 wt.% BGNPs represented the best concentration for absorption capacity and bioactivity behaviors. - Highlights: • Particle size of synthesized bioactive glass was approximately less than 20 nm. • Increase in BGNP content did not change the pore channels size. • Addition of 10 wt.% of BGNP led to absence of the pores located on chitosan walls. • Mechanical properties of chitosan scaffold significantly improved by addition of BGNPs. • Chi-BGNPs30 scaffold indicated acceptable absorption capacity and bioactivity behavior.

  7. Bioactivity and properties of a dental adhesive functionalized with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) and bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Marta; Hohlfeld, Lisa; Thanh, Loan Tao; Biehl, Ralf; Lühmann, Nicole; Mohn, Dirk; Wiegand, Annette

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of infiltrating a commercial adhesive with nanosized bioactive glass (BG-Bi) particles or methacryl-functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) on material properties and bioactivity. An acetone-based dental adhesive (Solobond Plus adhesive, VOCO GmbH, Cuxhaven, Germany) was infiltrated with nanosized bioactive glass particles (0.1 or 1wt%), or with monofunctional or multifunctional POSS particles (10 or 20wt%). Unfilled adhesive served as control. Dispersion and hydrodynamic radius of the nanoparticles were studied by dynamic light scattering. Set specimens were immersed for 28days in artificial saliva at 37°C, and surfaces were mapped for the formation of calcium phospate (Ca/P) precipitates (scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Viscosity (rheometry) and the structural characteristic of the networks were studied, such as degree of conversion (FTIR spectroscopy), sol fraction and water sorption. POSS particles showed a good dispersion of the particles for both types of particles being smaller than 3nm, while the bioactive glass particles had a strong tendency to agglomerate. All nanoparticles induced the formation of Ca/P precipitates. The viscosity of the adhesive was not or only slightly increased by POSS particle addition but strongly increased by the bioactive glass particles. The degree of conversion, water sorption and sol fraction showed a maintained or improved network structure and properties when filled with BG-Bi and multifunctional POSS, however, less polymerization was found when loading a monofunctional POSS. Multifunctional POSS may be incorporated into dental adhesives to provide a bioactive potential without changing material properties adversely. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bioactive glass coupling with natural polyphenols: Surface modification, bioactivity and anti-oxidant ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzola, Martina [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino 10129 (Italy); Corazzari, Ingrid [Università degli Studi di Torino, Department of Chemistry, Via Pietro Giuria 7, Torino 10125 (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale “G. Scansetti” per lo studio degli amianti e di altri particolati nocivi, Via Pietro Giuria 9, 10125 Torino (Italy); Prenesti, Enrico [Università degli Studi di Torino, Department of Chemistry, Via Pietro Giuria 7, Torino 10125 (Italy); Bertone, Elisa [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino 10129 (Italy); Vernè, Enrica, E-mail: enrica.verne@polito.it [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino 10129 (Italy); Ferraris, Sara [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino 10129 (Italy)

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Surface functionalization of bioactive glass with biomolecules has been optimized. • Biomolecules are present and active on the glass surface after functionalization. • Biomolecules affect deposition kinetics and morphology of hydroxyapatite. • Free radical scavenging activity is seen for the first time on bioactive glasses. - Abstract: Polyphenols are actually achieving an increasing interest due to their potential health benefits, such as antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial and bone stimulation abilities. However their poor bioavailability and stability hamper an effective clinical application as therapeutic principles. The opportunity to couple these biomolecules with synthetic biomaterials, in order to obtain local delivery at the site of interest, improve their bioavailability and stability and combine their properties with the ones of the substrate, is a challenging opportunity for the biomedical research. A silica based bioactive glass, CEL2, has been successfully coupled with gallic acid and natural polyphenols extracted from red grape skins and green tea leaves. The effectiveness of grafting has been verified by means of XPS analyses and the Folin&Ciocalteu tests. In vitro bioactivity has been investigated by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). Surface modification after functionalization and early stage reactivity in SBF have been studied by means of zeta potential electrokinetic measurements in KCl and SBF. Finally the antioxidant properties of bare and modified bioactive glasses has been investigated by means of the evaluation of free radical scavenging activity by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR)/spin trapping technique after UV photolysis of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} highlighting scavenging activity of the bioactive glass.

  9. The Correlation of Pore Size and Bioactivity of Spray-Pyrolyzed Mesoporous Bioactive Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jen Chou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available SiO2–CaO–P2O5-based mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs were synthesized by spray pyrolysis in this study. Three commonly used non-ionic tri-block copolymers (L121, P123, and F127 with various lengths of hydrophilic chains were applied as structural templates to achieve different pore sizes. A mesoporous structure was observed in each as-prepared specimen, and the results showed that the L121-treated MBG had the largest pore size. The results of bioactivity tests indicated that the growth of hydroxyapatite is related to the pore size of the materials.

  10. Model of the impact of parameters controlling replenishment in the bs (min-max continuous review system on the actual inventory availibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Krzyżaniak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to random changes in demand, inventory management is still - despite the development of alternative goods flow management concepts - an important issue both in terms of costs of maintenance and replenishment as well as the level of service measured by inventory availability levels. There are a number of replenishment systems to be used in such conditions, but they are most often formed on the basis of two basic ones: a system based on the reorder point and based on periodic inspection.  This paper refers to the former system, the BS system (min-max, in which an order is placed after reaching inventory level B (information level, reorder point for a quantity allowing to reach level S. This system is very often used in business practice. Observations conducted under realistic conditions indicate the need to improve the classical models describing the system.  This results, among other things, from the fact that the actual level of available inventory at the start of the replenishment cycle may be significantly lower than level B, resulting in lower than expected levels of customer service. Taking account of this phenomenon through model determination of the cumulative distribution function for the observed difference makes it possible to select the correct parameters to control the replenishment system in question and - therefore - to achieve the expected economic effects. Methods: The object of the study is to create a mathematical model allowing the determination of the required inventory level B taking into account the difference D between this level and the actual level of inventory at the start of the replenishment cycle.  To determine the effect of various factors such as demand distribution parameters in the adopted unit of time and the difference between level S (max and B (min, a dedicated tool (simulator in EXCEL spreadsheet for determining the distribution of frequency of value D has been developed.  Then a

  11. Rare actinomycetes Nocardia caishijiensis and Pseudonocardia carboxydivorans as endophytes, their bioactivity and metabolites evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvir, Rabia; Sajid, Imran; Hasnain, Shahida; Kulik, Andreas; Grond, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Two strains identified as Nocardia caishijiensis (SORS 64b) and Pseudonocardia carboxydivorans (AGLS 2) were isolated as endophytes from Sonchus oleraceus and Ageratum conyzoides respectively. The analysis of their extracts revealed them to be strongly bioactive. The N. caishijiensis extract gave an LC50 of 570 μg/ml(-1) in the brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay and an EC50 of 0.552 μg/ml(-1) in the DPPH antioxidant assay. Antimicrobial activity was observed against Methicillin resistant Staphlococcus aureus (MRSA) and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (14 mm), Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 706003 (13 mm), S. aureus ATCC 25923 (11 mm) and Candida tropicalis (20 mm). For the extract of P. carboxydivorans the EC50 was 0.670 μg/ml(-1) and it was observed to be more bioactive against Bacillus subtilis DSM 10 ATCC 6051 (21 mm), C. tropicalis (20 mm), S. aureus ATCC 25923 (17 mm), MRSA (17 mm), E. coli K12 (W1130) (16 mm) and Chlorella vulgaris (10 mm). The genotoxicity testing revealed a 20 mm zone of inhibition against the polA mutant strain E. coli K-12 AB 3027 suggesting damage to the DNA and polA genes. The TLC and bioautography screening revealed a diversity of active bands of medium polar and nonpolar compounds. Metabolite analysis by HPLC-DAD via UV/vis spectral screening suggested the possibility of stenothricin and bagremycin A in the mycelium extract of N. caishijiensis respectively. In the broth and mycelium extract of P. carboxydivorans borrelidin was suggested along with α-pyrone. The HPLC-MS revealed bioactive long chained amide derivatives such as 7-Octadecenamide, 9, 12 octadecandienamide. This study reports the rare actinomycetes N. caishijiensis and P. carboxydivorans as endophytes and evaluates their bioactive metabolites.

  12. Mannich reaction: A versatile and convenient approach to bioactive skeletons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Selva Ganesan Subramaniapillai

    2013-05-01

    This review gives an insight into the recent applications of Mannich reaction and its variants in the construction of bioactive molecules. Emphasis is given to the Mannich reaction that provides bioactive molecules and/or modifies the property of an existing bioactive molecule. The role of Mannich reaction in the construction of antimalarial, antitumour, antimicrobial, antitubercular, antiinflammatory and anticonvulsant molecules and also the significance of aminoalkyl Mannich side chain on the biological property of molecules is discussed here.

  13. Design of beach replenishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelse, P.; Verhagen, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    In the Netherlands much land was captured from the sea. At the same time however along the coast severe losses of land occurred. The main reasons were sea level rise and effects of decreasing tidal volumes of estuaries. Besides there were the local effects of shifting tidal channels and periodical m

  14. Transdermal iron replenishment therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modepalli, Naresh; Shivakumar, H N; Kanni, K L Paranjothy; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is one of the major nutritional deficiency disorders. Iron deficiency anemia occurs due to decreased absorption of iron from diet, chronic blood loss and other associated diseases. The importance of iron and deleterious effects of iron deficiency anemia are discussed briefly in this review followed by the transdermal approaches to deliver iron. Transdermal delivery of iron would be able to overcome the side effects associated with conventional oral and parenteral iron therapy and improves the patient compliance. During preliminary investigations, ferric pyrophosphate and iron dextran were selected as iron sources for transdermal delivery. Different biophysical techniques were explored to assess their efficiency in delivering iron across the skin, and in vivo studies were carried out using anemic rat model. Transdermal iron delivery is a promising approach that could make a huge positive impact on patients suffering with iron deficiency.

  15. History and trends of bioactive glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazerian, Maziar; Dutra Zanotto, Edgar

    2016-05-01

    The interest around bioactive glass-ceramics (GCs) has grown significantly over the last two decades due to their appropriate biochemical and mechanical properties. The intense research effort in this field has led to some new commercial products for biomedical applications. This review article begins with the basic concepts of GC processing and development via controlled heat treatments of monolithic pieces or sinter-crystallization of powdered glasses. We then go on to describe the processing, properties, and applications of some commercial bioactive GCs and discuss selected valuable reported researches on several promising types of bioactive GCs. The article finishes with a section on open relevant research directions for bioactive GC development.

  16. Bioactive Peptides from Muscle Sources: Meat and Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Stanton

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides have been identified in a range of foods, including plant, milk and muscle, e.g., beef, chicken, pork and fish muscle proteins. Bioactive peptides from food proteins offer major potential for incorporation into functional foods and nutraceuticals. The aim of this paper is to present an outline of the bioactive peptides identified in the muscle protein of meat to date, with a focus on muscle protein from domestic animals and fish. The majority of research on bioactives from meat sources has focused on angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory and antioxidant peptides.

  17. Microencapsulation for the improved delivery of bioactive compounds into foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Claude P; Fustier, Patrick

    2007-04-01

    The development of functional foods through the addition of bioactive compounds holds many technological challenges. Microencapsulation is a useful tool to improve the delivery of bioactive compounds into foods, particularly probiotics, minerals, vitamins, phytosterols, lutein, fatty acids, lycopene and antioxidants. Several microencapsulation technologies have been developed for use in the food industry and show promise for the production of functional foods. Moreover, these technologies could promote the successful delivery of bioactive ingredients to the gastrointestinal tract. Future research is likely to focus on aspects of delivery and the potential use of co-encapsulation methodologies, where two or more bioactive ingredients can be combined to have a synergistic effect.

  18. Bioactive Hierarchical Structures for Genetic Control of Bone Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Sepulveda

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available For thirty years it has been known that certain compositions of Na2O-CaO-P2O5-SiO 2 glasses will form a mechanically strong, chemical bond to bone. These materials have become known as bioactive glasses and the process of bonding is called bioactive fixation. Bioactive glasses are widely used clinically in the repair of bone defects. Recent research at the Imperial College Tissue Engineering Centre has now established that there is a genetic control of the cellular response to bioactive materials. Seven families of genes are up-regulated when primary human osteoblasts are exposed to the ionic dissolution products of bioactive glasses. The gene expression occurs very rapidly, within two days, and includes enhanced expression of cell cycle regulators. The consequence is rapid differentiation of the osteoblasts into a mature phenotype and formation of large three-dimensional bone nodules within six days in vitro. These cell culture results correlate with extensive human clinical results using the same bioactive material. The new genetic theory of bioactive materials provides a scientific foundation for molecular design of new generation of resorbable bioactive materials for tissue engineering and in situ tissue regeneration and repair. Application of this theory to the synthesis of bioactive foams for tissue engineering of bone is described.

  19. Characterization of the bioactive and mechanical behavior of dental ceramic/sol-gel derived bioactive glass mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Zahra; Bahrololoum, Mohammad E; Bagheri, Rafat; Shariat, Mohammad H

    2016-02-01

    Dental ceramics can be modified by bioactive glasses in order to develop apatite layer on their surface. One of the benefits of such modification is to prolong the lifetime of the fixed dental prosthesis by preventing the formation of secondary caries. Dental ceramic/sol-gel derived bioactive glass mixture is one of the options for this modification. In the current study, mixtures of dental ceramic/bioactive glass with different compositions were successfully produced. To evaluate their bioactive behavior, prepared samples were immersed in a simulated body fluid at various time intervals. The prepared and soaked specimens were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. Since bioactive glasses have deleterious effects on the mechanical properties of dental ceramics, 3-point bending tests were used to evaluate the flexural strength, flexural strain, tangent modulus of elasticity and Weibull modulus of the specimens in order to find the optimal relationship between mechanical and bioactive properties.

  20. COMPARISON OF BIOACTIVE INGREDIENTS IN OCIMUM SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Caroline Jeba

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing demand for health care approaches, resurgence of herbal medicines has taken up great dimensions in changing the health care scenario across the globe. However, identification of the correct species of therapeutic importance is of utmost necessity to deliver quality products to the global market. Hence, modern approach in the standardization of single herbal preparations employing sophisticated techniques is the need of the hour. The evaluation of a product in its entirety, so-called “fingerprinting” can be accomplished by appropriate methods, which may include HPLC, GC-MS, HPTLC-densitometry, FT-NIR, high-field NMR or a combination of these techniques. Using chemical fingerprinting, plants can be demarcated on the basis of their species, strain and geographical origin. Chemical fingerprinting of plants, through chromatographic fingerprinting is highly informative which includes its use as an absolute indicator of the chemical characteristics of plants. Adulterants can be distinguished even in processed samples, enabling the authentication of the drug. Herein, in the present study two varieties of Ocimum species with green and purple coloured leaves collected from Tirunelvelli district commonly known as “Tulasi” in Tamil or “Holy Basil” in English and widely used in both ayurvedic and siddha drugs was subjected to chemical fingerprinting using HPTLC and GC. Moreover, the secondary metabolities such as polyphenols, tannins, and flavonoids were quantified to check the potency of the crude drug material. The bioactive molecule such as eugenol was found to be varying in both the species and the purple variety was found to contain more of the bioactive molecules. The fingerprinting of chemical profile as well as the quantification of the bioactive molecules in the two varieties of Ocimum species exemplified that fingerprinting using analytical techniques are comprehensive and more informative to identify and

  1. Bioactive glass coupling with natural polyphenols: Surface modification, bioactivity and anti-oxidant ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzola, Martina; Corazzari, Ingrid; Prenesti, Enrico; Bertone, Elisa; Vernè, Enrica; Ferraris, Sara

    2016-03-01

    Polyphenols are actually achieving an increasing interest due to their potential health benefits, such as antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial and bone stimulation abilities. However their poor bioavailability and stability hamper an effective clinical application as therapeutic principles. The opportunity to couple these biomolecules with synthetic biomaterials, in order to obtain local delivery at the site of interest, improve their bioavailability and stability and combine their properties with the ones of the substrate, is a challenging opportunity for the biomedical research. A silica based bioactive glass, CEL2, has been successfully coupled with gallic acid and natural polyphenols extracted from red grape skins and green tea leaves. The effectiveness of grafting has been verified by means of XPS analyses and the Folin&Ciocalteu tests. In vitro bioactivity has been investigated by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). Surface modification after functionalization and early stage reactivity in SBF have been studied by means of zeta potential electrokinetic measurements in KCl and SBF. Finally the antioxidant properties of bare and modified bioactive glasses has been investigated by means of the evaluation of free radical scavenging activity by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR)/spin trapping technique after UV photolysis of H2O2 highlighting scavenging activity of the bioactive glass.

  2. In vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility of porous scaffolds of bioactive borosilicate glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin; FU HaiLuo; LIU Xin; YAO AiHua; WANG DePing; HUANG WenHai; ZHAO Ying; JIANG XinQuan

    2009-01-01

    The bioactive borosilicate scaffolds (R2O-RO-B2O3-SiO2-P2O5) with four different contents of borate were fabricated by replication technique. The bioactivity,degradability and the cytotoxicity of the scaffolds were studied in this paper. The porosity of the scaffolds was found to be 73%-80%,and the pore size was in the range of 200-300 μm. The porous scaffolds immersed in 0.02 mol. L-1 K2HPO4 solution were transformed into hydroxyapatite. And it is notable that the D-AIk-2B,D-AIk-3B-scaffolds were covered by hydroxyapatite layers after 7 h-immersion,which proved their high bioactivity. In the cell adhesion test,cells could be seen growing well on the scaffolds,showing stretched morphology and obvious pseudopodia,and only the high cumulative concentration of B ions released from the D-AIk-3B-scaffold samples had an inhibition effect on cell proliferation. But the inhibition effect could be alleviated by diluting the extract solution to a certain concentration (dilution ratio:1:8). Therefore,after suitable pretreatment,the porous borosilicate bioactive glass scaffold can be e desirable candidate for bone tissue engineering.

  3. LASER-INDUCED BIOACTIVITY IN DENTAL PORCELAIN MODIFIED BY BIOACTIVE GLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANASTASIA BEKETOVA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of laser-liquid-solid interaction method in the bioactivity of dental porcelain modified by bioactive glass. Forty sol-gel derived specimens were immersed in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium, 31 and 9 specimens of which were treated with Er:YAG and Nd:YAG laser respectively. Untreated specimens served as controls. Incubation of specimens followed. Bioactivity was evaluated, using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. FTIR detected peaks associated with hydroxyapatite on 1 Nd:YAG- and 4 Er:YAG-treated specimens. SEM analysis revealed that Er:YAG-treated specimens were covered by granular hydroxyapatite layer, while Nd:YAG treated specimen presented growth of flake-like hydroxyapatite. TEM confirmed the results. The untreated controls presented delayed bioactivity. In conclusion, Nd:YAG and Er:YAG laser treatment of the material, under certain fluencies, accelerates hydroxyapatite formation. Nd:YAG laser treatment of specific parameters causes the precipitation of flake-like hydroxyapatite in nano-scale.

  4. Human milk composition: nutrients and bioactive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Olivia; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2013-02-01

    This article provides an overview of the composition of human milk, its variation, and its clinical relevance. The composition of human milk is the biological norm for infant nutrition. Human milk also contains many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization. Some of these molecules (eg, lactoferrin) are being investigated as novel therapeutic agents. Human milk changes in composition from colostrum to late lactation, within feeds, by gestational age, diurnally, and between mothers. Feeding infants with expressed human milk is increasing.

  5. Composite bone cements loaded with a bioactive and ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic: Leaching, bioactivity and cytocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verné, Enrica, E-mail: enrica.verne@polito.it [Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, C. so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Bruno, Matteo [Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, C. so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Miola, Marta [Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, C. so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Department of Health Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”, Via Solaroli 17, 28100 Novara (Italy); Maina, Giovanni; Bianco, Carlotta [Traumatology Orthopedics and Occupational Medicine Dept., Università di Torino, Via G. Zuretti 29, 10126 Torino (Italy); Cochis, Andrea [Department of Health Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”, Via Solaroli 17, 28100 Novara (Italy); Rimondini, Lia [Department of Health Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”, Via Solaroli 17, 28100 Novara (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali, Via G. Giusti, 9, 50121 Firenze (Italy)

    2015-08-01

    In this work, composite bone cements, based on a commercial polymethylmethacrylate matrix (Palamed®) loaded with ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic particles (SC45), were produced and characterized in vitro. The ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic belongs to the system SiO{sub 2}–Na{sub 2}O–CaO–P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–FeO–Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and contains magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) crystals into a residual amorphous bioactive phase. Three different formulations (containing 10, 15 and 20 wt.% of glass-ceramic particles respectively) have been investigated. These materials are intended to be applied as bone fillers for the hyperthermic treatment of bone tumors. The morphological, compositional, calorimetric and mechanical properties of each formulation have been already discussed in a previous paper. The in vitro properties of the composite bone cements described in the present paper are related to iron ion leaching test (by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer), bioactivity (i.e. the ability to stimulate the formation of a hydroxyapatite – HAp – layer on their surface after soaking in simulated body fluid SBF) and cytocompatibility toward human osteosarcoma cells (ATCC CRL-1427, Mg63). Morphological and chemical characterizations by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion spectrometry have been performed on the composite samples after each test. The iron release was negligible and all the tested samples showed the growth of HAp on their surface after 28 days of immersion in a simulated body fluid (SBF). Cells showed good viability, morphology, adhesion, density and the ability to develop bridge-like structures on all investigated samples. A synergistic effect between bioactivity and cell mineralization was also evidenced. - Highlights: • An in vitro biological characterization was carried out on ferromagnetic and bioactive composite cements. • No release of iron was revealed in the physiological solution. • Bioactivity tests

  6. Fluoride-containing bioactive glasses: Glass design, structure, bioactivity, cellular interactions, and recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Furqan A., E-mail: furqan.ali.shah@biomaterials.gu.se

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive glasses (BGs) are known to bond to both hard and soft tissues. Upon exposure to an aqueous environment, BG undergoes ion exchange, hydrolysis, selective dissolution and precipitation of an apatite layer on their surface, which elicits an interfacial biological response resulting in bioactive fixation, inhibiting further dissolution of the glass, and preventing complete resorption of the material. Fluorine is considered one of the most effective in-vivo bone anabolic factors. In low concentrations, fluoride ions (F{sup −}) increase bone mass and mineral density, improve the resistance of the apatite structure to acid attack, and have well documented antibacterial properties. F{sup −} ions may be incorporated into the glass in the form of calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) either by part-substitution of network modifier oxides, or by maintaining the ratios of the other constituents relatively constant. Fluoride-containing bioactive glasses (FBGs) enhance and control osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and mineralisation. And with their ability to release fluoride locally, FBGs make interesting candidates for various clinical applications, dentinal tubule occlusion in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. This paper reviews the chemistry of FBGs and the influence of F{sup −} incorporation on the thermal properties, bioactivity, and cytotoxicity; and novel glass compositions for improved mechanical properties, processing, and bioactive potential. - Highlights: • Fluoride ions form charged CaF{sup +} species rather than Si–F bonds. • Fluoride incorporation lowers glass transition and crystallisation temperatures. • Oxynitride and oxyfluoronitride glasses with superior mechanical properties • Mixed-alkali and alkali-free compositions with better processing characteristics.

  7. Fabrication and bioactivity behavior of HA/bioactive glass composites in the presence of calcium hexaboride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bassyouni, Gehan T.; Beherei, Hanan H. [Biomaterials Dept., National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Mohamed, Khaled R., E-mail: kh_rezk1966@yahoo.com [Biomaterials Dept., National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Kenawy, Sayed H. [Ceramics Dept., National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-06-01

    In the current study, composites were prepared using both the synthesized nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HA), bioactive glass (BG) powders (obtained by the traditional melt-quenching route) together with the purchased nano-sized calcium hexaboride (CB) with different ratios and were fired at 1250 °C. The structure and composition of the solid reaction products were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy; scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques and compressive strength. The mechanical testing was to designate the role of the CB in improving the mechanical property of the prepared composites. In vitro bioactivity of the prepared composites was assessed by soaking in the simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 ± 0.5 °°C for 10 days. The effect of different ratios of the three components (CB, HA & BG) on the bioactivity properties was assessed to explore the possibility of enhancing such property to perform in vitro imitations of in vivo conditions in the future. It can be pointed out that the Si-HA content in the composition showed outstanding in vitro bioactivity than pure hydroxyapatite which could be attributed to the excellent bioactivity of the synthesized composites. - Highlights: • The prepared of nano-composites containing CB, HA and BG powders were achieved. • The addition of CB powder enhanced the compressive strength for all the composites. • The composites containing high BG and CB contents improved formation of bone-like apatite layer.

  8. Zoning Districts - Volusia County HUB Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Historically Underutilized Business (HUB) Zones in Volusia County. Go to http://www.sba.gov/hubzone or contact the Department of Economic Development (386) 248-8048...

  9. 基于协同补货的食品冷链均衡研究%The Food Cold Chain Equilibrium Based on Collaborative Replenishment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰洪杰; 刘志高; 李丽; 胡洁

    2012-01-01

    本文建立了供应商与销售商协同补货策略下的食品冷链均衡模型.供应商与销售商通过协同补货的方式形成一个整体(记为协同补货整体),与消费者组成了非合作博弈的两个主体,两者追求各自的最大利益,最终达到食品冷链在产品数量及价格的均衡状态.本文首次运用不动点思想设计了求解均衡模型的迭代算法,算例分析证明了本文模型的实用性及算法的可行性.%Based on the economic equilibrium theory, supply chain equilibrium can be achieved when various components of supply chain components reach the steady state. Food cold chain, as a special supply chain, plays an important part in safeguarding food safety, maintaining society stability and improving food value. As foods are perishable, their nutritional values will become low if they are not fresh. Food cold chain equilibrium becomes an important food characteristic in the supply chain management. This paper proposes an equilibrium model of food cold chain based on the collaborative replenishment policy between a supplier and a retailer. A comprehensive collaborative replenishment should include supplier, retailer, and consumers in a non-cooperative game. After considering the information of food demand as well as their production and marketing capacity, collaborative replenishment will choose appropriate order quantity and sale price in order to maximize profit. Consumers will determine their purchase volume to maximize satisfaction by considering demand for, as well as price and nutritional value of food. Supply chain partners will adjust strategies to maximize benefits and finally achieve the equilibrium condition in terms of food quantity and price. An iterative algorithm using the fixed point is designed for the first time to solve the equilibrium model, and a numeric example is illustrated to show the applicability of the proposed model and the algorithm. In the first part, this paper introduces

  10. Bioactive borate glass coatings for titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddi, Laxmikanth; Brow, Richard K; Brown, Roger F

    2008-09-01

    Bioactive borate glass coatings have been developed for titanium and titanium alloys. Glasses from the Na(2)O-CaO-B(2)O(3) system, modified by additions of SiO(2), Al(2)O(3), and P(2)O(5), were characterized and compositions with thermal expansion matches to titanium were identified. Infrared and X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that a hydroxyapatite surface layer forms on the borate glasses after exposure to a simulated body fluid for 2 weeks at 37 degrees C; similar layers form on 45S5 Bioglass((R)) exposed to the same conditions. Assays with MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cells show the borate glasses exhibit in vitro biocompatibility similar to that of the 45S5 Bioglass((R)). An enameling technique was developed to form adherent borate glass coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy, with adhesive strengths of 36 +/- 2 MPa on polished substrates. The results show these new borate glasses to be promising candidates for forming bioactive coatings on titanium substrates.

  11. Processing of apple pomace for bioactive molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Shashi; Kalia, Kalpana; Sharma, Madhu; Singh, Bikram; Ahuja, P S

    2008-01-01

    The growth of horticulture industries worldwide has generated huge quantities of fruit wastes (25%-40% of the total fruits processed). These residues are generally a good source of carbohydrates, especially cell wall polysaccharides and other functionally important bioactive molecules such as proteins, vitamins, minerals and natural antioxidants. "Apple pomace" is a left-over solid biomass with a high moisture content, obtained as a by-product during the processing of apple fruits for juice, cider or wine preparation. Owing to the high carbohydrate content, apple pomace is used as a substrate in a number of microbial processes for the production of organic acids, enzymes, single cell protein, ethanol, low alcoholic drinks and pigments. Recent research trends reveal that there is an increase in the utilization of apple pomace as a food processing residue for the extraction of value added products such as dietary fibre, protein, natural antioxidants, biopolymers, pigments and compounds with unique properties. However, the central dogma is still the stability, safety and economic feasibility of the process(s)/product(s) developed. This review is mainly focused on assessing recent research developments in extraction, isolation and characterization of bioactive molecules from apple pomace, along with their commercial utilization, in food fortification.

  12. Quantification and bioaccessibility of california pistachio bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuntao; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Chen, C-Y Oliver

    2014-02-19

    The content of carotenoids, chlorophylls, phenolics, and tocols in pistachios ( Pistacia vera L.) has not been methodically quantified. The objective of this study was to first optimize extraction protocols for lipophilic nutrients and then quantify the content of two phenolic acids, nine flavonoids, four carotenoids, two chlorophylls, and three tocols in the skin, nutmeat, and whole nut of California pistachios. The dominant bioactives in whole pistachios are lutein [42.35 μg/g fresh weight (FW)], chlorophyll a (142.24 μg/g FW), γ-tocopherol (182.20 μg/g FW), flavan-3-ols (catechins) (199.18 μg/g FW), luteolin (217.89 μg/g FW), myricetin (135.18 μg/g FW), and cyanidin-3-galactose (38.34 μg/g FW) in each nutrient class. Most phenolics are present in the skin, while the lipophilic nutrients are dominantly present in the nutmeat. Digestion with a gastrointestinal mimic showed pistachio matrices. In conclusion, 9 lipophilic and 11 hydrophilic bioactives in pistachios are systematically quantified.

  13. Exploring marine resources for bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Paula; DʼAuria, M Valeria; Muller, Christian D; Tammela, Päivi; Vuorela, Heikki; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari

    2014-09-01

    Biodiversity in the seas is only partly explored, although marine organisms are excellent sources for many industrial products. Through close co-operation between industrial and academic partners, it is possible to successfully collect, isolate and classify marine organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, micro- and macroalgae, cyanobacteria, and marine invertebrates from the oceans and seas globally. Extracts and purified compounds of these organisms can be studied for several therapeutically and industrially significant biological activities, including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, and anticoagulant activities by applying a wide variety of screening tools, as well as for ion channel/receptor modulation and plant growth regulation. Chromatographic isolation of bioactive compounds will be followed by structural determination. Sustainable cultivation methods for promising organisms and biotechnological processes for selected compounds can be developed, as well as biosensors for monitoring the target compounds. The (semi)synthetic modification of marine-based bioactive compounds produces their new derivatives, structural analogs and mimetics that could serve as hit or lead compounds and be used to expand compound libraries based on marine natural products. The research innovations can be targeted for industrial product development in order to improve the growth and productivity of marine biotechnology. Marine research aims at a better understanding of environmentally conscious sourcing of marine biotechnology products and increased public awareness of marine biodiversity. Marine research is expected to offer novel marine-based lead compounds for industries and strengthen their product portfolios related to pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmetic, agrochemical, food processing, material and biosensor applications.

  14. Bioactive Polymeric Materials for Tissue Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane R. Bienek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive polymeric materials based on calcium phosphates have tremendous appeal for hard tissue repair because of their well-documented biocompatibility. Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP-based ones additionally protect against unwanted demineralization and actively support regeneration of hard tissue minerals. Our group has been investigating the structure/composition/property relationships of ACP polymeric composites for the last two decades. Here, we present ACP’s dispersion in a polymer matrix and the fine-tuning of the resin affects the physicochemical, mechanical, and biological properties of ACP polymeric composites. These studies illustrate how the filler/resin interface and monomer/polymer molecular structure affect the material’s critical properties, such as ion release and mechanical strength. We also present evidence of the remineralization efficacy of ACP composites when exposed to accelerated acidic challenges representative of oral environment conditions. The utility of ACP has recently been extended to include airbrushing as a platform technology for fabrication of nanofiber scaffolds. These studies, focused on assessing the feasibility of incorporating ACP into various polymer fibers, also included the release kinetics of bioactive calcium and phosphate ions from nanofibers and evaluate the biorelevance of the polymeric ACP fiber networks. We also discuss the potential for future integration of the existing ACP scaffolds into therapeutic delivery systems used in the precision medicine field.

  15. Bioactivation of biomorphous silicon carbide bone implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Julia; Hoppe, Alexander; Müller, Frank A; Raya, Carmen T; Fernández, Julián M; Greil, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Wood-derived silicon carbide (SiC) offers a specific biomorphous microstructure similar to the cellular pore microstructure of bone. Compared with bioactive ceramics such as calcium phosphate, however, silicon carbide is considered not to induce spontaneous interface bonding to living bone. Bioactivation by chemical treatment of biomorphous silicon carbide was investigated in order to accelerate osseointegration and improve bone bonding ability. Biomorphous SiC was processed from sipo (Entrandrophragma utile) wood by heating in an inert atmosphere and infiltrating the resulting carbon replica with liquid silicon melt at 1450°C. After removing excess silicon by leaching in HF/HNO₃ the biomorphous preform consisted of β-SiC with a small amount (approximately 6wt.%) of unreacted carbon. The preform was again leached in HCl/HNO₃ and finally exposed to CaCl₂ solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared analyses proved that oxidation of the residual carbon at the surface induced formation of carboxyl [COO⁻] groups, which triggered adsorption of Ca(2+), as confirmed by XPS and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy measurements. A local increase in Ca(2+) concentration stimulated in vitro precipitation of Ca₅(PO₄)₃OH (HAP) on the silicon carbide preform surface during exposure to simulated body fluid, which indicates a significantly increased bone bonding activity compared with SiC.

  16. Bioactive Peptides in Animal Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Albenzio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Proteins of animal origin represent physiologically active components in the human diet; they exert a direct action or constitute a substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis upon food processing and consumption. Bioactive peptides may descend from the hydrolysis by digestive enzymes, enzymes endogenous to raw food materials, and enzymes from microorganisms added during food processing. Milk proteins have different polymorphisms for each dairy species that influence the amount and the biochemical characteristics (e.g., amino acid chain, phosphorylation, and glycosylation of the protein. Milk from other species alternative to cow has been exploited for their role in children with cow milk allergy and in some infant pathologies, such as epilepsy, by monitoring the immune status. Different mechanisms concur for bioactive peptides generation from meat and meat products, and their functionality and application as functional ingredients have proven effects on consumer health. Animal food proteins are currently the main source of a range of biologically-active peptides which have gained special interest because they may also influence numerous physiological responses in the organism. The addition of probiotics to animal food products represent a strategy for the increase of molecules with health and functional properties.

  17. Evolution by Replenishment Fractional Crystallization (RFC) of Midproterozoic Magmatic Enclaves in Granites of the Eastern Llano Uplift, central Texas, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. K.; Gray, W.

    2009-12-01

    The Llano Uplift is a gentle structural dome exposing both island-arc and continental margin blocks emplaced along the southern margin of Laurentia during the Grenville orogeny (locally the Llano orogeny). These ~1370 to 1230 Ma metaigneous and metasedimentary rocks were subsequently intruded by a number of ~1119 to 1070 Ma post-to syntectonic granitic plutons collectively known as the Town Mountain Granite. The eastern most of these plutons (Lone Grove, Kingsland, and Marble Falls plutons) contain sparse microgranular magmatic enclaves of intermediate composition (56-68 wt.% SiO2). The enclaves display sharp borders in contact with the host granite suggesting magma quenching with little or no physical exchange between host granite and enclave magma. The origin of the enclave magma(s) is uncertain, as no synchronous mafic to intermediate rocks are exposed in the Uplift. New major- and trace-element analyses are providing clues as to the possible origins and evolution of the enclave magmas. Numerical modeling reveals that neither fractional crystallization nor simple mixing can explain the trace-element trends. However, assuming source magmas similar to primitive continental arc andesites, the trends can be adequately replicated by a replenishment fractional crystallization(RFC) model. The model assumes that replenishment/hybridization events are accompanied by 20%-30% fractionation of plagioclase + clinopyroxene + magnetite. Modeling further reveals that results are relatively insensitive to the number of replenishment events (from 50 to 1000), as well as perturbations in the mineral percentages, suggesting that RFC is a very plausible and robust explanation for the chemical evolution of the enclaves. As suggested by Weibe et al. (1997), RFC and lack of magma exchange may be indicative of enclave magma ponding and hybridization at the base of the host granite magma chamber, followed by occasional dispersment into the host granite. Origin from a primitive

  18. [Effects of Chinese herbs for replenishing qi and resolving stagnation on transforming growth factor-beta1 of skin ulcers in rats with diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Que, Hua-fa; Zhu, Yuan-ying; Wang, Yun-fei; Liu, Xiao-dong; Zheng, Pei-yong

    2007-07-01

    To explore the effects of Yiqi Huayu Recipe, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine for replenishing qi and resolving stagnation, on transforming growth factor-beta1(TGF-beta1) of skin ulcers in rats with diabetes. Sixty rats were randomly divided into six groups, Yiqi Huayu Recipe-treated group, Yiqi (replenishing qi) Recipe-treated group, Huayu (resolving stagnation) Recipe-treated group, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) treated group, untreated group and normal control group. Diabetes was induced by peritoneal injection of streptozotocin and skin ulcers were made by surgery method in rats except for the normal control group. Then the rats were administered with different drugs respectively, and the expression of TGF-beta1 in granulation tissue of the skin ulcers was detected with the methods of Western blotting, image analysis and immunohistochemistry. The level of TGF-beta1 expression in the untreated group was lower than that in the normal control group (P<0.01); and the level of TGF-beta1 expression in the drug-treated groups was higher than that in the untreated group (P<0.01); and the TGF-beta1 expression in the Yiqi Huayu Recipe-treated group was higher than that in the Yiqi Recipe-treated group, Huayu Recipe-treated group and bFGF-treated group (P<0.05). The replenishing qi and resolving stagnation therapy can control the secretion of TGF-beta1 of the wound in the process of wound healing in the levels of gene and molecule.

  19. Connectivity of a large embayment and coastal fishery: spawning aggregations in one bay source local and broad-scale fishery replenishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, P A; Acevedo, S; Jenkins, G P; Newman, A

    2011-04-01

    Ichthyoplankton sampling and otolith chemistry were used to determine the importance of transient spawning aggregations of snapper Chrysophrys auratus (Sparidae) in a large embayment, Port Phillip Bay (PPB), Australia, as a source of local and broad-scale fishery replenishment. Ichthyoplankton sampling across five spawning seasons within PPB, across the narrow entrance to the bay and in adjacent coastal waters, indicated that although spawning may occur in coastal waters, the spawning aggregations within the bay were the primary source of larval recruitment to the bay. Otolith chemical signatures previously characterized for 0+ year C. auratus of two cohorts (2000 and 2001) were used as the baseline signatures to quantify the contribution that fish derived from reproduction in PPB make to fishery replenishment. Sampling of these cohorts over a 5 year period at various widely dispersed fishery regions, combined with maximum likelihood analyses of the chemistry of the 0+ year otolith portions of these older fish, indicated that C. auratus of 1 to 3+ years of age displayed both local residency and broad-scale emigration from PPB to populate coastal waters and an adjacent bay (Western Port). While the PPB fishery was consistently dominated (>70%) by locally derived fish irrespective of cohort or age, the contribution of fish that had originated from PPB to distant populations increased with age. At 4 to 5+ years of age, when C. auratus mature and fully recruit to the fishery, populations of both cohorts across the entire central and western Victorian fishery, including two major embayments and c. 800 km of coastal waters, were dominated (>70%) by fish that had originated from the spawning aggregations and nursery habitat within PPB. Dependence of this broadly dispersed fishery on replenishment from heavily targeted spawning aggregations within one embayment has significant implications for management and monitoring programmes.

  20. Bioactivity and chemical ecology of some intertidal animals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.; Shirwaikar, P.

    stream_size 7 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Bioactive_Com_Mar_Org_1991_29.pdf.txt stream_source_info Bioactive_Com_Mar_Org_1991_29.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  1. Bioactive compounds: Safety and efficacy (Consensus Meeting - Part II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesalski, H.K.; Dragsted, L.O.; Elmadfa, I.; Grossklaus, R.; Müller, M.R.; Schrenk, D.; Walter, P.; Weber, P.

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of bioactive compounds depend on a few known and unknown parameters. What is a physiologic dose and how can that dose be defined in cases of bioactive compounds with a poor knowledge of supply and distribution? What safety sets are needed? How can individual aspects such as p

  2. Recent Advances in Separation of Bioactive Natural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任其龙; 邢华斌; 鲍宗必; 苏宝根; 杨启炜; 杨亦文; 张治国

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive natural products are a main source of new drugs, functional foods and food additives. The separation of bioactive natural products plays an important role in transformation and use of biomass. The isolation and purification of bioactive principle from a complex matrix is often inherent bottleneck for the utilization of natural products, so a series of extraction and separation techniques have been developed. This review covers recent advances in the separation of bioactive natural products with an emphasis on their solubility and diffusion coeffi-cients, recent extraction techniques and isolation techniques. This overview of recent technological advances, dis-cussion of pertinent problems and prospect of current methodologies in the separation of bioactive natural products may provide a driving force for development of novel separation techniques.

  3. Bioactive glasses: Importance of structure and properties in bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hench, Larry L.; Roki, Niksa; Fenn, Michael B.

    2014-09-01

    This review provides a brief background on the applications, mechanisms and genetics involved with use of bioactive glass to stimulate regeneration of bone. The emphasis is on the role of structural changes of the bioactive glasses, in particular Bioglass, which result in controlled release of osteostimulative ions. The review also summarizes the use of Raman spectroscopy, referred to hereto forward as bio-Raman spectroscopy, to obtain rapid, real time in vitro analysis of human cells in contact with bioactive glasses, and the osteostimulative dissolution ions that lead to osteogenesis. The bio-Raman studies support the results obtained from in vivo studies of bioactive glasses, as well as extensive cell and molecular biology studies, and thus offers an innovative means for rapid screening of new bioactive materials while reducing the need for animal testing.

  4. 大规模定制环境下ATO供应链的混合补货策略%Mixed component replenishment policies for ATO supply chain under mass customization circumstance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    但斌; 李宇雨; 黄波

    2011-01-01

    Since the Assetnble-to-Order (ATO) supply chain consisted of a manufacturer and multiple suppliers, a model of components production and replenishment in ATO supply chain under mass customization circumstance was constructed on the basis of ATO manufacturer replenished the components by Just-in-Time( JIT) replenishment method and the others by (Q, r) replenishment method. ATO manufacturer's mixed replenishment policy and component supplier's production policies were studied. The optimal algoritm of JIT replenishment mode and best replenishment policy was proposed. Theoretical and numerical analysis revealed that with higher purchasing cost, longer lead-time and bigger demand variance, the manufacturer should replenish the components by JIT replenishment method so that inventory cost could be reduced and the profit of supply chain was increased.%考虑按订单装配供应链由一个制造商和多个零部件供应商组成,按订单装配制造商对部分零部件采用准时制生产补货,其余零部件采用(Q,r)补货,建立了大规模定制环境下的按订单装配供应链零部件生产补货模型,研究了按订单装配制造商的混合补货策略和零部件供应商的生产策略,给出了制造商采用准时制生产补货方式的条件和供应链最优生产补货策略的寻优算法.理论和数值仿真分析表明,制造商应对采购价格较高、提前期较长或需求方差较大的零部件采用准时制生产补货方式,能够降低供应链库存成本,提高供应链利润.

  5. Bioactive glass coatings for orthopedic metallic implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Saiz, Eduardo; Fujino, Sigheru; Oku, Takeo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2003-06-30

    The objective of this work is to develop bioactive glass coatings for metallic orthopedic implants. A new family of glasses in the SiO2-Na2O-K2O-CaO-MgO-P2O5 system has been synthesized and characterized. The glass properties (thermal expansion, softening and transformation temperatures, density and hardness) are in line with the predictions of established empirical models. The optimized firing conditions to fabricate coatings on Ti-based and Co-Cr alloys have been determined and related to the glass properties and the interfacial reactions. Excellent adhesion to alloys has been achieved through the formation of 100-200 nm thick interfacial layers (Ti5Si3 on Ti-based alloys and CrOx on Co-Cr). Finally, glass coatings, approximately 100 mu m thick, have been fabricated onto commercial Ti alloy-based dental implants.

  6. Bioactivity of grape chemicals for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriti, Marcello; Faoro, Franco

    2009-05-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) products, grape and grape juice, represent a valuable source of bioactive phytochemicals, synthesized by three secondary metabolic pathways (phenylpropanoid, isoprenoid and alkaloid biosynthetic routes) and stored in different plant tissues. In the last decades, compelling evidence suggested that regular consumption of these products may contribute to reducing the incidence of chronic illnesses, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, ischemic stroke, neurodegenerative disorders and aging, in a context of the Mediterranean dietary tradition. The health benefits arising from grape product intake can be ascribed to the potpourri of biologically active chemicals occurring in grapes. Among them, the recently discovered presence of melatonin adds a new element to the already complex grape chemistry. Melatonin, and its possible synergistic action with the great variety of polyphenols, contributes to further explaining the observed health benefits associated with regular grape product consumption.

  7. Bioactivity and Functionality of Bonghwa Sweetfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Ju Woon; Choi, Jong Il; Song, Beom Seok; Yoon, Yo Han; Sung, Nak Yun; Jeong, Pil Mun

    2010-04-15

    - Smoked sweetfish had higher contents of calories, carbohydrate, protein, fat sodium, and calcium than unsmoked sweetfish - DHA and EPA which are omega-3 fatty acid and have therapeutic effects on arthritis and high blood pressure - Proteins and peptide from sweetfish had various bioactivities such as antioxidation, hypertensive, especially for antiinflammatory, and whitening effects. However no anticancer effect was observed - The proteins and peptide suppressed nitric oxide and cytokines (a-TNF, IL-6, IL-1 beta), and prostaglandin (PGE2) productions, and mRNA related iNOS and cyclooxygenase (COX-2), which are related to inflammation - The proteins and peptide prevented tyrosinase formation, which is related formation of melanin, and also showed preventive effects of melanin synthesis, antioxidation and anti-aging effects. Thus, the proteins and peptides from sweetfish may be useful source for cosmetics

  8. Bioactive Triterpenes from the Fungus Piptoporus betulinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyad Alresly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fruiting bodies from the basidiomycete Piptoporus betulinus led to the isolation of a new bioactive lanostane triterpene identified as 3 b -acetoxy-16-hydroxy-24-oxo-5α-lanosta-8- ene-21-oic acid (1. In addition, ten known triterpenes, polyporenic acid A (5, polyporenic acid C (4, three derivatives of polyporenic acid A (8, 10, 11, betulinic acid (3, betulin (2, ergosterol peroxide (6, 9,11-dehydroergosterol peroxide (7, and fomefficinic acid (9, were also isolated from the fungus. All isolated compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as against a fungal strain. The new triterpene and some of the other compounds showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

  9. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi, Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita, Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga, Genipa americana L. (jenipapo, Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba, Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti, Myrciaria cauliflora (DC Berg (jabuticaba, Psidium guajava L. (goiaba, Psidium spp. (araçá, Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira, Spondias mombin L. (cajá, Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, among others are reported here.

  10. Thermal stability of bioactive enzymatic papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohidus Samad; Li, Xu; Shen, Wei; Garnier, Gil

    2010-01-01

    The thermal stability of two enzymes adsorbed on paper, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), was measured using a colorimetric technique quantifying the intensity of the product complex. The enzymes adsorbed on paper retained their functionality and selectivity. Adsorption on paper increased the enzyme thermal stability by 2-3 orders of magnitude compared to the same enzyme in solution. ALP and HRP enzymatic papers had half-lives of 533 h and 239 h at 23 degrees C, respectively. The thermal degradation of adsorbed enzyme was found to follow two sequential first-order reactions, indication of a reaction system. A complex pattern of enzyme was printed on paper using a thermal inkjet printer. Paper and inkjet printing are ideal material and process to manufacture low-cost-high volume bioactive surfaces.

  11. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-10-09

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here.

  12. New bioactive compounds from korean native mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Eun; Hwang, Byung Soon; Song, Ja-Gyeong; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, In-Kyoung; Yun, Bong-Sik

    2013-12-01

    Mushrooms are ubiquitous in nature and have high nutritional attributes. They have demonstrated diverse biological effects and therefore have been used in treatments of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, bacterial and viral infections, and ulcer. In particular, polysaccharides, including β-glucan, are considered as the major constituents responsible for the biological activity of mushrooms. Although an overwhelming number of reports have been published on the importance of polysaccharides as immunomodulating agents, not all of the healing properties found in these mushrooms could be fully accounted for. Recently, many research groups have begun investigations on biologically active small-molecular weight compounds in wild mushrooms. In this mini-review, both structural diversity and biological activities of novel bioactive substances from Korean native mushrooms are described.

  13. Bioactive constituents of Cirsium japonicum var. australe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wan-Chun; Wu, Yang-Chang; Dankó, Balázs; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Hsieh, Chi-Ting; Tsai, Yu-Chi; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Martins, Ana; Hohmann, Judit; Hunyadi, Attila; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2014-07-25

    Cirsium japonicum var. australe, used as a folk medicine in Taiwan, has been employed traditionally in the treatment of diabetes and inflammatory symptoms. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of its ethanolic extract, utilizing centrifugal partition chromatography monitored by DPPH-TLC analysis, led to the isolation of three new acetylenic phenylacrylic acid esters (1-3) and two new polyacetylenes (4 and 5), together with seven known compounds (6-12). The structures of 1-5 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR techniques. The absolute configurations of 4 and 7 were determined utilizing Mosher's method and ECD/CD experiments. The DPPH scavenging activity of the constituents isolated from the C. japonicum var. australe ethanolic extract was evaluated. The potential antidiabetic activity of some of the isolates was evaluated using in vitro cellular glucose uptake and oil red staining assays.

  14. Experimental studies on bioactive potential of rutin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shagun Dubey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant-derived phytochemicals are gaining wide popularity owing to their diverse therapeutic potential and less side effects. Rutin is one of the plant-derived flavonoid. Rutin has demonstrated cardio protective, analgesic, and anticancer effects. Aim: The current work was focused to evaluate bioactive potential of rutin. Materials and Methods: Rutin was isolated from tobacco leaves. The structure was confirmed by H 1 NMR spectroscopy. The isolated rutin was studied for possible antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, larvicidal, and cytotoxic effects. Results: Results of studies demonstrated that rutin effectively inhibited growth of bacteria and fungi, as well as demonstrated anthelmintic potential. There was a positive response for larvicidal and cytotoxic effects. Conclusion: These studies justify chemotherapeutic potential of rutin.

  15. NOVEL BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM MANGROVE DERIVED ACTINOMYCETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Amrita

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove is most productive and unexplored ecosystem that approximately covers one fourth of world coastline with high diversity of thriving organism. Recently the rate of isolation of novel bioactive compounds from microorganism living in mangrove forest has tremendously increased which is reflected in significant hasten for exploration of mangrove actinomycetes. Actinomycetes are group of bacteria which are extremely interesting as active producers of many primary and secondary metabolites. Many survey reports has depicted that the biologically active compounds which have been obtained so far from microbes, 45 percent are produced by actinomycetes, 38 percent by fungi and 17 percent by unicellular bacteria. Actinomycetes from mangrove environment provide diverse and are potential rich source of antibiotics, anticancer, antifungal and antiviral agent, enzyme and enzyme inhibitor. Mangrove actinomycetes are a prolific but underexploited source for the discovery of novel secondary metabolites.

  16. Bioactive properties of honey with propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osés, S M; Pascual-Maté, A; Fernández-Muiño, M A; López-Díaz, T M; Sancho, M T

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, propolis is used as an innovative preservative and as a bioactive food supplement. Due to its bitter and astringent flavour, propolis is hardly accepted by consumers. The aim of this study was to obtain a likeable food product made with honey and propolis, whose antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties were enhanced in comparison with those of the base honeys used. 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5% soft propolis extracts were added to honeys and the products that most appealed to the users were subjected to further research. Total phenolics, flavonoids, ABTS free radical and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities increased in all mixtures. Antimicrobial activity of the combined products showed synergic effects, resulting in higher results than those of the base honeys and propolis extracts. Therefore, honeys enriched with small amounts of propolis extracts are promising functional foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fluorescent Bioactive Corrole Grafted-Chitosan Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Joana F B; Pinto, Ricardo J B; Vaz Serra, Vanda I R C; Silvestre, Armando J D; Trindade, Tito; Neves, Maria Graça P M S; Cavaleiro, José A S; Daina, Sara; Sadocco, Patrizia; Freire, Carmen S R

    2016-04-11

    Transparent corrole grafted-chitosan films were prepared by chemical modification of chitosan with a corrole macrocycle, namely, 5,10,15-tris(pentafluorophenyl)corrole (TPFC), followed by solvent casting. The obtained films were characterized in terms of absorption spectra (UV-vis), FLIM (fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy), structure (FTIR, XPS), thermal stability (TGA), thermomechanical properties (DMA), and antibacterial activity. The results showed that the chemical grafting of chitosan with corrole units did not affect its film-forming ability and that the grafting yield increased with the reaction time. The obtained transparent films presented fluorescence which increases with the amount of grafted corrole units. Additionally, all films showed bacteriostatic effect against S. aureus, as well as good thermomechanical properties and thermal stability. Considering these features, promising applications may be envisaged for these corrole-chitosan films, such as biosensors, bioimaging agents, and bioactive optical devices.

  18. MicroRNA-143 replenishment re-sensitizes colorectal cancer cells harboring mutant, but not wild-type, KRAS to paclitaxel treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Bing-Yuan; Wang, Xiu-Ying; Fang, Xue-Dong

    2016-05-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) global incidence is one of the highest among cancers. The KRAS gene has been shown as a robust biomarker for poor prognosis and drug resistance. MicroRNA-143 (miR-143) and let-7 are families of tumor suppressor microRNAs that are often downregulated in CRC, especially with coexistent KRAS mutations. In order to evaluate if miR-143 and/or let-7b replenishment would re-sensitize CRC cells to paclitaxel treatment, we investigated in effect of miR-143 and let-7b replenishments on sensitivity to paclitaxel treatment in KRAS mutant LoVo and wild-type SW48 CRC cell lines. Our results showed that miR-143, but not let-7b, increased sensitization of KRAS mutant tumor cells to paclitaxel. Furthermore, transfection of miR-143, but not let-7b, mimic negatively regulated the expression of mutant but not wild-type KRAS. Combination of miR-143 mimic and paclitaxel induced the onset of apoptosis, and reverted in vitro metastatic properties (migration and invasion) in KRAS mutant tumor cells. MiR-143 thus can be used as a chemosensitizer for the treatment of KRAS mutant tumors and warrants further investigations in in vitro and pre-clinical in vivo models.

  19. An effective hybrid self-adapting differential evolution algorithm for the joint replenishment and location-inventory problem in a three-level supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Qu, Hui; Chen, Tao; Yan, Fang-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The integration with different decisions in the supply chain is a trend, since it can avoid the suboptimal decisions. In this paper, we provide an effective intelligent algorithm for a modified joint replenishment and location-inventory problem (JR-LIP). The problem of the JR-LIP is to determine the reasonable number and location of distribution centers (DCs), the assignment policy of customers, and the replenishment policy of DCs such that the overall cost is minimized. However, due to the JR-LIP's difficult mathematical properties, simple and effective solutions for this NP-hard problem have eluded researchers. To find an effective approach for the JR-LIP, a hybrid self-adapting differential evolution algorithm (HSDE) is designed. To verify the effectiveness of the HSDE, two intelligent algorithms that have been proven to be effective algorithms for the similar problems named genetic algorithm (GA) and hybrid DE (HDE) are chosen to compare with it. Comparative results of benchmark functions and randomly generated JR-LIPs show that HSDE outperforms GA and HDE. Moreover, a sensitive analysis of cost parameters reveals the useful managerial insight. All comparative results show that HSDE is more stable and robust in handling this complex problem especially for the large-scale problem.

  20. An Effective Hybrid Self-Adapting Differential Evolution Algorithm for the Joint Replenishment and Location-Inventory Problem in a Three-Level Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration with different decisions in the supply chain is a trend, since it can avoid the suboptimal decisions. In this paper, we provide an effective intelligent algorithm for a modified joint replenishment and location-inventory problem (JR-LIP. The problem of the JR-LIP is to determine the reasonable number and location of distribution centers (DCs, the assignment policy of customers, and the replenishment policy of DCs such that the overall cost is minimized. However, due to the JR-LIP’s difficult mathematical properties, simple and effective solutions for this NP-hard problem have eluded researchers. To find an effective approach for the JR-LIP, a hybrid self-adapting differential evolution algorithm (HSDE is designed. To verify the effectiveness of the HSDE, two intelligent algorithms that have been proven to be effective algorithms for the similar problems named genetic algorithm (GA and hybrid DE (HDE are chosen to compare with it. Comparative results of benchmark functions and randomly generated JR-LIPs show that HSDE outperforms GA and HDE. Moreover, a sensitive analysis of cost parameters reveals the useful managerial insight. All comparative results show that HSDE is more stable and robust in handling this complex problem especially for the large-scale problem.

  1. Novel characterization of monocyte-derived cell populations in the meninges and choroid plexus and their rates of replenishment in bone marrow chimeric mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnery, Holly R; Ruitenberg, Marc J; McMenamin, Paul G

    2010-09-01

    The mouse dura mater, pia mater, and choroid plexus contain resident macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). These cells participate in immune surveillance, phagocytosis of cellular debris, uptake of antigens from the surrounding cerebrospinal fluid and immune regulation in many pathologic processes. We used Cx3cr1 knock-in, CD11c-eYFP transgenic and bone marrow chimeric mice to characterize the phenotype, density and replenishment rate of monocyte-derived cells in the meninges and choroid plexus and to assess the role of the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 on their number and tissue distribution. Iba-1 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II CD169 CD68 macrophages and CD11c putative DCs were identified in meningeal and choroid plexus whole mounts. Comparison of homozygous and heterozygous Cx3cr1 mice did not reveal CX3CR1-dependancy on density, distribution or phenotype of monocyte-derived cells. In turnover studies, wild type lethally irradiated mice were reconstituted with Cx3cr1/-positive bone marrow and were analyzed at 3 days, 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks after transplantation. There was a rapid replenishment of CX3CR1-positive cells in the dura mater (at 4 weeks) and the choroid plexus was fully reconstituted by 8 weeks. These data provide the foundation for future studies on the role of resident macrophages and DCs in conditions such as meningitis, autoimmune inflammatory disease and in therapies involving irradiation and hematopoietic or stem cell transplantation.

  2. Bioactive Labels for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Nasui

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide residues and microbial load on the surface of fresh fruits and vegetables becomes a major concern due to the safety and quality of these products for consumer.In order to minimize these risk factors (pesticide residues and microbial load, were achieved labels for fruits and vegetables that are consumed with shell which disintegrates under the influence of water jet and thus reduce the amount of these contaminants. Were elaborated labels based on polymer (chitosan at a concentration of 2%, which incorporate bioactive compounds from green tea with potential decontaminant of the peel of this products. Green tea extract was obtained by infusing 1 g of dried green tea in 100 ml water at 80° C for 10 minutes. The extract was filtered and then mixed with 2 g chitosan acidified with 0.7% glacial acetic acid and dilute to the mark with distilled water. Were identified bioactive compounds from green tea, using UV-VIS and HPLC. Then were elaborated the labels. These tags were used on pepper, tomato, apple and  nectarine. Were quantified the microbial load and the pesticide residues on their surface unwashed, washed only with water and were monitored the influence of labels on these factors. Identified pesticides were mefenoxan and thiamethoxam, which were quantified by HPLC. In what it concerns the influence, were founded the absence of germs at pepper and a significant decrease at the other. In terms of  the potential of reducing pesticide, the experimental results have indicated that the label can prove its effectiveness.

  3. Bioactive Labels for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasui Liana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide residues and microbial load on the surface of fresh fruits and vegetables becomes a major concern due to the safety and quality of these products for consumer.In order to minimize these risk factors (pesticide residues and microbial load, were achieved labels for fruits and vegetables that are consumed with shell which disintegrates under the influence of water jet and thus reduce the amount of these contaminants. Were elaborated labels based on polymer (chitosan at a concentration of 2%, which incorporate bioactive compounds from green tea with potential decontaminant of the peel of this products. Green tea extract was obtained by infusing 1 g of dried green tea in 100 ml water at 80° C for 10 minutes. The extract was filtered and then mixed with 2 g chitosan acidified with 0.7% glacial acetic acid and dilute to the mark with distilled water. Were identified bioactive compounds from green tea, using UV-VIS and HPLC. Then were elaborated the labels. These tags were used on pepper, tomato, apple and  nectarine. Were quantified the microbial load and the pesticide residues on their surface unwashed, washed only with water and were monitored the influence of labels on these factors. Identified pesticides were mefenoxan and thiamethoxam, which were quantified by HPLC. In what it concerns the influence, were founded the absence of germs at pepper and a significant decrease at the other. In terms of  the potential of reducing pesticide, the experimental results have indicated that the label can prove its effectiveness.  

  4. Bioactive Metabolites from Spilanthes acmella Murr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virapong Prachayasittikul

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Spilanthes acmella Murr. (Compositae has been used as a traditional medicine for toothache, rheumatism and fever. Its extracts had been shown to exhibit vasorelaxant and antioxidant activities. Herein, its antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were evaluated. Agar dilution method assays against 27 strains of microorganisms were performed. Results showed that fractions from the chloroform and methanol extracts inhibited the growth of many tested organisms, e.g. Corynebacterium diphtheriae NCTC 10356 with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 64-256 mg/mL and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 with MIC of 128-256 mg/mL. The tested fractions all exhibited antioxidant properties in both DPPH and SOD assays. Potent radical scavenging activity was observed in the DPPH assay. No cytotoxic effects of the extracts against KB and HuCCA-1 cell lines were evident. Bioassay-guided isolation resulted in a diverse group of bioactive compounds such as phenolics [vanillic acid (2, trans-ferulic acid (5 and trans-isoferulic acid (6], coumarin (scopoletin, 4 and triterpenoids like 3-acetylaleuritolic acid (1, b-sitostenone (3, stigmasterol and stigmasteryl-3-O-b-D-glucopyranosides, in addition to a mixture of stigmasteryl-and b-sitosteryl-3-O-b-D-glucopyranosides. The compounds 1–6 represent bioactive metabolites of S. acmella Murr. that were never previously reported. Our findings demonstrate for the first time the potential benefits of this medicinal plant as a rich source of high therapeutic value compounds for medicines, cosmetics, supplements and as a health food.

  5. ZoneLib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob; Schiøler, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    We present a dynamic model for climate in a livestock building divided into a number of zones, and a corresponding modular Simulink library (ZoneLib). While most literature in this area consider air flow as a control parameter we show how to model climate dynamics using actual control signals...... development of ZoneLib....

  6. Bioactivity and mechanical behaviour of cobalt oxide-doped bioactive glass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vikash Kumar Vyas; Arepalli Sampath Kumar; Sunil Prasad; S P Singh; Ram Pyare

    2015-08-01

    Bioactive glasses are materials capable of bonding implants to tissues. 45S5 Bio-glass® is one such material capable of bonding strongly to bone within 6 weeks. It develops a hydroxy-carbonate apatite layer on the implant that is chemically and crystallographically equivalent to the mineral phase of bone. However, it suffers from a mechanical weakness and low fracture toughness due to an amorphous glass network and is not suitable for load-bearing applications. In order to improve its mechanical strength and bioactivity, the present work explores the effects of cobalt oxide additions. Bioactivity of the glass samples was assessed through their hydroxyapatite formation ability by immersing them in the simulated body fluid for different soaking periods. The formation of hydroxyapatite was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, pH measurement and microstructure evaluation through scanning electron microscopy. Densities and mechanical properties of the samples were found to increase considerably with an increase in the concentration of cobalt oxide.

  7. Generalized Fibonacci zone plates

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  8. Shanghai's Development Zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Since the early 1980s,development zones began appearing in China.Their Success largely stems from the preferential policies they offer and the safe investment environment they work hard to create.As zones have personalities themselves,it is essential to look beyond the pamphlets and published information and get down to the nittygritty.Shanghai has more State designated Economic and Technology Development Zones than any other city in China.In the following article,we have chosen development zones located around Shanghai and conducted a comparison.

  9. Identification of chlorinated solvents degradation zones in clay till by high resolution chemical, microbial and compound specific isotope analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ida; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Bælum, Jacob;

    2013-01-01

    The degradation of chlorinated ethenes and ethanes in clay till was investigated at a contaminated site (Vadsby, Denmark) by high resolution sampling of intact cores combined with groundwater sampling. Over decades of contamination, bioactive zones with degradation of trichloroethene (TCE) and 1,...

  10. Biomimetic component coating on 3D scaffolds using high bioactivity of mesoporous bioactive ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun HS

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hui-suk Yun1, Sang-Hyun Kim2, Dongwoo Khang3, Jungil Choi4, Hui-hoon Kim2, Minji Kang31Functional Materials Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Gyeongnam, Korea; 2Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Jung-Gu, Daegu, Korea; 3School of Nano and Advanced Materials Science and Engineering and Center for NMBE, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Korea; 4Department of Anatomy, Institute of Health Science and School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Gyeongnam, KoreaBackground: Mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs are very attractive materials for use in bone tissue regeneration because of their extraordinarily high bone-forming bioactivity in vitro. That is, MBGs may induce the rapid formation of hydroxy apatite (HA in simulated body fluid (SBF, which is a major inorganic component of bone extracellular matrix (ECM and comes with both good osteoconductivity and high affinity to adsorb proteins. Meanwhile, the high bioactivity of MBGs may lead to an abrupt initial local pH variation during the initial Ca ion-leaching from MBGs at the initial transplant stage, which may induce unexpected negative effects on using them in in vivo application. In this study we suggest a new way of using MBGs in bone tissue regeneration that can improve the strength and make up for the weakness of MBGs. We applied the outstanding bone-forming bioactivity of MBG to coat the main ECM components HA and collagen on the MBG-polycarplolactone (PCL composite scaffolds for improving their function as bone scaffolds in tissue regeneration. This precoating process can also expect to reduce initial local pH variation of MBGs.Methods and materials: The MBG-PCL scaffolds were immersed in the mixed solution of the collagen and SBF at 37°C for 24 hours. The coating of ECM components on the MBG-PCL scaffolds and the effect of ECM coating on in vitro cell behaviors were confirmed.Results: The ECM components were fully

  11. BIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES WITH PREVENTIVE EFFECT IN CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulero, Juana; Abellán, José; Zafrilla, Pilar; Amores, Diego; Hernández Sánchez, Pilar

    2015-10-01

    The effect of diet on cardiovascular disease prevention has been widely studied for many years. Numerous studies have confirmed that diets rich in fruits and vegetables (Mediterranean diet) are beneficial to the cardiovascular system and various bioactive food components have preventive effect on chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. In this paper we review the effect of bioactive substances included in the group of flavonoids (catechins and proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins and isoflavones), stilbenes such as resveratrol, bioactive peptides, plant sterols and polyunsaturated fatty acids omega- 3 on the cardiovascular system.

  12. Development and clinical trial of a novel bioactive bone cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Strontium(Sr)and related compounds have become more attractive in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Previously,we developed a novel bioactive bone cement which is mainly composed of strontium-containing hydroxyapatite(Sr-HA)filler and bisphenol A diglycidylether dimethacrylate(Bis-GMA)resin.This bone cement is superior to conventional polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)bone cement in bioactivity,biocompatibility,and osseointegration.It also has shown sufficient mechanical strength properties for its use in percutaneous vertebroplasty(PVP)and total hip replacement(THR).In this paper,we review the in vitro,in vivo and clinical evidence for the effectiveness of this bioactive bone cement.

  13. Cyclodextrins as encapsulation agents for plant bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Eva; Grootveld, Martin; Soares, Graça; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-01-30

    Plants possess a wide range of molecules capable of improve healing: fibre, vitamins, phytosterols, and further sulphur-containing compounds, carotenoids, organic acid anions and polyphenolics. However, they require an adequate level of protection from the environmental conditions to prevent losing their structural integrity and bioactivity. Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides arising from the degradation of starch, which can be a viable option as encapsulation technique. Cyclodextrins are inexpensive, friendly to humans, and also capable of improving the biological, chemical and physical properties of bioactive molecules. Therefore, the aim of this review is to highlight the use of cyclodextrins as encapsulating agents for bioactive plant molecules in the pharmaceutical field.

  14. 补肾中药改善骨质疏松症的实验研究近况%Recent Experimental Studies on Kidney-Replenishing Chinese Herbs in Improving Osteoporosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙河龙; 逯自强

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the role of kidney - replenishing Chinese herbs in improving osteoporosis. Methods: Relevant literature on kidney - replenishing Chinese herbs which could improve osteoporosis was analyzed through literature analysis. Results and Conclusion:Therapies of using specific kidney - replenishing Chinese herbs and formula or single Chinese herbs have a more significant effect in improving, preventing and treating osteoporosis.%摘要:目的:探讨补肾中药对骨质疏松症的作用。方法:利用文献分析法,分析有关补肾中药改善骨质疏松症的有关文献。结果与结论:采用补肾中药专方专药和单味中药等疗法,对改善和防治骨质疏松症有较明显的效果。

  15. Bioactivity response of Ta1-xOx coatings deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida Alves, C F; Cavaleiro, A; Carvalho, S

    2016-01-01

    The use of dental implants is sometimes accompanied by failure due to periimplantitis disease and subsequently poor esthetics when soft-hard tissue margin recedes. As a consequence, further research is needed for developing new bioactive surfaces able to enhance the osseous growth. Tantalum (Ta) is a promising material for dental implants since, comparing with titanium (Ti), it is bioactive and has an interesting chemistry which promotes the osseointegration. Another promising approach for implantology is the development of implants with oxidized surfaces since bone progenitor cells interact with the oxide layer forming a diffusion zone due to its ability to bind with calcium which promotes a stronger bond. In the present report Ta-based coatings were deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering onto Ti CP substrates in an Ar+O2 atmosphere. In order to assess the osteoconductive response of the studied materials, contact angle and in vitro tests of the samples immersed in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) were performed. Structural results showed that oxide phases where achieved with larger amounts of oxygen (70 at.% O). More compact and smooth coatings were deposited by increasing the oxygen content. The as-deposited Ta coating presented the most hydrophobic character (100°); with increasing oxygen amount contact angles progressively diminished, down to the lowest measured value, 63°. The higher wettability is also accompanied by an increase on the surface energy. Bioactivity tests demonstrated that highest O-content coating, in good agreement with wettability and surface energy values, showed an increased affinity for apatite adhesion, with higher Ca/P ratio formation, when compared to the bare Ti substrates.

  16. In vitro bioactivity and antimicrobial tuning of bioactive glass nanoparticles added with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, M; Ruby Priscilla, S; Kavitha, K; Manivasakan, P; Rajendran, V; Kulandaivelu, P

    2014-01-01

    Silica and phosphate based bioactive glass nanoparticles (58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5) with doping of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder and silver nanoparticles were prepared and characterised. Bioactive glass nanoparticles were produced using sol-gel technique. In vitro bioactivity of the prepared samples was investigated using simulated body fluid. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of prepared glass particles reveals amorphous phase and spherical morphology with a particle size of less than 50 nm. When compared to neem doped glass, better bioactivity was attained in silver doped glass through formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface, which was confirmed through XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. However, neem leaf powder doped bioactive glass nanoparticles show good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and less bioactivity compared with silver doped glass particles. In addition, the biocompatibility of the prepared nanocomposites reveals better results for neem doped and silver doped glasses at lower concentration. Therefore, neem doped bioactive glass may act as a potent antimicrobial agent for preventing microbial infection in tissue engineering applications.

  17. Subduction of fracture zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin Manea, Vlad; Gerya, Taras; Manea, Marina; Zhu, Guizhi; Leeman, William

    2013-04-01

    Since Wilson proposed in 1965 the existence of a new class of faults on the ocean floor, namely transform faults, the geodynamic effects and importance of fracture zone subduction is still little studied. It is known that oceanic plates are characterized by numerous fracture zones, and some of them have the potential to transport into subduction zones large volumes of water-rich serpentinite, providing a fertile water source for magma generated in subduction-related arc volcanoes. In most previous geodynamic studies, subducting plates are considered to be homogeneous, and there is no clear indication how the subduction of a fracture zone influences the melting pattern in the mantle wedge and the slab-derived fluids distribution in the subarc mantle. Here we show that subduction of serpentinized fracture zones plays a significant role in distribution of melt and fluids in the mantle wedge above the slab. Using high-resolution tree-dimensional coupled petrological-termomechanical simulations of subduction, we show that fluids, including melts and water, vary dramatically in the region where a serpentinized fracture zone enters into subduction. Our models show that substantial hydration and partial melting tend to concentrate where fracture zones are being subducted, creating favorable conditions for partially molten hydrous plumes to develop. These results are consistent with the along-arc variability in magma source compositions and processes in several regions, as the Aleutian Arc, the Cascades, the Southern Mexican Volcanic Arc, and the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone.

  18. Bioactive proteins against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Z. Sitohy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is likely that both human nutrition and the nutrition of livestock are benefited by the presence of bioactive proteins within their respective diet regimes. Bioactive proteins have been defined as specific protein fragments that positively impact bodily functions or conditions and may, ultimately, influence overall human health. The ingestion of bioactive proteins may have an effect on the major body systems—namely, the cardiovascular, digestive, immune and nervous systems. According to their functional properties, bioactive proteins may be classified as antimicrobial, antithrombotic, antihypertensive, opioid, immune-modulatory, mineral binding and anti-oxidative. There are many examples of biologically active food proteins and active peptides that can be obtained from various food protein sources. They have a physiological significance beyond the pure nutritional requirements; in other wordsthey have the acquisition of nitrogen for normal growth and maintenance. Objective: This study aims to specify and characterize the extent and mode of action of bioactive proteins in their native form, (glycinin, glycinin basic sub-unit and β-conglycinin against specific main pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. We will be using standard media while identifying the main constituents responsible for this action. Methods: Glycinin, basic sub-unit and β-conglycinin were isolated from soybean protein and tested for their antimicrobial action against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, They were thencompared to the properties of penicillin. Methylated soybean protein and also methylated chickpea protein (MSP and MCP, with isoelectric points around pI 8, were prepared by esterifying. 83 % of their free carboxyl groups and their interactions with Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were examined. Results: The three divisions of cationic proteins exhibited antibacterial

  19. Research on underway replenishment path planning for supply ship in carrier battle group%航母编队补给船海上补给航路规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓光; 赵仁厚; 王述运; 齐丽君

    2014-01-01

    The problem of underway replenishment path planning for the supply ship in a carrier battle group is investigated.According to the network flows theory,three replenishment tactics for underway repleni-shment are presented:delivery boy,gas station and circuit rider.In each replenishment tactic,two underway replenishment path planning models are given.The objective of one model is to minimize the time to replenish all ships,while the other is to maximize the replenishment values.Finally,a typical example is given,and the computational results show that the delivery boy tactic is more effective and practically useful in computing time and planning results.The results of this paper can provide quantity basis and theory guidance for the underway replenishment path planning for the supply ship in a carrier battle group.%研究了航母编队补给船海上补给航路规划问题,依据网络流理论,提出了3类航母补给船航路规划的策略:送报男孩策略、加油站策略和巡回牧师策略。在每类规划策略下,分别以最小化补给时间和最大化补给价值为目标函数,构建了最小补给时间模型和最大补给价值模型。最后应用典型案例,对3类补给策略下的两种补给航路规划模型从解算时间、补给航路规划结果两方面进行了对比分析,仿真结果表明,依据送报男孩策略制定的航母编队补给船补给航路规划方案更具优势。论文的研究成果可以为航母编队补给船海上补给航路规划提供方法和途径。

  20. Evaluation of Bioactivities and Phenolic Content of Selected Edible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Bioactivities and Phenolic Content of Selected Edible Mushrooms in Malaysia. ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... metal chelating, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of five edible mushrooms in Malaysia.

  1. Current Strategies to Improve the Bioactivity of PEEK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Ma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The synthetic thermoplastic polymer polyetheretherketone (PEEK is becoming a popular component of clinical orthopedic and spinal applications, but its practical use suffers from several limitations. Although PEEK is biocompatible, chemically stable, radiolucent and has an elastic modulus similar to that of normal human bone, it is biologically inert, preventing good integration with adjacent bone tissues upon implantation. Recent efforts have focused on increasing the bioactivity of PEEK to improve the bone-implant interface. Two main strategies have been used to overcome the inert character of PEEK. One approach is surface modification to activate PEEK through surface treatment alone or in combination with a surface coating. Another strategy is to prepare bioactive PEEK composites by impregnating bioactive materials into PEEK substrate. Researchers believe that modified bioactive PEEK will have a wide range of orthopedic applications.

  2. Edible coatings as encapsulating matrices for bioactive compounds: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirós-Sauceda, Ana Elena; Ayala-Zavala, Jesús Fernando; Olivas, Guadalupe I; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2014-09-01

    Edible coatings can extend the shelf-life of many foods, controlling moisture and solute migration, gas exchange and oxidative reaction rates. Besides, edible coatings can be used as carriers of bioactive compounds to improve the quality of food products such as antioxidants, antimicrobials, flavors and probiotics. These approaches can be useful to extend shelf-life as well as provide a functional product. When edible coatings are used as a matrix holding bioactive compounds remarkable benefits arise; off odors and flavors can be masked, bioactive compounds are protected from the environment, and controlled release is allowed. In this sense, the present review will be focused on analyzing the potential use of encapsulation with edible coatings to incorporate bioactive compounds, solving the disadvantages of direct application.

  3. Design of foods with bioactive lipids for improved health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingcan; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have found an association between the consumption of certain bioactive lipids and improved human health, e.g., the prevention, delay, or treatment of chronic and acute diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), osteoporosis, and immune disorders. In this review, we discuss food-based sources and potential beneficial attributes of major dietary bioactive lipids: polyunsaturated fatty acids; carotenoids; phytosterols and phytostanols; and fat-soluble vitamins. We summarize the various challenges associated with incorporating these bioactive lipids into foods and beverages, such as poor water solubility, high melting point, and low chemical stability. Finally, we propose several techniques that have been used to solve the challenges and integrate dietary bioactive lipids into foods for improved health.

  4. Role of bioactive fatty acids in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Hernández, Eva; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C; Uribe, Misael; Barbero-Becerra, Varenka J

    2016-08-02

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by fat deposition in hepatocytes, and a strong association with nutritional factors. Dietary fatty acids are classified according to their biochemical properties, which confer their bioactive roles. Monounsaturated fatty acids have a dual role in various human and murine models. In contrast, polyunsaturated fatty acids exhibit antiobesity, anti steatosic and anti-inflammatory effects. The combination of these forms of fatty acids-according to dietary type, daily intake and the proportion of n-6 to n-3 fats-can compromise hepatic lipid metabolism. A chemosensory rather than a nutritional role makes bioactive fatty acids possible biomarkers for NAFLD. Bioactive fatty acids provide health benefits through modification of fatty acid composition and modulating the activity of liver cells during liver fibrosis. More and better evidence is necessary to elucidate the role of bioactive fatty acids in nutritional and clinical treatment strategies for patients with NAFLD.

  5. [Bio-active substances derived from marine microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quanyong; Hu, Jiangchun; Xue, Delin; Ma, Chengxin; Wang, Shujin

    2002-07-01

    Marine microorganisms, which are taxonomically diverse and genetically special, have powerful potential in producing novel bio-active substances. This article summarized research progress in this respect. The results showed that marine bacteria which are main marine microorganism flora can produce rich kinds of bio-active substances and that even though marine actinomycetes and marine fungi are not as many as marine bacteria in species and quantity, they should be paid no less attention about their bio-active substances. Besides, present research are limited to those marine microorganisms which are easily cultured. One of the future research trends will be focused on bio-active substances derived from non-culturable marine microorganisms.

  6. Bioactive composites consisting of PEEK and calcium silicate powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ill Yong; Sugino, Atsushi; Kikuta, Koichi; Ohtsuki, Chikara; Cho, Sung Baek

    2009-08-01

    Bioactive bone-repairing materials with mechanical properties analogous to those of natural bone can be obtained through the combination of bioactive ceramic fillers with organic polymers. Previously, we developed novel bioactive microspheres in a binary CaO-SiO2 system produced through a sol-gel process as filler for the fabrication of composites. In this study, we fabricate bioactive composites in which polyetheretherketone is reinforced with 0-50 vol% 30CaO x 70SiO2 (CS) microspheres. The prepared composites reinforced with CS particles form hydroxyapatite on their surfaces in simulated body fluid. The induction periods of hydroxyapatite formation on the composites decrease with increasing amount of CS particles. The mechanical properties of the composites are evaluated by three-point bending test. The composites reinforced with 20 vol% CS particles show 123.5 MPa and 6.43 GPa in bending strength and Young's modulus, respectively.

  7. Bioactive compounds in berries relevant to human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battino, M.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Denoyes-Rothan, B.; Laimer, M.

    2009-01-01

    Berries contain powerful antioxidants, potential allergens, and other bioactive compounds. Genetic and environmental factors affect production and storage of such compounds. For this reason breeding and biotechnological approaches are currently used to control or to increase the content of specific

  8. Bioactive foods in promoting health: probiotics and prebiotics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watson, Ronald R; Preedy, Victor R

    2010-01-01

    "Bioactive Foods in Health Promotion: Probiotics and Prebiotics brings together experts working on the different aspects of supplementation, foods, and bacterial preparations, in health promotion and disease prevention, to provide...

  9. Advancement into the Arctic region for bioactive sponge secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Samuel; Kelly, Michelle; Bowling, John; Sims, James; Waters, Amanda; Hamann, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Porifera have long been a reservoir for the discovery of bioactive compounds and drug discovery. Most research in the area has focused on sponges from tropical and temperate waters, but more recently the focus has shifted to the less accessible colder waters of the Antarctic and, to a lesser extent, the Arctic. The Antarctic region in particular has been a more popular location for natural products discovery and has provided promising candidates for drug development. This article reviews groups of bioactive compounds that have been isolated and reported from the southern reaches of the Arctic Circle, surveys the known sponge diversity present in the Arctic waters, and details a recent sponge collection by our group in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. The collection has yielded previously undescribed sponge species along with primary activity against opportunistic infectious diseases, malaria, and HCV. The discovery of new sponge species and bioactive crude extracts gives optimism for the isolation of new bioactive compounds from a relatively unexplored source.

  10. Bioactivity of phenolic acids: Metabolites versus parent compounds: A review

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic acids are present in our diet in different foods. In particular, mushrooms are a good source of these molecules. Due to their bioactive properties, phenolic acids are extensively studied and there is evidence of their role in disease prevention. Nevertheless, in vivo, these compounds are metabolized and circulate in the organism as glucuronated, sulfated and methylated metabolites, displaying higher or lower bioactivity. To clarify the importance of the metabolism of phenolic acids, ...

  11. Bioavailability of bioactive food compounds: a challenging journey to bioefficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, Maarit J; Renouf, Mathieu; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Actis-Goretta, Lucas; Thakkar, Sagar K; da Silva Pinto, Marcia

    2013-03-01

    Bioavailability is a key step in ensuring bioefficacy of bioactive food compounds or oral drugs. Bioavailability is a complex process involving several different stages: liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination phases (LADME). Bioactive food compounds, whether derived from various plant or animal sources, need to be bioavailable in order to exert any beneficial effects. Through a better understanding of the digestive fate of bioactive food compounds we can impact the promotion of health and improvement of performance. Many varying factors affect bioavailability, such as bioaccessibility, food matrix effect, transporters, molecular structures and metabolizing enzymes. Bioefficacy may be improved through enhanced bioavailability. Therefore, several technologies have been developed to improve the bioavailability of xenobiotics, including structural modifications, nanotechnology and colloidal systems. Due to the complex nature of food bioactive compounds and also to the different mechanisms of absorption of hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactive compounds, unravelling the bioavailability of food constituents is challenging. Among the food sources discussed during this review, coffee, tea, citrus fruit and fish oil were included as sources of food bioactive compounds (e.g. (poly)phenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)) since they are examples of important ingredients for the food industry. Although there are many studies reporting on bioavailability and bioefficacy of these bioactive food components, understanding their interactions, metabolism and mechanism of action still requires extensive work. This review focuses on some of the major factors affecting the bioavailability of the aforementioned bioactive food compounds. © 2012 Nestec S. A.. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. Sugar matrices in stabilization of bioactives by dehydration

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yankun

    2013-01-01

    Development of functional foods with bioactive components requires component stability in foods and ingredients. Stabilization of sensitive bioactive components can be achieved by entrapment or encapsulation of these components in solid food matrices. Lactose or trehalose was used as the structure-forming material for the entrapment of hydrophilic ascorbic acid and thiamine hydrochloride or the encapsulation of oil particles containing hydrophobic α-tocopherol. In the delivery of hydrophobic ...

  13. Bioactive ceramic-based materials with designed reactivity for bone tissue regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Ohtsuki, Chikara; Kamitakahara, Masanobu; Miyazaki, Toshiki

    2009-01-01

    Bioactive ceramics have been used clinically to repair bone defects owing to their biological affinity to living bone; i.e. the capability of direct bonding to living bone, their so-called bioactivity. However, currently available bioactive ceramics do not satisfy every clinical application. Therefore, the development of novel design of bioactive materials is necessary. Bioactive ceramics show osteoconduction by formation of biologically active bone-like apatite through chemical reaction of t...

  14. Secondary metabolites and bioactivities of Myrtus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud I Nassar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myrtus species are characterized by the presence of phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, volatile oils and fatty acids. They are remedies for variety of ailments. This study therefore investigated medicinal effects of Myrtus communis L. Methods: Bioactivity studies of Myrtus communis L. leaves were carried out on volatile oil, 7% methanol and aqueous extracts and the isolated compounds myricetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside, myricetin 3-O-∝-rhamnopyranoside and gallic acid. Results: Determination of the median lethal dose (LD 50 revealed that the volatile oil, alcoholic and aqueous extracts were practically nontoxic and highly safe as no lethality was observed. The tested materials (volatile oil, alcoholic and aqueous extracts, myricetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside, myricetin 3-O-∝-rhamnopyranoside and gallic acid showed significant antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects as compared with control groups and reference drugs. Conclusion : Administration of extracts of M. communis leaves could be safe at the dose used in this study.

  15. Bioactivities examination of Cinchona leaves ethanol extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artanti, Nina; Udin, Linar Z.; Hanafi, M.; Jamilah, Kurniasih, Ida Rahmi; Primahana, Gian; Anita, Yulia; Sundowo, Andini; Kandace, Yoice Sri

    2017-01-01

    Cinchona species especially the barks are commonly known for commercial production of quinine as antimalarial. Although it is also reported for treatment of depurative, whooping cough, influenza and dysentery. In this paper we reported in vitro examination of other bioactivities (antidiabetes, antioxidant and in vitro cytotoxicity) of 70% ethanol extract of Cinchona ledgeriana and C. succirubra leaves as well as qunine, quinidine, and cinchonine the major alkaloids found in Cinchona species. Antidiabetes was conducted using α-glucosidase inhibitory activity assay. Antioxidant was conducted using DPPH free radical scavenging activity assay. In vitro cytotoxic activity was concucted by microscopic observation on growth of breast cancer cell line MCF-7. The results showed that at concentration of 100 µg/ml, C. ledgeriana leaves ethanol extracts showed the best activity as antidiabetes (98% inhibitory of α-glucosidase activity) and antioxidant (92% DPPH free radical scavenging activity), whereas at the same concentration C. succirubra, quinine, quinidine and cinchonine showed very low activities of antidiabetes and antioxidant. Microscopic observation of in vitro cytotoxicity showed that C. ledgeriana also has excellent cytotoxicity to breast cancer cell line MCF-7 which better than quinine, quinidine and cinchonine, whereas C. succirubra showed low cytotoxicity. These results suggest that cinchona species have many potential as the source of drugs discovery and development other than just for malaria treatment. Therefore it is important to conduct further studies and to maintain the available Cinchona plantation in Indonesia.

  16. Structural diversity and bioactivities of natural benzophenones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shi-Biao; Long, Chunlin; Kennelly, Edward J

    2014-09-01

    Natural benzophenones are a class of compounds consisting of more than 300 members, which exhibit great structural diversity and bioactive properties. Many benzophenones have been reported from higher plants or fungi, most with polyisoprenylated benzophenone skeletons, and are mainly found in the Clusiaceae (formerly Guttiferae) family, a number from edible or medicinal species. Owing to their variable substituents and complex ring systems, many new polyisoprenylated benzophenones (PPBS), including ones with unusual skeletons, were isolated and identified. These natural benzophenones exhibit a range of biological activities including antifungal, anti-HIV, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiviral and cytotoxic. Because of the increased numbers and biological importance of these unique natural product polyphenols, we will review natural benzophenones and provide an in-depth discussion of their structural diversity and biological activity. By focusing on these key developments in benzophenones, we will contribute a focused review, selecting examples mostly from the last 15 years, but extending our scope to other historically important benzophenones discovered prior to that time.

  17. Triterpene Composition and Bioactivities of Centella asiatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Devi Palanisamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Centella asiatica (Centella were analysed for their triterpene composition and bioactivity such as collagen enhancement, antioxidant, anticellulite and UV protection capacity properties. Triterpenes of Centella were measured using HPLC-PAD on an Excil ODS 5 mm (C18 column for the simultaneous determination of asiatic acid, madecassic acid, asiaticoside and madecassoside. Centella was found to contain significant amounts of madecassoside (3.10 ± 4.58 mg/mL and asiaticoside (1.97 ± 2.65 mg/mL, but was low in asiatic and madecassic acid. The highest collagen synthesis was found at 50 mg/mL of Centella extracts. The antioxidant activity of Centella (84% was compared to grape seed extract (83% and Vitamin C (88%. Its lipolytic activity was observed by the release of glycerol (115.9 µmol/L at 0.02% concentration. Centella extracts exhibited similar UV protection effect to OMC at 10% concentration. In view of these results, the potential application of Centella in food and pharmaceutical industries is now widely open.

  18. Isolation of bioactive natural products from myxomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Masami

    2005-11-01

    The Myxomycetes (true slime molds) are an unusual group of primitive organisms that may be assigned to one of the lowest classes of eukaryotes. As their fruit bodies are very small and it is very difficult to collect much quantity of slime molds, few studies have been made on the chemistry of myxomycetes. Cultivation of the plasmodium of myxomycetes in a practical scale for natural products chemistry studies is known only for very limited species. Here is described a review on the recent results on isolation of bioactive natural products from myxomycetes obtained in these two years in the laboratories. Spore germination experiments were studied of hundreds of field-collected myxomycetes collected in Japan and succeeded in laboratory culture of plasmodia of several myxomycetes in a practical scale for natural products chemistry studies. As a result, pyrroloiminoquinones, polyene yellow pigments, and a peptide lactone from cultured plasmodia of Didymium iridis, Physarum rigidum and P. melleum, respectively were isolated. New naphthoquinone pigments, cycloanthranilylprolines, tyrosine-kinase inhibitory bisindoles, and a cytotoxic triterpenoid aldehyde lactone were also isolated from field-collected fruit bodies of Cribraria purpurea, Fuligo candida, Tubifera casparyi, and Tubifera dimorphotheca, respectively.

  19. Burchellin: study of bioactivity against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciso, Juliana Oliveira Abreu; Soares, Renata Oliveira de Araújo; Reis dos Santos Mallet, Jacenir; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; de Oliveira Chaves, Maria Célia; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Maleck, Marise

    2014-04-08

    The dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 is a widespread insect pest of serious medical importance. Since no effective vaccine is available for treating dengue, the eradication or control of the main mosquito vector is regarded as essential. Since conventional insecticides have limited success, plants may be an alternative source of larvicidal agents, since they contain a rich source of bioactive chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of the neolignan burchellin isolated from Ocotea cymbarum (Lauraceae), a plant from the Amazon region, against third instar larvae of A. aegypti. Burchellin obtained from O. cymbarum was analyzed. The inhibitory activity against A. aegypti eggs and larvae and histological changes in the digestive system of treated L3 larvae were evaluated. In addition, nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide levels were determined, and cytotoxicity bioassays performed. The data showed that burchellin interfered with the development cycle of the mosquito, where its strongest toxic effect was 100% mortality in larvae (L3) at concentrations ≥ 30 ppm. This compound did not show target cell toxicity in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice, and proved to have molecular stability when dissolved in water. The L3 and L4 larvae treated with the compound showed cellular destruction and disorganization, cell spacing, and vacuolization of epithelial cells in small regions of the midgut. The neolignan burchellin proved to be a strong candidate for a natural, safe and stable phytolarvicidal to be used in population control of A. aegypti.

  20. Screening for bioactive compounds from algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, M; Santoyo, S; Jaime, L; García-Blairsy Reina, G; Herrero, M; Señoráns, F J; Ibáñez, E

    2010-01-20

    In the present work, a comprehensive methodology to carry out the screening for novel natural functional compounds is presented. To do that, a new strategy has been developed including the use of unexplored natural sources (i.e., algae and microalgae) together with environmentally clean extraction techniques and advanced analytical tools. The developed procedure allows also estimating the functional activities of the different extracts obtained and even more important, to correlate these activities with their particular chemical composition. By applying this methodology it has been possible to carry out the screening for bioactive compounds in the algae Himanthalia elongata and the microalgae Synechocystis sp. Both algae produced active extracts in terms of both antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The obtained pressurized liquid extracts were chemically characterized by GC-MS and HPLC-DAD. Different fatty acids and volatile compounds with antimicrobial activity were identified, such as phytol, fucosterol, neophytadiene or palmitic, palmitoleic and oleic acids. Based on the results obtained, ethanol was selected as the most appropriate solvent to extract this kind of compounds from the natural sources studied.

  1. Bioactivation of Phytoestrogens: Intestinal Bacteria and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landete, J M; Arqués, J; Medina, M; Gaya, P; de Las Rivas, B; Muñoz, R

    2016-08-17

    Phytoestrogens are polyphenols similar to human estrogens found in plants or derived from plant precursors. Phytoestrogens are found in high concentration in soya, flaxseed and other seeds, fruits, vegetables, cereals, tea, chocolate, etc. They comprise several classes of chemical compounds (stilbenes, coumestans, isoflavones, ellagitannins, and lignans) which are structurally similar to endogenous estrogens but which can have both estrogenic and antiestrogenic effects. Although epidemiological and experimental evidence indicates that intake of phytoestrogens in foods may be protective against certain chronic diseases, discrepancies have been observed between in vivo and in vitro experiments. The microbial transformations have not been reported so far in stilbenes and coumestans. However, isoflavones, ellagitanins, and lignans are metabolized by intestinal bacteria to produce equol, urolithins, and enterolignans, respectively. Equol, urolithin, and enterolignans are more bioavailable, and have more estrogenic/antiestrogenic and antioxidant activity than their precursors. Moreover, equol, urolithins and enterolignans have anti-inflammatory effects and induce antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities. The transformation of isoflavones, ellagitanins, and lignans by intestinal microbiota is essential to be protective against certain chronic diseases, as cancer, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and menopausal symptoms. Bioavailability, bioactivity, and health effects of dietary phytoestrogens are strongly determined by the intestinal bacteria of each individual.

  2. Effects of Replenishing Qi, Promoting Blood Circulation and Resolving Phlegm on Vascular Endothelial Function and Blood Coagulation System in Senile Patients with Hyperlipemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Huimin; Han Libei; Sheng Tong; He Qiong; Liang Jinpu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the curative effect of the method of replenishing qi, promoting blood circulation and resolving phlegm on senile hyperlipemia and its effects on vascular endothelial function and blood coagulation system. Method: 96 patients with senile hyperlipemia were randomly divided into a treatment group and a of blood lipid, vascular endothelial function, blood coagulation system and safety. Results: After treatment,the treatment group was obviously superior to the control group (P<0.05) in reducing plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as well as in the ratio of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) to 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α), D-dimer (D-D) and fibrinogen (FIB). Conclusion: Danshen Jueming Granules have the effect of regulating metabolism of blood lipid, and improving vascular endothelial function and blood coagulation system in senile patients with hyperlipemia.

  3. The organizational set as the replenishment of the labour force for industrial enterprises of Donbass in the post-war period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Shypik

    2014-12-01

    Serious problems that emerged in the organizational set were – failure to plan, high turnover of recruited through poor living conditions, poor work organization and roughness from direct management. In 40-es of the twentieth century, the organizational set only worked to replenish the labor force of the region. In the early 50-es, with the gradual saturation of the workforce of the industrial objects were created Stalin and Voroshilovgrad oblast recruitment office, which began to perform tasks on the organizational set for enterprises of the Urals and the Far East. Some hope in their implementation depended on the category of the amnestied people. At the same time there was a shift away from labour law of wartime.

  4. Achieving Stable Radiation Pressure Acceleration of Heavy Ions via Successive Electron Replenishment from Ionization of a High-Z Material Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, X. F.; Qiao, B.; Zhang, H.; Kar, S.; Zhou, C. T.; Chang, H. X.; Borghesi, M.; He, X. T.

    2017-05-01

    A method to achieve stable radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) of heavy ions from laser-irradiated ultrathin foils is proposed, where a high-Z material coating in front is used. The coated high-Z material, acting as a moving electron repository, continuously replenishes the accelerating heavy ion foil with comoving electrons in the light-sail acceleration stage due to its successive ionization under laser fields with Gaussian temporal profile. As a result, the detrimental effects such as foil deformation and electron loss induced by the Rayleigh-Taylor-like and other instabilities in RPA are significantly offset and suppressed so that stable acceleration of heavy ions are maintained. Particle-in-cell simulations show that a monoenergetic Al13 + beam with peak energy 3.8 GeV and particle number 1 010 (charge >20 nC ) can be obtained at intensity 1 022 W /cm2 .

  5. BLM Solar Energy Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Priority development areas for utility-scale solar energy facilities as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision. An additional Solar Energy Zone identified...

  6. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  7. Microgravity silicon zoning investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, E. L.; Gill, G. L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The flow instabilities in floating zones of silicon were investigated and methods for investigation of these instabilities in microgravity were defined. Three principal tasks were involved: (1) characterization of the float zone in small diameter rods; (2) investigation of melt flow instabilities in circular melts in silicon disks; and (3) the development of a prototype of an apparatus that could be used in near term space experiments to investigate flow instabilities in a molten zone. It is shown that in a resistance heated zoner with 4 to 7 mm diameter silicon rods that the critical Marangoni number is about 1480 compared to a predicted value of 14 indicative that viable space experiments might be performed. The prototype float zone apparatus is built and specifications are prepared for a flight zoner should a decision be reached to proceed with a space flight experimental investigation.

  8. The gray zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, H J

    1998-01-01

    Think for a minute about the terms equivocal and indeterminate. Equivocal is defined as "of uncertain significance", and indeterminate is defined as "indefinite, uncertain". Now think of the context in which laboratory results are reported: either by using the exact words equivocal or indeterminate or cloaked in technical jargon (e.g., cytologic diagnoses "ASCUS" or "AGUS"). Clinicians expect (or at least want) laboratory results to be black or white (i.e., bimodally distributed), whereas laboratorians strive for the perfect shade of gray because of data that often are bimodal but overlapping. A consequence of this color war is "the gray zone" (often confused with the "twilight zone"), a noncommittal zone that leaves laboratorians and clinicians alike plenty of wiggle room, allowing us to interpret results on either side of the fence. This article examines the root causes of the gray zone, with several clinical examples of how it permeates laboratory interpretation.

  9. Coastal Zone of Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water, Salt and Nutrients Budgets of Two Estuaries in the. Coastal Zone of ... in destabilization of plankton communities, resulting in high ...... The water exchange time (1) was. 315 and 48 days in ..... account. Know your Milieu Series. Limbe,.

  10. Promise Zones for Applicants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists applicants to HUD's Promise Zone initiative prepare data to submit with their application by allowing applicants to draw the exact location of the...

  11. Interactions of bioactive glass materials in the oral environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efflandt, Sarah Elizabeth

    The aim of this research was to investigate bioactive glass materials for their use in dental restorations. Mechanical properties such as strength, toughness and wear resistance were considered initially, but the focus of this thesis was the biological properties such as reactions with saliva and interactions with natural dental tissues. Bioactive composite materials were created by incorporating bioactive glass and alumina powders into an aqueous suspension, slip casting, and infiltrating with resin. Microstructure, mechanical properties and wear resistance were evaluated. Mechanically, the composites are comparable to natural dental tissues and current dental materials with a strength of 206 +/- 18.7 MPa and a toughness of 1.74 +/- 0.08 MPa(m)1/2. Interfacial reactions were examined using bulk bioactive glasses. Disks were prepared from a melt, placed in saliva and incubated at 37°C. Surfaces were analyzed at 2, 5, 10, 21, and 42 days using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microdiffraction. Results showed changes at 2 days with apatite crystallization by 10 days. These glass disks were then secured against extracted human dentin and incubated in saliva for 21 or 42 days. Results from SEM, electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and microdiffraction showed that dentin and bioactive glasses adhered in this in vitro environment due to attraction of collagen to bioactive glasses and growth of an interfacial apatite. After investigating these bulk glass responses, particulate bioactive glasses were placed in in vitro and in vivo set-ups for evaluation. Particles immersed in biologically buffered saliva showed crystallization of apatite at 3 days. These bioactive glass particles were placed in the molars of mini-pigs and left in vivo. After 30 days the bioactive paste was evaluated using SEM, EMPA and microdiffraction analyses. Results showed that the paste gained structural integrity and had chemical changes in vivo. These sets of experiments show that bioactive

  12. Simulated floating zone method

    OpenAIRE

    Ozawa, Ryo; Kato, Yasuyuki; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides the simulated floating zone (SFZ) method that is an efficient simulation technique to obtain thermal equilibrium states, especially useful when domain formation prevents the system from reaching a spatially-uniform stable state. In the SFZ method, the system is heated up locally, and the heated region is steadily shifted, similar to the floating zone method for growing a single crystal with less lattice defect and impurity in experiments. We demonstrate that the SFZ method...

  13. Effect of nickel oxide substitution on bioactivity and mechanical properties of bioactive glass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    VIKASH KUMAR VYAS; A SAMPATH KUMAR; S P SINGH; RAM PYARE

    2016-09-01

    A small amount of nickel oxide is doped in bioglass$^{\\circledR}$ system and it is replaced by silica. The use of 45S5 glass composition is one such material able to bond strongly to bone within 42 days. The 45S5 bioglass$^{\\circledR}$ system develops a hydroxyl carbonate apatite (HCA) layer, which is chemically and crystallographically similar to mineral phase of bone. But it has low fracture toughness and mechanical weakness due to an amorphous glass network andit is not compatible for load-bearing applications. In the present work, the effect of addition of nickel oxide that annualizes the improvement in its mechanical strength and bioactivity is studied. Bioactivity of base glass and doped glass samples were tested through their HCA abilities by immersing them in simulated body fluid (SBF) for different days. The formation of HCA was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy and pH measurement. Densities and mechanical properties of samples were also increased considerably by increasing the concentration of nickel oxide.

  14. Synchrotron X-ray Absorption and In Vitro Bioactivity of Magnetic Macro/Mesoporous Bioactive Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanida Charoensuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxides in macro/mesoporous bioactive glasses were characterized by synchrotron X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES spectroscopy. This magnetic phase was introduced by adding Fe(NO33 9H2O during the sol-gel synthesis. The obtained bioactive glass scaffolds exhibited superparamagnetism, in which the magnetization was increased with the increase in the Fe molar ratio from 10 to 20%. The linear combination fits of the XANES spectra indicated that the increase in the Fe molar ratio to 20% enhanced the γ-Fe2O3 formation at the expense of the α- Fe2O3 phase. This variation also promoted the formation of fine-grained bone-like apatites on the surface of the scaffolds in the in vitro test. The apatite growth between three and seven days was confirmed by the changing elemental compositions. However, the highest magnetic proportion led to the distortion of the skeleton walls and the collapse of the porous networks.

  15. [Effects of Chinese herbs for replenishing qi and resolving stagnation on hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor in granulation tissue of skin ulcers in rats with diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Que, Hua-fa; Zhu, Yuan-yin; Wang, Yun-fei; Zhang, Zhen; Xu, Jie-nan; Xing, Jie; Tang, Han-jun

    2007-03-01

    To explore the effects of Chinese herbs for replenishing qi and resolving stagnation on hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in granulation tissue of skin ulcers in rats with syndrome of blood stasis and qi deficiency. Diabetic rats with back full-thickness skin lesion and syndrome of blood stasis and qi deficiency were divided in to five groups: untreated group, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-treated group, Yiqi Huayu Recipe (a recipe for replenishing qi and resolving stagnation)-treated group, Yiqi Recipe (a recipe for replenishing qi)-treated group and Huayu Recipe (a recipe for resolving stagnation)-treated group, and another eight normal rats served as normal control group. Immunohistochemical method and image analysis were used to test the expressions of HIF-1alpha and VEGF in granulation tissue of skin ulcers in rats with diabetes. In the untreated group, the expression of HIF-1alpha was significantly increased and the expression of VEGF was significantly decreased as compared with those in the normal control group (PChinese herbs for replenishing qi and resolving stagnation can promote the wound healing in rats through reducing the expression of HIF-1alpha, accelerating the expression of VEGF in granulation tissue of skin ulcers in rats with diabetes and ameliorating the status of ischemia and hypoxia.

  16. Design and Realization of Testing System and Monitor System Replenishment at Sea%海上补给试验测试与监控系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩旗

    2013-01-01

    海上航行横向补给为船舶编队远洋的重要关键技术之一,也影响着国家海洋安全战略。建立海上补给试验测试与监控系统,实现对补给设备运行的测试,有助于深入了解各设备的性能参数和运行特性,这对我国补给设备及系统的发展具有重大战略意义。%Replenishment at sea is the important technology of ocean ships, which can affect the sea safety strategy. The paper establishes the test system and the monitor system of replenishment at sea, which can realize the test and monitor of replenishment equipments. It can help engineer understand the performance parameters and the work characteristic deeply. The equipment development of replenishment at sea has great strategic significance for China.

  17. Bioactivity-guided navigation of chemical space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bon, Robin S; Waldmann, Herbert

    2010-08-17

    A central aim of biological research is to elucidate the many roles of proteins in complex, dynamic living systems; the selective perturbation of protein function is an important tool in achieving this goal. Because chemical perturbations offer opportunities often not accessible with genetic methods, the development of small-molecule modulators of protein function is at the heart of chemical biology research. In this endeavor, the identification of biologically relevant starting points within the vast chemical space available for the design of compound collections is a particularly relevant, yet difficult, task. In this Account, we present our research aimed at linking chemical and biological space to define suitable starting points that guide the synthesis of compound collections with biological relevance. Both protein folds and natural product (NP) scaffolds are highly conserved in nature. Whereas different amino acid sequences can make up ligand-binding sites in proteins with highly similar fold types, differently substituted NPs characterized by particular scaffold classes often display diverse biological activities. Therefore, we hypothesized that (i) ligand-binding sites with similar ligand-sensing cores embedded in their folds would bind NPs with similar scaffolds and (ii) selectivity is ensured by variation of both amino acid side chains and NP substituents. To investigate this notion in compound library design, we developed an approach termed biology-oriented synthesis (BIOS). BIOS employs chem- and bioinformatic methods for mapping biologically relevant chemical space and protein space to generate hypotheses for compound collection design and synthesis. BIOS also provides hypotheses for potential bioactivity of compound library members. On the one hand, protein structure similarity clustering (PSSC) is used to identify ligand binding sites with high subfold similarity, that is, high structural similarity in their ligand-sensing cores. On the other hand

  18. Unsaturated zone waters from the Nopal I natural analog, Chihuahua, Mexico -- Implications for radionuclide mobility at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, D.A.; Murphy, W.M.

    1999-07-01

    Chemical and U-Th isotopic data on unsaturated zone waters from the Nopal I natural analog reveal effects of water-rock interaction and help constrain models of radionuclide release and transport at the site and, by analogy, at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Geochemical reaction-path modeling indicates that, under oxidizing conditions, dissolution of uraninite (spent fuel analog) by these waters will lead to eventual schoepite precipitation regardless of initial silica concentration provided that groundwater is not continuously replenished. Thus, less soluble uranyl silicates may not dominate the initial alteration assemblage and keep dissolved U concentrations low. Uranium-series activity ratios are consistent with models of U transport at the site and display varying degrees of leaching versus recoil mobilization. Thorium concentrations may reflect the importance of colloidal transport of low-solubility radionuclides in the unsaturated zone.

  19. Porous surface modified bioactive bone cement for enhanced bone bonding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polymethylmethacrylate bone cement cannot provide an adhesive chemical bonding to form a stable cement-bone interface. Bioactive bone cements show bone bonding ability, but their clinical application is limited because bone resorption is observed after implantation. Porous polymethylmethacrylate can be achieved with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose, alginate and gelatin microparticles to promote bone ingrowth, but the mechanical properties are too low to be used in orthopedic applications. Bone ingrowth into cement could decrease the possibility of bone resorption and promote the formation of a stable interface. However, scarce literature is reported on bioactive bone cements that allow bone ingrowth. In this paper, we reported a porous surface modified bioactive bone cement with desired mechanical properties, which could allow for bone ingrowth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The porous surface modified bioactive bone cement was evaluated to determine its handling characteristics, mechanical properties and behavior in a simulated body fluid. The in vitro cellular responses of the samples were also investigated in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, bone ingrowth was examined in a rabbit femoral condyle defect model by using micro-CT imaging and histological analysis. The strength of the implant-bone interface was also investigated by push-out tests. RESULTS: The modified bone cement with a low content of bioactive fillers resulted in proper handling characteristics and adequate mechanical properties, but slightly affected its bioactivity. Moreover, the degree of attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblast cells was also increased. The results of the push-out test revealed that higher interfacial bonding strength was achieved with the modified bone cement because of the formation of the apatite layer and the osseointegration after implantation in the bony

  20. Bioactive and thermally compatible glass coating on zirconia dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten, A; Hausmann, A; Weber, M; Fischer, J; Fischer, H

    2015-02-01

    The healing time of zirconia implants may be reduced by the use of bioactive glass coatings. Unfortunately, existing glasses are either bioactive like Bioglass 45S5 but thermally incompatible with the zirconia substrate, or they are thermally compatible but exhibit only a very low level of bioactivity. In this study, we hypothesized that a tailored substitution of alkaline earth metals and alkaline metals in 45S5 can lead to a glass composition that is both bioactive and thermally compatible with zirconia implants. A novel glass composition was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and heating microscopy to investigate its chemical, physical, and thermal properties. Bioactivity was tested in vitro using simulated body fluid (SBF). Smooth and microstructured glass coatings were applied using a tailored spray technique with subsequent thermal treatment. Coating adhesion was tested on implants that were inserted in bovine ribs. The cytocompatibility of the coating was analyzed using L929 mouse fibroblasts. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the novel glass was shown to be slightly lower (11.58 · 10(-6) K(-1)) than that of the zirconia (11.67 · 10(-6) K(-1)). After storage in SBF, the glass showed reaction layers almost identical to the bioactive glass gold standard, 45S5. A process window between 800 °C and 910 °C was found to result in densely sintered and amorphous coatings. Microstructured glass coatings on zirconia implants survived a minimum insertion torque of 60 Ncm in the in vitro experiment on bovine ribs. Proliferation and cytotoxicity of the glass coatings was comparable with the controls. The novel glass composition showed a strong adhesion to the zirconia substrate and a significant bioactive behavior in the SBF in vitro experiments. Therefore, it holds great potential to significantly reduce the healing time of zirconia dental implants.

  1. Bioactive Peptides in Milk and Dairy Products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Woo; Nam, Myoung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Functionally and physiologically active peptides are produced from several food proteins during gastrointestinal digestion and fermentation of food materials with lactic acid bacteria. Once bioactive peptides (BPs) are liberated, they exhibit a wide variety of physiological functions in the human body such as gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, immune, endocrine, and nervous systems. These functionalities of the peptides in human health and physiology include antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antioxidative, antithrombotic, opioid, anti-appetizing, immunomodulatory and mineral-binding activities. Most of the bioactivities of milk proteins are latent, being absent or incomplete in the original native protein, but full activities are manifested upon proteolytic digestion to release and activate encrypted bioactive peptides from the original protein. Bioactive peptides have been identified within the amino acid sequences of native milk proteins. Due to their physiological and physico-chemical versatility, milk peptides are regarded as greatly important components for health promoting foods or pharmaceutical applications. Milk and colostrum of bovine and other dairy species are considered as the most important source of natural bioactive components. Over the past a few decades, major advances and developments have been achieved on the science, technology and commercial applications of bioactive components which are present naturally in the milk. Although the majority of published works are associated with the search of bioactive peptides in bovine milk samples, some of them are involved in the investigation of ovine or caprine milk. The advent of functional foods has been facilitated by increasing scientific knowledge about the metabolic and genomic effects of diet and specific dietary components on human health.

  2. 基于集对分析的海上油料补给方法选择优化%Optimization of Sea-based POL Replenishment Methods Selection Based on Set Pair Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆思锡; 王帅; 周庆忠; 王冰

    2015-01-01

    Considering that diversified complex circumstances make on sea⁃based POL replenishment selection uncertain, at⁃tribute factors of sea⁃based POL replenishment methods selection have been determined and set pair analysis theory is used to con⁃struct optimization model of sea⁃based POL replenishment methods selection based on the analysis of factors that affect sea⁃based POL replenishment methods selection. Variance coefficient method is adopted to calculate the weight of attributes. Relation degree between alternative solution and ideal solution have been determined by constructing positive and negative ideal solutions of sea⁃based POL replenishment methods selection. The example analysis results indicate that the application of set pair analysis in the sea⁃based POL replenishment methods selection can reduce the effects that a variety of complicated factors have on POL replenishment methods selection.%针对各种复杂环境对海上油料补给方法选择的不确定性影响,在分析海上油料补给方法选择影响因素的基础上,确定了海上油料补给方法选择的属性要素,运用集对分析理论建立了海上油料补给方法选择的优化模型;采用变异系数法计算属性权重,通过构建海上油料补给方法选择的正、负理想方案,确定了各备选方案与理想方案之间的联系度。算例分析结果表明,将集对分析运用于海上油料补给方法的选择,能够有效降低多种复杂因素对油料补给方法选择的不确定性影响。

  3. A Coordinated Replenishment Policy between Two Suppliers Based on the Model of Using Supply-Hub%基于Supply-Hub运作模式的供应商协同补货策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马士华; 黄焜; 何媛媛

    2011-01-01

    Supply-Hub作为整合管理不同供应商零件库存的供应链节点,同时也承担了供应物流协同运作管理平台的功能.本文考虑加工-装配系统中存在的因一种零件缺货而造成其它配套使用的零件滞存的问题.研究了一种基于Supply-Hub运作模式,在供应商之间可以共享补货及库存信息的条件下,供应商协同补货策略,并与供应商分散补货模式下的基本补货模型进行比较分析.通过算例验证了该补货策略能有效降低供应链系统成本以及供应商成本.%The backorder of any components can not only delay the delivery of the final product but also stop other components being assembled in a production line. Backorder problems can slow the inventory turnover rates and disrupt production plans of all related suppliers. As a result, production costs can be substantially increased. These increased production costs on suppliers are considered “extra holding costs” Supply-hub is an innovative strategy that has been increasingly employed by assembly finns to meet the logistics requirements, achieve cost reduction and improve responsiveness. Supply-hubs act not only as warehouses but also as information system platforms for supply chain logistics. Utilizing the supply-hub strategy enables suppliers to share information, such as inventory and replenishment information. As a result of the information sharing mechanism, suppliers can collaborate with each other to make more accurate replenishment decisions. Collaborative operations among suppliers of different components can help minimize the system costs and accommodate the demand of assembly plants.Assumptions and a theoretical model are introduced. We assume that a supply chain consists of supply-hubs and manufacturers.The supply-hub strategy adopts the "milk-mn" method to pick up components from these two kinds of suppliers. Suppliers' costs are interrelated because of the extra holding costs of matching components. A

  4. Model and simulation of coordinated replenishment with alternative supply sources based on CPFR%基于CPFR的供方可选择的协同补货模型与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戢守峰; 董坤祥; 喻海飞; 唐金环

    2012-01-01

    In traditional replenishment models of the supply chain that did not take the coordination with alternative supply source into consideration which may influence inventory replenishment strategy, we apply CPFR technique to the study on coordinated replenishment methods. To solve the problem of higher cost of supply chain, we study the problem of coordinated replenishment in multi-echelon supply chain with supplier, distributors who locate in different regions and retailers, consider probability parameter of ordering, establish coordinated replenishment models of function relation between the order quantity of distributors and the order quantity of retailers of which the purpose is reduction of the total cost of the supply chain through the coordination of distributors and retailers. At last, we adopt MATLAB to finish our numerical simulation. As a result, the numerical simulation example proves the validity of this method.%针对传统的供应链补货模型中没有考虑在供方可选择情况下的协同,从而影响库存补充策略及供应链成本的问题,研究了由供应商、分销商和零售商组成的多级供应链中的基于CPFR的协同补货问题.考虑订货概率参数,建立了基于分销商订货量和零售商订货量之间函数关系的协同补货模型,以求通过分销商和零售商之间的协同来降低整个供应链的总成本,并采用MATLAB对协同补货模型进行了数值仿真分析.其结果验证了所构建的模型是有效的.

  5. Towards the synthesis of an experimental bioactive dental ceramic. Part I: Crystallinity characterization and bioactive behavior evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudouri, O.-M. [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kontonasaki, E. [School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Papadopoulou, L.; Kantiranis, N. [Department of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Lazaridis, N.K. [Chemistry Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Chrissafis, K.; Chatzistavrou, X. [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Koidis, P. [School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Paraskevopoulos, K.M., E-mail: kpar@auth.gr [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2014-05-01

    An attachment between the dental ceramic and the surrounding marginal tissues in fixed prosthetic restorations could eliminate secondary carries prevalence. The development of dental ceramics with apatite forming ability could provide the biological surface required for selective spread and attachment of specific cell types able to promote tissue attachment. Dental ceramics/bioactive glass composites synthesized by the sol gel method have been previously reported to develop carbonated hydroxyapatite (HCAp) in biomimetic solutions, requiring though a high amount of bioactive glass, which resulted in the compromise of their mechanical integrity. Thus, the aim of the present work was the synthesis and characterization of an experimental sol–gel derived dental ceramic with low amount of bioactive glass and the evaluation of its in vitro bioactivity. Differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis (TG–DTA), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffractometry (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) were used to evaluate the crystal structure and the in vitro apatite forming ability of the synthesized material. The results of this study indicated the successful sol–gel synthesis of an experimental dental ceramic containing low amount of bioactive glass that presented similar structural and morphological characteristics with a commercial feldspathic dental ceramic, while exhibiting in vitro bioactivity. The apatite forming ability of the experimental sol–gel derived feldspathic dental ceramic may trigger the appropriate cellular mechanisms towards the establishment of attachment with the surrounding connective tissue. This attachment could provide a barrier to oral bacteria penetration, prolonging the life expectation of the restorations. - Highlights: • Synthesis of a bioactive sol–gel dental ceramic for fixed prosthetic restorations. • The sol–gel technique promoted the crystallization of

  6. Immense Essence of Excellence: Marine Microbial Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Bhatnagar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Oceans have borne most of the biological activities on our planet. A number of biologically active compounds with varying degrees of action, such as anti-tumor, anti-cancer, anti-microtubule, anti-proliferative, cytotoxic, photo protective, as well as antibiotic and antifouling properties, have been isolated to date from marine sources. The marine environment also represents a largely unexplored source for isolation of new microbes (bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, microalgae-cyanobacteria and diatoms that are potent producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Extensive research has been done to unveil the bioactive potential of marine microbes (free living and symbiotic and the results are amazingly diverse and productive. Some of these bioactive secondary metabolites of microbial origin with strong antibacterial and antifungal activities are being intensely used as antibiotics and may be effective against infectious diseases such as HIV, conditions of multiple bacterial infections (penicillin, cephalosporines, streptomycin, and vancomycin or neuropsychiatric sequelae. Research is also being conducted on the general aspects of biophysical and biochemical properties, chemical structures and biotechnological applications of the bioactive substances derived from marine microorganisms, and their potential use as cosmeceuticals and nutraceuticals. This review is an attempt to consolidate the latest studies and critical research in this field, and to showcase the immense competence of marine microbial flora as bioactive metabolite producers. In addition, the present review addresses some effective and novel approaches of procuring marine microbial compounds utilizing the latest screening strategies of drug discovery.

  7. Bioinformatics approaches for identifying new therapeutic bioactive peptides in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Khaldi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:The traditional methods for mining foods for bioactive peptides are tedious and long. Similar to the drug industry, the length of time to identify and deliver a commercial health ingredient that reduces disease symptoms can take anything between 5 to 10 years. Reducing this time and effort is crucial in order to create new commercially viable products with clear and important health benefits. In the past few years, bioinformatics, the science that brings together fast computational biology, and efficient genome mining, is appearing as the long awaited solution to this problem. By quickly mining food genomes for characteristics of certain food therapeutic ingredients, researchers can potentially find new ones in a matter of a few weeks. Yet, surprisingly, very little success has been achieved so far using bioinformatics in mining for food bioactives.The absence of food specific bioinformatic mining tools, the slow integration of both experimental mining and bioinformatics, and the important difference between different experimental platforms are some of the reasons for the slow progress of bioinformatics in the field of functional food and more specifically in bioactive peptide discovery.In this paper I discuss some methods that could be easily translated, using a rational peptide bioinformatics design, to food bioactive peptide mining. I highlight the need for an integrated food peptide database. I also discuss how to better integrate experimental work with bioinformatics in order to improve the mining of food for bioactive peptides, therefore achieving a higher success rates.

  8. Plant-derived bioactive compounds produced by endophytic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Shan, T; Mou, Y; Zhou, L

    2011-02-01

    Plant endophytic fungi are an important and novel resource of natural bioactive compounds with their potential applications in agriculture, medicine and food industry. In the past two decades, many valuable bioactive compounds with antimicrobial, insecticidal, cytotoxic, and anticancer activities have been successfully discovered from endophytic fungi. During the long period of co-evolution, a friendly relationship was formed between each endophyte and its host plant. Some endophytes have the ability to produce the same or similar bioactive compounds as those originated from their host plants. This review mainly deals with the research progress on endophytic fungi for producing plant-derived bioactive compounds such as paclitaxel, podophyllotoxin, camptothecine, vinblastine, hypericin, and diosgenin. The relations between endophytic fungi and their host plants, biological activities and action mechanisms of these compounds from endophytic fungi, some available strategies for efficiently promoting production of these bioactive compounds, as well as their potential applications in the future will also be discussed. It is beneficial for us to better understand and take advantage of plant endophytic fungi.

  9. Sources and Bioactive Properties of Conjugated Dietary Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Alan A; Ross, Paul R; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Stanton, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The group of conjugated fatty acids known as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have been extensively studied with regard to their bioactive potential in treating some of the most prominent human health malignancies. However, CLA isomers are not the only group of potentially bioactive conjugated fatty acids currently undergoing study. In this regard, isomers of conjugated α-linolenic acid, conjugated nonadecadienoic acid and conjugated eicosapentaenoic acid, to name but a few, have undergone experimental assessment. These studies have indicated many of these conjugated fatty acid isomers commonly possess anti-carcinogenic, anti-adipogenic, anti-inflammatory and immune modulating properties, a number of which will be discussed in this review. The mechanisms through which these bioactivities are mediated have not yet been fully elucidated. However, existing evidence indicates that these fatty acids may play a role in modulating the expression of several oncogenes, cell cycle regulators, and genes associated with energy metabolism. Despite such bioactive potential, interest in these conjugated fatty acids has remained low relative to the CLA isomers. This may be partly attributed to the relatively recent emergence of these fatty acids as bioactives, but also due to a lack of awareness regarding sources from which they can be produced. In this review, we will also highlight the common sources of these conjugated fatty acids, including plants, algae, microbes and chemosynthesis.

  10. Bioactive carbon-PEEK composites prepared by chemical surface treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Toshiki; Matsunami, Chisato; Shirosaki, Yuki

    2017-01-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has attracted much attention as an artificial intervertebral spacer for spinal reconstruction. Furthermore, PEEK plastic reinforced with carbon fiber has twice the bending strength of pure PEEK. However, the PEEK-based materials do not show ability for direct bone bonding, i.e., bioactivity. Although several trials have been conducted for enabling PEEK with bioactivity, few studies have reported on bioactive surface modification of carbon-PEEK composites. In the present study, we attempted the preparation of bioactive carbon-PEEK composites by chemical treatments with H2SO4 and CaCl2. Bioactivity was evaluated by in vitro apatite formation in simulated body fluid (SBF). The apatite formation on the carbon-PEEK composite was compared with that of pure PEEK. Both pure PEEK and carbon-PEEK composite formed the apatite in SBF when they were treated with H2SO4 and CaCl2; the latter showed higher apatite-forming ability than the former. It is conjectured that many functional groups able to induce the apatite nucleation, such as sulfo and carboxyl groups, are incorporated into the dispersed carbon phase in the carbon-PEEK composites.

  11. Immense Essence of Excellence: Marine Microbial Bioactive Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Ira; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Oceans have borne most of the biological activities on our planet. A number of biologically active compounds with varying degrees of action, such as anti-tumor, anti-cancer, anti-microtubule, anti-proliferative, cytotoxic, photo protective, as well as antibiotic and antifouling properties, have been isolated to date from marine sources. The marine environment also represents a largely unexplored source for isolation of new microbes (bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, microalgae-cyanobacteria and diatoms) that are potent producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Extensive research has been done to unveil the bioactive potential of marine microbes (free living and symbiotic) and the results are amazingly diverse and productive. Some of these bioactive secondary metabolites of microbial origin with strong antibacterial and antifungal activities are being intensely used as antibiotics and may be effective against infectious diseases such as HIV, conditions of multiple bacterial infections (penicillin, cephalosporines, streptomycin, and vancomycin) or neuropsychiatric sequelae. Research is also being conducted on the general aspects of biophysical and biochemical properties, chemical structures and biotechnological applications of the bioactive substances derived from marine microorganisms, and their potential use as cosmeceuticals and nutraceuticals. This review is an attempt to consolidate the latest studies and critical research in this field, and to showcase the immense competence of marine microbial flora as bioactive metabolite producers. In addition, the present review addresses some effective and novel approaches of procuring marine microbial compounds utilizing the latest screening strategies of drug discovery. PMID:21116414

  12. Mechanisms underlying the antihypertensive effects of garlic bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouk, Reem; Abdou, Aya; Shetty, Kalidas; Sarkar, Dipayan; Eid, Ali H

    2014-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide with hypertension being a major contributing factor to cardiovascular disease-associated mortality. On a population level, non-pharmacological approaches, such as alternative/complementary medicine, including phytochemicals, have the potential to ameliorate cardiovascular risk factors, including high blood pressure. Several epidemiological studies suggest an antihypertensive effect of garlic (Allium sativum) and of many its bioactive components. The aim of this review is to present an in-depth discussion regarding the molecular, biochemical and cellular rationale underlying the antihypertensive properties of garlic and its bioactive constituents with a primary focus on S-allyl cysteine and allicin. Key studies, largely from PubMed, were selected and screened to develop a comprehensive understanding of the specific role of garlic and its bioactive constituents in the management of hypertension. We also reviewed recent advances focusing on the role of garlic bioactives, S-allyl cysteine and allicin, in modulating various parameters implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension. These parameters include oxidative stress, nitric oxide bioavailability, hydrogen sulfide production, angiotensin converting enzyme activity, expression of nuclear factor-κB and the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. This review suggests that garlic and garlic derived bioactives have significant medicinal properties with the potential for ameliorating hypertension and associated morbidity; however, further clinical and epidemiological studies are required to determine completely the specific physiological and biochemical mechanisms involved in disease prevention and management.

  13. Silicon Utilizing Microbial Bioactivities in the Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, M. M.; Das, S.

    2012-12-01

    potential as a source of biomass for the production of biofuels, due to their high growth rates and high cellular lipid content. Petroleum pollutant degradation can also be done by these organisms-Achanthes minutissima has degradable effects involving petroleum hydocarbons. Stephanopyxis turris a silicon utilizing organism releases a blend of chlorinated C8 hydrocarbons. This adds a fundamentally new pathway to the limited set of halogenating enzymatic activities known from nature. Many silicon utilizing organisms can produce PUFA from saturated fatty acids which ultimately produce many important bioactive chemicals like hormosirene, finaverrene, heptadienal, dietyopterene, cystophorene, decadienal. Trienoic acid, octadiene and many other important agents. Similarly terpenoid biosynthetic pathway is activated by them with formation of diterpenoids, sesterpenoids, triterpenoids and sterols.

  14. Bioactive steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Andy J; Calle, Juan M; Simonet, Ana M; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A

    2013-11-01

    Bioguided studies of flowers of Agave offoyana allowed the isolation of five steroidal saponins never described previously, Magueyosides A-E (1-5), along with six known steroidal saponins (6-11). The structures of compounds were determined as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β,12β-triol 3-O-{β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-5α-spirostan-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (4), and (25R)-5α-spirostan-2α,3β-diol-9(11)-en-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (5), by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The bioactivities of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa were evaluated. A dose-dependent phytotoxicity and low dose stimulation were observed.

  15. Natural pesticides and bioactive components in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, R C

    1990-01-01

    In this review, some common food plants and their toxic or otherwise bioactive components and mycotoxin contaminants have been considered. Crucifers contain naturally occurring components that are goitrogenic, resulting from the combined action of allyl isothiocyanate, goitrin, and thiocyanate. Although crucifers may provide some protection from cancer when taken prior to a carcinogen, when taken after a carcinogen they act as promoters of carcinogenesis. The acid-condensed mixture of indole-3-carbinol (a component of crucifers) binds to the TCDD receptor and causes responses similar to those of TCDD. Herbs contain many biologically active components, with more than 20% of the commercially prepared human drugs coming from these plants. Onion and garlic juices can help to prevent the rise of serum cholesterol. Most herbs used in treatments may have many natural constituents that act oppositely from their intended use. Some herbs like Bishop's week seed contain carcinogens, and many contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids that can cause cirrhosis of the liver. The general phytoalexin response in plants (including potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, celery, and sweet potatoes) induced by external stimuli can increase the concentrations of toxic chemical constituents in those plants. In potatoes, two major indigenous compounds are alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, which are human plasma cholinesterase inhibitors and teratogens in animals. Because of its toxicity, the potato variety Lenape was withdrawn from the market. Celery, parsley, and parsnips contain the linear furanocoumarin phytoalexins psoralen, bergapten, and xanthotoxin that can cause photosensitization and also are photomutagenic and photocarcinogenic. Celery field workers and handlers continually have photosensitization problems as a result of these indigenous celery furanocoumarins. A new celery cultivar (a result of plant breeding to produce a more pest-resistant variety) was responsible for significant

  16. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available , Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study Methodology Results Optimal Exploration Target Zones Pravesh Debba1, Emmanual M.J. Carranza2, Alfred Stein2, Freek D. van der Meer2 1CSIR, Logistics... and Quantitative Methods, CSIR Built Environment 2International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), Hengelosestraat 99, P.O. Box 6, 7500AA Enschede, The Netherlands Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer...

  17. Zones of emotional labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2011-01-01

    is put forth among 25 Danish public family law caseworkers. The study points to personal, professional, and social zones of emotional labour through which the caseworkers carry out their work. Emotional labour zones mark emotion structures that may be challenging due to complex emotional intersections......The paper suggests that due to the difficult nature of their work public family law caseworkers are to be included in the definition of emotional labour even though they are omitted by Hochschild. Based upon a review of the structures involved in emotional labour an explorative qualitative study...

  18. Bioactivity of calcium phosphate bioceramic coating fabricated by laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yizhi; Liu, Qibin; Xu, Peng; Li, Long; Jiang, Haibing; Bai, Yang

    2016-05-01

    There were always strong expectations for suitable biomaterials used for bone regeneration. In this study, to improve the biocompatiblity of titanium alloy, calcium phosphate bioceramic coating was obtained by laser cladding technology. The microstructure, phases, bioactivity, cell differentiation, morphology and resorption lacunae were investigated by optical microscope (OM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and scanning electronic microscope (SEM), respectively. The results show that bioceramic coating consists of three layers, which are a substrate, an alloyed layer and a ceramic layer. Bioactive phases of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were found in ceramic coating. Osteoclast precursors have excellent proliferation on the bioceramic surface. The bioceramics coating could be digested by osteoclasts, which led to the resorption lacunae formed on its surface. It revealed that the gradient bioceramic coating has an excellent bioactivity.

  19. Surface characterization of silver-doped bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernè, E; Di Nunzio, S; Bosetti, M; Appendino, P; Brovarone, C Vitale; Maina, G; Cannas, M

    2005-09-01

    A bioactive glass belonging to the system SiO(2)-CaO-Na(2)O was doped with silver ions by ion exchange in molten salts as well as in aqueous solution. The ion exchange in the solution was done to check if it is possible to prepare an antimicrobial material using a low silver content. The doped glass was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, SEM observation, EDS analysis, bioactivity test (soaking in a simulated body fluid), leaching test (GFAAS analyses) and cytotoxicity test. It is demonstrated that these surface silver-doped glasses maintain, or even improve, the bioactivity of the starting glass. The measured quantity of released silver into simulated body fluid compares those reported in literature for the antibacterial activity and the non-cytotoxic effect of silver. Cytotoxicity tests were carried out to understand the effect of the doped surfaces on osteogenic cell adhesion and proliferation.

  20. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Types of Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrovankova, Sona; Sumczynski, Daniela; Mlcek, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde; Sochor, Jiri

    2015-10-16

    Berries, especially members of several families, such as Rosaceae (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry), and Ericaceae (blueberry, cranberry), belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds (BAC). They have delicious taste and flavor, have economic importance, and because of the antioxidant properties of BAC, they are of great interest also for nutritionists and food technologists due to the opportunity to use BAC as functional foods ingredients. The bioactive compounds in berries contain mainly phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, and tannins) and ascorbic acid. These compounds, either individually or combined, are responsible for various health benefits of berries, such as prevention of inflammation disorders, cardiovascular diseases, or protective effects to lower the risk of various cancers. In this review bioactive compounds of commonly consumed berries are described, as well as the factors influencing their antioxidant capacity and their health benefits.

  1. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Types of Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Skrovankova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Berries, especially members of several families, such as Rosaceae (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, and Ericaceae (blueberry, cranberry, belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds (BAC. They have delicious taste and flavor, have economic importance, and because of the antioxidant properties of BAC, they are of great interest also for nutritionists and food technologists due to the opportunity to use BAC as functional foods ingredients. The bioactive compounds in berries contain mainly phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, and tannins and ascorbic acid. These compounds, either individually or combined, are responsible for various health benefits of berries, such as prevention of inflammation disorders, cardiovascular diseases, or protective effects to lower the risk of various cancers. In this review bioactive compounds of commonly consumed berries are described, as well as the factors influencing their antioxidant capacity and their health benefits.

  2. PREPARATION OF BIOACTIVE NANOSTRUCTURE SCAFFOLD WITH IMPROVED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. EMADI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Highly porous scaffolds with open structure are today the best candidates for bone substitution to ensure bone oxygenation and angiogenesis. In this study, we developed a new route to enhance the compressive strength of porous hydroxyapatite scaffold made of natural bone. Briefly, the spongy bone of an adult bovine was extracted, annealed, and coated by a nanostructure bioactive glass layer to be subsequently sintered at different temperatures. The apatite formation ability on the surfaces of the coated scaffolds was investigated by standard procedures. Our results showed that the scaffold and coating microstructure consisted of the grains smaller than 100 nm. These nanostructures improved the compressive strength and bioactivity of highly porous scaffold. The results showed that with increasing the sintering temperature, the compressive strength of scaffolds increased while their in vitro bioactivity decreased.

  3. Bioactive Compounds and Their Neuroprotective Effects in Diabetic Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yoon Sin

    2016-07-30

    Hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and impaired insulin signaling during the development of diabetes can cause diabetic complications, such as diabetic neuropathy, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Although various therapeutics are available for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy, no absolute cure exists, and additional research is necessary to comprehensively understand the underlying pathophysiological pathways. A number of studies have demonstrated the potential health benefits of bioactive compounds, i.e., flavonoids and vitamins, which may be effective as supplementary treatments for diabetes and its complications. In this review, we highlight the most recent reports about the mechanisms of action of bioactive compounds (flavonoids and vitamins) possessing potential neuroprotective properties in diabetic conditions. Additional clinical studies are required to determine the appropriate dose and duration of bioactive compound supplementation for neuroprotection in diabetic patients.

  4. Bioactive molecules: current trends in discovery, synthesis, delivery and testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yew Beng Kang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Important bioactive molecules are moleculesthat are pharmacologically active derived from naturalsources and through chemical synthesis. Over the yearsmany of such molecules have been discovered throughbioprospective endeavours. The discovery of taxol fromthe pacific yew tree bark that has the ability in stabilisingcellular microtubules represents one of the hallmarks ofsuccess of such endeavours. In recent years, the discoveryprocess has been aided by the rapid developmentof techniques and technologies in chemistry andbiotechnology. The progress in advanced genetics andcomputational biology has also transformed the wayhypotheses are formulated as well as the strategies for drugdiscovery. Of equal importance is the use of advanceddrug delivery vehicles in enhancing the efficacy andbioavailability of bioactive molecules. The availability ofsuitable animal models for testing and validation is yetanother major determinant in increasing the prospect forclinical trials of bioactive molecules.

  5. Functional significance of bioactive peptides derived from soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Brij Pal; Vij, Shilpa; Hati, Subrota

    2014-04-01

    Biologically active peptides play an important role in metabolic regulation and modulation. Several studies have shown that during gastrointestinal digestion, food processing and microbial proteolysis of various animals and plant proteins, small peptides can be released which possess biofunctional properties. These peptides are to prove potential health-enhancing nutraceutical for food and pharmaceutical applications. The beneficial health effects of bioactive peptides may be several like antihypertensive, antioxidative, antiobesity, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, hypocholesterolemic and anticancer. Soybeans, one of the most abundant plant sources of dietary protein, contain 36-56% of protein. Recent studies showed that soy milk, an aqueous extract of soybean, and its fermented product have great biological properties and are a good source of bioactive peptides. This review focuses on bioactive peptides derived from soybean; we illustrate their production and biofunctional attributes.

  6. Bioactive natural products from Papua New Guinea marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noro, Jeffery C; Kalaitzis, John A; Neilan, Brett A

    2012-10-01

    The discovery of novel natural products for drug development relies heavily upon a rich biodiversity, of which the marine environment is an obvious example. Marine natural product research has spawned several drugs and many other candidates, some of which are the focus of current clinical trials. The sponge megadiversity of Papua New Guinea is a rich but underexplored source of bioactive natural products. Here, we review some of the many natural products derived from PNG sponges with an emphasis on those with interesting biological activity and, therefore, drug potential. Many bioactive natural products discussed here appear to be derived from non-ribosomal peptide and polyketide biosynthesis pathways, strongly suggesting a microbial origin of these compounds. With this in mind, we also explore the notion of sponge-symbiont biosynthesis of these bioactive compounds and present examples to support the working hypothesis.

  7. Potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Shen, Chen; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Kuang, Ru-Dan; Guo, Ya-Jun; Zeng, Li-Shan; Gao, Li-Li; Lin, Xi; Xie, Jie-Feng; Xia, En-Qin; Li, Sha; Wu, Shan; Chen, Feng; Ling, Wen-Hua; Li, Hua-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Fruit wastes are one of the main sources of municipal waste. In order to explore the potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant potency and total phenolic contents (TPC) of lipophilic and hydrophilic components in wastes (peel and seed) of 50 fruits were systematically evaluated. The results showed that different fruit residues had diverse antioxidant potency and the variation was very large. Furthermore, the main bioactive compounds were identified and quantified, and catechin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, epicatechin, galangin, gallic acid, homogentisic acid, kaempferol, and chlorogenic acid were widely found in these residues. Especially, the values of ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and TPC in the residues were higher than in pulps. The results showed that fruit residues could be inexpensive and readily available resources of bioactive compounds for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  8. Bioactivities of fish protein hydrolysates from defatted salmon backbones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Slizyte

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivities of bulk fish protein hydrolysates (FPH from defatted salmon backbones obtained with eight different commercial enzymes and their combinations were tested. All FPH showed antioxidative activity in vitro. DPPH scavenging activity increased, while iron chelating ability decreased with increasing time of hydrolysis. All FPH showed ACE inhibiting effect which depended on type of enzyme and increased with time of hydrolysis. The highest effect was found for FPH produced with Trypsin. Bromelain + Papain hydrolysates reduced the uptake of radiolabelled glucose into CaCo-2 cells, a model of human enterocytes, indicating a potential antidiabetic effect of FPH. FPH obtained by Trypsin, Bromelain + Papain and Protamex showed the highest ACE inhibitory, cellular glucose transporter (GLUT/SGLT inhibitory and in vitro antioxidative activities, respectively. Correlation was observed between the measured bioactivities, degree of hydrolysis and molecular weight profiles, supporting prolonged hydrolysis to obtain high bioactivities.

  9. Bioactive Molecules in Soil Ecosystems: Masters of the Underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Zhuang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Complex biological and ecological processes occur in the rhizosphere through ecosystem-level interactions between roots, microorganisms and soil fauna. Over the past decade, studies of the rhizosphere have revealed that when roots, microorganisms and soil fauna physically contact one another, bioactive molecular exchanges often mediate these interactions as intercellular signal, which prepare the partners for successful interactions. Despite the importance of bioactive molecules in sustainable agriculture, little is known of their numerous functions, and improving plant health and productivity by altering ecological processes remains difficult. In this review, we describe the major bioactive molecules present in below-ground ecosystems (i.e., flavonoids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics and quorum-sensing signals, and we discuss how these molecules affect microbial communities, nutrient availability and plant defense responses.

  10. How useful is SBF in predicting in vivo bone bioactivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubo, Tadashi; Takadama, Hiroaki

    2006-05-01

    The bone-bonding ability of a material is often evaluated by examining the ability of apatite to form on its surface in a simulated body fluid (SBF) with ion concentrations nearly equal to those of human blood plasma. However, the validity of this method for evaluating bone-bonding ability has not been assessed systematically. Here, the history of SBF, correlation of the ability of apatite to form on various materials in SBF with their in vivo bone bioactivities, and some examples of the development of novel bioactive materials based on apatite formation in SBF are reviewed. It was concluded that examination of apatite formation on a material in SBF is useful for predicting the in vivo bone bioactivity of a material, and the number of animals used in and the duration of animal experiments can be reduced remarkably by using this method.

  11. Bioactivity guided isolation of the antifungal components in sawdust extracts of Piptadeniatrum africanum, and Terminalia ivorensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajuyigbe A.O

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The antifungal activities of extracts from fresh sawdust of Piptadeniatrum africanum,and Terminalia ivorensis was determined using the agar well diffusion method. Aqueous, methanol, chloroform,and n-hexane extracts obtained from the sawdust samples were tested against fungi isolated from some decayed wood samples.Methodology and Results: Fungal isolates included: Aspergillus. niger, Aspergillus. flavus, Aspergillus. fumigates, Aspergillus. wentii, Aspergillus. tamari, and Penicillium. chrysogenum (please write the microorganisms’ name in full when first time introducing them. Results of inhibitory activities showed that the chloroform extracts showed the highest inhibitory abilities with zones of inhibition ranging from 14 mm-24 mm for P. africanum, and 11 mm-15 mm for T. ivorensis. However, the aqueous extracts exhibited the least antifungal activity with zones of inhibition ranging between 10 mm-13 mm and 8 mm-11 mm respectively.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The major secondary plant metabolites identified are alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthraglycosides, arbutin, glycosides, flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, coumarins and valepotriates. The antifungal components in P. africanum were identified to be 3, 7, 8, 3'–Tetramethoxy-6–C-methyl-5, 4'–dihydroxyflavone and 3–methoxy–6–C–methyl–3',4',5,7,8–pentahydroxyflavone while Terminalia ivorensis contained 5,7,8-Trihydroxy-2′5′-methoxy-3′,4′-methylenedioxyisoflavanone as the bioactive component.

  12. The CARLSBAD database: a confederated database of chemical bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Stephen L; Hines-Kay, Jarrett; Yang, Jeremy J; Zahoransky-Kohalmi, Gergely; Bologa, Cristian G; Ursu, Oleg; Oprea, Tudor I

    2013-01-01

    Many bioactivity databases offer information regarding the biological activity of small molecules on protein targets. Information in these databases is often hard to resolve with certainty because of subsetting different data in a variety of formats; use of different bioactivity metrics; use of different identifiers for chemicals and proteins; and having to access different query interfaces, respectively. Given the multitude of data sources, interfaces and standards, it is challenging to gather relevant facts and make appropriate connections and decisions regarding chemical-protein associations. The CARLSBAD database has been developed as an integrated resource, focused on high-quality subsets from several bioactivity databases, which are aggregated and presented in a uniform manner, suitable for the study of the relationships between small molecules and targets. In contrast to data collection resources, CARLSBAD provides a single normalized activity value of a given type for each unique chemical-protein target pair. Two types of scaffold perception methods have been implemented and are available for datamining: HierS (hierarchical scaffolds) and MCES (maximum common edge subgraph). The 2012 release of CARLSBAD contains 439 985 unique chemical structures, mapped onto 1,420 889 unique bioactivities, and annotated with 277 140 HierS scaffolds and 54 135 MCES chemical patterns, respectively. Of the 890 323 unique structure-target pairs curated in CARLSBAD, 13.95% are aggregated from multiple structure-target values: 94 975 are aggregated from two bioactivities, 14 544 from three, 7 930 from four and 2214 have five bioactivities, respectively. CARLSBAD captures bioactivities and tags for 1435 unique chemical structures of active pharmaceutical ingredients (i.e. 'drugs'). CARLSBAD processing resulted in a net 17.3% data reduction for chemicals, 34.3% reduction for bioactivities, 23% reduction for HierS and 25% reduction for MCES, respectively. The CARLSBAD database

  13. Bioactive compounds from Holothuria atra of Indian ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhinakaran, Devaraj Isaac; Lipton, Aaron Premnath

    2014-01-01

    The sea cucumber (Holothuria atra) extracts have been evaluated for the presence of bioactive compounds and various biological activities. The methanol extracts showed anti proliferative activities against the Hela and MCF-7 cell lines. Similarly the inhibitory effects of Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 cells were detected using the plaque reduction assay. The extracts of H. atra were purified using the silica gel column chromatography. The active fractions collected were observed for antimicrobial activity. The GC-MS analysis showed the availability of 59 compounds. The active bioactive compounds found in the H. atra were analyzed and their structure was identified using the (1)HNMR and (13)C NMR experiments.

  14. In vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility of tricalcium silicate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiaoming Liao; Hongyang Zhu; Guangfu Yin; Zhongbing Huang; Yadong Yao; Xianchun Chen

    2011-08-01

    The in vitro bioactivity of tricalcium silicate (Ca3SiO5) ceramics was investigated by the bone-like apatite-formation ability in simulated body fluid (SBF), and the cytocompatibility was evaluated through osteoblast adhesion and proliferation assay. The results show that the Ca3SiO5 ceramics possess bone-like apatite formation ability in SBF. In vitro cytocompatible evaluation reveals that osteoblasts adhere and spread well on the Ca3SiO5 ceramics, indicating good bioactivity and cytocompatibility.

  15. Buffer Zone Sign Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    The certified pesticide applicator is required to post a comparable sign, designating a buffer zone around the soil fumigant application block in order to control exposure risk. It must include the don't walk symbol, product name, and applicator contact.

  16. Flexible 'zoning' aids adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corben, Simon

    2013-09-01

    Simon Corben, business development director at Capita Symonds' Health team, examines how 'clever use of zoning' when planning new healthcare facilities could improve hospital design, increase inherent flexibility, and reduce lifetime costs, and argues that a 'loose-fit, non-bespoke approach' to space planning will lead to 'more flexible buildings that are suitable for conversion to alternative uses'.

  17. Arid Zone Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arid zone hydrology encompasses a wide range of topics and hydro-meteorological and ecological characteristics. Although arid and semi-arid watersheds perform the same functions as those in humid environments, their hydrology and sediment transport characteristics cannot be readily predicted by inf...

  18. DNS zones revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanrooij, van Ward; Pras, Aiko; Delgado Kloos, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Recent research [Pap04b] suggests DNS reliability and performance is not up to the levels it should be due to misconfigurations. This paper checks the configuration of nameserver zones against additional requirements, recommendations and best-practices. It shows that almost one in four domains fails

  19. Highly bioactive polysiloxane modified bioactive glass-poly(ethylene glycol) hybrids monoliths with controlled surface structure for bone tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Que, Wenxiu; Xing, Yonglei; Lei, Bo

    2015-03-01

    Crack-free monoliths with controllable surface microstructure have high bioactivities and therefore potential applications in bone tissue regeneration. In this paper, crack-free polydimethylsiloxane-modified bioactive glass-poly (ethylene glycol) (PDMS-BG-PEG) hybrids monoliths were fabricated via using a modified sol-gel process. Results show that the addition of PEG plays an important part in the formation of crack-free and gelation of the monoliths, and surface microstructures of the as-prepared hybrid monoliths were significantly influenced by the concentration and molecular weight of PEG. The samples obtained from PEG 300 had porous surface result in higher bioactivity (apatite formation) in simulated body fluid (SBF), while the samples obtained from PEG 600 had the smooth surface and inhibited the formation of apatite layer in SBF. These as-prepared hybrid monoliths can be used as a good candidate of implant and scaffold for highly efficient bone tissue regeneration.

  20. Cell-based screening assay for anti-inflammatory activity of bioactive compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Kees; Vonk, Roel J.; Priebe, Marion G.; Roelofsen, Han

    2015-01-01

    Excess dietary intake may induce metabolic inflammation which is associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Recent evidence indicates that dietary bioactive compounds may diminish metabolic inflammation. To identify anti-inflammatory bioactives, we developed a screening assay

  1. 补给船船位多变量系统广义预测控制方法%Research on Multivariable Generalized Predictive Control for the Position of Replenishment Ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李源; 夏国清; 周莹

    2012-01-01

    Replenishment at sea is regarded as a very important part of naval logistics, and navy around the world has paid more and more attention to underway replenishment at sea. Based on the separated modeling method, a 3-d mathematical model ship of maneuvering motion which contains disturbing force model of replenishment ship motions has been established, and the mathematical model of supply instruments for highline constant tension system has also been established. Based on the maneuvering motion model of replenishment ship, the low-frequency motion model is given, and then predictive model, which is required in the generalized predictive control, is derived. A MGPC (Multivariable Generalized Predictive Control) algorithm for replenishment ship position control is presented. The results show that the MGPC control system designed in this paper is available to control both the supply and receive ship and to keep the distance between them, and can ensure the replenishment accomplished safely and smoothly.%基于分离型建模的思想,建立了含有风、浪、流以及高架索索道产生的干扰力和力矩的补给船水平面三自由度操纵运动数学模型,并推导得到补给船低频运动状态空间模型.针对补给船在补给作业过程中的特点,采用多变量系统的广义预测控制方法对补给船的船位进行控制,利用其预测模型的提前预测功能,在补给船实际船位与期望船位的偏差产生之前就进行校正,使补给船与接收船保持一定的补给距离,确保补给作业安全顺利地进行.

  2. An Inventory Control Model with Stochastic Replenishment Interval and Inventory-Level-Dependent Demand Rate%随机补货间隔且需求依赖库存水平的库存控制模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许广繁; 吴燕燕; 王晓佳; 杨善林

    2014-01-01

    Periodic replenishment inventory models are widely used in practice,especially for inventory systems in which many different items are purchased from the same supplier.However,most of periodic replenishment inventory models have assumed a fixed length of the replenishment periods.In practice,it is possible that the replenishment periodsare of a random length.This paper presents an inventory control model in the case of random replenishment intervals and inventory-level-dependent demand rate.The replenishment interval is assumed to obey from two different distributions,namely,exponential and uniform distributions.Also,shortages are allowed in the term of partial backordering.For this model,we provide the necessary and sufficient conditions of the existence and uniqueness of the optimal solutions.At last,numerical example is shown to illuminate the presented model.%定期补货库存模型在实践中被广泛使用,尤其是在单一供应商中购买多种不同产品的库存系统中更为常见.然而,大多数定期补货库存模型都假设补货的时间间隔是恒定不变的.但在实践中,补货的时间间隔也可能是一个随机的时间长度.提出了一个随机补货时间间隔和需求依赖于当前展示库存水平的库存控制模型,且补货间隔服从指数分布和均匀分布,同时允许短缺发生并且短缺量部分延期供给,并研究了模型最优解的存在性与唯一性.最后,给出了数值算例来说明模型在实际中的应用.

  3. Nano/macro porous bioactive glass scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaojie

    Bioactive glass (BG) and ceramics have been widely studied and developed as implants to replace hard tissues of the musculo-skeletal system, such as bones and teeth. Recently, instead of using bulk materials, which usually do not degrade rapidly enough and may remain in the human body for a long time, the idea of bioscaffold for tissue regeneration has generated much interest. An ideal bioscaffold is a porous material that would not only provide a three-dimensional structure for the regeneration of natural tissue, but also degrade gradually and, eventually be replaced by the natural tissue completely. Among various material choices the nano-macro dual porous BG appears as the most promising candidate for bioscaffold applications. Here macropores facilitate tissue growth while nanopores control degradation and enhance cell response. The surface area, which controls the degradation of scaffold can also be tuned by changing the nanopore size. However, fabrication of such 3D structure with desirable nano and macro pores has remained challenging. In this dissertation, sol-gel process combined with spinodal decomposition or polymer sponge replication method has been developed to fabricate the nano-macro porous BG scaffolds. Macropores up to 100microm are created by freezing polymer induced spinodal structure through sol-gel transition, while larger macropores (>200um) of predetermined size are obtained by the polymer sponge replication technique. The size of nanopores, which are inherent to the sol-gel method of glass fabrication, has been tailored using several approaches: Before gel point, small nanopores are generated using acid catalyst that leads to weakly-branched polymer-like network. On the other hand, larger nanopores are created with the base-catalyzed gel with highly-branched cluster-like structure. After the gel point, the nanostructure can be further modified by manipulating the sintering temperature and/or the ammonia concentration used in the solvent

  4. Temporal Dynamics of Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations in the Hyporheic Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, W. J.; Quick, A. M.; Farrell, T. B.; Benner, S. G.; Feris, K. P.; Tonina, D.

    2016-12-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration profiles and DO consumption rates are primary indicators of the redox state of porewaters in the hyporheic zone (HZ). Previous studies (mostly numeric) of reactive solute transport, in the HZ, are steady state and give a fixed, in time, view of the biogeochemical activity and redox state of the HZ. Through the use of a novel, multichannel fiber optic DO measurement system and a robotic surface probe system in a large flume experiment, we have been able to track DO concentration, in the HZ, over time and at high spatial and temporal resolutions never achieved before. Our research shows that in carbon-limited systems (i.e., ones in which organic carbon replenishment is largely episodic), DO concentration profiles and consumption rates will vary as a function of time. As the most readily available organic carbon is consumed, (first near the bed surface/water interface) respiration rates, in that area, will drop and DO will be transported deeper into the HZ. Over time, and lacking either an external source of bioavailable carbon or an alternate electron donor substrate, microbial metabolic activity will slow substantially and the majority of the HZ will be rendered oxic. Hyporheic fluxes affect the time scale of biological reactions resulting in faster growth of the aerobic zone in high-flux systems. While this temporal variability can result in a multitude of DO consumption curves (DO vs. residence time), the careful application of dimensional analysis can collapse the consumption curves to a single characteristic curve that accounts for a wide range of morphology and reactivity.

  5. Replenishment policy for Entropic Order Quantity (EnOQ model with two component demand and partial back-logging under inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanupriya Dash

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Replenishment policy for entropic order quantity model with two component demand and partial backlogging under inflation is an important subject in the stock management. Methods: In this paper an inventory model for  non-instantaneous  deteriorating items with stock dependant consumption rate and partial back logged in addition the effect of inflection and time value of money on replacement policy with zero lead time consider was developed. Profit maximization model is formulated by considering the effects of partial backlogging under inflation with cash discounts. Further numerical example presented to evaluate the relative performance between the entropic order quantity and EOQ models separately. Numerical example is present to demonstrate the developed model and to illustrate the procedure. Lingo 13.0 version software used to derive optimal order quantity and total cost of inventory. Finally sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution with respect to different parameters of the system carried out. Results and conclusions: The obtained inventory model is very useful in retail business. This model can extend to total backorder.

  6. Neuronal death induced by misfolded prion protein is due to NAD+ depletion and can be relieved in vitro and in vivo by NAD+ replenishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Minghai; Ottenberg, Gregory; Sferrazza, Gian Franco; Hubbs, Christopher; Fallahi, Mohammad; Rumbaugh, Gavin; Brantley, Alicia F; Lasmézas, Corinne I

    2015-04-01

    The mechanisms of neuronal death in protein misfolding neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and prion diseases are poorly understood. We used a highly toxic misfolded prion protein (TPrP) model to understand neurotoxicity induced by prion protein misfolding. We show that abnormal autophagy activation and neuronal demise is due to severe, neuron-specific, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) depletion. Toxic prion protein-exposed neuronal cells exhibit dramatic reductions of intracellular NAD(+) followed by decreased ATP production, and are completely rescued by treatment with NAD(+) or its precursor nicotinamide because of restoration of physiological NAD(+) levels. Toxic prion protein-induced NAD(+) depletion results from PARP1-independent excessive protein ADP-ribosylations. In vivo, toxic prion protein-induced degeneration of hippocampal neurons is prevented dose-dependently by intracerebral injection of NAD(+). Intranasal NAD(+) treatment of prion-infected sick mice significantly improves activity and delays motor impairment. Our study reveals NAD(+) starvation as a novel mechanism of autophagy activation and neurodegeneration induced by a misfolded amyloidogenic protein. We propose the development of NAD(+) replenishment strategies for neuroprotection in prion diseases and possibly other protein misfolding neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Achieving Stable Radiation Pressure Acceleration of Heavy Ions via Successive Electron Replenishment from Ionization of a High-Z Material Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, X. F.; Qiao, B.; Chang, H. X.; Kar, S.; Zhou, C. T.; Borghesi, M.; He, X. T.

    2016-10-01

    Generation of monoenergetic heavy ion beams aroused more scientific interest in recent years. Radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) is an ideal mechanism for obtaining high-quality heavy ion beams, in principle. However, to achieve the same energy per nucleon (velocity) as protons, heavy ions undergo much more serious Rayleigh-Taylor-like (RT) instability and afterwards much worse Coulomb explosion due to loss of co-moving electrons. This leads to premature acceleration termination of heavy ions and very low energy attained in experiment. The utilization of a high-Z coating in front of the target may suppress the RT instability and Coulomb explosion by continuously replenishing the accelerating heavy ion foil with co-moving electrons due to its successive ionization under laser fields with Gaussian temporal and spatial profiles. Thus stable RPA can be realized. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional particles-in-cell simulations with dynamic ionization show that a monoenergetic Al13+ beam with peak energy 4.0GeV and particle number 1010 (charge > 20nC) can be obtained at intensity 1022 W/cm2. Supported by the NSF, Nos. 11575298 and 1000-Talents Program of China.

  8. Multi-Product Multi-Constraint Inventory Control Systems with Stochastic Replenishment and Discount under Fuzzy Purchasing Price and Holding Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata A. Taleizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available While in multi-periodic inventory control problems the usual assumption are that the orders are placed at the beginning of each period (periodic review or depending on the inventory level they can happen at any time (continuous review, in this research, we relax these assumptions and assume that the periods between two replenishments of the products are independent and identically distributed random variables. Furthermore, assuming the purchasing price are triangular fuzzy variables, the quantities of the orders are of integer-type and that there are space, budget and service level constraints, incremental discount is considered to purchase products and a combination of back-order and lost-sales are taken into account for the shortages. We show that the model of this problem is a fuzzy mixed-integer nonlinear programming type and in order to solve it, a hybrid method of fuzzy simulation and genetic algorithm approach is used. At the end, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed methodology in real world inventory control problems.

  9. Sulfated Galactofucan from the Brown Alga Saccharina latissima—Variability of Yield, Structural Composition and Bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Ehrig

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (SP from brown algae exhibit a wide range of bioactivities and are, therefore, considered promising candidates for health-supporting and medicinal applications. A critical issue is their availability in high, reproducible quality. The aim of the present study was to fractionate and characterize the SP extracted from Saccharina latissima (S.l.-SP harvested from two marine habitats, the Baltic Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, in May, June and September. The fractionation of crude S.l.-SP by anion exchange chromatography including analytical investigations revealed that S.l.-SP is composed of a homogeneous fraction of sulfated galactofucan (SGF and a mixture of low-sulfated, uronic acid and protein containing heteropolysaccharides. Furthermore, the results indicated that S.l. growing at an intertidal zone with high salinity harvested at the end of the growing period delivered the highest yield of S.l.-SP with SGF as the main fraction (67%. Its SGF had the highest degree of sulfation (0.81, fucose content (86.1% and fucose/galactose ratio (7.8 and was most active (e.g., elastase inhibition: IC50 0.21 μg/mL. Thus, S.l. from the North Atlantic harvested in autumn proved to be more appropriate for the isolation of S.l.-SP than S.l. from the Baltic Sea and S.l. harvested in spring, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that habitat and harvest time of brown algae should be considered as factors influencing the yield as well as the composition and thus also the bioactivity of their SP.

  10. Microstructures, hardness and bioactivity of hydroxyapatite coatings deposited by direct laser melting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme; Akinlabi, Esther; Shukla, Mukul; Pityana, Sisa

    2014-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) coatings on bioinert metals such as Ti-6Al-4V are necessary for biomedical applications. Together, HAP and Ti-6Al-4V are biocompatible and bioactive. The challenges of depositing HAP on Ti-6Al-4V with traditional thermal spraying techniques are well founded. In this paper, HAP was coated on Ti-6Al-4V using direct laser melting (DLM) process. This process, unlike the traditional coating processes, is able to achieve coatings with good metallurgical bonding and little dilution. The microstructural and mechanical properties, chemical composition and bio-activities of the produced coatings were studied with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Vickers hardness machine, and by immersion test in Hanks' solution. The results showed that the choice of the laser power has much influence on the evolving microstructure, the mechanical properties and the retainment of HAP on the surface of the coating. Also, the choice of laser power of 750 W led to no dilution. The microhardness results inferred a strong intermetallic-ceramic interfacial bonding; which meant that the 750 W coating could survive long in service. Also, the coating was softer at the surface and stronger in the heat affected zones. Hence, this process parameter setting can be considered as an optimal setting. The soak tests revealed that the surface of the coating had unmelted crystals of HAP. The CaP ratio conducted on the soaked coating was 2.00 which corresponded to tetra calcium phosphate. This coating seems attractive for metallic implant applications.

  11. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_EnterpriseZone

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygon feature class of Miami Dade County Enterprise Zones. Enterprise Zones are special areas in the county where certain incentives from the State are available...

  12. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_EnterpriseZone

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Polygon feature class of Miami Dade County Enterprise Zones. Enterprise Zones are special areas in the county where certain incentives from the State are available...

  13. A novel graded bioactive high adhesion implant coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brohede, Ulrika [Division for Nanotechnology and Functional Materials, Department of Engineering Sciences, Angstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, 751 21, Uppsala (Sweden); Zhao, Shuxi [Division for Solid State Physics, Department of Engineering Sciences, Angstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, 751 21, Uppsala (Sweden); Lindberg, Fredrik [Division for Materials Science, Department of Engineering Sciences, Angstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, 751 21, Uppsala (Sweden); Mihranyan, Albert; Forsgren, Johan [Division for Nanotechnology and Functional Materials, Department of Engineering Sciences, Angstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, 751 21, Uppsala (Sweden); Stromme, Maria, E-mail: maria.stromme@angstrom.uu.se [Division for Nanotechnology and Functional Materials, Department of Engineering Sciences, Angstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, 751 21, Uppsala (Sweden); Engqvist, Hakan, E-mail: hakan.engqvist@angstrom.uu.se [Division for Materials Science, Department of Engineering Sciences, Angstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, 751 21, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2009-06-15

    One method to increase the clinical success rate of metal implants is to increase their bone bonding properties, i.e. to develop a bone bioactive surface leading to reduced risks of interfacial problems. Much research has been devoted to modifying the surface of metals to make them become bioactive. Many of the proposed methods include depositing a coating on the implant. However, there is a risk of coating failure due to low substrate adhesion. This paper describes a method to obtain bioactivity combined with a high coating adhesion via a gradient structure of the coating. Gradient coatings were deposited on Ti (grade 5) using reactive magnetron sputtering with increasing oxygen content. To increase the grain size in the coating, all coatings were post annealed at 385 deg. C. The obtained coating exhibited a gradual transition over 70 nm from crystalline titanium oxide (anatase) at the surface to metallic Ti in the substrate, as shown using cross-section transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling. Using scratch testing, it could be shown that the adhesion to the substrate was well above 1 GPa. The bioactivity of the coating was verified in vitro by the spontaneous formation of hydroxylapatite upon storage in phosphate buffer solution at 37 deg. C for one week. The described process can be applied to implants irrespective of bulk metal in the base and should introduce the possibility to create safer permanent implants like reconstructive devices, dental, or spinal implants.

  14. A novel graded bioactive high adhesion implant coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brohede, Ulrika; Zhao, Shuxi; Lindberg, Fredrik; Mihranyan, Albert; Forsgren, Johan; Strømme, Maria; Engqvist, Håkan

    2009-06-01

    One method to increase the clinical success rate of metal implants is to increase their bone bonding properties, i.e. to develop a bone bioactive surface leading to reduced risks of interfacial problems. Much research has been devoted to modifying the surface of metals to make them become bioactive. Many of the proposed methods include depositing a coating on the implant. However, there is a risk of coating failure due to low substrate adhesion. This paper describes a method to obtain bioactivity combined with a high coating adhesion via a gradient structure of the coating. Gradient coatings were deposited on Ti (grade 5) using reactive magnetron sputtering with increasing oxygen content. To increase the grain size in the coating, all coatings were post annealed at 385 °C. The obtained coating exhibited a gradual transition over 70 nm from crystalline titanium oxide (anatase) at the surface to metallic Ti in the substrate, as shown using cross-section transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling. Using scratch testing, it could be shown that the adhesion to the substrate was well above 1 GPa. The bioactivity of the coating was verified in vitro by the spontaneous formation of hydroxylapatite upon storage in phosphate buffer solution at 37 °C for one week. The described process can be applied to implants irrespective of bulk metal in the base and should introduce the possibility to create safer permanent implants like reconstructive devices, dental, or spinal implants.

  15. Interstitial fluid contains higher in vitro IGF bioactivity than serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espelund, Ulrick; Søndergaard, Klaus; Bjerring, Peter

    2012-01-01

    was observed, including 3-fold elevated amounts of IGFBP-3 fragments in SBF (PIGFBP-2, the effect of food intake differed between serum and SBF (all P≤0.03). CONCLUSION: Despite lower concentrations, the in vitro IGF bioactivity was higher in SBF than in serum. This may...

  16. Marine actinobacteria: an important source of bioactive natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Kang, Kyong-Hwa; Sivakumar, Kannan; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Oh, Hyun-Myung; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-07-01

    Marine environment is largely an untapped source for deriving actinobacteria, having potential to produce novel, bioactive natural products. Actinobacteria are the prolific producers of pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites, accounting for about 70% of the naturally derived compounds that are currently in clinical use. Among the various actinobacterial genera, Actinomadura, Actinoplanes, Amycolatopsis, Marinispora, Micromonospora, Nocardiopsis, Saccharopolyspora, Salinispora, Streptomyces and Verrucosispora are the major potential producers of commercially important bioactive natural products. In this respect, Streptomyces ranks first with a large number of bioactive natural products. Marine actinobacteria are unique enhancing quite different biological properties including antimicrobial, anticancer, antiviral, insecticidal and enzyme inhibitory activities. They have attracted global in the last ten years for their ability to produce pharmaceutically active compounds. In this review, we have focused attention on the bioactive natural products isolated from marine actinobacteria, possessing unique chemical structures that may form the basis for synthesis of novel drugs that could be used to combat resistant pathogenic microorganisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Glass Ionomer Cements with Improved Bioactive and Antibacterial Properties

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Dental restorative cements are placed in a harsh oral environment where they are subjected to thermal shock, chemical degradation, and repeating masticatory force. The ideal restorative dental cements should have superior mechanical properties, chemical stability, aesthetic, good handling properties, biocompatibility, antibacterial properties, and preferably bioactivity. This thesis presents research on dental restorative cements with enhanced properties. The overall aim was to increase the b...

  18. Developing a New Generation of Antimicrobial and Bioactive Dental Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Zhang, K; Zhang, N; Melo, M A S; Weir, M D; Zhou, X D; Bai, Y X; Reynolds, M A; Xu, H H K

    2017-07-01

    Dental caries is prevalent, and secondary caries causes restoration failures. This article reviews recent studies on developing a new generation of bioactive resins with anticaries properties. Extensive effects were made to develop new antimicrobial composites, bonding agents, and other resins containing quaternary ammonium methacrylates to suppress plaque buildup and bacterial acid production. The effects of alkyl chain length and charge density and the antimicrobial mechanisms for chlorhexidine, nano-silver, quaternary ammonium methacrylates, and protein-repellent agents were discussed. Synergistic effects of contact-killing and protein-repellent properties were shown to yield the greatest biofilm-inhibition effects. The combination of antimicrobial, protein-repellent, and calcium phosphate nanoparticle remineralization was suggested to provide maximal anticaries effects. In addition, for use orally, cytotoxicity and biocompatibility were important considerations for the new bioactive materials. Furthermore, rather than kill all bacteria, it would be more desirable to modulate the oral biofilm compositions via bioactive resins to suppress cariogenic/pathogenic species and promote benign species. For widespread clinical use of the new antimicrobial and therapeutic materials, whether they would induce bacterial drug resistance needs to be determined, which requires further study. Nonetheless, the new generation of bioactive anticaries resins with therapeutic and biofilm acid-inhibiting properties has the potential to substantially benefit oral health.

  19. Bioactive Natural Products From Chinese Tropical Marine Organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO,Yue-Wei

    2004-01-01

    @@ The oceans contain a vast biological diversity of species that have so far been utilized by mankind mainly as a source of protein. In the last few decades, however, natural products chemists have started to discover the wealth of bioactive secondary metabolites that are produced by marine invertebrates such as sponges, soft corals, molluscs and others.

  20. Optical control over bioactive ligands at supramolecular surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskuhl, Jens; Sankaran, S.; Jonkheijm, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    In this communication we report for the first time the use of azobenzene modified glycoconjugates to establish optical control over bioactive ligands at a supramolecular β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) surface. Several studies were conducted to investigate the photoresponsive immobilization of proteins and

  1. Chitosan/bioactive glass nanoparticle composite membranes for periodontal regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mota, J.; Yu, N.; Caridade, S.G.; Luz, G.M.; Gomes, M.E.R.; Reis, R.L.; Jansen, J.A.; Walboomers, X.F.; Mano, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Barrier membranes are used in periodontal applications with the aim of supporting periodontal regeneration by physically blocking migration of epithelial cells. The present work proposes a combination of chitosan (CHT) with bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG-NPs) in order to produce a novel guided ti

  2. Greener and Expeditious Synthesis of Bioactive Heterocycles using Microwave Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The utilization of green chemistry techniques is dramatically reducing chemical waste and reaction times as has recently been proven in several organic syntheses and chemical transformations. To illustrate these advantages in the synthesis of bio-active heterocycles, we have stud...

  3. Bioactive Peptides in Milk and Dairy Products: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Young Woo; Nam, Myoung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Functionally and physiologically active peptides are produced from several food proteins during gastrointestinal digestion and fermentation of food materials with lactic acid bacteria. Once bioactive peptides (BPs) are liberated, they exhibit a wide variety of physiological functions in the human body such as gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, immune, endocrine, and nervous systems. These functionalities of the peptides in human health and physiology include antihypertensive, antimicrobial, an...

  4. Synthesis and Bioactivity of Novel Trisubstituted Triazole Nucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yi-ning; Zhang, Zhi-feng; Liu, Ning-ning; Xiang, Yu-hong; Zhang, Zhuo-yong; Andrei, Graciela; Snoeck, Robert; Schols, Dominique; Zhang, Qing-shan; Wu, Qin-pei

    2016-01-01

    A series of novel trisubstituted 1,2,3-triazole purine nucleosides were efficiently synthesized via Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition in good yields. Bioactivity against cytomegalovirus (CMV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in human embryonic lung cell cultures was evaluated and all compounds show low antiviral activity.

  5. Production of the bioactive polysaccharide schizophyllan from renewable cellulosic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schizophyllan is a bioactive homoglucan with a ß-1,3-linked backbone and ß-1,6-linked side chains of single glucose units at every other residue. It is produced by the ubiquitous mushroom, Schizophyllum commune. Schizophyllan acts as a biological response modifier and a non-specific stimulator of ...

  6. Therapeutic potential of dairy bioactive peptides: A contemporary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Saira; Huma, Nuzhat; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Aleem, Muhammad; Abbas, Munawar

    2016-02-06

    Dairy products are associated with numerous health benefits. These are a good source of nutrients such as carbohydrates, protein (bioactive peptides), lipids, minerals, and vitamins, which are essential for growth, development, and maintenance of the human body. Accordingly, dairy bioactive peptides are one of the targeted compounds present in different dairy products. Dairy bioactive compounds can be classified as antihypertensive, anti-oxidative, immmunomodulant, anti-mutagenic, antimicrobial, opoid, anti-thrombotic, anti-obesity, and mineral-binding agents, depending upon biological functions. These bioactive peptides can easily be produced by enzymatic hydrolysis, and during fermentation and gastrointestinal digestion. For this reason, fermented dairy products, such as yogurt, cheese, and sour milk, are gaining popularity worldwide, and are considered excellent source of dairy peptides. Furthermore, fermented and non-fermented dairy products are associated with lower risks of hypertension, coagulopathy, stroke, and cancer insurgences. The current review article is an attempt to disseminate general information about dairy peptides and their health claims to scientists, allied stakeholders, and, certainly, readers.

  7. Fabrication of bioactive composite scaffolds by electrospinning for bone regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nandakumar, Anandkumar; Fernandes, Hugo; Boer, de Jan; Moroni, Lorenzo; Habibovic, Pamela; Blitterswijk, van Clemens A.

    2010-01-01

    Electrospun scaffolds are widely used for various biomedical applications. In this study, we prepared electrospun bioactive composite scaffolds combining hydroxyapatite, collagen (Col) and a synthetic polymer—PolyActive™—to mimic naturally occurring extracellular matrix for in situ bone regeneration

  8. Terpenoids of Sinularia soft corals: chemistry and bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-ting Chen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Soft corals of the genus Sinularia are one of the most widespread soft corals. They are a rich source of bioactive substances with intriguing and unique structural features. The present paper reviews the latest progress in the chemistry and pharmacological activities of terpenoids from Sinularia soft corals and provides a perspective on future areas of research interest.

  9. Excipient Nanoemulsions for Improving Oral Bioavailability of Bioactives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Salvia-Trujillo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral bioavailability of many hydrophobic bioactive compounds found in natural food products (such as vitamins and nutraceuticals in fruits and vegetables is relatively low due to their low bioaccessibility, chemical instability, or poor absorption. Most previous research has therefore focused on the design of delivery systems to incorporate isolated bioactive compounds into food products. However, a more sustainable and cost-effect approach to enhancing the functionality of bioactive compounds is to leave them within their natural environment, but specifically design excipient foods that enhance their bioavailability. Excipient foods typically do not have functionality themselves but they have the capacity to enhance the functionality of nutrients present in natural foods by altering their bioaccessibility, absorption, and/or chemical transformation. In this review article we present the use of excipient nanoemulsions for increasing the bioavailability of bioactive components from fruits and vegetables. Nanoemulsions present several advantages over other food systems for this application, such as the ability to incorporate hydrophilic, amphiphilic, and lipophilic excipient ingredients, high physical stability, and rapid gastrointestinal digestibility. The design, fabrication, and application of nanoemulsions as excipient foods will therefore be described in this article.

  10. Advancement into the Arctic Region for Bioactive Sponge Secondary Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hamann

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Porifera have long been a reservoir for the discovery of bioactive compounds and drug discovery. Most research in the area has focused on sponges from tropical and temperate waters, but more recently the focus has shifted to the less accessible colder waters of the Antarctic and, to a lesser extent, the Arctic. The Antarctic region in particular has been a more popular location for natural products discovery and has provided promising candidates for drug development. This article reviews groups of bioactive compounds that have been isolated and reported from the southern reaches of the Arctic Circle, surveys the known sponge diversity present in the Arctic waters, and details a recent sponge collection by our group in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. The collection has yielded previously undescribed sponge species along with primary activity against opportunistic infectious diseases, malaria, and HCV. The discovery of new sponge species and bioactive crude extracts gives optimism for the isolation of new bioactive compounds from a relatively unexplored source.

  11. Microbial production of astilbin, a bioactive rhamnosylated flavanonol, from taxifolin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuan, Nguyen Huy; Malla, Sailesh; Trung, Nguyen Thanh

    2017-01-01

    Flavonoids are plant-based polyphenolic biomolecules with a wide range of biological activities. Glycosylated flavonoids have drawn special attention in the industries as it improves solubility, stability, and bioactivity. Herein, we report the production of astilbin (ATN) from taxifolin (TFN) in...

  12. Long-lived Dust Asymmetries at Dead Zone Edges in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Ryan; Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai; Jin, Sheng

    2017-02-01

    A number of transition disks exhibit significant azimuthal asymmetries in thermal dust emission. One possible origin for these asymmetries is dust trapping in vortices formed at the edges of dead zones. We carry out high-resolution, two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of this scenario, including the effects of dust feedback. We find that, although feedback weakens the vortices and slows down the process of dust accumulation, the dust distribution in the disk can nonetheless remain asymmetric for many thousands of orbits. We show that even after 104 orbits, or 2.5 Myr when scaled to the parameters of Oph IRS 48 (a significant fraction of its age), the dust is not dispersed into an axisymmetric ring, in contrast to the case of a vortex formed by a planet. This is because accumulation of mass at the dead zone edge constantly replenishes the vortex, preventing it from being fully destroyed. We produce synthetic dust emission images using our simulation results. We find that multiple small clumps of dust may be distributed azimuthally. These clumps, if not resolved from one another, appear as a single large feature. A defining characteristic of a disk with a dead zone edge is that an asymmetric feature is accompanied by a ring of dust located about twice as far from the central star.

  13. The Habitable Zone Gallery

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Stephen R

    2012-01-01

    The Habitable Zone Gallery (www.hzgallery.org) is a new service to the exoplanet community which provides Habitable Zone (HZ) information for each of the exoplanetary systems with known planetary orbital parameters. The service includes a sortable table with information on the percentage of orbital phase spent within the HZ, planetary effective temperatures, and other basic planetary properties. In addition to the table, we also plot the period and eccentricity of the planets with respect to their time spent in the HZ. The service includes a gallery of known systems which plot the orbits and the location of the HZ with respect to those orbits. Also provided are animations which aid in orbit visualization and provide the changing effective temperature for those planets in eccentric orbits. Here we describe the science motivation, the under-lying calculations, and the structure of the web site.

  14. Replenishment Optimization of Chain Enterprise Based on Collector Managed Inventory (CMI) Theory%基于CMI理论的连锁经营企业补货优化问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢鹏

    2013-01-01

    文章将应用于逆向物流物品回收和路线规划的CMI理论引入连锁经营企业的补货优化问题中,构建优化模型并通过算例将本文优化模型与现实生活中广泛应用传统定期补货策略进行成本比较后验证了模型的有效性。%The article introduces the theory of Collector Managed Inventory (CMI) applied to the recovery and route planning of reverse logistics into replenishment optimization of chain enterprise, and tries to establish the optimization model, and demonstrates its effectiveness by comparing cost between the optimization model and traditional regular replenishment strategy.

  15. Research on Replenishment Scheme Optimization of Sinopharm Medicine Holding Shenyang Co., Ltd%基于CPFR的国药控股(沈阳)有限公司补货方案优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青; 刘冰露; 赵琛

    2012-01-01

    运用供应链中CPFR的补货管理模式和相关理论,从补货系统、补货目标、补货关键控制指标等方面深入研究了国药控股(沈阳)有限公司的补货管理现状,找寻其中存在的问题,并对公司补货方案进行优化.%In this paper, on the basis of the CPFR replenishment scheme and the related theories, we studied the current status of Sinopharm Medicine Holding Shenyang Co., Ltd. with regard to replenishment system, objective and KCI, identified the existing problems and proposed the optimization measures.

  16. 对广州市三涌补水工程安全运行管理的思考%Thoughts on the Safe Operation Management of Guangzhou City Bay Replenishment Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘钰澐

    2012-01-01

      广州市三涌补水工程是为了解决沙河涌、猎德涌和车陂涌在枯水期和截污后涌内缺水问题的一项重点治水工程,为此对广州市三涌补水工程运行管理现状进行分析,并提出安全运行管理的建议。%  Guangzhou city river replenishment project is to address a key flood control of the Shahe, the Liede and the Chebei rivers after the dry season and to handle the water shortage problem after interception. This paper analyzes the operation management status of Guangzhou city river water replenishment project and proposes recommendations for the safety operation management.

  17. BIOACTIVE PEPTIDES OF THE COW MILK WHEY PROTEINS (Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Iukalo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Data on the biological functions of milk whey proteins, which are implemented at the level of their proteolytic degradation products — bioactive peptides have been reviewed. The main functions of these proteins is to provide the amino acid nutrition of mammals in the early stages of development, as well as the transport of fatty acids, retinol, involved in the synthesis of lactose, ions of calcium and iron, immune protection, antimicrobial action, etc. However, in recent years, it has been found that milk proteins like casein are precursors of biologically active peptides. Аngiotensin — converting enzyme, opioid peptides which are opiate receptor agonists, anti–microbial peptides, peptides with immunomodulatory and hypocholesterolemic action, and peptides affecting motility have been found among the products of proteolytic degradation of ?-lactoglobulin, ?-laktoalbumin, lactoferrin and milk whey albumin. Also data on the possible participation of peptides from milk whey proteins in the implementation of the biological functions of both the assimilation of calcium, antioxidant effect, the regulation of appetite, anticarcinogenic are provided. The authors assume that the phenomenon of bioactive peptides formation could be considered as an additional function of natural food proteins, which gives advantages to the mammals and has a positive effect on their development in the postnatal period. Ways of bioactive peptides formation, their resistance to action of proteolytic enzymes, the ability to cross into the bloodstream and have biological effects have been also discussed. Up to date, only a few products with bioactive peptides from milk whey proteins are obtained. Further studies of their structure, mechanism of action, ways of formation and methods of isolation are required for their wider use. Formation of functional products based on bioactive peptides from milk whey proteins will allow efficient use of milk whey, which is often a

  18. Surface Engineering of Nanostructured Titanium Implants with Bioactive Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-S; Kim, Y-J; Jang, J-H; Park, J-W

    2016-05-01

    Surface nanofeatures and bioactive ion chemical modification are centrally important in current titanium (Ti) oral implants for enhancing osseointegration. However, it is unclear whether the addition of bioactive ions definitively enhances the osteogenic capacity of a nanostructured Ti implant. We systematically investigated the osteogenesis process of human multipotent adipose stem cells triggered by bioactive ions in the nanostructured Ti implant surface. Here, we report that bioactive ion surface modification (calcium [Ca] or strontium [Sr]) and resultant ion release significantly increase osteogenic activity of the nanofeatured Ti surface. We for the first time demonstrate that ion modification actively induces focal adhesion development and expression of critical adhesion–related genes (vinculin, talin, and RHOA) of human multipotent adipose stem cells, resulting in enhanced osteogenic differentiation on the nanofeatured Ti surface. It is also suggested that fibronectin adsorption may have only a weak effect on early cellular events of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) at least in the case of the nanostructured Ti implant surface incorporating Sr. Moreover, results indicate that Sr overrides the effect of Ca and other important surface factors (i.e., surface area and wettability) in the osteogenesis function of various MSCs (derived from human adipose, bone marrow, and murine bone marrow). In addition, surface engineering of nanostructured Ti implants using Sr ions is expected to exert additional beneficial effects on implant bone healing through the proper balancing of the allocation of MSCs between adipogenesis and osteogenesis. This work provides insight into the future surface design of Ti dental implants using surface bioactive ion chemistry and nanotopography.

  19. ZONE OF COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The China-ASEAN Economic Zone is attracting more and more investors from both Southeast Asia and China Compared with other countries that have established free trade areas with ASEAN, China owns millions of unique advantages. Millions, after all, is the quantity of Chinese living in ASEAN countries. "With ties of blood, geography and commerce, business people of Chinese descent can be the best candidates to pro-

  20. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study Methodology Results Optimal Exploration Target Zones Pravesh Debba1, Emmanual M.J. Carranza2, Alfred Stein2, Freek D. van der Meer2 1... Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study Methodology Results Outline 1 Introduction to Remote Sensing 2 Background and Objective of the study 3 Methodology 4 Results Optimal...