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Sample records for replant soil electronic

  1. Maiden pear trees growth in replant soil after inoculation of rootstocks with mycorrhizal inoculum

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    Sławomir Świerczyński

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the production of fruit trees it is important to set up a nursery always in a new site, alternatively to follow crop rotation rules. It is not always possible due to the size of a farm and production volume. In order to limit the effects of replant soil one can use different procedures before setting up a nursery. Chemical methods, however, must be replaced with non chemical ones due to environmental protection and reduction of production costs. In the experiment conducted in 2009-2012, growth of maiden pear trees of ‘Conference’ growing on three quince MA, MC, S1 rootstocks, cultivated in replant and non-replant soil after the use of mycorrhizal treatment, was compared. The strongest growth of maiden pear trees was obtained on non-replant soil with mycorrhizal and without mycorrhizal treatment of rootstocks. Inoculation of rootstocks influenced positively the height and fresh mass of the root system of maiden pear trees growing on two considered sites. On the other hand, inoculation did not rise the diameter of stem and number of lateral shoots of the maidens. Influence of mycorrhizal treatment of rootstocks on the length of lateral shoots was not obvious. Significantly the best results of maiden pear trees growth, except for the stem diameter, were obtained on MA quince compared to two other types. The mycorrhizal treatment gave better result of percentage obtained by maiden pear trees only in the replant site. The best efficiency of maiden pear trees in nursery production was observed for MA quince rootstock.

  2. Different changes of soil nematode communities in replant and continuous-planting peach orchards and their indicative value for peach replant problem

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    Li X. Y.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term changes of soil nematode diversity and distribution patterns in replant peach orchard (RPO and continuous-planting peach orchard (CPPO were assessed to evaluate different effects on nematode community and function by RPO and CPPO, in relation to peach replant problem from the point of soil fauna. Observations were conducted on a silt loam soil, and soil sampling was performed four times through the growing season of peach trees in the period from 2006 to 2008 in Pinggu, Beijing. The result showed that RPO differed from CPPO by its higher abundance of plant feeding nematodes but lower abundance of bacterivore nematodes, as well as significantly higher values of plant parasite index but lower nematode biodiversity. Obviously, the absolute abundance of Paratylenchus in RPO was higher than that in CPPO, which could be a key factor for the peach replant problems from the part of soil nematode. Nematode function indices and weighted nematode fauna profile analysis were no significantly different in the two peach ecosystems, but they represented an indication of high disturbance, N-enriched, bacterial decomposition pathway.

  3. Effects of long-term continuous cropping on soil nematode community and soil condition associated with replant problem in strawberry habitat

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    Li, Xingyue; Lewis, Edwin E.; Liu, Qizhi; Li, Heqin; Bai, Chunqi; Wang, Yuzhu

    2016-08-01

    Continuous cropping changes soil physiochemical parameters, enzymes and microorganism communities, causing “replant problem” in strawberry cultivation. We hypothesized that soil nematode community would reflect the changes in soil conditions caused by long-term continuous cropping, in ways that are consistent and predictable. To test this hypothesis, we studied the soil nematode communities and several soil parameters, including the concentration of soil phenolic acids, organic matter and nitrogen levels, in strawberry greenhouse under continuous-cropping for five different durations. Soil pH significantly decreased, and four phenolic acids, i.e., p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid, accumulated with time under continuous cropping. The four phenolic acids were highly toxic to Acrobeloides spp., the eudominant genus in non-continuous cropping, causing it to reduce to a resident genus after seven-years of continuous cropping. Decreased nematode diversity indicated loss of ecosystem stability and sustainability because of continuous-cropping practice. Moreover, the dominant decomposition pathway was altered from bacterial to fungal under continuous cropping. Our results suggest that along with the continuous-cropping time in strawberry habitat, the soil food web is disturbed, and the available plant nutrition as well as the general health of the soil deteriorates; these changes can be indicated by soil nematode community.

  4. Apple replant disease and the –omics: interaction of apple rootstock metabolome and the soil microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple replant disease (ARD) negatively impacts tree health and reduces crop yield in new orchard plantings. Use of tolerant rootstock cultivars can diminish the growth limiting effects of ARD; however specific rootstock attributes enabling ARD tolerance are not understood. Systems biology tools were...

  5. Unfavorable results in replantation

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    Abraham G Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Reattachment of amputated parts of the body (Replantation) has become a reality since the first arm replant was carried out six decades ago. Failures were not uncommon in the beginning, leading on to the analysis of the problem and refinements in technique. Improvements in sutures, instrumentation and better microscopes further helped the surgeons to do replantation with better finesse and functional results. Evaluation of results and particularly failure and long term results help the younge...

  6. Soil microstructure and electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, P.; Fryer, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the process of comparing Martian soils with terrestial soils, high resolution electron microscopy and associated techniques should be used to examine the finer soil particles, and various techniques of electron and optical microscopy should be used to examine the undisturbed structure of Martian soils. To examine the structure of fine grained portions of the soil, transmission electron microscopy may be required. A striking feature of many Martian soils is their red color. Although the present-day Martian climate appears to be cold, this color is reminiscent of terrestial tropical red clays. Their chemical contents are broadly similar.

  7. Digit and hand replantation.

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    Beris, Alexandros E; Lykissas, Marios G; Korompilias, Anastasios V; Mitsionis, Gregory I; Vekris, Marios D; Kostas-Agnantis, Ioannis P

    2010-09-01

    For the past 45 years, the advent of microsurgery has led to replantation of almost every amputated part such as distal phalanx, finger tip, etc. Replantation of digits and hand can restore not only circulation, but also function and cosmetic of the amputated part. The goals of replantation are to restore circulation and regain sufficient function and sensation of the amputated part. Strict selection criteria are necessary to optimize the functional result. The management of this type of injuries includes meticulous preoperative management, microsurgical experience and continuous postoperative care. Among various factors influencing the outcome, the most important are the type and the level of injury, ischemia time, history of diabetes, age, sex, and smoking history. During the replantation procedure, bone stabilization, tendon repair, arterial anastomoses, venous anastomoses, nerve coaptation, and skin coverage should be performed. All structures should be repaired primarily, unless a large nerve gap or a flexor tendon avulsion injury is present. Adequate postoperative evaluation is mandatory to avoid early or late complications. To improve functional results, many replantation patients may need further reconstructive surgery.

  8. Unfavorable results in replantation

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    Abraham G Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reattachment of amputated parts of the body (Replantation has become a reality since the first arm replant was carried out six decades ago. Failures were not uncommon in the beginning, leading on to the analysis of the problem and refinements in technique. Improvements in sutures, instrumentation and better microscopes further helped the surgeons to do replantation with better finesse and functional results. Evaluation of results and particularly failure and long term results help the younger surgeons to learn from the difficulties faced earlier to do better in the future. An attempt is made to list various aspects of replantation experienced by the author during the past 30 years, particularly in reference to unfavorable results, which had been occasionally total failure, or a partial failure, with poor function and cosmesis due to infection. An insensate limb with poor function is the result of inadequate or improper nerve coaptation or infection destroying the whole repair. It is apt to mention that infection is mostly the result of poor vascularity due to devitalized tissue. Difficulties arise often in identifying the viable tissue, particularly while debriding in the distal amputated part since there is no bleeding. Experience counts in this, specifically to identify the viable muscle. The factors that may lead to complications are listed with remarks to avoid them.

  9. Unfavorable results in replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Abraham G

    2013-05-01

    Reattachment of amputated parts of the body (Replantation) has become a reality since the first arm replant was carried out six decades ago. Failures were not uncommon in the beginning, leading on to the analysis of the problem and refinements in technique. Improvements in sutures, instrumentation and better microscopes further helped the surgeons to do replantation with better finesse and functional results. Evaluation of results and particularly failure and long term results help the younger surgeons to learn from the difficulties faced earlier to do better in the future. An attempt is made to list various aspects of replantation experienced by the author during the past 30 years, particularly in reference to unfavorable results, which had been occasionally total failure, or a partial failure, with poor function and cosmesis due to infection. An insensate limb with poor function is the result of inadequate or improper nerve coaptation or infection destroying the whole repair. It is apt to mention that infection is mostly the result of poor vascularity due to devitalized tissue. Difficulties arise often in identifying the viable tissue, particularly while debriding in the distal amputated part since there is no bleeding. Experience counts in this, specifically to identify the viable muscle. The factors that may lead to complications are listed with remarks to avoid them.

  10. Tetanus following replantation of an amputated finger: a case report

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    Hayashida Kenji

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Tetanus is an infectious disease caused by tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani and induces severe neurological manifestations. We treated a patient who developed tetanus during hospitalization for replantation of an amputated finger. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published case report of such an entity. Case presentation A 49-year-old Japanese man had an amputation of his right middle finger at the distal interphalangeal joint region in an accident at work. His middle finger was successfully replanted, but his fingertip was partially necrotized because of crushing and so additional reconstruction with a reverse digital arterial flap was performed 15 days after the injury. Tetanus developed 21 days after replantation of the middle finger, but symptoms remitted via rapid diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions In replantation after finger trauma with exposure of nerve and blood vessel bundles, concern over injuring nerves and blood vessels may prevent irrigation and debridement from being performed sufficiently; these treatments may have been insufficiently performed in this patient. It is likely that the replanted middle finger partially adhered, and Clostridium tetani colonized the partially necrotized region. Even when there is only limited soil contamination, administration of tetanus toxoid and anti-tetanus immunoglobulin is necessary when the fingers are injured outdoors and the finger nerves and blood vessels are exposed. The drugs should be administered just after replantation if the finger has been amputated. However, if clinicians pay attention to the possibility of tetanus development, treatment can be rapidly initiated.

  11. Soil pH in fruit trees in relation to specific apple replant disorder (SARD). II. The first five years at Wageningen research plot

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    Jonkers, H.; Hoestra, H.; Borsboom, O.; Pouwer, A.

    1980-01-01

    Field plots were established with 4 target pH values, viz. 4, 5, 6 and 7, to study the effect of pH on specific apple replant disorder (SARD). The target pH levels were not stable and frequently showed fluctuations. Although no significant differences have been found on tree performance, the develop

  12. Evaluating systemic semi-selective chemicals for the management of apple replant disease in fumigated and non-fumigated orchards systems

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    Apple Replant Disease (ARD) is a phenomenon where apple trees are stunted when replanted onto old apple soil, as the result of apple monoculture resulting in soil microbial changes where pathogenic and parasitic organism s predominate. The main soilborne organisms that cause ARD include oomycetes, f...

  13. Successful microsurgical replantation of an amputated penis

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    Sanchit Garg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile amputation is an uncommon injury for which immediate surgical replantation is warranted. Microsurgical replantation is the “standard” method for penile replantation. Early replantation yields a high success and low complication rate. We report a case of a 34-year-old male who presented with amputation at the proximal penile shaft which was successfully replanted using microsurgical techniques. Minor skin necrosis was noted post-operatively which was debrided and covered with skin graft. Follow-up at 6 months showed satisfactory cosmetic appearance, normal voiding, return of sensations and erectile function. The level of evidence was V.

  14. Function of the replanted spleen in dogs

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    Velcek, F.T.; Kugaczewski, J.T.; Jongco, B.; Shaftan, G.W.; Rao, P.S.; Schiffman, G.; Kottmeier, P.K.

    1982-06-01

    The function of replanted splenic fragments was studied by comparing three groups of five dogs each, one group with intact spleens; one, post-splenectomy; and one with splenic replantation. Fifteen fragments were implanted into the omentum. Howell-Jolly bodies appeared after splenectomy but cleared in the replanted group after several months. /sup 125/I-tagged attenuated pneumococcal clearance studies showed a significant difference between control and replanted group compared with the splenectomized group. The increase of pneumococcal antibody titers after vaccination differed significantly between the splenectomized and the replanted group. All replanted fragments were viable and showed growth over a 2-year period. These studies demonstrate that omental replantation of the canine spleen leads to the maintenance of certain functional splenic parameters comparable to the normal spleen which are significantly different from the splenectomized animal.

  15. Digit Replantation The First 50 Years.

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    Hadley, Scott R; Capo, John T

    2015-06-01

    Since the first successful digit replantation by Japanese surgeons Komatsu and Tamai, the past half century has seen the field of digit replantation in the USA experience exponential growth followed by a steady decline in volume of cases and percentage of successful viable digits. The initial enthusiasm and technical progress of digital replantation has been tempered by mediocre functional outcomes, rising healthcare costs, and limited healthcare resources. The history and approach to digit replantation is reviewed and highlights the likely push toward the development of regional replant centers staffed by highly skilled teams to improve the functional outcomes following these complex procedures. More than 50 years have passed since the first successful digit replantation by Komatsu and Tamai who replanted a sharply amputated thumb in a 28-year-old male at the metacarpal-phalangeal joint level in a 4.5 hour procedure. Two arteries and 2 veins were anastomosed using 8-0 monofilament nylon and 7-0 braided silk suture. The patient remained in the hospital for 40 days and did not return to work for 4 months. News of this triumph of microvascular skill was heralded throughout the world as the first successful replantation of a completely amputated digit. Over the past half century, the field of digit replantation in the USA experienced exponential growth followed by a steady decline in volume of cases and percentage of successful viable digits. The initial enthusiasm and technical progress of digital replantation has been tempered by mediocre functional outcomes, rising healthcare costs, and limited healthcare resources. In the next 50 years, it is possible that the majority of digit replantation procedures in the USA may be performed in tertiary centers or regional replant centers by highly skilled teams.

  16. Impacto do manejo de resíduos orgânicos durante a reforma de plantios de eucalipto sobre indicadores de qualidade do solo Impact of organic residue management on soil quality indicators during replanting of eucalypt stands

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    Guilherme Montandon Chaer

    2007-12-01

    priorizaram a conservação dos resíduos orgânicos por ocasião da reforma do povoamento. Contrariamente, as áreas onde ocorreu a remoção ou a queima do material orgânico da superfície do solo foram as que mais se distanciaram da área de referência. Esses resultados demonstram que o sistema de manejo adotado na reforma dos povoamentos de eucalipto analisados influencia, em médio prazo, o potencial dos solos de estocar e ciclar nutrientes por meio da biomassa microbiana e das atividades bioquímicas ligadas a ela. A maior aproximação entre a área com vegetação nativa e a de eucalipto com 11 anos leva a supor que ciclos mais longos nas florestas de eucalipto, contrastando com o padrão atualmente em uso no Brasil (cerca de sete anos, pode ser relevante para se manter a sustentabilidade da atividade florestal em longo prazo, a despeito de uma menor produtividade média anual. Nesse caso, a opção pela produtividade de curto ou médio prazo, ou pela sustentabilidade do uso do solo, com a conseqüente manutenção da sua qualidade para as gerações futuras, poderá ser repensada a partir dos dados aqui apresentados.Agricultural soil use induces changes in soil physical, chemical, and microbiological characteristics. These changes can eventually lead to a loss of soil quality and a consequent reduction in plant growth and productivity. The analysis of biochemical and microbiological soil quality indicators is relevant to monitor changes in soil quality and in the performance of key soil functions, such as the capacity of nutrient cycling and storage. This study reports on physical, chemical, and biochemical/microbiological quality indicators of soil under eucalyptus plantation, evaluated 5.5 years after the site had undergone different management practices during stand replanting. Evaluations were based on the determination of 18 physical or chemical besides 12 biochemical or microbiological attributes that are considered soil quality indicators. The

  17. How to Plant Apple Trees to Reduce Replant Disease in Apple Orchard: A Study on the Phenolic Acid of the Replanted Apple Orchard.

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    Yin, Chengmiao; Xiang, Li; Wang, Gongshuai; Wang, Yanfang; Shen, Xiang; Chen, Xuesen; Mao, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important problem in the production of apple. The phenolic acid is one of the causes of ARD. How phenolic acid affects the ARD was not well known. In this study, we analyzed the type, concentration and annual dynamic variation of phenolic acid in soil from three replanted apple orchards using an accelerated solvent extraction system with high performance liquid chromatography (ASE-HPLC). We found that the type and concentration of phenolic acid were significantly differed among different seasons, different sampling positions and different soil layers. Major types of phenolic acid in three replanted apple orchards were phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde. The concentration of phenolic acid was highest in the soil of the previous tree holes and it was increased from the spring to autumn. Moreover, phenolic acid was primarily distributed in 30-60 cm soil layer in the autumn, while it was most abundant in 0-30 cm soil layer in the spring. Our results suggest that phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde may be the key phenolic acid that brought about ARD in the replanted apple orchard.

  18. How to Plant Apple Trees to Reduce Replant Disease in Apple Orchard: A Study on the Phenolic Acid of the Replanted Apple Orchard

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    Yin, Chengmiao; Xiang, Li; Wang, Gongshuai; Wang, Yanfang; Shen, Xiang; Chen, Xuesen; Mao, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important problem in the production of apple. The phenolic acid is one of the causes of ARD. How phenolic acid affects the ARD was not well known. In this study, we analyzed the type, concentration and annual dynamic variation of phenolic acid in soil from three replanted apple orchards using an accelerated solvent extraction system with high performance liquid chromatography (ASE-HPLC). We found that the type and concentration of phenolic acid were significantly differed among different seasons, different sampling positions and different soil layers. Major types of phenolic acid in three replanted apple orchards were phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde. The concentration of phenolic acid was highest in the soil of the previous tree holes and it was increased from the spring to autumn. Moreover, phenolic acid was primarily distributed in 30–60 cm soil layer in the autumn, while it was most abundant in 0–30 cm soil layer in the spring. Our results suggest that phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde may be the key phenolic acid that brought about ARD in the replanted apple orchard. PMID:27907081

  19. Integration of apple rootstock genotype with reduced Brassica seed meal application rates for replant disease control

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    Pre-plant soil application of Brassica seed meal (SM) formulations can provide fumigant level control of apple replant disease. However, due to high cost of the SM treatment relative to non-tarped soil fumigation, reduced application rates would likely accelerate commercial adoption of this technolo...

  20. Delayed replantation of avulsed teeth

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    Adil N

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Dental injuries are very common and their extent has been classified by Ellis. Avulsion of tooth is a grievous injury and ranges from 1-16% among the traumatic injuries, of which maxillary anterior are commonest. Reimplantation of avulsed teeth is a standard procedure. However, it has certain limitations. Most often their management is very challenging. In this case report we are presenting the management of maxillary incisors by replantation after 36 hrs in a 12 year old girl.

  1. Replantation (Finger, Hand, or Arm)

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    ... per month. The number of inches from the injury to the tip of a finger gives the minimum number of months after which ... Replantation refers to the surgical reattachment of a finger, hand, or arm that has been completely cut from a person’s ... 2017 by American Society for Surgery of the Hand × Search Tips Tip 1: Start with the basics like "carpal ...

  2. Replantation of ring avulsion amputations

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    Sabapathy R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Replantation of ring avulsion injuries is a challenge because of the long segment damage to the vessels and intrinsic damage caused to soft tissues at the proximal edge of the amputation. Eight patients with total ring avulsion amputations underwent microsurgical replantation in the period 1994 to 2002. Arterial repair was done by direct vessel suture in three patients, interposition vein grafts in two and cross anastomosis of the digital arteries in three patients. Venous anastomosis was carried out by mobilization and direct suture in seven patients and vessel transfer from the adjacent finger in one patient. Seven of the eight replantations were successful, while one patient had a partial failure. At a minimum follow-up of one year, these patients showed good functional and cosmetic recovery. All successful patients were happy with the outcome and none have requested for amputation, even those whose results were not functionally adequate. However, in addition to technical factors, it is important to evaluate the patient's motivation to undergo not only the long surgery, but also multiple secondary procedures and regular supervised physiotherapy. We also describe a simple method which prevents the soft tissues inside the degloved digit from becoming wrapped around the K wire during bony fixation, thus making one step of this technically challenging procedure a little easier.

  3. Replantation of an amputated upper lip.

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    Husami, T W; Cervino, A L; Pennington, G A; Douglas, B K

    1992-01-01

    Soft tissue defects of the face are a difficult reconstructive problem. Replantation of large amputated segments of the face has been rarely successful and has lagged well behind extremity trauma due in part to the relative rarity of these defects. Presented is a case of successful microvascular replantation of half of the upper lip after a dog bite.

  4. Replantation of upper extremity, hand and digits.

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    Bumbasirević, Marko Z; Vucković, Cedo D; Vucetić, Cedomir; Manojlović, Radovan; Andjelkovic, Sladjana Z; Palibrk, Tomislav D; Milutinović, Suzana M; Raspopović, Emilija Dubljanin

    2013-01-01

    Replantation is defined as reattachment of the part that has been completely amputated and there is no connection between the severed part and the patient. In Boston in 1962 Malt successfully replanted a completely amputated arm of a 12-year-old boy. Komatsu and Tamai reported the first successful replantation of an amputated digit by microvascular technique. There are no strict indications and contraindications for replantation. It's on surgeon to explain to the patient the chances of success of viability, expected function, length of operation, hospitalization and long rehabilitation protocol. Survival and useful function in replantation of upper extremity amputations is questionable. Success depends on microvascular anastomoses, but the final function is related with tendon, nerve, bone and joint repair.

  5. Illumina amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA tag reveals bacterial community development in the rhizosphere of apple nurseries at a replant disease site and a new planting site.

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    Jian Sun

    Full Text Available We used a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach to characterize the bacterial community development of apple rhizosphere soil in a replant site (RePlant and a new planting site (NewPlant in Beijing. Dwarfing apple nurseries of 'Fuji'/SH6/Pingyitiancha trees were planted in the spring of 2013. Before planting, soil from the apple rhizosphere of the replant site (ReSoil and from the new planting site (NewSoil was sampled for analysis on the Illumina MiSeq platform. In late September, the rhizosphere soil from both sites was resampled (RePlant and NewPlant. More than 16,000 valid reads were obtained for each replicate, and the community was composed of five dominant groups (Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria. The bacterial diversity decreased after apple planting. Principal component analyses revealed that the rhizosphere samples were significantly different among treatments. Apple nursery planting showed a large impact on the soil bacterial community, and the community development was significantly different between the replanted and newly planted soils. Verrucomicrobia were less abundant in RePlant soil, while Pseudomonas and Lysobacter were increased in RePlant compared with ReSoil and NewPlant. Both RePlant and ReSoil showed relatively higher invertase and cellulase activities than NewPlant and NewSoil, but only NewPlant soil showed higher urease activity, and this soil also had the higher plant growth. Our experimental results suggest that planting apple nurseries has a significant impact on soil bacterial community development at both replant and new planting sites, and planting on new site resulted in significantly higher soil urease activity and a different bacterial community composition.

  6. Successful replantation in 10-digit complete amputations.

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    Qing-tai, L; Chang-qing, J Z; Ke-fei, Y; Sha-ling, C; Jan, L; Zun-ying, L

    1996-08-01

    We report a case of successful replantation of 10-digit complete amputations. The conditions of the wounds over the ends of the 10 amputated digits are bound to vary; some are too severe to be replanted, while others may be light and easy for replantation. We reported a case of 10-digit complete amputations, with severe avulsion injuries over four fingers. Appropriate measures were taken during surgery, and the replanted digits all survived. The replantation operation was done by a team of surgeons, although the surgeons were physically challenged by the long and difficult procedures. However, it was the great pleasure of the surgeons to work hard and whole-heartedly for the benefit of the patient. Postoperative physiotherapy and exercises were done. After 6 months, the functions of both hands had been largely recovered. Complete amputations of 10 digits as a rule result in multiple complicated wounds. The replantation procedure for these conditions is not an easy endeavor because there are numerous blood vessels that need to be anastomosed, the time of the operation will be dreadfully long, and also there is the danger of the occurrence of vascular crises during the postoperative period. It is difficult to achieve successful survival of all 10 amputated digits after replantation.

  7. Delayed replantation after prolonged dry storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of tooth avulsion in the permanent dentition often presents a challenge. Definitive treatment planning and consultation with specialists is seldom possible at the time of emergency treatment. Replantation of the avulsed tooth can restore esthetic appearance and occlusal function shortly after the injury. This article describes the management of a patient with an avulsed maxillary permanent incisor that had been air-dried for about 40 h. The replanted incisor retained its esthetic appearance and functionality 1 year after replantation, yet the long-term prognosis is not good because of progressive replacement root resorption.

  8. [Partial replantation following proximal limb injury].

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    Dubert, T; Malikov, S A; Dinh, A; Kupatadze, D D; Oberlin, C; Alnot, J Y; Nabokov, B B

    2000-11-01

    Proximal replantation is a technically feasible but life-threatening procedure. Indications must be restricted to patients in good condition with a good functional prognosis. The goal of replantation must be focused not only on reimplanting the amputated limb but also on achieving a good functional outcome. For the lower limb, simple terminalization remains the best choice in many cases. When a proximal amputation is not suitable for replantation, the main aim of the surgical procedure must be to reconstruct a stump long enough to permit fitting a prosthesis preserving the function of the adjacent joint. If the proximal stump beyond the last joint is very short, it may be possible to restore some length by partial replantation of spared tissues from the amputated part. We present here the results we obtained following this policy. This series included 16 cases of partial replantations, 14 involving the lower limb and 2 the upper limb. All were osteocutaneous microsurgical transfers. For the lower limb, all transfers recovered protective sensitivity following tibial nerve repair. The functional calcaeoplantar unit was used in 13 cases. The transfer of this specialized weight bearing tissue provided a stable distal surface making higher support unnecessary. In one case, we raised a 13-cm vascularized tibial segment covered with foot skin for additional length. For the upper limb, the osteocutaneous transfer, based on the radial artery, was not reinnervated, but this lack of sensitivity did not impair prosthesis fitting. One vascular failure was finally amputated. This was the only unsuccessful result. For all other patients, the surgical procedure facilitated prosthesis fitting and preserved the proximal joint function despite an initially very proximal amputation. The advantages of partial replantation are obvious compared with simple terminalization or secondary reconstruction. There is no secondary donor site and, because there is no major muscle mass in the

  9. Digital replantation teaching model in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ad-El, D D; Harper, A; Hoffman, L A

    2000-01-01

    Replant surgery is a complex procedure that requires advanced microsurgical skills and is usually performed as an emergency operation, lasting many hours. For these reasons, teaching replantation is difficult. Although teaching models exist, they are often too general or complicated for routine use and do not simulate the stages and the pitfalls of human replant surgery. We have designed a model that is simple and imitates human replant surgery. After reviewing the rat anatomy, students dissect and replant a rat hind limb that has been sharply amputated by the instructor. They follow the same principles of "real" surgery like debridement, minimizing ischemia time, and stable fixation before anatomosis of vessels. After marking the structures, bony fixation followed by vessel and nerve anastomosis are performed. Muscle is reattached to the skin and limb vascularity evaluated. After we designed this model, plastic surgery residents performed the technique on 10 rats. An 80% limb viability rate was achieved. This model is simple to perform, simulates all the relevant structures and pitfalls of human surgery, and the rats are relatively cheap and can be used for other parallel projects.

  10. The replanting campaign has begun

    CERN Multimedia

    GS-SEM Group - General Infrastructure and Services Department

    2010-01-01

    The poplars on the border of CERN's Prévessin site were felled, according to plan, on Friday, 26 February. The work was essential as the trees were showing signs of serious ageing problems (broken and dead branches, weakened trunks and root systems, etc.) and needed to be felled to ensure the safety of drivers on the D35 The trees that have been cut will be transformed into renewable energy wood chips and used to heat local schools and crèches. They will be replaced by a hedge of hornbeams, a native fast-growing tree, which will be planted in the spring.     The felling operation was entrusted to the French national forestry authorities, with the support of the Bellegarde-Pays de Gex Agence Routière et Technique. It marks the start of a vast poplar-felling and replanting campaign, which will be extended to CERN's Meyrin site.  The work is part of CERN's general renovation and site planning scheme for the future.    

  11. Timing of pulp extirpation for replanted avulsed teeth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stewart, Chris

    2009-01-01

    A search was performed (April 2004) across four databases, namely Ovid Medline, Cochrane Library, PubMed and Web of Science, relevant to the proposed PICO ( Patient or problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) question: (P) for a replanted avulsed permanent tooth, (I) is early pulp extirpation within 10-14 days of replantation, (C) compared with delayed pulp extirpation, (O) associated an increased likelihood of successful periodontal healing after tooth replantation. Only articles published in the English language were considered.

  12. Nonsurgical factors of digital replantation and survival rate A metaanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this metaanalysis was to evaluate the association between nonsurgical factors and survival rate of digital replantation. A computer search of MEDLINE, OVID, EMBASE and CNKI databases was conducted to identify literatures for digital replantation, with the keywords of "digit," "finger" and "replantation" from their inception to June 10, 2014. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, data were extracted independently by two authors using piloted forms. Review Manager 5.2 software was used for data analysis. The effect of some nonsurgical factors (gender, age, amputated finger, injury mechanisms, ischemia time and the way of preservation on the survival rate of digital replantation was assessed. The metaanalysis result suggested that gender and ischemia time had no significant influence on the survival rate of amputation replantation. However, the survival rate of digital replantation of adults was significantly higher than that of children. The guillotine injury of a finger was easier to replant successfully than the crush and avulsion. The little finger was more difficult for replantation than thumb. Survival rate of fingers stored in low temperature was higher than that in common temperature. The present metaanalysis suggested that age, injury mechanism, amputated finger and the way of preservation were significantly associated with the survival rate of digital replantation.

  13. Endodontic\\\\\\'s view of replantation

    OpenAIRE

    A. Vahid

    1992-01-01

    Replantation means replacement of an avulsed tooth. The most important issue is preserving periodontal health during the process. Therefore, root irrigation or drying should be avoided and tooth should be replaced at soonest time possible. Dental socket should be irrigated by warm normal saline without any curettage. Then, it should be splinted by considering function. After 2 weeks, endodontic therapy should be commenced in order to ameliorating periodontium condition and c...

  14. Inference of Soil Hydrologic Parameters from Electronic Soil Moisture Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, David G.; Seyfried, Mark S.; McNamara, James P.; Hwang, Kyotaek

    2017-04-01

    Soil moisture is an important control on hydrologic function, as it governs vertical fluxes from and to the atmosphere, groundwater recharge and lateral fluxes through the soil. Historically, the traditional model parameters of saturation, field capacity and permanent wilting point have been determined by laboratory methods. This approach is challenged by issues of scale, boundary conditions and soil disturbance. We develop and compare four methods to determine values of field saturation, field capacity, plant extraction limit and initiation of plant water stress from long term in-situ monitoring records of TDR-measured volumetric water content (Q). The monitoring sites represent a range of soil textures, soil depths, effective precipitation and plant cover types in a semi-arid climate. The Q records exhibit attractors (high frequency values) that correspond to field capacity and the plant extraction limit at both annual and longer time scales, but the field saturation values vary by year depending on seasonal wetness in the semi-arid setting. The analysis for five sites in two watersheds is supported by comparison to values determined by a common pedotransfer function and measured soil characteristic curves. Frozen soil is identified as a complicating factor for the analysis and users are cautioned to filter data by temperature, especially for near surface soils.

  15. Fingertip replantation: Technical considerations and outcome analysis of 24 consecutive fingertip replantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Venkatramani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fingertip amputations are one of the most common injuries faced in an emergency department. Finger tip replantation though technically possible, are not regularly done due to the presumed complexity of the procedure and doubts about the outcome. This article deals with our experience of 24 fingertip replantations in 24 patients done over a period of 8 years since the year 2000. Twenty-one fingertips survived. The most common affected digit in the series was thumb followed by index, middle, and ring. The overall success rate was 87%. Both arterial and venous repair were done in all cases. Replantation was not done if no suitable vein was found for anastomosis. Nine patients did not have nerve repair. Seven of them survived and all of them had satisfactory sensation when examined after 1 year. No patient suffered from cold intolerance. All patients were satisfied with the functional outcome and aesthetic appearance. This article highlights the technical considerations and the outcome of these fingertip replants.

  16. Fingertip replantations: clinical evaluation of 135 digits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W K; Lim, J H; Han, S K

    1996-09-01

    From July 1985 to February 1993, 135 digits in 119 patients with complete amputations at or distal to the distal interphalangeal joint (zone I for amputations distal to the nail base of zone II for amputations between the distal interphalangeal joint and the nail base) were replanted using a microsurgical technique at Korea University Guro Hospital. Because of the high social value placed on body form and function, the indication for replantation was extended to cases with severe soft-tissue injuries and attempted replantation as a routine procedure in nearly all distal amputation cases. The overall survival rate was 78 percent, with the survival rate for zone I being 70 percent and that for zone II reaching 86 percent. Even in cases with severe soft-tissue injury, the survival rate was high, with viability in avulsion injuries and crush injuries reaching 75 percent each. The most common type of vascular repair in zone I cases was revascularization of one artery only and no vein repair (87 percent). Of these cases, interpositional vein grafts were used in 65 percent. In zone II cases, the most common combination repair was one artery and one vein anastomosis (70 percent), with interpositional vein grafts for arterial anastomosis in 49 percent; most of the venous repair was feasible by the direct method (78 percent). The follow-up period ranged from 1 month to 5 years with a mean of 14.8 months; 52 patients were followed-up for more than 6 months. In 52 long-term follow-up patients, the average two-point discrimination was 8 mm. Patient satisfaction, aesthetically and functionally, was high (91 percent).

  17. Intentional extraction and replantation: the last resort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurahiman, V T; Jolly, Sanju John; Khader, M Abdul

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the first molar in the development of occlusion is well-known. The difficulties when first molar is not there during the eruption of the second molar and the premolar don't have to be explained much. The construction of a space maintainer in the area of missing first molar is difficult when seven and five are not erupted. The article highlights a case where a grossly decayed first molar with repeated endodontic failures was treated by intentional extraction and replantation as a last resort. A follow-up along with indications and considerations are documented.

  18. Intentional extraction and replantation: The last resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V T Abdurahiman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the first molar in the development of occlusion is well-known. The difficulties when first molar is not there during the eruption of the second molar and the premolar don′t have to be explained much. The construction of a space maintainer in the area of missing first molar is difficult when seven and five are not erupted. The article highlights a case where a grossly decayed first molar with repeated endodontic failures was treated by intentional extraction and replantation as a last resort. A follow-up along with indications and considerations are documented.

  19. Reverse Distal Transverse Palmar Arch in Distal Digital Replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ching-Yueh; Orozco, Oscar; Vinagre, Gustavo; Shafarenko, Mark

    2017-07-22

    Refinements in microsurgery have made distal finger replantation an established technique with high success rates and good functional and aesthetic outcomes. However, it still represents a technically demanding procedure due to the small vessel caliber and frequent lack of vessel length, requiring the use of interpositional venous grafts in some instances. We describe a new technique for anastomosis in fingertip replantation, whereby the need for venous grafts is eliminated. Applying the reverse distal transverse palmar arch technique, 11 cases of distal digital replantation were performed between January 2011 and July 2016. The described procedure was used for arterial anastomosis in 10 cases and arteriovenous shunting for venous drainage in 1 case. A retrospective case review was conducted. The technical description and clinical outcome evaluations are presented. Ten of the 11 replanted digits survived, corresponding to an overall success rate of 91%. One replant failed due to venous insufficiency. Blood transfusions were not required for any of the patients. Follow-up (range, 1.5-5 months) revealed near-normal range of motion and good aesthetic results. All of the replanted digits developed protective sensation. The average length of hospital admission was 5 days. All patients were satisfied with the results and were able to return to their previous work. The use of the reverse distal transverse palmar arch is a novel and reliable technique in distal digital replantation when an increase in vessel length is required, allowing for a tension-free arterial repair without the need for vein grafts.

  20. Replantation vs revision amputation in single digit zone II amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Diwany, M; Odobescu, A; Bélanger-Douet, M; Berbiche, D; Arsenault, J; Bou-Merhi, J; Harris, P G; Danino, A M

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the functional outcomes of zone II amputations treated with either replantation or revision amputation at our institution to better aid patients in their decision making process regarding these treatment options. We conducted a comparative retrospective study. All cases of single digit amputations received at our replantation center between 2007 and 2011 were screened for single digit zone II injuries. These patients were stratified based on the treatment received: replantation vs revision amputation. Patients were called and invited to participate in the research project. Those who accepted to enter the study were asked to complete the Quick-DASH, the Beck Depression Inventory-short form, and a custom made questionnaire. There were seventeen patients with single digit zone II replantation and fourteen patients with similar injuries who underwent revision amputation and agreed to take part in the study. Our data revealed that the duration of sick leave, occupation after injury, professional and social reintegration, discontinued activities, and self-confidence were not statistically different between the two groups. The average hospital stay and the follow-up period of replanted individuals were longer. The replantation group did not have higher levels of pain or cold intolerance, and the global functional and esthetic satisfaction levels were similar between the two groups. Also, Beck Depression Inventory and Quick-DASH scores were not statistically different. Yet, significantly more patients in the replantation group would opt to repeat the replantation than revised patients would opt for revision amputation. From a functional viewpoint, our study suggests that revision amputation is not superior to replantation in zone II single digit amputations. This is valuable information that should be given to patients when deciding on the treatment process and to insure a proper informed consent. Copyright © 2015. Published by

  1. DENTAL CARE FOR CHILDREN AFTER REPLANTATION OF AVULSED PERMANENT INCISORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossitza Kabaktchieva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis avulsion of permanent tooth/teeth is an emergency situation which has special requirements in respect of proper storage of the avulsed tooth, the need of urgent medical/dental care, time past till replantation and splinting, the need for endodontic treatment and long term follow up period. Those clinical actions depend on three groups: parents/people who are with the child in the moment when trauma happens and give the first aid; dental specialist- surgeon who replants the tooth/teeth; dental specialist- endodontist who takes care of the endodontic treatment and the long period after treatment for follow up and observation of the replanted teeth. The aim of the paper is to present the dental postoperative care in a couple of cases of children with trauma and replanted avulsed permanent incisors. Material and methods: We present four clinical cases of children who get 6 permanent upper incisors replanted. Replantation is made by the oral surgeon. Treatment and observation after replantation are made by dental specialists of pediatric dentistry and conservative dentistry. All 4 cases get 3 years follow up period. Results: After replantation of 2 central incisors with complete root development (first clinical case the left one has developed a resorption of the root but the right one is in a stable condition. Replantation of 3 teeth with incomplete root development (second and third clinical cases where the patients refer to specialized surgical care less than 60 minutes after injury and store the teeth in different ways lead to different clinical results. In the case of avulsed upper right incisor (second case, it is stored in milk and we observe revascularization followed by partial root canal obliteration. The tooth is scheduled for endodontic treatment. In the case of upper central incisors, both kept dry till replantation in the alveolus filled up with substitute bone, we observe fast root resorption which going to lead to early

  2. D3.1 Deliverable. GDAR activity on Evaluation of biological active Formulates and strains for the biological control of replant disease

    OpenAIRE

    KAYMAK, Suat

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the GDAR activity on evaluation of biological active Formulates and strains for the biological control of apple replant disease. Eleven products were evaluated with a plant growth assay in pot using plantlets of MM104 rootstock to evaluate their effectivenes in controlling Phythophtora cactorum. The trial was perfotrmed with soil artificially inoculated with the pathogen.

  3. Cross-over limb replantation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, W J M; Williams, A; Everitt, K J M; Kay, S P J; Bourke, G

    2013-10-01

    Following traumatic bilateral arm amputation in a 46-year-old woman, orthotopic replantation was not possible. The patient underwent replantation of the left forearm to the right proximal forearm. At two years she has a sensate hand, with good recovery of her long flexors of the hand and wrist extensors. DASH score is 93.9 and Chen's score is III (medium). We demonstrate a high level of function compared to the contralateral prosthetic limb. There have only been four similar cases described. Although a rare circumstance, a cross-limb replant can provide a level of function and independence superior to a simple prosthesis. Cross-limb transfer should be considered in situations where bilateral arm amputation is present and neither can be orthotopically replanted.

  4. Replantation of multiple digits and hand amputations: four case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Salah, Mohammed Murshid; Khalid, Khalid N

    2008-01-01

    This study reports four cases of hand avulsion at the proximal wrist level and multiple digits amputation were received in plastic and hand surgery unit during the year 2007–2008. All patients were male labors between 22–30 years old, and the amputation due to machine injuries. Successful replantation were achieved, after a period of follow up with occupational therapy all patients regain good functional and cosmetic results. This study proves the strong indication of replantation of multiple...

  5. Transcriptomic analysis of molecular responses in Malus domestica 'M26' roots affected by apple replant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiß, Stefan; Bartsch, Melanie; Winkelmann, Traud

    2017-06-01

    Gene expression studies in roots of apple replant disease affected plants suggested defense reactions towards biotic stress to occur which did not lead to adequate responses to the biotic stressors. Apple replant disease (ARD) leads to growth inhibition and fruit yield reduction in replanted populations and results in economic losses for tree nurseries and fruit producers. The etiology is not well understood on a molecular level and causal agents show a great diversity indicating that no definitive cause, which applies to the majority of cases, has been found out yet. Hence, it is pivotal to gain a better understanding of the molecular and physiological reactions of the plant when affected by ARD and later to overcome the disease, for example by developing tolerant rootstocks. For the first time, gene expression was investigated in roots of ARD affected plants employing massive analysis of cDNA ends (MACE) and RT-qPCR. In reaction to ARD, genes in secondary metabolite production as well as plant defense, regulatory and signaling genes were upregulated whereas for several genes involved in primary metabolism lower expression was detected. For internal verification of MACE data, candidate genes were tested via RT-qPCR and a strong positive correlation between both datasets was observed. Comparison of apple 'M26' roots cultivated in ARD soil or γ-irradiated ARD soil suggests that typical defense reactions towards biotic stress take place in ARD affected plants but they did not allow responding to the biotic stressors attack adequately, leading to the observed growth depressions in ARD variants.

  6. Replantation versus prosthetic fitting in traumatic arm amputations : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, Iris A.; Kon, Moshe; Schuurman, AH; Van Minnen, L. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traumatic arm amputations can be treated with replantation or surgical formalization of the stump with or without subsequent prosthetic fitting. In the literature, many authors suggest the superiority of replantation. This systematic review compared available literature to analyze whethe

  7. Rhizosphere microbial community variation of apple orchard soil with different tree age and the effect on replanted apple rootstock%不同树龄苹果园土壤微生物的差异及对苹果砧木生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王树桐; 梁魁景; 王亚南; 邹庆甲; 曹克强

    2011-01-01

    以平顶海棠(Malus robusta Rehd.)为试验材料,以4个不同树龄苹果园的土壤为对象,研究了不同树龄苹果园土壤对再植平顶海棠幼苗生长的影响.结果表明,在前茬树龄为3、8、15和24 a苹果园土种植的平顶海棠幼苗比正茬土对照的平均株高分别减少31.22%、46.38%、57.66%和63.10%;再植平顶海棠幼苗地上部干质量分别减少0.96%、57.58%、76.88%和78.10%;地下部干质量分别减少40.38%、48.79%、64.03%和79.43%.在24 a生苹果树土壤中再植海棠幼苗校正发病率达到了72.73%,而在3 a生苹果树的土壤中再植海棠幼苗校正发病率只有18.18%.对不同树龄的苹果园土壤根际细菌和真菌群落结构的差异进行分析,其结果为,随着苹果树龄的提高,根际土壤中真菌种类和数量显著增加,而细菌的种类和数量则随着树龄的增加显著减少.%Malus robusta Rehd. seedlings were planted in the soil collected from four apple orchards with different tree ages located in Qingyuan County to explore the influence of the soil with different tree ages on the plant growth and disease severity of replanted M. robusta seedlings. The results indicated that the seedlings planted in 3, 8, 15 and 24-year old orchard soils decreased by an average of 31.22%, 46.38%,57.66% and 63.10% in height; 0.96% ,57.58% ,76.88% and 78.10% in shoot dry weight, 40.38%、48.79% ,64.03% and 79.43% in root dry weight. The corrected disease incidence of the seedlings in the 24-year old soil reached 72.73% while only 18.18% in the 3 year-old soil. The total DNA was extracted from the soil and amplified by PCR with the 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA specific primer pairs, Subsequently, the rhizosphere bacteria and fungal community structure differences among the apple orchard soil with different tree age were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel eleetrophoresis (DGGE). The results showed that the composition of soil fungal species increased

  8. Advantages of using volar vein repair in finger replantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersa, Berkan; Kabakas, Fatih; Pürisa, Hüsrev; Özçelik, Ismail Bülent; Yeşiloğlu, Nebil; Sezer, Ilker; Tunçer, Serdar

    2014-01-01

    Providing adequate venous outflow is essential in finger replantation surgeries. For a successful result, the quality and quantity of venous repairs should be adequate to drain arterial inflow. The digital dorsal venous plexus is a reliable source of material for venous repairs. Classically, volar digital veins have been used only when no other alternative was available. However, repairing volar veins to augment venous outflow has a number of technical advantages and gives a greater chance of survival. Increasing the repaired vein:artery ratio also increases the success of replantation. The volar skin, covering the volar vein, is less likely to be avulsed during injury and is also less likely to turn necrotic, than dorsal skin, after the replantation surgery. Primary repair of dorsal veins can be difficult due to tightness ensuing from arthrodesis of the underlying joint in flexion. In multiple finger replantations, repairing the volar veins after arterial repair and continuing to do so for each finger in the same way without changing the position of the hand and surgeon save time. In amputations with tissue loss, the size discrepancy is less for volar veins than for dorsal veins. We present the results of 366 finger replantations after volar vein repairs.

  9. Lower limb replantations: indications and a new scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiston, Bruno; Tos, Pierluigi; Pontini, Italo; Ferrero, Sebastiano

    2002-01-01

    The need for reconstruction of lower limb amputations is increasing, due to high-energy trauma in road accidents and work-related injuries. The indication for lower limb replantation is still controversial. Compared with upper limb replantations, indications are more select due to the frequent complications in lower limb salvage procedures, such as severe general complications or local complications such as necrosis, infections, nonunions, the need for secondary lengthening, or other reconstructive procedures. The satisfactory results given by artificial prosthesis, such as quicker recovery time and fewer secondary procedures, also contribute to the higher degree of selection for lower limb replantation candidates. Since 1993, we have replanted 14 amputations of the lower limb in 12 patients, including 2 bilateral cases. Although survival of the replanted segment was obtained in all patients, 5 cases were subsequently amputated for severe secondary complications. Of the remaining 9 cases, evaluated by means of Chen criteria, 7 had good results (3 Chen I and 4 Chen II), 1 sufficient (Chen III), and 1 poor (Chen IV). The best results were obtained in young patients. Our experience led us to examine the necessity for careful, objective patient selection. We developed a score evaluation system by modifying the international classifying method for severe limb traumas (mangled extremity severity score, or MESS system). This relatively simple system, based on the retrospective study of our cases, considers several parameters (patient's age, general conditions, level and type of lesion, time of injury, and associated lesions), giving each one a score. The total score gives the indication for replantation, predicts the functional outcome, and facilitates decision-making.

  10. Analysis of Bone Fixation Methods in Digital Replantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Woo; Kim, Jin Soo; Roh, Si Young; Lee, Kyung Jin

    2017-01-01

    Background Adequate fixation of replanted digits is essential not only for short-term healing but for long-term function. Various bony fixation methods using Kirschner (K-) and intraosseous wire are available in replantation. We examined clinical and radiographic outcomes of fixation methods on bone union after digital replantation. Methods A single institutional retrospective review identified 992 patients who had undergone 1,247 successful replantations between July 2009 and September 2015. Exclusion criteria included amputations of the distal phalanx, comminuted fractures, and intra-articular fractures. Patients were classified according to 5 categories of fixation methods: single K-wire, double longitudinal K-wires, cross K-wires, wire with, and wire without K-wire support. Bone union was evaluated by 5-month postoperative X-ray and fixation outcomes were compared across the 5 groups. Results The exclusion criteria were applied, and 88 patients with 103 replanted digits remained for analysis. Single K-wire fixation was used in 40 digits, double longitudinal K-wires in 30, and cross fixation in 14. Wire with and without K-wire support was required in 15 and 4 digits. Nonunion was observed in 32 digits (31.1%), of which 13 required additional operations such as bone graft or corrective osteotomy. The highest percent of nonunion was observed after cross fixation (35.7%) and the lowest after wire alone (25.0%). Conclusions In this study, contrary to general knowledge, we found that single K-wire fixation was not associated with poorer outcomes. Successful bone union outcomes may be achieved by careful selection of bone fixation methods. This study provides useful information for planning bone fixation in digital replantation. PMID:28194348

  11. Penile Replantation After Five Hours of Warm Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando N. Facio Jr.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although a rare occurrence, this event may occur as a result of self-mutilation among individuals with psychiatric disturbances or due to work-related accidents, iatrogenic injuries or the actions of individuals motivated by jealously, rage and feelings of betrayal. In western societies, most penile amputations are the result of self-aggression during a psychotic episode, the treatment of victims involves resuscitation, stabilization and immediate psychiatric support. The amputated tissue must be preserved under hypothermic conditions. Micro-surgery is currently the most widely employed method for penile replantation. This paper describes a successful case of penile replantation following 5 hours of warm ischemia.

  12. Single centre experience of the upper limb replantation and revascularisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visnjic, Milan M; Kovacevic, Predrag T; Paunkovic, Ljiljana M; Milenkovic, Sasa S

    2004-01-01

    Replantation is defined as reattachment of the amputated limb using the neurovascular and musculoskeletal structures in order to obtain the recovery of the limb. Fortunately, injuries causing limb amputation are rare. Adequate treatment within the optimal time scale can provide successful rehabilitation of the shape and function of the replanted part. We report the experience of our Clinical Centre (regional replantation centre) in the replantation of five forearms/hands and revascularisation of six hands between 1997 and 2001. The most frequent site of injury was the distal part of the forearm, while the major cause of injuries was a wood processing machine. The surgical procedures were performed under general anaesthesia within 2-6 hours after injury. Vascular anastomoses, nerve repair and muscle repair were performed following the external bone fixation. All patients were given anticoagulation treatment postoperatively. Thrombosis in the anastomotic site developed as an early complication in two patients who underwent thrombectomy; one of these patients developed gangrene and underwent amputation. Late postoperative results were good in 10 patients. One patient developed acral epidermolysis. Postoperative results after revascularisation were good in all patients.

  13. Delayed, bilateral, non-microvascular ear replantation after violent amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Murray, E; Adán-Rivas, O; Salcido-Calzadilla, H

    2009-06-01

    Amputation of any body part is undoubtedly a traumatic experience leaving a terrible deformity, especially when the part or parts involved are visible and constitute an essential component of someone's facial whole. Bilateral ear amputation and successful subsequent replantation has been reported historically, but not in the modern surgical literature. We report the case of a 27-year-old female who was abducted and suffered a bilateral ear amputation at the hands of one of her captors to speed delivery of ransom money; the severed parts were sent to the parents approximately 2 hours after the amputation had taken place, and the girl was released some 48 hours after the ears were delivered. Microvascular replantation was attempted immediately after admission to the hospital some 2 hours after her release, but failed, and so a non-microvascular replantation was performed and was successful, after approximately 54 hours of ischaemia time. We consider this the first report of a complete bilateral, delayed, non-microvascular, successful ear replantation in a human being in the modern literature.

  14. Successful Replantation of Amputated Penile Shaft following Industrial Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Salehipour

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Penile amputation is an uncommon urological emergency. Although rare, traumatic amputation of penis is a challenging injury to treat. However, modern microsurgical reconstruction techniques have improved success rate of penile replantation and become the procedure of choice for managing these patients. Herein, we report on a case of penile amputation following an industrial accident.

  15. Reorganization of human motor cortex after hand replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röricht, S; Machetanz, J; Irlbacher, K; Niehaus, L; Biemer, E; Meyer, B U

    2001-08-01

    In 10 patients, reorganizational changes of the motor cortex contralateral to a replanted hand (MCreplant) were studied one to 14 years after complete traumatic amputation and consecutive successful replantation of the hand. The organizational state of MCreplant was assessed for the deafferentated and peripherally deefferentated hand-associated motor cortex and the adjacent motor representation of the proximal arm. For this, response maps were established for the first dorsal interosseus and biceps brachii muscle using focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on a skull surface grid. Characteristics of the maps were center of gravity (COG), number of effective stimulation sites, amplitude sum, and amplitudes and response threshold at the optimal stimulation point. The COG is defined by the spatial distribution of response amplitudes on the map and lies over the cortex region with the most excitable corticospinal neurones supplying the recorded muscle. The COG of the biceps map in MCreplant was shifted laterally by 9.8 +/- 3.6 mm (range 5.0-15.7 mm). The extension of the biceps map in MCreplant was increased and the responses were enlarged and had lowered thresholds. For the muscles of the replanted hand, the pattern of reorganization was different: Response amplitudes were enlarged but thresholds, COG, and area of the cortical response map were normal. The different reorganizational phenomena observed for the motor cortical areas supplying the replanted hand and the biceps brachii of the same arm may be influenced by a different extent of deafferentation and by their different role in hand motor control.

  16. What to do with non-replanted hands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willian Stenekes, Martin; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a method for the preparation of amputated limbs to obtain a specimen for anatomical study of the arteries and the skeleton. The procedure is particularly applicable to hands, and prevents the destruction of a perfect hand that cannot be replanted.

  17. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany J. Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up.

  18. Replantation versus Prosthetic Fitting in Traumatic Arm Amputations: A Systematic Review.

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    Iris A Otto

    Full Text Available Traumatic arm amputations can be treated with replantation or surgical formalization of the stump with or without subsequent prosthetic fitting. In the literature, many authors suggest the superiority of replantation. This systematic review compared available literature to analyze whether replantation is functionally and psychologically more profitable than formalization and prosthetic fitting in patients with traumatic arm amputation.Functional outcome and satisfaction levels were recorded of patients with amputation levels below elbow, through elbow, and above elbow.Functional outcomes of 301 replantation patients and 172 prosthesis patients were obtained. In the replantation group, good or excellent functional scores were reported in 39% of above elbow, 55% of through elbow, and 50% of below elbow amputation cases. Nearly 100% of patients were satisfied with the replanted limb. In the prosthesis group, full use of the prosthesis was attained in 48% of above elbow and in 89% of below elbow amputation patients. Here, 29% of patients elected not to use the prosthesis for reasons including pain and functional superfluity. In both replantation patients and prosthesis wearers, a below elbow amputation yielded better functional results than higher amputation levels.Replantation of a traumatically amputated arm leads to good function and higher satisfaction rates than a prosthesis, regardless of the objective functional outcome. Sensation and psychological well-being seem the two major advantages of replantation over a prosthesis. The current review of the available literature shows that in carefully selected cases replantation could be the preferred option of treatment.

  19. Sensory outcome of fingertip replantations without nerve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcelik, Ismail Bulent; Tuncer, Serdar; Purisa, Husrev; Sezer, Ilker; Mersa, Berkan; Kabakas, Fatih; Celikdelen, Pinar

    2008-01-01

    The sensory recovery outcomes of fingertip replantations without nerve repair were retrospectively studied. Between 2000 and 2006, 112 fingertip replantations with only arterial repair were carried out in 98 patients. About 76 of the replants survived totally, with a success rate of 67.8%. Evaluation of sensory recovery was possible in 31 patients (38 replantations). Sensory evaluation was made with Semmes-Weinstein, static and dynamic two-point discrimination, and vibration sense tests. Fingertip atrophy, nail deformities, and return to work were also evaluated. According to the Semmes-Weinstein test, 29.0% (11/38) of the fingers had normal sense, 60.5% (23/38) had diminished light touch, 7.9% (3/38) had diminished protective sensation, and 2.6% (1/38) had loss of protective sensation. Mean static and dynamic two-point discriminations were 7.2 mm (3-11 mm), and 4.60 mm (3-6 mm), respectively. Vibratory testing revealed increased vibration in 42.1% of the fingers, decreased vibration in 36.8%, and equal vibration when compared with the non-injured fingers in 21.1%. Atrophy was present in 14 (36.8%) fingers and negatively affected the results. Nail deformities, cold intolerance, return to work, and the effect of sensory education were investigated. Comparison of crush and clean cut injuries did not yield any significant difference in any of the parameters. Patients who received sensory education had significantly better results in sensory testing. The results were classified as excellent, good, and poor based on results of two-point discrimination tests. The outcome was excellent in 18 fingers and good in 20 fingers. Overall, satisfactory sensory recovery was achieved in fingertip replantations without nerve repair.

  20. Functional outcome of patients undergoing replantation of hand at wrist level-7 year experience

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Kumar Mahajan; Seema Mittal

    2013-01-01

    Background: Replantation is defined as reattachment of amputated limb using neurovascular and musculoskeletal structures in order to obtain recovery of limb. Re-vascularisation involves all the above steps in case of limb injuries that result in a near total amputation. Aim and Objective : To study the functional outcome of patients undergoing replantation of hand at wrist level. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients who underwent replantation of total amputation of ...

  1. Crossover replantation as a salvage procedure following bilateral transhumeral upper limb amputation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozçelik, Ismail Bülent; Mersa, Berkan; Kabakaş, Fatih; Saçak, Bülent; Kuvat, Samet Vasfi

    2011-04-01

    Cross-over replantation is a salvage option for cases with bilateral extremity amputations where the wound conditions do not enable an orthotopic replantation. Here, we present a 24-year-old patient who applied to our center with bilateral transhumeral amputations. Due to the wound conditions, a cross-over replantation was performed. 24 months after the initial operation, the patient exhibits good protective sensation at the distal levels and function to some degree, whereas the active range of motion is not as promising as previously expected. In this article, we present this case together with its immediate and long-term outcomes and the consequences of the cross-over replantation.

  2. Cross-arm replantation for traumatic bilateral upper extremity amputations: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kailu; Zhong, Gang; Yin, Jiahui; Xiang, Zhou; Cen, Shiqiang; Huang, Fuguo

    2011-02-01

    A 40-year-old woman had her right extremity avulsed at the proximal upper arm level and the wrist and hand of her left extremity irretrievably injured in a traffic accident. The right distal forearm was surgically amputated and replanted onto the stump of the left distal forearm. New strategy for nerve repair was applied and the function recovery of the cross-replanted hand was favorable. We thought that cross-extremity replantation was indicated when the patient suffered from bilateral total or subtotal amputation at different levels and orthotopic replantation was impossible.

  3. Finger Replantation in Sanglah General Hospital: Report of Five Cases and Literature Review

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    Agus Roy Rusly Hariantana Hamid

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Replantation is the prime treatment for amputated hands and fingers due to functional and aesthetic advantages. The absolute indications for replantation are amputations of the thumb, multiple fingers, trans metacarpal or hand, and any upper extremity in a child, regardless of the amputation level. A fingertip amputation distal to the insertion of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS is also a good indication. Indications have been expanded to include amputation at nail level, and when there is a request from the patient, replantation is attempted even for a single finger amputation regardless of the amputation level. Based on the mechanism of injury, a clean-cut sharp amputation is more likely replanted compare to a crush and avulsion injuries. With a proper management of the amputated finger, replantation can be attempted even after 24 hours. This report was written to provide examples of finger replantation cases and the measures that can be taken in a resource-limited hospital in order to conduct a replantation. Case Series: We reported five out of nine digital replantation cases in Sanglah General Hospital between January and July 2014. Two patients were a six and an eleven years old boys who accidentally cut their finger while playing, the rests were male labors between 20-30 years old whose amputations due to machine injuries. Result: A 100% replant survival was achieved. After a period of follow up with occupational therapy, all patients regain good functional and cosmetic results. 

  4. A surgical approach for replantation of complete digital amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissenbaum, M

    1980-01-01

    A technique of extending exposure in digital replantation using lateral incisions permits atraumatic exposure of adequate length of digital nerves, arteries, and veins, and excellent exposure for fashioning bone and debridement and repair of tendon. Increase in viability rates, the ability to repair two arteries per digit, the number of veins repaired per digit, and a higher overall arterial patency rate appear to be related to the improved exposure. Operative time was also significantly shorter.

  5. Effect of IRM root end fillings on healing after replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt Ford, T R; Andreasen, J O; Dorn, S O; Kariyawasam, S P

    1994-08-01

    The effect of IRM as a root end filling placed in teeth prior to replantation was examined in 21 molar teeth in monkeys. After extraction, root ends were resected, the canals contaminated with oral bacteria, root end cavities prepared, and fillings of IRM or amalgam placed prior to replantation. After 8 wk the jaws were removed and prepared for histological examination. Bacteria were demonstrated in only 9 of 15 teeth filled with IRM; 18 of the roots (60%) were associated with inflammation, which was only moderate or severe around 5 (17%), and extended > 0.1 mm around only 2 roots. In contrast, of the 6 teeth filled with amalgam, all contained bacteria in the root canals and 11 roots were associated with moderate or severe inflammation, which around 8 roots extended > 0.5 mm. The difference in severity of inflammation for the two materials was statistically significant (p IRM in replanted teeth was less severe and less extensive than that to amalgam.

  6. Electron microscopic examination of uncultured soil-dwelling bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amako, Kazunobu; Takade, Akemi; Taniai, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2008-05-01

    Bacteria living in soil collected from a rice paddy in Fukuoka, Japan, were examined by electron microscopy using a freeze-substitution fixation method. Most of the observed bacteria could be categorized, based on the structure of the cell envelope and overall morphology, into one of five groups: (i) bacterial spore; (ii) Gram-positive type; (iii) Gram-negative type; (iv) Mycobacterium like; and (v) Archaea like. However, a few of the bacteria could not be readily categorized into one of these groups because they had unique cell wall structures, basically resembling those of Gram-negative bacteria, but with the layer corresponding to the peptidoglycan layer in Gram-negative bacteria being extremely thick, like that of the cortex of a bacterial spore. The characteristic morphological features found in many of these uncultured, soil-dwelling cells were the nucleoid being in a condensed state and the cytoplasm being shrunken. We were able to produce similar morphologies in vitro using a Salmonella sp. by culturing under low-temperature, low-nutrient conditions, similar to those found in some natural environments. These unusual morphologies are therefore hypothesized to be characteristic of bacteria in resting or dormant stages.

  7. Tractor-mounted, GPS-based spot fumigation system manages Prunus replant disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our research goal was to use recent advances in global positioning system (GPS) and computer technology to apply just the right amount of fumigant where it is most needed (i.e., in a small target treatment zone in and around each tree replanting site) to control Prunus replant disease (PRD). We deve...

  8. Phytoremediation potential of cadmium-contaminated soil by Eucalyptus globulus under different coppice systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Qi, Shihua; Peng, Li; Xie, Xianming

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the phytoremediation potential of Eucalyptus globulus in Cd contaminated soil through two different harvest methods. Although replanting is more expensive than coppicing and produces less aboveground biomass, more Cd can be removed from the soil with roots removal at each harvest as the E. globulus absorbs vast majority of heavy metals in non-metabolically active parts like roots. Despite the higher cost of replanting in a single harvest, when phytoremediation efficiency and total duration are considered as important factors, the replanting treatment should be recommended as an appropriate method which can decrease the phytoremediation time obviously.

  9. Crossover replantation after bilateral traumatic lower limb amputations: a case report

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    Fang Jun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Replantation of a limb to the contralateral stump after bilateral traumatic amputations is rare. To the best of our knowledge, there are only a few reports of crossover lower limb replantation in the literature. Case presentation We treated a 37-year-old Chinese woman with bilateral lower limb crush injuries sustained in a traffic accident. Her lower limb injuries were at different anatomic levels. We performed emergency bilateral amputations followed by crossover replantation. Five years later, the woman had recovered well, and had perfect movement and stability in her replanted leg. After reviewing the literature, we thought that presentation of our patient’s case might provide useful information for clinicians. Conclusions Crossover replantation should be considered when evaluating a patient with bilateral lower limb injuries, thus allowing the patient to touch the ground and stand using their own foot.

  10. The timing of neovascularization in fingertip replantation by external bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung-Kyu; Chung, Heung-Soo; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2002-09-15

    To overcome venous congestion in fingertip replantation with no venous anastomosis, the authors have used a salvage procedure that consists of continuous external bleeding through a stab incision on the paraungual area and dripping a heparinized saline solution at the incision site to maintain external bleeding. Because this method requires continuous bleeding for a certain period of time, it may be a great burden on the patient; therefore, it is most important to minimize the duration of bleeding. Many authors have studied the timing of the new venous channel formation of the flap. However, to our knowledge, a study on fingertip replantations has not yet been performed. From June of 1985 to November of 1999, the authors performed fingertip replantations on 144 fingers of 137 patients using our salvage procedure at Korea University Guro Hospital. Among the 144 fingers, 101 fingers of 96 patients were successfully transplanted, including those with partial necrosis. The authors reviewed the medical records of these 101 fingers retrospectively; they compared and analyzed the necessary duration of external bleeding according to sex, age, level of injury, cause of amputation, and the type of injury. The average period of the salvage procedure was 7.6 days. Regarding age, the shortest period (5.5 days) was required for patients younger than 10 years. On the basis of the types of injuries, the duration of bleeding was shortest for the guillotine injury group (5.9 days) compared with crush (8.2 days) or avulsion (8.0 days) injuries. Sex and level of injury did not make much difference in the duration of the procedure.

  11. A bio-product as alternative to methyl bromide for replant disease control on strawberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu ZHANG; Tongle HU; Lijing JI; Keqiang CAO

    2008-01-01

    Pre-plant soil fumigation with methyl bromide (MB) is a standard practice for controlling soil-borne diseases especially for strawberry diseases. However, the application of MB will be forbidden in China in the year 2015. For this reason, a bio-product named Kangdi 3 was tested as an alternative to MB in strawberry greenhouses in Mancheng (Hebei Province) and Donggang (Liaoning province), China in 2005 and 2006. Methyl bromide at a normal dosage of 500 kg/hm2 and Kangdi 3 at three dosages of 750, 1500 and 2250 kg/hm2 were tested. Plots without any treatment were used as the control. During the growing stage, assessments were made on fungal communities in rhizosphere, growth status of strawberry, the disease levels on roots as well as the yields. Results showed that Kangdi 3 significantly reduced the quantity of fungi and the disease index, while enhancing strawberry growth and the yields compared with the untreated control. Therefore, Kangdi 3 is a great potential substitute for methyl bromide to control replant diseases in strawberry.

  12. Treatment of Superior Lobe Central Lung Cancer with Lung Replantation

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    Yulun YANG

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Patients suffering from lung cancer often have poor quality of life after pneumonectomy. It has clinical significances to preserve maximum lobes of the “healthy” lung. The aim of this study is to report the applications of lung replantation in treatment of superior lobe central lung cancer. Methods Three lung cancer cases were included and analysed. The bronchus and margin of lower lung lobe were encroached by cancer. Pulmonary artery was invaded and surrounded by metastatic lymph node. Complete pneumonectomy, antegrade perfusion and retroperfusion with low-potassium dextran (LPD solution in vitro were performed. The retainable lower pulmonary lobe was selected from the isolated lung and superior pulmonary vein was replaced with inferior pulmonary veins. The bronchus and pulmonary artery were inosculated by turns. Results The operative cumulative time ranged from 220 min to 250 min. The isolated time of lobus inferior pulmonary ranged from 120 min to 150 min. The chest tube was pulled out after chest X-ray confirmed the reimplant lung full re-expansion. The patients were followed up for 4 months to 8 months and accomplished adjuvant chemotherapy for 3 or 4 periodicities. The patients had a sound quality of life. Conclusion Lung replantation removing the extensive tumor tissue and retaining the maximum pulmonary normal tissue is an useful method for treatment of lung cancer.

  13. Apical Revascularization after Delayed Tooth Replantation: An Unusual Case

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    Marília Pacífico Lucisano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the clinical and radiological outcome of the treatment involving a delayed tooth replantation after an avulsed immature permanent incisor, with a follow-up of 1 year and 6 months. An 8-year-old boy was referred after dental trauma that occurred on the previous day. The permanent maxillary right central incisor (tooth 11 had been avulsed. The tooth was hand-held during endodontic therapy and an intracanal medication application with calcium hydroxide-based paste was performed. An apical plug with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA was introduced into the apical portion of the canal. When the avulsed tooth was replanted with digital pressure, a blood clot had formed within the socket, which moved the MTA apical plug about 2 mm inside of the root canal. These procedures developed apical revascularization, which promoted a successful endodontic outcome, evidenced by apical closure, slight increase in root length, and absence of signs of external root resorption, during a follow-up of 1 year and 6 months.

  14. Apical Revascularization after Delayed Tooth Replantation: An Unusual Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; de Carvalho, Fabricio Kitazono; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the clinical and radiological outcome of the treatment involving a delayed tooth replantation after an avulsed immature permanent incisor, with a follow-up of 1 year and 6 months. An 8-year-old boy was referred after dental trauma that occurred on the previous day. The permanent maxillary right central incisor (tooth 11) had been avulsed. The tooth was hand-held during endodontic therapy and an intracanal medication application with calcium hydroxide-based paste was performed. An apical plug with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was introduced into the apical portion of the canal. When the avulsed tooth was replanted with digital pressure, a blood clot had formed within the socket, which moved the MTA apical plug about 2 mm inside of the root canal. These procedures developed apical revascularization, which promoted a successful endodontic outcome, evidenced by apical closure, slight increase in root length, and absence of signs of external root resorption, during a follow-up of 1 year and 6 months. PMID:27882250

  15. Replantation of permanent incisors in children using Emdogain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Edward J; Kenny, David J; Tenenbaum, Howard C; Sigal, Michael J; Johnston, Douglas H

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether application of an enamel matrix protein derivative, Emdogain (Biora AB Malmo, Sweden) to the root surface of avulsed permanent incisors would improve postreplantation outcomes in a pediatric population. Between June 1999 and May 2002, 25 avulsed permanent maxillary incisors (22 centrals and three laterals) were treated with Emdogain and followed for up to 32 months, mean duration 20.6 months (range: 6.9-32.5 months). Mean patient age at the time of treatment was 12.0 years (range: 7.7-17.6 years) and mean extra-alveolar duration was 185 min (range: 100-300 min). At the end of their follow-up each of the replanted incisors demonstrated radiographic evidence of replacement root resorption and clinical evidence of ankylosis. None of the replanted teeth were affected by inflammatory root resorption and there was no evidence of infection. When compared with the control samples from Barrett and Kenny (Endod Dent Traumatol 1997;15:269-72.) and Andersson et al. (Endod Dent Traumatol 1989;5:38-47.) this sample treated with the Emdogain protocol demonstrated significantly less root resorption than either of the control samples (anova, P Emdogain protocol did not produce periodontal regeneration, it did eliminate inflammatory resorption and infection and led to significantly less root resorption compared with the two historical controls.

  16. Successful replantation of both lower legs in a 41-year- old man

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    YU Guang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Both severed legs were replanted in a 41-year-old man. Bilateral tibia and fibula were shortened by 4 cm equally. Tibial fixation was performed with reconstruction plate. Four weeks after the replantation, active and passive exercises were initiated in both of the knee joints. Four months after surgery, the patient was capable of walking independently for 20-30 m without the aid of crutches. After 28 months’ follow-up, plantar sensitivity was defined as S3. This patient was satisfactory with the cosmetic and functional results. Key words: Replantation; Tibia; Fibula

  17. Reconstruction of the replanted hand with latissimus dorsi muscle and serratus anterior fascia combined flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozçelik, Derya; Uğurlu, Kemal; Turan, Tuğrul

    2003-04-01

    Reconstruction with the latissimus dorsi muscle flap, combined with the serratus anterior fascia flap, was performed to cover two large and separate palmar and dorsal forearm skin defects in a patient, whose hand had been replanted 20 days earlier after traumatic amputation at the distal forearm level. As a result, a total forearm amputation was salvaged by microsurgical replantation and a free combined flap of the subscapular system. This new application of the combined flap allowed the reconstruction of large and separate wounds of the replanted hand, and provided gliding surfaces for tendons.

  18. Complete penile amputation during ritual neonatal circumcision and successful replantation using postoperative leech therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihani, Omaya I; Fox, Janelle A; Gander, Brian H; Grunwaldt, Lorelei J; Cannon, Glenn M

    2014-08-01

    Circumcision is the most common surgical procedure in males in the United States, and minor complications are not uncommon. Major complications like partial penile amputations have been reported with successful replantation. Complete penile amputations in adult males have been described, and successful replantation has been reported with increasing success. We report a case of complete penile amputation at the penopubic junction using a Mogen clamp in a 7-day-old neonate with replantation using postoperative leech therapy. To our knowledge this is the first time leech therapy has been used postoperatively for neonatal penile amputation.

  19. Ten-digit replantation with seven years follow-up: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Haibo; Sui, Haiming; Wang, Chenlin; Wang, Zhumin; Yang, Qingmin; Wang, Buxing

    2010-07-01

    In this report, we present a case of successful replantation of 10-digit complete amputation and results of postoperative rehabilitation in 7 years follow-up. The rehabilitation program included psychotherapy, physical therapy, sensory re-education, and measurements. At the 7 years postoperatively, the static two-point discriminations of replanted digits ranged from 4 to 11 mm. Grasping powers ranged from 69 to 81 lb, and pinching powers ranged from 13 to 19 lb. The patient returned to the previous employment. Our experience has demonstrated that systemic postoperative rehabilitation and measurements could achieve satisfactory recovery of the sensory and motor functions of multiple-digit replantation.

  20. [Indications for replantation of lower limbs after their traumatic amputation at the shin level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanov, N O; Gusami, G M

    1994-09-01

    From analysis of the results of replantation of 37 lower limbs at the level of the leg, which were amputated as the result of injury in 33 patients, the authors determine the tactical approach to the choice of indications for replantation. The authors believe that replantation at the level of the leg is always indicated in children if it is executable technically and the patient's somatic status presents no general contraindications. In other cases the formation of a stump and subsequent prosthetics should be considered more advisable.

  1. The biomechanical role of periodontal ligament in bonded and replanted vertically fractured teeth under cyclic biting forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Nan Zhu; Wei-Dong Yang; Paul V Abbott; Nicolas Martin; Wen-Jia Wei; Jing-Jing Li; Zhi Chen; Wen-Mei Wang

    2015-01-01

    After teeth are replanted, there are two possible healing responses:periodontal ligament healing or ankylosis with subsequent replacement resorption. The purpose of this study was to compare the fatigue resistance of vertically fractured teeth after bonding the fragments under conditions simulating both healing modes. Thirty-two human premolars were vertically fractured and the fragments were bonded together with Super-Bond C&B. They were then randomly distributed into four groups (BP, CP, CA, BA). The BP and CP groups were used to investigate the periodontal ligament healing mode whilst the BA and CA groups simulated ankylosis. All teeth had root canal treatment performed. Metal crowns were constructed for the CP and CA groups. The BP and BA groups only had composite resin restorations in the access cavities. All specimens were subjected to a 260 N load at 4 Hz until failure of the bond or until 23106 cycles had been reached if no fracture occurred. Cracks were detected by stereomicroscope imaging and also assessed via dye penetration tests. Finally, interfaces of the resin luting agent were examined by scanning electron microscope. The results confirmed that the fatigue resistance was higher in the groups with simulated periodontal ligament healing. Periodontal reattachment showed important biomechanical role in bonded and replanted vertically fractured teeth.

  2. Replantation of an Avulsed Central Incisor after Long Extra- Alveolar Period. (Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seraj B

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available A case involving the replantation of an avulsed incisor after long extra-oral period (8 days is reported. After cleaning the root surface, the tooth was soaked in fluoride gel for 20 minutes and root canal therapy was performed extraorally. The tooth was stabilized by wire and composite for six weeks. The patient has been periodically recalled and the tooth monitored for 36 months after replantation. Only minor external surface resorption was observed in the periapical area on the rodiograph, which was taken immediately before removal of the splint and the rate of subsequent replacement resorption has been acceptable. It should be considered that and extended extraoral period is not an absolute contraindication to replantation. Teeth replanted after long extra- alveolar periods can function for a long period of time and thus postpone prosthetic treatment.

  3. Considerations for double-hand replantation in a resource-constrained healthcare facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibhuti Bhusan Nayak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral-hand amputation is extremely rare and double-hand replantation is even rarer. Only one case of successful double replantation at arm level has been reported from India. We present a case of double-hand replantation at proximal palmar level in a young adult executed in a small nursing home. The patient presented 5 h after injury with limbs preserved well in ice. There were difficulties in executing such an unusual case in a small nursing home set-up. The patient is performing his activities of daily living and basic functions independently. We share our experience of this double-hand replantation with special emphasis on problems encountered.

  4. Topical and systemic anticoagulation in the treatment of absent or compromised venous outflow in replanted fingertips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S K; Lee, B I; Kim, W K

    2000-07-01

    Adequate venous repair is not always possible in fingertip replantation. We have used topical and systemic anticoagulation for fingertip replantation to overcome venous congestion in cases without venous repair or in cases in which there is obstruction of a repaired vein. Our technique consists of continuous external bleeding via a stab incision on the paraungal area and dripping heparinized saline solution at the incision site to maintain external bleeding. From July 1985 to December 1993, 157 fingers in 140 patients with complete amputation of the fingertip were replanted at Korea University Guro Hospital. Of these, 74 fingers in 68 patients were managed by topical and systemic anticoagulation due to the impossibility of repair or obstruction of a repaired vein. The overall survival rate of the fingertip replantations was 76%; that of the topical and systemic anticoagulation group was 64%.

  5. Finger Replantation in Sanglah General Hospital: Report of Five Cases and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Agus Roy Rusly Hariantana Hamid; Gatot Triwono

    2016-01-01

    Background: Replantation is the prime treatment for amputated hands and fingers due to functional and aesthetic advantages. The absolute indications for replantation are amputations of the thumb, multiple fingers, trans metacarpal or hand, and any upper extremity in a child, regardless of the amputation level. A fingertip amputation distal to the insertion of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) is also a good indication. Indications have been expanded to include amputation at nail level,...

  6. Crossover replantation after bilateral traumatic lower limb amputations: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Jun; Li Huazhuang; Dou Honglei; Chen Jingchun; Xu Aiping; Liu Wenguo; Ding Gang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Replantation of a limb to the contralateral stump after bilateral traumatic amputations is rare. To the best of our knowledge, there are only a few reports of crossover lower limb replantation in the literature. Case presentation We treated a 37-year-old Chinese woman with bilateral lower limb crush injuries sustained in a traffic accident. Her lower limb injuries were at different anatomic levels. We performed emergency bilateral amputations followed by crossover replan...

  7. ANALYSIS OF OIL PALM SUSTAINABLE REPLANTING MODELS, A CASE AT PT. AGROWIYANA , TUNGGUL ULU, TANJUNG JABUNG BARAT, JAMBI

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    Solikhin Solikhin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The oil palm replanting program is becoming of importance for the next decade as some of oil palm plantations are reaching the productivity peak. This research was aimed to select the priority of oil palm replanting strategy with respect to the related factors and impacts to the share holders of PIR Trans and KPPA plantation of PT. AGROWIYANA , and to identify key success indicators of replanting model. A discriptive research methodoligy was carried out using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and Focus Group Discussion (FGD involving multi stakeholders of PT. AGROWIYANA . Results of this research indicated that financial is considered as the most important factor for replanting implemention with the total cutting using standard technology as chosen replanting strategy. The funding scheme through intensive fund rising IDAPERTABUN needs to be well prepared to involve more farmer groups.Keywords: PT. AGROWIYANA , Replanting Strategy

  8. Effects of alternative electron acceptors and temperature on methanogenesis in rice paddy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, van P.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Soil slurries collected from rice paddies were incubated anaerobically at different temperatures. Changes in the composition of electron acceptors and electron donors in the slurries were monitored daily. During the incubation NO3- was reduced first, followed by Fe3 and SO42- reduction and methane p

  9. Release of microorganisms from soil with respect to transmission electron microscopy viewing and plate counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkwill, D. L.; Rucinsky, T. E.; Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A study was conducted to obtain information concerning the fate of soil microorganisms during the procedures normally used in separating them from the soil in connection with various types of investigations. A silty clay loam (pH 6.0, moisture content 25%, organic content 3.5%) was used in the study. The results of the study indicate that many of the microbial cells naturally residing in soil remain attached to or, for some other reason, are not separated from the soil debris despite the use of various combinations of blending, sonication, and chemical dispersing agents. The method B used by Balkwill et al. (1975) provides a reasonable electron microscopy evaluation of the soil microflora.

  10. Functional outcome of patients undergoing replantation of hand at wrist level-7 year experience

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    Ravi Kumar Mahajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Replantation is defined as reattachment of amputated limb using neurovascular and musculoskeletal structures in order to obtain recovery of limb. Re-vascularisation involves all the above steps in case of limb injuries that result in a near total amputation. Aim and Objective : To study the functional outcome of patients undergoing replantation of hand at wrist level. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients who underwent replantation of total amputation of hand at wrist level within a period of Jan 2003-June 2010. We evaluated post operative functional outcome compared to uninjured hand taking into consideration: 1. The patient′s overall satisfaction with the hand. 2. Recovery of flexor and extensor function of thumb and fingers. 3. Recovery of thumb opposition. 4. Recovery of sensations in the median and ulnar nerve distribution. 5. Ability of surviving hand to perform daily tasks. Results: There were total seventeen patients and age range was two years to 55 years. Out of 17 patients,16 were males. All the replantations were successful except for one. Summary: The results showed that, although the replanted hands were never functionally as good as the contralateral hand the patients were able to perform most of the daily activities.

  11. Continued Root Formation after Delayed Replantation of an Avulsed Immature Permanent Tooth

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    Nima Moradi Majd

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tooth avulsion in the young permanent dentition is a frequent finding, and its prognosis depends on the treatment of the avulsed tooth before replantation, the extra-alveolar time, the storage medium, and the patient’s general health. The present report describes management of an immature avulsed lower central incisor 90 minutes after the accident. Methods. A right lower central incisor of a 7-year-old girl was avulsed, and it was soaked in a glass of milk. 90 minutes after avulsion, replantation was performed, and the tooth was splinted; but after two weeks the replanted tooth’s pulp was necrotic. Thus, endodontic treatment was performed and root canal was filled using a calcium hydroxide and iodoform paste (Metapex. Three months later, the intracanal medication was washed out and the canal was sealed using an apical plug of calcium enriched mixture (CEM cement. Results. 20 months after replantation the tooth was completely asymptomatic, with physiologic mobility. Also, continued root formation including an apical segment beyond the artificial apical plug was observed. Conclusion. Creation of an appropriate apical barrier following the disinfection of root canal system promoted continued root-end growth in a replanted immature permanent tooth.

  12. Evaluation of laser photobiomodulation (λ 780 nm) on repair of dental replantation in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos de Carvalho, Fabíola; Vasconcelos, Rebeca M.; Santos, Laila; dos Santos Barbosa, Artur F.; Aguiar, Marcio C.; Cangussu, Maria Cristina T.; Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz B.; Pedreira Ramalho, Luciana M.

    2014-02-01

    Up to date the success of tooth replantation is still limited. The majority of the teeth is lost due to progressive external root resorption. The aim of this study was to assess, histologically, the effect of laser photobiomodulation on repair after tooth replantation. Sixty Wistar Albinus rats had the right upper incisor extracted and then divided into 4 groups: G1 - absence of storage medium; G2 - milk u s e d as storage medium; G3 - milk used as storage medium a n d followed by GaAlAs laser irradiation on dental surfaces and at the entrance of alveolus; G4 - milk used as storage medium associated with laser irradiation as in G3 before and after replantation on the buccal and palatal mucosa every 48 hours for 15 days. The animals were sacrificed at 15, 30 and 60 days after replantation. The results showed that after 15 days G4 exhibit more intense chronic inflammation, with presence of clastic cells and moderate inflammatory root resorption (p<0.05) when compared to G3, which presented absence of those parameters. At day 30 in G1, G2 and G4 mild to moderate chronic inflammation and severe external root resorption were observed. G3 remained with no inflammation and inflammatory root resorption with 30 and 60 days of healing experimental times. The results suggest that laser irradiation on the dental entrance of the dental alveolus prior to tooth replantation has a positive biomodulative effect on the healing process in rats.

  13. Effect of three Electron Shuttles on Bioreduction of Ferric Iron in two Acidic and Calcareous soils

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    Setareh Sharifi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iron cycle is one of the most important biogeochemical processes which affect the availability of iron in soils. Ferric iron oxides are the most abundant forms of iron in soils and sediments. Ferric iron is highly insoluble at circumneutral pH. Present investigations have shown that the structural ferric iron bound in clay minerals is reduced by some microorganisms. Anaerobic bacteria reduce ferric iron which bound to soil clay minerals under anaerobic conditions. They have the ability to use ferric iron as a terminal electron acceptor. Many studies presented that dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria (DIRB mediate the transfer of electrons from small organic molecules like acetate and glucose to various humic materials (electron shuttles which then pass electrons abiotically to ferric iron oxyhydroxide and phyllosilicate minerals. Electron shuttles like AQDS, a tricyclic quinone, increase the rate of iron reduction by iron reducing bacteria on sites of iron oxides and oxyhydroxides. By increasing the rate of bioreduction of ferric iron, the solubility and availability of iron enhanced meaningfully. Royer et al. (2002 showed that bioreduction of hematite (common iron mineral in soils increased more than three times in the presence of AQDS and Shewanella putrefaciens comparedto control treatments. Previous works have mostly used synthetic minerals as electron acceptor in bioreduction process. Furthermore, the effect of quinones as electron acceptor for microorganisms were studied with poorly crystalline ferric iron oxides . The main objective of this study was to study the effect of AQS, humic acid and fulvic acid (as electron shuttle and Shewanella sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, on bioreduction of native ferric iron in two acidic and calcareous soils. Materials and Methods: An experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement and three replications in vitro condition. The soil samples collected

  14. Investigation of soil mineral component in the Baikal Region by X-ray electron probe microanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belozerova, Olga Uu., E-mail: obel@igc.irk.r [Vinogradov Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Favorky St., 1 A, 664033 Irkutsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-11-15

    The procedure of X-ray electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) has been developed for the investigation of soil mineral component. In terms of reproducibility and accuracy, the suggested EPMA procedure satisfies the requirements of analysis of the second category. The phase and chemical composition of soil mineral component were investigated by X-ray electron probe microanalysis with the aim of environmental pollution estimation in Lake Baikal Region. The investigations of soil mineral component by EPMA from regions with various man-caused loading degrees allow identification of basic pollution sources and their influence on the environment and estimation of anthropogenic accumulation in clear background regions and regions with high man-caused loading degree.

  15. Hand reconstruction using heterotopic replantation of amputated index and little fingers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Gong-lin; CHEN Ke-ming; ZHANG Jun-hua; WANG Shi-yong

    2011-01-01

    In cases of severe segmental injury across the hand and wrist, but one or other fingers are still in peak condition, the fingers can be selected for replantation at the forearm bones to restore pinch function. Here we reported an unusual case with a severe crush-avulsion amputated injury to the right hand caused by a machine accident. We conducted hand reconstruction using heterotopic replantation of the amputated index and little fingers.During 19 months follow-up, the bone union healed well with satisfactory outcome. The interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joint of the fingers after the heterotopic replantation had a good holding activity. This is a worthwhile procedure and the patient is satisfied with the result. The major disadvantage of this method is the poor appearance of the reconstructed fingers.

  16. Lengthening of replanted or revascularized lower limbs: is length discrepancy a contraindication for limb salvage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmaksizoglu, Fatih; Beyzadeoglu, Tahsin

    2002-08-01

    Some replantation cases require substantial bone shortening for primary closure. Leg-length discrepancy can be restored by lengthening of the replanted or revascularized extremities. Between 1991 and 2000, four patients with four total and two subtotal below-knee amputations had replantation or revascularization for their severely damaged extremities. All of them had extensive debridement, vascular repair, bone shortening and nerve repair for sensibility of their soles. One of the replanted extremities failed and had to undergo below-knee amputation because of sepsis. No other infection or vascular complications were encountered following the replantations or revascularizations. After bony consolidation, four legs were lengthened; for elimination of length discrepancy in three cases, and for obtaining balanced body proportion in one case in which the other leg was also amputated. In all procedures, a unilateral dynamic axial external fixator was used. The lengthening was performed from the proximal tibial metaphysis, with a subperiosteal osteotomy. Evaluation of injury according to the Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) would encourage the surgeon to avoid salvage surgery with a shortened extremity, because of the required debridement of soft tissue and bone. These authors think the amount of limb shortening is not a major criterion in evaluating a traumatic total or subtotal below-knee amputation for salvage replantation or revascularization. A knee that has stable joint motion and the possibility of preservation of sensibility of the sole broadens the scope of indications for limb salvage, even with deliberate shortening that can be restored by lengthening; length discrepancy is not a contraindication for limb salvage.

  17. Evaluation of reversal osteofixation using K-wires in digital replantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučetić Čedomir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Modified, reversal technique of fixation in digital replantation using K-wires was analyzed. The results obtained from the standard technique and reversal technique of fixation using K-wires were compared. Objective. The aim was to compare the results of osteofixation using K-wires in digital replantation when either standard or reversal, modified technique was used. Methods. A retrospective study included 103 replanted fingers in 72 patients. The first group included standard fixation using K-wires and the second group included fixation using K-wires, but with a modified technique. Modification consisted of the opposite order of moves during the phalanges fixation compared to the standard technique: first, K-wire was introduced intramedullary in the proximal phalanx and the top of the wire was drawn out through the skin in proximal part of the finger or hand. Second, distal part of the wire was introduced in the phalanx of the amputated part of the finger intramedullary until the wire entered the cortex. Results. Duration of bone healing after digital replantation was shorter in cases where reversal technique was used in comparison with standard technique (7.2 weeks compared to 7.5 weeks. Conclusion. The comparison of standard and reversal technique of phalangeal fixation with K-wires in digital replantation shows that both techniques are useful. Reversal technique expands the choice of operative techniques for bone fixation during the replantation. It shows some advantages and enables avoidance of vein injuries. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 41004 i br. 175095

  18. Replantation of an avulsed tooth with an extended extra oral period

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    Girish Kubasad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have reported a case of the replantation of a maxillary incisor with an extended extraoral period following a traumatic avulsion. After storage in normal saline, the root surface of the avulsed tooth was conditioned with citric acid and treated with a triple antibiotic solution. The tooth socket was filled with Emdogain before replantation. A 12 month, 18 month and a 5 year follow-up clinical examination revealed the patient to be asymptomatic, and the tooth was functional. The recall radiograph showed no evidence of renewed periradicular breakdown and apical root resorption.

  19. Penile replantation: report of two cases and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gui-zhong; HE Feng; HUANG Guang-ling; MAN Li-bo; LIU Kun; SHEN Yu-ming

    2013-01-01

    Penile amputation and successful replantation is very uncommon,and there is no routine standardized procedures for dealing with this medical condition.Here we report two cases of penile amputation and replantation involving different degrees of vascular insult leading to different pathogenesis,clinical presentation,surgical approach and prognosis.This report described the microsurgical procedure and postoperative care using bipedicled scrotal flap to achieve successful engraftment and function.A review of the published data and future methods to increase success of such surgical procedures is provided.

  20. Successful replantation of both lower legs in a 41-year- old man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guang; LEI Hong-yu; GUO Shuang; YU Hao; HUANG Jian-hua; LIANG Sheng-hai

    2011-01-01

    Both severed legs were replanted in a 41-year-old man. Bilateral tibia and fibula were shortened by 4 cm equally. Tibial fixation was performed with reconstruction plate. Four weeks after the replantation, active and passive exercises were initiated in both of the knee joints. Four months after surgery, the patient was capable of walking independently for 20-30 m without the aid of crutches. After 28 months' follow-up, plantar sensitivity was defined as S3. This patient was satisfactory with the cosmetic and functional results.

  1. Central incisor loss after delayed replantation following avulsion: a contemporary restorative and adjunctive orthodontic management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Andrea; Turillazzi, Oliviero; Cocconi, Renato; Bonanini, Mauro; Pizzi, Silvia; Manfredi, Maddalena

    2012-04-01

    Delayed replantation of an avulsed tooth may result in rapid root resorption or, more frequently, dental ankylosis with subsequent bone substitution. If this process develop slowly, it is possible to observe that tooth loss is characterized by a well conserved alveolus with regard to bone preservation, particularly in vertical dimension. This clinical case reports a dental trauma of a central incisor in a young boy characterized by tooth avulsion and its delayed replantation. After 10 years, dental ankylosis of the incisor was recorded and the patient underwent a prosthetic-orthodontic rehabilitation using CAD-CAM technology and no-prep veneers.

  2. Epidemiology of digital amputation and replantation in Taiwan: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dun-Hao; Ye, Shih-Yu; Chien, Li-Chien; Ma, Hsu

    2015-10-01

    Publications on digital amputation and replantation have been mostly derived from case series in high-volume hand surgery practices, and epidemiological studies are few. This study used a population-based dataset to illustrate the incidence of digital amputation, patient and hospital characteristics, and their relationships with replantation. A claim for reimbursement dataset (2008) was provided as a research database by the Bureau of National Health Insurance, Taiwan. Patients with ICD-9-CM coded as digital amputation (885 and 886) were included. These were cross-referenced with procedure codes for replantation procedures (84.21 and 84.22). We defined the patients who underwent thumb replantation (84.21) and thumb amputation (84.01) during a single hospitalization as replantation failure. Patient and hospital characteristics were studied with statistical analysis. In total, 2358 patients with digital amputation were admitted (1859 male, 499 female), mean age 39.2 ± 15.5 years. The incidence was 10.2/100,000 person-years. The highest incidence was 14.7/100,000 person-years in the age group 45-54 years. Machinery and powered hand tools caused 68.8% of digital amputations. Thumb amputation [odds ratio (OR): 1.35, p = 0.01], private hospital (OR: 1.40, p = 0.01), medical center (OR: 2.38, p 20 digital amputations (OR: 4.23, p 65 years) had higher risk of thumb replantation failure (OR: 32.30, p = 0.045), while hospitals with >20 annual replantations had lower risk (OR: 0.11, p = 0.02). Our study of the National Health Insurance database characterized the epidemiology of digital amputation patients undergoing replantation and the facilities in Taiwan where these procedures are performed. The hospitals treating more digital amputation patients had higher attempt rates and lower thumb failure rates. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  3. Effects of Some Management Practices on Electron Transport System (ETS) Activity in Paddy Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Electron transport system (ETS)/dehydrogenase activity in a paddy field soil was measured under a variety of incubation conditions using the reduction of 2-(p-iodophenyl-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl tetrazolium chloride (INT) to iodonitrotetrazolium formazan (INTF). The results exhibited a high positive correlation between the ETS activity and the incubation temperature and soil moisture. Dehydrogenase/ETS activity displayed a negative correlation with insecticide concentrations, and the activity affected adversely as the concentration of the insecticide increased. The higher doses, 5 and 10 field rates (1 field rate = 1500 mL ha-1), of insecticide significantly inhibited ETS activity, while lower rates failed to produce any significant reducing effect. Inorganic N (as urea) of concentrations from 0 to 100 μg N g-1 soil showed a positive response to ETS activity. However, at concentrations of 200 and 400μg N g-1, the activity was reduced significantly.

  4. [Contralateral replantation after bilateral traumatic lower leg amputation. Case report with 6 year follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, A; Stock, W; Hierner, R; Sebisch, E; Schweiberer, L

    1995-05-01

    A 66-year-old patient attempted suicide by jumping in front of a train. The lower extremities were amputated at different levels. On the right side, there was a complete amputation within the distal third of the lower leg. Proximal to the amputation site, there was an extensive soft-tissue and bone defect. On the left side, there was a crush injury of the tarsal and mid-tarsal bones. The left lower leg showed only few injuries. An ipsilateral (anatomical) replantation was not possible. In order to save one lower extremity, we decided to carry out a cross-over (contralateral) replantation of the right foot to the left lower leg. After a follow-up of six years, the patient is able to walk well with her prosthesis on the right side and the right foot hooked up to the left lower leg. Functionally, this treatment (cross-over replantation-one-side prosthesis of the lower leg) is much better than the prosthesis on both extremities, as the result has shown. Also from a psychological point of view, it seems to be better for the patient to preserve one extremity even with a cross-over replanted foot.

  5. Microsurgically aided upper lip replantation – case report and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Jonas; Lidén, Mattias; Thorarinsson, Andri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A case with a patient who suffered an upper lip amputation and a lower lip laceration due to dog bite is presented. The amputated segment was replanted using microsurgical technique. The operative technique and postoperative care is presented, as well as a review of the current literature on the subject. PMID:27713916

  6. Microsurgical replantation and postoperative leech treatment of a large severed nasal segment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stemann Andersen, Peter; Elberg, Jens Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    The survival of a microsurgically replanted segment of nose in a 41-year-old woman was facilitated by the assistance of the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis. An arterial microanastomosis was made to a severed partial segment of nose with no possibility of recreating a venous anastomosis. The re...

  7. Emdogain does not prevent progressive root resorption after replantation of avulsed teeth: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schjøtt, M; Andreasen, J O

    2005-02-01

    Emdogain has been shown in clinical and experimental studies to promote regeneration of all periodontal tissues: cementum with anchoring fibres, a functional, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone in connection with treatment of marginal periodontitis. The intention of this study was to analyse whether this regenerative capacity upon the periodontal ligament also worked in a trauma situation where a significant number of PDL cells have been eliminated because of unphysiologic storage or actual damage during avulsion or replantation. Furthermore if ankylosis sites already established because of earlier replantation after avulsion could be surgical removed and application of Emdogain could revert the ankylosis stage to a normal PDL situation. The first treatment situation was tested in seven patients with a total of 16 avulsed teeth with varying time of extra oral storage. The teeth were extra-orally endodontically treated and the root and socket covered with Emdogain before replantation. All teeth demonstrated subsequent ankylosis, primarily diagnosed by a percussion test. The second treatment situation where an ankylosis was already established constituted of seven patients with a total of 11 teeth because of previous replantation after avulsion. These teeth were all extracted, the ankylosis sites removed and the root and socket treated with Emdogain. After 6 months all teeth showed recurrence of ankylosis. It is concluded that Emdogain was not able to prevent or cure ankylosis.

  8. The effect of Emdogain and 24% EDTA root conditioning on periodontal healing of replanted dog's teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Martínez, Nayelli; Silva-Herzog, Flores Daniel; Méndez, González Verónica; Martín-Pérez, Silvia; Cerda-Cristerna, Bernardino Isaac; Cohenca, Nestor

    2009-02-01

    Controversies still exist as for the regenerative role of enamel matrix derivatives and the need for removal of the periodontal ligament in replanted teeth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Emdogain and 24% ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) root conditioning on periodontal healing of replanted dog's teeth. Teeth were extracted, endodontically treated and preconditioned as follows: group 1, Emdogain; group 2, Emdogain + EDTA and group 3, EDTA. Teeth were replanted after 30 min extraoral time, splinted for 15 days and animals sacrificed after 8 weeks of observation. Histological evaluation was performed using hematoxylin/eosin and Masson trichrome and results scored based on previously reported criteria for histological evaluation. Replacement root resorption was histologically diagnosed in all groups except in the negative control. A parametric analysis showed no statistically significant differences between experimental groups. Root preconditioning with Emdogain alone or in combination with 24% EDTA showed no evidence of regeneration of collagen fibers and consequently did not prevent the development of replacement root resorption on replanted dog's teeth.

  9. Progress in Brassicaceae seed meal formulation and application for replant disease control in organic apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassicaceae seed meals when used independently do not provide uniform or sufficient control of the pathogen complex that incites apple replant disease. Trials were established at multiple sites (STM, SR and Tukey orchards) in Washington State to evaluate the efficacy of seed meal formulations for ...

  10. Simple replantation protocol to avoid ankylosis in teeth intended for orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Nugraeni

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dento-alveolar trauma resulted from accidents involving the oral regions mostly affect the upper central incisors. Overjet that is beyond 5 mm and incompetent lip also contribute to increase the risk. Several literatures had already discussed different methods of replantation of avulsed teeth. However, it was not meant for further orthodontic treatment. Purpose: The objective of this review is to propose a simple replantation protocol of avulsed teeth which also prevent from ankylosis. Reviews: Protruded teeth usually need orthodontic treatment; therefore, an appropriate management should be done to avoid the development of ankylosis. Ankylosis of the periodontal ligament (PDL becomes a problem in orthodontic tooth movement in repositioned or replanted teeth. In addition, ankylosed teeth also more susceptible to root resorption. Actually, it was caused by the endodontic treatment. In particular, severely protruded or unoccluded teeth are hypofunctional, therefore have narrow PDL, thus it may facilitate to ankylosis development. Ideal management protocol such as the use of root canal sealer i.e. mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA; the using of Emdogain, and resilient wiring or semi-rigid fixation with brackets has become a solution in avulsed teeth arranged for orthodontic treatment. Nevertheless, the presence of oral surgeon, endodontist and orthodontist in the same time, and also ideal preparations after an accident was difficult to achieve. Conclusion: Considering that reducing the ongoing PDL inflammation with intracanal medicaments and maintaining the functional force during mastication is possible; it is concluded that this simple replantation protocol is likely.

  11. Eight cases of nine-digit and ten-digit replantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W K; Lee, J M; Lim, J H

    1996-09-01

    Amputations involving nine and all ten digits are very rare because of the different lengths of the digits, and it is also unusual to have all digits suitable for replantation. At Korea University Guro Hospital, from March 1987 to April 1992, three cases of 10-digit and five cases of 9-digit complete amputations were replanted by microsurgical technique. All eight cases involved young, healthy male patients, and the causes of amputation were either a cutter of press machine. The replantations were done under general anesthesia simultaneously on both hands by eight microsurgeons divided into a total of four teams. The operating times ranged from 19 to 31 hours, and the total amounts of transfused blood ranged from 6 to 38 pints. The warm ischemic times ranged from 10 minutes to 15 hours, and the cold ischemic times ranged from 3 to 29 hours. The sequence of replantation was radial digit to ulnar digit. In five of the eight patients, all of the replanted digits survived. Necrosis occurred in one and two digits in two patients with nine-digit replantations. Also, necrosis occurred in three digits in a patient who had had nine digits amputated by a press machine, sustaining severe crush injuries. The overall survival rate was 92 percent. In multidigit replantations involving 9 or 10 digits, there are a number of problems that must be overcome, including a long operating time, long ischemic times, and a large amount of blood loss. The long ischemic times were not critically related to survival rate. The total amount of blood transfused was reduced from 38 pints in one of the initial cases to 6 pints by intermittent use of the pneumatic tourniquet and venous anastomosis before arterial anastomosis. Static two-point discrimination ranged from 3 to 22 mm, and palm to pulp distance ranged from 0 to 7 cm, 1 to 5 years postoperatively. Grasping power ranged from 13 to 65 lb, and pinching power ranged from 5 to 26 lb, which was 42 and 50 percent of the average power of a

  12. Responses of indigenous microorganisms to soil incubation as viewed by transmission electron microscopy of cell thin sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, h. C.; Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Indigenous soil microorganisms were cultivated in their soil habitat with 50% moisture capacity at 30 C for two weeks. Changes in microorganism cells were studied by electron microscopy during incubation, with particular attention to the dormant cell growth and to the ability of cystlike cells to germinate and reencyst. The responses of various cell species to incubation conditions are described and illustrated by photomicrographs.

  13. The psychological rehabilitation nursing of the patients who have ten- finger complete amputation and survived after replantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To explore the mental dynamic change of the ten -finger replanted patients, to give psychological rehabilitation guidance, and to improve the survival of the replantation and function recovery. Methods Take psychological investigation with Scl-90 at different periods after operation, judge the exsisting negative psychological factors, and find the countermeasure of solution. Enable the patients to break away from the negative mentations in short period. Results Through the 1 -week, 8 -week and 16 -week Scl - 90 measurements after operation, we found that all the items' score of the three times measurement was higher thanthe usual modellp <0. 05), and fiufuated up and down with mental charadedstics of different phases. The assessment of the replantation of the severed finger was good. Conclusion The psychological state of the patient would affect the survivial and function recovery of the replantation of severed finger directly. 5o the psychological rehabilitation nursing should be performed throughout the disease.

  14. Incidence and Pathogenicity of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) Replant Disease in Georgia and North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagdale, Ganpati B.; Holladay, Ted; Brannen, P. M.; Cline, W. O.; Agudelo, P.; Nyczepir, A. P.; Noe, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry replant disease (BRD) is an emerging threat to continued blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) production in Georgia and North Carolina. Since high populations of ring nematode Mesocriconema ornatum were found to be associated with commercially grown blueberries in Georgia, we hypothesized that M. ornatum may be responsible for predisposing blueberry to BRD. We therefore tested the pathogenicity of M. ornatum on 10-wk-old Rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium virgatum) by inoculating with initial populations (Pi) of 0 (water control), 10, 100, 1,000. and 10,000 mixed stages of M. ornatum/pot under both greenhouse (25 ± 2°C) and field microplot conditions. Nematode soil population densities and reproduction rates were assessed 75, 150, 225, and 255, and 75, 150, 225, and 375 d after inoculation (DAI) in both the greenhouse and field experiments, respectively. Plant growth parameters were recorded in the greenhouse and field microplot experiments at 255 and 375 DAI, respectively. The highest M. ornatum population density occurred with the highest Pi level, at 75 and 150 DAI under both greenhouse (P Xiphinema spp. Paratrichodorus spp. was also found only in Georgia. In Georgia, our results indicate that blueberry is a host for M. ornatum and its relationship to BRD warrants further investigation. PMID:23833323

  15. Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  16. Above-the-knee replantation in a child: a case report with a 24-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durban, Claire Marie C; Lee, Seung-Yup; Lim, Hong-Chul

    2015-11-01

    Replantation of an amputated limb is generally contraindicated in crushing and traction injuries. Injury to muscle tissue and skin also creates difficulties in coverage, and bony fractures may shorten limb length which can impede lower extremity function. Numerous cases have been reported on the successful replantation of the lower limb in children; however, review of previous English literature has documented only very few replantation at the thigh level, and those with severe crushing injury resulted in subsequent amputation. We report a case of successful thigh-level replantation in a 3-year-old child who sustained a crushing-traction type of injury with a follow-up of 24 years. After the replantation, early and late complications developed but these were successfully managed. On her last visit, the patient had pain-free ambulation without assistance, had intact protective sensation distal to the injury, and was very satisfied with the outcome. Replantation of the lower limb in children with crushing or avulsion type of injuries is still a worthwhile procedure. However, both the patient and the family should be aware that multiple surgeries may be needed to accommodate to long-term complications such as joint stiffness, scar contractures, and limb length discrepancies.

  17. Long-term outcomes of microsurgical nasal replantation: review of the literature and illustrated 10-year follow-up of a pediatric case with full sensory recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Nicholas J; Kyle, Amanda; Jessop, Zita M; Whitaker, Iain S; Laing, Hamish

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of successful artery only total nose replantation in an 18-month-old child, with 10 years of follow-up and full sensory recovery despite no nerve repair. The common absence of veins for anastomosis does not prevent successful replant, as demonstrated with the use of Hirudo medicinalis use in this unique case. We comprehensively review the literature of this rare and complex injury and advocate microsurgical replantation where possible over other methods of nasal reconstruction.

  18. Secondary electron emission from lunar soil by solar wind type ion impact: Laboratory measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, Catherine; Bu, Caixia; Baragiola, Raul A.

    2015-11-01

    Introduction: The lunar surface potential is determined by time-varying fluxes of electrons and ions from the solar wind, photoelectrons ejected by UV photons, cosmic rays, and micrometeorite impacts. Solar wind ions have a dual role in the charging process, adding positive charge to the lunar regolith upon impact and ejecting negative secondary electrons (SE). Electron emission occurs when the energy from the impacting ion is transferred to the solid, ionizing and damaging the material; electrons with kinetic energy greater than the ionization potential (band gap + electron affinity) are ejected from the solid[1].Experiment: We investigate the energy distribution of secondary electrons ejected from Apollo soils of varying maturity and lunar analogs by 4 keV He+. Soils are placed into a shallow Al cup and compressed. In-situ low-energy oxygen plasma is used to clean atmospheric contaminants from the soil before analysis[2]. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ascertains that the sample surface is clean. Experiments are conducted in a PHI 560 system (mirror electron energy analyzer (CMA) and μ-metal shield. The spectrometer is used to measure SE distributions, as well as for in situ surface characterization. A small negative bias (~5V) with respect to the grounded entrance grid of the CMA may be placed on the sample holder in order to expose the low energy cutoff.To measure SE energy distributions, primary ions rastered over a ~6 x 6 mm2 area are incident on the sample at ~40° relative to the surface normal, while SE emitted with an angle of 42.3°± 3.5° in a cone are analyzed.Results: The energy distribution of SE ejected from 4 keV He ion irradiation of albite with no bias applied shows positive charging of the surface. The general shape and distribution peak (~4 eV) are consistent with spectra for low energy ions on insulating material[1].Acknowledgements: We thank the NASA LASER program for support.References: [1]P. Riccardi, R. Baragiola et al. (2004); Surf

  19. Replantation of an avulsive amputation of a foot after recovering the foot from the sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, F; Karacaoğlu, E; Ulkür, E; Güler, M M

    2000-04-01

    A foot avulsion case, with the dismembered body part submerged in sea water for 1 hour, is presented. This report is unique in that it is the first to document the reattachment of a body part that had been submerged in sea water. It was not known how salt-water exposure would affect wound management. Differences in osmolarity and bacterial flora between the sea water and foot tissues have not caused any problems, and the patient has not suffered any vascular or infectious complications after replantation. Neurotization of the plantar surface by the tibial nerve, which was stripped off during amputation and replaced in its original traces, was the most critical part of convalescence. After management of such an interesting case, we conclude that exposure to sea water of the dismembered part should not be a contraindication for replantation surgery.

  20. Genital self-amputation or the Klingsor syndrome: Successful non-microsurgical penile replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Harrech, Y; Abaka, N; Ghoundale, O; Touiti, D

    2013-10-01

    Self-mutilations of the external genitals in psychiatric patients also known as Klingsor syndrome is a rare urologic trauma. Men with religious conflicts, low self-esteem, unresolved transsexual issues and feelings of guilt are the most vulnerable. This condition requires immediate surgical intervention. Currently replantation involves meticulous microsurgery and has become the primary method for managing these patients. In this paper, we report a case of self amputation of penis in a patient with a psychiatric history significant for schizopfrenia. Because of the unavailability of a microscope in our department, a non-microsurgical replantation without microscopic magnification was attempted. After surgery, normal appearance and function including a good normal voiding, sensation, and erections were observed.

  1. Genital self-amputation or the Klingsor syndrome: Successful non-microsurgical penile replantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y El harrech

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-mutilations of the external genitals in psychiatric patients also known as Klingsor syndrome is a rare urologic trauma. Men with religious conflicts, low self-esteem, unresolved transsexual issues and feelings of guilt are the most vulnerable. This condition requires immediate surgical intervention. Currently replantation involves meticulous microsurgery and has become the primary method for managing these patients. In this paper, we report a case of self amputation of penis in a patient with a psychiatric history significant for schizopfrenia. Because of the unavailability of a microscope in our department, a non-microsurgical replantation without microscopic magnification was attempted. After surgery, normal appearance and function including a good normal voiding, sensation, and erections were observed.

  2. A low-cost electronic tensiometer system for continuous monitoring of soil water potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Thalheimer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A low cost system for measuring soil water potential and data logging was developed on the basis of an Arduino microcontroller board, electronic pressure transducers and water-filled tensiometers. The assembly of this system requires only minimal soldering, limited to the wiring of the power supply and the pressure sensors to the microcontroller board. The system presented here is, therefore, not only inexpensive, but also suited for easy reproduction by users with only basic technical skills. The utility and reliability of the system was tested in a commercial apple orchard.

  3. Transient bone resorption following finger replantation: a report of 3 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefano Lucchina; Hillary A. Becker; Cesare Fusetti; Alexander Y. Shin

    2011-01-01

    Radiographic changes consisting of alterations in mineral content, osteopaenia or destructive neuropathy that occur following successful finger replantation have already been described. We report our experience about four fingers in three individuals in whom bone changes developed in the first three months postoperatively with complete "restitution ad integrum".Three patients, 21-49 years old (average 36 years) sustained a clean-cut amputation of four fingers. The first patient had an amputation at the base of the middle phalanx of the index finger and the second patient at the base of the proximal phalanx of the ring finger. The third had an amputation at the base of the first metacarpal bone and the proximal phalanx of the small finger in a five finger amputation. In the first case, two dorsal veins and two palmar digital arteries and nerves were repaired. In the second case, one palmar artery and one dorsal vein were reanastomosed. In the third case at the thumb, two dorsal veins and two palmar digital arteries and nerves were reconstructed. At the small finger, one dorsal vein, one palmar digital artery and two digital nerves were reconstructed. Bone fixation was achieved with two and three K-wires or tension-band wiring. Replantation was successful in all cases. Three weeks after replantation, the X-rays showed rapid development of osteopaenia in the juxtaartieular region and metaphyses of the bone. These changes were followed by subperiosteal,intracortical and endosteal bone resorption. No further surgical procedures or splintage were needed and hand therapy was not discontinued. At 10-13 weeks (average 12 weeks)postoperatively, the X-rays showed a complete recovery with new periosteal bone formation.We suggest that the radiographic changes after finger replantation are transient, first evident subperiosteally and progressing centrally. They may reflect small-vessel compromise and microinfarction and transient hyperemia secondary to neurovascular damage or to

  4. Pulp revascularization of replanted immature dog teeth after different treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanpiset, K; Trope, M

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of topical treatment with doxycycline and/or the application of unfilled resin to the anatomical crown on the occurrence of revascularization in reimplanted dog teeth. Ninety-six teeth in 4 young mongrel dogs were used. Eighty one teeth were atraumatically extracted and divided into four groups. Group 1, 17 teeth were kept dry for 5 min and then replanted. Group 2, 21 teeth were soaked with a freshly prepared solution of doxycycline (1 mg/20 mL saline) for 5 min before replantation. Group 3, 23 teeth were soaked with the doxycycline solution for 5 min, and then replanted. The crowns were coated with 2 layers of light cured unfilled resin. Group 4, 20 teeth were kept dry for 5 min, and then replanted. The crowns were treated as with the teeth in Group 3. Three months after surgery, radiographic evaluation revealed that 27 teeth had continued root development and 32 teeth showed arrested root development with periradicular pathosis. The remaining 17 teeth, which had arrested root development but no signs of periradicular pathosis, were all histologically evaluated for final assessment. The occurrence of revascularization according to treatment group was 29.4%, 60%, 60%, 36.8% in Group 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. A multiple logistic regression analysis in SAS indicated there was no significant association between vitality and dog (P = 0.7564). Soaking for 5 min in doxycycline significantly increased the revascularization rate (P = 0.024) while the addition of resin to the crown did not result in an increased incidence of pulp revascularization (P = 0.823).

  5. Unusual case of successful hand replantation with bad functional outcome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Saša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Traumatic hand amputation is a very severe and rare injury. Replantation and revascularization surgery requires the existence of specialized centres and well-educated teams of microsurgeons. In places where there are no such specialized centres for this kind of surgery, traumatic hand amputation is a major concern and quite a challenge, and a successfully performed replantation is a great accomplishment. Case Outline. We report a case of a successfully survived replanted hand in a 35-year-old male patient with unfortunately bad end result of the treatment. The patient with the amputated left hand (disarticulation had a surgery 4 hours after injury. The urgent surgical procedure required a debridement, the excision of the first row of the carpal bones, external fixation of the wrist, vascular anastomoses, nerve repair, tenorrhaphy, skin sutures and decompression skin incisions. The successful operation did not have a successful post-operative course due to the patient’s psychiatric problems and lack of rehabilitation at the psychiatric institution where the treatment was continued. Conclusion. Successful surgical performance can unfortunately be ruined due to inadequate further treatment course or the wrong selection for such a demanding surgery. The survival of the amputated hand can be achieved surgically, but achieving refunctioning does not always depend on surgery. It also depends on the very patient, his motivation, rehabilitation, as well as on the proper selection for such a demanding and complex surgical procedure.

  6. Racial Variation in Treatment of Traumatic Finger/Thumb Amputation: A National Comparative Study of Replantation and Revision Amputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Elham; Swiatek, Peter R.; Chung, Kevin C.; Ayanian, John Z.

    2016-01-01

    Background Traumatic finger/thumb amputations are some of the most prevalent traumatic injuries affecting Americans each year. Rates of replantation after traumatic finger/thumb amputation, however, have been steadily declining across U.S. hospitals, which may make these procedures less accessible to minorities and vulnerable populations. The specific aim of this study was to examine racial variation in finger replantation after traumatic finger/thumb amputation. Methods Using a two-level hierarchical model, we retrospectively compared replantation rates for African-American patients with those of Whites, adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. Patients younger than 65 with traumatic finger/thumb amputation injuries who sought care at a U.S. trauma center between 2007 and 2012 were included in the study sample. Results We analyzed 13,129 patients under 65 years of age with traumatic finger/thumb amputation. Replantation rates declined over time from 19% to 14% (p = 0.004). Adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics, African-Americans (OR=0.81; CI: 0.66–0.99; p = 0.049) were less likely to undergo replantation procedures than Whites, and uninsured patients (OR=0.73; CI: 0.62–0.84; p advancements in microsurgical techniques and the increasing use of reconstructive surgery in other fields, finger/thumb replantation rates are declining in the U.S. and vulnerable populations are less likely to undergo replantation after amputation injuries. Regionalization of care for these injuries may not only provide a higher quality care but also reduce variations in treatment. PMID:26910702

  7. Spatial assessment of soil contamination by heavy metals from informal electronic waste recycling in Agbogbloshie, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Klaus; Atiemo, Sampson M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the spatial distribution and the extent of soil contamination by heavy metals resulting from primitive, unconventional informal electronic waste recycling in the Agbogbloshie e-waste processing site (AEPS) in Ghana. Methods A total of 132 samples were collected at 100 m intervals, with a handheld global position system used in taking the location data of the soil sample points. Observing all procedural and quality assurance measures, the samples were analyzed for barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn), using X-ray fluorescence. Using environmental risk indices of contamination factor and degree of contamination (Cdeg), we analyzed the individual contribution of each heavy metal contamination and the overall Cdeg. We further used geostatistical techniques of spatial autocorrelation and variability to examine spatial distribution and extent of heavy metal contamination. Results Results from soil analysis showed that heavy metal concentrations were significantly higher than the Canadian Environmental Protection Agency and Dutch environmental standards. In an increasing order, Pb>Cd>Hg>Cu>Zn>Cr>Co>Ba>Ni contributed significantly to the overall Cdeg. Contamination was highest in the main working areas of burning and dismantling sites, indicating the influence of recycling activities. Geostatistical analysis also revealed that heavy metal contamination spreads beyond the main working areas to residential, recreational, farming, and commercial areas. Conclusions Our results show that the studied heavy metals are ubiquitous within AEPS and the significantly high concentration of these metals reflect the contamination factor and Cdeg, indicating soil contamination in AEPS with the nine heavy metals studied. PMID:26987962

  8. Carbon gas production under different electron acceptors in a freshwater marsh soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodla, Syam K; Wang, Jim J; Delaune, Ronald D; Breitenbeck, Gary

    2009-07-01

    Dynamics of carbon (C) gas emission from wetlands influence global C cycling. In many freshwater systems such as Louisiana freshwater marsh, soil contents of NO3(-) and SO4(2-) have increased due to nutrient loading and saltwater intrusion. This could affect C mineralization and the emission of the major greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). In this investigation, a laboratory microcosm study was carried out to elucidate the effects of NO(3)(-) and SO4(2-) on CO2 and CH4 production from a freshwater marsh soil located in the Barataria Basin of Louisiana coast, which has been subjected to the Mississippi River diversion and seawater intrusion. Composite soil samples were collected from top 50 cm marsh profile, treated with different levels of NO3(-) (0, 3.2 and 5mM) or SO4(2-) (0, 2, and 5mM) concentrations, and incubated for 214d under anaerobic conditions. The results showed that the presence of NO3(-) (especially at 3.2mM) significantly decreased CO2 productions whereas SO4(2-) did not. On the other hand, both NO(3)(-) and SO4(2-) treatments decreased CH4 production but the NO3(-) almost completely inhibited CH4 production (>99%) whereas the SO4(2-) treatments reduced CH4 production by 78-90%. The overall C mineralization rate constant under the NO3(-) presence was also low. In addition, the results revealed that a large proportion (95%) of anaerobic carbon mineralization in the untreated freshwater soil was unexplained by the reduction of any of the measured major electron acceptors.

  9. Transient bone resorption following finger replantation: a report of 3 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucchina Stefano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Radiographic changes consisting of al- terations in mineral content, osteopaenia or destructive neu- ropathy that occur following successful finger replantation have already been described. We report our experience about four fingers in three individuals in whom bone changes de- veloped in the first three months postoperatively with com- plete “restitution ad integrum”. Three patients, 21-49 years old (average 36 years sus- tained a clean-cut amputation of four fingers. The first pa- tient had an amputation at the base of the middle phalanx of the index finger and the second patient at the base of the proximal phalanx of the ring finger. The third had an ampu- tation at the base of the first metacarpal bone and the proxi- mal phalanx of the small finger in a five finger amputation. In the first case, two dorsal veins and two palmar digital arter- ies and nerves were repaired. In the second case, one pal- mar artery and one dorsal vein were reanastomosed. In the third case at the thumb, two dorsal veins and two palmar digital arteries and nerves were reconstructed. At the small finger, one dorsal vein, one palmar digital artery and two digital nerves were reconstructed. Bone fixation was achieved with two and three K-wires or tension-band wiring. Replantation was successful in all cases. Three weeks after replantation, the X-rays showed rapid development of osteopaenia in the juxtaarticular region and metaphyses of the bone. These changes were followed by subperiosteal, intracortical and endosteal bone resorption. No further sur- gical procedures or splintage were needed and hand therapy was not discontinued. At 10-13 weeks (average 12 weeks postoperatively, the X-rays showed a complete recovery with new periosteal bone formation. We suggest that the radiographic changes after finger replantation are transient, first evident subperiosteally and progressing centrally. They may reflect small-vessel com- promise and microinfarction

  10. [Experiment and clinical application of squeezing technique in venous crisis after replantation of finger].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Zhu, Z; Xu, G

    1997-11-01

    In search of a new method for treating venous crisis after replantation of the finger, the effect of instantaneous, quick and forceful squeezing on the belly of replanted finger (the so-called SQUEEZINGG TECHNIQUE) was studied. In the animal experiment, 20 SD rats were used. The femoral veins and arteries were separated in order to measure the venous pressure. The result showed that the venous pressure was (8.33 +/- 1.29) x 10(-2) kPa in normal condition, (20.61 +/- 2.34) x 10(-2) kPa in the condition simulating venous crisis and (73.9 +/- 5.74) x 10(-2) kPa on carrying out the squeezing technique. The second part of the experiment was performed on ten human fingers which were amputated because of trauma or other diseases. One of the arteriae digitales palmares propriae and two of its accompanied veins were disected, and all other blood vessels were ligated. The artery was irrigated with normal saline at a pressure of 12 kPa. When both veins were left open, the venous pressure was (1.32 +/- 0.17) kPa; (4.29 +/- 0.49) kPa, when both were ligated; and (16.88 +/- 5.25) kPa when the squeezing technique was applied at the time venous crisis developed. From May 1991 to May 1996, this method was used for 43 times in 25 cases (35 fingers) with venous crisis after replantation. It was successful for 39 times in 21 cases (30 fingers). It was very important that the performer should use the thumb and the index finger to squeeze just the belly of the involved finger, and that every squeeze should be forceful, quick and instantaneous. It was suggested that if this method was properly performed it could improve the survival rate of replanted fingers. The mechanism of squeezing technique in the treatment of venous crisis following replantation of finger was proposed.

  11. Use of organic substrates as electron donors for biological sulfate reduction in gypsiferous mine soils from Nakhon Si Thammarat (Thailand).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijjanapanich, Pimluck; Annachhatre, Ajit P; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L

    2014-04-01

    Soils in some mining areas contain a high gypsum content, which can give adverse effects to the environment and may cause many cultivation problems, such as a low water retention capacity and low fertility. The quality of such mine soils can be improved by reducing the soil's gypsum content. This study aims to develop an appropriate in situ bioremediation technology for abbreviating the gypsum content of mine soils by using sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). The technology was applied to a mine soil from a gypsum mine in the southern part of Thailand which contains a high sulfate content (150 g kg(-1)). Cheap organic substrates with low or no cost, such as rice husk, pig farm wastewater treatment sludge and coconut husk chips were mixed (60:20:20 by volume) and supplied to the soil as electron donors for the SRB. The highest sulfate removal efficiency of 59% was achieved in the soil mixed with 40% organic mixture, corresponding to a reduction of the soil gypsum content from 25% to 7.5%. For economic gains, this treated soil can be further used for agriculture and the produced sulfide can be recovered as the fertilizer elemental sulfur.

  12. Replantation of a displaced incisor in a boy with a cleft lip and alveolus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Heidrun; Kerkmann, Heiko; Pitka, Felix; Bock, Niko Christian; Attia, Sameh

    2016-09-15

    Tooth replantation after traumatic avulsion or transplantation is a challenge in oral surgery. A special method named auto-alloplastic replantation, in which a titanium post is used after extraoral endodontic treatment, combines several advantages. The treatment is performed in one step with no further endodontic intervention, no wide root canal instrumentation, no recontamination, and reduced endodontic infection. This is the first report on replantation of an ectopic tooth in a patient with a cleft lip and alveolus using this method. This case report presents the treatment of a 13-year-old white boy with a cleft lip and alveolus who had an ectopic incisor in the cleft region. His rehabilitation was performed by a tooth transposition using the auto-alloplastic replantation technique. After preparation of the displaced incisor from the vestibule, extraoral endodontic treatment followed using a titanium post prior to replantation in a newly formed socket. In the follow-up, the tooth is still in place and functioning after 2 years. This method can be used to bridge the years while a patient is young and jaw growth is incomplete until bone augmentation and implantation can be performed. The tooth will preserve the remaining alveolar ridge and help the adolescent psychologically.

  13. Replanting/underplanting strategy for old coconut plantations in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollivier Jean

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available In most producing countries, the population of coconut palms is growing old, and ways of replacing them are rarely implemented to ensure that production is maintained and the future of the industry and its profitability are safeguarded. Rehabilitating/replanting coconut plantations and adopting appropriate intercropping systems is one of the main challenges to be taken up for the future of coconut in the Asia-Pacific region. The example of Papua New Guinea (PNG reveals one of the lowest yields per hectare among the countries in the Asia-Pacific zone. Almost 106,000 ha were planted between 1910 and 1940, amounting to around 40% of the current coconut plantings, hence 80 to 100,000 ha can be expected to disappear in the next twenty years. Faced with this forecast, the PNG Cocoa and Coconut Research Institute (PNG CCRI launched several operations, beginning with the creation of a coconut research centre on the PNG mainland: examination of a replanting strategy for old coconut plantings, based on hybrid planting material, distribution of improved planting material through the creation of a seed garden, and development of a system for controlling pest populations in high-risk zones. The experiments set up at the station are designed to optimize the felling date for old coconut palms, by measuring the effects of competition with the underplanted hybrids, and to determine from an economic point of view the best strategy to be applied for implementing rehabilitation and/or replanting programmes in old coconut plantings. This paper describes the results of these operations.

  14. Management of external perforating root resorption by intentional replantation followed by Biodentine restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Jain Pruthi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resorption of tooth structures can occur as a result of physiological, pathological, and idiopathic factors. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can prevent its serious complications. This case report presents surgical endodontic management of a trauma-induced perforating external root resorption, which was diagnosed with the help of cone beam computed tomography. Following root canal treatment, intentional replantation of the tooth was performed so as to expose the opening of the resorption defect to allow for complete debridement and closure. Eighteen months follow-up showed arrest of root resorption, and progressive healing of the defect.

  15. Management of external perforating root resorption by intentional replantation followed by Biodentine restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruthi, Preeti Jain; Dharmani, Umesh; Roongta, Ruchika; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    Resorption of tooth structures can occur as a result of physiological, pathological, and idiopathic factors. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can prevent its serious complications. This case report presents surgical endodontic management of a trauma-induced perforating external root resorption, which was diagnosed with the help of cone beam computed tomography. Following root canal treatment, intentional replantation of the tooth was performed so as to expose the opening of the resorption defect to allow for complete debridement and closure. Eighteen months follow-up showed arrest of root resorption, and progressive healing of the defect.

  16. The detection and influence of food soils on microorganisms on stainless steel using scanning electron microscopy and epifluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Kathryn A; Smith, Lindsay A; Verran, Joanna

    2010-07-31

    A range of food soils and components (complex [meat extract, fish extract, and cottage cheese extract]; oils [cholesterol, fish oil, and mixed fatty acids]; proteins [bovine serum albumin (BSA), fish peptones, and casein]; and carbohydrates [glycogen, starch, and lactose]) were deposited onto 304 2B finish stainless steel surfaces at different concentrations (10-0.001%). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and epifluorescence microscopy were used to visualise the cell and food soil distribution across the surface. Epifluorescence microscopy was also used to quantify the percentage of a field covered by cells or soil. At 10% concentration, most soils, with the exception of BSA and fish peptone were easily visualised using SEM, presenting differences in gross soil morphology and distribution. When soil was stained with acridine orange and visualised by epifluorescence microscopy, the limit of detection of the method varied between soils, but some (meat, cottage cheese and glycogen) were detected at the lowest concentrations used (0.001%). The decrease in soil concentration did not always relate to the surface coverage measurement. When 10% food soil was applied to a surface with Escherichia coli and compared, cell attachment differed depending on the nature of the soil. The highest percentage coverage of cells was observed on surfaces with fish extract and related products (fish peptone and fish oil), followed by carbohydrates, meat extract/meat protein, cottage cheese/casein and the least to the oils (cholesterol and mixed fatty acids). Cells could not be clearly observed in the presence of some food soils using SEM. Findings demonstrate that food soils heterogeneously covered stainless steel surfaces in differing patterns. The pattern and amount of cell attachment was related to food soil type rather than to the amount of food soil detected. This work demonstrates that in the study of conditioning film and cell retention on the hygienic properties of surfaces, SEM

  17. Replantation of Displaced Underlying Successor and Marsupialization of Radicular Cyst associated with a Primary Molar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, GR

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Radicular cysts are by far the most common cystic lesions of the jaw. However, those arising from primary teeth are comparatively rare, comprising only 0.5 to 3.3%. The aim of this paper is to present clinical, radiographic and histopathological characteristics of radicular cyst associated with a primary mandibular molar causing unusual displacement of the permanent successor. Extraction of primary tooth along with extirpation of cyst was done under local anesthesia. The displaced premolar was also extracted and then replanted in the socket after proper alignment. Healing was uneventful and the space of missing primary molar was maintained by band and loop space maintainer. The relationship between intracanal medicaments and rapid growth of cyst, as mentioned in literature was observed in our case too. Thus, pulpotomy treated primary teeth should receive periodic postoperative radiographic examination and absence of clinical symptoms does not mean that a pulpotomy treated tooth is healthy. How to cite this article: Lamba G, Ravi GR. Replantation of Displaced Underlying Successor and Marsupialization of Radicular Cyst associated with a Primary Molar. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):70-74. PMID:26124586

  18. Replantation of Displaced Underlying Successor and Marsupialization of Radicular Cyst associated with a Primary Molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Gagandeep; Ravi, G R

    2015-01-01

    Radicular cysts are by far the most common cystic lesions of the jaw. However, those arising from primary teeth are comparatively rare, comprising only 0.5 to 3.3%. The aim of this paper is to present clinical, radiographic and histopathological characteristics of radicular cyst associated with a primary mandibular molar causing unusual displacement of the permanent successor. Extraction of primary tooth along with extirpation of cyst was done under local anesthesia. The displaced premolar was also extracted and then replanted in the socket after proper alignment. Healing was uneventful and the space of missing primary molar was maintained by band and loop space maintainer. The relationship between intracanal medicaments and rapid growth of cyst, as mentioned in literature was observed in our case too. Thus, pulpotomy treated primary teeth should receive periodic postoperative radiographic examination and absence of clinical symptoms does not mean that a pulpotomy treated tooth is healthy. How to cite this article: Lamba G, Ravi GR. Replantation of Displaced Underlying Successor and Marsupialization of Radicular Cyst associated with a Primary Molar. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):70-74.

  19. Long Term Follow-Up of a Successful Lower Limb Replantation in a 3-Year-Old Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Jaleel Zubairi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Replantation of the lower extremity has controversial indications but nevertheless it may be considered in carefully selected patients who present early and are expected to show good functional recoveries. Here we present a successful replantation in a 3-year-old boy who has made excellent recovery with no functional deficit evident at 12 years of follow-up. He sustained a traumatic amputation at the level of distal tibia when he fell of a “Qing Qi” (motorcycle rickshaw. Replantation was attempted at 8 hours cold ischemia time with the tibia shortened 4 cm and all tendons, vessels, and nerves repaired. Patient required a second procedure during the same hospital stay for skin coverage. Patient made good recovery with ambulation without support at 6 months, less than 3 cm limb length discrepancy, plantar and dorsiflexion power 4/5, and recovery of sensation over the foot. Now at 12 years of follow-up patient has a normal gait and has integrated into society with no functional deficit. Considering the functional outcome of our case, replantation should be attempted whenever possible and feasible especially in children.

  20. Inactivated Bone Replantation with Preservation of the Epiphysis in Children with Osteosarcoma- Clinical Report of Two Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUXiuchun; LIUXiaoping; ZHOUYin; LIKaihua; QUZaiping

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of inactivated bone replantation with preservation of the epiphysis following the effective chemotherapy in avoiding postoperative discrepancy of the affected limb in children with osteosarcoma. Methods: Two children (aged 5 and 10 years, 1 male and 1 female) with osteosarcoma underwent inactivated bone replantation with preserving epiphysis following chemotherapy (MMIA protocol, including high-dose methotrexate, adriamycin and ifosfamide). After two cycles of preoperative chemotherapy, pain vanished, the local mass shrank and there was no pain on pressing the affected parts. Sera AKP and LDH were reduced to normal levels; marked shrinkage and sclerotic changes and good margin of lesions were seen on plain radiographs and MR images. Two courses of the same protocol as preoperative chemotherapy were administered postoperatively. Results: Postoperative histological examination of the specimens demonstrated absence of vital tumor cells. Incisions healed well and no complications occurred. The replanted inactivated bone healed with host at 6 months after operation.In the two patients, no evidence was seen of metastasis and recurrence and discrepancy of the affected limbs in postoperative 36 and 48 months. Functions of the affected limbs were satisfactory. Conclusion:Inactivated bone replantation with preserving epiphysis was a viable option for osteosarcoma in children.The long-term outcomes remain to be further proven.

  1. Efficacy of enamel matrix derivatives (Emdogain) in treatment of replanted teeth--a systematic review based on animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Annette; Attin, Thomas

    2008-10-01

    The objective of the current systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy of enamel matrix derivative (EMD) (Emdogain) on healing of replanted or autotransplanted permanent teeth. A review of the published literature [search term: (Emdogain OR enamel matrix derivative OR enamel matrix protein] AND [avulsion OR replantation OR autotransplantation)] was conducted by two independent investigators according to defined selection criteria. For data extraction of the identified animal studies, the following histomorphometric findings were considered: (i) healed PDL, (ii) surface resorption, (iii) inflammatory resorption and (iv) replacement resorption. The heterogeneity of data collection and the small amount of identified publications did not allow for statistical analysis. Four controlled trials (CT) conducted in animals, but no randomized controlled trials (RCT) or clinical controlled trials (CCT) could be received from the systematic search. From the selected studies, two CT gave evidence of EMD treatment to be effective in inducing healing of replanted teeth, while one CT found no differences between EMD treated teeth and controls. Finally, one CT compared EMD and sodium fluoride application, but revealed no differences between the treatments. The data of controlled trials available are limited and conflicting. No firm conclusion regarding the efficacy of EMD application on healing of replanted or autotransplanted permanent teeth can be drawn because of lack of RCT and CCT.

  2. Knowledge of teachers and students in physical education's faculties regarding first-aid measures for tooth avulsion and replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Kelly Oliva; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; de Toledo, Flávia Fonseca; Alves, Laila Caldeira; Paiva, Saul Martins; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the knowledge of undergraduate students and teachers at all physical education courses in the city of Belo Horizonte (Brazil) regarding first-aid measures to be taken following tooth avulsion as well as the need for the preventative use of mouth guards. The sample consisted of 442 individuals (Group 1: 53 teachers; Group 2: 389 undergraduate students). Data collection was carried out with the administration of a questionnaire with both objective and subjective questions addressing definitions, first-aid measures in cases of avulsion and tooth replantation, together with an assessment of the use and indication of mouth guards. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics and the chi-square test. The results revealed that 45.1% of the participants in both groups knew what a tooth replantation was. However, 91.6% judged themselves incapable of performing an immediate replantation. Among the overall sample, 45.9% has no knowledge on first-aid measures regarding tooth avulsion; sending the patient with an avulsed tooth to the dentist was the most often cited measure (42.3%). Immediate replantation was cited by 20.6% of the individuals in Group 1 and 5.9% of the individuals in Group 2 (P = 0.009). Regarding the storage medium, 17.1% of the individuals would keep the avulsed tooth in a dry medium. The majority of participants (58.3%) stated that the ideal extra-alveolar time for replantation was more than 360 min. Although 74% of the overall sample stated having knowledge of mouth guards, few reported making use or indicating the use of this piece of equipment. The present study revealed that the majority of teachers and undergraduate students of physical education courses do not have adequate knowledge regarding first-aid measures for tooth avulsion and do not use or indicate the use of mouth guards during sports activities.

  3. Trace element associations with Fe- and Mn-oxides in soil nodules: Comparison of selective dissolution with electron probe microanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neaman, Alexander [Area de Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Agronomia, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4-D, Quillota (Chile); Centro Regional de Estudios en Alimentos Saludables, Region de Valparaiso (Chile)], E-mail: alexander.neaman@ucv.cl; Martinez, Carmen Enid [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Trolard, Fabienne; Bourrie, Guilhem [INRA, UR 1119, Geochimie des Sols et des Eaux, BP 80, 13545 Aix-en-Provence cedex 04 (France)

    2008-04-15

    Selective dissolution methods have been largely used to get insight on trace element association with solid phases. Modern instrumental techniques offer many tools to test the validity of selective dissolution methods and should be systematically used to this end. The association of trace elements with Fe- and Mn-oxides in soil nodules has been studied here by electron probe microanalysis. The results were compared with findings from an earlier study on selective dissolution of the same nodules by hydroxylamine hydrochloride, acidified hydrogen peroxide, and Na-citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite. Electron probe microanalysis results were consistent with previous findings using selective dissolution and showed that P, As and Cr were mainly present in Fe-oxides, while Co was mainly associated with Mn-oxide phases. These results support the applicability of the studied selective dissolution methods for fractionation of trace elements in soils and sediments containing appreciable amounts of Fe and Mn-oxide phases.

  4. Foster replantation of fingertip using neighbouring digital artery in a young child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing-Hong; Gao, Zheng-Jun; Yao, Jing-Ming; Tan, Wei-Qiang; Dawreeawo, Javed

    2010-06-01

    Reconstruction of an amputated fingertip in a young child demands special techniques for success. We report a 2.5-year-old female patient with an amputated left index fingertip with the vascular defect being too severe to perform the usual replantation. Comparing several methods, we used the neighbouring digital artery as the feeding artery to perform foster replantation. Finally, the patient was satisfied with the appearance and function of her fingers. The clinical case, techniques, results are described and discussed. We consider it a useful technique, especially for those with a rather severe vascular defect. A 2.5-year-old girl suffered a crush amputation of the left index fingertip. Only the flexor tendon of the amputated fingertip was connected to the proximal finger tissue and the blood supply was completely lost (Figure 1). The distal amputated fingertip was fixed using Kirschner wire under general anaesthesia. Then, microsurgery operation was carried out immediately to replant this amputated fingertip. Both ulnar and radial digital arteries were avulsed, while the dorsal vein was intact and the digital nerve was also surviving. The integrity of blood vessels was too traumatised to connect to the proximal part. In the case of the distal part of the ulnar artery of the injured index finger, the blood supply was established by anastomosing the distal end of the amputated tip and the radial artery of the middle finger, which was the feeding artery (Figure 2). A 11/0 nylon suture was used. The dorsal vein and digital nerve were repaired by means of microsurgical anastomosis. The wound was covered with the dorsal skin of the middle finger and the palmar skin of the index finger to form a skin pedicle, and then, immobility of the two fingers was maintained to prevent avulsion. The index tip obtained good blood supply and survived completely (Figure 3). Detachment of the index and middle finger was performed after 3 weeks, and both of the fingers showed good

  5. Effect of lead speciation on its oral bioaccessibility in surface dust and soil of electronic-wastes recycling sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Takashi; Taniguchi, Masaya; Agusa, Tetsuro; Shiota, Kenji; Takaoka, Masaki; Yoshida, Aya; Terazono, Atsushi; Ballesteros, Florencio C; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2018-01-05

    We measured bioaccessible lead (Pb) in simulated gastrointestinal fluids containing Pb-contaminated soil or dust from electronic waste (e-waste) recycling sites to assess the risk of Pb ingestion. The physiologically based extraction test (PBET) was used as in vitro bioaccessibility assay. Pb speciation was determined using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The total Pb concentrations in dusts (n=8) and soils (n=4) were in the range of 1630-131,000 and 239-7800mg/kg, respectively. Metallic Pb, a common component of e-waste, was ubiquitous in the samples. We also found Pb adsorbed onto goethite and as oxides and carbonate, implying soil mixing and weathering influences. Pb phosphate and organic species were only found in the soil samples, suggesting that formation was soil-specific. We identified other Pb compounds in several samples, including Pb silicate, Pb chromate, and Pb(II) hydrogen phosphate. A correlation analysis indicated that metallic Pb decreased bioaccessibility in the stomach, while a Pb speciation analysis revealed a low bioaccessibility for Pb phosphates and high bioaccessibility for organic Pb species. The health risk based on bioaccessible Pb was estimated to be much lower than that of total Pb due to the lower concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 损害控制下的断指再植术%Treatment of digital replantation and shifted replantation under damage control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢进峰; 丁伟航; 陈欢欢; 孙西涛; 沈金明; 童良春; 李飞; 徐海孺; 蒋云甫

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical application of damage control in severe multiple trauma with amputation injury at fingers.Methods Two cases of multi-trauma were included in this study,with ISS (Injury Severity Score) higher than 25.In case 1,the patient was diagnosed as left parietal subdural hematoma,left parietal bone fractures,intracranial pneumatosis,scalp defect in the left parietal area,rupture of superficial and deep flexor tendon of the left index and middle finger,rupture of the left extensor muscle,right ulnar nerve injury and amputation injury on the right thumb.In case 2,the patient were diagnosed as the left pulmonary contusion with hemopneumothorax,multiple rib fractures,the 7th cervical spine fracture,injuries on the right hand and scalp laceration.Both patients were treated under damage control and multi-department cooperation.Severed digits were preserved with sterile gauze sterile gloves at 2℃ to 4℃.The first patient was treated with in situ replantation within 63 hours after the injury.The second patient was treated with shifted replantation within 103 hours,the middle finger was shifted to reconstruct the thumb and the ring finger was shifted to reconstruct the index finger.Results All the fingers in case 1 survived,with satisfying flexion and extension function but unsatisfying sense of pain and touch.The shifted fingers all survived in case 2.Necrosis occurred partly on the proximal margin of the shifted fingers,while the defect healed after debridement and skin grafting.Recovery of finger flexion and extension was unsatisfying.Conclusion Damage control could raise the early rescue success rate of severe multiple injury and survival rate effectively.Delayed replantation and shifted replantation could reduce disability rate of patients with severe multiple trauma with severed finger injury.%目的 探讨损害控制在严重多发伤伴手指离断伤患者中的临床应用.方法 多发伤患者2例,严重度评分(ISS) ≥25

  7. [Cross-hand replantation in bilateral upper limb amputation: An anatomical emergency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, A; Rongieres, M; Laffosse, J-M; Pailhe, R; Lauwers, F; Grolleau, J-L

    2015-08-01

    Bilateral amputations of upper limbs are excessively rare clinical situations. We report an exceptional clinical case of bilateral amputation of upper limbs at different levels: destruction of the right hand and left transhumeral amputation in a patient after an attempted suicide on train lines. This special situation led us to perform a cross-hand replantation of the left hand to the right forearm. Only 4 other similar cases have been published in the literature. Once the surgical indication had been formulated collectively, and taking into account all the ethical issues surrounding such a decision, we had to solve the issue of inverting anatomical structures in emergency. We have provided a detailed description of our surgical technique. The aim was to save at least one organ used for grasping. The result obtained is presented and reviewed.

  8. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil, vegetation, workshop-floor dust, and electronic shredder residue from an electronic waste recycling facility and in soils from a chemical industrial complex in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Addink, Rudolf; Yun, Sehun; Cheng, Jinping; Wang, Wenhua; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2009-10-01

    The formation and release of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) from the incineration of electronic wastes (e-waste) that contain brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are a concern. However, studies on the determination of PBDD/Fs in environmental samples collected from e-waste recycling facilities are scarce. In this study, 11 2,3,7,8-substituted PBDD/Fs and 10 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were determined in electronic shredder waste, workshop-floor dust soil, and leaves (of plants on the grounds of the facility) from a large-scale e-waste recycling facility and in surface soil from a chemical-industrial complex (comprising a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) as well as agricultural areas in eastern China. Total PBDD/F concentrations in environmental samples were in the range of 113-818 pg/g dry wt (dw) for leaves, 392-18500 pg/g dw for electronic shredder residues, 716-800000 pg/g dw for soil samples, and 89600-pg/g dw for workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility and in a range from nondetect (ND) to 427 pg/g dw in soil from the chemical-industrial complex. The highest mean concentrations of total PBDD/Fs were found in soil samples and workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility. The dioxin-like toxic equivalent (measured as TEQ) concentrations of PBDD/Fs were greater than the TEQs of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) reported in our previous study for the same set of samples. The concentrations of PBDFs were several orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations of PBDDs in samples from the e-waste facility or from soil from the chemical-industrial complex. A significant correlation was found between the concentrations of sigmaPBDD/Fs and sigmaPBDEs (r = 0.769, p waste recycling facilities were higher than the intakes of TEQs contributed by PCDD/ Fs, calculated in our previous study.

  9. Ethanol and lactic acid production using sap squeezed from old oil palm trunks felled for replanting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Akihiko; Tanaka, Ryohei; Magara, Kengo; Murata, Yoshinori; Arai, Takamitsu; Sulaiman, Othman; Hashim, Rokiah; Hamid, Zubaidah Aimi Abdul; Yahya, Mohd Khairul Azri; Yusof, Mohd Nor Mohd; Ibrahim, Wan Asma; Mori, Yutaka

    2010-09-01

    Old oil palm trunks that had been felled for replanting were found to contain large quantities of high glucose content sap. Notably, the sap in the inner part of the trunk accounted for more than 80% of the whole trunk weight. The glucose concentration of the sap from the inner part was 85.2g/L and decreased towards the outer part. Other sugars found in relatively low concentrations were sucrose, fructose, galactose, xylose, and rhamnose. In addition, oil palm sap was found to be rich in various kinds of amino acids, organic acids, minerals and vitamins. Based on these findings, we fermented the sap to produce ethanol using the sake brewing yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kyokai no.7. Ethanol was produced from the sap without the addition of nutrients, at a comparable rate and yield to the reference fermentation on YPD medium with glucose as a carbon source. Likewise, we produced lactic acid, a promising material for bio-plastics, poly-lactate, from the sap using the homolactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus lactis ATCC19435. We confirmed that sugars contained in the sap were readily converted to lactic acid with almost the same efficiency as the reference fermentation on MSR medium with glucose as a substrate. These results indicate that oil palm trunks felled for replanting are a significant resource for the production of fuel ethanol and lactic acid in palm oil-producing countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia. Copyright 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. In situ bioremediation of nitrate and perchlorate in vadose zone soil for groundwater protection using gaseous electron donor injection technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Patrick J; Trute, Mary M

    2006-12-01

    When present in the vadose zone, potentially toxic nitrate and perchlorate anions can be persistent sources of groundwater contamination. Gaseous electron donor injection technology (GEDIT), an anaerobic variation of petroleum hydrocarbon bioventing, involves injecting electron donor gases, such as hydrogen or ethyl acetate, into the vadose zone, to stimulate biodegradation of nitrate and perchlorate. Laboratory microcosm studies demonstrated that hydrogen and ethanol promoted nitrate and perchlorate reduction in vadose zone soil and that moisture content was an important factor. Column studies demonstrated that transport of particular electron donors varied significantly; ethyl acetate and butyraldehyde were transported more rapidly than butyl acetate and ethanol. Nitrate removal in the column studies, up to 100%, was best promoted by ethyl acetate. Up to 39% perchlorate removal was achieved with ethanol and was limited by insufficient incubation time. The results demonstrate that GEDIT is a promising remediation technology warranting further validation.

  11. Histopathological evaluation of the effects of variable extraoral dry times and enamel matrix proteins (enamel matrix derivatives) application on replanted dogs' teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbizam, Joao V B; Massarwa, Rasha; da Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Consolaro, Alberto; Cohenca, Nestor

    2015-02-01

    The extra-alveolar dry period and storage medium in which the tooth was kept prior to replantation remain the critical factors affecting the survival and regeneration of the damaged periodontium. When the replantation is delayed, replacement root resorption is the most common complication following replantation of an avulsed tooth. The aim of this histological study was to evaluate the periodontal healing of replanted dogs' teeth after 20 min (short) and 60 min (long) extraoral dry time with and without the application of enamel matrix proteins. Eighty mature premolar roots (40 teeth) maxillary and mandibular premolars were extracted, the root canals were accessed, instrumented, and filled using a lateral condensation technique, and the access cavity was restored with amalgam. Each root was randomly assigned to one of experimental groups: Groups I and II: Roots were replanted after an extraoral dry time of 20 min. In group II, Emdogain(®) (Biora, Malmo, Sweden) was applied directly to the external root surface with complete coverage. Groups III and IV: Roots were replanted after an extraoral dry time of 60 min. In group IV, Emdogain(®) was applied to the whole external root surface before replantation. Roots that replanted within a total extraoral dry time of 10 min were used as negative controls, while those replanted after 90 min of extraoral dry time were assigned as positive controls. After 4 months, the dogs were euthanized, and the maxillary and mandibular processes were processed for histology and microscopically evaluated. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences (P = 0.1075) among the experimental groups. The results of this study show that 20 min of extraoral dry time is as detrimental to the PDL cells as 60 or 90 min of extraoral dry time, with avulsed dogs' teeth, even when replanted with an inductive material such as EMD. This study provides strong evidence in relation to the threshold of the extraoral dry time of avulsed teeth

  12. Toe-to-hand transfer from a cross-foot replantation in a traumatic four-extremity amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Serkan; Akan, Mithat; Aköz, Tayfun

    2005-10-01

    Treatment of mutilating hand injuries often requires multiple innovative procedures. This report describes a case of multi-limbed amputations from a train injury and the extraordinary microsurgical approaches for a two-hand reconstruction. The first stage of the procedure was a cross replantation of the left foot to the right leg. The second stage was a combined second and third toe transfer from the cross replantation of the left foot to the right hand, and a sensate fibular osteocutaneous flap transfer for left hand reconstruction. Satisfactory function was restored, including good protective sensation. These kinds of extraordinary microsurgical approaches are useful salvage procedures for hand reconstruction, when presented with a case of multi-limb amputation.

  13. The Effect of Long-Term Continuous Cropping of Black Pepper on Soil Bacterial Communities as Determined by 454 Pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xiong

    Full Text Available In the present study, 3 replanted black pepper orchards with continuously cropping histories for 10, 21, and 55 years in tropical China, were selected for investigating the effect of monoculture on soil physiochemical properties, enzyme activities, bacterial abundance, and bacterial community structures. Results showed long-term continuous cropping led to a significant decline in soil pH, organic matter contents, enzymatic activities, and resulted in a decrease in soil bacterial abundance. 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the main phyla in the replanted black pepper orchard soils, comprising up to 73.82% of the total sequences; the relative abundances of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla decreased with long-term continuous cropping; and at genus level, the Pseudomonas abundance significantly depleted after 21 years continuous cropping. In addition, bacterial diversity significantly decreased after 55 years black pepper continuous cropping; obvious variations for community structures across the 3 time-scale replanted black pepper orchards were observed, suggesting monoculture duration was the major determinant for bacterial community structure. Overall, continuous cropping during black pepper cultivation led to a significant decline in soil pH, organic matter contents, enzymatic activities, resulted a decrease in soil bacterial abundance, and altered soil microbial community membership and structure, which in turn resulted in black pepper poor growth in the continuous cropping system.

  14. The Effect of Long-Term Continuous Cropping of Black Pepper on Soil Bacterial Communities as Determined by 454 Pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wu; Li, Zhigang; Liu, Hongjun; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Ruifu; Wu, Huasong; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, 3 replanted black pepper orchards with continuously cropping histories for 10, 21, and 55 years in tropical China, were selected for investigating the effect of monoculture on soil physiochemical properties, enzyme activities, bacterial abundance, and bacterial community structures. Results showed long-term continuous cropping led to a significant decline in soil pH, organic matter contents, enzymatic activities, and resulted in a decrease in soil bacterial abundance. 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the main phyla in the replanted black pepper orchard soils, comprising up to 73.82% of the total sequences; the relative abundances of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla decreased with long-term continuous cropping; and at genus level, the Pseudomonas abundance significantly depleted after 21 years continuous cropping. In addition, bacterial diversity significantly decreased after 55 years black pepper continuous cropping; obvious variations for community structures across the 3 time-scale replanted black pepper orchards were observed, suggesting monoculture duration was the major determinant for bacterial community structure. Overall, continuous cropping during black pepper cultivation led to a significant decline in soil pH, organic matter contents, enzymatic activities, resulted a decrease in soil bacterial abundance, and altered soil microbial community membership and structure, which in turn resulted in black pepper poor growth in the continuous cropping system.

  15. Plant uptake and dissipation of PBDEs in the soils of electronic waste recycling sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Honglin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang Shuzhen, E-mail: szzhang@rcees.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Christie, Peter [Agri-Environment Branch, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Plant uptake and dissipation of weathered PBDEs in the soils of e-waste recycling sites were investigated in a greenhouse study. Eighteen PBDE congeners (tri- through deca-) were detected in the plant tissues. The proportion of lower brominated PBDEs (mono- through hexa-) in plant roots was higher than that in the soils. A concentration gradient was observed of PBDEs in plants with the highest concentrations in the roots followed by the stems and lowest in the leaves. Reduction rates of the total PBDEs in the soils ranged from 13.3 to 21.7% after plant harvest and lower brominated PBDEs were associated with a higher tendency to dissipate than the higher brominated PBDEs. This study provides the first evidence for plant uptake of weathered PBDEs in the soils of e-waste recycling sites and planting contributes to the removal of PBDEs in e-waste contaminated soils. - Weathered PBDEs can be taken up by plants and lower brominated PBDEs are associated with higher bioavailability to plants and a higher dissipation in soils.

  16. Successful treatment of a radicular groove by intentional replantation and Emdogain therapy: four years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Naghshbandi, Jafar; Simon, James H S; Rotstein, Ilan

    2009-03-01

    Radicular groove is an anatomical malformation that often causes severe periodontal defects. Treatments of such an anomaly present a clinical challenge to the operator. Presented is a case of successful treatment of radicular groove associated with a maxillary lateral incisor of a 15-year-old girl. A combination of endodontics, intentional replantation, and Emdogain therapy was used. At 4-year follow-up, the patient was comfortable and complete resolution of the periapical pathology was evident.

  17. Evaluating Emdogain and healing of replanted teeth using an intra-individual experimental-control study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridström, Margareta; Schollin, Jens; Crossner, Claes-Göran

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to use an intra-individual experimental-control study design to explore if application of Emdogain prior to re-plantation after a dry extra-alveolar period of 60 min would promote a favorable healing of the periodontal ligament cells. Ten patients, for whom already decisions had been taken to extract two maxillary premolars because of crowding, participated in the study. The teeth were extracted and endodontic treatment was performed extra orally. The experimental tooth and its alveolar socket were covered with Emdogain prior to replantation. The contra lateral tooth served as a control and was replanted without any prior treatment. The teeth were stabilized with a retainer for 3-7 days and the patients were followed up every third week. After 13 weeks, the teeth were finally extracted and prepared for histological examination. Radiographs were taken before the study period, at day 29 and prior to the final extraction. The results were in favor of Emdogain, but the overall difference between the Emdogain-treated tooth and its control was rather small, and it seemed questionable if the registered differences could be of any obvious practical clinical importance. Histologically, all the teeth showed some degree of pathology after such a long dry extra-oral time and the outcome seemed to be more correlated to the individual than to the treatment. Given more favorable conditions regarding storage medium and/or extra-oral time, Emdogain might still be of value for an uncomplicated healing after replantation.

  18. Surgical Re-entry of an Intentionally Replanted Periodontally Compromised Tooth Treated with Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF): Hopeless to Hopeful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryana, Haneet Kour; Srinath, Rashmi; Prakash, Shobha

    2016-06-01

    Intentional replantation is generally contraindicated in periodontally compromised teeth however, there are reports suggesting that it can be a successful treatment alternative for periodontally involved hopeless teeth. Currently there is dearth of evidence regarding the success of this therapy, especially evidence for the effectiveness of autologous platelet rich fibrin is lacking. We present a case report of a 23-year-old male patient with periodontally hopeless left maxillary central incisor having bone loss extending beyond root apex. The tooth was gently extracted and replanted utilizing root conditioning and combined regenerative therapy (Xenograft, PRF and Type I Collagen Membrane). Surgical re-entry at nine months revealed bone formation in the apical third of the tooth. At one year, 87% radiographic bone gain was accomplished. The improvement in the clinical and radiographic parameters reinforced by the re-entry surgery findings strongly suggest that intentional replantation may be a cost-effective substitute to implants and tooth supported prosthesis in situations where conventional periodontal therapy would yield compromised outcomes.

  19. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses of the chronology of healing process after immediate tooth replantation in incisor rat teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Okamoto, Roberta; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Pedrini, Denise; da Silva, Paula Ervolino; Saito, Celia Tomiko Matida Hamata; Marão, Heloísa Fonseca; Sedlacek, Paulo

    2013-02-01

    Dental tissues have special characteristics, and its regenerative capacity is noteworthy. However, understanding the circumstances that lead to regeneration is challenging. In this study, the chronology of the healing process after immediate replantation of rat incisor teeth was examined by histological and immunohistochemical analyses within a 60-day period. Thirty-six male Wistar rats had their maxillary right incisors extracted and replanted after 15 min in saline storage. The rats were sacrificed immediately 3, 7, 15, 28, and 60 days after replantation. The histological analysis showed rupture of the periodontal ligament and formation of a blood clot, which started being replaced by a connective tissue after 3 days. At 7 days, the gingival mucosa epithelium was reinserted and areas of root resorption could be seen. At 15 days, the periodontal ligament was repaired. At 3 days, the pulp presented an absence of the odontoblast layer, which started being replaced by a connective tissue. This tissue suffered gradual calcification, filling the root canal at 28 and 60 days. The root ends were closed. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed greater expression of OP, OPG, and RANK proteins in the initial periods (0 and 3 days), while TRAP expression predominated at 28 and 60 days (P process, while a predominance of bone resorption and remodeling is observed in the more advanced periods. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Surgical Re-entry of an Intentionally Replanted Periodontally Compromised Tooth Treated with Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF): Hopeless to Hopeful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinath, Rashmi; Prakash, Shobha

    2016-01-01

    Intentional replantation is generally contraindicated in periodontally compromised teeth however, there are reports suggesting that it can be a successful treatment alternative for periodontally involved hopeless teeth. Currently there is dearth of evidence regarding the success of this therapy, especially evidence for the effectiveness of autologous platelet rich fibrin is lacking. We present a case report of a 23-year-old male patient with periodontally hopeless left maxillary central incisor having bone loss extending beyond root apex. The tooth was gently extracted and replanted utilizing root conditioning and combined regenerative therapy (Xenograft, PRF and Type I Collagen Membrane). Surgical re-entry at nine months revealed bone formation in the apical third of the tooth. At one year, 87% radiographic bone gain was accomplished. The improvement in the clinical and radiographic parameters reinforced by the re-entry surgery findings strongly suggest that intentional replantation may be a cost-effective substitute to implants and tooth supported prosthesis in situations where conventional periodontal therapy would yield compromised outcomes. PMID:27504421

  1. Analysis of phthalate esters in soils near an electronics manufacturing facility and from a non-industrialized area by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Hu, Jia; Wang, Jinqi; Chen, Xuerong; Yao, Na; Tao, Jing; Zhou, Yi-Kai

    2015-03-01

    Here, a novel technique is described for the extraction and quantitative determination of six phthalate esters (PAEs) from soils by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography. Recovery of PAEs ranged from 81.4% to 120.3%, and the relative standard deviation (n=6) ranged from 5.3% to 10.5%. Soil samples were collected from roadsides, farmlands, residential areas, and non-cultivated areas in a non-industrialized region, and from the same land-use types within 1 km of an electronics manufacturing facility (n=142). Total PAEs varied from 2.21 to 157.62 mg kg(-1) in non-industrialized areas and from 8.63 to 171.64 mg kg(-1) in the electronics manufacturing area. PAE concentrations in the non-industrialized area were highest in farmland, followed (in decreasing order) by roadsides, residential areas, and non-cultivated soil. In the electronics manufacturing area, PAE concentrations were highest in roadside soils, followed by residential areas, farmland, and non-cultivated soils. Concentrations of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) differed significantly (P<0.01) between the industrial and non-industrialized areas. Principal component analysis indicated that the strongest explanatory factor was related to DMP and DnBP in non-industrialized soils and to butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and DMP in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility. Congener-specific analysis confirmed that diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) was a predictive indication both in the non-industrialized area (r(2)=0.944, P<0.01) and the industrialized area (r(2)=0.860, P<0.01). The higher PAE contents in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility are of concern, considering the large quantities of electronic wastes generated with ongoing industrialization.

  2. ESTABLISHMENT AND EVALUATION OF SWITCHGRASS ON RECLAIMED MINE SOIL [English

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, David; Shankle, Brandon; Oswalt, Ernest; Duckworth, Jeremy; Sanborn, Judd; Buell, Rebecca; Roberson, Bill

    2010-06-30

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a native warm season perennial grass that has productive potential of up to 20 Mg ha-1 of biomass and it persists for decades when harvested once per year. Switchgrass provides excellent ground cover and soil stabilization once established and contributes to soil sequestration of new carbon. Slow establishment on newly reclaimed soil, however, provides for significant erosive opportunities thereby requiring initial soil stabilization with a cover crop. Several planting options were evaluated on two topsoil substitute soils. The planting options included: 1) an existing stand of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) that was killed with glyphosate followed by disking in red oxidized topsoil substitute and prime farmland topsoil respread in 2007, 2) red oxidized topsoil substitute was seeded directly with switchgrass, 3) browntop millet (Panicum ramosum) was established with switchgrass, 4) or switchgrass was established in senescing browntop millet or wheat without tillage. Switchgrass was successfully established into a bermudagrass sod that had been killed with herbicides and disked as well as into a senescing stand of browntop millet or wheat. Significant soil erosion occurred on the disked area in 2008 leading to considerable repair work followed by planting wheat. Disked areas that did not erode had an excellent stand of switchgrass with 23.3 plants m-2 in November, 2008. Eroded areas replanted in April, 2009 into senescing wheat had 46 plants m-2 by July, 2009. The area planted directly into newly respread soil in May, 2009 was eroded severely by a 75 mm thunderstorm and was repaired, disked and replanted to switchgrass and browntop millet. Switchgrass seeded with browntop millet had a sparse switchgrass stand and was replanted to switchgrass in August, 2009. Rainfall volumes from August, 2009 to October, 2009 totaled 750 mm, but new erosion damage in areas successfully planted to switchgrass has been minimal.

  3. Replanting Affects the Tree Growth and Fruit Quality of Gala Apple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU En-tai; WANG Gong-shuai; LI Yuan-yuan; SHEN Xiang; CHEN Xue-sen; SONG Fu-hai; WU Shu-jing; CHEN Qiang; MAO Zhi-quan

    2014-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) causes the inhibition of root system development, stunts tree growth and so on. To further investigate the effects of ARD on apple fruits, a 25-year-old apple orchard was remediated to establish a replant orchard between November 2008 and March 2009. A rotational cropping orchard was established on an adjacent wheat ifeld. The cultivar and rootstock-scion combination used in the newly established orchards was Royal Gala/M26/Malus hupehensis Rehd. Ripe fruits were collected in mid-August 2011 and mid-August 2012, meanwhile, the following indices were measured:yield per plant;fruit weight;the fruit shape index;the contents of anthocyanin, carotenoid and chlorophyll;the soluble sugar content in the lfesh;titratable acid;the sugar-acid ratio;ifrmness;and aroma components;apple plant ground diameter, plant height increment and the total length of the current-year shoots. The results showed that compared to rotational cropping, continuous cropping yielded statistically signiifcant reductions in fruit weight and yield per plant of 39.8 and 76.5%, respectively. However, there were no changes in the fruit shape index. The anthocyanin and carotenoid contents decreased by 81.7 and 37.7%, respectively, while the chlorophyll content increased by 251.0%. All of these differences in content were statistically signiifcant. The soluble sugar levels and sugar-acid ratio decreased by 25.4 and 60.9%, respectively, but the titratable acid levels and fruit ifrmness increased by 90.9 and 42.8%, respectively. Ten of the most important esters contributing to the apple aroma were analyzed, and the following changes were observed:hexyl acetate, butyl acetate, hexyl butyrate, acetate-2-methyl butyl, 2-methyl-hexyl butyrate, amyl acetate, butyl butyrate, 2-methyl-butyl butyrate, hexyl propionate and hexyl hexanoate decreased by 25.5, 78.4, 89.1, 55.5, 79.5, 77.2, 86.8, 69.9, 61.2, and 68.1%, respectively. The contents of three other aroma components, (E)-2-hexenal

  4. Déterminants sociaux et économiques de la replantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruf François

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Sur les bourses européennes, la notion de durabilité des investissements dans les valeurs est explicite « Développement durable rime avec investissement rentable » (La Tribune, 11 mars 2000. La maxime émerge avec le développement des fonds éthiques. Selon leurs promoteurs, plus une société commerciale aura le souci de son environnement, plus elle sera boursièrement performante. D’une certaine façon, ce raisonnement reprend des courants de l’écologie humaine et de l’économie rurale, s’appliquant fort bien aux cultures pérennes. En l’absence de pensions et de retraites, les planteurs voient dans les cultures pérennes un moyen efficace pour accumuler des richesses, épargner, et éventuellement pour les transmettre à la génération suivante [1, 2]. Les cultures pérennes représentent bien un patrimoine, et leur propriétaire est à la fois un entrepreneur qui investit et un épargnant soucieux de la valeur de son patrimoine, donc de l’environnement garantissant sa durabilité. Cette notion de durabilité peut signifier une stratégie de prolongement de vie économique de l’actif épargné, la plantation, mais peut aussi passer par des stratégies de vente, de rachat, de reconversion, replantation, diversification. Pour un planteur, tout à la fois chef de famille, entrepreneur, épargnant et consommateur, la notion de durabilité s’applique d’abord à celle des revenus disponibles pour la famille. Par rapport à un objectif de durabilité des revenus, comment, pourquoi et quand un planteur prend-il la décision de replanter ? Nous essayerons ici de répondre à cette question sous forme de réflexion et d’exemples pris dans différents pays pour diverses cultures pérennes.

  5. Heavy metal contamination of surface soil in electronic waste dismantling area: site investigation and source-apportionment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhui Li; Huabo Duan; Pixing Shi

    2011-07-01

    The dismantling and disposal of electronic waste (e-waste) in developing countries is causing increasing concern because of its impacts on the environment and risks to human health. Heavy-metal concentrations in the surface soils of Guiyu (Guangdong Province, China) were monitored to determine the status of heavy-metal contamination on e-waste dismantling area with a more than 20 years history. Two metalloids and nine metals were selected for investigation. This paper also attempts to compare the data among a variety of e-waste dismantling areas, after reviewing a number of heavy-metal contamination-related studies in such areas in China over the past decade. In addition, source apportionment of heavy metal in the surface soil of these areas has been analysed. Both the MSW open-burning sites probably contained invaluable e-waste and abandoned sites formerly involved in informal recycling activities are the new sources of soil-based environmental pollution in Guiyu. Although printed circuit board waste is thought to be the main source of heavy-metal emissions during e-waste processing, requirement is necessary to soundly manage the plastic separated from e-waste, which mostly contains heavy metals and other toxic substances.

  6. Heavy metal contamination characteristic of soil in WEEE (waste electrical and electronic equipment) dismantling community: a case study of Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damrongsiri, Seelawut; Vassanadumrongdee, Sujitra; Tanwattana, Puntita

    2016-09-01

    Sue Yai Utit is an old community located in Bangkok, Thailand which dismantles waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). The surface soil samples at the dismantling site were contaminated with copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni) higher than Dutch Standards, especially around the WEEE dumps. Residual fractions of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni in coarse soil particles were greater than in finer soil. However, those metals bonded to Fe-Mn oxides were considerably greater in fine soil particles. The distribution of Zn in the mobile fraction and a higher concentration in finer soil particles indicated its readily leachable character. The concentration of Cu, Pb, and Ni in both fine and coarse soil particles was mostly not significantly different. The fractionation of heavy metals at this dismantling site was comparable to the background. The contamination characteristics differed from pollution by other sources, which generally demonstrated the magnification of the non-residual fraction. A distribution pathway was proposed whereby contamination began by the deposition of WEEE scrap directly onto the soil surface as a source of heavy metal. This then accumulated, corroded, and was released via natural processes, becoming redistributed among the soil material. Therefore, the concentrations of both the residual and non-residual fractions of heavy metals in WEEE-contaminated soil increased.

  7. Vertical distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in soil cores taken from a typical electronic waste polluted area in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z Z; Li, Y F; Hou, Y X; Liang, H Y; Qin, Z F; Fu, S

    2010-02-01

    37 PBDE congeners were analyzed at six different depths in two soil cores taken from a typical electronic waste polluted area in South China. The PBDEs were congregated in the surface layer (0-5 cm) of soil cores and were 29 times in MK and 18 times in NW higher than the second lower layers (5-10 cm). As a whole, the concentrations of PBDEs were decreased with the soil depth increased in two cores. Lower brominated PBDE had higher penetrability than the deca-BDE in soil. The deca-BDE could be detected in deeper soil layers (15-20 cm in MK and 20-30 cm in NW) and the percentage of deca-BDE decreased with the increase of depth.

  8. Analysis of phthalate esters in soils near an electronics manufacturing facility and from a non-industrialized area by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wei [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Hu, Jia [Suzhou Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Jinqi; Chen, Xuerong; Yao, Na [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Tao, Jing, E-mail: jingtao1982@126.com [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Zhou, Yi-Kai, E-mail: zhouyk@mails.tjmu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    2015-03-01

    Here, a novel technique is described for the extraction and quantitative determination of six phthalate esters (PAEs) from soils by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography. Recovery of PAEs ranged from 81.4% to 120.3%, and the relative standard deviation (n = 6) ranged from 5.3% to 10.5%. Soil samples were collected from roadsides, farmlands, residential areas, and non-cultivated areas in a non-industrialized region, and from the same land-use types within 1 km of an electronics manufacturing facility (n = 142). Total PAEs varied from 2.21 to 157.62 mg kg{sup −1} in non-industrialized areas and from 8.63 to 171.64 mg kg{sup −1} in the electronics manufacturing area. PAE concentrations in the non-industrialized area were highest in farmland, followed (in decreasing order) by roadsides, residential areas, and non-cultivated soil. In the electronics manufacturing area, PAE concentrations were highest in roadside soils, followed by residential areas, farmland, and non-cultivated soils. Concentrations of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) differed significantly (P < 0.01) between the industrial and non-industrialized areas. Principal component analysis indicated that the strongest explanatory factor was related to DMP and DnBP in non-industrialized soils and to butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and DMP in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility. Congener-specific analysis confirmed that diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) was a predictive indication both in the non-industrialized area (r{sup 2} = 0.944, P < 0.01) and the industrialized area (r{sup 2} = 0.860, P < 0.01). The higher PAE contents in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility are of concern, considering the large quantities of electronic wastes generated with ongoing industrialization. - Highlights: • A new method for determining phthalate esters in soil samples was developed. • Investigate six phthalates near an industry and a

  9. Clinical observation on 52 cases of traumatic dislocation teeth replantation%外伤脱位牙再植术52例临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨淑英

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical curative effect of traumatic dislocation teeth replantation.Methods:52 patients(83 teeth) with traumatic complete dislocation teeth who were taken replantation since 2010 were selected.They were followed up after replantation,then we observed the effect of treatment.Results:There were 58 teeth completely successful after replantation(69.88% );17 teeth were basic successful(20.48% );8 teeth were failure(9.64% ).54 teeth were periodontal healing(65.06%);22 teeth were bone healing(26.51%) and 7 teeth were fibrous healing(8.43%).Conclusion:If you can correct save luxated tooth and timely replantated when the complete dislocation teeth occurred,the success rate of replantation can improve effectively.%目的:观察外伤脱位牙再植术的临床疗效。方法:2010年以来收治外伤导致牙完全性脱位后再植患者52例(83颗牙),再植术后进行随访,观察治疗效果。结果:再植术后,完全成功58颗(69.88%),基本成功17颗(20.48%),失败8颗(9.64%)。牙周膜愈合54颗(65.06%),骨性愈合22颗(26.51%),纤维性愈合7颗(8.43%)。结论:发生完全性牙脱位后,正确地保存脱位牙,并及时就诊再植能够有效地提高再植成功率。

  10. Influence of enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) and sodium fluoride on the healing process in delayed tooth replantation: histologic and histometric analysis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poi, Wilson Roberto; Carvalho, Roberta Martinelli; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Manfrin, Thais Mara; Rodrigues, Thais da Silveira

    2007-02-01

    Although it has already been shown that enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) promotes periodontal regeneration in the treatment of intrabony periodontal defects, there is little information concerning its regenerative capacity in cases of delayed tooth replantation. To evaluate the alterations in the periodontal healing of replanted teeth after use of Emdogain, the central incisors of 24 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) were extracted and left on the bench for 6 h. Thereafter, the dental papilla and the enamel organ of each tooth were sectioned for pulp removal by a retrograde way and the canal was irrigated with 1% sodium hypochlorite. The teeth were assigned to two groups: in group I, root surface was treated with 1% sodium hypochlorite for 10 min (changing the solution every 5 min), rinsed with saline for 10 min and immersed in 2% acidulated-phosphate sodium fluoride for 10 min; in group II, root surfaces were treated in the same way as described above, except for the application of Emdogain instead of sodium fluoride. The teeth were filled with calcium hydroxide (in group II right before Emdogain was applied) and replanted. All animals received antibiotic therapy. The rats were killed by anesthetic overdose 10 and 60 days after replantation. The pieces containing the replanted teeth were removed, fixated, decalcified and paraffin-embedded. Semi-serial 6-microm-thick sections were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histologic and histometric analyses. The use of 2% acidulated-phosphate sodium fluoride provided more areas of replacement resorption. The use of Emdogain resulted in more areas of ankylosis and was therefore not able to avoid dentoalveolar ankylosis. It may be concluded that neither 2% acidulated-phosphate sodium fluoride nor Emdogain were able to prevent root resorption in delayed tooth replantation in rats.

  11. In Situ Bioremediation of Perchlorate in Vadose Zone Soil Using Gaseous Electron Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    90% propane) CH3CH2CH3 44.1 6.00E-01 5700 Ethanol C2H5OH 46.07 5.00E-06 40 17 chlorate, chlorite , and chloride concentration, moisture content...C. Perchlorate, chlorate, chlorite , chloride, nitrate, and nitrite were extracted from 5-g soil by vortexing for 1 minute in a 50-mL centrifuge...equipped with an AS-11 column, and an ED40 Electrochemical Detector. A sodium hydroxide solution eluent with a flow rate of 1 mL/min was used to

  12. A study of the interleukin-1 gene cluster polymorphisms and inflammatory external root resorption in replanted permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, J V; Côrtes, M I S; Silva, J F C; Goulart, E M A; Colosimo, E A; Gomez, R S; Dutra, W O

    2015-09-01

    To investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the interleukin-1 gene cluster (IL1) are associated with the occurrence and severity of inflammatory external root resorption (IERR) after replantation of avulsed permanent teeth. Indexes of IERR were radiographically assessed in 182 mature replanted permanent teeth from 146 patients at the onset of endodontic therapy. DNA was extracted from buccal mucosa cells and genotyped using TaqMan probes-based assays for the SNPs IL1A -889C/T (rs 180058), IL1B +3954C/T (rs1143634) and IL1RN +2018C/T (rs419598). Teeth were grouped into two categories: IERR absent to mild (indexes ≤ 4) and moderate to severe IERR (indexes > 4). Genetic variations in the IL1 gene cluster were tested for their effect on the occurrence and extension of IERR using the GEE model (generalized estimation equation). Patient's age at the moment of injury, timing of pulpectomy, extra-alveolar period and storage condition of the avulsed teeth was included as possible confounders. No association was found between SNPs IL1A -889C/T, IL1B +3954C/T (rs1143634) and IL1RN +2018C/T (rs419598) and IERR indexes. Timing of pulpectomy (OR 3.5 IC 95% 2.0-6.2 P < 0.001) and patient's age at the moment of trauma (OR 0.29 IC 95% 0.12-0.67 P = 0.004) significantly affected the risk of developing severe IERR. While timing of pulpectomy and patient's age at the moment of trauma were confirmed as important risk factors, SNPs within the IL1 gene cluster did not affect the susceptibility for IERR after replantation of permanent teeth. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The effect of wind induced bottom shear stress and salinity on Zostera noltii replanting in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseenko, E.; Roux, B.; Fougere, D.; Chen, P. G.

    2017-03-01

    The paper concerns the wind influence on bottom shear stress and salinity levels in a Mediterranean semi-enclosed coastal lagoon (Etang de Berre), with respect to a replanting program of Zostera noltii. The MARS3D numerical model is used to analyze the 3D current, salinity and temperature distribution induced by three meteorological, oceanic and anthropogenic forcings in this lagoon. The numerical model has been carefully validated by comparison with daily observations of the vertical salinity and temperature profiles at three mooring stations, for one year. Then, two modelling scenarios are considered. The first scenario (scen.#1), starting with a homogeneous salinity of S = 20 PSU and without wind forcing, studies a stratification process under the influence of a periodic seawater inflow and a strong freshwater inflow from a hydropower plant (250 m3/s). Then, in the second scenario (scen.#2), we study how a strong wind of 80 km/h can mix the haline stratification obtained at the end of scen.#1. The most interesting results concern four nearshore replanting areas; two are situated on the eastern side of EB and two on the western side. The results of scen.#2 show that all these areas are subject to a downwind coastal jet. Concerning bottom salinity, the destratification process is very beneficial; it always remains greater than 12 PSU for a N-NW wind of 80 km/h and an hydropower runoff of 250 m3/s. Special attention is devoted to the bottom shear stress (BSS) for different values of the bottom roughness parameter (for gravels, sands and silts), and to the bottom salinity. Concerning BSS, it presents a maximum near the shoreline and decreases along transects perpendicular to the shoreline. There exists a zone, parallel to the shoreline, where BSS presents a minimum (close to zero). When comparing the BSS value at the four replanting areas with the critical value, BSScr, at which the sediment mobility would occur, we see that for the smaller roughness values (ranging

  14. Anaerobic degradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls Ethers (PBDEs), and microbial community dynamics of electronic waste-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mengke [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Luo, Chunling, E-mail: clluo@gig.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li, Fangbai [Guangdong Institute of Eco-environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Jiang, Longfei [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Wang, Yan [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang, Dayi [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Zhang, Gan [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination caused by electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is attracting increasing attention worldwide because of the threats posed to ecosystems and human safety. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of in situ bioremediation of e-waste-contaminated soils. We found that, in the presence of lactate as an electron donor, higher halogenated congeners were converted to lower congeners via anaerobic halorespiration using ferrous ions in contaminated soil. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of terminal restriction fragments indicated that the three dominant strains were closely related to known dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) and those able to perform dehalogenation upon respiration. The functional species performed the activities of ferrous oxidation to ferric ions and further ferrous reduction for dehalogenation. The present study links iron cycling to degradation of halogenated materials in natural e-waste-contaminated soil, and highlights the synergistic roles of soil bacteria and ferrous/ferric ion cycling in the dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs). - Highlights: • The biodegradation PCBs and PBDEs in e-waste contaminated soils was studied. • DIRB and arylhalorespiring bacteria were responsive to dehalogenation respiration. • Soil bacteria and Fe ion cycling play synergistic roles in dehalogenation.

  15. Experimental Investigation of Space Radiation Processing in Lunar Soil Ilmenite: Combining Perspectives from Surface Science and Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L. P.; Rahman, Z.; Baragiola, R.

    2010-01-01

    Energetic ions mostly from the solar wind play a major role in lunar space weathering because they contribute structural and chemical changes to the space-exposed surfaces of lunar regolith grains. In mature mare soils, ilmenite (FeTiO3) grains in the finest size fraction have been shown in transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies to exhibit key differences in their response to space radiation processing relative to silicates [1,2,3]. In ilmenite, solar ion radiation alters host grain outer margins to produce 10-100 nm thick layers that are microstructurally complex, but dominantly crystalline compared to the amorphous radiation-processed rims on silicates [1,2,3]. Spatially well-resolved analytical TEM measurements also show nm-scale compositional and chemical state changes in these layers [1,3]. These include shifts in Fe/Ti ratio from strong surface Fe-enrichment (Fe/Ti >> 1), to Fe depletion (Fe/Ti electron (FE-STEM) study of experimentally ion-irradiated ilmenite. A key feature of this work is the combination of analytical techniques sensitive to changes in the irradiated samples at depth scales going from the immediate surface (approx.5 nm; XPS), to deeper in the grain interior (5-100 nm; FE-STEM).

  16. Impact of vegetation change on the mobility of uranium- and thorium-series nuclides in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontier, A.; Rihs, S.; Turpault, M.-P.; Chabaux, F.

    2012-04-01

    The effect of land cover change on chemical mobility and soil response was investigated using short- and long-lived nuclides from the U- and Th series. Indeed, the matching of these nuclides half-live to the pedogenic processes rates make these nuclides especially suitable to investigate either time or mechanism of transfers within a soil-water-plant system. This study was carried out from the experimental Breuil-Chenue site (Morvan mountains, France). The native forest (150 year-old) was partially clear-felled and replaced in 1976 by mono-specific plantations distributed in different stands. Following this cover-change, some mineralogical changes in the acid brown soil were recognized (Mareschal, 2008). Three soil sections were sampled under the native forest and the replanted oak and Douglas spruce stands respectively. The (238U), (234U), (230Th), (226Ra), (232Th) and (228Ra) activities were analysed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) and gamma spectrometry. Significant differences in U, Th, and Ra activities were observed between the soils located under the native forest or the replanted-trees stands, mostly dominated by a large uranium mobilization from the replanted soils. Moreover, all the investigated U and Th-series activity ratios show a contrasted trend between the shallowest horizons (0-50cm) and the deepest one (below 50cm), demonstrating the chemical effect of the vegetation change on the shallow soil layers. Using a continuous open-system leaching model, the coupled radioactive disequilibria measured in the different soil layers permit to quantify the rate of the radionuclides mobilities. Reference: Mareschal, L., 2008. Effet des substitutions d'essences forestières sur l'évolution des sols et de leur minéralogie : bilan après 28 ans dans le site expérimental de Breuil (Morvan) Université Henri Poincaré, Nancy-I.

  17. Multidisciplinary approach in the immediate replantation of a maxillary central incisor - A six and a half year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Braga Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report proposes a discussion of the various peculiarities of a tooth 21 replantation in a 9-year-old patient and describes different treatment facets and a 6-year follow-up of the case. The splint was maintained for a 3-month period. After a 1΍ year therapy with calcium hydroxide to control inflammatory resorption, the final canal obturation was performed 18 months after trauma with mineral trioxide aggregate. Two years after replantation, the orthodontic treatment had been initiated and 5 years after avulsion, whitening of tooth 21 was also done. Clinical and radiographic follow-up at regular intervals revealed that the treated tooth was still functional, showing normal mobility, resorption stabilization, and normal appearance of the bone tissue and lamina dura, testifying the treatment has been so far successful. The possibility of submitting avulsed teeth to other dental treatments once, there is close professional monitoring by controlling the risks and benefits of each therapy, as well as the patient′s cooperation, extra-oral time, and storage media for transport to the dentist among other details is emphasized.

  18. [The dynamics of morphofunctional changes in the microcirculation of the pelvic extremity after modeling the chief stages of its replantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simagin, E I; Dimitrov, N G; Kiprenskiĭ, Iu V; Solntsev, A B

    1975-06-01

    Under study was the effect of autotransplantation in its "pure form" upon the morpho-functional reconstruction and structural mechanisms of adaptation of the blood and lymphatic links of the microcirculatory bed of extremities during early postoperation period up to 10 days. The pathophysiological state of the extremity sufficiently close to its autotransplantation was obtained by means of circular transection of soft tissues of the medial third of the femur together with the nerves and deep collecting lymphatic vessels. It was found that after modeling the main stages of replantation in the fascia and periosteum of the operated extremity there developed a spasm of the arteriolar link and dilatation of the venular and lymphatic links of the microcirculatory bed. The areas of leukocytic infiltration with the phenomena of diapedesis and microhemorrhages were revealed along the course of postcapillaries and venules in the paravasal connective tissue. The amount of functioning arteriole-venular anastomoses was increased. Against the background of pronounced oedema of soft tissues of the operated extremity the venous pressure increased and the rate of the capillary bloodflow in the skin and muscles decreased. The above changes tend to be reduced by the 10th day after modelling the main stages of replantation of the extremity.

  19. Treatment of replacement resorption by intentional replantation, resection of the ankylosed sites, and Emdogain--results of a 6-year survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Andreas; Pohl, Yango; von Arx, Thomas

    2006-12-01

    The present clinical study investigated the outcome of intentional replantation using resection of the ankylosed sites of the root, extraoral endodontic treatment using titanium posts and Emdogain for periodontal healing following trauma-related ankylosis. During an evaluation period of 6 years, 16 ankylosed teeth affected by replacement resorption were treated as described. Evaluation parameters before treatment and during the follow-up period included Periotest scores, percussion sound and periapical radiographs. All findings were compared to those of the adjacent teeth. In a second accident, one tooth was lost after 7 months and was excluded as a dropout. Ankylosis did not recur in seven replanted teeth, which were observed for an average of 52.3 months (range: 24-68 months). Ankylosis recurred in eight teeth after an average period of 12 months (range: 4-26 months). An infraocclusion, normal or only slightly reduced Periotest scores and normal percussion sound were preoperatively found in six of seven successfully replanted teeth, which corresponded to a relatively small area of ankylosis. The majority of the teeth showing recurrent ankylosis preoperatively presented with normal position, negative Periotest scores and a high percussion sound which corresponded to an extended area of ankylosis. Statistically significant relationship between preoperative findings and the treatment outcome (P = 0.031) have become apparent. The results indicate that the treatment of minor areas of ankylosis by intentional replantation, resection of the ankylosed sites and Emdogain appeared to prevent or delay the recurrence of ankylosis in 7 of 15 teeth.

  20. 恒牙全脱位再植的研究现状%Present Studies of Replantation of Avulsed Permanent Teeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱瀚宇; 丁允鹏

    2015-01-01

    Permanent teeth are prone to avulsion by trauma.Replantation is the preferred treatment for avulsed perma-nent teeth, and the ideal prognosis of replantation is to achieve functional healing of periodontal ligament. If the avulsed teeth are immature, revascularization of the dental pulp is expected. The duration of extra-alveolar time, preservation of the root and storage media of the tooth, all of which determine the prognosis for dental replantation, but the current prognosis is not satisfactory. Present studies of replantation of avulsed permanent teeth were reviewed in the present paper.%恒牙外伤常导致牙齿全脱位,再植术是恒牙全脱位的首选治疗方法. 理想的预后是实现牙周功能性愈合,若牙根尖未完全封闭,尚有牙髓再生的可能. 恒牙再植术的预后与很多因素有关,如牙齿脱离牙槽窝的时间、牙根的保存以及牙齿的储存介质等,目前临床治疗效果尚不理想. 本文就恒牙全脱位再植的研究现状作一综述.

  1. La replantation digitale, résultats et complications: étude d’une série de 18 cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrissi, Mohammed El; Elibrahimi, Abdelhalim; Shimi, Mohammed; Elmrini, Abdelmajid

    2016-01-01

    Les amputations digitales sont des lésions fréquentes, la majorité étant provoquée par des accidents de travail. Les techniques microchirurgicales représentent une alternative pour réparer ces amputations. L'objectif de ce travail est de rapporter notre expérience dans la replantation digitale à travers l'étude de 18 cas. Nous avons mené une étude rétrospective, étalée entre Juin 2013 et Janvier 2015, incluant 14 patients présentant une amputation totale ou subtotale des doigts. Nous avons inclus dans notre série toutes les replantations unidigitales et multidigitales réalisées en aval de l'insertion distale du tendon fléchisseur superficiel ainsi que les replantations digitales réalisées en amont de l'insertion distale du tendon fléchisseur superficiel. Nous avons opéré ces patients selon le procédé classique de réimplantation digitale. Cinq replantations ont été secondairement régularisées. Parmi les 18 replantations, huit replantions digitales ont favorablement évolué puisque la replantation a permis de restituer un secteur complet de mobilité passive et active du doigt opéré sans chirurgie de reprise et sans complication secondaire précoce et tardive. Dans notre étude nous avons noté des résultats satisfaisants, malgré les conditions difficiles notamment le conditionnement initial du doigt amputé, et le délai de prise en charge retardé. Le développement et la maîtrise de la microchirurgie a permis de changer le pronostic de ces amputations à retentissement fonctionnel et psychologique difficile, les résultats de notre série sont encourageants pour a mise en place d'un service SOS main au Maroc. PMID:27795781

  2. Replantation methods of mini tissue mass of amputated finger%手指小组织块离断再植的临床体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘育杰; 丁小珩; 焦鸿生; 方光荣; 张宏勋; 屈志刚; 姜凯

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨手指小组织块离断后再植的手术方法和治疗效果.方法 对手指不同部位小组织块离断20例26指,采用血管直接吻合、桥接吻合、动脉静脉化、静脉动脉化等多种血运重建方式进行原位再植.结果 再植组织块完全成活25指,部分坏死1指,经过换药后痊愈.术后随访6~12个月,再植指屈伸功能良好,外形满意.结论 对手指不同部位小组织块离断,采用显微外科重建技术原位再植,能获得较好的临床疗效.%Objective To investigate the replantation methods and outcomes of mini tissue mass of amputated finger. Methods Twenty-six fingers of 20 patients were replanted with multiple vessel anastomosis methods to restore blood supply.The methods include vascular anastomosis,vascular bridge,arteriovenolization,veno-arteriolization,et al. Results Twenty-five replanted tissues were survived completely.Partly necrosis occur in 1 case,and rehabilitation by change dressings.The patients were follow up from 6 to 12 months.The contour and function of the replantation fingers recovered satisfactory. Conclusion By using the rational anastomosis according to the traumatic condition,it could be obtain good outcome of mini tissue mass replantation

  3. Problèmes entomologiques en replantation des palmeraies et des cocoteraies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariau Dominique

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available C’est aux alentours de la vingt-cinquième année que l’on envisage de replanter une palmeraie. C’est en effet vers cet âge que commencent à se poser des problèmes de récolte en raison de la taille des palmiers. En un quart de siècle, l’amélioration génétique aura suffisamment fait de progrès pour escompter un gain de production de l’ordre de 20%. Enfin, dans certaines situations, plusieurs maladies ont pu affecter les vieilles palmeraies. Avec de 15 à 25% d’arbres manquants, principalement lorsque ceux-ci se présentent sous la forme de taches, une diminution de la production se fait nettement sentir. Cela peut, par exemple, être le cas avec les maladies de la fusariose en Afrique de l’Ouest, lorsque la palmeraie n’a pas été plantée avec du matériel végétal tolérant, ou du ganoderma en Malaisie. Le renouvellement des cocoteraies se fait avec un espace de temps beaucoup plus long. En effet, la récolte des noix peut se faire au sol et la hauteur des cocotiers n’est donc pas un facteur limitant. Par ailleurs, la majorité des cocoteraies étant sous la forme de petites plantations villageoises, les agriculteurs rechignent toujours à abattre leurs cocotiers, même si des semences potentiellement plus productives leurs sont proposées. Ce sont les raisons pour lesquelles les cocoteraies de 50 ans et plus représentent la règle. L’abattage d’une plantation de palmiers à huile ou de cocotiers constitue naturellement un changement brutal de l’environnement, ce qui a des conséquences importantes notamment sur l’entomofaune, parmi laquelle des ravageurs majeurs ainsi que leurs ennemis naturels.

  4. [Optimising care structures for severe hand trauma and replantation and chances of launching a national network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, E M; Volkmer, E; Holzbach, T; Wallmichrath, J; Engelhardt, T O; Giunta, R E

    2013-12-01

    Severe hand traumata have a significant impact on our health system and on insurance companies, respectively. It is estimated that 33% of all occupational injuries and 9% of all invalidity pensions are due to severe hand trauma. Unfortunately, these high numbers are not only due to the severity of the trauma but to organisational deficiencies. Usually, the patient is treated at the general surgical emergency in the first place and only then forwarded to a microsurgeon. This redirection increases the time that is required for the patient to finally arrive at an expert for hand surgery. On the one hand, this problem can be explained by the population's lack of awareness for distinguished experts for hand and microsurgery, on the other hand, the emergency network, or emergency doctors in particular are not well informed about where to take a patient with a severe hand trauma - clearly a problem of communication between the hospitals and the ambulance. It is possible to tackle this problem, but put participating hand trauma centres have to work hand in hand as a network and thus exploit synergy effects. The French system "FESUM" is a good example for such a network and even comprises centres in Belgium and Switzerland. To improve the treatment of severe hand trauma, a similar alliance was initiated in Germany just recently. The pilot project "Hand Trauma Alliance" (www.handverletzung.com) was started in April 2013 and currently comprises two hospitals within the region of upper Bavaria. The network provides hand trauma replantation service on a 24/7 basis and aims at shortening the way from the accident site to the fully qualified hand surgeon, to improve the therapy of severe hand injuries and to optimise acute patient care in general. In order to further increase the alliance's impact it is intended to extend the project's scope from regional to national coverage - nevertheless, such an endeavour can only be done in collaboration with the German Society for Hand

  5. Estimated PBDE and PBB Congeners in soil from an electronics waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H-M; Yu, Y-J; Han, M; Yang, S-W; Li, Q; Yang, Y

    2009-12-01

    This study estimated PBDE and PBB congener emissions into the environment from three different e-waste disposal sites that consisted of rude broilers (RB), acid baths (AB) and end-up dumps (ED). Different PBDE and PBB congener profiles were analyzed, and some of their emission sources were discussed. For the examined sites, the levels of SigmaPBB and SigmaPBDE were highest at ED (SigmaPBB 1943.86 ng/g, dw; SigmaPBDE 990.87 ng/g, dw), followed by RB (SigmaPBB 704.58 ng/g, dw; SigmaPBDE 799.27 ng/g, dw) and finally AB (SigmaPBB 108.78 ng/g, dw; SigmaPBDE 171.18 ng/g, dw). PBE-209 (AB 48.67 ng/g, 28.43%; RB 160.23 ng/g, 20.05%; ED 234.12 ng/g, 23.63%) and PBE-203 (AB 51.23 ng/g, 29.93%; RB 130.34 ng/g, 16.31%; ED 93.41 ng/g, 9.43%) exhibited the highest concentrations when compared to the other congeners. Furthermore, high levels of deca-BDE (BDE-209) were observed in AB (48.67 ng/g, 28.43%) and RB sites (160.23 ng/g, 20.05%), which was in accordance with the large amount of these materials in electronics products in China.

  6. Anaerobic degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated biphenyls ethers (PBDEs), and microbial community dynamics of electronic waste-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mengke; Luo, Chunling; Li, Fangbai; Jiang, Longfei; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Dayi; Zhang, Gan

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination caused by electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is attracting increasing attention worldwide because of the threats posed to ecosystems and human safety. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of in situ bioremediation of e-waste-contaminated soils. We found that, in the presence of lactate as an electron donor, higher halogenated congeners were converted to lower congeners via anaerobic halorespiration using ferrous ions in contaminated soil. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of terminal restriction fragments indicated that the three dominant strains were closely related to known dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) and those able to perform dehalogenation upon respiration. The functional species performed the activities of ferrous oxidation to ferric ions and further ferrous reduction for dehalogenation. The present study links iron cycling to degradation of halogenated materials in natural e-waste-contaminated soil, and highlights the synergistic roles of soil bacteria and ferrous/ferric ion cycling in the dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs).

  7. The critical apical diameter to obtain regeneration of the pulp tissue after tooth transplantation, replantation, or regenerative endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureys, Wim G M; Cuvelier, Claude A; Dermaut, Luc R; De Pauw, Guy A M

    2013-06-01

    Regeneration of pulp-like tissue in the pulp chamber after tooth transplantation, replantation, or in regenerative endodontic treatment is only possible if the apical foramen is open. According to the literature, the success of regeneration decreases considerably if the foramen is smaller than 1 mm when measured on radiographs. The aim of this study was to study histologically the relation between the width of the apical foramen and regeneration of tissue in the pulp chamber after autotransplantation. Fifteen single-rooted mature teeth of 3 adult beagle dogs were used. All experimental teeth were extracted and underwent apicoectomy. The teeth were photographed from the apical side, and the width of the foramen was calculated. The foramen width ranged from 0.24-1.09 mm. All teeth were replanted in infraocclusion. The observation period was 90 days after transplantation. The 10 teeth with the smallest apical diameter, ranging between 0.24 and 0.53 mm, showed vital tissue in at least one third of the pulp chamber. The 6 most successful teeth showing vital tissue in the entire pulp chamber had an apical diameter between 0.32 and 0.65 mm, and 80% of the experimental teeth with a diameter varying between 1.09 and 0.31 mm showed vital tissue in at least one third of the pulp chamber 90 days after transplantation. The size of the apical foramen seems not to be the all decisive factor for successful revascularization and ingrowth of new tissue after transplantation. The minimum width of the apical foramen has not been determined, but a size smaller than 1 mm does not prevent revascularization and ingrowth of vital tissue. In this animal study an apical foramen of 0.32 mm did not prevent ingrowth of new tissue in two-thirds of the pulp chamber 90 days after transplantation. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 重茬胁迫下苹果不同砧木幼苗生长及根系吸收的差异%Differences of growth and root absorption of different apple rootstock seedlings in replant stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭小静; 韩甜甜; 王荣; 张贞; 盖瑞; 毛志泉; 陈学森; 吴树敬; 沈向

    2015-01-01

    [Objective] Selecting appropriate rootstocks is one of the most effective methods of preventing apple from replant disease. In order to provide theoretic foundation for screening of anti-replant rootstock materials and breeding anti-replant rootstock varieties, differences of growth and root absorption of three apple rootstock seedlings were compared, and absorption of potassium and calcium ions under the replant stress was discussed in this study.[Methods] One-year-old seedlings of Malus hupehensis Rehd, Malus sieversii( Ledeb. ) Roem and Malus prunifolia ( Willd. ) Borkh were used as the materials, and 0-40 cm rhizosphere soil of 20 years’ orchard which‘Fuji’ apple on M . robusta stock located in Tai’an city was used as matrix. The seedlings were divided into two parts, some of the seedlings were supplied to determine the flow velocity of rhizosphere K+ and Ca2+ under the replant stress by Non-invasive Micro-test Technique on April 25 , 2012 , other seedlings were transplanted into pots of 25 cm wide and 30 cm deep. The height, stem diameter, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate of the seedlings were investigated from July to September. The root structure was scanned and dry weight and fresh weight of roots, branches and leaves were measured respectively after the growing season. [Results]The aboveground growth of the three rootstocks is suppressed in different levels under the replant stress. The heights of M. hupehensis have no significant differences before and after the replant stress, while the heights of the other two rootstocks are significantly decreased. The photosynthetic rates have no significant decreases except M. Sieversii. The chlorophyll contents of three rootstocks are significantly decreased and there are no obviously changes in stem diameter. The dry matter of M. sieversii seedlings is significantly decreased under the replant stress, while the root-shoot ratio is increased. Root biomass amounts of the three rootstocks are

  9. Bioaccumulation and translocation of polyhalogenated compounds in rice (Oryza sativa L.) planted in paddy soil collected from an electronic waste recycling site, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mo, Ling; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Mai, Bi-Xian; Peng, Yong-Hong

    2015-10-01

    The bioaccumulation and translocation of polyhalogenated compounds (PHCs) in rice planted in the paddy soils of an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site were investigated, along with the effect of contaminated soils on rice growth. The PHCs included polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), and dechlorane plus (DPs). The morphological development and all measured physiological parameters of rice plants except for peroxidase were significantly inhibited by e-waste contaminated soils. Specifically, soil-root bioaccumulation factors (RCFs) increased with increasing logarithm of octanol-water partition coefficient (logKow) for PCBs, but decreased for PBDEs. During translocation from root to stem, translocation factors (TFs) and logKow were positively correlated. However, the accumulation mechanism in the leaf was concentration-dependent. In the high concentration exposure group, translocation play more important role in determination PHCs burden in leaf than atmospheric uptake, with logTF (from stem to leaf) being positively correlated with logKow. In contrast, in the low exposure and control groups, logTF (from stem to leaf) was negatively correlated with logKow. In addition, Syn-DP was selectively accumulated in plant tissues. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that e-waste contaminated soils affect rice growth, revealed the rule of the bioaccumulation and translocation of PHCs in rice plants.

  10. 石灰氮在草莓重茬生产中的应用%The Application of CaCN2 in Replanted Strawberry Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉明; 姜永平

    2011-01-01

    The status of replanted strawberry production and the physical and chemical properties of CaCN2 were introduced; The mechanism and efficiency conditions of CaCN2 in replanted strawberry production were elucidated; And the application of CaCN2 in solar disinfection was introduced emphatically.%在简要介绍草莓重茬生产现状、石灰氮的理化性质、石灰氮在草莓重茬生产中的作用机理和作用条件的基础上,重点介绍了利用石灰氮—太阳能消毒的技术.

  11. Replantation of avulsed permanent teeth:an analysis of 32 cases%外伤脱位牙再植后的临床疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月云; 徐龙博

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the factors influencing the effects of tooth replantation of avulsed permanent teeth.METHODS : Twenty-six children with 32 avulsed permantent teeth were enrolled in this study.The avulsed permantent teeth were replantated in the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Jining Stomatology Hospital, in the years between 2004 and 2008.The patients were followed up regularly for 2 to 3 years.RESULTS : During the follow-up period, periodontal ligament healing was observed in 4/32, replacement resorption in 23/32, inflammatory resorption in 3/32 and odontoptosis in 2/32 teeth.The success rate of replatation was 84.37%.CONCLUSION: The replantation of young permanent teeth showed a higher success rate.The success of replantation was related to ex vivo time,storage medium and root development stage of the avulsed teeth.%目的:研究探讨影响再植牙临床疗效的相关因素.方法:对2004-2008到我院儿童牙病科就诊的26例8~14岁患儿32个外伤牙进行常规再植,术后定期复查,观察时间2~3年.结果:观察期内,32个外伤恒牙中牙周膜愈合4个,替代性吸收23个,炎症性吸收3个,松动脱落2个.成功率为84.37%.结论:年轻恒牙再植后的成功率较高,但与脱位牙离体时间、保存方式及牙根的发育程度等因素有密切关系.

  12. Carbon stock and humification index of organic matter affected by sugarcane straw and soil management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Segnini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. straw on a soil surface increases the soil carbon (C stocks, but at lower rates than expected. This fact is probably associated with the soil management adopted during sugarcane replanting. This study aimed to assess the impact on soil C stocks and the humification index of soil organic matter (SOM of adopting no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT for sugarcane replanting. A greater C content and stock was observed in the NT area, but only in the 0-5 cm soil layer (p < 0.05. Greater soil C stock (0-60 cm was found in soil under NT, when compared to CT and the baseline. While C stock of 116 Mg ha-1 was found in the baseline area, in areas under CT and NT systems the values ranged from 120 to 127 Mg ha-1. Carbon retention rates of 0.67 and 1.63 Mg C ha-1 year-1 were obtained in areas under CT and NT, respectively. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy showed that CT makes the soil surface (0-20 cm more homogeneous than the NT system due to the effect of soil disturbance, and that the SOM humification index (H LIF is larger in CT compared to NT conditions. In contrast, NT had a gradient of increasing H LIF, showing that the entry of labile organic material such as straw is also responsible for the accumulation of C in this system. The maintenance of straw on the soil surface and the adoption of NT during sugarcane planting are strategies that can increase soil C sequestration in the Brazilian sugarcane sector.

  13. Root removal to improve disease management in replanted Washington red raspberry fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington leads the nation in the production of red raspberries for processing. Soilborne pathogens are a production constraint in this $61 million industry with growers relying on preplant soil fumigation for their management. However, current fumigation methods can be ineffective, leading to repl...

  14. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with gas chromatography-electron capture detection for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Jia [Department of Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Key Laboratory of Pesticide and Chemical Biology of Ministry of Education, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Fu Lingyan; Zhao Xinna; Liu Xiujuan [Key Laboratory of Pesticide and Chemical Biology of Ministry of Education, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Wang Huili; Wang Xuedong [School of Environmental Science and Public Health, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Dai Liyan, E-mail: dailiyan@zju.edu.cn [Department of Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China)

    2009-04-27

    In this article, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) were presented for the extraction and determination of five polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil samples. Acetone was used as extraction solvent for the extraction of PCBs from soil samples. In DLLME, the target analytes in the extraction solvent were rapidly transferred from the acetone extract to chlorobenzene when the extraction process began. The main advantages of this method are quick speed, high enrichment factor, high recovery and good repeatability. Under the optimum conditions, the method yields a linear calibration curve in the concentration range from 2 to 2000 {mu}g kg{sup -1}for PCB 52, and 0.4 to 400 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for other target analytes. Coefficients of correlation (r{sup 2}) ranged from 0.9993 to 0.9999. The repeatability was tested by spiking soil samples at a concentration level of 10 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for PCBs. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 11) varied between 2.2% and 6.4%. The limits of detection (LODs), based on signal-to-noise (S/N) of 3, were between 0.20 and 0.50 {mu}g kg{sup -1}. The relative recoveries of the five PCBs from soil S1, S2 and S3 at spiking levels of 10, 20 and 50 {mu}g kg{sup -1} were in the range of 88.70-103.8%, 82.50-106.3% and 82.30-113.6%, respectively. Therefore, DLLME combined with GC-ECD can be successfully applied for the determination of trace PCB residues in real soil samples.

  15. Homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction combined with gas chromatography-electron capture detector for the determination of three pesticide residues in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xuedong [School of Environmental Science and Public Health, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China)], E-mail: zjuwxd@yahoo.com.cn; Zhao Xinna; Liu Xiujuan; Li Yanyan; Fu Lingyan; Hu Jia [Key Laboratory of Pesticide and Chemical Biology of Ministry of Education, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Huang Changjiang [School of Environmental Science and Public Health, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China)

    2008-07-14

    In this study, a new method was developed for analyzing malathion, cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin from soil samples by using homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction (HLLE) and gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Acetone was used as extraction solvent for the extraction of target pesticides from soil samples. When the extraction process was finished, the target analytes in the extraction solvent were rapidly transferred from the acetone extract to carbon tetrachloride, using HLLE. Under the optimum conditions, linearity was obtained in the range of 0.05-40 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for malathion, 0.04-10 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for lambda-cyhalothrin and 0.05-50 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for cypermethrin, respectively. Coefficients of correlation (r{sup 2}) ranged from 0.9993 to 0.9998. The repeatability was carried out by spiking soil samples at concentration levels of 2.5 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for lambda-cyhalothrin, and 10 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for malathion and cypermethrin, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) varied between 2.3 and 9.6% (n = 3). The limits of detection (LODs), based on signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3, varied between 0.01 and 0.04 {mu}g kg{sup -1}. The relative recoveries of three pesticides from soil A1, A2 and A3 at spiking levels of 2.5, 5 and 10 {mu}g kg{sup -1} were in the range of 82.20-91.60%, 88.90-110.5% and 77.10-98.50%, respectively. In conclusion, the proposed method can be successfully applied for the determination of target pesticide residues in real soil samples.

  16. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of proton metabolite level changes in sensorimotor cortex after upper limb replantation-revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertem, Kadir; Alkan, Alpay; Sarac, Kaya; Onal, Cagatay; Bostan, Haci; Yologlu, Saim; Bora, Arslan

    2005-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the changes in proton metabolite levels at the motor and somatosensory cortex by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) after upper extremity replantation or revascularization. Nine patients who referred to our clinic suffering from major total (two) and subtotal (seven) amputation of the upper extremity were enrolled in this study. Mean time value between the injury and operation was 5.1 h. Mean follow-up period or mean time between the injury and MRS analysis was 26.2 months (ranging from 7 to 41 months). Voxels (TR: 2000; TE: 136 ms) were placed onto locations in the bilateral precentral and postcentral cortex area of the cerebral hemispheres that represent the upper extremity. Contralateral sides of the brain hemisphere that represent the injured extremity were accounted as control groups. Metabolite ratios [NAA (N-acetyl aspartate)/Cr (creatine) and Cho (choline)/Cr] of the motor and somatosensory cortex were calculated. The NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr metabolite ratios between the two groups were found to be insignificant, and these results may indicate that there is no remarkable somatosensorial cortex disruption or demyelination in these patients. Fifty-six percent of patients were found as functional according to Chen's scale.

  17. Determination of trihalomethanes in soil matrices by simplified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction and fast gas chromatography with electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero Martín, Sara; García Pinto, Carmelo; Pérez Pavón, José Luis; Moreno Cordero, Bernardo

    2010-07-23

    A method based on QuEChERS extraction is proposed for the determination of trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromocloromethane and bromoform) in soil samples. The new version of QuEChERS adapted to soil samples consists of liquid extraction with ethyl acetate, the addition of water to moisten the samples, salting-out partitioning of the water with anhydrous MgSO4, and direct injection of the organic extract, obtained after the centrifugation step, into the gas chromatograph. This simplified extraction procedure maintains the advantages of the original method and avoids some steps, making the final procedure simpler, faster, and cheaper, with the consequent reduction in errors associated with sample manipulation. The experimental conditions of the analytical method, based on fast gas chromatography (FGC) and micro-electron capture detection (microECD), were optimized. The column and oven program used allowed fast separation of the compounds in less than 4 min and the total analysis cycle time was as short as 10 min. The existence of a matrix effect was checked and the analytical conditions of the method were studied in a fortified garden soil sample. The highly sensitive and selective detector used afforded to detection limits in the order of ng/kg for the target compounds. To validate the proposed method two certified reference materials (CRMs) were analyzed.

  18. The Effects of Antagonistic Actinomycetes G19 on Microbial Diversity in Replanted Peach Rhizosphere%拮抗放线菌G19对模拟再植毛桃根际微生物多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邸宁; 刘志民; 马焕普

    2011-01-01

    为了了解不同处理对微生物多样性变化的影响,试验采用Biolog技术对施用拮抗放线菌发酵液后的毛桃根际微生物的多样性进行了分析,结果表明:施放线菌G-19后,其根际细菌和放线菌数量增加,真菌数量明显减少,与正常土的变化趋势相似;再植土则相反,真菌数量大幅上升,细菌数量下降.微生物代谢活性及微生物群落多样性指数显示施用了放线菌G-19的根际微生物也是最丰富和稳定的,毛桃幼苗的生长也以施放线菌G-19发酵液的效果最好,这说明拮抗放线菌G-19有改善桃再植土壤微生态的作用.%The aim was to compare the difference in microbial diversity of different treatments. In this study, microbial diversity of peach rhizosphere which fermented antagonistic actinomycetes was measured by Biolog Eco plate facilities. The results showed that the number of bacteria and actinomycetes in peach rhizosphere increased significantly and the number of fungi decreased. That was similar to the normal soil. By contrast, the number of fungi increased significantly and the number of bacteria and actinomycetes decreased in replant soil. Microbial metabolic activity and microbial community diversity index application of actinomycetes G19 in rhizosphere microorganisms was the most abundant and stable. Seedling growth of peach was the best after strains G19 fermentation broth treatment. It indicated that antagonistic actinomycetes G19 could improve the ecological environment of the soil in replant peach rhizosphere.

  19. Growth and survival response of potted Cupressus sempervirens seedlings to different soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabari, Masoud; Saeidi, Hamid Reza; Alavi-Panah, Kazem; Basiri, Reza; Poormadjidian, Mohammad Reza

    2007-04-15

    In February 2001, one-year bareroot cypress (Cupressus sempervirens var. horizontalis) seedlings were replanted in plastic pot in a lowland nursery located in southern coast of the Caspian Sea (north of Iran). Soils of pots consisted of 1:1 sand:clay (A), pure sand (B), 2:1 sand:clay (C), 1:1:1 sand:clay:organic matter (D), 1:1:2 sand:clay:organic matter (E). In each soil treatment a high value of survival and growth was appeared in July and progressively decreased till November. In each month the seedlings grown on rich soils (D and E) had mostly greater growth and survival than on infertile soils. At the end of the first growing season seedling vitality differed significantly among the soils but did not differed notably in soil A with those in other soils. Survival rate was highest in the rich soils (D and E). Stem length as well as collar diameter performed the least growth on the poor soils (B and C). Like other characteristics measured, survival responded better to soils containing organic matter (D and E). It is concluded that generally characteristics of cypress seedling are suited by adding organic matter to sandy soils. This is while that poor nutrient available soil such as soil A produces a proper growth for cypress seedling, too.

  20. [Progress in improvement of continuous monoculture cropping problem in Panax ginseng by controlling soil-borne disease management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Dong, Lin-Lin; Xu, Jiang; Chen, Jun-Wen; Li, Xi-Wen; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2016-11-01

    The continuous monoculture cropping problem severely has hindered the land resource of Panax ginseng cultivation and threatened the sustainable development of ginseng industry. There are comprehensive factors causing the continuous monoculture cropping problem, such as deterioration of soil physical and chemical properties, accumulation of allelochemical, increase of pesticide residue and heavy metal, imbalance of rhizospheric micro-ecosystem, and increase of soil-borne diseases. Among soil-borne disease was one of the key factors. More than 40 soil-borne diseases have been reported in the ginseng cultivation, especially, the diseases were more serious in the ginseng replanting land. Here main soil-borne diseases and their prevention way have been summarized, and we try to provide the effective improvement strategy of continuous monoculture cropping problem focusing on the disease control and offer reference for overcoming the ginseng continuous monoculture cropping problem. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. The effect of splint material and thickness on tooth mobility after extraction and replantation using a human cadaveric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Steven C; Johnson, James D; Cohenca, Nestor

    2012-08-01

    Although current guidelines for the treatment of traumatic injuries recommend the use of 'flexible' splints, the precise definition of what is considered flexible versus rigid has not been rigorously defined, leaving the clinician with a wide range of options for this critical factor. The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare the effect of eight different splints on tooth mobility after extraction and replantation using a human cadaveric model. Following strict selection criteria including complete root maturation, lack of periodontal disease, normal bone levels, and crown integrity, a maxillary central incisor was atraumatically extracted and splinted with eight different splints. The experimental splints included a 20-pound test (9.072-kilogram test) [corrected] monofilament nylon-composite splint and six wire-composite splints made of wires of 0.012' (0.3 mm), 0.016' (0.4 mm), or 0.020' (0.5 mm) diameter stainless steel (SS) or nickel titanium (NT). A direct composite splint represented the most rigid type of splint. These eight splints were applied five times each, and tooth mobility was measured before and after each splint was applied. The average splint effect, defined as the difference between the presplint and the postsplint measurements quantified using the Periotest, was calculated for each splint and compared. No significant differences were found between the nylon-composite and the wire-composite splints. There was significantly less tooth mobility with the direct composite splint compared to all other splints. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that nylon and SS or NT wires up to 0.016' diameter are significantly more flexible than direct composite splints and thus may be better suited for the splinting and management of traumatized teeth. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. A retrospective study of upper arm replantation%上臂离断再植回顾性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    糜菁熠; 芮永军; 赵刚; 华雍; 邱扬; 姚群; 俞君; 王骏

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过对上臂离断再植患者回顾性研究,探讨再植的手术指征、技术要点和康复方法。方法对2004年至2012年在我院施行的22例上臂离断再植患者进行回顾性研究。年龄平均33.3岁,81.8%为旋转及绞轧撕脱性损伤,其它为压砸切割、车轮碾压和重物压砸伤。肢体毁损严重度评分( mangled extremity severity score,MESS )平均7.5分,13例为7分,7例为8分,1例为9分,1例为10分。再植手术中,肢体缺血时间为5~10 h ,平均8.1 h,其中热缺血时间为4~7 h,平均6.2 h。术后分早、中、晚期开展不同的康复治疗。结果2例在术后第5、第10天因为肌肉坏死、严重感染及血管破裂而予以截肢,其余20例肢体成活。17例获得长期随访,随访时间3~10年,平均4.2年。17例 DASH 上肢功能评定平均为58.35±19.42;按陈中伟断肢再植功能评定标准,70.6%为良,29.4%为可,无优及差;64.7%患者对外观满意或较满意,47.1%患者对功能满意或较满意。结论除一般手术指征外,肢体通血时间必须控制在9 h 以内,正中神经和桡神经必须有效修复。创面应尽量选择皮瓣、肌瓣早期覆盖,在保护血管神经束的同时可以为晚期功能恢复创造条件。坚持长期不懈的康复治疗,是促进患者功能、心理和社交恢复的重要保障。%Objective To discuss the indication, surgical technique and rehabilitation of upper arm replantation by a retrospective study. Methods Twenty-two cases ( 2004-2012 ) of upper arm replantation were studied. The average age was 33.3 years old. In all patients, 81.8% were of rotation-twist-avulsion injury, and others were of crush-cut, wheel rolling or heavy crush injuries. The average MESS score was 7.5 points: 13 cases were 7, 7 cases were 8, 1 case was 9 and 1 case was 10. Ischemia time was 5-10 hours ( average: 8.1 hours ). Warm ischemia time was 4-7 hours ( average: 6.2 hours

  3. Microbial populations responsible for specific soil suppressiveness to plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, David M; Raaijmakers, Jos M; Gardener, Brian B McSpadden; Thomashow, Linda S

    2002-01-01

    Agricultural soils suppressive to soilborne plant pathogens occur worldwide, and for several of these soils the biological basis of suppressiveness has been described. Two classical types of suppressiveness are known. General suppression owes its activity to the total microbial biomass in soil and is not transferable between soils. Specific suppression owes its activity to the effects of individual or select groups of microorganisms and is transferable. The microbial basis of specific suppression to four diseases, Fusarium wilts, potato scab, apple replant disease, and take-all, is discussed. One of the best-described examples occurs in take-all decline soils. In Washington State, take-all decline results from the buildup of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. that produce the antifungal metabolite 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol. Producers of this metabolite may have a broader role in disease-suppressive soils worldwide. By coupling molecular technologies with traditional approaches used in plant pathology and microbiology, it is possible to dissect the microbial composition and complex interactions in suppressive soils.

  4. Pulp and Periodontal Regeneration of an Avulsed Permanent Mature Incisor Using Platelet-rich Plasma after Delayed Replantation: A 12-month Clinical Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya M, Harini; Tambakad, Pavan B; Naidu, Jaya

    2016-01-01

    Numerous publications have reported revascularization of necrotic immature permanent teeth, but the regenerative potential of pulp in mature teeth has rarely been considered. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) meets many requirements of a scaffold for regenerative endodontics. To the best of our knowledge, no clinical study has evaluated PRP for endodontic regeneration in a mature avulsed tooth. The present case evaluated PRP for pulpal regeneration in an avulsed mature incisor (>8 hours extraoral dry time) of an 11-year-old boy after delayed replantation. The canal was disinfected after extraoral access cavity preparation and pulp extirpation. The root apex was enlarged, and the tooth was placed in doxycycline solution for 20 minutes. After tooth replantation and splinting, PRP was injected up to the level of the cementoenamel junction and sealed with glass ionomer cement. The 6-month follow-up revealed evidence of internal and external root resorption with periapical radiolucency and an apparent periodontal ligament space. Access was reopened; slurry of 2 antibiotics (minocycline and metronidazole) was inserted into the canal and sealed. Nine- and 12-month radiographs revealed resolution of periapical radiolucency with no further progression of internal resorption. The tooth showed a positive response to thermal and electric pulp tests. The findings observed in this case warrant further research under controlled conditions to evaluate endodontic and periodontal regeneration in a tooth that would otherwise be expected to have an unfavorable prognosis. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of replanting systems on populations of Strategus aloeus (L. and Rhynchophorus palmarum (L. associated with the oil palm OxG interspecific hybrid (Elaeis oleifera × Elaeis guineensis in Southwestern Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Andrés Ávila

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The oil palm replanting process produces a large amount of organic matter that, as it begins to decompose, becomes a breeding ground for various pests, including Strategus aloeus and Rhynchophorus palmarum. Different crop replanting systems are being used today. The method used depends on the plantation and it is basically associated with the costs involved in the process. However, sometimes too little attention is paid to other issues related to the new crop, such as plant health and agronomic management. This study evaluated the effect of different crop replanting alternatives in relation to two pest populations affecting oil palm plantations. Pest populations of S. aloeus and R. palmarum were assessed and monitored for 27 months using seven replanting methods. It was found that the largest number of individuals of R. palmarum and S. aloeus was associated with the stem felling and stacking method. No individuals of the two pest species were found when the felling and burying method was used. The exposed organic matter method that had the lowest number of individuals of both pest species was the felling, chipping, spreading method.

  6. 断指再植术护理配合与体会%The Surgical Nursing Cooperation and Experience of Severed Finger Replantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范晓勇; 郭明琴; 李香玲

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨断指再植手术的最佳手术配合方式。方法:对57例断指再植患者(108指)的心理护理、物品器械准备、手术中洗手、巡回护士的配合及术中出现特殊情况的护理配合等进行回顾。结果:经过3个月的随访,其中2例患者(3指)因受伤时间过长、伤口污染严重,术后出现感染,血管破裂导致截指;2例患者(4指)再植成功后因指动脉栓塞无法吻合而截指外,其他患者断指再植全部成活。结论:术前的准备工作、有效的心理护理、术中的精心护理,可以降低发生血管危象的几率;严格执行无菌操作、熟练地护理配合能有效缩短手术的时间,减少伤口感染,提高再植成活率。%Objective:To discuss the optimal surgical nursing cooperation of severed finger replantation. Method:The situations such as the psychological nursing of 57 patients(108 fingers)with severed finger replantation,the preparation of articles and instruments,the cooperation of scrub nurses and circulating nurses during the operation,the surgical nursing cooperation with special situations appeared during the operation were reviewed. Result:By 3 months of follow-up,because of too long injury time and serious wound contamination,infection and angiorrhexis occur in 2 patients(3 fingers)among them after the operation,which lead to cut the severed fingers. 2 patients(4 fingers)had been cut the severed fingers after the successful replantation because the fingers can not match on account of artery embolization. Beyond that,the other patients’severed fingers were all survived after the replantation. Conclusion:The preoperative preparation work,effective psychological nursing and intraoperative meticulous nursing can reduce the probability of vascular crisis. Strictly executing aseptic manipulation and skillfully nursing cooperation can effectively shorten the operation time,reduce the wound infection and improve the

  7. Sub-parts-per-billion determination of nitro-substituted polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne particulate matter and soil by electron capture-Tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenti, M; Minero, C; Pelizzetti, E; Fontana, M; De Maria, R

    1996-12-01

    A procedure for the determination of nitro-substiruted polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAH) on crude air-particulate and soil extracts is introduced. Elimination of purification and fractionation procedures was made possible by the use of both a selective ionization method, such as electron-capture chemical ionization, and a specific fragmentation process, in an experiment of tandem mass spectrometry (gas chromatography-electron capture tandem mass spectrometry). Different mass spectrometric procedures were compared. The best performance was observed when the nitro-PAH molecular ions [M](-) were mass-selected by the first analyzer under multiple reaction monitoring conditions and then fragmented to NO 2 (-) (m/z 46). Detection limits were on the order of hundreds of femtograms, as determined in extracts of real environmental samples. This corresponds approximately to 5-15 pg of nitro-PAH per cubic meter of air sampled. Calibration curves were linear over 3 orders of magnitude. Applications to contamination from motor vehicle combustion and the iron industry are briefly discussed.

  8. Insights into complexation of dissolved organic matter and Al(III) and nanominerals formation in soils under contrasting fertilizations using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yongli; Li, Huan; Xiao, Jian; Wang, Chang; Shen, Qirong; Ran, Wei; He, Xinhua; Zhou, Quansuo; Yu, Guanghui

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the organomineral associations in soils is of great importance. Using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques, this study compared the binding characteristics of organic ligands to Al(III) in dissolved organic matter (DOM) from soils under short-term (3-years) and long-term (22-years) fertilizations. Three fertilization treatments were examined: (i) no fertilization (Control), (ii) chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK), and (iii) NPK plus swine manure (NPKM). Soil spectra detected by the 2DCOS Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that fertilization modified the binding characteristics of organic ligands to Al(III) in soil DOM at both short- and long- term location sites. The CH deformations in aliphatic groups played an important role in binding to Al(III) but with minor differences among the Control, NPK and NPKM at the short-term site. While at the long-term site both C-O stretching of polysaccharides or polysaccharide-like substances and aliphatic O-H were bound to Al(III) under the Control, whereas only aliphatic O-H, and only polysaccharides and silicates, were bound to Al(III) under NPK and NPKM, respectively. Images from HRTEM demonstrated that crystalline nanominerals, composed of Fe and O, were predominant in soil DOM under NPK, while amorphous nanominerals, predominant in Al, Si, and O, were dominant in soil DOM under Control and NPKM. In conclusion, fertilization strategies, especially under long-term, could affect the binding of organic ligands to Al(III) in soil DOM, which resulted in alterations in the turnover, reactivity, and bioavailability of soil organic matter. Our results demonstrated that the FTIR-2DCOS combined with HRTEM techniques could enhance our understanding in the binding characteristics of DOM to Al(III) and the resulted nanominerals in soils.

  9. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus additions on soil microbial biomass and community structure in two reforested tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Gundersen, Per; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Hao; Mo, Jiangming

    2015-09-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition may aggravate phosphorus (P) deficiency in forests in the warm humid regions of China. To our knowledge, the interactive effects of long-term N deposition and P availability on soil microorganisms in tropical replanted forests remain unclear. We conducted an N and P manipulation experiment with four treatments: control, N addition (15 g N m-2·yr-1), P addition (15 g P m-2·yr-1), and N and P addition (15 + 15 g N and P m-2·yr-1, respectively) in disturbed (planted pine forest with recent harvests of understory vegetation and litter) and rehabilitated (planted with pine, but mixed with broadleaf returning by natural succession) forests in southern China. Nitrogen addition did not significantly affect soil microbial biomass, but significantly decreased the abundance of gram-negative bacteria PLFAs in both forest types. Microbial biomass increased significantly after P addition in the disturbed forest but not in the rehabilitated forest. No interactions between N and P additions on soil microorganisms were observed in either forest type. Our results suggest that microbial growth in replanted forests of southern China may be limited by P rather than by N, and this P limitation may be greater in disturbed forests.

  10. Enhanced soil washing process for the remediation of PBDEs/Pb/Cd-contaminated electronic waste site with carboxymethyl chitosan in a sunflower oil-water solvent system and microbial augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Wan, Jinzhong; Fang, Guodong; Li, Huixin; Hu, Feng; Jiang, Xin; Kengara, Fredrick Orori

    2015-02-01

    An innovative ex situ soil washing technology was developed to remediate polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals in an electronic waste site. Elevated temperature (50 °C) in combination with ultrasonication (40 kHz, 20 min) at 5.0 mL L(-1) sunflower oil and 2.5 g L(-1) carboxymethyl chitosan were found to be effective in extracting mixed pollutants from soil. After two successive washing cycles, the removal efficiency rates for total PBDEs, BDE28, BDE47, BDE209, Pb, and Cd were approximately 94.1, 93.4, 94.3, 99.1, 89.3, and 92.7 %, respectively. Treating the second washed soil with PBDE-degrading bacteria (Rhodococcus sp. strain RHA1) inoculation and nutrient addition for 3 months led to maximum biodegradation rates of 37.3, 52.6, 23.9, and 1.3 % of the remaining total PBDEs, BDE28, BDE47, BDE209, respectively. After the combined treatment, the microbiological functions of washed soil was partially restored, as indicated by a significant increase in the counts, biomass C, N, and functioning diversity of soil microorganisms (p remediated soil was limited. Therefore, the proposed combined cleanup strategy is an environment-friendly technology that is important for risk assessment and management in mixed-contaminated sites.

  11. Spatial and temporal distribution of 13C labelled plant residues in soil aggregates and Lumbricus terrestris surface casts: A combination of Transmission Electron Microscopy and Nanoscale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Alix; Remusat, Laurent; Watteau, Françoise; Derenne, Sylvie; Quenea, Katell

    2016-04-01

    Earthworms play a central role in litter decomposition, soil structuration and carbon cycling. They ingest both organic and mineral compounds which are mixed, complexed with mucus and dejected in form of casts at the soil surface and along burrows. Bulk isotopic or biochemical technics have often been used to study the incorporation of litter in soil and casts, but they could not reflect the complex interaction between soil, plant and microorganisms at the microscale. However, the heterogeneous distribution of organic carbon in soil structures induces contrasted microbial activity areas. Nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), which is a high spatial resolution method providing elemental and isotopic maps of organic and mineral materials, has recently been applied in soil science (Herrmann et al., 2007; Vogel et al., 2014). The combination of Nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has proven its potential to investigate labelled residues incorporation in earthworm casts (Vidal et al., 2016). In line of this work, we studied the spatial and temporal distribution of plant residues in soil aggregates and earthworm surface casts. This study aimed to (1) identify the decomposition states of labelled plant residues incorporated at different time steps, in casts and soil, (2) identify the microorganisms implied in this decomposition (3) relate the organic matter states of decomposition with their 13C signature. A one year mesocosm experiment was set up to follow the incorporation of 13C labelled Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) litter in a soil in the presence of anecic earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris). Soil and surface cast samples were collected after 8 and 54 weeks, embedded in epoxy resin and cut into ultra-thin sections. Soil was fractionated and all and analyzed with TEM and NanoSIMS, obtaining secondary ion images of 12C, 16O, 12C14N, 13C14N and 28Si. The δ13C maps were obtained using the 13C14

  12. Soil concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and trace metals from an electronic waste dump site in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana: Implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akortia, Eric; Olukunle, Olubiyi I; Daso, Adegbenro P; Okonkwo, Jonathan O

    2017-03-01

    Unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling operations have become a significant environmental issue as well as human health risk in developing countries across the world. The present study evaluated the extent of pollution in Agbogbloshie e-waste recycling site in Accra, Ghana. The concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and some selected trace metals were determined using gas chromatography electron impact ionization mass spectrometry and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, respectively. The concentrations of ∑ PBDEs ranged from 15.6 to 96.8ngg(-1) dry weight, with an overall mean of 54.8ngg(-1)dw. BDE-28 was the dominant congener followed by BDE-209 and BDE-47. The order of mean concentrations of the abundant trace metals was Fe>Cu>Pb≫Mn, with a mean range of .531-289mgkg(-1). Geoaccumulation index suggested that the surface soils deteriorated from moderate to high metal pollution, particularly for Cu, Pb and Fe. Of the trace metals analysed, Fe exhibited the highest concentration ranging from 3.97 to 918mgkg(-1). Correlation and principal component analyses suggested possible interactions between PBDEs and the trace metals analysed, while source assessment suggested that PBDEs and trace metals were mostly derived from inputs from the e-waste recycling activities. Average daily dose (ADD) was estimated using concentrations corresponding to 5th percentile, median and 95th percentile. Hazard quotients of 380 and 862 were obtained for adults and children respectively, for Cu and Pb which is a cause for concern especially for local children. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. 阴茎根部离断伤再植成功2例报告并文献复习%Study on 2 case reports of successful replantation of penis root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永绛; 罗立旷; 廖伟强

    2012-01-01

    Objective To report experiences on 2 successful cases of penile replantation, and explore method and key points for attention in penile amputation after replantation.Methods The application of microsurgical instruments was used in penile amputation for replantation.Results 2 cases after replantation of the penis survived completely,postoperative follow-up for 4 ~ 6 years,two patients with penile pain tactile recovered well,as well as the replantation of penis erectile function recovery,being able to engage in normal sexual life,without any complications such as urethral stricture.Conclusion To be familiar with the relevant anatomy,try to shorten the penile ischemia time during preoperative and intraoperative operation,high quality of anastomosis of penile vascular and nerve,postoperative care and rational drug use,are all the keys for successful penis replantation.%目的 报告2例阴茎离断伤再植成功的经验和体会,探讨阴茎离断伤后再植的方法及注意要点.方法 应用显微外科手段对阴茎离断伤进行再植.结果 本组2例患者术后再植阴茎均完全成活,术后随访4~6年,2例患者阴茎痛触觉恢复较好,再植成活的阴茎勃起功能恢复,能进行正常性生活,无尿道狭窄等并发症.结论 熟悉相应的解剖,术前、术中尽量缩短阴茎缺血时间,高质量吻合阴茎重要血管、神经,术后加强护理、合理用药,是阴茎再植成功的关键.

  14. Interface Electronic Circuitry for an Electronic Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keymeulen, Didier; Buehler, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Electronic circuitry has been developed to serve as an interface between an electronic tongue and digital input/output boards in a laptop computer that is used to control the tongue and process its readings. Electronic tongues can be used for a variety of purposes, including evaluating water quality, analyzing biochemicals, analyzing biofilms, and measuring electrical conductivities of soils.

  15. Replantation of digits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The bones are rejoined with wires or a plate and screws. Tendons are repaired, followed by nerves ... SW, Hotchkiss RN, Pederson WC, Kozin SH, Cohen MS, eds. Green's Operative Hand Surgery . 7th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  16. A retrospective study of 50 replanted permanent teeth in children%儿童50 颗恒牙再植后的回顾性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管悦; 秦满

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the prognosis of replanted permanent teeth in children and associated factors. To determine the onset time of root resorption and related factors. Methods: Clinical data of replanted teeth treated in Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Peking University, School and Hospital of Stomatology, from January 2000 to December 2006,were collected, and the follow-up period was no less than six months. The Fisher's exact test and cox regression were used for statistical analysis. Results: The study comprised of 39 patients with 50 replanted permanent teeth. The periodontium healing rate was 18%, while root resorption rate was 82%. Replacement resorption was the most common type of root resorption (64%).The factors significantly affecting periodontium healing were stage of root development and storage of avulsed teeth.Stage of root development and the time of endodontic treatment significantly affected the onset time of root resorption(P<0.05). Conclusion: Replacement resorption is the most common type of root resorption. The factors significantly affecting periodontium healing are stage of root development and storage of avulsed teeth. Stage of root development and the time of endodontic treatment significantly affect the onset time of root resorption.%目的:分析再植牙的预后及影响预后的相关因素,观察再植后牙根吸收出现时间及影响因素.方法:对2000~2006 年于北京大学口腔医学院儿童口腔科注册的系统病历中,观察期≥6 个月的全脱位牙再植病历进行回顾性研究,记录患者及再植牙信息.应用卡方检验和生存分析(cox regression)进行统计学分析.结果:符合纳入标准的外伤病历39 份,涉及再植牙50 颗.牙周膜愈合的发生率为18%,牙根吸收发生率为82%,替代性吸收是最常见的牙周组织预后形式(64%).牙根发育情况和保存方式与牙周组织预后具有显著相关性;牙根发育情况、牙髓治疗时机可以影响牙

  17. Principios de evaluación y resultados funcionales en los reimplantes de miembro superior Principles of evaluation and functional results in upper extremity replantation surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Camporro Fernández

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar nuestros resultados funcionales y subjetivos en pacientes sometidos a reimplante de miembro superior. Medimos rango de movilidad articular, fuerza de la prensión y otros tests en 41 pacientes con edad media 44,8 años que sufrieron amputación de miembro superior y fueron sometidos a reimplante quirúrgico en nuestro hospital entre enero del 2005 y diciembre del 2009. Los resultados funcionales se midieron con la tabla de Mayo modificada para lesiones de pulgar, dedos largos y mano, distal a muñeca. Las amputaciones proximales a muñeca se evaluaron según los criterios de Chen. Los resultados subjetivos fueron documentados aplicando a todos los casos el cuestionario de Russell. La mayoría de las lesiones fueron provocadas por mecanismos de avulsión y 30 (74 % fueron accidentes laborales. La tasa final de supervivencia fue del 85 % (35 pacientes incluyendo 2 pacientes en los que se realizó trasplante de pie a mano para salvar la amputación. Aplicando la tabla de Mayo modificada, los resultados fueron buenos en pulgar y discretos en mano y dedos largos. En reimplantes proximales obtuvimos 1 resultado excelente y 2 discretos. Diecinueve pacientes retornaron al mundo laboral en una media de 10 meses. Veintisiete manifiestan satisfacción alta con los resultados obtenidos. Los resultados de cualquier reimplante deben superar los del cierre simple de una amputación. Aunque los resultados objetivos de la serie son moderados, muchos pacientes retornan al trabajo y la mayoría es capaz de realizar sus actividades cotidianas.The aim of this study was to evaluate functional and subjective outcome after upper limb replantation, with assessment or range of motions, grip strength, and additional functional tests. Forty-one patients, mean age 44.8 years old, with upper limb amputations were treated in our hospital with replantation between January 2005 and December 2009. Functional results were assessed by

  18. Nondestructive characterization of municipal-solid-waste-contaminated surface soil by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence and low-Z (atomic number) particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Dhrubajyoti; Ghosh, Rita; Mitra, Ajoy K; Roy, Subinit; Sarkar, Manoranjan; Chowdhury, Subhajit; Bhowmik, Asit; Mukhopadhyay, Ujjal; Maskey, Shila; Ro, Chul-Un

    2011-11-01

    The long-term environmental impact of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfilling is still under investigation due to the lack of detailed characterization studies. A MSW landfill site, popularly known as Dhapa, in the eastern fringe of the metropolis of Kolkata, India, is the subject of present study. A vast area of Dhapa, adjoining the current core MSW dump site and evolving from the raw MSW dumping in the past, is presently used for the cultivation of vegetables. The inorganic chemical characteristics of the MSW-contaminated Dhapa surface soil (covering a 2-km stretch of the area) along with a natural composite (geogenic) soil sample (from a small countryside farm), for comparison, were investigated using two complementary nondestructive analytical techniques, energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) for bulk analysis and low-Z (atomic number) particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (low-Z particle EPMA) for single-particle analysis. The bulk concentrations of K, Rb, and Zr remain almost unchanged in all the soil samples. The Dhapa soil is found to be polluted with heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, and Pb (highly elevated) and Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Sr (moderately elevated), compared to the natural countryside soil. These high bulk concentration levels of heavy metals were compared with the Ecological Soil Screening Levels for these elements (U.S. Environment Protection Agency) to assess the potential risk on the immediate biotic environment. Low-Z particle EPMA results showed that the aluminosilicate-containing particles were the most abundant, followed by SiO2, CaCO3-containing, and carbonaceous particles in the Dhapa samples, whereas in the countryside sample only aluminosilicate-containing and SiO2 particles were observed. The mineral particles encountered in the countryside sample are solely of geogenic origin, whereas those from the Dhapa samples seem to have evolved from a mixture of raw dumped MSW, urban dust, and other contributing factors such as wind

  19. Comparison of soil bacterial communities in a natural hardwood forest and coniferous plantations in perhumid subtropical low mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Te; Hu, Hsueh-Wen; Whitman, William B; Coleman, David C; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2014-12-01

    The bacterial community of forest soils is influenced by environmental disturbance and/or meteorological temperature and precipitation. In this study, we investigated three bacterial communities in soils of a natural hardwood forest and two plantations of conifer, Calocedrus formosana and Cryptomeria japonica, in a perhumid, low mountain area. By comparison with our previous studies with similar temperature and/or precipitation, we aimed to elucidate how disturbance influences the bacterial community in forest soils and whether bacterial communities in similar forest types differ under different climate conditions. Analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene clone libraries revealed that Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla in the three forest soil communities, with similar relative abundance of various bacterial groups. However, UniFrac analysis based on phylogenetic information revealed differences of bacterial communities between natural hardwood forest and coniferous plantation soils. The diversities of bacterial communities of the replanted Calocedrus and Cryptomeria forests were higher than that in natural hardwood forest. The bacterial diversity of these three forest soil were all higher than those in the same forest types at other locations with less precipitation or with lower temperature. In addition, the distribution of some of the most abundant operational taxonomic units in the three communities differed from other forest soils, including those related to Acidobacteria, α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria. Reforestation could increase the bacterial diversity. Therefore, soil bacterial communities could be shaped by the forestry management practices and climate differences in warm and humid conditions.

  20. Quantifying the impacts of land use change on soil organic carbon losses in tropical peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, J.; Smith, J.; Smith, P.; Matthews, R.

    2012-04-01

    The challenge of collecting field measurements of soil carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux and soil carbon (C) in tropical peatlands creates an opportunity for the use of SOC models for predicting local and regional impacts of land use and climate change on these soils, offering a way of translating this limited data into tangible results. Previously, no soil C model existed for use in non-steady state sites such as those found on tropical peats- in particular peat swamp forests which accumulate C, and oil palm plantations which are grown for 20-25 years between re-plantings. A simple, user friendly model has been created for use by scientists, policy makers and plantation managers. This model uses only limited inputs to predict the changes to soil C from land use and climate change. The model runs on the assumption that plant inputs can be related to yield, and that this can be used to derive the decomposition of SOM. It uses a simple decomposition response to determine the changes to the soil C. The model can run in a basic form if data is very limited, or a more complex form with modifiers for temperature, pH, salinity and soil moisture if this data is available. Using measured CO2 efflux and soil C values from peat cores, combined with literature values, we demonstrate the efficacy of the model, showing how we have identified and addressed some of the issues related to modelling soil C losses from tropical peat soils under land use change. Key challenges addressed included quantifying the effects of drainage when peat swamp forests are converted to oil palm plantations, and comparing field results between sites because in oil palm plantations the original soil conditions prior to conversion from peat swamp forest were largely unknown.

  1. Replantation of thumb or fingers with skin degloving injury in 30 patients: an outcomes evaluation%30例手指皮肤套脱伤再植术后疗效及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪秉青; 侯瑞兴; 巨积辉; 金光哲; 王凯

    2016-01-01

    目的 报告应用再植术治疗手指皮肤套脱伤术后的疗效.方法 对我院自2007年至2012年30例共42指采用再植术治疗手指皮肤套脱伤的病例进行2~7年(平均4年)的随访观察,并将示指、中指、环指、小指套脱伤按撕脱平面分为Ⅰ度套脱伤和Ⅱ度套脱伤,应用中华医学会手外科学会断指再植功能评定试用标准及MHQ手功能评价标准对手指功能进行评定.结果 根据中华医学会手外科学会断指再植功能评定试用标准评定,30例手指皮肤套脱伤患者术后恢复优良率达93.3%,其中Ⅰ度皮肤套脱伤术后恢复优良率达100%,Ⅱ度皮肤套脱伤术后恢复优良率87.5%.根据MHQ手功能评价标准,患者主观评价得分较高.结论 运用再植术治疗手指皮肤套脱伤,修复的手指可最大限度地恢复外形和功能,其中Ⅰ度套脱伤术后恢复效果高于Ⅱ度套脱伤术.患者对术后恢复的满意程度较高.%Objective To report the clinical outcomes of replantation of thumb and fingers with skin degloving injuries.Methods Thirty patients with 42 avulsed thumb and fingers treated with replantation from 2007 to 2012 were follow-up for 2 to 7 years (average,4 years).Based on the level of the degloving injury,avulsion of the index,middle,ring and little fingers was categorized into grade Ⅰ avulsion and grade Ⅱavulsion.The results of replantation were assessed by the provisional functional assessment criteria for thumb and finger replantation issued by the Hand Surgery Society of Chinese Medical Association and by the Michigan hand outcomes questionnaire (MHQ).Results According to the provisional functional assessment criteria for thumb and finger replantation issued by the Hand Surgery Society of Chinese Medical Association,93.3 % of the cases achieved excellent and good results.This satisfactory rate was 100% in grade Ⅰ avulsions and 87.5% in grade Ⅱ avulsions.MHQ revealed high patient satisfaction

  2. Halo-vest头环在全头皮撕脱伤再植术中的应用%Application of Halo-vest head ring in replantation of total scalp avulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林涧; 吴立志; 郭宇华; 张天浩; 顾仕林; 王成; 陈忠义; 陈海啸

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of Halo-vest head ring in the treatment of replantation of total scalp avulsion.Methods We treated 11 cases of total scalp avulsion with the anastomosis of arteriovenous vessels and Halo-vest head ring from December 2006 to February 2015.Results One patient' s replanted scalp got necrosis because of serious contusion which was healed without hair growth after free skin graft and dressing.All the scalp flaps in the other 10 patients survived.After 3-96 months follow-up, the wound completely healed, the scalp and hair grew well with satisfactory appearance.Conclusions The use of Halo-vest head ring for replantation of total scalp avulsion can effectively improve the survival rate and survival area.%目的 探讨采用Halo-vest头环进行全头皮撕脱伤再植治疗的临床疗效.方法 2006年12月至2015年2月,我们采取吻合动静脉血管+ Halo-vest头环治疗11例全头皮撕脱伤.结果 本组1例患者因头皮撕挫严重,再植术后坏死,给予游离植皮和换药后创面愈合,无毛发生长.其余10例患者再植全部成活,经过3 ~96个月随访,创面完全愈合,头皮、毛发生长良好,获得满意的外观.结论 利用Halo-vest头环进行全头皮撕脱伤再植处理,能够有效提高成活率和成活面积.

  3. Spatial distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PCDDs/Fs) in dust, soil, sediment and health risk assessment from an intensive electronic waste recycling site in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianfang; Xiao, Xiao; Peng, Ping'an; Huang, Weilin; Chen, Deyi; Cai, Ying

    2013-10-01

    Workshop dust, soil and sediment samples were collected to investigate the level and spatial distribution of PCDDs/Fs at an intensive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site in Southern China, and also to characterize the dioxin emission in different e-waste recycling procedures. The concentrations of total PCDDs/Fs ranged from 1866 to 234292 ng kg(-1) for the dust samples, from 3187 to 63998 ng kg(-1) dry wt for the top soils, and 33718 ng kg(-1) for the surface sediment. All the samples were characterized by abnormally high concentrations of OCDD and an extremely low portion of PCDFs. Different e-waste recycling procedures may generate different congener profiles. Open burning and dismantling were the two procedures emitting relatively higher concentrations of PCDDs/Fs in this case, indicating that low-tech recycling operations were one of the major contributors of PCDDs/Fs to the environment. The variation and distinction of the concentrations and homologue/congener profiles among different environmental matrices reveal the characteristics of contaminant environmental behavior and fate during the transportation from "source" to "sink". Daily intake of PCDDs/Fs through soil ingestion and dermal absorption was negligible, but the rough estimated total PCDD/F intake dose far exceeded the tolerance daily intake value of 4 pg-TEQ per kg per day recommended by WHO, indicating that residents in Longtang were at a high risk of exposure to dioxins, especially children.

  4. 37例小儿断指再植不利因素分析及护理对策%Unfavorable factors of digital replantation in children and the relevant nursing strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭爱萍; 王小艳; 陈亚兰

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨小儿断指再植护理特点、方法及临床护理效果.方法 分析总结2010年7月至2012年7月37例小儿断指再植护理,针对小儿依从性差35例、情绪不稳定32例、体温波动31例、血管危象11例、父母日常护理知识缺乏35例,采用镇静、制动、保暖、禁烟、早期家属健康指导等护理措施.结果 再植指体动脉栓塞坏死1例,静脉栓塞坏死1例,成活35例,总成活率94.6%.结论 小儿断指再植难配合治疗护理,影响再植指体治愈和功能恢复的因素多而复杂,护理较困难.采用镇静、制动、保暖、禁烟、家属健康教育等方法,可取得了满意的疗效.%Objective To investigate the characteristics,methods,and clinical effects of nursing for children undergoing digital replantation.Methods The data on nursing for 37 pediatric patients who had undergone digital replantation during the period of July July 2010 to July 2012 were analyzed.Of the 37 patients,35 had poor compliance,32 had emotional instability,31 had unstable body temperature,and 11 had vascular crisis.The parents of 35 children lacked of a knowledge about daily care.The nursing measures including sedation,immobilization,keeping warm,non-smoking,and early family health education were taken.Results Arterial embolization and necrosis in the replanted finger developed in one child and venous thrombosis and necrosis occurred in one patient.The inplanted fingers survived in 35 children,with an overall survival rate of 95.2%.Conclusions It is difficult for pediatric patients undergoing digital replantation to cooperate with treatment and nursing care.The factors affecting the healing and functional recovery are various and complicated and thus nursing is difficult.Application of sedation,immobilization,keeping warm,non-smoking,family health education can obtain a satisfactory efficacy.

  5. CO2-C emissions associated to soil tillage, liming and gypsum applications in sugarcane areas under green and burned harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, E. B.; Panosso, A. R.; La Scala, N., Jr.

    2012-04-01

    Debate regarding the potential of bioenergy crops to substitute fossil fuel in an efficient way is still opened. New management strategies from agricultural crops should be identified to increase their potential contributing to avoid the climate changes. This study quantified the impact of sugarcane harvest systems and other management practices on CO2-C fluxes following crop replanting. Two agricultural systems were considered: burned and green harvest, in plots where residues were left or removed from soil surface, from no till and after conventional tillage, with or without dolomite and agricultural gypsum applications. Soil CO2 emission, moisture and soil temperature were taken since 24 hours after tillage, totalizing 25 days after tillage with 18 measuring days. NT plots emissions were kept lower than others during the whole period studied, presenting in some cases fluctuations which were mostly related to changes in soil moisture associated to the occurrence of rain precipitations. Changes in CO2-C emission, in each of the harvest systems can be clearly seen when tillage, dolomite or gypsum were applied. The removal of sugarcane residues from soil surface resulted in almost immediate reduction of soil moisture (6% in volume) following an increase in soil NT CO2 emission of + 64%. The additional soil carbon emission due to the simple operation of removing the crop residues from soil surface was 252.4 kg CO2-C ha-1, as higher as the soil CO2 losses induced by tillage operation. Dolomite and agricultural gypsum applications did not always result in higher emissions, especially when applied at the presence of crop residues on soil surface. Reducing tillage frequency in green harvested sugarcane areas could reduce CO2 emissions and probably increasing the soil carbon stock considering long-term period crop system, while maintaining the sugarcane crop residues on soil surface has shown to be also a GHG mitigation option.

  6. Soils - NRCS Web Soil Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Web Soil Survey (WSS) provides soil data and information produced by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. It is operated by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation...

  7. Reimplante intencional en diente geminado con lesión endoperio tipo IV: Reporte de caso Intentional replantation gemina injured in tooth type IV endoperio: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2012-10-01

    , persistent fistula, large periapical lesions, periodontal pocket, root anatomy of the tooth organ palate (palatine canal alleged and that the anatomy tooth is favorable to perform the procedure. The extraction and intentional replantation is the treatment in cases where the endodontic treatment fails and the anomaly dental periapical surgery also fail because only temporarily remove the lesion but not the cause it is the communication between the oral cavity and apical area. However, it is known that this treatment option can have risks and benefits, including tooth loss or possible ankylosis and with a success rate of 42.9%. The present case report describes the extraction and intentional replantation geminate tooth with a persistent periapical lesion of periodontal origin, with symptoms and fistula, after endodontic treatment complex, its evolution and success.

  8. A baseline measure of tree and gastropod biodiversity in replanted and natural mangrove stands in malaysia: langkawi island and sungai merbok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hookham, Brenda; Shau-Hwai, Aileen Tan; Dayrat, Benoit; Hintz, William

    2014-08-01

    THE DIVERSITIES OF MANGROVE TREES AND OF THEIR ASSOCIATED GASTROPODS WERE ASSESSED FOR TWO MANGROVE REGIONS ON THE WEST COAST OF PENINSULAR MALAYSIA: Langkawi Island and Sungai Merbok. The mangrove area sampled on Langkawi Island was recently logged and replanted, whereas the area sampled in Sungai Merbok was part of a protected nature reserve. Mangrove and gastropod diversity were assessed in four 50 m(2) (10 × 5 m) sites per region. The species richness (S), Shannon Index (H') and Evenness Index (J') were calculated for each site, and the mean S, H' and J' values were calculated for each region. We report low tree and gastropod S, H' and J' values in all sites from both regions. For Langkawi Island, the mean S, H' and J' values for mangrove trees were S = 2.00±0, H' = 0.44±0.17 and J' = 0.44±0.17; the mean S, H' and J' values for gastropods were S = 4.00±1.63, H' = 0.96±0.41 and J' = 0.49±0.06. In Sungai Merbok, the mean S, H' and J' values for mangrove trees were S = 1.33±0.58, H' = 0.22±0.39 and J' = 0.22 ±0.39; the mean S, H' and J' values for gastropods were S = 4.75±2.22, H' = 1.23±0.63 and J' = 0.55±0.12. This study emphasises the need for baseline biodiversity measures to be established in mangrove ecosystems to track the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances and to inform management and restoration efforts.

  9. 阴茎完全离断再植二例报告并文献复习%Penile replantation : two case reports and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贵忠; 何峰; 黄广林; 满立波; 刘坤; 沈余明

    2012-01-01

    nonabsorbable sutures.The second case was a 25-year-old man,presented to the emergency room 15 hours after distal penile amputation,which had 2 wounds as a result of self-mutilation caused by psychiatric problems.The urethra mucosa and corpus spongiosum were anastomosed.The cavernous body of the penis was reattached by suturing the tunics albuginea of each corpus cavemosum to the corresponding proximal segment using 4-0 polyglactic acid sutures.Results In the first case,the tourniquet was released after replantation,and the distal penis appeared to revascularize,as noted by the gradual increase in redness and size.An arterial pulse was detected,and the superficial penile veins displayed normal turgor,and no bleeding was found.On postoperative day 3,the penile skin started to necrotize.On day 12,the necrotic skin was superficially debrided,and a fistula was observed in the corresponding urethral segment.Two weeks later,the fistula was sutured with 4-0 interrupted synthetic absorbable suture,and a transposition flap to embed the whole injured penis shaft was created from the proximal scrotal skin.The glans was exposed.Two months after the second operation,the embedded penis was released from the scrotum.After follow-up of two years,the patient had glans re-epithelialization with normal voiding,sensation,and erections.In the second case,the glans was still pink,but the penile skin started to necrotize on postoperative day 3.On day 14,serious infections were noted,the necrotic skin was superficially debrided,and the amputated penis was relieved.Conclusions Prompt diagnosis and early treatment are essential to avoid the potential complications of ischemic necrosis and autoamputation.Venous outflow is a critical factor for success of replantation.Microsurgical reanastomosing of the dorsal penile vein,penile arteries,and dorsal nerves can be identified as the "standard" method for penile replantation.The bipedicled scrotal flap can provide adequate skin cover for penis defects.

  10. Soil friability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2011-01-01

    has been found but it is not possible to identify a specific lower critical level of organic matter across soil types. Sustainable management of soil requires continuous and adequate inputs of organic matter to sustain or improve soil friability. Intensive tillage and traffic in unfavorable conditions...... for optimal friability. There is a strong need to get more detailed knowledge about effects of soil water content on soil friability and especially to be able to quantify the least limiting water range for soil friability and therefore soil tillage. A strong relationship between organic matter and friability...

  11. The replantation method of upper limb's biplane mutilation in conjunction with soft tissue defect%上肢双平面离断合并软组织缺损的断肢(手)再植

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喜占荣; 彭鹏; 周朝清

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the replantation method of upper limb's biplane mutilation in conjunction with soft tissue defect.Methods From January 2003 to January 2013,29 patients with upper limb's biplane mutilation in conjunction with soft tissue defect were treated.There were 21 males and 8 females with the average age of 28.6 years.The youngest one was 1 year old and the oldest one was 70 years old.All the cases underwent different replantation order and transplantation by using vascular and nerve and flap according to the lesion they suffered,including the defected plane and soft tissue.Results All replantation limbs were survived besides 2 cases with infection and 3 cases of delaying healed due to the part of tissue necrosis.Among all 29 cases,9 cases got excellent recovery,14 cases were in good condition,4 cases were poor and 2 cases were bad.The totally excellent and good rate of upper limb function was 79.3% according to the limb reattachment function evaluation criteria of Hand Surgery of the Chinese Medical Association.Conclusion It can obtain higher survival rate due to our different replantations and method of tissue replantation to cure double plane mutilation in conjunction with soft tissue defect of upper limb.%目的 探讨上肢双平面离断合并软组织缺损的再植方法.方法 自2003年1月至2013年1月,共完成各种上肢双平面离断再植的患者29例,其中男21例,女8例,年龄1~70岁,平均28.6岁.根据离断平面及软组织缺损情况的不同,采用不同的再植顺序并联合血管神经、皮瓣移植等方法进行处理.结果 29例再植肢体全部成活,但有2例患者出现伤口感染及3例患者出现局部软组织坏死而发生延迟愈合.所有患者采用中华医学会手外科学会断肢再植功能评定标准进行评分,优9例,良14例,差4例,劣2例,优良率为79.3%.结论 上肢双平面离断合并组织缺损需要根据离断平面的不同采用不同的再植顺序及合理的组织

  12. 双干型静脉皮瓣在撕脱性断指再植中的应用%Application of arterialized venous flap with double vein trunks in replantation of degloved fingers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓; 芮永军; 许亚军; 寿奎水; 姚群

    2011-01-01

    目的 报告双干型静脉皮瓣在撕脱性断指再植中的应用和临床效果.方法 2007年3月至2009年6月,采用前臂双干型静脉皮瓣游离移植修复伴有皮肤软组织缺损的撕脱性断指6例,损伤至入院时间为30 min至8 h,切取皮瓣面积为1.8cm×1.8cm~2.2 cm×5.8cm,供区创面直接缝合.结果 术后6例伤口均Ⅰ期愈合,断指再植全部存活;5例静脉皮瓣无肿胀,顺利存活;1例皮瓣早期肿胀明显,紫红色,并见散在小水泡,经拆除部分缝线、换药等对症处理后顺利存活.术后随访时间为6个月至2年.皮瓣及再植手指血运好,皮瓣质地软,弹性好、耐磨.根据中华医学会手外科学会断指再植功能评定试用标准评定;优4例,良1例,可1例;优良率为82.5%.结论 采用前臂掌侧双干型静脉皮瓣游离移植修复伴有皮肤软组织缺损的撕脱性断指,能最大程度地恢复手指的功能和外形.%Objective To report the application and results of venous flap with double vein trunks in replantation of degloved fingers.Methods From March 2007 to June 2009, 6 cases of soft tissue defect in the degloved finger were replanted with venous flap with double vein trunks.The interval between injury and operation was 30 minutes to 8 hours.All fingers were replanted by arterialized free venous flap from the ipsilateral forearm with double vein trunks.The flap was 1.8 cm×1.8 cm to 2.2 cm× 5.8 cm in size.The donor site was directly closed.Results Primary wound healing was observed in all 6 cases postoperatively.All the replanted fingers survived completely.In 5 cases the venous flaps survived uneventfully.In 1 case there was partial superficial necrosis of the flap which healed with conservative management.Postoperative follow-up ranged from 6 to 24 months.The flaps and fingers had good circulation, good texture and color match.According to the criteria for functional assessment of amputated finger issued by the Chinese Hand Surgery Society, the

  13. Replantation of composite tissue masses severed from dorsal fingers by vein bridging%桥接静脉法再植手指背侧离断复合组织块

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    从飞; 宋保平; 欧学海; 蔡鹰; 付华; 冯东旭

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical effect of replantation of composite tissue masses severed from dorsal fingers by vein bridging. Methods 13 cases with composite tissue masses severed from dorsal fingers were replanted by vein bridging (only venous anastomosis) from June 2006 to August 2011. The effectiveness was evaluated after operation by observing the survival and complications of the composite tissue masses. Postoperative follow up ranged from 6 to 24 months, evaluating the appearance and function of the hand. Results Complete survival of the replanted composite tissue masses of the hand was achieved in 9 cases. Partial necrosis was seen in 2 cases. 2 cases had complete loss of the tissue masses. By 6 months to 2 years follow-up, the replanted tissue masses had a better appearance and lower elasticity. According to the function evaluation of the total active motion (TAM) scales, the result was excellent in 8,good in 3 and fair in 2, and the excellent and good rate was 84.6%. Conclusion It is an effective method that replantation of composite tissue masses severed from dorsal fingers by vein bridging, which has a high survival rate and good effect.%目的:探讨通过桥接静脉建立血液循环的方法再植手指背离断复合组织块的疗效。方法2006年6月-2011年8月,对13例合并肌腱或骨质离断的手指背复合组织块离断伤患者,急诊应用桥接静脉建立血液循环的方法再植离断组织块,术后观察其成活情况及并发症。结果本组9例再植组织块完全成活,2例完全坏死,2例部分坏死。所有病例随访6~24个月,再植组织块外观可,弹性稍差。依据中华医学会手外科分会上肢功能评定标准,优8例,良3例,差2例,优良率84.6%。结论桥接静脉法再植手指背侧离断复合组织块成活率较高,临床效果良好,是一种有效的治疗方法。

  14. 自残性断指再植患者心理评估及护理干预%Psychological assessment of patients with replantation of self-mutilation amputated finger and nursing intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永霞; 刘莉; 赵霞; 李玲; 刘华

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨自残性断指再植患者心理状态及心理护理干预的方法和效果.方法:将56例自残性断指再植患者随机分为对照组和观察组各28例,对照组给予常规护理,观察组在常规护理的基础上给予心理护理干预.应用症状自评量表(SCL-90)分别在术前及术后10 d进行评估分析.结果:术后10 d观察组SCL-90躯体化症状、人际关系敏感、抑郁、恐惧、焦虑、精神病性因子分值均低于对照组(P<0.05).结论:自残性断指再植患者术前心理症状复杂,实施心理护理干预能有效地缓解躯体化症状,促进患者身心康复,降低手术应激反应及再植指体血管危象的发生,提高患者自残性断指再植的成活率.%Objective: To analyze the psychological assessment of patients with replantation of self - mutilation amputated finger and investigate the method of psychological nursing intervention and its effect. Methods: 56 patients with replantation of self- mutilation amputated finger were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group ( 28 cases in each group ). The patients in the control group received routine nursing care and the patients in the observation group received extra psychological nursing intervention on the basis of the routine nursing care. The Symptom Checklist ( SCL - 90 ) was used to make a psychological assessment of the patients before operation and on 10 days after operation. Results: The somatic symptoms and the factor scores of interpersonal sensitivity, depression, fear, anxiety and psychosis of SCL - 90 on 10 days after operation were lower in the observation group than those of control group ( P <0. 05 ). Conclusion: The preoperative psychological symptoms of the patients with replantation of self - mutilation amputated finger are so complex. The implementation of psychological nursing intervention can effectively relieve somatic symptoms,promote physical and psychological rehabilitation of the

  15. Reimplantes nas amputações por mecanismo de avulsão: táticas e técnicas para o sucesso Limb replantation after avulsion injuries: techniques and tactics for success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Gregorio Paulos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliação retrospectiva criteriosa de casos de reimplantes após amputação por avulsão. Avaliação de técnicas e táticas utilizadas que determinaram evolução satisfatória e bom resultado funcional. METÓDOS: Foram avaliados, retrospectivamente, prontuários de 43 pacientes que tiveram membros amputados por mecanismo de avulsão e reimplantados nos últimos 21 anos. RESULTADOS: A maior parte dos casos envolvia homens adultos jovens. A localização de amputação mais frequente foi do polegar. As técnicas e táticas cirúrgicas utilizadas isoladas ou conjuntamente incluem: enxertos de nervo, enxertos vasculares (veia ou artéria, transposição de feixe vascular digital, encurtamento do membro e reimplante heterotópico. A técnica mais frequentemente utilizada foi o emprego de enxertos venosos. A taxa de sobrevida dos reimplantes foi alta (93%, assim como a satisfação dos pacientes. CONCLUSÃO: Os reimplantes por mecanismo de avulsão dependem do correto diagnóstico de viabilidade anatômica e utilização de técnicas e táticas cirúrgicas apropriadas para cada caso. A experiência da equipe cirúrgica e estrutura hospitalar adequada são fundamentais para obtenção de bons resultados. Existem poucos relatos na literatura sobre indicação, tática, técnicas e resultados de procedimentos de reimplantes em amputações por avulsão. Acreditamos que a avaliação retrospectiva desta série de casos possa trazer novas informações e contribuições no atendimento desta situação de alta complexidade. Nível de evidência IV, Série de casos.OBJECTIVES: Retrospective evaluation of cases of limb replantation after avulsion injuries. Evaluation of the techniques and tactics used, that contributed to success and good functional results. METHODS: Forty-three patients' records were assessed. All the cases had been submitted to limb replantation after avulsion injuries. RESULTS: The majority of the cases were young men. The

  16. 十指与双前臂同时离断再植成功一例及文献复习%A case of successful replantation of simultaneous amputation of 10 fingers and both forearms and the literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张子清; 杨延军; 马立峰; 刘铭波; 王克列; 李木卫

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨十指与双前臂同时离断再植手术方法和术后功能康复. 方法 2014年9月,应用显微外科技术,对一例十指、双前臂同时离断患者实施断肢、断指再植术.手术分3个再植团队,术中应用顺行再植与逆行再植方法交替,精确的血管、神经吻合,手术历时11h55min,术后2周康复团队介入,物理治疗与作业治疗相结合. 结果 术后再植肢体、手指全植全活.术后随访14个月,腕关节屈、伸活动功能正常,双手浅、深感觉功能恢复良好,拇、手指握、捏及对掌功能部分恢复,两点辨别觉8 ~ 10 mm;按中华医学会手外科学会上肢部分功能评定试用标准为良好. 结论 十指、双前臂同时离断,只要精心组织团队协作、应用娴熟的显微外科技术精细的吻合血管、神经,术后早期功能康复介入,再植肢、指可获得满意的功能恢复.%Objective To investigate the replantation and postoperative rehabilitation methods for simultaneous amputation of 10 fingers and both forearms.Methods A case of replantation for simultaneous amputation of both forearms and 10 fingers was carried out with microsurgery method in September,2014.The replantation involved 3 teams over 11 hours and 55 minutes to consequently conduct alternate anterograde and retrograde replantation and accurate blood vessels,nerve anastomosis and further followed with physical therapy and occupational therapy treatment in 2 weeks of the surgery.Results All the amputated arms and fingers revived after the surgery.After 14 months follow-up,function of wrist flexion and expansion was normal,superficial and deep sensory functions on hands were good,function of thumb and finger grip,pinch and opposition had partially recovered,the two-point discrimination was 8-10 mm,and all of above rated good according to the temporary criteria of the upper limb functionality set forth by Hand Surgery Branch of China Medical Association.Conclusion For the case

  17. Impact of Soil Texture on Soil Ciliate Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, J. F.; Brown, S.; Habtom, E.; Brinson, F.; Epps, M.; Scott, R.

    2014-12-01

    Soil water content and connectivity strongly influence microbial activities in soil, controlling access to nutrients and electron acceptors, and mediating interactions between microbes within and between trophic levels. These interactions occur at or below the pore scale, and are influenced by soil texture and structure, which determine the microscale architecture of soil pores. Soil protozoa are relatively understudied, especially given the strong control they exert on bacterial communities through predation. Here, ciliate communities in soils of contrasting textures were investigated. Two ciliate-specific primer sets targeting the 18S rRNA gene were used to amplify DNA extracted from eight soil samples collected from Sumter National Forest in western South Carolina. Primer sets 121F-384F-1147R (semi-nested) and 315F-959R were used to amplify soil ciliate DNA via polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the resulting PCR products were analyzed by gel electrophoresis to obtain quantity and band size. Approximately two hundred ciliate 18S rRNA sequences were obtained were obtained from each of two contrasting soils. Sequences were aligned against the NCBI GenBank database for identification, and the taxonomic classification of best-matched sequences was determined. The ultimate goal of the work is to quantify changes in the ciliate community under short-timescale changes in hydrologic conditions for varying soil textures, elucidating dynamic responses to desiccation stress in major soil ciliate taxa.

  18. Soil properties, soil functions and soil security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, Laura; Gimona, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Soil plays a crucial role in the ecosystem functioning such as food production, capture and storage of water, carbon and nutrients and in the realisation of a number of UN Sustainable Developments Goals. In this work we present an approach to spatially and jointly assess the multiple contributions of soil to the delivery of ecosystem services within multiple land-use system. We focussed on the modelling of the impact of soil on sediment retention, carbon storage, storing and filtering of nutrients, habitat for soil organisms and water regulation, taking into account examples of land use and climate scenarios. Simplified models were used for the single components. Spatialised Bayesian Belief networks were used for the jointly assessment and mapping of soil contribution to multiple land use and ecosystem services. We integrated continuous 3D soil information derived from digital soil mapping approaches covering the whole of mainland Scotland, excluding the Northern Islands. Uncertainty was accounted for and propagated across the whole process. The Scottish test case highlights the differences in roles between mineral and organic soils and provides an example of integrated study assessing the contributions of soil. The results show the importance of the multi-functional analysis of the contribution of soils to the ecosystem service delivery and UN SDGs.

  19. [Effects of stand structure regulation on soil labile organic carbon in Pinus elliottii plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Gui-Xia; Liu, Yuan-Qiu; Li, Lian-Lian; Liu, Wu; Zan, Yu-Ting; Huo, Bing-Nan; He, Mu-Jiao

    2014-05-01

    Taking 21-year-old Pinus elliottii pure plantation as the control, effects of enrichment planting with broadleaf trees (Liquidambar fornosana) after thinning the conifer trees (P. elliottii) on soil labile organic carbon of different plantations, including 3-year-old, 6-year-old, 9-year-old P. elliottii and 21-year-old P. elliottii-L. fornosana mixed plantations, were investigated. The results showed that the contents of soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC), readily oxidizable organic carbon (ROC), and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) significantly increased in the 6-year-old and 9-year-old plantations compared with those in the 21-year-old P. elliottii pure plantation. Soil labile organic carbon contents in the 21-year-old P. elliottii-L. fornosana mixed plantation increased significantly than those in 3-year-old, 6-year-old, 9-year-old stands, and the DOC, ROC and MBC contents increased by 113.1%, 53.3% and 54.6%, respectively, compared with those in the 21-year-old P. elliottii pure plantation. The results suggested that replanting with broadleaf trees are an effective measure to improve the soil ecological function in pure P. elliottii plantation.

  20. 疼痛控制在吸烟患者断指再植术后血管危象护理中的应用%Pain Control in the Application of Nursing Care of Smoking Patients With Vascular Crisis After Replantation of Severed Fingers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝敬红; 渠红; 施静

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the value of pain control for vascular crisis of nursing in smoking patients after replantation of amputated finger. Methods 86 cases of replantation of severed finger smoking patients in our hospital were taken as the research object and diviede into the observation group and control group,The data were compared between groups. Results In the observation group,vascular crisis was significantly lower than that of the control group(P<0.05),observation group had significant advantages in comparison with data of replantation and nursing satisfaction rate(P<0.05). Conclusion Pain control for nursing in smoking patients after replantation of severed fingers can effectively reduce vascular crisis,so as to improve the survival rate of replantation,improve nursing satisfaction rate.%目的:对疼痛控制用于吸烟患者断指再植术后血管危象护理中的价值进行研究。方法选取我院86例行断指再植术的吸烟患者为研究对象,将其分为观察组和对照组,对相关数据进行组间比较。结果观察组血管危象发生率低于对照组(P<0.05);在再植成活率及护理满意率等数据的比较中观察组均具有优势(P<0.05)。结论疼痛控制用于吸烟患者断指再植术后护理中能够有效降低血管危象,改善再植成活率,提高护理满意率。

  1. Use of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE)/gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) for the determination of biodegradation intermediates of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baohong; Pan, Xiaoping; Cobb, George P; Anderson, Todd A

    2005-09-25

    A rapid, sensitive, and reproducible method was developed for quantitative determination of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and its biodegradation intermediates, hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine (DNX), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX) in soils. RDX, MNX, DNX, or TNX was extracted from soil by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), followed by cleanup using florisil. Instrumental analysis was performed using gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD), which was highly sensitive to the parent explosive and its metabolites. The method detection limits (MDLs) were 0.243, 0.095, 0.138, and 0.057 ng/g for RDX, MNX, DNX, and TNX, respectively. The method gave high recovery (98-102%), good precision (0.22-5.14%), and reproducibility, and proved to be suitable for real world sample analysis.

  2. Consolidômetro: equipamento pneumático-eletrônico para avaliação do estado de consolidação do solo Consolidometer: electronic-pneumatic equipment to evaluate soil consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Barboza da Silva

    2007-08-01

    a load onto the soil until all porosity is compressed. The equipment used for this test is a consolidometer, which is not available in Brazil, while the models used abroad are very costly. In some cases this situation impairs the access of Brazilian researchers and farmers to data of Soil Load Support Capacity (SLCS. This study had the objective of developing and evaluating an electronic-pneumatic device by which sigmap can be obtained in the consolidation test. The equipment was developed at the Universidade Estadual Paulista and evaluated in uniaxial tests using specimens of two Oxisol horizons (surface and sub surface. The soil density values in the soil compression curves increased showing the variation of specimen strain recalque/ sinkage or displacement in function of the increasing pressure levels and soil moisture. The equipment efficiency was confirmed by the differentiated compression curves and equations obtained for the soil load support capacity models, which were able to detect the different soil consolidation degrees as well as the different sequences of structure tension in each Oxisol layer.

  3. Soil formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.; Buurman, P.

    1998-01-01

    Soil Formation deals with qualitative and quantitative aspects of soil formation (or pedogenesis) and the underlying chemical, biological, and physical processes. The starting point of the text is the process - and not soil classification. Effects of weathering and new formation of minerals, mobilis

  4. Soil metagenomics and tropical soil productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Karen A Garrett

    2009-01-01

    This presentation summarizes research in the soil metagenomics cross cutting research activity. Soil metagenomics studies soil microbial communities as contributors to soil health.C CCRA-4 (Soil Metagenomics)

  5. Soil microbiology and soil health assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil scientists have long recognized the importance of soil biology in ecological health. In particular, soil microbes are crucial for many soil functions including decomposition, nutrient cycling, synthesis of plant growth regulators, and degradation of synthetic chemicals. Currently, soil biologis...

  6. Soils - Volusia County Soils (Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Soils: 1:24000 SSURGO Map. Polygon boundaries of Soils in Volusia County, downloaded from SJRWMD and created by NRCS and SJRWMD. This data set is a digital version...

  7. Main Clay Minerals in Soils of Fujian Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGGUO; ZHANGWEIMING; 等

    1996-01-01

    The clay minerals of more than 200 soil samples collected from various sites of Fujian Province were studied by the X-ray diffraction method and transmission electron microscopy to study their distribution and evolution.Montmorillonite was found in coastal solonchak,paddy soils derived from marine deposit,lacustrine deposit and river deposit,and some lateritic red soil,red soil and yellow soil with a low weathering degree.Chlorite existed mainly in coastal solonchak and paddy soil developed from marine deposit.1.4nm intergradient mineral appeared frequently in yellow soil,red soil and lateritic red soil.The content of 1.4nm intergradient mineral increased with the decrease of weathering degree from lateritic red soil to red soil to yellow soil.Hydrous micas were more in coastal solonchak,paddy soils derived from marine deposit,lacustrine deposit and river deposit.and puple soil from purple shale than in other soils.Kaolinte was the most important clay mineral in the soils iun this province.The higher the soil weathering degree,the more the kaolinite existed.From yellow soil to red soil to lateritic red soil,kaolinite increased gradually,Kaolinite was the predominant clay mineral accompanied by few other minerals in typical lateritic red soil. Tubular halloysite was a widespread clay mineral in soils of Fujian Province with varying quantities.The soil derived from the paent rocks rich in feldspar contained more tubular halloysite.Spheroidal halloysite was found in a red soil and a paddy soil developed from olivine basalt gibbsite in the soils in this district was largely“primary gibbsite” which formed in the early weathering stage.Gibbsite decreased with the increase of weathering degree from yellow soil to red soil to lateritic red soil.Goethite also decreased in the same sequence while hematite increased.

  8. 尿激酶和肝素钠在断指再植术后的应用%Comparison of curative effect of urokinase and heparin sodium after digital replantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓华; 樊涛; 严明忠

    2013-01-01

    Objective To contrast the curative effect of urokinase and heparin sodium after digital replantation.Methods All of 259 patients were randomly divided into urokinase group with 130 cases(217 fingers) and Heparin sodium group with 129 cases (199 fingers).Two groups received the same basic therapy,and respectively injected with urokinase and heparin sodium.The incidence rate of vascular crisis,survival percent of fingers and the recovery of finger function of two group were compared.Results The incidence rate of vascular crisis was 26.7 % and 36.7 % (P < 0.05),the survival percent of fingers was 88.9 % and 81.9 % (P < 0.05),the excellent and good rate of finger function was 69.3 % and 53.8% (P < 0.05),in 2 groups respectively.Conclusion Urokinase has more advantages than heparin sodium in treatment after digital replantation,with reducing the occurrence of vascular crisis,improving the survival rate of replantation of finger and promoting the finger function recovery.%目的 对比分析尿激酶和肝素钠应用在断指再植术后的治疗效果.方法 将259例断指伤患者随机分成尿激酶组130例(217指)和肝素钠组129例(199指),在基础治疗相同的情况下,分别使用尿激酶、肝素钠对再植术后断指进行治疗,比较2组的血管危象发生率、患指成活率、功能恢复等情况.结果 在尿激酶组、肝素钠组中,血管危象发生率分别为26.7%和36.7%(P<0.05),患指成活率分别为88.9%和81.9% (P <0.05),活动功能优良率分别为69.3%和53.8% (P <0.05).结论 在断指再植术后治疗中,尿激酶较肝素钠更能减少血管危象的发生率,提高患指的成活率,促进患指功能恢复.

  9. 凯时用于断指再植术后血管危象防治的临床研究%Clinical study of alprostadil injection for the prevention and treatment for vascular crisis after severed fingers replantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戎晓敏; 李俊

    2014-01-01

    Object:to explore the effect of alprostadil injection used for the prevention of vascular crisis after replantation of severed fingers. Method:86 patients with 112 replanted fingers were randomly devided into 2 groups. The control group was given conventional treatment and the patients in treatment group were given alprostadil injection besides the conventional treatment. The incidence of vascular crisis, the coagulation function and blood rheology were analyze to evaluate the curative effect. Result:Compared with the control group, the treatment group was with low incidence of vascular crisis and reduce blood viscosity. The coagulation function was no significant difference between the 2 groups. Conclusion:It suggests thar in the finger replantation surgery, the alprostadil was of great clinical value for its prevention of thrombosis and reduction of the vascular crisis.%目的:凯时(前列腺素E1)在手足外科中用于断指再植术后预防血管危象的临床效果。方法我科86例112指断指再植病例,随机分为两组,对照组给予常规治疗,实验组在常规治疗的基础上使用凯时。对两组患者术后血管危象发生率、凝血功能及血液流变学进行统计分析,比较两组疗效。结果与对照组相比,实验组血管危象发生率低,血液粘度降低,两组凝血功能无明显差别。讨论凯时用于断指再植手术,能够预防血栓形成,降低血管危象的发生率,有较好的临床应用价值。

  10. Soil pollution and soil protection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de F.A.M.; Visser-Reijneveld, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    This book was compiled from lecture handouts prepared for the international postgraduate course on soil quality, entitled 'Soil Pollution and Soil Protection' given jointly by the universities of Wageningen (The Netherlands), Gent and Leuven (Belgium), under the auspices of the international

  11. Soil infiltrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehler, M.R.

    1990-09-18

    This patent describes an infiltrometer useful for field testing soil permeability. It comprises: a large reservoir having an open bottom resting on the soil; a small reservoir having an open bottom resting on the soil, the small reservoir being positioned within the large reservoir; the small reservoir comprising a relatively large receptacle adjacent the soil and a relatively small receptacle connected thereto and extending upwardly therefrom; the volume of the large reservoir greatly exceeding the volume of the small reservoir; the ratio of the upper surface area of liquid in the large reservoir to the surface area of the soil covered thereby greatly exceeding the ratio of the upper surface area of liquid in the relatively small receptacle of the small reservoir to the surface area of the soil covered thereby; and means for determining the amount of liquid from the small reservoir permeating into the soil.

  12. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  13. 前臂再植术后患者早期预防手内在肌挛缩的康复护理%Rehabilitation nursing of patients after forearm replantation to prevent contracture of intrinsic muscle of hand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅育红; 徐敏; 朱丽萍

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the rehabilitation methods and outcomes of patients after forearm replantation to prevent contracture of intrinsic muscle of hand.Nine patients with forearm replantation were treated by different orthosis for fixation and received physical therapy and occupational therapy to prevent contracture of intrinsic muscle of hand.Based on the test of finger joints functional recovery of hands(TAM) system,seven cases achieved to excellent grade of functional recovery;the two point discrimination of the finger pulp was 5~10cm;the touch sensation recovered to normal,the hand grip strength reached to 30kg,equal to 90% function of healthy side.One case achieved to good grade of functional recovery and one case was bad.Only one case was treated by functional reconstruction of hand intrinsic muscles.%报告了前臂离断再植术后预防手内在肌挛缩的康复训练过程和效果.对9例前臂离断再植术后患者在术后不同阶级采用不同的支具固定方法,进行相应的物理、作业疗法,预防前臂再植术后手内在肌挛缩.根据手关节活动范围系统评价标准,7例手功能恢复优,两点辨别觉5~10cm,触摸觉正常,握力30kg,相当于健侧手90%功能,中1例,差1例.本组仅1例行内在肌功能重建.

  14. (Contaminated soil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegrist, R.L.

    1991-01-08

    The traveler attended the Third International Conference on Contaminated Soil, held in Karlsruhe, Germany. The Conference was a status conference for worldwide research and practice in contaminated soil assessment and environmental restoration, with more than 1500 attendees representing over 26 countries. The traveler made an oral presentation and presented a poster. At the Federal Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene, the traveler met with Dr. Z. Filip, Director and Professor, and Dr. R. Smed-Hildmann, Research Scientist. Detailed discussions were held regarding the results and conclusions of a collaborative experiment concerning humic substance formation in waste-amended soils.

  15. Structure and composition of soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Nenadović

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of soils structure and composition using up to date technique, such as scanning electronic microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, as well as some other characterization methods. It was shown that soil particles have porous structure and dimensions in the range from several millimeters to several hundreds of nanometers and consist of different minerals such as kaolin, quartz and feldspate.

  16. 电子垃圾拆解区土壤上空心菜的毒理响应%Toxicology Studies on Soil of Electronic Waste Recycling Site to Spinach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑾丰; 宋小飞; 牛晓君; 吴浩; 于敏; 李丽; 刘尘

    2014-01-01

    电子垃圾拆解区对当地环境造成严重污染,电子垃圾拆解区重金属在土壤农作物体系中有一定迁移性,并可通过食物链进入人体,对人体健康造成威胁。深入探究作物的积累重金属的机理,可为调控食物链的重金属传递,减少重金属对人体健康的威胁提供一定的理论和实践依据。以广东省梅州市贵屿岛某电子垃圾拆解区为中心,沿半径方向2、20、40、50 m采集土壤,同时以未受电子垃圾拆解区的土壤作为参照,在室内采用盆栽实验方法研究空心菜(Ipomoea aquatica)对电子垃圾污染的土壤中重金属Cd、Cu、Pb、Zn、Cr的毒理响应。结果表明:受电子垃圾污染土壤中栽种的空心菜,五种重金属的含量在空心菜体内的分布为根>茎>叶,根部的富集系数最高,同时空心菜根部对Cu,Zn的生物积累作用最强烈,在水稻土上空心菜对重金属的富集最为明显;空心菜的生长高度受重金属的污染不明显,重金属对空心菜的主要影响表现在叶面形态上;受到污染胁迫后,空心菜中叶绿素的含量明显降低,距电子垃圾2、20、40、50 m的土壤和水稻土壤上种植的空心菜的叶绿素量平均是对照汕头土壤的44.0%、74.2%、75.4%、88.7%、74.1%;空心菜对于土壤中重金属的污染有较好的自身调节能力,其体内的过氧化氢酶和过氧化物酶表现的相似,土壤受重金属的污染越严重,空心菜的CAT和POD的含量相应也较高。%Hazardous environmental pollution metal materials caused by electronic waste recycling site could transport between the soil and crop system, and the metal also threatened human health through the food chain. In-depth study of the mechanism of heavy metal accumulation attributes to the theory and practical basis for controlling metal to transport during food chain and lessening the healthy threaten derived from heavy metal. The

  17. A framework for identifying plant species to be used as 'ecological engineers' for fixing soil on unstable slopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghestem, Murielle; Cao, Kunfang; Ma, Wenzhang; Rowe, Nick; Leclerc, Raphaëlle; Gadenne, Clément; Stokes, Alexia

    2014-01-01

    Major reforestation programs have been initiated on hillsides prone to erosion and landslides in China, but no framework exists to guide managers in the choice of plant species. We developed such a framework based on the suitability of given plant traits for fixing soil on steep slopes in western Yunnan, China. We examined the utility of 55 native and exotic species with regard to the services they provided. We then chose nine species differing in life form. Plant root system architecture, root mechanical and physiological traits were then measured at two adjacent field sites. One site was highly unstable, with severe soil slippage and erosion. The second site had been replanted 8 years previously and appeared to be physically stable. How root traits differed between sites, season, depth in soil and distance from the plant stem were determined. Root system morphology was analysed by considering architectural traits (root angle, depth, diameter and volume) both up- and downslope. Significant differences between all factors were found, depending on species. We estimated the most useful architectural and mechanical traits for physically fixing soil in place. We then combined these results with those concerning root physiological traits, which were used as a proxy for root metabolic activity. Scores were assigned to each species based on traits. No one species possessed a suite of highly desirable traits, therefore mixtures of species should be used on vulnerable slopes. We also propose a conceptual model describing how to position plants on an unstable site, based on root system traits.

  18. A framework for identifying plant species to be used as 'ecological engineers' for fixing soil on unstable slopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murielle Ghestem

    Full Text Available Major reforestation programs have been initiated on hillsides prone to erosion and landslides in China, but no framework exists to guide managers in the choice of plant species. We developed such a framework based on the suitability of given plant traits for fixing soil on steep slopes in western Yunnan, China. We examined the utility of 55 native and exotic species with regard to the services they provided. We then chose nine species differing in life form. Plant root system architecture, root mechanical and physiological traits were then measured at two adjacent field sites. One site was highly unstable, with severe soil slippage and erosion. The second site had been replanted 8 years previously and appeared to be physically stable. How root traits differed between sites, season, depth in soil and distance from the plant stem were determined. Root system morphology was analysed by considering architectural traits (root angle, depth, diameter and volume both up- and downslope. Significant differences between all factors were found, depending on species. We estimated the most useful architectural and mechanical traits for physically fixing soil in place. We then combined these results with those concerning root physiological traits, which were used as a proxy for root metabolic activity. Scores were assigned to each species based on traits. No one species possessed a suite of highly desirable traits, therefore mixtures of species should be used on vulnerable slopes. We also propose a conceptual model describing how to position plants on an unstable site, based on root system traits.

  19. Long-term effects of timber harvesting on hemicellulolytic microbial populations in coniferous forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Hilary T C; Maas, Kendra R; Wilhelm, Roland C; Mohn, William W

    2016-02-01

    Forest ecosystems need to be sustainably managed, as they are major reservoirs of biodiversity, provide important economic resources and modulate global climate. We have a poor knowledge of populations responsible for key biomass degradation processes in forest soils and the effects of forest harvesting on these populations. Here, we investigated the effects of three timber-harvesting methods, varying in the degree of organic matter removal, on putatively hemicellulolytic bacterial and fungal populations 10 or more years after harvesting and replanting. We used stable-isotope probing to identify populations that incorporated (13)C from labeled hemicellulose, analyzing (13)C-enriched phospholipid fatty acids, bacterial 16 S rRNA genes and fungal ITS regions. In soil microcosms, we identified 104 bacterial and 52 fungal hemicellulolytic operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Several of these OTUs are affiliated with taxa not previously reported to degrade hemicellulose, including the bacterial genera Methylibium, Pelomonas and Rhodoferax, and the fungal genera Cladosporium, Pseudeurotiaceae, Capronia, Xenopolyscytalum and Venturia. The effect of harvesting on hemicellulolytic populations was evaluated based on in situ bacterial and fungal OTUs. Harvesting treatments had significant but modest long-term effects on relative abundances of hemicellulolytic populations, which differed in strength between two ecozones and between soil layers. For soils incubated in microcosms, prior harvesting treatments did not affect the rate of incorporation of hemicellulose carbon into microbial biomass. In six ecozones across North America, distributions of the bacterial hemicellulolytic OTUs were similar, whereas distributions of fungal ones differed. Our work demonstrates that diverse taxa in soil are hemicellulolytic, many of which are differentially affected by the impact of harvesting on environmental conditions. However, the hemicellulolytic capacity of soil communities appears

  20. Use of near infrared correlation spectroscopy for quantitation of surface iron, absorbed water and stored electronic energy in a suite of Mars soil analog materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Lelia M.; Banin, Amos; Carle, Glenn; Orenberg, James; Scattergood, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    A number of questions concerning the surface mineralogy and the history of water on Mars remain unresolved using the Viking analyses and Earth-based telescopic data. Identification and quantitation of iron-bearing clays on Mars would elucidate these outstanding issues. Near infrared correlation analysis, a method typically applied to qualitative and quantitative analysis of individual constituents of multicomponent mixtures, is adapted here to selection of distinctive features of a small, highly homologous series of Fe/Ca-exchanged montmorillonites and several kalinites. Independently determined measures of surface iron, relative humidity and stored electronic energy were used as constituent data for linear regression of the constituent vs. reflectance data throughout the spectral region 0.68 to 2.5 micrometers. High correlations were found in appropriate regions for all three constituents, though that with stored energy is still considered tenuous. Quantitation was improved using 1st and 2nd derivative spectra. High resolution data over a broad spectral range would be required to quantitatively identify iron-bearing clays by remotely sensed reflectance.

  1. Soil Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of the soil solution in the root environment in the greenhouse industry differ much from those for field grown crops. This is caused firstly by the growing conditions in the greenhouse, which strongly differ from those in the field and secondly the function attributed to the soil

  2. Linking soil biodiversity and agricultural soil management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiele-Bruhn, S.; Bloem, J.; Vries, de F.T.; Kalbitz, K.; Wagg, C.

    2012-01-01

    Soil biodiversity vastly exceeds aboveground biodiversity, and is prerequisite for ecosystem stability and services. This review presents recent findings in soil biodiversity research focused on interrelations with agricultural soil management. Richness and community structure of soil biota depend o

  3. Linking soil biodiversity and agricultural soil management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiele-Bruhn, S.; Bloem, J.; de Vries, F.T.; Kalbitz, K.; Wagg, C.

    2012-01-01

    Soil biodiversity vastly exceeds aboveground biodiversity, and is prerequisite for ecosystem stability and services. This review presents recent findings in soil biodiversity research focused on interrelations with agricultural soil management. Richness and community structure of soil biota depend

  4. Soil mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Carrier, W. D., III; Houston, W. N.; Scott, R. F.; Bromwell, L. G.; Durgunoglu, H. T.; Hovland, H. J.; Treadwell, D. D.; Costes, N. C.

    1972-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of an investigation of the physical and mechanical properties of lunar soil on the Descartes slopes, and the Cayley Plains in the vicinity of the LM for Apollo 16. The soil mechanics data were derived form (1) crew commentary and debriefings, (2) television, (3) lunar surface photography, (4) performance data and observations of interactions between soil and lunar roving vehicle, (5) drive-tube and deep drill samples, (6) sample characteristics, and (7) measurements using the SRP. The general characteristics, stratigraphy and variability are described along with the core samples, penetrometer test results, density, porosity and strength.

  5. Agriculture: Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Productive soils, a favorable climate, and clean and abundant water resources are essential for growing crops, raising livestock, and for ecosystems to continue to provide the critical provisioning services that humans need.

  6. 臂丛阻滞镇痛与自控镇静用于断指再植患者的护理%Nursing of replantation of amputated finger patients accepting brachial plexus block analgesia and patient-controlled sedation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳红; 徐鹏; 郭俊光

    2010-01-01

    Objective To probe into nursing management methods of replantation of amputated finger patients accepting brachial plexus block analgesia and patient-controlled sedation (PCS) after operation.Methods 48 patients of replantation of amputated fingers accept continuous brachial plexus block analgesia and PCS after operation,Analgesia was 0.2% ropivaeaine,sedation was 0.05% midazolam or compositive liquid mixed 0.05% midazolam and 0.0005% fentanyl,the visual analogue scale (VAS),sedation scores and the changes of vital signs and side effocts after operation were recorded before the operation and at time intervals of 6,12,24,48,72 hours after the operation.Results The visual analogue scale(VAS)in the post-operation was obviously lower than the pre-operation,the Ramsay scores of PCS were higher than the pro-operation.There was no inadequate or excessive sedation.No influence was seen on respiration,circulation system and no other side effects happened.Conclusions Brachial plexus block analgesia and patient-controlled sedation (PCS) can offer a good Analgesia and sedation effect for patients of amputated fingers replantation,in period of analgesia and sedation,we should strengthen nursing and monitoring of vital signs to avoid accident.%目的 探讨臂从阻滞镇痛及自控镇静(PCS)用于断指再植患者术后镇痛镇静处理的效果及护理管理方法.方法 收集48例断指再植患者,术后行持续臂丛阻滞镇痛及静脉自控镇静,镇痛药物为0.2%罗哌卡囚,镇静药物采用0.05%咪唑地西泮或0.05%咪唑地西泮与0.0005%芬太尼复合液,观察术前及术后6,12,24,48,72 h时镇痛镇静评分、术后生命体征变化及不良反应.结果 术后镇痛评分明显低于术前;PCS后各时间点的镇静评分均高于术前,无一例镇静不足或镇静过度发生.患者术后呼吸循环稳定,无明显不良反应发生.结论 臂从阻滞镇痛及自控镇静能为断指再植患者提供良好的镇痛镇静效果,镇痛镇

  7. The impact of music on replantation rehabilitation of patients with negative emotions%音乐对断指再植术后康复训练患者负性情绪的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张扬云

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨音乐对断指再植术后康复训练患者的负性情绪影响,并进行分析,以供参考。方法选取2011年10月~2014年10月我院收治的断指再植术后康复训练患者共72例,以此作为研究对象。并对其进行随机分为两组,每组各有36例患者。一组为实验组,该组患者采用音乐护理的方式进行临床护理;另一组为对照组,该组患者采用常规性护理法进行临床护理。两组在经过1个月的护理干预之后,运用抑郁自评表(SDS)和焦虑自评表(SAS)评估两组患者的抑郁、焦虑状况,并进行比较分析。结果对比两组患者的抑郁、焦虑状况,可以得出:实验组患者的抑郁、焦虑发生率均要明显低于对照组,且差异具有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论音乐护理的方式在护理断指再植术后康复训练患者中有肯定的应用价值,其可以有效降低患者的抑郁、焦虑发生率,提高患者的生活质量,值得在临床医学护理中推广。%Objective To investigate the effects of music on negative emotions replantation rehabilitation patients, and analyzed for reference. Methods Selected October 2011 - 2014 October our hospital replantation rehabilitation patients with a total 72 cases, as the research object. And its randomly divided into two groups of 36 patients each. One group was the experimental group, the group treated with the music the way clinical nursing care; the other was the control group, the group of patients for clinical nursing care using conventional methods. Group 2 after a month in nursing intervention, the use of self-rating depression table (SDS) and anxiety self-assessment form (SAS) to assess depression, anxiety condition two groups of patients, and compared. Results Comparison of depression, anxiety condition two groups of patients, can be drawn: the experimental group were depression, anxiety incidence rate was significantly lower than the

  8. Relationship Between Dislocation Time and Prognosis in Vertical Fractured Posterior Teeth Replantation%纵折后牙黏结再植术中离体时间与愈合方式的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珂; 盛乾斌; 王淑敏; 俞立英

    2012-01-01

    Objective;To investigate the relationship between dislocation time and prognosis in vertical fractured posterior teeth replantation. Methods; A total of 109 vertical fractured posterior teeth were extracted, treated with root canal therapy and spliced in vitro. The dentists treated root surfaces, adjusted occlusion; then replanted the teeth, sutured and fixed them. Followed up the patients and prognosis was evaluated by clinical examination, radiological examination and chief complaints of the patients. Results; The dislocation time of 109 vertical fractured posterior teeth varied from 25 minutes to 121 minutes. The total success rate was 81.6% (PLH 44.9%; OIH 36.7%). The success rate was 100% [pcriodontal ligament healing (PLH) 50% ; osscointcgration healing (OIH) 50%^] when the dislocation time was less than 30 minutes. The success rate was 89. 48% (PLH 42. 11% ; OIH 47. 37%) when the dislocation time was not less than 60 minutes. Conclusions; There was no correlation between dislocation time and prognosis in vertical fractured posterior teeth replantation.%目的:探讨纵折后牙黏结再植术中离体时间与愈合方式及效果的关系.方法:对109颗纵折后牙行牙拔除术,体外根管治疗后黏结,清除龈上龈下结石、刮除肉芽组织、根面处理、调合、再植、缝合.随访后分别从临床症状、X线片和患者主诉评价治疗效果,分析纵折牙在黏结再植术中不同的再植牙离体时间对愈合方式及效果的影响.结果:109颗牙纵折后黏结再植术中牙离体时间为25 ~121 min;再植成功率81.6%,其中牙周膜愈合率为44.9%,骨性愈合率为36.7%.离体时间<30 min者牙周膜愈合率和骨性愈合率均为50%,离体时间≥60 min者牙周膜愈合率与骨性愈合率分别为42.11%和47.37%.结论:纵折后牙黏结再植术中牙离体时间在25~121 min之间时,其与愈合方式及疗效无显著相关性.

  9. Rehablitation of the devitalization and replantation after resection of malignant tumor segment around the knee%膝关节周围骨恶性肿瘤瘤段切除灭活再植术的康复治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞光荣; 蔡宣松; 梅炯; 郭获萍; 袁锋

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the rehabilitation related to recovery of the limb function for the devitalizationand replantation after resection of malignant tumor segment around the knee. Methods Seventy nine patients with themalignant tumor around the knee (proximal tibia 21 cases, distal femur 58 cases) were reviewed. There were 35 malesand 44 females, aged ranged from 8 to 66 years (mean, 31.5 years). The tumors commonly seen were osteosarcomas(57), giant cell tumors (6), MFH (6) and chondrosarcomas (5). The devitalization and replantation after intraarticu-lar resection of tumor segment (CRIRT) was performed in 75 cases, that after extraarticular resection of tumor seg-ment (CRERT) was used in 4 cases. Functional training with different programs were performed in three periods aftersurgery. Results Seventy nine patients were followed up for 1~ 7 years (mean, 4.2 years). 5 years survival rate was42 % (33 cases). Functional assessment using Ennekings criteria was evaluated. The mean score in 44 cases of CRIRTwas 20(14~25) points and satisfactory (good or excellent results were 77% (34/44). The mean score in 4 CRERTcases was 24(22~28) points and all were satisfactory. Conclusion The devitalization and replantation after resectionof tumor segment is a good limb salvage surgery for malignant tumor segment around the knee. Rehabilitation programshelp recovery of the limb function. (Shanghai Med J, 2000,23:724-727)%目的 探讨膝关节周围骨恶性肿瘤瘤段切除灭活再植术功能恢复相关的康复治疗。方法本组79例,其中胫骨上端21例,股骨远端58例。常见肿瘤中骨肉瘤57例,巨细胞瘤6例,恶性纤维组织细胞瘤6例,软骨肉瘤5例。关节内瘤段切除灭活再植75例,关节外瘤段切除灭活再植4例。术后分3个阶段采用不同的康复计划进行功能训练。结果79例随访1~7年(平均4.2年),5年生存率42%(33例)。按Enneking法功能评定,关节内瘤段切除灭活再植44

  10. 土壤微生物-腐殖质-矿物间的胞外电子传递机制研究进展%Mechanism of Extracellular Electron Transfer among Microbe-Humus-Mineral in Soil:A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴云当; 李芳柏; 刘同旭

    2016-01-01

    The process of microbial extracellular electron transfer(EET)is an important driving force of element cycling and energy exchange in epigeosphere. While the previous studies focused on the interaction between soil particles and ions,recently,the biogeochemical processes of the EET among microbe-humus-mineral received widespread attention. The current EET studies enlightened us with new insights into the epigeosphere from the perspectives of chemistry and microbiology. Since microbes,humus and minerals are very essential factors of the biogeochemical processes on earth surface system via their interactive redox reactions,the main aim of this review is to reveal the detailed mechanism of the EET among microbe-humus-mineral and illustrate their biogeochemical significances on the earth surface system. The paper introduces,first,pathways via which electrons flow from inside to outside of a microbial cell,and then,two pathways via which electrons transfer from the surface of microbes to humus and minerals:(i)direct electron transfer,including direct contact and nanowires;(ii)indirect electron transfer mediated by humus,including“electron shuttling processes”and processes of bonding between humus and membrane c-type cytochromes. In this review,based on the key processes and key factors of the thermodynamics,energy transport processes of the whole EET chain of the microbe-humus-mineral system was discussed on a theoretical basis. The importance of redox state of c-type cytochromes on EET was highlighted through those discussions,which suggests that the standard redox potential(E0)and electron transfer capacity(ETC)of humus play dominant roles in the humus-mediated electron shuttling processes. Furthermore,the mass transfer and reaction rates under molecule level are also analyzed using a kinetic approach,which suggests that mediated nanowire-network-mediated electron transfer might be the most efficient way for facilitating EET processes. In this field,there are

  11. Analog modeling of transient moisture flow in unsaturated soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, G.P.

    1979-01-01

    Hydraulic and electronic analog models are developed for the simulation of moisture flow and accumulation in unsaturated soil. The analog models are compared with numerical models and checked with field observations. Application of soil physical knowledge on a soil technological problem by means of

  12. Mixed phenolic acids mediated proliferation of pathogens Talaromyces helicus and Kosakonia sacchari in continuously monocultured Radix pseudostellariae rhizosphere soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmiao eWu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Radix pseudostellariae L. is a common and popular Chinese medication. However, continuous monoculture has increased its susceptibility to severe diseases. We identified two pathogenic microorganisms, Talaromyces helicus M. (KU355274 and Kosakonia sacchari W. (KU324465, and their antagonistic bacterium, Bacillus pumilus Z. in rhizosphere soil of continuously monocultured R. pseudostellariae. Nine types of phenolic acids were identified both in the rhizosphere soil and in culture medium under sterile conditions. A syringic acid and phenolic acid mixture significantly promoted the growth of T. helicus and K. sacchari. T. helicus could utilize eight types of phenolic acids, whereas K. sacchari could only use four phenolic acids. K. sacchari produced protocatechuic acid when consuming vanillin. Protocatechuic acid negatively affected the growth of B. pumilus. The 3A-DON toxin produced by T. helicus promoted the growth of K. sacchari and inhibited growth of B. pumilus at low concentrations. These data help explain why phenolic exudates mediate a microflora shift and structure disorder in the rhizosphere soil of continuously monocultured R. pseudostellariae and lead to increased replanting disease incidence.

  13. 依达拉奉对深低温冻存大鼠断肢再植后缺血再灌注损伤骨骼肌细胞膜及线粒体的保护效应%Protective influence of edaravone on cellular membrane and mitochondria of replanted rat extremities following ischemia/reperfusion injury due to cryopreservation and rewarming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段永壮; 钟世镇; 王增涛; 徐达传; 丁自海; 付庆林; 郝丽文; 何波

    2007-01-01

    肌缺血再灌注损伤,对骨骼肌细胞膜及线粒体有保护作用.其作用可能与依达拉奉直接抑制羟自由基、提高骨骼肌超氧化物歧化酶活性、减少丙二醛的产生,使细胞进行正常的氧化磷酸化有关.%BACKGROUND: A lot of important organs are worthless for clinical application because they are hard to store for a long time. In addition, tissues or organs which are dealt with cryopreservation also attack ischemia/reperfusion injury with the recovery of blood flow; especially, skeletal muscle is the most involved tissue.OBJECTIVE: To observe the protective influence of edaravone on cellular membrane and mitochondria of replanted rat extremities following ischemia/reperfusion injury due to cryopreservation and rewarming.DESIGN: Randomized contrast animal study.SETTING: Basic Medical College of Southern Medical University; Department of Hand and Foot Surgery, Shandong Provincial Hospital.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Cryopreservation Laboratory, Shandong Provincial Hospital from April to November 2006. A total of 36 healthy adult male Wistar rats were provided by Experimental Animal Center of Medical College of Shandong University. All rats were randomly divided into control group, cryopreservation group and edaravone group with 12 in each group.METHODS: Femoral artery and vein of rats in control group were exposured, but extremities were not blocked. Rats in other two groups were used to establish ischemia/reperfusion injury models of replanted extremities. Before cryopreservation, their right hindlimbs were cut off and maintained in liquid nitrogen container for 1 month. After the operation mentioned above, the broken limbs were rewarmed, perfused with routine eluant and replanted. Four hours later, blood supply of extremities was recirculated and the samples were selected. Eluant in edaravone group contained 0.5 mg/kg edaravone. Samples of skeletal muscle were selected at the same time point to

  14. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the fields of power conversion devices and broadcasting/communication amplifiers, high power, high frequency and low losses are desirable. Further, for electronic elements in aerospace/aeronautical/geothermal surveys, etc., heat resistance to 500degC is required. Devices which respond to such hard specifications are called hard electronic devices. However, with Si which is at the core of the present electronics, the specifications cannot fully be fulfilled because of the restrictions arising from physical values. Accordingly, taking up new device materials/structures necessary to construct hard electronics, technologies to develop these to a level of IC were examined and studied. They are a technology to make devices/IC of new semiconductors such as SiC, diamond, etc. which can handle higher temperature, higher power and higher frequency than Si and also is possible of reducing losses, a technology to make devices of hard semiconducter materials such as a vacuum microelectronics technology using ultra-micro/high-luminance electronic emitter using negative electron affinity which diamond, etc. have, a technology to make devices of oxides which have various electric properties, etc. 321 refs., 194 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New FDA Regulations Text Size: A A A Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated products designed ... more about: The latest news and events about electronic cigarettes on this FDA page Electronic cigarette basics ...

  16. Soil sustainability and indigenous soil management practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil sustainability and indigenous soil management practices among food crop farmers in Ogun State, Nigeria. ... Journal of Environmental Extension ... describe and analyse the current soil management practices among food crop farmers in ...

  17. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) - Magnesic Soils

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Magnesic soils is a subset of the SSURGO dataset containing soil family selected based on the magnesic content and serpentinite parent material. The following soil...

  18. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  19. Schoolground Soil Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Charles

    1978-01-01

    Outlined are simple activities for studying soil, which can be conducted in the schoolyard. Concepts include soil profiles, topsoil, soil sizes, making soil, erosion, slope, and water absorption. (SJL)

  20. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. Effects of Fire on Soil Organic Carbon of Cunninghamia lanceolata Stands in North Subtropical Area%火烧对北亚热带杉木林土壤有机碳的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志霞; 李正才; 周君刚; 程彩芳; 赵睿宇; 孙娇娇

    2016-01-01

    [Objective]To study the effect of burning on soil organic carbon and to provide references for post-fire vegetation regeneration.[Method]The changes of organic carbon and nutrient contents in post-fire Cunninghamia lanceolata stand with the soil depth of 0 50 cm in north subtropical areas were analyzed.[Result]The contents of soil total organic carbon (TOC),easily-oxidized carbon (EOC)and light fraction organic carbon (LFOM)were higher than those of contrast sample area,which increased by 1 .7% 38.0%、6.6% 33.2% and 3.1 %45.7%,respectively.Significant differences were found in the soil layer with depth of 0 1 0 cm and 1 0 20 cm (P <0.01 ).Compared with the contrast sample area,the soil carbon storage in the layer with depth of 0 50 cm increased by 1 9.1 % one year after burning.The TOC,EOC and LFOMwere all significantly related to the soil nu-trients (total N,hydrolyzable N and available K).After burning,the increase of TOC,EOC and LFOMwere main-ly concentrated on the surface of soil and the organic carbon contents increased by 9.22 g·kg -1 in 0 1 0 cm lay-er.[Conclusion]Moderate intensity burning has a significant impact on organic carbon in the soil of C.lanceolata stand in the north subtropical area.Moderate burning can increase the soil organic carbon because the soil can mix the organic residues caused by incomplete combustion of vegetation layer.Replanting in the burned area could be a-dopted to promote the vegetation restoration.

  2. 不同浓度有机物料发酵流体对连作苹果幼树叶片光合荧光参数和根系抗氧化酶活性的影响%Effect of Different Concentrations of Organic Matter Fermentation Fluid on the Young Apple Tree Leaf Photosynthesis Fluorescent Parameters and Root Antioxidant Activity Under Replant Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹承苗; 张先富; 胡艳丽; 沈向; 陈学森; 吴树敬; 毛志泉

    2014-01-01

    %处理的苹果幼树叶片中叶绿素a、叶绿素b、类胡萝卜素和叶绿素(a+b)含量呈现逐渐升高的趋势,在春、夏、秋季3%处理的各色素含量均为最高,在春季3%的各色素含量分别为同期对照的1.17、1.34、1.09和1.22倍;在夏季3%处理的各色素含量分别为同期对照的1.18、1.29、1.11和1.21倍;在秋季3%的各色素含量分别为同期对照的1.52、2.23、1.42和1.65倍;3%处理的连作苹果幼树叶片Pn、Tr、Gs分别比对照增加了13.8%、27.3%和17.3%。【结论】不同浓度的机物料发酵流体对连作苹果幼树的株高、叶片光合特性和根系相关抗氧化酶活性的影响不同,1%、3%、5%浓度有机物料发酵流体均可减轻苹果连作障碍,浓度高于5%的有机物料发酵流体则抑制了苹果幼树的生长。综合研究结果,推荐使用3%浓度的有机物料发酵流体,可较有效地减轻苹果连作障碍。%Objective The Fuji/Malus robusta biennial plants were selected as the test materials, and potted with continuous cropping soil. Effect of different concentrations of organic matter fermentation fluid on the young apple tree leaf photosynthesis fluorescent parameters and root antioxidant activity under replant conditions was studied.[Method]Fuji/Malus robusta biennial grafted plants were planted in clay basins. Six organic matter concentrations in the fermentation fluid were designed: CK, CK+1% (T1), CK+3% (T2), CK+5% (T3), CK+7% (T4) and CK+9% (T5). The plant height and basal diameter of young apple tree, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, catalase (CAT) activities, peroxidase (POD) activities of roots of young apple tree, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular carbon dioxide concentration (Ci), actual PSⅡefficiency (ΦPSⅡ), efficiency of light energy capture by open PSⅡ reaction centers (Fv′/Fm′), non-photochemical quenching of PSⅡ(NPQ), quantum

  3. Electrodialytic soil remediation in a small pilot plant (Part II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmose, Bodil; Hansen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    difference in the degree of pollution and the way copper is bound within the soil.The speciation of copper in the soil from a small pilot plant did not show any measurable change during the first seven months of operation. It seems that the number of particles with very a high concentration of copper......Observations were made of copper-polluted soil to see, if any changes in the bonding type of copper in the soil were made during electrodialytic soil remediation. Three different fractions of the copper-polluted soil were used for investigation with infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction...... (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and observations with scanning electron microscope (SEM), the last two combined with an EDX analysis unit. The three soil fractions were extracted with am-monia for observa-tion of the copper removal when copper forms copper-tetra-ammine complexes with am...

  4. Ambient Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao

    2012-10-01

    We report the recent research progress and future prospects of flexible and printed electronics, focusing on molecular electronic material-based thin-film transistors, which are expected to usher in a new era of electronics.

  5. Electron cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.

    2004-10-01

    The brief review of the most significant and interesting achievements in electron cooling method, which took place during last two years, is presented. The description of the electron cooling facilities-storage rings and traps being in operation or under development-is given. The applications of the electron cooling method are considered. The following modern fields of the method development are discussed: crystalline beam formation, expansion into middle and high energy electron cooling (the Fermilab Recycler Electron Cooler, the BNL cooler-recuperator, cooling with circulating electron beam, the GSI project), electron cooling in traps, antihydrogen generation, electron cooling of positrons (the LEPTA project).

  6. Effects of silvicultural techniques on the diversity of microorganisms in forest soil and their possible participation in biological control of Armillaria and Heterobasidion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwaśna Hanna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of different pre-planting soil preparations and post-harvest wood debris applications in a clear-cut Scots pine plantation, on the abundance, diversity, and activity of culturable microorganisms were investigated. The investigation was done 9 years after the re-plantings had been done. This formed part of an investigation of silvicultural practices for conservation and the biological control of Armillaria and Heterobasidion in northern temperate forests (Poland. The treatments being compared, were expected to have altered the soil’s physical and chemical properties, and consequently, its biological properties. Only soft-rot microfungi from the Ascomycota and Zygomycota were detected in the soil. Fungi, including those antagonistic to Armillaria and Heterobasidion, were more abundant after shallow ploughing than after deep ploughing or ridging, and where chipped rather than coarse wood debris was left on the soil surface or incorporated. Scots pine trees had the most biomass and the least mortality after ridging and leaving coarse wood debris on the surface (associated with only a relatively moderate abundance of fungi.

  7. Clinical retrospective analysis of children for mixed dentition traumatic anterior teeth completely dislocation replantation%替牙期外伤性前牙完全脱位再植术的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵然; 李凤和; 陈光

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨替牙期完全脱位前牙再植术后的效果和相关影响因素.方法:对48例患儿58颗完全脱位前牙治疗方法和临床疗效进行分析.脱位前牙再植后复诊行牙髓测试、牙周检查,2周牙髓活力阴性的患牙行根尖诱导成形术,6个月~3年根尖孔完全形成后行根管永久充填治疗.结果:再植术后3年,5颗患牙活力存在,牙髓存活率达8.62%; 53颗患牙行根管治疗术后行X线检查,25颗患牙牙根牙周膜愈合,30颗患牙牙根部分牙周膜愈合和部分骨性愈合,3颗患牙不同程度牙根内外吸收,但无1例脱落.结论:早就诊且合理处理脱落牙、牙髓血管再生是牙再植术成功的关键,根尖诱导成形术可使替牙期牙根再度形成,牙骨质沉积于根端、封闭根尖孔,是替牙期脱位前牙治疗的重要手段,根管治疗可预防或减少脱位牙牙根的吸收.%Objective To explore the effects and related influential factors of replantation after complete dislocation of anterior teeth/tooth on mixed dentition patients experiencing tooth transitions. Methods Analysis of 48 patients with 58 traumatic anterior teeth were made based on treatments recieved and clinical observations.After the reimplantation for the traumatic anterior teeth, patients returned for dental pulp test and periodontal examination. 2 weeks later, apexification was performed after the dental pulp test had indicated a negative result.Six months to 3 years after apexification, permanent canal filling treatment was made once the apical had been fully formed. Results three years after the replantation,5 teeth exist vitality with a dental pulp survival rate of 8.62%; X-ray examination indicates that out of the 53 teeth have had apexification and canal filling treatment:25 teeth's tooth roots have periodontal ligament fully recovered (bined together or have been healed),30 teeth's teeth root have fully recovered iodontal ligaments and partial recover of the bone

  8. Assessment of TVOC and Odor in the Remediation Site of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater Using Electronic Nose%基于电子鼻土壤与地下水污染修复现场TVOC和恶臭的评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田秀英; 蔡强; 刘锐; 张永明

    2013-01-01

    According to the conditions of a contaminated soil and groundwater remediation site in Shanghai, the self-built electronic nose was applied to detect VOCs and odor of previously remedied soil and groundwater, remedying soil and groundwater, and the air above and around the site. Combining the formula of TPI and OPI, the value of each point was got and was shown in figures. Results showed:① Comparing the determination results of previously remedied with remedying contaminated soil and groundwater, the concentration of TVOC and odor was overall declined. The result was consistent with the fact. The detection result of electronic nose was proved to be right; ② In the remediation process of soil and groundwater, the volatilization of VOCs and odor was inflected by temperature and works of crushing, adding medicine and turning the soil on time. The concentration showed a trend of overall decline with stage rising, so the electronic noses can be used for dynamic monitoring of the whole remediation process; ③ Combined with the GIS, the electronic noses can preliminary assess space pollution situation caused by the remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater and the influence on the residence in the surrounding region. However, further study on the refined classification of the impact degree is needed.%根据上海某土壤与地下水污染修复现场情况,应用自主研发的电子鼻系统(iSA-M1)分别对未修复及修复过程中的土壤和地下水、修复场地上空及周边空气中的VOCs和恶臭类气体进行检测.结合前期研究所得TPI和OPI公式,求得各点的值,并将其用图表示.结果表明:①修复后TVOC和恶臭的浓度总体呈下降趋势;②在土壤和地下水修复过程中,VOCs和恶臭的挥发受气象要素和作业的影响,其浓度在总体下降的过程中伴随着阶段性上升现象;③结合GIS技术,电子鼻能初步用于评估土壤和地下水修复现场造成的空间污染情况及对周围

  9. 自体富血小板纤维蛋白用于延迟牙再植1例%Using platelet-rich fibrin as an autologous media for delayed teeth replantation:a cases report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 黄超; 刘艳丽; 赵寅华; 张旻; 陈永进

    2016-01-01

    PRF ( platelet rich fibrin) is a kind of second generation platelet concentrate with a three dimensional reticular structure which can regulate inflammation, accelerate tissue healing, and release a variety of growth factors slowly and continuously. However, no clinical study has used PRF for the treatment of avulsed tooth. In this study, a delayed and dry-reserved avulsion tooth was replanted with autologous PRF. 12-month follow-up showed that the tooth recovered well, the peridental membrane was healed, no root resorption occurred, and the height of alveolar bone was restored.%富血小板纤维蛋白( PRF)是一种立体三维网状结构的第二代血小板浓缩物,它能够调节炎症,促进组织愈合。并且能够缓慢持续释放多种生长因子。大量文献报道PRF可以促进口腔软硬组织的愈合,但尚未将其应用于临床牙再植的治疗中。本文联合自体PRF颗粒对1例撕脱2 h且干燥保存的离体牙进行延迟再植、复位固定及后续牙髓治疗。随访1年,脱位牙恢复良好,达到牙周膜性愈合,没有出现牙根吸收,且牙槽骨高度得到恢复。

  10. A analysis of nursing cooperation during intentional replantation microsurgery%四手操作应用于意向性牙再植术的护理探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪; 贾春蓉; 赵晓曦

    2016-01-01

    目的:   探讨意向性牙再植术中护理配合的操作流程与规范。方法  选取难治性根尖周炎且需要行意向性牙再植的患牙14例,护士配合医生在显微镜下四手操作进行意向性牙再植术。结果  初步建立了意向性牙再植术的护理操作流程与规范,术后复查,除1例牙因松动拔出外,其余13例收到满意的临床效果。结论  高效规范的护理配合对确保意向性牙再植术的成功具有重要作用。%Objective   To discuss the nuring procedure and criteria of intentional replantation(IR) microsurgery. Methods  Fourteen cases of apical periodontitis were included according to including criteria. During the surgery, nurse helped the endodotic specialist  to finish IR with four-hand operation method. Results   The nuring procedure and criteria of IR was established. Thirteen teeth have no periapical symptoms with normal gingival attachment and tooth mobility. One tooth was extracted because of root resorption. Conclusion  The effective and qualified nursing cooperation play an important role to enhance the success rate of IR.

  11. Soil use and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.; McBratney, A.B.; White, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    This four-volume set, edited by leading experts in soil science, brings together in one collection a series of papers that have been fundamental to the development of soil science as a defined discipline. Volume 3 on Soil Use and Management covers: - Soil evaluation and land use planning - Soil and

  12. 利用药用植物源土壤添加物控制草莓再植病害的研究%Management of Strawberry (Fragria ananassa Duch) Replanting Problem by Soil Amendments of Medicinal Herbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄文超; 曹克强; 代丽; 胡同乐

    2005-01-01

    针对草莓再植病害3种主要病原菌Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Verticillium dahliae筛选了125种药用植物腐解物提取液抑菌活性, 丁香(Eugenia caryophyllata)、川芎(Ligusticum sinence)、百部(Stemona japonica)、五倍子(Rhus chinensi)和苦参(Sophora flavescens) 5种药用植物材料分别对3种病原真菌有较强的抑制作用;对这5种材料及其组合的盆栽、日光温室小区试验表明,盆栽试验中,在连作土壤中加入5种材料或其不同组合后,草莓生长发育状况得到改善,产量提高.在现蕾期,11个处理病情指数明显低于对照,其中9个处理单株产量比对照明显增加.在日光温室小区试验中,土壤中添加药用植物材料的5个处理与对照相比,草莓生长发育状况明显改善,现蕾期病情指数比连作对照低13.9~39.5、死苗率降低了22.4%~33.2%,产量提高了32.6%~33.8%.根据防病、增产效果以及药用植物本身的成本,认为川芎和苦参的等量混合物有望用于草莓再植病害的防治.

  13. 根际微生物与植物再植病的发生发展关系%Association of rhizosphere soil microbiome with the occurrence and development of replant disease-A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾; 徐慧敏; 朱宝利

    2016-01-01

    植物再植病严重危害农作物的生长发育,形成原因复杂,最新的研究显示它与根际微生态的变化相关,其中主要涉及根际微生物菌群结构的变化.现代高通量测序技术的迅速推广使得根际微生物和再植病间关系成为新的研究热点;本文根据国内外植物再植病病因、根际土壤微生物多样性以及它们与植物生长发育关系等多方面的研究成果,综合分析植物再植病与根际微生物间的关系,以期从根际微生物种群动态变化的角度认识植物再植病的病因并为防治提供新的思路.

  14. Nanophase Fe0 in lunar soils

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhijit Basu

    2005-06-01

    Back scattered electron and transmission electron imaging of lunar soil grains reveal an abundance of submicrometer-sized pure Fe00 globules that occur in the rinds of many soil grains and in the submillimeter sized vesicular glass-cemented grains called agglutinates. Grain rinds are amorphous silicates that were deposited on grains exposed at the lunar surface from transient vapors produced by hypervelocity micrometeorite impacts. Fe0 may have dissociated from Fe-compounds in a high temperature (< 3000°C) vapor phase and then condensed as globules on grain surfaces. The agglutinitic glass is a quenched product of silicate melts, also produced by micrometeorite impacts on lunar soils. Reduction by solar wind hydrogen in agglutinitic melts may have produced immiscible droplets that solidified as globules. The exact mechanism of formation of such Fe0 globules in lunar soils remains unresolved.

  15. Alcohol-inactivated autograft replantation in reconstruction of bone defects in management of malignant bone tumors%酒精灭活瘤段骨在重建恶性骨肿瘤骨缺损中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许宋锋; 刘江; 聂鑫; 于秀淳; 徐明; 王冰; 郑凯; 付志厚; 宋若先

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical outcomes of alcohol-inactivated autograft replantation in reconstruction of bone defects in management of malignant bone tumors,and to analyze the related factors affecting the survival rate and functional results.Methods The clinical data of 53 patients with malignant bone tumors who were admitted and treated by alcohol-inactivated autograft replantation from January 1995 to June 2013 were retrospectively analyzed.The mean age was 17.7 years old (range: 9-49 years ).Twenty-three neoplasms were located in the distal femur,2 neoplasms in the middle femur,20 neoplasms in the proximal tibia,3 neoplasms in the distal tibia,3 neoplasms in the proximal humerus,1 neoplasm in the sacrum and 1 neoplasm in the ilium respectively.According to the Enneking system,48 patients were identiifed as stage Ⅱb and 5 patients as stage Ⅲ.Forty-four patients were diagnosed as osteosarcoma,6 patients as Ewing's sarcoma,1 patient as rhabdomyosarcoma,1 patient as chondrosarcoma,and 1 patient as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.The postoperative results were evaluated according to the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society ( MSTS ) system and the International Society of Limb Salvage ( ISOLS ) graft evaluation method.A statistical analysis of the correlation among all the related factors,survival and postoperative function was conducted.Results The mean follow-up period was 55 months ( range: 13-216 months ).Thirty-nine patients were treated with wide resection and 14 patients with marginal resection.The average length of alcohol-inactivated autograft was 16.3 cm ( range: 5-26 cm ).The recurrence rate was 22.9%( 11/48 ) in stage Ⅱb group,and there were 9 cases of pulmonary metastases with the metastasis rate of 18.8%,6 death cases and 5 cases of survival with tumors.The recurrence rate was 15.9%( 7/44 ) in osteosarcoma group,and there were 6 cases of pulmonary metastases with the metastasis rate of 13.6%and 35 cases of survival during the follow-up of 3 years

  16. Visual soil evaluation and soil compaction research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M.L. Guimarães, Rachel; Keller, Thomas; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2017-01-01

    to organize a joint workshop. The present special issue is an outcome from the workshop on “Soil structural quality of tropical soils: Visual evaluation methods and soil compaction prevention strategies” that was held 26–29 May 2014 in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. There has been a long-lasting interest in Visual...... and climatic conditions, as well as in utilizing VSE methods together with qualitative methods to evaluate the impact of soil management (Munkholm et al., 2013). Soil compaction due to agricultural operations is a serious threat to soil productivity and soil ecological functions and has been a key research...... Soil Evaluation (VSE). An ISTRO working group was established more than 30 years ago with the objectives to exchange knowledge and experiences on field methods of visual-tactile soil assessment and to foster international cooperation on new or refined methods. The three previous meeting of the group...

  17. Goethite Morphologies of Some Soils in South of Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUFAN; XUFENG-LIN; 等

    1994-01-01

    The morphologies of goethites in latosol,red soils,yellow-brown soil and the paddy soils developed from red soils were studied in comparison with the morphology of synthetic goethite by means of the X-ray diffration,transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis.The synthetic goethite displayed acicular particles elongated in the c-direction.The goethites in the latosol,red soils and yellowbrown soil were platy particles stretched in two directions or isodimensional particles,and those in the paddy soils from red soils were acicular,short columnar,palty or isodimensional particles,Various morphologies of the goethites probably suggested their different dominant crystal faces,surface charge distribution and surface adsorption characteristics.

  18. Studies of semiquinone free radicals by ESR in the whole soil, HA, FA and humin substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saab Sérgio C

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work it was studied soil organic matter from a gley soil, using ESR (electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The studied soil samples were collected in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Humic and fulvic acid, humin macromolecules, and whole soil samples were analyzed. The results showed that the amount and line width of semiquinone free radical from whole soil samples had good correlation with humin fraction and no correlation with humic and fulvic acids contents.

  19. Analysis of behavior of melted dark green silty soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiqun TANG; Ping YANG; Feng SHEN; Nianqing ZHOU

    2008-01-01

    The behavior of dark green silty soil of the 6th storey is studied by means of scanning electron micro-scopy (SEM). The shape, size and contact condition of the basic elements of the soil microstructure, and the shape and the size of the pore are further studied. In addi-tion, a comparative study is made to analyze the experi-ment results of Cu and dynamic test. The mechanic characteristics of common soil and those of melted soil are presented and their influences on dark silty soil after being frozen are theoretically illustrated from a micro-scopic perspective.

  20. Filtrating forms of soil bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van'kova, A. A.; Ivanov, P. I.; Emtsev, V. T.

    2013-03-01

    Filtrating (ultramicroscopic) forms (FF) of bacteria were studied in a soddy-podzolic soil and the root zone of alfalfa plants as part of populations of the most widespread physiological groups of soil bacteria. FF were obtained by filtering soil solutions through membrane filters with a pore diameter of 0.22 μm. It was established that the greater part of the bacteria in the soil and in the root zone of the plants has an ultramicroscopic size: the average diameter of the cells is 0.3 μm, and their length is 0.6 μm, which is significantly less than the cell size of banal bacteria. The number of FF varies within a wide range depending on the physicochemical conditions of the habitat. The FF number's dynamics in the soil is of a seasonal nature; i.e., the number of bacteria found increases in the summer and fall and decreases in the winter-spring period. In the rhizosphere of the alfalfa, over the vegetation period, the number of FF and their fraction in the total mass of the bacteria increase. A reverse tendency is observed in the rhizoplane. The morphological particularities (identified by an electron microscopy) and the nature of the FF indicate their physiological activity.

  1. Detailed Soils 24K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital soil survey and is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The information was...

  2. GeologicSoils_SOAG

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — GeologicSoils_SOAG includes a pre-selected subset of SSURGO soil data depicting prime agricultural soils in Vermont. The SSURGO county coverages were joined to the...

  3. Indicators: Soil Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical makeup of the soil can provide information on wetland condition, wetland water quality and services being provided by the wetland ecosystem. Analyzing soil chemistry reveals if the soil is contaminated with a toxic chemical or heavy metal.

  4. Soil Organic Carbon Stock

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the carbon held within soil organic constituents (i.e., products produced as dead plants and animals decompose and the soil microbial...

  5. [Preliminary characterization of clay minerals from four typical soils of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Ying-hua; Wu, Zhi-jie; Chen, Li-jun; Wang, Ren; Gong, Liang; Bao, Hong-jing; Liu, Yan

    2010-07-01

    The black soil, albic soil, brown soil and cinnamon soil in Northeast China were selected as research objects, and their mineral characteristics were evaluated with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy(SEM). The results showed that the mineral atlas of test soils were of montmorillonite type. Quartz was the main component of clay minerals in the four soils. Montmorillonite and high mountain stone had higher amounts in black soil and albic soil, and mica and high mountain stone were more in brown soil and cinnamon soil. Generally, the surface of mineral particles in black soil, brown soil and cinnamon soil seems to be of laminarization with significant un-uniformity, and compared with black soil, brown soil and cinnamon soil had more smooth surface. In contrast, the mineral particles in albic soil had distinct profile and smooth surface with some interstice. It was indicated that the components and characteristics of soil clay minerals could be analyzed by soil spectroscopy, and the related information to be obtained could be accurate and available.

  6. Analysis of the Changes in Circulation of Sub-dermal Vascular Network Flap Made from Flap-type Skin Avulsion and Replanted to Origin Site%皮瓣型皮肤撕脱伤修成暴露真皮下血管网皮瓣回植创面的血循环变化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To find out the characteristics of the changes in circulation of sub-dermal vascular network flap made from flap-type skin avulsion Injury and replanted to origin site. Method: Pig skin avulsion model was used in this experiment. Flap's blood circulation was monitored and surviving flap length measured. Result. Flap blood circulation was markedly improved. Conclusion: Sub-dermal vascular network flap made from skin avulsion flap and replanted to origin site can improved the survival length of the flap.%目的:了解皮肤撕脱伤修成暴露真皮下血管网皮瓣回植创面的血循环变化特点和对皮瓣成活的影响。方法:以猪为实验对象,制作皮肤撕脱伤模型,观察皮瓣的血循环变化和成活情况。结果:将撕脱瓣修成暴露真皮下血管网的皮瓣再回植,可以使皮瓣血循环显著改善。结论:将撕脱瓣修成暴露真皮下血管网的皮瓣再回植,可以使皮瓣成活长度显著增加。

  7. Soils, Soils, Published in 2004, Taylor County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Soils dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2004. It is described as 'Soils'. Data by this publisher are often...

  8. Surfactant adsorption to soil components and soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishiguro, Munehide; Koopal, Luuk K.

    2016-01-01

    Soils are complex and widely varying mixtures of organic matter and inorganic materials; adsorption of surfactants to soils is therefore related to the soil composition. We first discuss the properties of surfactants, including the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surfactant adsorption on

  9. Soil-structure interaction including nonlinear soil

    OpenAIRE

    Gicev, Vlado

    2008-01-01

    There are two types of models of soil-structure system depending upon the rigidity of foundation: models with rigid and models with flexible foundation. Main features of the soil-structure interaction phenomenon: -wave scattering, -radiation damping, -reduction of the system frequencies. In this presentation, the influence of interaction on the development of nonlinear zones in the soil is studied.

  10. Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  11. Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  12. NOrth AMerica Soil (NOAM-SOIL) Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. A.; Waltman, S. W.; Geng, X.; James, D.; Hernandez, L.

    2009-05-01

    NOAM-SOIL is being created by combining the CONUS-SOIL database with pedon data and soil geographic data coverages from Canada and Mexico. Completion of the in-progress NOrth AMerica Soil (NOAM-SOIL) database will provide complete North America coverage comparable to CONUS. Canadian pedons, which number more than 500, have been painstakingly transcribed to a common format, from hardcopy, and key- entered. These data, along with map unit polygons from the 1:1,000,000 Soil Landscapes of Canada, will be used to create the required spatial data coverages. The Mexico data utilizes the INEGI 1:1,000,000 scale soil map that was digitized by U. S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center in the mid 1990's plus about 20,000 pedons. The pedon data were published on the reverse side of the paper 1:250,000 scale Soil Map of Mexico and key entered by USDA and georeferenced by Penn State to develop an attribute database that can be linked to the 1:1,000,000 scale Soil Map of Mexico based on taxonomic information and geographic proximity. The essential properties that will be included in the NOAM-SOIL data base are: layer thickness (depth to bedrock or reported soil depth); available water capacity; sand, silt, clay; rock fragment volume; and bulk density. For quality assurance purposes, Canadian and Mexican soil scientists will provide peer review of the work. The NOAM-SOIL project will provide a standard reference dataset of soil properties for use at 1km resolution by NACP modelers for all of North America. All data resources, including metadata and selected raw data, will be provided through the Penn State web site: Soil Information for Environmental Modeling and Ecosystem Management (www.soilinfo.psu.edu). Progress on database completion is reported.

  13. Changes in expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in pathological scar tissue of rabbit ears after scar-skin replantation%兔耳病理性瘢痕皮回植术后组织中基质金属蛋白酶-1及金属蛋白酶组织抑制剂-1表达的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雪莲; 苏晓光; 张锤; 张春莉; 张卓男; 郑宝恒

    2014-01-01

    目的 通过建立兔耳模型观察基质金属蛋白酶-1 (matrix metalloproteinase-1,MMP-1)及金属蛋白酶组织抑制剂-1(tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1,TIMP-1)在病理性瘢痕皮回植术后组织中表达的变化,探讨瘢痕皮回植治疗病理性瘢痕的机制.方法 建立兔耳病理性瘢痕模型,共分为3组:正常皮肤组(对照组,A组)、病理性瘢痕组(B组)及瘢痕皮回植组(C组).切取标本行HE染色和Masson特殊组织化学染色及免疫组织化学染色,观察各组标本MMP-1、TIMP-1的表达情况.结果 病理性瘢痕经瘢痕皮回植术后,MMP-1及TIMP-1均较A组明显升高(P<0.01),MMP-1的表达较TIMP-1明显增强(P<0.01).结论 瘢痕皮回植术治疗瘢痕的机制与瘢痕组织内MMP-1和TIMP-1相互作用的失衡有关.%Objective To observe the changes of MMP-1 and TIMP-1 expression in the pathological scar tissue after scar-skin replantation and to explore the mechanism of treating pathological scars with scar-skin replantation through a rabbit ear model.Methods Rabbit ears were used to establish the hypertrophic scar animal model in this study.Specimens were taken for three times:normal skin,hypertrophic scar and scar-skin replantion separately.We then performed HE staining,Masson staining and immunohistochemical staining to observe the expression of MMP-1 and TIMP-1 in these three groups of specimens.Results The expression of both MMP-1 and TIMP-1 significantly increased in the hypertrophic scar tissue after scar-skin replantation compared with the control group (P<0.01).The expression of MMP-1 increased more significantly than that of TIMP-1 (P<0.01).Conclusions The mechanism of scar-skin replantation's effect in the treatment for hypertrophic scar is relevant to the imbalance in the interaction between MMP-1 and TIMP-1 in the scar tissue.

  14. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  15. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  16. Electronic Prescribing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do you prescribe electronically?” For more information about electronic prescribing, call 1-800-MEDICARE (1-800-633- ... TTY users should call 1-877-486-2048 . Electronic eRx Prescribing I went to the pharmacy, and ...

  17. Fundamentals of soil science

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study guide provides comments and references for professional soil scientists who are studying for the soil science fundamentals exam needed as the first step for certification. The performance objectives were determined by the Soil Science Society of America's Council of Soil Science Examiners...

  18. Hot fire, cool soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, C.R.; Moore, D.; Fernandes, P.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Fernandes, R.; Ferreira, A.J.D.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfires greatly increase a landscape's vulnerability to flooding and erosion events by removing vegetation and changing soils. Fire damage to soil increases with increasing soil temperature, and, for fires where smoldering combustion is absent, the current understanding is that soil temperatures i

  19. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  20. Carbon fiber enhanced bioelectricity generation in soil microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Xin; Zhao, Qian; Wan, Lili; Li, Yongtao; Zhou, Qixing

    2016-11-15

    The soil microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a promising biotechnology for the bioelectricity recovery as well as the remediation of organics contaminated soil. However, the electricity production and the remediation efficiency of soil MFC are seriously limited by the tremendous internal resistance of soil. Conductive carbon fiber was mixed with petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil and significantly enhanced the performance of soil MFC. The maximum current density, the maximum power density and the accumulated charge output of MFC mixed carbon fiber (MC) were 10, 22 and 16 times as high as those of closed circuit control due to the carbon fiber productively assisted the anode to collect the electron. The internal resistance of MC reduced by 58%, 83% of which owed to the charge transfer resistance, resulting in a high efficiency of electron transfer from soil to anode. The degradation rates of total petroleum hydrocarbons enhanced by 100% and 329% compared to closed and opened circuit controls without the carbon fiber respectively. The effective range of remediation and the bioelectricity recovery was extended from 6 to 20cm with the same area of air-cathode. The mixed carbon fiber apparently enhanced the bioelectricity generation and the remediation efficiency of soil MFC by means of promoting the electron transfer rate from soil to anode. The use of conductively functional materials (e.g. carbon fiber) is very meaningful for the remediation and bioelectricity recovery in the bioelectrochemical remediation.

  1. Restoring Soil Quality to Mitigate Soil Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan Lal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Feeding the world population, 7.3 billion in 2015 and projected to increase to 9.5 billion by 2050, necessitates an increase in agricultural production of ~70% between 2005 and 2050. Soil degradation, characterized by decline in quality and decrease in ecosystem goods and services, is a major constraint to achieving the required increase in agricultural production. Soil is a non-renewable resource on human time scales with its vulnerability to degradation depending on complex interactions between processes, factors and causes occurring at a range of spatial and temporal scales. Among the major soil degradation processes are accelerated erosion, depletion of the soil organic carbon (SOC pool and loss in biodiversity, loss of soil fertility and elemental imbalance, acidification and salinization. Soil degradation trends can be reversed by conversion to a restorative land use and adoption of recommended management practices. The strategy is to minimize soil erosion, create positive SOC and N budgets, enhance activity and species diversity of soil biota (micro, meso, and macro, and improve structural stability and pore geometry. Improving soil quality (i.e., increasing SOC pool, improving soil structure, enhancing soil fertility can reduce risks of soil degradation (physical, chemical, biological and ecological while improving the environment. Increasing the SOC pool to above the critical level (10 to 15 g/kg is essential to set-in-motion the restorative trends. Site-specific techniques of restoring soil quality include conservation agriculture, integrated nutrient management, continuous vegetative cover such as residue mulch and cover cropping, and controlled grazing at appropriate stocking rates. The strategy is to produce “more from less” by reducing losses and increasing soil, water, and nutrient use efficiency.

  2. Reconstruction of foot flexion-extension function after replantation of amputated leg%小腿中段离断再植后重建足跖屈背伸功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋生; 余斌; 杨建成; 江浩; 陈霞; 竺筠雯

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the foot function reconstruction after replantation of amputated leg. Methods The n erveless injury muscle in the amputated limbs was cut off, a section tensor fascia lata was resected off to replace the injured muscle. Meanwhile, transfer biceps femoris muscle and sartoriu s muscle to strengthen extensive muscles, and transfer semimembranosus muscle an d gracilis muscle to strengthen flexion muscles. Postoperation functional exer cises of the ankle was carried out. Results 2 patients were tre ated with this t echnique, followed up for more than 2 years. The extension and flexion muscle st rength reached MRC4 with satisfactory ankle function, the range of motion of ank le was restored nearly to normal. Conclusion The technique is e ffective to reconstruct most functions of the normal muscles and restore foot function.%目的 探讨小腿中段离断再植后足跖屈背伸功能重建的方法 。方法 常规断肢再植,术中将离断肢远段失神经支配的肌组织切除,只 保留肌腱及肌腱膜,切取髂胫束条桥接远端背伸肌腱和近端肌腹,同时和前移缝匠肌、股二 头肌长头缝接,加强足背伸肌力;桥接远端跖屈肌腱和近端肌腹,同时和游离的半腱肌、股 薄肌缝接,加强足跖屈肌力。结果 治疗2例,分别随访2年8个月及2年5个 月,足背伸、跖屈肌力达Ⅳ~Ⅳ+,踝关节活动度近正常。结论 应用髂 胫束条桥接远断端的肌腱和近断端的正常肌组织,同时利用缝匠肌、股二头肌、半腱肌、股 薄肌加强足的背伸、跖屈肌力,是一种有效的功能重建方法。

  3. Replantation of severed limbs(fingers) at high altitude district:a clinical analysis of 248 cases%高原断肢(指)再植248例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩国栋

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the influence of coldness and hypoxia on thesevered limbs (fingers).Methods Retrospective analysis was done for 248 cases of severed limbs(fingers) at high altitude district in Qinghai province. The replantation sequence followed as normal procedure. But the number of arteries and veins anastomosed should be as many as possible. Sufficient blood volume and oxygen should be maintained with room temperature over 25 ℃.Results Overal viability rate was 90.8 % in 248 cases. 23 cases resulted in failure due to ischemic time over 10 hours.Conclusions Coldness at high altitude district provided tolerated ischemic warm time for detached limbs(fingers). People at high altitude district living in long - term hypoxia environment may increase adhensiveness of red blood cell and platelet, resulting in thrombosis after vessel anastomosis.%目的分析高寒、缺氧对断肢(指)再植的影响。方法对在青海省高原环境条件下行断肢(指)再植的248例病史作回顾性分析。再植顺序按断肢(指)再植常规,但应尽可能多地吻合动脉和静脉。在术中、术后保持一定的血容量、充足的氧气,室温需维持在25℃以上。结果248例的总成活率达90.8%。失败23例,大都为再植时限在10h以上者。结论高原地区的寒冷给离断肢(指)体提供了很好的冷藏条件,有利于提高成活率;高原地区人群的长期缺氧可增加血小板、红血球的粘附性,容易导致吻合后血管的血栓形成。

  4. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E.; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K.; Gascó, M.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I.; Milano, M.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P.; Sæbø, O.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies. This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information P

  5. Cross-cutting activities: Soil quality and soil metagenomics

    OpenAIRE

    Peter P. Motavalli; Garrett, Karen A.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation reports on the work of the SANREM CRSP cross-cutting activities "Assessing and Managing Soil Quality for Sustainable Agricultural Systems" and "Soil Metagenomics to Construct Indicators of Soil Degradation." The introduction gives an overview of the extensiveness of soil degradation globally and defines soil quality. The objectives of the soil quality cross cutting activity are: CCRA-4 (Soil Metagenomics)

  6. Classification of Ferrallitic Soils in Chinese Soil Taxonomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The development of the classification of ferrallitic soils in China is reviewed and the classification of Ferralisols and Ferrisols in Chinese Soil Taxonomy is introduced in order to discuss the correlation between the ferrallitic soil classification in the Chinese Soil Taxonomy and those of the other soil classification systems. In the former soil classification systems of China, the ferrallitic soils were classified into the soil groups of Latosols, Latosolic red soils, Red soils, Yellow soils and Dry red soils, according to the combination of soil forming conditions, soil-forming processes, soil features and soil properties. In the Chinese Soil Taxonomy, most of ferrallitic soils are classified into the soil orders of Ferralisols and Ferrisols based on the diagnostic horizons and/or diagnostic characteristics with quantitatively defined properties. Ferralisols are the soils that have ferralic horizon, and they are merely subdivided into one suborder and two soil groups. Ferrisols are the soils that have LAC-ferric horizon but do not have ferralic horizon, and they are subdivided into three suborders and eleven soil groups. Ferralisols may correspond to part of Latosols and Latosolic red soils. Ferrisols may either correspond to part of Red soils, Yellow soils and Dry red soils, or correspond to part of Latosols and Latosolic red soils.

  7. Streptococcus suis sorption on agricultural soils: role of soil physico-chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenqiang; Liu, Xing; Huang, Qiaoyun; Cai, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Understanding pathogen sorption on natural soil particles is crucial to protect public health from soilborne and waterborne diseases. Sorption of pathogen Streptococcus suis on 10 agricultural soils was examined, and its correlations with soil physico-chemical properties were also elucidated. S. suis sorption isotherms conformed to the linear equation, with partition coefficients (Ks) ranging from 12.7 mL g(-1) to 100.1 mL g(-1). Bacteria were observed to sorb on the external surfaces of soil aggregates by scanning electron microscopy. Using Pearson correlation and linear regression analysis, solution pH was found to have significant negative correlations with Ks. Stepwise multiple regression and path analysis revealed that pH and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were the main factors influencing sorption behaviors. The obtained overall model (Ks=389.6-45.9×pH-1.3×CEC, R(2)=0.943, PKs values. However, the variability in Ks was less dependent on soil organic matter, specific surface area, soil texture and zeta potential, probably due to the internal-surface shielding phenomenon of soil aggregates. Additionally, the sorption trends cannot be interpreted by interaction energy barriers calculated using the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory, suggesting the limits of DLVO theory in describing pathogen sorption on natural soils. Our results also indicated soil pH and CEC should be preferentially considered when modeling S. suis sorption process.

  8. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  9. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  10. Cracking in desiccating soils

    OpenAIRE

    Ledesma Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Soil shrinkage is produced typically under desiccating conditions. Eventually shrinkage may generate cracks in the soil mass, a phenomenon that is being studied by several researchers, because its prediction is far from being a routine in Soil Mechanics. Within this context, Unsaturated Soil Mechanics provides a promising framework to understand the mechanisms involved. In addition to that, physical modelling of desiccating soils constitutes a good tool to explore the nature of this problem. ...

  11. Experimental study on micro replantation repair of rabbit model of the foot skin degloving injury%显微回植修复兔模型前足皮肤脱套伤的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱中杰; 尹宗生

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨在显微镜下回植皮肤,修复兔模型前足皮肤脱套伤的应用效果.方法 选择新西兰大白兔48只,通过装置模拟利器切割撕脱、重物挤压前足等场景,造成大白兔前足脱套伤合并胫骨、跖骨、指(趾)骨骨折等,建立大白兔前足皮肤脱套伤的动物模型,成功41只,并采用内固定趾骨或胫骨骨折,在显微镜下修复断裂肌腱,吻合前足断裂的动脉及相应神经,并将背侧皮肤向远侧掀起,通过直接吻合、转位吻合、移植桥接等方法,逐平面的吻合背侧的动静脉,使皮肤复位,至创缘时吻合创缘皮下浅静脉,缝合皮缘,并放置橡皮引流条.术后石膏固定兔模型前足,抗炎抗感染.结果 41只兔模型回植的皮肤全部成活,3只兔模型创缘皮肤部分坏死,经换药创面愈合.术后X线复查,趾骨胫骨骨折对位好.对兔模型随访3~9个月,平均5个月,骨折和皮肤创面愈合良好,前足可正常行走.结论 在显微镜下回植皮肤,修复兔模型的前足皮肤脱套伤,有效恢复了伤足的供血,加速了骨折的愈合,可有效恢复大白兔模型伤是的行走功能.%Objective To investigate the replanting the skin under the microscope,the repair of rabbit model of anterior foot application effect of skin degloving injury.Methods 48 New Zealand rabbits,by means of simulation tool cutting avulsion,crush fore foot scene,resulting in the big white rabbit forefoot degloving injury combined with tibia,metatarsal,finger (toe) bone fracture,the establishment of rabbit animal model of the foot skin degloved injury,41 cases were successful,and the use of internal fixation of tibial fracture phalanx or repair of tendon rupture,under the microscope,the artery anastomosis front foot fractureand corresponding nerve,the dorsal skin and set off to the far side,through the direct anastomosis,anastomosed graft bridging method,such asby plane,arteriovenous anastomosis of dorsal,enable the skin to reset

  12. 儿童恒牙全脱出牙周组织预后的回顾性研究%Retrospective study about periodontal ligament healing of replanted permanent teeth in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白洁; 赵玉鸣; 秦满

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the prognosis about periodontal ligament healing of replanted perma-nent teeth in children and to examine the associated factors.Methods: The sample consisted of 49 children with 61 avulsed permanent teeth, whose injuries had been managed in the period from 2000 to 2012.The clinical data of replanted teeth were collected, and the follow-up period was no less than 12 months .The factors were analyzed in relation to postoperative outcomes, classified as functional periodon-tal healing ( FH ) , infection-related ( inflammatory ) resorption ( IRR ) and replacement resorption ( RR) .Results:The functional healing rate was 23.0%, while replacement resorption rate was 72.1%. The replacement resorption ( ankylosis ) was usually observed earlier by clinical examination than by radiographic examination.86.0% (40/47) resorptive processes were diagnosed within the first year. Physiological storages, such as milk, saline and saliva were significantly better to periodontal ligament healing than nonphysiological storages, such as tap water and sterilizing solutions ( chloramine and alco-hol) .Functional healing was found significantly more frequent in canines and premolars.Conclusion:The factor significantly affecting periodontal ligament healing is storage medium.Replacement resorption is the most common type of root resorption.The replacement resorption diagnosis must combine the radio-graphic examination with the clinical examination.It is better to follow up more than 1 year after tooth re-plantation.%目的:对儿童恒牙全脱出后再植的病例进行回顾性研究,观察再植牙的牙周组织预后类型和各类根吸收出现的时间,分析影响再植牙牙周组织预后的可能因素。方法:对2000年至2012年在北京大学口腔医院就诊的儿童恒牙全脱出系统病历进行回顾性研究,要求观察期大于12个月,记录再植牙的预后和各类牙根吸收出现的时间,分析影响再植牙预后的相

  13. Soil Response to Global Change: Soil Process Domains and Pedogenic Thresholds (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, O.; Kramer, M. G.; Chorover, J.

    2013-12-01

    The capacity of soil to withstand perturbations, whether driven by climate, land use change, or spread of invasive species, depends on its chemical composition and physical state. The dynamic interplay between stable, well buffered soil process domains and thresholds in soil state and function is a strong determinant of soil response to forcing from global change. In terrestrial ecosystems, edaphic responses are often mediated by availability of water and its flux into and through soils. Water influences soil processes in several ways: it supports biological production, hence proton-donor, electron-donor and complexing-ligand production; it determines the advective removal of dissolution products, and it can promote anoxia that leads microorganisms to utilize alternative electron acceptors. As a consequence climate patterns strongly influence global distribution of soil, although within region variability is governed by other factors such as landscape age, parent material and human land use. By contrast, soil properties can vary greatly among climate regions, variation which is guided by the functioning of a suite of chemical processes that tend to maintain chemical status quo. This soil 'buffering' involves acid-base reactions as minerals weather and oxidation-reduction reactions that are driven by microbial respiration. At the planetary scale, soil pH provides a reasonable indicator of process domains and varies from about 3.5 to10, globally, although most soils lie between about 4.5 and 8.5. Those that are above 7.5 are strongly buffered by the carbonate system, those that are characterized by neutral pH (7.5-6) are buffered by release of non-hydrolyzing cations from primary minerals and colloid surfaces, and those that are parent material) soils are usually associated with arid and semiarid conditions, neutral pH soils with young soils in both dry and wet environments and acid soils with wet environments. Furthermore acid soils often have lost much of their

  14. Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks, including the Internet. Electronic commerce is not limited just to buying and selling, but it also includes all pre-sales and after-sales ongoing activities along the supply chain. Introducing electronic commerce, using the Internet and Web services in business, realizes the way to a completely new type of economy - internet economy.

  15. Micropower electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Keonjian, Edward

    1964-01-01

    Micropower Electronics deals with the operation of modern electronic equipment at micropower levels and the problems associated with micropower electronics. Topics covered include the relations between minimum required power density and frequency response for semiconductor triode amplifiers; physical realization of digital logic circuits; micropower microelectronic subsystems; and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect devices for micropower logic circuitry. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with an analysis of fundamental relationships and basic requirements pertinent to the ph

  16. Anaerobic N mineralization in paddy soils in relation to inundation management, physicochemical soil fractions, mineralogy and soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleutel, Steven; Kader, Mohammed Abdul; Ara Begum, Shamim; De Neve, Stefaan

    2013-04-01

    bonding strength, in turn equivalent to decreasing bio-availability. Although water has frequently been used to extract labile SOM, its use has mostly been limited to 100°C. 3° Third we developed sub critical water extraction (SCWE) at 100°C, 150°C and 200°C to isolate SOM fractions from the set of 25 paddy soil samples. In all cases, SCWE organic carbon (SCWE-OC) and N (SCWE-N) increased exponentially with the increase of temperature. SCWE preferentially extracted N over OC with increasing temperature. The efficiency of SCWE and the selectivity towards N were both lower in soils with increasingly reactive clay mineralogy. No correlations were found between the SCWE fractions and anaerobic N mineralization rate. In conclusion, SOM quantity and SOM quality, here represented by C and N distribution over physicochemical fractions, don't seem to dominantly determine anaerobic N mineralization in primarily young floodplain paddy soils. Other factors with exceeding control (pH and pyrophosphate extractable Fe) appear to exist. Possibly, the specific young genesis stage of most of the soils included (termed 'floodplain' soils) results in a limited availability of readily reducible Fe. Being an important alternative electron acceptor under submerged conditions, the availability of Fe, which is also controlled by pH, may be a bottleneck in the anaerobic N mineralization process. This needs to be further investigated by controlled incubation experiments with detailed follow-up of pH, redox potential, Fe in solution and mineral N.

  17. Morphometric and microscopic evaluation of the effect of gallium nitrate as a root canal dressing in rat teeth submitted to late replantation Avaliação morfométrica e microscópica do efeito do nitrato de gálio usado como curativo intracanal em dentes de ratos reimplantados tardiamente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Garrido Mori

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test a gallium nitrate solution, a resorption inhibitor, employed as a root canal dressing in teeth submitted to late replantation. Thirty maxillary right central incisors of rats were avulsed and kept dry for thirty minutes. The teeth were instrumented and the root surfaces were treated with 1% hypochlorite solution followed by application of 2% sodium fluoride. Thereafter, the teeth were divided into two groups according to the root canal dressing: Group I, solution of gallium nitrate; and Group II, calcium hydroxide paste. The teeth were then replanted in their respective sockets. The animals were killed at 15, 30 and 60 days after replantation and the samples were processed for morphometric and microscopic analysis. The results demonstrated that the gallium nitrate solution and the calcium hydroxide paste limited the root resorption, yet they did not impair its occurrence. It may be concluded that gallium nitrate solution and calcium hydroxide paste demonstrated similar performance.Este trabalho tem como objetivo testar a solução de nitrato de gálio, um inibidor da reabsorção, como curativo intracanal para dentes reimplantados tardiamente. Trinta incisivos centrais superiores direitos de ratos foram avulsionados e mantidos a seco por trinta minutos. Todos os dentes tiveram os canais radiculares instrumentados e a superfície radicular tratada com hipoclorito de sódio a 1%, seguido de fluoreto de sódio a 2%. Após isso, os dentes foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com a medicação intracanal: no grupo I, foi usada solução de nitrato de gálio e grupo II, pasta de hidróxido de cálcio. Todos os dentes foram, então, reimplantados em seus respectivos alvéolos. Passados 15, 30 e 60 dias do reimplante, os animais foram sacrificados e as peças obtidas, processadas em laboratório para análise microscópica e morfométrica. Os resultados mostraram que a solução de nitrato de gálio e a pasta de

  18. Application of evidence-based nursing for the prevention of vascular crisis after the operation of replantation of amputated finger%循证护理在预防断指再植术后血管危象中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟宪玲

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the effective intervention method to prevent vascular crisis after the operation of replantation of amputated finger with Application of evidenced based nursing. Methods 84 cases of replantation of amputated finger were randomly divided into two groups: observe group and compare group. Applicating usual nursing in compare group and evidence-based nursing in observe group. Results To search the cause and the effective intervention method of vascular crisis after the operation of replanlafion of ampu-tated finger with evidenced based nursing. Conclusion Applicatia of evidence-based nursing for the prevention of vascular crisis after the operation of replantation of amputated finger, so as to raise the survival rate of replanta-fion of amputated finger and promote the nursing quality.%目的 应用循证护理(EBM)探索断指再植术后血管危象的有效干预方法.方法 将84例断指再植患者随机分为观察组和对照组,各42例.对照组采用常规护理方法,观察组采用循证护理的方法实施血管危象的护理干预.结果 应用循证护理找出断指再植术后血管危象的原因及有效干预方法对断指再植术后的患者进行护理降低了血管危险的发生率.结论 循证护理在预防断指再植术后血管危象中的应用,使护理活动由被动变主动,有效地降低了血管危象的发生,提高了断指再植成活率,促进了护理质量的提高.

  19. Study on Soil Magnetic Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIYAN-LI; LIUXIAO-YI

    1995-01-01

    A study on the effect of applied magnetic field was performed with six types of soils collected from northeastern China.Magnetic field was found to cause changes of soil physico-chemical properties and soil enzyme activities.An appropriate applied magnetic field could cut down soil zeta-potential,soil specific surface,soil water potential and soil swelling capacity;raise the charge density on soil colloids and the activities of invertase,hydrogen peroxidase and amylase in the soils;enhance soil aggregation and improve soil structural status and soil water-releasing capability.

  20. Microfluidic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2012-08-21

    Microfluidics, a field that has been well-established for several decades, has seen extensive applications in the areas of biology, chemistry, and medicine. However, it might be very hard to imagine how such soft microfluidic devices would be used in other areas, such as electronics, in which stiff, solid metals, insulators, and semiconductors have previously dominated. Very recently, things have radically changed. Taking advantage of native properties of microfluidics, advances in microfluidics-based electronics have shown great potential in numerous new appealing applications, e.g. bio-inspired devices, body-worn healthcare and medical sensing systems, and ergonomic units, in which conventional rigid, bulky electronics are facing insurmountable obstacles to fulfil the demand on comfortable user experience. Not only would the birth of microfluidic electronics contribute to both the microfluidics and electronics fields, but it may also shape the future of our daily life. Nevertheless, microfluidic electronics are still at a very early stage, and significant efforts in research and development are needed to advance this emerging field. The intention of this article is to review recent research outcomes in the field of microfluidic electronics, and address current technical challenges and issues. The outlook of future development in microfluidic electronic devices and systems, as well as new fabrication techniques, is also discussed. Moreover, the authors would like to inspire both the microfluidics and electronics communities to further exploit this newly-established field.

  1. Paper electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobjörk, Daniel; Österbacka, Ronald

    2011-05-03

    Paper is ubiquitous in everyday life and a truly low-cost substrate. The use of paper substrates could be extended even further, if electronic applications would be applied next to or below the printed graphics. However, applying electronics on paper is challenging. The paper surface is not only very rough compared to plastics, but is also porous. While this is detrimental for most electronic devices manufactured directly onto paper substrates, there are also approaches that are compatible with the rough and absorptive paper surface. In this review, recent advances and possibilities of these approaches are evaluated and the limitations of paper electronics are discussed.

  2. Electron holography

    CERN Document Server

    Tonomura, Akira

    1993-01-01

    Holography was devised for breaking through the resolution limit of electron microscopes The advent of a "coherent" field emission electron beam has enabled the use of Electron Holography in various areas of magnetic domain structures observation, fluxon observation in superconductors, and fundamental experiments in physics which have been inaccessible using other techniques After examining the fundamentals of electron holography and its applications to the afore mentioned fields, a detailed discussion of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the related experiments is presented Many photographs and illustrations are included to elucidate the text

  3. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  4. Electronic Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Meredith Lindsay

    1995-01-01

    The main objective was to assist in the production of electronic images in the Electronic Photography Lab (EPL). The EPL is a new facility serving the electronic photographic needs of the Langley community. The purpose of the Electronic Photography lab is to provide Langley with access to digital imaging technology. Although the EPL has been in operation for less than one year, almost 1,000 images have been produced. The decision to establish the lab was made after careful determination of the centers needs for electronic photography. The LaRC community requires electronic photography for the production of electronic printing, Web sites, desktop publications, and its increased enhancement capabilities. In addition to general use, other considerations went into the planning of the EPL. For example, electronic photography is much less of a burden on the environment compared to conventional photography. Also, the possibilities of an on-line database and retrieval system could make locating past work more efficient. Finally, information in an electronic image is quantified, making measurements and calculations easier for the researcher.

  5. Electron Bifurcation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, John W.; Miller, Anne-Frances; Jones, Anne K.; King, Paul W.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2016-04-01

    Electron bifurcation is the recently recognized third mechanism of biological energy conservation. It simultaneously couples exergonic and endergonic oxidation-reduction reactions to circumvent thermodynamic barriers and minimize free energy loss. Little is known about the details of how electron bifurcating enzymes function, but specifics are beginning to emerge for several bifurcating enzymes. To date, those characterized contain a collection of redox cofactors including flavins and iron-sulfur clusters. Here we discuss the current understanding of bifurcating enzymes and the mechanistic features required to reversibly partition multiple electrons from a single redox site into exergonic and endergonic electron transfer paths.

  6. Effect of heavy metals on soil fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosak-Świderska, Bożena

    2010-05-01

    Fungi constitute a high proportion of the microbial biomass in soil.Being widespread in soil their large surface-to-volume ratio and high metabolic activity, fungi can contribute significantly to heavy metal dynamics in soil. At neutral pH heavy metals in soils tend to be immobilized to precipitation and/or absorption to cation exchange sites of clay minerals. In the acidic soils, metals are more mobile and enter food webs easier. Microbial production of acids and chelating agents can mobilize to toxic metals. Mobilization is often by uptake and intracellular accumulation of the heavy metlas, and in this way, the bioavailability of metals towards other organisms can be more reduced. Fungi were isolated from soils from Upper Silesia in Poland and belonged to widespread genera: Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium and Trichoderma. Fungi from different taxonomic groups differ greatly in their tolerance to heavy metals. This could be related to their wall structure and chemistry as well as biochemical and physiological characteristics of fungi. Localization of metals in fungal cells was studied using electron microscopy analysis. Metal biosorption in the cell wall can be complex as melanin granules. Fungal vacuoles have an important role in the regulation of the cytosolic concentration of metal ions, and may contribute to heavy metal tolerance.In polluted soils with heavy metals, fungal species composition can be changed and their physiological activity can be changed, too.

  7. Soil Reinforcement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Patil

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In many activities concerned with the use of soil, the physical properties like Stiffness, Compressibility and Strength are some of the few important parameters to be considered. Of the many methods involved in improvement of soil properties, soil reinforcement is method concerned with increase of strength properties of soil. In soil reinforcement, the reinforcements or resisting element are of different materials and of various forms depending upon the intended use. The reinforcement can be provided permanently or temporarily to increase strength of adjacent structures. The present topic of discussion involves different materials, forms and applications of soil reinforcement

  8. Promoting Interspecies Electron Transfer with Biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanshan; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Shrestha, Pravin Malla; Malvankar, Nikhil S.; Liu, Fanghua; Fan, Wei; Nevin, Kelly P.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2014-01-01

    Biochar, a charcoal-like product of the incomplete combustion of organic materials, is an increasingly popular soil amendment designed to improve soil fertility. We investigated the possibility that biochar could promote direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in a manner similar to that previously reported for granular activated carbon (GAC). Although the biochars investigated were 1000 times less conductive than GAC, they stimulated DIET in co-cultures of Geobacter metallireducens with Geobacter sulfurreducens or Methanosarcina barkeri in which ethanol was the electron donor. Cells were attached to the biochar, yet not in close contact, suggesting that electrons were likely conducted through the biochar, rather than biological electrical connections. The finding that biochar can stimulate DIET may be an important consideration when amending soils with biochar and can help explain why biochar may enhance methane production from organic wastes under anaerobic conditions. PMID:24846283

  9. Promoting interspecies electron transfer with biochar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Shanshan; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Shrestha, Pravin Malla

    2014-01-01

    Biochar, a charcoal-like product of the incomplete combustion of organic materials, is an increasingly popular soil amendment designed to improve soil fertility. We investigated the possibility that biochar could promote direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in a manner similar...... to that previously reported for granular activated carbon (GAC). Although the biochars investigated were 1000 times less conductive than GAC, they stimulated DIET in co-cultures of Geobacter metallireducens with Geobacter sulfurreducens or Methanosarcina barkeri in which ethanol was the electron donor. Cells were...... attached to the biochar, yet not in close contact, suggesting that electrons were likely conducted through the biochar, rather than biological electrical connections. The finding that biochar can stimulate DIET may be an important consideration when amending soils with biochar and can help explain why...

  10. Totally impermeable film (TIF) reduces emissions in perennial crop fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard/vineyard replanting for fruit trees, nut trees, and grapevines in many situations still depends on soil fumigation for control of soil-borne pests and replanting diseases in California. Perennial tree and grapevine nurseries also rely heavily on soil fumigation to meet the state’s requiremen...

  11. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, John M. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  12. Electrodialytic soil remediation in a small pilot plant (Part II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmose, Bodil; Hansen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and observations with scanning electron microscope (SEM), the last two combined with an EDX analysis unit. The three soil fractions were extracted with am-monia for observa-tion of the copper removal when copper forms copper-tetra-ammine complexes with am......-monia. Ammonia was chosen because it forms strong complexes with copper and to keep the soil basic, so that the carbonates were not dissolved. The bulk soil was treated by electrodialytic reme-dia-tion, and soil treated for seven months was investigated with XRD, TEM and SEM.Malachite was found by use of XRD...... measurements in one of the untreated soil samples. These measurements were supported by EDX measurements (combined with either SEM or TEM), where almost pure copper particles were found. The EDX measurements do not include hydrogen, carbon and oxygen, which make the figures of all other elements higher than...

  13. Sorption of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate to soil components and effects on microbial iron reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Inge Broberg; de Jonge, Hubert; Nørnberg, Per; Mather-Christensen, Ole; Elsgaard, Lars

    2003-06-01

    When sewage sludge is applied to arable land, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) is released into the environment. In soils, LAS has been shown to impede microbial processes, such as bacterial iron reduction. The aim of the present study was to quantify LAS adsorption and desorption to agricultural soils and iron oxides and relate this to the inhibition of microbial iron reduction. Two agricultural soils were used, namely, Askov (coarse sandy loam soil) and Lundgaard (coarse sandy soil). In both soils, LAS inhibited microbial iron reduction even at low LAS concentrations with 10% effect concentrations of 6 to 7 and 26 to 32 mg LAS/kg dry-weight soil for Lundgaard and Askov soil, respectively. The sorption isotherms showed that sorption of LAS to iron oxides was 10 to 100 times stronger than sorption to the agricultural soils. Also, it appeared that at low LAS concentrations (< 10 mg/kg dry-wt soil), Lundgaard soil adsorbed approximately 10 times more LAS than Askov soil. Thus, the inhibitory effect of LAS on microbial iron reduction was highest in the Lundgaard soil, which exhibited both the strongest sorption and the lowest desorption of the two soils. A possible hypothesis to explain this correlation was that LAS toxicity toward bacterial iron reduction was, at least partly, caused by LAS adsorbed to iron oxides, which could interfere with transfer of electrons between the bacteria and their respiratory electron acceptor.

  14. Practical improvements in soil redox potential (Eh) measurement for characterisation of soil properties. Application for comparison of conventional and conservation agriculture cropping systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husson, Olivier, E-mail: Olivier.husson@cirad.fr [CIRAD/PERSYST/UPR 115 AIDA and AfricaRice Centre, 01 BP 2031 Cotonou (Benin); Husson, Benoit, E-mail: bhusson@ideeaquaculture.com [IDEEAQUACULTURE, Parc Euromédecine 2, 39 Rue Jean Giroux, 34080 Montpellier (France); Brunet, Alexandre, E-mail: brunet.alexandre@outlook.com [CIRAD/US 49 Analyse, Avenue Agropolis, TA B-49/01, 34398 Montpellier Cedex (France); Babre, Daniel, E-mail: Daniel.babre@cirad.fr [CIRAD/US 49 Analyse, Avenue Agropolis, TA B-49/01, 34398 Montpellier Cedex (France); Alary, Karine, E-mail: Karine.alary@cirad.fr [CIRAD/US 49 Analyse, Avenue Agropolis, TA B-49/01, 34398 Montpellier Cedex (France); Sarthou, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: sarthou@ensat.fr [ENSAT/INRA/INP UMR AGIR. BP 52627, Chemin de Borde Rouge, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan Cedex (France); Charpentier, Hubert, E-mail: Charpentier.hub@wanadoo.fr [La Boisfarderie, Brives 36100 (France); Durand, Michel, E-mail: earldeslacs@orange.fr [Le Cazals, Castanet 81 150 (France); Benada, Jaroslav, E-mail: benada@vukrom.cz [Agrotest fyto, Kromeriz Institute, Havlíckova 2787, 76701 Kromeriz (Czech Republic); Henry, Marc, E-mail: henry@unistra.fr [UMR CNRS/UdS 7140, Université de Strasbourg, Institut Le Bel, 4, rue Blaise Pascal, CS 90032, Strasbourg 67081 (France)

    2016-02-04

    The soil redox potential (Eh) can provide essential information to characterise soil conditions. In practice, however, numerous problems may arise regarding: (i) Eh determination in soils, especially aerobic soils, e.g. variations in the instrumentation and methodology for Eh measurement, high spatial and temporal Eh variability in soils, irreversibility of the redox reaction at the surface electrode, chemical disequilibrium; and (ii) measurement interpretation. This study aimed at developing a standardised method for redox potential measurement in soils, in order to use Eh as a soil quality indicator. This paper presents practical improvements in soil Eh measurement, especially regarding the control of electromagnetic perturbations, electrode choice and preparation, soil sample preparation (drying procedure) and soil:water extraction rate. The repeatability and reproducibility of the measurement method developed are highlighted. The use of Eh corrected at pH7, pe+pH or rH{sub 2}, which are equivalent notions, is proposed to facilitate interpretation of the results. The application of this Eh measurement method allows characterisation of soil conditions with sufficient repeatability, reproducibility and accuracy to demonstrate that conservation agriculture systems positively alter the protonic and electronic balance of soil as compared to conventional systems. - Highlights: • Electromagnetic fields can dramatically perturb soil Eh measurement. • Our method overcomes the main difficulties in soil Eh measurement. • Accurate and reproducible measurement of mean soil Eh are achieved. • Eh{sub pH7}, pe+pH and rH{sub 2} are equivalent notions characterising electron activity. • Agricultural practices alter soil protonic and electronic characteristics.

  15. Rapid Detection of Oil Pollution in Soil by Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Khumaeni; Wahyu Setia, Budi; Asep Yoyo, Wardaya; Rinda, Hedwig; Koo Hendrik, Kurniawan

    2016-12-01

    Detection of oil pollution in soil has been carried out using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). A pulsed neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser (1,064 nm, 8 ns, 200 mJ) was focused onto pelletized soil samples. Emission spectra were obtained from oil-contaminated soil and clean soil. The contaminated soil had almost the same spectrum profile as the clean soil and contained the same major and minor elements. However, a C-H molecular band was clearly detected in the oil-contaminated soil, while no C-H band was detected in the clean soil. Linear calibration curve of the C-H molecular band was successfully made by using a soil sample containing various concentrations of oil. The limit of detection of the C-H band in the soil sample was 0.001 mL/g. Furthermore, the emission spectrum of the contaminated soil clearly displayed titanium (Ti) lines, which were not detected in the clean soil. The existence of the C-H band and Ti lines in oil-contaminated soil can be used to clearly distinguish contaminated soil from clean soil. For comparison, the emission spectra of contaminated and clean soil were also obtained using scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) spectroscopy, showing that the spectra obtained using LIBS are much better than using SEM/EDX, as indicated by the signal to noise ratio (S/N ratio).

  16. Soil and Litter Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, George

    1991-01-01

    A lesson plan for soil study utilizes the Tullgren extraction method to illustrate biological concepts. It includes background information, equipment, collection techniques, activities, and references for identification guides about soil fauna. (MCO)

  17. GeologicSoils_ONSITE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — ONSITE is a pre-selected subset of SSURGO certified soil data depicting onsite sewage disposal ratings of Vermont soils. The SSURGO county coverages were joined to...

  18. iSOIL: Interactions between soil related sciences - Linking geophysics, soil science and digital soil mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Peter; Werban, Ulrike; Sauer, Uta

    2010-05-01

    High-resolution soil property maps are one major prerequisite for the specific protection of soil functions and restoration of degraded soils as well as sustainable land use, water and environmental management. To generate such maps the combination of digital soil mapping approaches and remote as well as proximal soil sensing techniques is most promising. However, a feasible and reliable combination of these technologies for the investigation of large areas (e.g. catchments and landscapes) and the assessment of soil degradation threats is missing. Furthermore, there is insufficient dissemination of knowledge on digital soil mapping and proximal soil sensing in the scientific community, to relevant authorities as well as prospective users. As one consequence there is inadequate standardization of techniques. At the poster we present the EU collaborative project iSOIL within the 7th framework program of the European Commission. iSOIL focuses on improving fast and reliable mapping methods of soil properties, soil functions and soil degradation risks. This requires the improvement and integration of advanced soil sampling approaches, geophysical and spectroscopic measuring techniques, as well as pedometric and pedophysical approaches. The focus of the iSOIL project is to develop new and to improve existing strategies and innovative methods for generating accurate, high resolution soil property maps. At the same time the developments will reduce costs compared to traditional soil mapping. ISOIL tackles the challenges by the integration of three major components: (i)high resolution, non-destructive geophysical (e.g. Electromagnetic Induction EMI; Ground Penetrating Radar, GPR; magnetics, seismics) and spectroscopic (e.g., Near Surface Infrared, NIR) methods, (ii)Concepts of Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) and pedometrics as well as (iii)optimized soil sampling with respect to profound soil scientific and (geo)statistical strategies. A special focus of iSOIL lies on the

  19. Determination of tetrabromobisphenol-A in electronic waste area soil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry%气相色谱/质谱测定电子垃圾拆解区土壤中四溴双酚A的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙翠香; 田宇; 谢倩; 毕鸿亮; 高原雪; 黄赛花

    2013-01-01

    The determination of derivatized tetrabromobisphenol-A in soil sample from electronic waste area by gas chromatography-massspectrometry was developed in this study. The compounds wereextracted from soil by sonication assisted extractionin small columns (SAESC) with a low Volume of the mixture of acetone and hexane (V: V= 1:1) or ethylacetate as extraction solvent.; an acidified Florisil-anhydrous sodium sulfate mixture or CleanertC18-SPE was carried out to remove interferences; N, O-bis(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide(BSTFA) and 1% trimethyl chlorosilane was used as derivating agent. Average recoveries from spiked samples were 92.7%(n=5) and the estimated limits of detection (S/N=3) varied 0.1 µg·kg-1. The repeatability (RSD) equals 2.52%. The response obtained withthis method was linear over the range assayed, 20-400 µg·kg-1 with correlation coefficients equalor higher than 0.999. The validated method was used to investigate the levels of TBBP-A compounds in soil samples in electronic wastearea, Testresult 5.17-218.00 µg·kg-1;Test result of TBBPA from electronic waste in the surrounding agriculture soil area 0.312-4.170 µg·kg-1.%本研究建立气相色谱/质谱来测定电子垃圾拆解区土壤中四溴双酚 A(TBBPA)的方法。该化合物通过超声波辅助萃取,溶剂选择V(丙酮)﹕V(正己烷)=1﹕1或乙酸乙酯;净化柱选择酸化的氟罗里硅土和无水硫酸钠混合物或CleanertC18-SPE进行净化;净化液浓缩后经衍生反应,衍生试剂选用N,O-双(三甲基硅烷基)三氟乙酰胺(BSTFA)和含1%的三甲基氯硅烷(TMCS)。该方法测定电子垃圾拆解区土壤中TBBPA的检出限为(S/N=3)0.1µg·kg-1,加标回收率平均值为92.7%(n=5),重现性RSD为2.52%(n=5);线性范围是20~400µg·kg-1,相关系数0.999。该方法用于调查电子垃圾拆解区土壤中四溴双酚A,范围值为5.17~218.00µg·kg-1;其周围农田土壤中四溴双酚A,范围值为0

  20. Electron optics

    CERN Document Server

    Grivet, Pierre; Bertein, F; Castaing, R; Gauzit, M; Septier, Albert L

    1972-01-01

    Electron Optics, Second English Edition, Part I: Optics is a 10-chapter book that begins by elucidating the fundamental features and basic techniques of electron optics, as well as the distribution of potential and field in electrostatic lenses. This book then explains the field distribution in magnetic lenses; the optical properties of electrostatic and magnetic lenses; and the similarities and differences between glass optics and electron optics. Subsequent chapters focus on lens defects; some electrostatic lenses and triode guns; and magnetic lens models. The strong focusing lenses and pris

  1. Electronic diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Diagrams is a ready reference and general guide to systems and circuit planning and in the preparation of diagrams for both newcomers and the more experienced. This book presents guidelines and logical procedures that the reader can follow and then be equipped to tackle large complex diagrams by recognition of characteristic 'building blocks' or 'black boxes'. The goal is to break down many of the barriers that often seem to deter students and laymen in learning the art of electronics, especially when they take up electronics as a spare time occupation. This text is comprised of nin

  2. Digital electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, John

    2013-01-01

    An essential companion to John C Morris's 'Analogue Electronics', this clear and accessible text is designed for electronics students, teachers and enthusiasts who already have a basic understanding of electronics, and who wish to develop their knowledge of digital techniques and applications. Employing a discovery-based approach, the author covers fundamental theory before going on to develop an appreciation of logic networks, integrated circuit applications and analogue-digital conversion. A section on digital fault finding and useful ic data sheets completes th

  3. Electronic identity

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Norberto Nuno Gomes; Argles, David

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing availability of electronic services, security and a reliable means by which identity is verified is essential.Written by Norberto Andrade the first chapter of this book provides an overview of the main legal and regulatory aspects regarding electronic identity in Europe and assesses the importance of electronic identity for administration (public), business (private) and, above all, citizens. It also highlights the role of eID as a key enabler of the economy.In the second chapter Lisha Chen-Wilson, David Argles, Michele Schiano di Zenise and Gary Wills discuss the user-cent

  4. Stretchable electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Someya, Takao

    2012-01-01

    With its comprehensive coverage this handbook and ready reference brings together some of the most outstanding scientists in the field to lay down the undisputed knowledge on how to make electronics stretchable.As such, it focuses on gathering and evaluating the materials, designs, models and technologies that enable the fabrication of fully elastic electronic devices which can sustain high strain. Furthermore, it provides a review of those specific applications that directly benefit from highly compliant electronics, including transistors, photonic devices and sensors. In addition to stre

  5. Starting electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Starting Electronics is unrivalled as a highly practical introduction for hobbyists, students and technicians. Keith Brindley introduces readers to the functions of the main component types, their uses, and the basic principles of building and designing electronic circuits. Breadboard layouts make this very much a ready-to-run book for the experimenter; and the use of multimeter, but not oscilloscopes, puts this practical exploration of electronics within reach of every home enthusiast's pocket. The third edition has kept the simplicity and clarity of the original. New material

  6. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  7. Thermal Properties of Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    plagio - clase feldspar and pyroxene. The tine fraction may Surface area and its effects contain the clay "sheet" minerals (i.e. kaolinite. illite...Pyroxene, Kaoliniwe Unified By By Ortho. Plagio . amphibole, Basic clay min. Hematite Soil Soil soil petrogr. X.ray clase clase and Igneous and clay and no

  8. Soil immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, Jos M.; Mazzola, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Soil microorganisms are central to the provision of food, feed, fiber, and medicine. Engineering of soil microbiomes may promote plant growth and plant health, thus contributing to food security and agricultural sustainability (1, 2). However, little is known about most soil microorganisms and their

  9. Visual soil evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visual Soil Evaluation (VSE) provides land users and environmental authorities with the tools to assess soil quality for crop performance. This book describes the assessment of the various structural conditions of soil, especially after quality degradation such as compaction, erosion or organic...

  10. Factors affecting soil cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil erodibility is a measure of a soil’s resistance against erosive forces and is affected by both intrinsic (or inherent) soil property and the extrinsic condition at the time erodibility measurement is made. Since soil erodibility is usually calculated from results obtained from erosion experimen...

  11. Conserving Soil. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This book of enrichment materials is an interdisciplinary study of soil designed for students in grades 6-9. The materials are presented in three units. Unit 1 contains eight activities in which students investigate soil science and study the social impact of soil by examining the history of land use by local Native Americans. Unit 2 contains 10…

  12. Evaluating Soil Moisture Status Using an e-Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bieganowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of distinguishing different soil moisture levels by electronic nose (e-nose was studied. Ten arable soils of various types were investigated. The measurements were performed for air-dry (AD soils stored for one year, then moistened to field water capacity and finally dried within a period of 180 days. The volatile fingerprints changed during the course of drying. At the end of the drying cycle, the fingerprints were similar to those of the initial AD soils. Principal component analysis (PCA and artificial neural network (ANN analysis showed that e-nose results can be used to distinguish soil moisture. It was also shown that different soils can give different e-nose signals at the same moistures.

  13. 两种保存液对脱位牙再植术效果影响的实验研究%Experimental research into the influence of two kinds of storage media on the replantation of avulsed tooth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱泽群; 陈铭清; 刘茜; 蔡琴; 王珏; 周红艳; 梅予锋

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较常温下脱脂牛奶与汉克斯平衡盐溶液(Hank′s balanced salt solution,HBSS)保存脱位牙对再植牙牙根愈合过程的影响。方法:48只6周龄 SPF级 Wistar雄性大鼠,随机抽取3只为空白对照,直接处死取材拍摄根尖 X线片,标本切片组织学观察;余45只随机分为3组,将上颌第一磨牙脱位后分别采用 HBSS、脱脂牛奶浸泡或干燥室温保存,30 min 后植回牙槽窝,术后1、3、7、14、21 d处死大鼠,拍摄根尖 X线片进行图像分析,标本切片进行组织学观察。结果:再植后各时间点牛奶组与 HBSS 组近中根阴影面积无统计学差异,皆小于干燥组(P<0.01);牛奶组根尖组织炎症反应较轻,根吸收少,根周修复类型与HBSS 基本相同。结论:脱脂牛奶与HBSS 在常温下均为良好的脱位牙体外保存液,可在普通人群中作为再植牙保存液推广使用。%Objective:To evaluate the effect of skimmed milk and Hank′s balanced salt solution(HBSS)as preservation medium on the root healing and root resorption of the avulsed tooth.Methods:3 out of 48 6-week-old SPF Wistar male rats were picked randomly as blank control,and the rest 45 rats were divided into three groups randomly:HBSS group,milk group and dry group.The bilateral maxillary first molars of rats in the three groups was extracted and replanted back into the sockets after being placed seperately in HB-SS,skimmed milk and in the air for 30 min right after extraction.The rats were sacrificed on day 1,day 3,day 7,day 14 and day 21 af-ter the operation.Then the maxillae were scanned with X-ray and the shadow areas around the mesial roots of maxillary first molars were measured with IPP software.After decalcification,the specimens were made into slices and stained with HE for histological obser-vation.Results:There was no statistically significant difference between milk group and HBSS group regarding the shadow area around

  14. Soil management effect on soil penetration resistance in the vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Catania

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In environments characterized by steep slopes or arranged in terraces, among the shallow tillage systems, rototilling is extensively used. However, the effect of the repeated use of rototilling has a considerable influence on soil characteristics; it appears finely powdered, soft and without structure. In order to limit these inconveniences, an innovative self-propelled machine equipped with working tools as a spade, to be used in steep slopes or arranged in terraces areas, was designed by the Mechanics Section of the SAF (Scienze Agrarie e Forestali Department of the University of Palermo in cooperation with Agrotec company, Padua, Italy. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of three machines for shallow tillage: a chisel plough (CP, a rototilling (RT and a spading machine (SM on penetration resistance in semi-arid environments of the Mediterranean basin. No tillage was also included. Penetration resistance (PR was surveyed for all the treatments to a depth of 300 mm with an electronic dynamometer. The treatments consisted in the execution of a shallow tillage to a depth of 150 mm. SP treatment allowed us to obtain PR lower values throughout the tillage profile than RT, CP and NT. It follows that the type of machine used influences soil PR, and then the soil water storage capacity, key factor for the agricultural productions in semi-arid environments as in Sicily.

  15. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  16. Electronic Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Electronic voting technology is a two edged sword. It comes with many risks but brings also many benefits. Instead of flat out rejecting the technology as uncontrollably dangerous, we advocate in this paper a different technological angle that renders electronic elections trustworthy beyond...... the usual levels of doubt. We exploit the trust that voters currently have into the democratic process and model our techniques around that observation accordingly. In particular, we propose a technique of trace emitting computations to record the individual steps of an electronic voting machine...... for a posteriori validation on an acceptably small trusted computing base. Our technology enables us to prove that an electronic elections preserves the voter’s intent, assuming that the voting machine and the trace verifier are independent....

  17. Electronic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  18. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    'electronic signature' means data attached to, incorporated in, or logically ... See Cwele v S 2012 4 All SA 497 (SCA); Mohlabeng v Minister of Safety and Security ... ZAKZPHC 51 (2 September 2010); Delta Finance, a Division of Wesbank, ...

  19. Electron Microprobe

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The JEOL JXA-8600 is a conventional hairpin filament thermal emission electron microprobe that is more than 20 years old. It is capable of performing qualitative and...

  20. Soil-water characteristics of sandy soil and soil cement with and without vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The use of soil cement as a growth medium was examined in this study. During the monitoring, green soil cement revealed diverse ecological values. The survival rates of plants in each soil conditions were higher than 80%,which was very promising. Furthermore, the survival rates dropped when the soil density reached95%, which means soil density might influence the survival rate of plant. Plant growth rates in sandy soil were higher than that in soil cement. In particular, low soil density faci...

  1. Electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Veselková, Zdeňka

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with a description of electronic commerce from its beginning up to present situation in this area. It explains basic terms connected with electronic commerce and it summarizes the relevant legislation. Moreover it describes e-contracts and rights and duties of both contractual parties. The main view is the view of Internet retailer, which is reflected in the practical part focused on concrete problems of retailers.

  2. Remediation of nitrobenzene contaminated soil by combining surfactant enhanced soil washing and effluent oxidation with persulfate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingchun Yan

    Full Text Available The combination of surfactant enhanced soil washing and degradation of nitrobenzene (NB in effluent with persulfate was investigated to remediate NB contaminated soil. Aqueous solution of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS, 24.0 mmol L-1 was used at a given mass ratio of solution to soil (20:1 to extract NB contaminated soil (47.3 mg kg-1, resulting in NB desorption removal efficient of 76.8%. The washing effluent was treated in Fe2+/persulfate and Fe2+/H2O2 systems successively. The degradation removal of NB was 97.9%, being much higher than that of SDBS (51.6% with addition of 40.0 mmol L-1 Fe2+ and 40.0 mmol L-1 persulfate after 15 min reaction. The preferential degradation was related to the lone pair electron of generated SO4•-, which preferably removes electrons from aromatic parts of NB over long alkyl chains of SDBS through hydrogen abstraction reactions. No preferential degradation was observed in •OH based oxidation because of its hydrogen abstraction or addition mechanism. The sustained SDBS could be reused for washing the contaminated soil. The combination of the effective surfactant-enhanced washing and the preferential degradation of NB with Fe2+/persulfate provide a useful option to remediate NB contaminated soil.

  3. Experimental unsaturated soil mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Delage, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    In this general report, experimental systems and procedures of investigating the hydro-mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils are presented. The water retention properties of unsaturated soils are commented and linked to various physical parameters and properties of the soils. Techniques of controlling suction are described together with their adaptation in various laboratory testing devices. Some typical features of the mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils are presented within an elasto-plastic framework. An attempt to describe the numerous and significant recent advances in the investigation of the behaviour of unsaturated soils, including the contributions to this Conference, is proposed.

  4. Does control of soil erosion inhibit aquatic eutrophication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekholm, Petri; Lehtoranta, Jouni

    2012-01-01

    Much of the phosphorus (P) from erosive soils is transported to water bodies together with eroded soil. Studies clarifying the impact of soil erosion on eutrophication have sought largely to quantify the reserves of P in soil particles that can be desorbed in different types of receiving waters. Aquatic microbiology has revealed that the cycling of P is coupled to the availability of common electron acceptors, Fe oxides and SO₄, through anaerobic mineralization in sediments. Eroded soil is also rich in Fe oxides, and their effect on the coupled cycling of C, Fe, S, and P has been neglected in eutrophication research. Soil erosion, and its control, should therefore be studied by considering not only the processes occurring in the water phase but also those taking place after the soil particles have settled to the bottom. We propose that in SO₄-rich systems, Fe oxides transported by eroded soil may promote Fe cycling, inhibit microbial SO₄ reduction and maintain the ability of sediment to retain P. We discuss the mechanisms through which eroded soil may affect benthic mineralization processes and the manner in which soil erosion may contribute to or counteract eutrophication.

  5. Instrumentation of Lysimeter Experiments and Monitoring of Soil Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, T.; Tallos, A.; Millan, R.; Vera, R.; Recreo, F.

    2004-07-01

    This study forms part of the project Mercurio and Recuperation de Terrenos Afectados por Mercurio Ambiental (RETAMA), which determines the behaviour of mercury in the soil-plant system within the area of Almaden. The objective of this work is to instrument lysimeters with a set of electronic sensors to monitor physical and chemical soil parameters (moisture content, soil temperature, soil water matrix potential. Eh and pH) over a period of a complete vegetation cycle for selected crops. Physical and chemical soil analyses have been carried out on samples two soil profiles marking the extreme perimeter where the lysimeters were extracted. The monitoring data obtained every half hour show that the physicochemical conditions of the soils in the lysimeter can be correlated with the type of cultivation in the lysimeters. The results for parameters such as soil water matrix potential and the soil temperature reflect the diurnal changes; and fluctuations of the Eh can be related to the biological activities in the soils and are within oxid and suboxic conditions. Slight fluctuations have been observed for the pH and constant volumetric moisture content is maintained during the period of no hydric stress. (Author) 16 refs.

  6. Impact of Some Agronomic Practices on Paddy Field Soil Health Under Varied Ecological Conditions:I.Influence of Soil Moisture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.SUBHANI; LIAOMIN; 等

    2001-01-01

    The effects of individual and combined additions of urea(100μg N g-1soil) and insecticide (triazophos at field rate,FR) under different moisture levles of air-dried soil(AD),50% of water-holding capacity(WHC),100%,WHC and flooded soil(FS) on some selected soil properties in a paddy field soil were examined in a laboratory incubation study.The results indicated that after 21-day incubation at 25℃ ,the different moisture levels led to significant changes in the parameters studied,Flooding of soil with distilled waer significantly increased the electron transport system(ETS)/dehydrogenase activity and phenol content of the soil compared to the other moisture levels,while protein and phospholipis behaved differently at varied moisture levels with or without the addition of urea and /or triazophos.Increased ETS activity was observed with N addition at higher moisture levels thile insecticide incorporation decreased it at all moisture levels as compared to the control(moisture only).The phenol contents slightly decreasd and increased with N and insecticide applications ,respectively,The soil protein contents were found to be unaffected among all the soil treatents at all moisture levels.The soil protein contents were found to be unaffected among all the soil treatments at all moisture levels.However,among different moisture levels,reduced quantities of proteins were estimated at 50% WHC ,suggesting more N-mineralization.Lower quantities of soil biomass phospholipids,among all treatments,were recored at higher moisture levels(100% WHC and FS) than at the loer levels,An overall slight enhancement in phospholipid contents with N and small reduction with insecticide addition,respectively,was noticed against the untreated soil.The toxictiy of fertilizer and insecticide decreased as the soil moisture contents increased,suggesting rapid degradation of agrochemicals.

  7. Tropical Soil Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggaard, Ole K.

    and environmental protection. Tropical Soil Chemistry by Ole K. Borggaard provides an overview of the composition, occurrence, properties, processes, formation, and environmental vulnerability of various tropical soil types (using American Soil Taxonomy for classification). The processes and the external factors......A new book that is particularly relevant as tropical countries experience increased pressure on land resources to improve agricultural production. To ensure sustainable land use, the potentials and limitations of different kinds of tropical soils must be known in relation to crop production...... soil chemical issues are also presented to assess when, why, and how tropical soils differ from soils in other regions. This knowledge can help agricultural specialists in the tropics establish sustainable crop production. Readers are assumed to be familiar with basic chemistry, physics...

  8. Soil heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherameti, Irena [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik und Pflanzenphysiologie; Varma, Ajit (eds.) [Amity Univ., Uttar Pradesh (India). Amity Inst. of Microbial Technology; Amity Science, Technology and Innovation Foundation, Noida, UP (India)

    2010-07-01

    Human activities have dramatically changed the composition and organisation of soils. Industrial and urban wastes, agricultural application and also mining activities resulted in an increased concentration of heavy metals in soils. How plants and soil microorganisms cope with this situation and the sophisticated techniques developed for survival in contaminated soils is discussed in this volume. The topics presented include: the general role of heavy metals in biological soil systems; the relation of inorganic and organic pollutions; heavy metal, salt tolerance and combined effects with salinity; effects on abuscular mycorrhizal and on saprophytic soil fungi; heavy metal resistance by streptomycetes; trace element determination of environmental samples; the use of microbiological communities as indicators; phytostabilization of lead polluted sites by native plants; effects of soil earthworms on removal of heavy metals and the remediation of heavy metal contaminated tropical land. (orig.)

  9. From soil in art towards Soil Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, C.; Landa, E. R.; Toland, A.; Wessolek, G.

    2015-02-01

    The range of art forms and genres dealing with soil is wide and diverse, spanning many centuries and artistic traditions, from prehistoric painting and ceramics to early Renaissance works in Western literature, poetry, paintings, and sculpture, to recent developments in cinema, architecture and contemporary art. Case studies focused on painting, installation, and cinema are presented with the view of encouraging further exploration of art about, in, with, or featuring soil or soil conservation issues, created by artists, and occasionally scientists, educators or collaborative efforts thereof.

  10. Soil redox resistance as factor of nitrate stability in soil; Il potenziale resistivo redox come fattore stabilizzante dello ione nitrato nei terreni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepniewska, Z. [Polish Academy of Science, Lublin (Poland). Inst. of agrophysics

    1994-12-31

    Oxygen exhaust in flooded soils causes successive reduction of inorganic compounds, playing the role of final electron acceptors in the metabolism of anoxic microorganisms. The consequence of the proceeding redox processes is a decrease of soil redox potential. The rate of the decrease of redox potential (Eh) in water saturated soil varies among the soil materials and can be characterized by the parameter called soil redox resistance. This parameter is defined by the time needed to decrease Eh value to the level 300 mV corresponding to reduction of Mn and Fe (T{sub 300}).

  11. Impact of Some Agronomic Practices on Paddy Field Soil Health Under Varied Ecological Conditions:II.Influence of Soil Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A 21-d incubation experiment was conducted under controlled laboratory conditions to study the effects of elevated temperatures (10,25,and 40 ℃) on some microbiological and biochemical properties in flooded paddy soil amended or unamended with urea at 100 μg N g-1 soil and/or insecticide (triazophos) at field rate (FR).Enhancements in temperature led to increase the electron transport system (ETS)/dehydrogenase activity and phospholipid contents of the soil,while soil organic matter phenol and protein contents decreased with increasing temperature with or without the addition of inputs.An increase of temperature from 10 ℃ to 25 or 40 ℃ enhanced the ETS activity 2 folds (on average for all soils),while the inclusion of N and insecticide increased and decreased it,respectively,compared to the control.The soil phenol and protein contents were highly correlated with temperatures (for all soils,r = -0.936 and -0.971,respectively) and the additions of N and insecticide produced slight reductions and enhancements in them,respectively.At a particular temperature,the soil protein contents remained unaffected among all the soil treatments.An overall slight increase in phospholipid contents with N and a small decline with insecticide addition were noticed against the untreated soil.The toxicity of fertilizer and insecticide decreased as the incubation temperature increased,suggesting faster degradation of agrochemicals with raising temperature.

  12. Strength and Stiffness Development in Soft Soils: A FESEM aided Soil Microstructure Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Ho, M. H.; Bai, X.; Bakar, I.

    2016-07-01

    This paper opens with an overview of the debatable definition of soft soil that goes beyond a (CH) organic / inorganic clay and OH peat to include weakly cemented periglacial deposits of loess and alike. It then outlines the findings obtained from stiffness test on cement-stabilised soft clay. The findings are complemented with a microstructure viewpoint obtained using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Research also comprised of making cylindrical stabilised clay samples, prepared in the laboratory with various rubber chips contents and cement, and then aged for 28 days. The samples were then subjected to unconfined compressive strength (UCS) test and observations were also made of its microstructure using the FESEM. The impact of the soil microstructure on the stiffness result was studied both with the stabilized soil and also of some of the natural undisturbed loess soils. Sustainability aspect and the potential of the use of rubber chips and sand as additives to cement stabilisation are also discussed. The overall test results indicated that rubber chips and sand contributed to the improvement in unconfined compressive strength (qu). The derogatory influence of moisture on the stiffness of the stabilised clay was studied simultaneously. SEM micrographs are presented that show bonding of cement, rubber chips/ sand and soft clay, granular units and aggregated / agglomerated units in loess. The paper concludes with observations on the dependence of soil microstructure on the soil strength and deformability and even collapsibility of the loess. Current practices adopted as engineering solutions to these challenging soils are outlined.

  13. Soil Micronutrients and Citrus Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANGTAO

    1993-01-01

    By using nutritional diagnosis of citrus leaves and determining soil micronutrients,the relationship between soil micronutrients and citrus growth in southern China has been studied.Studies showed that there was a significant positive correlation between available micronutrients (such as Zn,Mo,Cu)in the soil and the corresponding nutrients in citrus leaves.Thus,one can roughly learn of the sufficiency or deficiency of certain nutrients in soils by analyzing citrus leaves.Rational spray of Zn B or Mo fertilizer not only improved citrus yields but also increased the total sugar of Satsuma mandarin and of Xinhui orange by 2.9 and 17.2% respectively compared with the control.Spraying Mo fertilizer increased the vitamin C content of Satsuma mandarin juice by 4.7%-8.4%,maturated fruits 7-10 days earlier and gave the peel a brighter color.The ultramicroscopic characteristics of Zn-deficient citrus leaves were investigated under an electron microscope.Results showed that the Zn-deficient leaf cell was characterized mainly by poor cytoplasm,endoplasmic reticula and ribosomes and by big starch grains in the chloroplast.As a result of spraying Zn fertilizer the structure of the cell returned to normal,the cytoplasm became rich and the amount of chloroplast increased.There also appeared a great deal of multiform endoplasmic reticula,thus promoting the photosynthesis of Zn-deficient plants.This provides a cytologico-theoretical basis for fertilization of high-yielding citrus trees.

  14. Mass Transport within Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2009-03-01

    Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated

  15. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  16. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    energy at the end-user should also be set up. Deregulation of energy has in the past lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources will be high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One...... is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...

  17. Electron Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegbahn, Kai

    Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen's discovery of X radiation in 1895 in Wörzburg resulted in an immediate break-through not only in physics but also in Society, the latter mainly because of its sensational radiological applications. Within a short time it furthermore indirectly led to the discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel. The discovery of X radiation opened the gate to modern atomic physics, and radioactivity to nuclear physics. Later on, the discovery of X-ray diffraction by Laue, Friedrich and Knipping in 1912 initiated the field of X-ray spectroscopy with its fundamental contributions to atomic and crystal structures. Secondary electrons were early observed in the scattered radiation when X-rays were hitting a sample. The development of the corresponding electron spectroscopy had to wait a much longer time for its maturity. A survey of electron spectroscopy is presented.

  18. Electronic Commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, N. [NRG Information Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    The concept of electronic commerce in the gas industry was discussed. It was defined as the integration of communication technology, advanced information processing capability and business standards, to improve effectiveness of the business process. Examples of electronic data interchange from the automotive, airline, and banking industry were given. The objective of using this technology in the gas industry was described as the provision of one electronic facility to make seamless contractual and operational arrangements for moving natural gas across participating pipelines. The benefit of seamless integration - one readily available standard system used by several companies - was highlighted. A list of value-added services such as the free movement of bulletins, directories, nominations,and other documents was provided.

  19. Spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...

  20. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    ) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  1. Basics of soil fertility management

    OpenAIRE

    Berner, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    The brochure highlights the soil fertility from various scientific and farming perspectives. Its aims to supplement practical observations of farmers, to encourage them to reconsider their relation to their soil and to practice a truly sustainable soil culture. The booklet tries to achieve this goal by providing information on soil matter such as important soil organisms and soil characteristics like root density, soil structure and alkalinity and by showing possibilities of how to ass...

  2. How Can Soil Electrical Conductivity Measurements Control Soil Pollution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil pollution results from the build up of contaminants, toxic compounds, radioactive materials, salts, chemicals and cancer-causing agents. The most common soil pollutants are hydrocarbons, heavy metals (cadmium, lead, chromium, copper, zinc, mercury and arsenic, herbicides, pesticides, oils, tars, PCBs and dioxins. Soil Electrical Conductivity (EC is one of the soil physical properties w hich have a good relationship with the other soil characteristics. As measuring soil electrical conductivity is easier, less expensive and faster than other soil properties measurements, using a detector that can do on the go soil EC measurements is a good tool for obtaining useful information about soil pollution condition.

  3. Mycorrhizas and soil structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillig, Matthias C; Mummey, Daniel L

    2006-01-01

    In addition to their well-recognized roles in plant nutrition and communities, mycorrhizas can influence the key ecosystem process of soil aggregation. Here we review the contribution of mycorrhizas, mostly focused on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), to soil structure at various hierarchical levels: plant community; individual root; and the soil mycelium. There are a suite of mechanisms by which mycorrhizal fungi can influence soil aggregation at each of these various scales. By extension of these mechanisms to the question of fungal diversity, it is recognized that different species or communities of fungi can promote soil aggregation to different degrees. We argue that soil aggregation should be included in a more complete 'multifunctional' perspective of mycorrhizal ecology, and that in-depth understanding of mycorrhizas/soil process relationships will require analyses emphasizing feedbacks between soil structure and mycorrhizas, rather than a uni-directional approach simply addressing mycorrhizal effects on soils. We finish the discussion by highlighting new tools, developments and foci that will probably be crucial in further understanding mycorrhizal contributions to soil structure.

  4. Development of Soil Crusts Under Simulated Rainfall and Crust Formation on a Loess Soil as Influenced by Polyacrylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xia; LIU Lian-You; LI Shun-Jiang; CAI Qiang-Guo; L(U) Yan-Li; GUO Jin-Rui

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the morphological characteristics and dynamic variation in characteristics of soil crust and identified the relationships between soil crust and splash erosion under simulated rainfall.The effect of polyacrylamide (PAM) on soil aggregate stabilization and crust formation was also investigated.A laboratory rainfall simulation experiment was carried out using soil sample slices.The slices were examined under a polarized light microscopy and a scanning electron microscope (SEM).The results revealed that the soil crusts were thin and were characterized by a greater density,higher shear strength,finer porosity,and lower saturated hydraulic conductivity than the underlying soil.Two types of crusts,i.e.,structural and depositional crusts,were observed.Soil texture was determined to be the most important soil variable influencing surface crust formation; depositional crust formation was primarily related to the skeleton characteristics of the soil and happened when the soil contained a high level of medium and large aggregates.The crust formation processes observed were as follows:1) The fine particles on the soil surface became spattered,leached,and then rough in response to raindrop impact and 2) the fine particles were washed into the subsoil pores while a compact dense layer concurrently formed at soil surface due to the continual compaction by the raindrops.Therefore,the factors that influenced structural crust formation were a large amount of fine particles in the soil surface,continual impact of raindrops,dispersion of aggregates into fine particles,and the formation of a compact dense layer concurrently at the soil surface.It was concluded that the most important factor in the formation of soil crusts was raindrop impact.When polyacrylamide (PAM) was applied,it restored the soil structure and greatly increased soil aggregate stabilization.This effectively prevented crust formation.However,this function of PAM was not continuously effective and

  5. Final Report for DOE grant no. DE-FG02-04ER63883: Can soil genomics predict the impact of precipitation on nitrous oxide flux from soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egbert Schwartz

    2008-12-15

    Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas that is released by microorganisms in soil. However, the production of nitrous oxide in soil is highly variable and difficult to predict. Future climate change may have large impacts on nitrous oxide release through alteration of precipitation patterns. We analyzed DNA extracted from soil in order to uncover relationships between microbial processes, abundance of particular DNA sequences and net nitrous oxide fluxes from soil. Denitrification, a microbial process in which nitrate is used as an electron acceptor, correlated with nitrous oxide flux from soil. The abundance of ammonia oxidizing archaea correlated positively, but weakly, with nitrous oxide production in soil. The abundance of bacterial genes in soil was negatively correlated with gross nitrogen mineralization rates and nitrous oxide release from soil. We suggest that the most important control over nitrous oxide production in soil is the growth and death of microorganisms. When organisms are growing nitrogen is incorporated into their biomass and nitrous oxide flux is low. In contrast, when microorganisms die, due to predation or infection by viruses, inorganic nitrogen is released into the soil resulting in nitrous oxide release. Higher rates of precipitation increase access to microorganisms by predators or viruses through filling large soil pores with water and therefore can lead to large releases of nitrous oxide from soil. We developed a new technique, stable isotope probing with 18O-water, to study growth and mortality of microorganisms in soil.

  6. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due...

  7. Superconducting electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogalla, Horst

    1994-01-01

    During the last decades superconducting electronics has been the most prominent area of research for small scale applications of superconductivity. It has experienced quite a stormy development, from individual low frequency devices to devices with high integration density and pico second switching

  8. Electronic Portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    1996-01-01

    Outlines three forms of electronic portfolio based on a student's work, a class project about a specific topic, and a class seminar on a broad topic. Discusses logistical problems of management, access, and cross-referencing; technical problems of input, access, and copying; and theoretical issues of the lack of realia, of ownership and copyright,…

  9. Electronic Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Tim

    Thirty years ago a cashless society was predicted for the near future; paper currency and checks would be an antiquated symbol of the past. Consumers would embrace a new alternative for making payments: electronic money. But currency is still used for 87% of payments, mainly for "nickel and dime" purchases. And checks are the payment…

  10. Electronic spectroscopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared region is a versatile spectroscopic technique, as both d-d and charge transfer transitions of supported TMI can be probed. One of the advantages of electronic spectroscopy is that the obtained information is

  11. Electronic Homework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fong-lok; Heyworth, Rex M.

    The Electronic Homework assistant system is composed of two components: the Computer Tutor and the Homework Administrator. The Computer Tutor is an intelligent tutoring system that can provide personal assistance like supplying hints, checking errors, providing remediation and prioritizing problems. The Homework Administrator is a teacher's…

  12. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due to po...

  13. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e...

  14. Advances in soil dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Advances in Soil Dynamics, Volume 3, represents the culmination of the work undertaken by the Advances in Soil Dynamics Monograph Committee, PM-45-01, about 15 years ago to summarize important developments in this field over the last 35 years. When this project was initiated, the main goal...... was to abridge major strides made in the general area of soil dynamics during the sixties, seventies, and eighties. However, by about the mid-nineties soil dynamics research in the US and much of the developed world had come to a virtual standstill. Although significant progress was made prior to the mid......-nineties, we still do not have a sound fundamental knowledge of soil-machine and soil-plant interactions. It is the hope of the editors that these three volumes will provide a ready reference for much needed future research in this area....

  15. Advances in soil dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Advances in Soil Dynamics, Volume 3, represents the culmination of the work undertaken by the Advances in Soil Dynamics Monograph Committee, PM-45-01, about 15 years ago to summarize important developments in this field over the last 35 years. When this project was initiated, the main goal...... was to abridge major strides made in the general area of soil dynamics during the sixties, seventies, and eighties. However, by about the mid-nineties soil dynamics research in the US and much of the developed world had come to a virtual standstill. Although significant progress was made prior to the mid......-nineties, we still do not have a sound fundamental knowledge of soil-machine and soil-plant interactions. It is the hope of the editors that these three volumes will provide a ready reference for much needed future research in this area....

  16. Electronic detectors for electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqi, A R; McMullan, G

    2011-08-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) is an important tool for high-resolution structure determination in applications ranging from condensed matter to biology. Electronic detectors are now used in most applications in EM as they offer convenience and immediate feedback that is not possible with film or image plates. The earliest forms of electronic detector used routinely in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were charge coupled devices (CCDs) and for many applications these remain perfectly adequate. There are however applications, such as the study of radiation-sensitive biological samples, where film is still used and improved detectors would be of great value. The emphasis in this review is therefore on detectors for use in such applications. Two of the most promising candidates for improved detection are: monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) and hybrid pixel detectors (of which Medipix2 was chosen for this study). From the studies described in this review, a back-thinned MAPS detector appears well suited to replace film in for the study of radiation-sensitive samples at 300 keV, while Medipix2 is suited to use at lower energies and especially in situations with very low count rates. The performance of a detector depends on the energy of electrons to be recorded, which in turn is dependent on the application it is being used for; results are described for a wide range of electron energies ranging from 40 to 300 keV. The basic properties of detectors are discussed in terms of their modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of spatial frequency.

  17. Managing to enhance soil health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy soils are critical for meeting current and future societal demands. Management strategies that protect the soil against erosion, build soil organic matter and promote nutrient cycling are ways to enhance soil health. Keeping soils covered and judicious use of agrochemicals are akin to us “hu...

  18. Soil microbiota of the prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prairie ecosystem is often used as a benchmark ecosystem to provide a reference soil quality or soil health assessment. Current soil health assessments include measurements of soil chemical and physical indicators and of selected microbiological activities but no characterization of soil microbi...

  19. Observation on changes of nailfold microcirculation and hemorheological indexes of severed limb replantation patients with postoperative infections%断肢再植术后感染患者甲襞微循环及血流指标的变化观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张全英; 朱玉花; 李琼; 李中锋; 王丽娜

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析断肢再植术后感染患者甲襞微循环及血流变指标的变化,为断肢再植术后感染患者的诊治及预防控制提供依据。方法选取2012年1月-2015年9月收治的56例断肢再植术后感染患者为观察组,同时间段56例断肢再植术后未发生感染患者为对照组,将两组患者的甲襞微循环及血流变指标进行检测与比较,并比较观察组中浅层感染及深部感染者的检测结果。结果观察组甲襞微循环加权积分中的襻周积分、流态积分、管襻积分及总积分分别为(1.64±0.21)、(2.31±0.27)、(1.25±0.14)及(3.32±0.32),其均高于对照组(0.88±0.12)、(1.18±0.15)、(0.64±0.06)及(2.30±0.24),其他甲襞微循环指标及血流变指标也均高于对照组,且观察组中深部感染患者的检测结果高于浅层感染的患者,各个比较指标间差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论断肢再植术后感染患者甲襞微循环及血流变指标均较高,且浅部感染与深部感染患者的检测结果也存在明显差异,因此应重视对此类患者进行微循环状态的改善。%OBJECTIVE To investigate the changes of nailfold microcirculation and hemorheological indexes of se‐vered limb replantation patients with postoperative infections so as to provide guidance for clinical diagnosis ,treat‐ment ,and prevention of the postoperative infections in the severed limb replantation patients .METHODS Totally 56 patients who underwent the replantation of severed limb and had postoperative infections from Jan 2012 to Sep 2015 were recruited as the observation group ,meanwhile ,56 patients who underwent the replantation of severed limb but did not have postoperative infections were set as the control group ,then the nailfold microcirculation and hemorheological indexes were detected and compared between the two groups of patients ,and the test

  20. Electrodialytic Soil Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene; Hansen, Henrik K.

    1997-01-01

    It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective......It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective...

  1. Earthworms and Soil Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Tamae

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short review, we describe recent studies concerning the relationship between earthworms and soil pollutants, and discuss the possibility of using the earthworm as a bio-monitoring organism for soil pollution.

  2. Hysteresis of soil temperature under different soil moisture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... temperature under three soil moisture and two fertilizer levels in solar greenhouse .... temperature is governed by the one-dimensional heat conduction equation in the soil, and the soil temperature varied sinusoidally. We.

  3. Soils - Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) Data for Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — These data sets are digital soil surveys and generally are the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  4. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) - Kinds and Distribution of Soils

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  5. Measuring Soil Moisture using the Signal Strength of Buried Bluetooth Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, R.; Campbell, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    A low power bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) device is burried 20cm into the soil and a smartphone is placed on top of the soil to test if bluetooth signal strength can be related to soil moisture. The smartphone continuesly records and stores bluetooth signal strength of the device. The soil is artifcially wetted and drained. Results show a relation between BLE signal strength and soil moisture that could be used to measure soil moisture using these off-the-shelf consumer electronics. This opens the possibily to develop sensors that can be buried into the soil, possibly below the plow-line. These sensors can measure local parameters such as electric conductivity, ph, pressure, etc. Readings would be uploaded to a device on the surface using BLE. The signal strength of this BLE would be an (additional) measurement of soil moisture.

  6. Measuring soil physical properties to assess soil quality

    OpenAIRE

    Raczkowski, C.W.

    2007-01-01

    Soil quality is the capacity of a soil to function within ecosystem boundaries to sustain biological productivity, maintain environmental quality, and promote plant, animal and human health. A quantitative assessment of soil quality is invaluable in determining the sustainability of land management systems. Criteria for soil quality assessment are: 1) Choose indicators of soil quality based on the multiple functions of soil that maintain productivity and environmental health, 2)must include s...

  7. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GROUNDING RESISTANCE VALUE IN SOIL AND SEPTICTANK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Syakur

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of grounding system to protect of electrical equipment and instrumentation system and peopletogether. The lightning stroke near the strucutre of building can damage of equipment and instrumentationsystem. Therefore, it is very important to protect theese electrical and electronic equipment from lightningstrike uses lightning protection system and grounding system.This paper presents kind of grounding system at type of soil and place. The measurement of groundingresistance in soil and septictank have done. Types of soil for grounding resistance measuring aremarshland, clay and rockland.The measurement results of grounding resistance show that value of grounding resistance depend ondeepness of electrode and kind of soil and septictank. Grounding resistance value in septictank is morelower than soil.

  8. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.  Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  9. Interacting Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Richard M.; Reining, Lucia; Ceperley, David M.

    2016-06-01

    Preface; Part I. Interacting Electrons: Beyond the Independent-Particle Picture: 1. The many electron problem: introduction; 2. Signatures of electron correlation; 3. Concepts and models for interacting electrons; Part II. Foundations of Theory for Many-Body Systems: 4. Mean fields and auxiliary systems; 5. Correlation functions; 6. Many-body wavefunctions; 7. Particles and quasi-particles; 8. Functionals in many-particle physics; Part III. Many-Body Green's Function Methods: 9. Many-body perturbation theory: expansion in the interaction; 10. Many-body perturbation theory via functional derivatives; 11. The RPA and the GW approximation for the self-energy; 12. GWA calculations in practice; 13. GWA calculations: illustrative results; 14. RPA and beyond: the Bethe-Salpeter equation; 15. Beyond the GW approximation; 16. Dynamical mean field theory; 17. Beyond the single-site approximation in DMFT; 18. Solvers for embedded systems; 19. Characteristic hamiltonians for solids with d and f states; 20. Examples of calculations for solids with d and f states; 21. Combining Green's functions approaches: an outlook; Part IV. Stochastic Methods: 22. Introduction to stochastic methods; 23. Variational Monte Carlo; 24. Projector quantum Monte Carlo; 25. Path integral Monte Carlo; 26. Concluding remarks; Part V. Appendices: A. Second quantization; B. Pictures; C. Green's functions: general properties; D. Matsubara formulation for Green's functions for T ̸= 0; E. Time-ordering, contours, and non-equilibrium; F. Hedin's equations in a basis; G. Unique solutions in Green's function theory; H. Properties of functionals; I. Auxiliary systems and constrained search; J. Derivation of the Luttinger theorem; K. Gutzwiller and Hubbard approaches; References; Index.

  10. ELECTRON GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1960-04-01

    A pulsed electron gun capable of delivering pulses at voltages of the order of 1 mv and currents of the order of 100 amperes is described. The principal novelty resides in a transformer construction which is disposed in the same vacuum housing as the electron source and accelerating electrode structure of the gun to supply the accelerating potential thereto. The transformer is provided by a plurality of magnetic cores disposed in circumferentially spaced relation and having a plurality of primary windings each inductively coupled to a different one of the cores, and a helical secondary winding which is disposed coaxially of the cores and passes therethrough in circumferential succession. Additional novelty resides in the disposition of the electron source cathode filament input leads interiorly of the transformer secondary winding which is hollow, as well as in the employment of a half-wave filament supply which is synchronously operated with the transformer supply such that the transformer is pulsed during the zero current portions of the half-wave cycle.

  11. Correlation Between Soil Water Retention Capability and Soil Salt Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The soil moisture retention capability of Chao soil and coastal saline Chao soil in Shandong and Zhejiang provinces were measured by pressure membrane method. The main factors influencing soil moisture retention capability were studied by the methods of correlation and path analyses. The results indicated that < 0.02mm physical clay and soil salt content were the main factors influencing soil moisture retention capability. At soil suction of 30~50 kPa, the soil salt content would be the dominant factor.

  12. KBRA OPWP Soil Rooting Depth

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  13. Application of laminoplasty of pedicled complex replantation on reconstruction of spinal canal at excision of intraspinal tumor%带蒂椎板复合体回植钛网固定在椎管内肿瘤治疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李同相; 肖睿; 官清; 李兴波; 魏书一

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨带蒂椎板复合体回植、钛网固定,在椎管内肿瘤切除术中椎管重建的应用价值.方法 对13例椎管内肿瘤患者保留双侧关节突关节,根据椎管内肿瘤的大小,采用磨钻或微型咬骨钳沿双侧关节突内侧缘打开一个或多个椎板,切断一端棘上和棘间韧带,将椎板复合体翻转,椎管内肿瘤切除后再将其原位回植,钛网固定,重建椎管完整性和脊柱的稳定性.结果 13例椎管内肿瘤全部成功切除,切除椎板数2~4个,平均(2.5±0.5)个.1例因粘连致硬脊膜破损,1例哑铃型神经鞘瘤术后6个月复发.随访12~27个月,平均(13±0.5)个月,所有病例回植物稳定,无塌陷及椎管狭窄,术后肢体瘫痪Frankel分级均有不同程度提高.结论 椎管内肿瘤术中将带蒂椎板复合体翻转,术后用钛网回植固定,方法简便、安全,有利于保持椎管的完整性及脊柱的稳定性.%Objective To study the value of laminoplasty of pedicled complex replantation on reconstruction of spinal canal at excision of intraspinal tumor. Methods 13 patients with intraspinal canal tumors were treated in our hospital. Each case was reserved bilateral facet joint, one or several vertebral lamina were cut by burr drill or micro rongeur a-long the inner edge of bilateral facet joint, Superspinal and interspinal ligaments of one side were cut, then pedicelar vertebral lamina complex was retroflexed and intraspinal canal was exposured. After resection of the tumor, pedicelar verte-bral lamina complex was replanted and titanic mesh was fixated to reconstruct the integrity of vertebral canal and the sta-bility of spinal column. Results The tumors of 13 cases were totally resected, 2-4(2. 5±0. 5 on average) lamina were removed. 1 case of dura mater was injured for the adhesion, 1 case Dumbbell Schwannoma was recurred after 6 months. The patients were followed up for 12 to 27 months(13±0. 5 months on average),during which no collapse of the

  14. Application of Laminoplasty of Pedicled Complex Replantation on Reconstruction of Spinal Canal at Degenerative Lumbar Spinal Stenosis%带蒂椎板复合体回植钛网固定在退变性腰椎管狭窄治疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖睿; 李同相; 官清; 李兴波; 魏书一

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effects of laminoplasty of pedicled complex replantation on recon-struction of spinal canal at lumbar spinal stenosis. Methods The involved segments were determinged by symptoms, clinical fea-tures and radiographic at the initial examination. 15patients with lumbar spinal stenosis were treated in our hospital. Each case was reserved bilateral facet joint,one or several vertebral lamina were cut by burr drill or micro-rongeur along the inner edge of bilateral facet joint,Superspinal and interspinal ligaments of one side were cut,then pedicelar vertehral lamina complex was retroflexed and intraspinal canal was exposured. After Lumbar spinal canal decompression,pedicelar vertebral lamina complex was replanted and ti-tanic mesh was fixated to reconstruct the integrity of vertebral canal and the stability of spinal column. Application VAS and ODI scoring method for subjective and objective evaluation of clinical curative effect before and after operation. Results The patients were followed up for 12 to 28 months[(13 ± 0. 5) months on average],during which no collapse of the replanted tissues or spinal canal stenosis occurred. Postoperative patients VAS and ODI score significantly higher than before,the difference was statistically sig-nificant(P<0. 05). Conclusion Retroflexing pedicelar vertebral plate complex and fixating with titanium plate in the lumbar spi-nal stenosis is simple,safe. The spinal column active naturelv without limit postoperatively,the technique can maintain the spinal col-umn good stability and protect the spinal column from degradation.%目的:探讨带蒂椎板复合体回植、钛网固定行椎管成形术治疗退行性腰椎管狭窄症的临床疗效。方法根据临床表现和影像学检查确定减压部位,对15例退行性腰椎管狭窄患者保留双侧关节突关节,采用磨钻或微型咬骨钳沿双侧关节突内侧缘打开一个或多个椎板,切断一端棘上和棘间韧

  15. Biodegradation of blend films PVA/PVC, PVA/PCL in soil and soil with landfill leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Campos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the biodegradation of blends films of poly(vinyl alcohol/poly(vinyl chloride (PVA/PVC and poly(vinyl alcohol/poly(caprolactone (PVA/PCL blends films prepared with dimethylformamide under a variety of conditions by respirometry, spectrophotometry (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and contact angle. The films were buried in the garden soil and in the soil mixed with the landfill leachate for 120 days at 28ºC. Significant levels of biodegradation were achieved in fairly short incubation times in the soil. The results indicated that PVA was the most biodegradable film in the soil and in the soil with the leachate.

  16. Tolerable soil erosion in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijen, Frank; Jones, Bob; Rickson, Jane; Smith, Celina

    2010-05-01

    Soil loss by erosion has been identified as an important threat to soils in Europe* and is recognised as a contributing process to soil degradation and associated deterioration, or loss, of soil functioning. From a policy perspective, it is imperative to establish well-defined baseline values to evaluate soil erosion monitoring data against. For this purpose, accurate baseline values - i.e. tolerable soil loss - need to be differentiated at appropriate scales for monitoring and, ideally, should take soil functions and even changing environmental conditions into account. The concept of tolerable soil erosion has been interpreted in the scientific literature in two ways: i) maintaining the dynamic equilibrium of soil quantity, and ii) maintaining biomass production, at a location. The first interpretation ignores soil quality by focusing only on soil quantity. The second approach ignores many soil functions by focusing only on the biomass (particularly crop) production function of soil. Considering recognised soil functions, tolerable soil erosion may be defined as 'any mean annual cumulative (all erosion types combined) soil erosion rate at which a deterioration or loss of one or more soil functions does not occur'. Assumptions and problems of this definition will be discussed. Soil functions can generally be judged not to deteriorate as long as soil erosion does not exceed soil formation. At present, this assumption remains largely untested, but applying the precautionary principle appears to be a reasonable starting point. Considering soil formation rates by both weathering and dust deposition, it is estimated that for the majority of soil forming factors in most European situations, soil formation rates probably range from ca. 0.3 - 1.4 t ha-1 yr-1. Although the current agreement on these values seems relatively strong, how the variation within the range is spatially distributed across Europe and how this may be affected by climate, land use and land management

  17. Practical improvements in soil redox potential (Eh) measurement for characterisation of soil properties. Application for comparison of conventional and conservation agriculture cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, Olivier; Husson, Benoit; Brunet, Alexandre; Babre, Daniel; Alary, Karine; Sarthou, Jean-Pierre; Charpentier, Hubert; Durand, Michel; Benada, Jaroslav; Henry, Marc

    2016-02-04

    The soil redox potential (Eh) can provide essential information to characterise soil conditions. In practice, however, numerous problems may arise regarding: (i) Eh determination in soils, especially aerobic soils, e.g. variations in the instrumentation and methodology for Eh measurement, high spatial and temporal Eh variability in soils, irreversibility of the redox reaction at the surface electrode, chemical disequilibrium; and (ii) measurement interpretation. This study aimed at developing a standardised method for redox potential measurement in soils, in order to use Eh as a soil quality indicator. This paper presents practical improvements in soil Eh measurement, especially regarding the control of electromagnetic perturbations, electrode choice and preparation, soil sample preparation (drying procedure) and soil:water extraction rate. The repeatability and reproducibility of the measurement method developed are highlighted. The use of Eh corrected at pH7, pe+pH or rH2, which are equivalent notions, is proposed to facilitate interpretation of the results. The application of this Eh measurement method allows characterisation of soil conditions with sufficient repeatability, reproducibility and accuracy to demonstrate that conservation agriculture systems positively alter the protonic and electronic balance of soil as compared to conventional systems.

  18. Creative Soil Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of soil conservation. An added benefit to this activity is that the third-grade students played…

  19. Electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmose, Bodil; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    prevents the protons and the hydroxides ions from the electrode processes to enter the soil. The heavy metals are collected in a concentration compartment, which is separated from the soil by ion-exchange membranes. Examples from remediation experiments are shown, and it is demonstrated that it is possible...

  20. Resilient behaviour of soils

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, A. Gomes; Gilett, S.

    1996-01-01

    This study examine the resilient behaviour of sands, silts and clay for different moisture conditions and various stress paths. The analysis of data from repeated load triaxial tests carried out on these recompacted soils has enable to test different models and validate their hability to predict resilient response of soils.

  1. Mycophagous soil bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudnick, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Soil microorganisms evolved several strategies to compete for limited nutrients in soil. Bacteria of the genus Collimonas developed a way to exploit fungi as a source of organic nutrients. This strategy has been termed “mycophagy&r

  2. Soil and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Editors Ed Landa and Christian Feller have assembled an international ensemble cast of writers, artists, historians, philosophers, and scientists of broad perspective to create a book of truly fascinating reading for any soils enthusiast. When so little we see in print is truly new or original, Soil...

  3. Soil Health Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorman, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Soil health and cover crops are topics of interest to farmers, gardeners, and students. Three soil health and cover crop demonstrations provide educational resources. Demonstrations one outlines two educational cover crop seed displays, including the advantages and disadvantages. Demonstration two shows how to construct and grow a cover crop root…

  4. Diffusion in aggregated soil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rappoldt, C.

    1992-01-01

    The structure of an aggregated soil is characterized by the distribution of the distance from an arbitrary point in the soil to the nearest macropore or crack. From this distribution an equivalent model system is derived to which a diffusion model can be more easily applied. The model system consist

  5. The soil life cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Soil is one of the most important natural resource for life on Earth and provides important ecosystem services, such as food production, carbon sequestration, water regulation and contaminant attenuation. Soil quality, defined as the soil’s ability to provide these services, is drastically red

  6. Contaminated soil concrete blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, de A.C.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Limbachiya, Mukesh C.; Kew, Hsein Y.

    2009-01-01

    According to Dutch law the contaminated soil needs to be remediated or immobilised. The main focus in this article is the design of concrete blocks, containing contaminated soil, that are suitable for large production, financial feasible and meets all technical and environmental requirements. In ord

  7. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  8. Soil invertebrates as bioindicators of urban soil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santorufo, Lucia; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Rocco, Annamaria; Maisto, Giulia

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed at relating the abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities of urban soils to chemical and physical soil characteristics and to identify the taxa most sensitive or tolerant to soil stressors. The invertebrate community of five urban soils in Naples, Italy, was sampled. To assess soil quality invertebrate community indices (Shannon, Simpson, Menhinick and Pielou indices), Acarina/Collembola ratios, and the soil biological quality index (QBS) were calculated. The chemical and physical characteristics of the soils strongly differed. Abundance rather than taxa richness of invertebrates were more affected by soil characteristics. The community was more abundant and diverse in the soils with high organic matter and water content and low metal (Cu, Pb, Zn) concentrations. The taxa more resistant to the urban environment included Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. Collembolans appeared particularly sensitive to changing soil properties. Among the investigated indices, QBS seems most appropriate for soil quality assessment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Soil Series in Soil Classifications of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indorante, Samuel; Beaudette, Dylan; Brevik, Eric C.

    2014-05-01

    Organized national soil survey began in the United States in 1899, with soil types as the units being mapped. The soil series concept was introduced into the U.S. soil survey in 1903 as a way to relate soils being mapped in one area to the soils of other areas. The original concept of a soil series was all soil types formed in the same parent materials that were of the same geologic age. However, within about 15 years soil series became the primary units being mapped in U.S. soil survey. Soil types became subdivisions of soil series, with the subdivisions based on changes in texture. As the soil series became the primary mapping unit the concept of what a soil series was also changed. Instead of being based on parent materials and geologic age, the soil series of the 1920s was based on the morphology and composition of the soil profile. Another major change in the concept of soil series occurred when U.S. Soil Taxonomy was released in 1975. Under Soil Taxonomy, the soil series subdivisions were based on the uses the soils might be put to, particularly their agricultural uses (Simonson, 1997). While the concept of the soil series has changed over the years, the term soil series has been the longest-lived term in U.S. soil classification. It has appeared in every official classification system used by the U.S. soil survey (Brevik and Hartemink, 2013). The first classification system was put together by Milton Whitney in 1909 and had soil series at its second lowest level, with soil type at the lowest level. The second classification system used by the U.S. soil survey was developed by C.F. Marbut, H.H. Bennett, J.E. Lapham, and M.H. Lapham in 1913. It had soil series at the second highest level, with soil classes and soil types at more detailed levels. This was followed by another system in 1938 developed by M. Baldwin, C.E. Kellogg, and J. Thorp. In this system soil series were again at the second lowest level with soil types at the lowest level. The soil type

  10. The Changing Model of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, D. D.; Yaalon, D.

    2012-12-01

    The contemporary genetic model of soil is changing rapidly in response to advances in soil science and to human and environmental forcings in the 21st century (Richter and Yaalon, 2012). Three ongoing changes in the model of soil include that: (1) lower soil boundaries are much deeper than the solum, historically the O to B horizons, (2) most soils are polygenetic paleosols, products of soil-forming processes that have ranged widely over soils' lifetimes, and (3) soils are globally human-natural bodies, no longer natural bodies. Together, these changes in the model of soil mean that human forcings are a global wave of soil polygenesis altering fluxes of matter and energy and transforming soil thermodynamics as potentially very deep systems. Because soils are non-linear systems resulting from high-order interactions of physics, chemistry, and biology, trajectories of how human forcings alter soils over decades are not readily predictable and require long-term soil observations. There is much to learn about how soils are changing internally as central components of management systems and externally in relation to wider environments. To be critical, research has been remarkably superficial in studies of soil, reductionist in approach, and lacking in time-series observations of responses to soil management. While this criticism may sound negative, it creates significant opportunities for contemporary soil scientists.

  11. Cultural Patterns of Soil Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzel, Nikola; Feller, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Living soil supports all terrestrial ecosystems. The only global threat to earth's soils comes from human societies' land use and resource consuming activities. Soil perception and understanding by soil scientists are mainly drawn from biophysical parameters and found within Cartesian rationality, and not, or much less consciously from its rather intangible cultural dimension. But nevertheless, human soil perception, soil awareness, and soil relation are a cultural phenomenon, too. Aiming at soil awareness and education, it is of first order importance for the soil science community and the IUSS to study, discuss and communicate also about the cultural perceptions and representations of soil. For any society, cultural patterns in their relation to soil encompass: (i) General culturally underlying structures like (religious or 'secular') myths and belief systems. (ii) The personal, individual relation to/with and behaviour towards soil. This includes implicit concepts of soil being part integral concepts of landscape because the large majority of humans don't see soil as a distinct object. This communication would be to make evident: (i) the importance of cultural patterns and psychic/psychological background concerning soil, by case studies and overviews on different cultural areas, (ii) the necessity to develop reflections on this topic as well to communicate about soil with large public, as to raise awareness soil scientists to the cultural dimension of soils. A working group was recently founded at IUSS (Division 4) on this topic.

  12. Climate-smart soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paustian, Keith; Lehmann, Johannes; Ogle, Stephen; Reay, David; Robertson, G. Philip; Smith, Pete

    2016-04-01

    Soils are integral to the function of all terrestrial ecosystems and to food and fibre production. An overlooked aspect of soils is their potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Although proven practices exist, the implementation of soil-based greenhouse gas mitigation activities are at an early stage and accurately quantifying emissions and reductions remains a substantial challenge. Emerging research and information technology developments provide the potential for a broader inclusion of soils in greenhouse gas policies. Here we highlight ‘state of the art’ soil greenhouse gas research, summarize mitigation practices and potentials, identify gaps in data and understanding and suggest ways to close such gaps through new research, technology and collaboration.

  13. Managing soil natural capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Ronggang; Termansen, Mette; Brady, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Farmers are exposed to substantial weather and market related risks. Rational farmers seek to avoid large losses. Future climate change and energy price fluctuations therefore make adaptating to increased risks particularly important for them. Managing soil natural capital—the capacity of the soil...... to generate ecosystem services of benefit to farmers—has been proven to generate the double dividend: increasing farm profit and reducing associated risk. In this paper we explore whether managing soil natural capital has a third dividend: reducing the downside risk (increasing the positive skewness of profit......). This we refer to as the prudence effect which can be viewed as an adaptation strategy for dealing with future uncertainties through more prudent management of soil natural capital. We do this by developing a dynamic stochastic portfolio model to optimize the stock of soil natural capital—as indicated...

  14. Relaxometry in soil science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumann, G. E.; Jaeger, F.; Bayer, J. V.

    2009-04-01

    NMR relaxometry is a sensitive, informative and promising method to study pore size distribution in soils as well as many kinds of soil physicochemical processes, among which are wetting, swelling or changes in the macromolecular status. Further, it is a very helpful method to study interactions between molecules in soil organic matter and it can serve to study the state of binding of water or organic chemicals to soil organic matter. The method of Relaxometry excite the nuclei of interest and their relaxation kinetics are observed. The relaxation time is the time constant of this first order relaxation process. Most applications of relaxometry concentrate on protons, addressing water molecules or H-containing organic molecules. In this context, 1H-NMR relaxometry may be used as an analysis method to determine water uptake characteristics of soils, thus gaining information about water distribution and mobility as well as pore size distribution in wet and moist samples. Additionally, it can also serve as a tool to study mobility of molecular segments in biopolymers. Principally, relaxometry is not restricted to protons. In soil science, relaxometry is also applied using deuterium, xenon and other nuclei to study pore size distribution and interactions. The relaxation time depends on numerous parameters like surface relaxivity, diffusion and interactions between nuclei as well as between nuclei and the environment. One- and two-dimensional methods address the relation between relaxation time and diffusion coefficients and can give information about the interconnectivity of pores. More specific information can be gained using field cycling techniques. Although proton NMR relaxometry is a very promising method in soil science, it has been applied scarcely up to now. It was used to assess changes in molecular rigidity of humic substances. A very recent study shows the potential of NMR relaxometry to assess the pore size distribution of soils in a fast and non

  15. 桩钉辅助玻璃离子粘结固定冠根纵折后牙再植治疗临床观察%Clinical observation on replantation of vertical fractured posterior teeth after bonding with glass ionomer cement and fixation with metal post

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎石坚; 陈燕; 陆兆威; 罗菊芬; 李民东

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic results on replantation of vertical fractured posterior teeth after bonding with glass ionomer cement and fixation with metal post. Methods A total of 40 vertical fractured posterior teeth were treated by extraction,root canal therapy,bonding with glass ionomer cement.fixation with metal post, replantation and coronal restoration. 36 of the 40 posterior teeth were completely followed up for 2 years and evaluated. Results Among 36 vertical fractured posterior teeth observed,the the successful reserved rate of 6 months was 100.00% (36/36),one year was 88.89% (32/36),two years was 80.56% (29/36) There were statistical significant differences of the reserved rate in difference period after therapy, the reserved rate became lower with observation time became longer. Conclusion The therapeutic results were satisfied with a 2-year reserved rate, and the method can be worth of clinical application.%目的:对桩钉辅助玻璃离子粘结固定冠根纵折的后牙行再植术并行冠修复的临床效果进行观察、评价.方法:选择40例牙体相对完好、牙周情况良好的纵裂的后牙,拔牙后即刻体外完成根管治疗,用玻璃离子粘固剂粘结并复位,冠部横向钻通,插入并粘结根管桩钉辅助固定,再植入牙槽窝,2个月后行全冠或连冠修复,随访2年,观察疗效.结果:除失访4例外,6个月的成功保存率为100.00%(36/36),1年的保存率为88.89%(32/36),2年的保存率为80.56%(29/36),成功率随术后时间延长而下降.结论:正确选择适应证,对桩钉辅助玻璃离子粘结固定冠根纵折的后牙再植治疗,可获得一定的效果满意,为临床保存治疗提供多一种选择.

  16. Glyphosate bioavailability in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shushkova, Tatyana; Ermakova, Inna; Leontievsky, Alexey

    2010-06-01

    Biodegradation of glyphosate in sod-podzol soil by both the indigenous micro flora and the introduced strain Ochrobactrum anthropi GPK 3 was studied with respect to its sorption and mobility. The experiments were carried out in columns simulating the vertical soil profile. Soil samples studied were taken from soil horizons 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm deep. It was found out that the most of the herbicide (up to 84%) was adsorbed by soil during the first 24 h; the rest (16%) remained in the soluble fraction. The adsorbed glyphosate was completely extractable by alkali. No irreversible binding of glyphosate was observed. By the end of the experiment (21st day), glyphosate was only found in extractable fractions. The comparison of the effect of the introduced O. anthropi GPK 3 and indigenous microbial community on the total toxicant content (both soluble and absorbed) in the upper 10 cm soil layer showed its reduction by 42% (21 mg/kg soil) and 10-12% (5 mg/kg soil), respectively. Simultaneously, 14-18% glyphosate moved to a lower 10-20 cm layer. Watering (that simulated rainfall) resulted in a 20% increase of its content at this depth; 6-8% of herbicide was further washed down to the 20-30 cm layer. The glyphosate mobility down the soil profile reduced its density in the upper layer, where it was available for biodegradation, and resulted in its concentration in lower horizons characterized by the absence (or low level) of biodegradative processes. It was shown for the first time how the herbicide biodegradation in soil can be increased manifold by introduction of the selected strain O. anthropi GPK 3.

  17. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  18. Electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kwok, H L

    2010-01-01

    The electronic properties of solids have become of increasing importance in the age of information technology. The study of solids and materials, while having originated from the disciplines of physics and chemistry, has evolved independently over the past few decades. The classical treatment of solid-state physics, which emphasized classifications, theories and fundamental physical principles, is no longer able to bridge the gap between materials advances and applications. In particular, the more recent developments in device physics and technology have not necessarily been driven by new conc

  19. Why is the influence of soil macrofauna on soil structure only considered by soil ecologists ?

    OpenAIRE

    Bottinelli, N.; Jouquet, Pascal; CAPOWIEZ, Y.; Podwojewski, Pascal; Grimaldi,Michel; Peng, X.

    2015-01-01

    These last twenty years have seen the development of an abundant literature on the influence of soil macrofauna on soil structure. Amongst these organisms, earthworms, termites and ants are considered to play a key role in regulating the physical, chemical and microbiological properties of soils. Due to these influential impacts, soil ecologists consider these soil macro-invertebrates as ‘soil engineers’ and their diversity and abundance are nowadays considered as relevant bioindi...

  20. Electronic Router

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusan, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Electronic Router (E-Router) is an application program for routing documents among the cognizant individuals in a government agency or other organization. E-Router supplants a prior 14 NASA Tech Briefs, May 2005 system in which paper documents were routed physically in packages by use of paper slips, packages could be lost, routing times were unacceptably long, tracking of packages was difficult, and there was a need for much photocopying. E-Router enables a user to create a digital package to be routed. Input accepted by E-Router includes the title of the package, the person(s) to whom the package is to be routed, attached files, and comments to reviewers. Electronic mail is used to notify reviewers of needed actions. The creator of the package can, at any time, see the status of the package in the routing structure. At the end of the routing process, E-Router keeps a record of the package and of approvals and/or concurrences of the reviewers. There are commercial programs that perform the general functions of E-Router, but they are more complicated. E-Router is Web-based, easy to use, and does not require the installation or use of client software.

  1. Soil pedotransfer functions for four Mexican soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, M.A.; Keulen, van H.

    1995-01-01

    The PTF relating CEC to clay content, soil organic matter content (SOM), and pH explained 96% of the variability. Analysis of the residuals showed the effects of clay at three sites and SOM at all sites to be similar, despite quite distinct agro-ecological conditions and a wide range of SOM levels (

  2. Soil bacteria for remediation of polluted soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springael, D.; Bastiaens, L.; Carpels, M.; Mergaey, M.; Diels, L.

    1996-09-18

    Soil bacteria, specifically adapted to contaminated soils, may be used for the remediation of polluted soils. The Flemish research institute VITO has established a collection of bacteria, which were isolated from contaminated areas. This collection includes microbacteria degrading mineral oils (Pseudomonas sp., Acinetobacter sp. and others), microbacteria degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (genera Sphingomonas and Mycobacterium), microbacteria degrading polychlorobiphenyls (genus Ralstonia and strains related to beta-Proteobacteria), and metal resistant bacteria with plasmid borne resistances to Cd, Zn, Ni, Co, Cu, Hg, and Cr. Bench-scale reactors were developed to investigate the industrial feasibility of bioremediation. Batch Stirred Tank Reactors were used to evaluate the efficiency of oil degraders. Soils, contaminated with non-ferrous metals, were treated using a Bacterial Metal Slurry Reactor. It was found that the reduction of the Cd concentration may vary strongly from sample to sample: reduction factors vary from 95 to 50%. Is was shown that Cd contained in metallic sinter and biologically unavailable Cd could not be removed.

  3. Soil management: The key to soil quality and sustainable agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Gottlieb; Barão, Lúcia; Soares, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    Today, after the International Year of Soils in 2015 and the proclamation by the International Union of Soil Sciences of the International Decade of Soils 2015-2020, much attention is paid to soil quality. Often used interchangeably, both terms, soil quality and soil health, refer to dynamic soil properties such as soil organic matter or pH, while soil quality also includes inherent soil properties such as texture or mineral composition. However, it is the dynamic or manageable properties that adequate soil management can influence and thus contribute to a well-functioning soil environment capable to deliver the soil-mediated provisioning, regulating and supporting ecosystem services and soil functions. This contribution intends to highlight the key principles of sustainable soil management and provide evidence that they are compliant with a productive, resource efficient and ecologically friendly agriculture. Paradoxically, and despite benefitting from good soil quality, agriculture itself when based on conventional, especially intensive tillage-based soil management practices contributes decisively to soil degradation and to several of the soil threats as identified by the Soil Thematic Strategy, being soil erosion and soil organic matter decline the most notorious ones. To mitigate soil degradation, the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy has introduced conservation measures, mainly through cross-compliance measures supposed to guarantee minimum soil cover, to limit soil erosion and to maintain the levels of soil organic matter. However, it remains unclear to what extent EU member states apply these 'Good Agricultural and Environmental Condition' (GAEC) measures to their utilized agricultural areas. Effective and cost-efficient soil management systems able to conserve or to restore favourable soil conditions, to minimize soil erosion and to invert soil organic matter and soil biodiversity decline and improve soil structure are those capable to mimic as

  4. Soil disturbance increases soil microbial enzymatic activity in arid ecoregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Functional diversity of the soil microbial community is commonly used in the assessment of soil health as it relates to the activity of soil microflora involved in carbon cycling. Soil microbes in different microenvironments will have varying responses to different substrates, thus catabolic fingerp...

  5. Introductory Soil Science Exercises Using USDA Web Soil Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Christopher J.; Mikhailova, Elena; McWhorter, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    The USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) Web Soil Survey is a valuable teaching tool for soil science education. By incorporating the Web Soil Survey into an undergraduate-level course, students are able to use the most detailed digital soil survey information without the steep learning curve associated with geographic information…

  6. Nitroglycerin degradation mediated by soil organic carbon under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeleau, Geneviève; Martel, Richard; Bamba, Abraham N'Valoua; Blais, Jean-François; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia

    2014-10-01

    The presence of nitroglycerin (NG) has been reported in shallow soils and pore water of several military training ranges. In this context, NG concentrations can be reduced through various natural attenuation processes, but these have not been thoroughly documented. This study aimed at investigating the role of soil organic matter (SOM) in the natural attenuation of NG, under aerobic conditions typical of shallow soils. The role of SOM in NG degradation has already been documented under anoxic conditions, and was attributed to SOM-mediated electron transfer involving different reducing agents. However, unsaturated soils are usually well-oxygenated, and it was not clear whether SOM could participate in NG degradation under these conditions. Our results from batch- and column-type experiments clearly demonstrate that in presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) leached from a natural soil, partial NG degradation can be achieved. In presence of particulate organic matter (POM) from the same soil, complete NG degradation was achieved. Furthermore, POM caused rapid sorption of NG, which should result in NG retention in the organic matter-rich shallow horizons of the soil profile, thus promoting degradation. Based on degradation products, the reaction pathway appears to be reductive, in spite of the aerobic conditions. The relatively rapid reaction rates suggest that this process could significantly participate in the natural attenuation of NG, both on military training ranges and in contaminated soil at production facilities.

  7. Climate Strategic Soil Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan Lal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The complex and strong link between soil degradation, climate change and food insecurity is a global challenge. Sustainable agricultural systems must be integral to any agenda to address climate change and variability, improve renewable fresh water supply and quality, restore degraded soils and ecosystems and advance food security. These challenges are being exacerbated by increasing population and decreasing per capita arable land area and renewable fresh water supply, the increasing frequency of extreme events, the decreasing resilience of agroecosystems, an increasing income and affluent lifestyle with growing preference towards meat-based diet and a decreasing soil quality and use efficiency of inputs. Reversing these downward spirals implies the implementation of proven technologies, such as conservation agriculture, integrated nutrient management, precision agriculture, agroforestry systems, etc. Restoration of degraded soil and desertified ecosystems and the creation of positive soil and ecosystem C budgets are important. Urban agriculture and green roofs can reduce the energy footprint of production chains for urban and non-urban areas and enhance the recycling of by-products. Researchable priorities include sustainable land use and soil/water management options, judicious soil governance and modus operandi towards payments to land managers for the provisioning of ecosystem services.

  8. Soil washing treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krstich, M.

    1995-12-01

    Soil washing was identified as a viable treatment process option for remediating soil at the FEMP Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Little information relative to the specific application and potential effectiveness of the soil washing process exists that applies to the types of soil at the FEMP. To properly evaluate this process option in conjunction with the ongoing FEMP Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS), a treatability testing program was necessary to provide a foundation for a detailed technical evaluation of the viability of the process. In August 1991, efforts were initiated to develop a work plan and experimental design for investigating the effectiveness of soil washing on FEMP soil. In August 1992, the final Treatability Study Work Plan for Operable Unit 5: Soil Washing (DOE 1992) was issued. This document shall be referenced throughout the remainder of this report as the Treatability Study Work Plan (TSWP). The purpose of this treatability study was to generate data to support initial screening and the detailed analysis of alternatives for the Operable Unit 5 FS.

  9. [Trophic chains in soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, A A; Tiunov, A V

    2013-01-01

    Trophic links of soil animals are extensively diverse but also flexible. Moreover, feeding activity of large soil saprotrophs often cascades into a range of ecosystem-level consequences via the ecological engineering. Better knowledge on the main sources of energy utilized by soil animals is needed for understanding functional structure of soil animal communities and their participation in the global carbon cycling. Using published and original data, we consider the relative importance of dead organic matter and saprotrophic microorganisms as a basal energy source in the detritus-based food chains, the feeding of endogeic macrofauna on the stabilized soil organic matter, and the role of recent photosynthate in the energy budget of soil communities. Soil food webs are spatially and functionally compartmentalized, though the separation of food chains into bacteria- and fungi-based channels seems to be an over-simplification. The regulation of the litter decomposition rates via top-down trophic interactions across more than one trophic level is only partly supported by experimental data, but mobile litter-dwelling predators play a crucial role in integrating local food webs within and across neighboring ecosystems.

  10. Iodine in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, Karl Johan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    2000-12-01

    A literature study of the migration and the appearance of iodine isotopes in the bio-sphere particularly in soil is presented. Some important papers in the field of iodine appearance in soil and the appearance of {sup 129}I in the surroundings of reprocessing plants are discussed. The most important conclusions are: 1. Iodine binds to organic matter in the soil and also to some oxides of aluminium and iron. 2. If the iodine is not bound to the soil a large fraction of added {sup 129}I is volatilized after a rather short period. 3. The binding and also the volatilisation seems to be due to biological activity in the soil. It may take place within living microorganisms or by external enzymes excreted from microorganisms. 4. Due to variations in the composition of soil there may be a large variation in the distribution of {sup 129}I in the vertical profile of soil - usually most of the {sup 129}I in the upper layer - which also results in large variations in the {sup 129}I uptake to plants.

  11. Digital soil mapping: A Brief History and Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex

    2014-05-01

    Digital soil mapping was formalised in a 2003 paper by McBratney et al. Since the term was introduced, there has been a huge increase on the research and papers in this topic. An IUSS working group was formed, and the GlobalSoilMap project was initiated. The research topic has become a successful formal discipline in soil science. Here we will have a brief look at the history of (digital) soil mapping and perhaps draw some lessons. The use of computer or numerical models to automatically map the soil is not new, its origin is difficult to pin-point. In 1925, before the age of digital computer and electronic sensors, Bernard Keen and William Haines conceived and built the first on-the-go soil strength sensor, made the measurements and made the first high-resolution digital soil map, and discovered the reality and importance of soil spatial variation. However this work was too far ahead of its time and was not taken up by contemporaries and is now largely forgotten. Since Jenny's (1941) factorial model was introduced, many have formulated topofunctions or climofunctions etc, however most of these works and empirical functions were not used for mapping, and were mostly exploratory data analysis. The idea of predicting soil across the landscapes with few equations seemed to be too radical. Work in the 1970s started to look at using remote sensing and infrared spectroscopy to map soil properties. The Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing in Purdue, proposed 'Spectral Mapping of Soil Organic Matter' using soil reflectance from the visible and near infrared signal of an airborne scanner. The lab. was very active and has produced lots of innovative research in the field of remote sensing, generating the first soil spectral library, predicting soil carbon from NIR, mapping soil carbon digitally. However maybe they too were ahead of their time, it took another 30 years before the resurgence of the soil spectroscopy work in the 2000s. It is an enormously active area

  12. SOIL Geo-Wiki: A tool for improving soil information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalský, Rastislav; Balkovic, Juraj; Fritz, Steffen; See, Linda; van der Velde, Marijn; Obersteiner, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Crowdsourcing is increasingly being used as a way of collecting data for scientific research, e.g. species identification, classification of galaxies and unravelling of protein structures. The WorldSoilProfiles.org database at ISRIC is a global collection of soil profiles, which have been 'crowdsourced' from experts. This system, however, requires contributors to have a priori knowledge about soils. Yet many soil parameters can be observed in the field without specific knowledge or equipment such as stone content, soil depth or color. By crowdsourcing this information over thousands of locations, the uncertainty in current soil datasets could be radically reduced, particularly in areas currently without information or where multiple interpretations are possible from different existing soil maps. Improved information on soils could benefit many research fields and applications. Better soil data could enhance assessments of soil ecosystem services (e.g. soil carbon storage) and facilitate improved process-based ecosystem modeling from local to global scales. Geo-Wiki is a crowdsourcing tool that was developed at IIASA for land cover validation using satellite imagery. Several branches are now available focused on specific aspects of land cover validation, e.g. validating cropland extent or urbanized areas. Geo-Wiki Pictures is a smart phone application for collecting land cover related information on the ground. The extension of Geo-Wiki to a mobile environment provides a tool for experts in land cover validation but is also a way of reaching the general public in the validation of land cover. Here we propose a Soil Geo-Wiki tool that builds on the existing functionality of the Geo-Wiki application, which will be largely designed for the collection and sharing of soil information. Two distinct applications are envisaged: an expert-oriented application mainly for scientific purposes, which will use soil science related language (e.g. WRB or any other global reference

  13. Improvement of Soil Physical Properties with Soil Conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOBING-ZI; XUFU-AN

    1995-01-01

    Effects of non-ionic polyacrylamide(PAM),anionic polyacrylamide(PHP),cationic polyacrylamide(PCAM),non-ionic polyvinylalcohol(PVA),anionic hydrolyzed polyacrylonitrile(HPAN)and polyethleneoxide(PEO)on the physical properties of three different soil stpes were studied.content of water-stable aggregates larger than 0.25mm increased to varying extents for different soils and soil conditioners,Among the six kinds of condiftioners,non-ionic polyacrylamide(PAM) was the most effective for red soil while polyethyleneoxide(PEO)the least effective for Chao soil,red soil and yellow-brown soil.Water-stable aggregates with the molecular weight of PEO within a certain range.Only evaporation rate of Chao soil decreased after aplication of PAM and HPAN to Chao soil and red soil.

  14. Selenium in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čuvardić Maja S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential microelement, necessary for normal functioning of human and animal organisms. Its deficiency in food and feed causes a number of diseases. In high concentrations, selenium is toxic for humans animals and plants. Soil provision with selenium affects its level in food and feed via nutrition chain. However, selenium reactivity and bioavailability depends not only on its total content in soil but also on its chemical forms. Distribution of the different forms of selenium depends on soil properties such as reaction, aeration, contents of clay and organic matter and microbiological activity.

  15. Effect of different soil washing solutions on bioavailability of residual arsenic in soils and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jinwoo; Yang, Kyung; Jho, Eun Hea; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2015-11-01

    The effect of soil washing used for arsenic (As)-contaminated soil remediation on soil properties and bioavailability of residual As in soil is receiving increasing attention due to increasing interest in conserving soil qualities after remediation. This study investigates the effect of different washing solutions on bioavailability of residual As in soils and soil properties after soil washing. Regardless of washing solutions, the sequential extraction revealed that the residual As concentrations and the amount of readily labile As in soils were reduced after soil washing. However, the bioassay tests showed that the washed soils exhibited ecotoxicological effects - lower seed germination, shoot growth, and enzyme activities - and this could largely be attributed to the acidic pH and/or excessive nutrient contents of the washed soils depending on washing solutions. Overall, this study showed that treated soils having lower levels of contaminants could still exhibit toxic effects due to changes in soil properties, which highly depended on washing solutions. This study also emphasizes that data on the As concentrations, the soil properties, and the ecotoxicological effects are necessary to properly manage the washed soils for reuses. The results of this study can, thus, be utilized to select proper post-treatment techniques for the washed soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Practical electronics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Ian R

    2013-01-01

    Practical Electronics Handbook, Third Edition provides the frequently used and highly applicable principles of electronics and electronic circuits.The book contains relevant information in electronics. The topics discussed in the text include passive and active discrete components; linear and digital I.C.s; microprocessors and microprocessor systems; digital-analogue conversions; computer aids in electronics design; and electronic hardware components.Electronic circuit constructors, service engineers, electronic design engineers, and anyone with an interest in electronics will find the book ve

  17. Mycotoxins in the soil environment

    OpenAIRE

    Elmholt, S.

    2008-01-01

    The paper outlines the current knowledge concerning fate of mycotoxins in the soil environment, including - outline of mycotoxins addressed (trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, aflatoxins, ochratoxins and patulin) - routes by which the mycotoxins enter the soil environment - routes by which they are immobilised or removed from the soil environment - mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in the soil environment

  18. Two Centuries of Soil Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Narrates U.S. soil conservation history since the late eighteenth century. Discusses early practices such as contour plowing. Profiles individuals who promoted soil conservation and were largely responsible for the creation of the Soil Conservation Service. Explains the causes of erosion and how soil conservation districts help farmers prevent…

  19. Solid-Phase Speciation and Solubility of Phosphorus in an Acid Sulfate Paddy Soil during Soil Reduction and Reoxidation as Affected by Oil Palm Ash and Biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisawapipat, Worachart; Charoensri, Kamolchanok; Runglerttrakoolchai, Jirawat

    2017-02-01

    Understanding phosphorus (P) speciation and how redox conditions control P solubility in acid sulfate paddy soils with limited P availability is crucial for improving soil P availability. We examined P speciation and extractability in an acid sulfate paddy soil incorporated with oil palm ash (OPA) and biochar (OPB) during soil reduction and subsequent oxidation. Phosphorus K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of the soil samples revealed that P in the soil mainly occurred as P adsorbed to ferrihydrite and P adsorbed to gibbsite. During soil reduction, gibbsite-bound P was transformed into variscite, which was back-transformed to gibbsite-bound P during soil reoxidation. Sequential extraction results confirmed the dominance of Fe/Al (hydr)oxides-bound P (average 72%) in the soils. The OPA incorporation increased the exchangeable P pool concurring with the decrease in gibbsite-bound P. The OPB incorporation enhanced the dissolved P from the residual pool presumably due to electron shuttling of biochar with Fe(III) minerals during soil reduction. Our results highlight P dynamics in paddy soils, which are of immense importance for effective P-management strategies in rice cultivation.

  20. Impact of Some Agronomic Practices on Paddy Field Soil HealthUnder Varied Ecological Conditions: I. Influence 1mmof SoilMoisture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effects of individual and combined additions of urea (100 Ng{-1 soil) and insecticide (triazophos at field rate, FR) underdifferent moisture levels of air-dried soil (AD), 50% of water-holdingcapacity (WHC), 100% WHC and flooded soil (FS) on some selected soilproperties in a paddy field soil were examined in a laboratoryincubation study. The results indicated that after 21-day incubation at25 C, the different moisture levels led to significant changesin the parameters studied. Flooding of soil with distilled watersignificantly increased the electron transport system(ETS)/dehydrogenase activity and phenol contents of the soil comparedto the other moisture levels, while protein and phospholipids behaveddifferently at varied moisture levels with or without the addition ofurea and/or triazophos. Increased ETS activity was observed with Naddition at higher moisture levels while insecticide incorporationdecreased it at all moisture levels as compared to the control(moisture only). The phenol contents slightly decreased and increasedwith N and insecticide applications, respectively. The soil proteincontents were found to be unaffected among all the soil treatments atall moisture levels. However, among different moisture levels, reducedquantities of proteins were estimated at 50% WHC, suggesting moreN-mineralization. Lower quantities of soil biomass phospholipids, amongall treatments, were recorded at higher moisture levels (100% WHC andFS) than at the lower levels. An overall slight enhancement inphospholipid contents with N and small reduction with insecticideaddition, respectively, was noticed against the untreated soil. Thetoxicity of fertilizer and insecticide decreased as the soil moisturecontents increased, suggesting rapid degradation of agrochemicals.

  1. Mineral characterization of soil type ranker formed on serpentines occurring in southern Belgrade environs Bubanj Potok

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cekić Božidar Đ; Ivanovski Valentin N; Đorđević Aleksandar; Aleksić Velimir; Tomić Zorica; Bogdanović Stefan; Umićević Ana B

    2012-01-01

    ... located in the southern Belgrade environs, Serbia. Characterization of the ranker soil was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy and transmission 57Fe...

  2. Evaluation of Volatilization Potential for Legacy Chlordane in Military Housing Area Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    likely due to the process of chlordane volatilization from treated soil and re- adsorption to less contaminated soil as it moved upward in the vadose...metabolites using high-resolution gas chromatography with a ß- cyclodextrin derivative as chiral selector and electron- capture negative ion mass

  3. Diffusion and adsorption of the nematicide 1,3-dichloropropene in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leistra, M.

    1972-01-01

    After soil fumigation the concentration of the nematicidal compounds cis and trans 1,3-dichloropropene at various depths in the soil was estimated by electron-capture gas-chromatography. The coefficients for the distribution of the compounds over

  4. Soil and soil environmental quality monitoring in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yanguo; Wu, Jin; Lu, Sijin; Wang, Yeyao; Jiao, Xudong; Song, Liuting

    2014-08-01

    Over the past few decades, numerous concerns have been raised in China over the issue of environmental sustainability. Various soil survey and monitoring programs have been carried out in China to study soil quality, and to provide a scientific basis for environment policy making. This paper provides an overview of past and current soil quality surveys and monitoring activities in China. This paper includes a summary of concerns over background concentrations of elements in soil, and soil environmental standards and guidelines in China. Levels of pollution in urban soil, agricultural soil, and soil in mining and smelting areas were compared using the concentrations and pollution indexes. In addition to soil surveys, soil monitoring is essential to study the data and to examine the effects of contaminants in soils. However, the current soil quality monitoring system was insufficient to accurately determine the soil quality status of soils across China. For accurate soil monitoring in China, it will be necessary to set up routine monitoring systems at various scales (national, provincial, and local scales), taking into consideration monitoring indicators and quality assurance. This is currently an important priority for the environmental protection administration of China.

  5. Effect of soil property on evaporation from bare soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenming; Li, Ling; Lockington, David

    2015-04-01

    Quantifying the actual evaporation rate from bare soils remains a challenging task as it not only associates with the atmospheric demand and liquid water saturation on the soil surface, but also the properties of the soils (e.g., porosity, pore size distribution). A physically based analytical model was developed to describe the surface resistance varying with the liquid water saturation near the soil surface. This model considers the soil pore size distribution, hydraulic connection between the main water cluster and capillary water in the soil surface when the soil surface is wet and the thickness of the dry soil layer when the soil surface is dry. The surface resistance model was then integrated to a numerical model based on water balance, heat balance and surface energy balance equations. The integrated model was validated by simulating water and heat transport processes during six soil column drying experiments. The analysis indicates that the when soil surface is wet, the consideration of pore size distribution in the surface resistance model offers better estimation of transient evaporation among different soil types than the estimations given by empirically based surface resistance models. Under fixed atmospheric boundary condition and liquid water saturation, fine sand has greater evaporation rate than coarse sand as stronger capillary force devlivers more water from the main water cluster. When the soil surface becomes dry, the impact of soil property to evaporation becomes trivial as the thickness of the dry soil layer turns to be the key factor to determine the evaporation rate.

  6. Delayed tooth replantation after root surface treatment with sodium hypochlorite and sodium fluoride: histomorphometric analysis in rats Reimplante dentário tardio após o tratamento da superfície radicular com hipoclorito de sódio e fluoreto de sódio: análise histomorfométrica em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Dotto Sottovia

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In cases of delayed tooth replantation, non-vital periodontal ligament remnants have been removed with sodium hypochlorite in an attempt to control root resorption. Nevertheless, reports of its irritating potential in contact with the alveolar connective tissue have been described. Therefore, this study evaluated the healing process on delayed replantation of rat teeth, after periodontal ligament removal by different treatment modalities. Twenty-four rats, assigned to 3 groups (n=8, had their upper right incisor extracted and left on the workbench for desiccation during 60 min. Afterwards, the teeth in group I were immersed in saline for 2 min. In group II, root surfaces were scrubbed with gauze soaked in saline for 2 min; and in group III, scrubbing was done with gauze soaked in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution. Thereafter, root surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid and immersed in 2% acidulate-phosphate sodium fluoride solution, at pH 5.5. Root canals were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste and the teeth were replanted. The animals were sacrificed 60 days postoperatively and the pieces containing the replanted teeth were processed and paraffin- embedded. Semi-serial transversally sections were obtained from the middle third of the root and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histomorphometric analysis. Data were analyzed statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. The results showed that root structure and cementum extension were more affected by resorption in group III (pEm reimplante dentário tardio, o ligamento periodontal desvitalizado tem sido removido empregando-se o hipoclorito de sódio, buscando o controle da reabsorção radicular. Relatos de efeito irritante no tecido conjuntivo alveolar após o seu uso, têm sido descritos. Isso justificou a realização deste trabalho buscando minimizar esse inconveniente. Para isso 24 ratos, divididos em 3 grupos de 8 animais, tiveram o incisivo superior direito extra

  7. 瘤段截骨加热70℃蒸馏水中15 min:灭活回植治疗腓骨近端骨肿瘤%Replantation of inactivated tumor segment boiled in 70℃ distilled water for 15 minutes in the treatment of proximal fibular tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包毅敏; 张国梁; 杜佩晋; 王跃文

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Apart from a complete resection of tumor tissues, the therapeutic goal for bone tumors is to maximize the repair and restoration of tissue defects and damaged functions. Autologous inactivated bone graft is of practical value for transplantation and reconstruction. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effect of improved Malawer method combined with replantation of inactivated tumor segment in the treatment of proximal fibular tumors. METHODS: Since 2007, five patients with proximal fibular tumors (six sides) were admitted in the Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University. These five patients were subjected to distal femoral amputation, intralesional curettage and bone grafting, upper fibular osteotomy + tumor segment heating (boiling in 70℃ distiled water for 15 minutes) + inactivated bone replantation. Therapeutic effects were folowed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: One case of amputation had no recurrence and systemic metastasis during 4 years of folow-up; one case of intralesional curettage and bone grafting relapsed 1 year after operation; three cases of upper fibular osteotomy + tumor segment heating + inactivated bone replantation folowed for 5 months recovered walking function and exhibited good healing of the outer structure of the knee, showing non-healing of inactivated tumor segment, non-remarkable calus formation, no local tumor recurrence, no loosening of internal fixation, and inactivated bone without fracture and absorption. These results confirmed that the tumor curettage and amputation both have obvious limitations; based on Malawer method, the replantation of inactive tumor segment can better ensure the structure integrity of the lower leg and in suit reconstruct the lateral biceps femoris tendon and the lateral colateral ligament, but geneticaly the revascularization and healing of inactivated bones wil be difficult and slow with temperature increases, and therefore the period of postoperative brace protection should be relatively

  8. European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh (contributor), Paul Henning

    on Earth, life within the soil is often hidden away and suffers by being 'out of sight and out of mind'. What kind of life is there in soil? What do we mean by soil biodiversity? What is special about soil biology? How do our activities affect soil ecosystems? What are the links between soil biota...... and climate change? The first ever European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity uses informative texts, stunning photographs and maps to answer these questions and other issues. The European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity functions as a comprehensive guide allowing non-specialists to access information about this unseen...... Biodiversity'. Starting with the smallest organisms such as the bacteria, this segment works through a range of taxonomic groups such as fungi, nematodes, insects and macro-fauna to illustrate the astonishing levels of heterogeneity of life in soil. The European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity is more than just...

  9. Synergistic role of different soil components in slow sorption kinetics of polar organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongmei; Hou, Lei; Zhu, Dongqiang; Chen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We observed that the sorption kinetics of nitrobenzene and 2,4-dinitrotoluene (two model polar compounds) was significantly slower than that of 1,4-dichlorobenzene and phenanthrene (two model apolar compounds). The difference was attributable to the strong non-hydrophobic interactions between the polar molecules and soil. Interestingly, sorption kinetics of the polar sorbates to the soil organic matter-free soil, humic/fulvic acid-free soil, and extracted humic acids was very fast, indicating that different soil components played a synergetic role in the observed slow kinetics. We propose that slow sorption kinetics of highly polar sorbates stems mainly from the strong specific interactions (H-bonding, electron donor-acceptor interactions, etc.) with humic/fulvic acids; such specific interactions occur when sorbate molecules diffuse through humic/fulvic acids coiled, in relatively compressed confirmations, within the complex, tortuous, and porous soil matrices formed by mineral grains/particles and soil organic matter.

  10. CPC Soil Moisture

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The monthly data set consists of a file containing 1/2 degree monthly averaged soil moisture water height equivalents for the globe from 1948 onwards. Values are...

  11. Soil colloidal behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent understanding that organic and inorganic contaminants are often transported via colloidal particles has increased interest in colloid science. The primary importance of colloids in soil science stems from their surface reactivity and charge characteristics. Characterizations of size, shape,...

  12. National Geochemical Database: Soil

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geochemical analysis of soil samples from the National Geochemical Database. Primarily inorganic elemental concentrations, most samples are from the continental US...

  13. Soils - Mean Permeability

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital spatial data set provides information on the magnitude and spatial pattern of depth-weighted, mean soil permeability throughout the State of Kansas. The...

  14. The Soil Mobilome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Wenting

    Soil is considered a reservoir of diverse bacterial cellular functions, of which resistance mechanisms towards biological antimicrobial agents are of substantial interest to us. Previous findings report that the long-term accumulation of copper in an agricultural soil significantly affects......-selected for among natural bacterial populations. One possible explanation is the horizontal transfer of resistance genes among soil bacteria mediated by mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids, integrons, transposons and bacteriophages, of which copper and antibiotic resistance genes can be linked on the same...... mobile elements. To test this hypothesis, we collected non-polluted and CuSO4- contaminated soil samples and attempted to describe the co-selection of plasmid-encoded copper and antimicrobial resistance via both an endogenous plasmid isolation approach as well as a plasmid metagenomic approach...

  15. The Soil Mobilome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Wenting

    Soil is considered a reservoir of diverse bacterial cellular functions, of which resistance mechanisms towards biological antimicrobial agents are of substantial interest to us. Previous findings report that the long-term accumulation of copper in an agricultural soil significantly affects......-selected for among natural bacterial populations. One possible explanation is the horizontal transfer of resistance genes among soil bacteria mediated by mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids, integrons, transposons and bacteriophages, of which copper and antibiotic resistance genes can be linked on the same...... mobile elements. To test this hypothesis, we collected non-polluted and CuSO4- contaminated soil samples and attempted to describe the co-selection of plasmid-encoded copper and antimicrobial resistance via both an endogenous plasmid isolation approach as well as a plasmid metagenomic approach...

  16. Effects and mechanisms of biochar-microbe interactions in soil improvement and pollution remediation: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaomin; Chen, Baoliang; Zhu, Lizhong; Xing, Baoshan

    2017-08-01

    Biochars have attracted tremendous attention due to their effects on soil improvement; they enhance carbon storage, soil fertility and quality, and contaminant (organic and heavy metal) immobilization and transformation. These effects could be achieved by modifying soil microbial habitats and (or) directly influencing microbial metabolisms, which together induce changes in microbial activity and microbial community structures. This review links microbial responses, including microbial activity, community structures and soil enzyme activities, with changes in soil properties caused by biochars. In particular, we summarized possible mechanisms that are involved in the effects that biochar-microbe interactions have on soil carbon sequestration and pollution remediation. Special attention has been paid to biochar effects on the formation and protection of soil aggregates, biochar adsorption of contaminants, biochar-mediated transformation of soil contaminants by microorganisms, and biochar-facilitated electron transfer between microbial cells and contaminants and soil organic matter. Certain reactive organic compounds and heavy metals in biochar may induce toxicity to soil microorganisms. Adsorption and hydrolysis of signaling molecules by biochar interrupts microbial interspecific communications, potentially altering soil microbial community structures. Further research is urged to verify the proposed mechanisms involved in biochar-microbiota interactions for soil remediation and improvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The wettability of selected organic soils in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Całka, A.; Hajnos, M.

    2009-04-01

    The wettability was measured in the laboratory by means of two methods: Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) test and Thin Column Wicking (TCW) method. WDPT is fast and simple method and was used to investigate potential water repellency of analyzed samples. TCW is an indirect method and was used to determine contact angles and surface free energy components. The measurement was performed in horizontal teflon chambers for thin-layer chromatography, adapted for tubes 10 cm long. The experiment was carried out on muck soils (samples were taken from two levels of soil profile: 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm) and peat soils. There were two types of peats: low-moor peats and high moor peats. Samples of low-moor peats were taken from level 25-75 cm (alder peat) and 75-125cm (sedge peat) and 25-75 cm (peloid peat). Samples of high moor peats from level 25-175 cm (sphagnum peat) and 175-225 cm (sphagnum peat with Eriophorum). There was found no variability in persistence of potential water repellency but there were differences in values of contact angles of individual soil samples. Both muck and peat samples are extremely water repellent soils. Water droplets persisted on the surface of soils for more than 24 hours. Contact angles and surface free energy components for all samples were differentiated. Ranges of water contact angles for organic soils are from 27,54o to 96,50o. The highest values of contact angles were for sphagnum peats, and the lowest for muck soil from 20-40 cm level. It means, that there are differences in wettability between these samples. Muck soil is the best wettable and sphagnum peats is the worst wettable soil. If the content of organic compounds in the soil exceeds 40% (like in peats), the tested material displays only dispersion-type interactions. Therefore for peat soils, the technique of thin column wicking could only be used to determine the dispersive component γiLW. For muck soils it was also determined electron-acceptor (Lewis acid) γ+ and

  18. 苹果树根际促生细菌种群分析%Analysis of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria population in apple rhizosphere soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国辉; 毛志泉; 宋振; 张本峰; 仇念全; 刘训理

    2011-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is a complex syndrome of young apple trees in replanted orchards that causes death of fine feeder roots, stunted tree growth and low yield. Analyzing changes in the number and species of plant growth promoting rhizobacte-ria (PGPR) in perennial apple tree (PAT) and replanted young tree (RYT) fields could lay theoretical basis for understanding the interactions among ARD and rhizosphere microbes. In this study, rhizosphere soil samples were collected in PAT and RYT fields in Changli, Hebei Province. Rhizosphere bacteria of interest in the study included azotobacter, phosphate-dissolving bacteria, potas-sium-dissolving bacteria and antagonistic bacteria. While rhizosphere azotobacter, phosphobacteria, potassium-bacteria were cultivated by the selective media plate cultivation method, antagonistic bacteria (with antagonistic activity against Rhizoctonia solani or Fusarium camptoceras) were isolated using the in vitro screening technique. For soil samples from both fields, microbe species and population examined by colony-forming unit (CFU) count. Also BOX Polymerase Chain Reaction (BOX-PCR) was used to fingerprint the different PGPRs. Total rhizosphere bacteria, azotobacter, phosphate-dissolving bacteria, potassium-dissolving bacteria and antagonistic bacteria were more abundant in PAT than in RYT fields. In PAT fields, potassium-dissolving bacteria were the most abundant, followed by phosphate-dissolving bacteria and then azotobacter. Antagonistic bacteria were the least abundant. In RYT fields, phosphate-dissolving bacteria were the most abundant, followed by potassium-dissolving bacteria and then azotobacter. Antagonistic bacteria were also the least abundant. Based on BOX-PCR fingerprints cluster analysis of PGPR, there were over 1.2Sdissimilarities in both PAT and RYT fields. This somehow suggested close genetic evolutionary distance among the isolates. PGPR in PAT fields were divided into 79 clusters; including 18 azotobacter, 29

  19. Metals in urban playground soils

    OpenAIRE

    Ljung, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Urban soils generally have elevated metal contents originating from both point and diffuse pollution sources. Urban areas designated for children, who are most susceptible to any negative health effects of soil metals, may therefore have elevated soil metal contents. Children ingest soil both directly and by putting dirty hands and objects in their mouths. The soil ingested involuntarily mainly comprise very fine particles that have a larger surface area for sorption and may therefore hold hi...

  20. Soil geomorphic classification, soil taxonomy, and effects on soil richness assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan D. Phillips; Daniel A. Marion

    2007-01-01

    The study of pedodiversity and soil richness depends on the notion of soils as discrete entities. Soil classifications are often criticized in this regard because they depend in part on arbitrary or subjective criteria. In this study soils were categorized on the basis of the presence or absence of six lithological and morphological characteristics. Richness vs. area...