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Sample records for replacing soybean meal

  1. Soybean meal, distillers grains replace fishmeal in experimental shrimp diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  2. Replacement of soybean meal with babassu meal in rations for broilers from 22 to 42 days old

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    Mônica Calixto da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective this work was to evaluate the technical and economic viability of the substitution level of soybean meal by babassu meal in rations to broiler from 22 to 42 days old. It was used 80 male broiler chicks at one day of age, distributed into complete random designs with four treatments (0, 10, 20 e 30% substituition of soybean meal by babassu meal and five repetitions of four broilers each. Were evaluated the performance (weight dain, feed intake and feed conversion, carcass and cuts, organ biometry, feed cost per kilogram body weight and gross margin. To verify the relationship of cost of replacing soybean meal with pie babassu, inequalities were established. The substitution level of soybean meal by babassu meal had no influence (P>0,05 any of the performance characteristics, wich showed the technical viability of substituting up to 30%. Similarly, there was no affect on carcass yield, cuts weight and organ biometry. The cust less with feed per kg for chicken produced and the higher gross margin were obtained from chickens fed diets with 0% babassu meal. The increased of substitution level soybean meal by babassu meal in ration for broilers from 22 to 42 days old proved unviable economically, however, the inequalities produced can be useful in practical situations.

  3. Environmental impact of replacing soybean meal with rapeseed meal in diets of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zanten, H H E; Bikker, P; Mollenhorst, H; Meerburg, B G; de Boer, I J M

    2015-11-01

    The major impact of the livestock sector on the environment may be reduced by feeding agricultural co-products to animals. Since the last decade, co-products from biodiesel production, such as rapeseed meal (RSM), became increasingly available in Europe. Consequently, an increase in RSM content in livestock diets was observed at the expense of soybean meal (SBM) content. Cultivation of SBM is associated with high environmental impacts, especially when emissions related to land use change (LUC) are included. This study aims to assess the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets. As RSM has a lower nutritional value, we assessed the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM using scenarios that differed in handling changes in nutritional level. Scenario 1 (S1) was the basic scenario containing SBM. In scenario 2 (S2), RSM replaced SBM based on CP content, resulting in reduced energy and amino acid content, and hence an increased feed intake to realize the same growth rate. The diet of scenario 3 (S3) was identical to S2; however, we assumed that pigs were not able to increase their feed intake, leading to reduced growth performance. In scenario 4 (S4), the energy and amino acid content were increased to the same level of S1. Pig performances were simulated using a growth model. We analyzed the environmental impact of each scenario using life-cycle assessment, including processes of feed production, manure management, piglet production, enteric fermentation and housing. Results show that, expressed as per kg of BW, replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets marginally decreased global warming potential (GWP) and energy use (EU) but decreased land use (LU) up to 12%. Between scenarios, S3 had the maximum potential to reduce the environmental impact, due to a lower impact per kg of feed and an increased body protein-to-lipid ratio of the pigs, resulting in a better feed conversion ratio. Optimization of the body protein

  4. Replacement of fish meal by protein soybean concentrate in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp

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    Mariana Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of Litopenaeus vannameifed different levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of soybean protein concentrate (63.07% crude protein, CP to replace fish meal-by product (61.24% CP. The study was conducted in clear water in fifteen 800 L tanks equipped with aeration systems, constant heating (29 ºC, and daily water exchange (30%. Each tank was stocked with 37.5 shrimp/m3 (3.03±0.14 g. Feed was supplied four times a day, at 6% of the initial biomass, adjusted daily. After 42 days, the weight gain of shrimp fed diets with 0 and 25% protein replacement was higher than that observed in shrimp fed 100% replacement, and there were no differences among those fed the other diets. Feed efficiency and survival did not differ among shrimp fed different protein replacements. There was a negative linear trend for growth parameters and feed intake as protein replacement with soybean protein concentrate increased. Fish meal by-product can be replaced by up to 75% of soybean protein concentrate, with no harm to the growth of Pacific white shrimp.

  5. Replacement of soybean meal by soybean in multiple supplements for beef heifers grazing Urochloa decumbens during the dry season

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    Daniel Mageste de Almeida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of replacing soybean meal with soybean in multiple supplements on nutritional parameters, microbial efficiency and productive and reproductive performance of heifers grazing in Urochloa decumbens during the drought period. Were used 39 crossbred heifers of initial age and initial weight of 21 months and 309.5±7 kg, respectively. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments with eight replicates, and a control treatment with seven replications. Two treatments had soybean meal as the protein source and two treatments had soybean as the protein source, containing 25% and 40% crude protein. The amount of supplement offered was 1.0 kg/animal/day. The animals of the control group received only mineral salt ad libitum. The supplemented animals had higher average daily gain (ADG than control animals (P<0.10, and there was no difference in ADG among the supplements (P>0.10. There was an effect of supplementation (P <0.10 on intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC, total digestible nutrients (TDN and neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDF. There were no differences (P>0.10 on intake of OM and DM grazing between the supplemented and non-supplemented. Supplementation improved DM digestibility and all constituents of the diet (P<0.10. It was found that the provision of multiple supplements optimizes the performance of heifers grazing during the dry season, and that the substitution of soybean meal by soybean did not improve productive performance of animals.

  6. Evaluation of various combinations of alternative protein feedstuffs to replace soybean meal in diets for pond-raised channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted in earthen ponds to evaluate the use of combinations of two or three alternative protein sources to replace soybean meal in diets for Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Six 28% protein diets containing various combinations of alternative protein feedstuffs including cottonse...

  7. Effect of replacing conventional soybean meal with low-oligosaccharide soybean meal on growth performance and carcass characteristics of wean-to-finish pigs1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangeni, D; Jendza, J A; Anil, L; Yang, X; Baidoo, S K

    2017-06-01

    A trial was conducted to determine the effect of replacing conventional soybean meal (CSBM) with low-oligosaccharide soybean meal (LOSBM) on growth performance and carcass characteristics of wean-to-finish pigs. A total of 432 crossbred pigs (19 d and 6.6 ± 1.2 kg BW) were blocked by sex and BW and assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments: 1) CSBM in all phases and fishmeal and spray-dried plasma protein (FM/SDPP) in phases 1 to 3, 2) CSBM in all phases but with no FM/SDPP, 3) LOSBM and FM/SDPP in phases 1 to 3 and CSBM in phases 4 to 6, 4) LOSBM in phases 1 to 3 and CSBM in phases 4 to 6, 5) LOSBM in phases 1 to 6 and FM/SDPP in phases 1 to 3, and 6) LOSBM in phases 1 to 6. The results showed that pig growth performance (ADG, ADFI, and G:F) during the overall period (phases 1 to 6) and carcass traits (HCW, dressing percentage, fat depth, loin depth, and lean percentage) were not affected ( > 0.05) by dietary treatments. Moreover, replacing CSBM with LOSBM in phases 1 to 3 did not affect early phase growth performance in the absence of FM/SDPP but reduced ( ≤ 0.05) ADFI and increased ( finish period did not improve growth performance and carcass characteristics of pigs.

  8. Environmental impact of replacing soybean meal with rapeseed meal in diets of finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, Van H.H.E.; Bikker, P.; Mollenhorst, H.; Meerburg, B.G.; Boer, De I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The major impact of the livestock sector on the environment may be reduced by feeding agricultural co-products to animals. Since the last decade, co-products from biodiesel production, such as rapeseed meal (RSM), became increasingly available in Europe. Consequently, an increase in RSM content i

  9. Replacement of Soybean Meal with Animal Origin Protein Meals Improved Ramoplanin A2 Production by Actinoplanes sp. ATCC 33076.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, Deniz; Kayali, Hulya Ayar

    2016-09-01

    Ramoplanin A2 is the last resort antibiotic for treatment of many high morbidity- and mortality-rated hospital infections, and it is expected to be marketed in the forthcoming years. Therefore, high-yield production of ramoplanin A2 gains importance. In this study, meat-bone meal, poultry meal, and fish meal were used instead of soybean meal for ramoplanin A2 production by Actinoplanes sp. ATCC 33076. All animal origin nitrogen sources stimulated specific productivity. Ramoplanin A2 levels were determined as 406.805 mg L(-1) in fish meal medium and 374.218 mg L(-1) in poultry meal medium. These levels were 4.25- and 4.09-fold of basal medium, respectively. However, the total yield of poultry meal was higher than that of fish meal, which is also low-priced. In addition, the variations in pH levels, protein levels, reducing sugar levels, extracellular protease, amylase and lipase activities, and intracellular free amino acid levels were monitored during the incubation period. The correlations between ramoplanin production and these variables with respect to the incubation period were determined. The intracellular levels of L-Phe, D-Orn, and L-Leu were found critical for ramoplanin A2 production. The strategy of using animal origin nitrogen sources can be applied for large-scale ramoplanin A2 production.

  10. Growth response and feed utilization of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 juveniles fed graded levels of boiled Senna obtusifolia l. seed meal as a replacement for soybean meal

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    Abdullateef Yusuf

    2016-12-01

    Materials and methods: Five isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were formulated. The diest were- control diet (with 0% inclusion level boiled S. obtusifolia seed meal i.e., 100% soybean meal, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% inclusion level (total replacement of soya bean meal. The feeds were fed to C. gariepinus juveniles at 5% of their body weight for 84 days in an indoor partial flow through system. Weight and standard length of C. gariepinus juveniles were taken every fortnight and water quality parameters were monitored weekly. Results: Experimental fish fed diets with 0 and 25% inclusion level of boiled S. obtusifolia seed meal gave the best results in terms of Mean Weight Gain (MWG (20.22 and 19.79 g, respectively, Specific Growth Rate (1.82 and 1.83 respectively, Protein Efficiency Ratio (2.75 and 2.00, respectively and the Lowest Feed Conversion Ratio (1.29 and 1.39 respectively. The lowest growth and feed utilization were observed in fish fed 100% inclusion level. The weight gain of fish decreased with increase in replacement level above 25%. There was no significant difference between control diet 0 and 25% inclusion level (P and #8805;0.05. Conclusion: Boiled S. obtusifolia seed meal is a nutritive source of plant protein and a good replacement for soybean meal at 25% inclusion level of boiled S. obtusifolia seed meal in formulating catfish feed for C. gariepinus juveniles without any deleterious effect. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 345-352

  11. Effect of replacing fish meal with extruded soybean meal on growth, feed utilization and apparent nutrient digestibility of juvenile white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qihui; Tan, Beiping; Dong, Xiaohui; Chi, Shuyan; Liu, Hongyu

    2015-10-01

    Extruded soybean meal (ESBM) was evaluated as a protein source for partial replacement of fish meal (FM) in diets of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. In the control diet (Diet 1), FM protein was replaced with increasing dietary levels of ESBM (4.28%, 8.40%, 12.62%, 16.82%, and 25.26%) at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 60% levels (Diets 2 to 6, respectively). An eight-week feeding trial was conducted on 720 juvenile shrimp (0.67 g ± 0.01 g mean initial weight), and nutrient digestibility of the six diets was determined. ESBM could replace 20% of FM without causing a significant reduction in growth of shrimp, but other dietary treatments strongly affected whole body composition. Crude protein content of the whole body fed Diet 6 was significantly lower than that fed Diet 2 ( P vannamei.

  12. Performance of Clarias gariepinus Fed Dried Brewer's Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Slurry in Replacement for Soybean Meal

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    Solomon, Shola Gabriel; Itodo, Gabriel Enemona

    2017-01-01

    Following disparity of earlier results, this study tested the performance of African catfish Clarias gariepinus fed dried brewer's yeast slurry meal (DBYM) based diets. Fingerlings of C. gariepinus with pooled mean initial weight of 1.58 ± 0.01 g were stocked in hapas (1 m × 1 m × 1 m) immersed in an earthen pond at a density of 15 fish per cage. Five diets with increasing substitution of soybean meal with 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of dried brewer's yeast and a control without dried brewer's yeast (0% substitution) were evaluated for 8 weeks. Palatability of diets reduced with increasing levels of DBYM. Growth and utilization parameters such as weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, and specific growth rate differed significantly (p < 0.05) among treated groups. Specific growth rate decreased with increasing substitution while the best feed conversion ratio was obtained in the diet devoid of DBYM. Protein efficiency and utilization decreased with increasing levels of DBYM. Body composition was also affected by inclusion of DBYM with significant differences (p < 0.05) being observed across the diets. The trend in body composition follows the utilization of the diets. We conclude that the optimal range of inclusion and substitution of soybean meal with DBYM in C. gariepinus feed is between 1% and 14% of dry matter. PMID:28239492

  13. The effects of partial replacement of soybean meal by xylose-treated soybean meal in the starter concentrate on performance, health status, and blood metabolites of Holstein calves

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    Mehdi Kazemi-Bonchenari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the effects of partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM with xylose-treated SBM (XSBM as a source of rumen undegradable protein (RUP in the starter concentrate of calves on performance, health status and selected blood metabolites. Twenty-one female Holstein dairy calves (body weight=39.6±2.3 kg were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=7 each: i starter concentrate with 25% SBM [control (CTR]; ii starter concentrate with 17.5% SBM +7.5% XSBM (7.5XSBM; and iii starter concentrate with 12.5% SBM+12.5% XSBM (12.5XSBM. Calves received 2 L of milk twice daily, with ad libitum access to starter concentrates from d 4 until weaning (d 56. Performance and health status were recorded throughout the experiment. Blood samples collected on d 4, 35 and 56 were assayed for concentrations of glucose, total protein (TP, and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN. Starter intake (560, 400, and 420 g/d for CTR, 7.5XSBM, and 12.5XSBM, respectively, average daily gain (0.67, 0.6 and 0.57 kg/d, and feed to gain ratio (0.83, 0.67, and 0.74 were affected by treatments (P<0.05. Hearth girth, height at withers, body length, rectal temperature, faecal score, and respiratory score did not differ among treatments. Mean plasma glucose and TP were not affected by treatments, whereas PUN in the 12.5XSBM group was lower than in the other groups (P<0.05. In conclusion, the present results showed that partial replacement of SBM by XSBM may improve efficiency of dietary protein utilisation in pre-weaned calves, which warrants further studies.

  14. Replacement of fish meal with soybean meal, alone or in combination with distiller’s dried grains with solubles in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, grown in a clear-water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  15. Evaluation of biochemical parameters and productive performance of japanese quail in response to the replacement of soybean meal with canola meal

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    Ali Asghar Saki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluation the different levels canola meal (CM replacement by soybean meal (SBM in Japanese quails diets on productive performance, egg quality trails and blood parameters including blood protein, minerals concentration, liver enzymes and thyroid hormones. In this study, 160 of Japanese quails in second laying phase from 46 to 56 weeks of age were divided in four treatments with four replicates and 10 quail in each per replicate, on a completely randomized design (CRD.Treatments consisted:T1 control (without CM, T2, T3 and T4 replacing 30, 60 and 90% of SBM with CM respectively. The results were shown no significant variation in body weight between treatments in initial and end of the experiment (p > 0.05. There was significant decrease in feed intake by increasing level of CM (p 0.05. However, the egg shell thickness showed significantly decreased with increasing levels of canola meal in the diet  (p < 0.05. According to this study results, 30% replacement of SBM by CM in the diet (contained 10% CM has no adverse effect on quail’s performance.

  16. The Effect of Replacing Fish Meal in the Diet with Enzyme-Treated Soybean Meal (HP310 on Growth and Body Composition of Rainbow Trout Fry

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    Samira Haghbayan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential of enzyme-treated soybean meal powder (HP310 as fish meal alternative in diets for rainbow trout weighing 1.17 ± 0.3 g was evaluated for 60 days. Fish meal was replaced with HP310 at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of experimental diets. A control group was also considered. The results showed that diets containing 75% and 100% HP310 had significantly higher feed conversion ratio and lower feed intake, weight gain and specific growth rate compared to fish feed diets containing higher levels of fish protein ingredients (p < 0.05. Results suggested use of 50% HP310 in trout diet had a positive effect on growth performance (p < 0.05. All fish feed diets with HP310 had lower hematocrit, hemoglobin and red blood cells compared to the control group, but the differences between the control and the other treatments up to 75% HP310 replacement levels of diet (p > 0.05. However increasing in level of HP310 in the diet caused a significant increase of the white blood cells (p < 0.05. The fish fed with a diet totally replaced by HP310 showed the highest values of ash and moisture content among the diets and showed significantly different levels when compared with the control and other feeding treatments (p < 0.05.

  17. Effects of feeding processed kidney bean meal (Phaseolus vulgaris by replacing soybean meal on egg fertility and qualities of chicks of white leghorn hens

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    Sisay Fikru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding processed kidney bean meal (PKBM by replacing soybean meal (SBM on fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality and chick quality of white leghorn (WL hens. A total of 225 white leghorn hens (195 layers and 30 cocks with uniform body weight (BW and age were randomly distributed into 15 pens and assigned to five treatments (i.e., T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5. A total of 360 eggs collected from all the treatment birds were used for the analysis. The feeds of the treatments were SBM substituted by PKBM at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels for T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively. Replacement of SBM with PKBM in the diet did not affect the fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality, chick length, chick weight, and chick quality by visual score. As no difference is observed, 100% replacement of SBM by PKBM (dosed at 100 g/kg concentrate diet is possible.

  18. Effects of brown fish meal replacement with fermented soybean meal on growth performance, feed efficiency and enzyme activities of Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis

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    Zou, Yurong; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Zhang, Yanjiao; Xu, Wei

    2012-06-01

    A 120-day feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of partial replacement of brown fish meal (BFM) by fermented soybean meal (FSBM) in diets of Chinese soft-shelled turtle ( Pelodiscus sinensis). The turtles (initial mean body weight, (115.52 ± 1.05) g) were fed with three experimental diets, in which 0%, 4.72% and 9.44% BFM protein was replaced by 0%, 3% and 6% FSBM, respectively. Results showed that the feeding rate (FR), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed efficiency ratio (FER) of turtles fed with the diet containing 3% FSBM were not significantly different from the control group (0% FSBM) ( P > 0.05). However, FR, SGR and FER of turtles fed with the diet containing 6% FSBM were significantly lower than those of the control group ( P 0.05). However, the uric acid concentration in turtles fed with the diet containing 3% or 6% FSBM was significantly lower than that in the control group ( P 0.05). The results suggested that FSBM could replace 4.72% BFM protein in turtle diets without exerting adverse effects on turtle growth, feed utilization and measured immune parameters.

  19. Partial replacement of protein in soybean meal by moringa seed cake (Moringa oleifera in bocourti’s catfish (Pangasius bocourti

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    Bundit Yuangsoi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken in order to determine the effect of a dietary of moringa seed cake on digestibility, growth performance, blood chemistry and histopathologic of bocourti’s catfish. Fish were fed with diets formulated by 0, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 g kg-1 of moringa seed cake to replace protein in soybean meal. Fish with mean wet weights of 21.50± 0.25 g per fish were fed experimental diets for 8 weeks. Significant differences (p<0.05 in weight gain, average daily gain and specific growth rate were detected between bocourti’s catfish given the experimental diets. All fish grew normally and no significant difference was observed for survival rate and feed conversion ratio among fish fed tested diets. The highest FCR was generally observed that as moringa seed cake inclusion increased in the diets that were noted to exhibit slightly poor growth performance, feed utilization and pepsin digestibility tested. Blood chemistry and hepatosomatic index did not differ significantly for any of the diet treatments. No histopathological changes were found in distal intestines and liver. The study indicated that the dietary moringa seed cake contains ingredients that could be used for bocourti’s catfish diets possibly not over up to for 500 g kg-1 soybean protein replacement without negative effect on growth, digestibility and histology.

  20. Replacing moringa leaf (Moringa oleifera partially by protein replacement in soybean meal of fancy carp (Cyprinus carpio

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    Bundit Yuangsoi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae is a highly valued plant, distributed in many countries of the tropics and subtropics.The leaves are the protein source with an adequate profile of amino acids. The present study was undertaken in orderto determine the effect of a dietary of moringa leaves on digestibility and growth performance of fancy carp. Fish were fedwith diets containing isonitrogenouse and isoenergetic formulated by 20 and 50 g kg-1 of moringa leaves to replace protein insoybean. Fish were distributed in 500-liter tanks with flow-through water. Every fish was weighed and after the terminalexperiment, all groups’ livers and distal intestines were sampled. All fish grew normally (p>0.05 but fish fed with proteinreplacingmoringa leaves at 50 g kg-1 were noted to exhibit slightly poor growth performance and feed utilization. The studyindicated that the tested moringa leaf diet contains ingredients that could be used for fancy carp diets with possibly notover up to 20 g kg-1 soybean protein replacement without negative effect on growth and digestibility.

  1. Growth and body composition of nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fry fed organic diets containing yeast extract and soybean meal as replacements for fish meal, with and without supplemental lysine and methionine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantities of fishmeal (FM) have remained level for the past several decades; however, demand has dramatically increased due to its inclusion in all animal production as a high quality protein source. Soybean meal (SBM) is the most widely-used plant-protein ingredient for replacing various proportio...

  2. Feeding dairy cows with full fat extruded or toasted soybean seeds as replacement of soybean meal and effects on milk yield, fatty acid profile and CLA content

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    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the replacement of about 70% of soybean meal (SBM with extruded(ES or toasted (TS full-fat soybean seeds in diets for lactating cows on milk quality, fatty acid profile, and conjugatedlinoleic acid (CLA content. Eighteen lactating cows were assigned to 3 groups which received a basal diet, supplementedwith 1.8, 2.1 and 2.1 kg/head, respectively, of SBM, ES and TS. There was no significant effect on milk yield,calculated as the difference between daily yield during the experimental period and the mean of the last 5 days of adaptation(-1.65, -1.29 and -0.20 kg/d, respectively, for SBM, ES and TS; P>0.10 and milk quality parameters (fat, protein,urea and cheese making parameters among treatments. In the ES group there was a decrease in the short chainFA content (from C4 to C13 in milk fat (9.2 vs 11.0 and 10.8 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, SBM and TS; PMedium chain FA (from C14 to C17 content in milk fat was lower for ES and TS groups compared with SBM (46.8 and48.0 vs 54.8 g/100 g lipids respectively; PSBM group compared to the others (34.3 vs 44.2 and 41.2 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for SBM, ES and TS; PThe replacement of SBM with ES enhanced oleic and linoleic acid and, particularly, CLA content. Intermediate values wereobserved for the TS group. CLA content (0.91, 0.62 and 0.56 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, TS and SBM; Pincreased throughout the trial in all groups. ES also reduced the proportion of SFA with respect to SBM (65.2, 68.2 and70.9 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, TS and SBM; Pin the same order; Pimproving the health-quality of milk. The various soybean products did not affect either metabolic profile (protein, urea,glucose, cholesterol, NEFA, triglycerides, liver parameters and mineral serum content or rumen parameters (pH, ammoniaand VFAs. The replacement of SBM with ES and TS permitted an improvement in the nutritional properties of milkwithout negatively

  3. Change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets

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    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Yiran; Wen, Bin

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Four experimental diets were tested, in which Sargassum thunbergii was proportionally replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal. The growth performance, body composition and intestinal digestive enzyme activities in A. japonicus fed these 4 diets were examined. Results showed that the sea cucumber exhibited the maximum growth rate when 20% of S. thunbergii in the diet was replaced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal, while 40% of S. thunbergii in the diet can be replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal without adversely affecting growth performance of A. japonicus. The activities of intestinal trypsin and amylase in A. japonicus can be significantly altered by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Trypsin activity in the intestine of A. japonicus significantly increased in the treatment groups compared to the control, suggesting that the supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might increase the intestinal trypsin activity of A. japonicus. However, amylase activity in the intestine of A. japonicus remarkably decreased with the increasing replacement level of S. thunbergii by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal, suggesting that supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might decrease the intestinal amylase activity of A. japonicus.

  4. Effects of partially replacing dietary soybean meal or cottonseed meal with completely hydrolyzed feather meal (defatted rice bran as the carrier) on production, cytokines, adhesive gut bacteria, and disease resistance in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ♀ × Oreochromis aureus ♂).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Xu, Li; Liu, Wenshu; Yang, Yalin; Du, Zhenyu; Zhou, Zhigang

    2014-12-01

    We formulated experimental diets for hybrid tilapia to investigate the effects of replacing dietary soybean meal (SBM) or cottonseed meal (CSM) by completely hydrolyzed feather meal (defatted rice bran as the carrier; abbreviated as CHFM), with emphasis on fish growth, the composition of adhesive gut bacteria, intestinal and hepatic immune responses, and disease resistance. A series of four isonitrogenous (33% crude protein) and isolipidic (6% crude lipid) diets were formulated to replace the isonitrogenous percentages of CSM or SBM by 6% or 12% CHFM. Quadruplicate groups of healthy and uniformly sized hybrid tilapia were assigned to each experimental diet. Fish were hand fed three times a day for 8 weeks at a rearing temperature of 25-28 °C. The growth performance of hybrid tilapia fed diets with partial replacement of dietary SBM or CSM with CHFM was comparable to the group of fish fed the control diet. The CHFM-containing diets affected the intestinal autochthonous bacterial community in similar ways. All CHFM-containing diets stimulated the expression of heat shock protein 70 in the intestine but suppressed its expression in the liver. Only the CHFM6/SBM diet stimulated the expression of interleukin-1β in intestine, and no effects were observed in all diets to the expression of interleukin-1β in liver. Thus, regarding the immune response in the intestine and liver, CHFM is a good alternative protein source that induces less stress in the host. CHFM did not affect disease resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in hybrid tilapia. These data suggest that CHFM is a good alternative to partially replace SBM and CSM in tilapia feed.

  5. Performance of Clarias gariepinus Fed Dried Brewer’s Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Slurry in Replacement for Soybean Meal

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    Shola Gabriel Solomon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Following disparity of earlier results, this study tested the performance of African catfish Clarias gariepinus fed dried brewer’s yeast slurry meal (DBYM based diets. Fingerlings of C. gariepinus with pooled mean initial weight of 1.58±0.01 g were stocked in hapas (1 m × 1 m × 1 m immersed in an earthen pond at a density of 15 fish per cage. Five diets with increasing substitution of soybean meal with 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of dried brewer’s yeast and a control without dried brewer’s yeast (0% substitution were evaluated for 8 weeks. Palatability of diets reduced with increasing levels of DBYM. Growth and utilization parameters such as weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, and specific growth rate differed significantly (p<0.05 among treated groups. Specific growth rate decreased with increasing substitution while the best feed conversion ratio was obtained in the diet devoid of DBYM. Protein efficiency and utilization decreased with increasing levels of DBYM. Body composition was also affected by inclusion of DBYM with significant differences (p<0.05 being observed across the diets. The trend in body composition follows the utilization of the diets. We conclude that the optimal range of inclusion and substitution of soybean meal with DBYM in C. gariepinus feed is between 1% and 14% of dry matter.

  6. Effect of replacing ground corn and soybean meal with licuri cake on the performance, digestibility, nitrogen metabolism and ingestive behavior in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A C; Vieira, J F; Barbosa, A M; Silva, T M; Bezerra, L R; Nascimento, N G; de Freitas, J E; Jaeger, S M P L; Oliveira, P de A; Oliveira, R L

    2017-05-02

    Licuri (Syagrus coronate) cake is a biodiesel by-product used in ruminant feed as a beneficial energy source for supplementation in managed pastures. The objective was to evaluate the performance, digestibility, nitrogen balance, blood metabolites, ingestive behavior and diet profitability of eight crossbred Holstein (3/4)×Gyr (5/8) multiparous cows (480±25 kg BW and 100 days milking) grazing and supplemented with licuri cake partially replacing ground corn and soybean meal in concentrate (0, 200, 400 and 600 g/kg in dry matter (DM)), distributed in an experimental duplicated 4×4 Latin square design. Licuri cake partially replacing ground corn and soybean meal increased (Pmeal in concentrate did not affect the intake; fecal, urinary and mammary excretions; N balance; and triglycerides concentrations. However, the blood urea nitrogen (P=0.04) concentration decreased with the licuri cakes inclusion in cow supplementation. There was an increasing trend for serum creatinine (P=0.07). Licuri cake inclusion did not affect body condition score, production, yield, protein, lactose, total solids and solid non-fat contents of milk and Minas frescal cheese. There was a linear decrease in average daily weight gain (g/day). The milk fat concentration and cheese fat production (Pmeal with licuri cakes. The addition of licuri cake did not alter the time spent feeding, ruminating or idling. There was an increasing trend in NDF feeding efficiency (P=0.09). The replacing of ground corn and soybean meal with licuri cake up to 600 g/kg decreased the concentrate cost by US$0.45/cow per day. Licuri cake replacing corn and soybeans (400 g/kg) in concentrate promoted a profit of US$0.07/animal per day. Licuri cake is indicated to concentrate the supplementation of dairy cows with average productions of 10 kg/day at levels up to 400 g/kg in the concentrate supplement because it provides an additional profit of US$0.07/animal per day and increased milk and Minas frescal cheese fat

  7. Buckwheat bran (Fagopyrum esculentum as partial replacement of corn and soybean meal in the laying hen diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Gatta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of partial substitution of corn (-20% and soybean meal (-10% with buckwheat bran (+30% (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench in the diet of ISA-Brown hens was investigated in sixteen 74-week old hens, housed in couple wire cages and submitted to a 16 h light:8 h dark photoperiod. The following traits were measured: body weight, egg production, egg mass, egg quality, feed intake, feed conversion, comparative palatability of ingredients and digestibility of diet. χ2 and non-parametric tests were used for production rate and yolk color score, respectively. ANOVA was used for all other parameters. Comparative choice of buckwheat, corn and soy was checked under different forms in 3 free choice tests. Results show that egg production rate (43.3% vs 50.5%; P<0.05 and feed intake (78.3±0.68 eggs/hen d vs 87.8±0.68 eggs/hen d; P<0.05 increased with the partial introduction of buckwheat bran in the diet. There was no difference in feed conversion between treatments. Nutrient balance confirmed that AMEn of diet was deeply lowered by the buckwheat bran use (6.5 MJ/kg vs 10.1 MJ/kg , due to the high fibre content of buckwheat bran (263 g/kg. Maize was always the most preferred ingredient, buckwheat bran was consumed more than expected in absence of any preference, and soybean was the food least chosen. Buckwheat bran can be used as an ingredient feed for low-producing laying hens; it induces a feed-intake increase, partially balanced by improved egg-production rates and a tendency to better albumen Haugh units.

  8. Performance and economic effects of partially replacing soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance and economic effects of partially replacing soybean meal with palm kernel ... to determine the optimal level of inclusion for maximum production in broilers. ... while no PKC was used in treatment I, which also served as the control.

  9. DOUBLE -LOW RAPESEED MEAL TO REPLACE SOYBEAN MEAL IN THE DIETS OF PREGNANT SOWS%双低菜籽粕在妊娠母猪日粮中适宜添加量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁青杉; 杨波

    2011-01-01

    Selected primiparous pregnant sows (Landrace ( ♂ ) and Bamei ( ♀ ) hybrid generation sows) 40, were randomly divided into four groups for the feeding experiment, the experimental group diets respectively 6%, 9% and 12% Double - low rapeseed meal replaced soybean meal diet, and with sueh energy, such as soybean protein diet as control. The results showed that: With 12% of the double - low rapeseed meal to re- place soybean meal protein fed pregnant sows, pregnant sows on litter size and piglet birth weight measurement, the experimental group was not significant (P 〉 0.05 ); and through the blood alanine aminotransferase (ATL), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) ; thyroid hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4) and three iodine a gland of the original acid (T3) measured with each test group was not significant (P 〉 0.05 ). Shows 12% of preg- nant sow diet used double - low rapeseed meal completely replace soybean meal protein, the production of the pregnant sows are not affected.%选初产妊娠母猪(长白(♂)与八眉猪(♀)杂交一代母猪)40头,随机分四组进行饲养试验,试验组日粮中分别用6%、9%和12%的双低菜籽粕取代日粮中的豆粕,并与等能量、等蛋白的豆粕日粮作对照。结果表明:用12%双低菜籽粕取代豆粕蛋白饲喂妊娠母猪,对妊娠母猪产仔数和仔猪初生重测定,试验组间差异不显著(P〉0.05);并通过对血液中谷丙转氨酶(ATL)、谷草转氨酶(AST);甲状腺激素(TSH)、甲状腺素(T4)和三碘甲腺原氨酸(T3)指标测定,各试验组间差异不显著(P〉0.05)。说明妊娠母猪日粮中用12%双低菜籽粕完全取代豆粕蛋白,对妊娠母猪生产不受影响。

  10. Effects of replacing soybean meal with rubber seed meal on growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Junming; Mai, Kangsen; Chen, Liqiao; Mi, Haifeng; Zhang, Lu

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with rubber seed meal (RSM) on growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis aureus). Five experimental diets were formulated with 0 (control), 10, 20, 30, and 40% RSM replacing graded levels of SBM, respectively. Fish were fed one of the five experimental diets for eight weeks, and then challenged by A. hydrophila via intraperitoneal injection and kept for seven days. Dietary RSM inclusion level up to 30% did not affect the weight gain and daily growth coefficient, whereas these were depressed by a further inclusion. Fish fed diet with 40% RSM showed the lowest serum total antioxidant capacity, lysozyme, alternative complement pathway, respiratory burst and phagocytic activities. Dietary RSM inclusion gradually depressed the post-challenge survival rate, and that was significantly lower in fish fed diet with 40% RSM compared to fish fed the control diet. Conversely, the inclusion of RSM generally increased the serum total cholesterol level, the plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and these were significantly higher in fish fed diet with 40% RSM compared to fish fed the control diet. The results indicated that RSM can be included at level up to 30% in diet for tilapia without obvious adverse effects on the growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response and resistance to A. hydrophila infection, whereas these were depressed by a further inclusion.

  11. Bio-ag reutilization of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a substrate for black soldier fly larvae, Hermetia illucens, along with poultry by-product meal and soybean meal, as total replacement of fish meal in

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed system with Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles (mean initial weight, 2.66 g) to examine total replacement of menhaden fish meal (FM) with distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), which had been used as substrate for the production of black ...

  12. SUBSTITUIÇÃO DE FARELO DE SOJA POR SOJA INTEGRAL EM RAÇÕES EXTRUSADAS PARA AQÜICULTURA REPLACEMENT OF SOYBEAN MEAL BY FULL FAT SOYBEAN IN EXTRUDED FEEDS FOR AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Kil Chang

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A soja (Glycine max não é utilizada na sua forma integral, em grãos, pelas empresas produtoras de rações extrusadas para aqüicultura. Este trabalho investigou o efeito das variáveis de extrusão sobre a capacidade de flutuação, perdas por lixiviação na água e dureza das rações, sob níveis de substituição do farelo de soja pela soja integral da ordem de 0%, 48% e 100%. Foram realizados onze tratamentos para cada nível de substituição, usando um extrusor Werner & Pfleiderer ZSK-30, de dupla rosca. Utilizou-se um delineamento fatorial 2x2x2, com mais três repetições no ponto central. As variáveis independentes foram: temperatura de extrusão, velocidade de alimentação e umidade. Usou-se a metodologia de superfície de resposta para avaliar o efeito combinado das variáveis independentes sobre as variáveis-resposta, e a análise de variância para testar a adequação dos modelos. A capacidade de flutuação e as perdas por lixiviação da ração diminuíram com a redução da temperatura de extrusão, aumento da umidade e do nível de substituição do farelo de soja pela soja integral. A dureza da ração aumentou somente com a elevação da umidade e do nível de substituição.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Ração; soja; extrusão; dupla rosca; peixe.

    Full fat soybean (Glycine max is not used by producers of extruded feed for aquaculture. This study investigated the effect of extrusion variables on the physical characteristics of the feed with increasing replacement levels of soybean meal for full fat soybean: 0%, 48% and 100%. Eleven treatments were set up for each replacement level, using a twin-screw extruder (Werner & Pfleiderer ZSK-30, according to a 2x2x2 factorial design with more three replications of the central

  13. EFFECT OF REPLACING CORN AND SOYBEAN MEAL WITH BREWERS RICE AND DRIED DISTILLERS BREWERS YEAST ON PERFORMANCE OF GROWING-FINISHING PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondieki Gekara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of replacing corn and Soybean Meal (SBM with Brewers Rice (BR and Dried Distillers Brewers Yeast (DDBY, respectively, on ADG, G:F, Apparent Total Tract Digestibility (ATTD, fecal DM output and fecal loss of N and P of growing-finishing pigs. Sixty four Yorkshire x Duroc x Hampshire crosses (BW = 73±5.7 kg were randomly assigned to corn/SBM (CSM, BR/SBM (RSM, corn/DDBY (CBY or BR/DDBY (RBY diets. Compared with pigs finished on corn based diets, pigs fed BR based diets gained faster (0.868 vs. 0.730 kg.pig-1; p<0.01 and had better gain to feed ratio (0.30 vs. 0.25; p<0.01. Pigs finished on RBY diet had the least fecal DM output (0.245, 0.352, 0.575, 0.639 kg.pig-1; p<0.001 and greatest ATTD (91.5, 87.8, 80.0, 77.9%; p<0.001 followed by RSM, CBY and CSM pigs, respectively. Pigs finished on RBY diet lost the least (p<0.001 amount of N (0.010, 0.013, 0.019, 0.021 kg.pig-1 and P (0.010, 0.014, 0.016, 0.019 kg.pig-1 in the feces followed by pigs finished on RSM, CBY and CSM, respectively. In conclusion, BR and DDBY can replace all corn and SBM in swine diets with no negative effects on performance of growing-finishing pigs.

  14. Effects of Protease Addition and Replacement of Soybean Meal by Corn Gluten Meal on the Growth of Broilers and on the Environmental Performances of a Broiler Production System in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannenas, Ilias; Bonos, Eleftherios; Anestis, Vasileios; Filioussis, Georgios; Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K; Bartzanas, Thomas; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to examine the combined effects of adding a dietary protease, reducing the levels of soybean meal (SBM) and introducing corn gluten meal (CGM) in the ration of a group of broilers reared on a commercial Greek farm. Five hundred forty chicks were divided into three dietary treatments with six replicates of thirty birds each. The first group (Control) was fed a conventional diet based on corn and soybean meal, containing 21% w/w crude protein (CP). The second group (Soy-Prot) was supplied a corn and SBM-based diet containing a lower level of CP (20% w/w) and 200 mg of the protease RONOZYME® Proact per kg of feed. The third group (Gluten-Prot) was fed a diet without soybean-related constituents which was based on corn and CGM and with CP and protease contents identical to those of the diet of the Soy-Prot group. Body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), intestinal microbiota populations and morphology, meat quality and cost were evaluated. Furthermore, a partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed in order to assess the potential environmental performance of the systems defined by these three dietary treatments and identify their environmental hot-spots. The growth performance of the broilers supplied the Soy-Prot diet was similar to the broilers supplied the Control diet. However, the broilers which were fed the Gluten-Prot diet at the end of the trial showed a tendency (P≤0.010) for lower weight gain and feed intake compared to those of the Control diet. When compared to the Control group, lower counts of C. perfringens (P≤0.05) were detected in the ileum and cecum parts, and lower counts of F. necrophorum (P≤0.001) were detected in the cecum part of the birds from the Gluten-Prot group. The evaluation of intestinal morphometry showed that the villus height and crypt depth values were not significantly different (P>0.05) among the experimental groups for the duodenum, jejunum and ileum parts. No

  15. Effects of Protease Addition and Replacement of Soybean Meal by Corn Gluten Meal on the Growth of Broilers and on the Environmental Performances of a Broiler Production System in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonos, Eleftherios; Anestis, Vasileios; Filioussis, Georgios; Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K.; Bartzanas, Thomas; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to examine the combined effects of adding a dietary protease, reducing the levels of soybean meal (SBM) and introducing corn gluten meal (CGM) in the ration of a group of broilers reared on a commercial Greek farm. Five hundred forty chicks were divided into three dietary treatments with six replicates of thirty birds each. The first group (Control) was fed a conventional diet based on corn and soybean meal, containing 21% w/w crude protein (CP). The second group (Soy-Prot) was supplied a corn and SBM-based diet containing a lower level of CP (20% w/w) and 200 mg of the protease RONOZYME® Proact per kg of feed. The third group (Gluten-Prot) was fed a diet without soybean-related constituents which was based on corn and CGM and with CP and protease contents identical to those of the diet of the Soy-Prot group. Body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), intestinal microbiota populations and morphology, meat quality and cost were evaluated. Furthermore, a partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed in order to assess the potential environmental performance of the systems defined by these three dietary treatments and identify their environmental hot-spots. The growth performance of the broilers supplied the Soy-Prot diet was similar to the broilers supplied the Control diet. However, the broilers which were fed the Gluten-Prot diet at the end of the trial showed a tendency (P≤0.010) for lower weight gain and feed intake compared to those of the Control diet. When compared to the Control group, lower counts of C. perfringens (P≤0.05) were detected in the ileum and cecum parts, and lower counts of F. necrophorum (P≤0.001) were detected in the cecum part of the birds from the Gluten-Prot group. The evaluation of intestinal morphometry showed that the villus height and crypt depth values were not significantly different (P>0.05) among the experimental groups for the duodenum, jejunum and ileum parts. No

  16. Replacement of soybean meal by linseed meal in diets for piava (Leporinus obtusidensSubstituição do farelo de soja pelo farelo de linhaça em dietas para a piava (Leporinus obtusidens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirleise Pianesso

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluate the replacement of soybean meal by linseed meal on growth of piava juveniles. The experiment was carried on fish farming laboratory of UFSM/CESNORS, on March to April, 2011. They were used 360 fish, (initial weight = 9.0 ± 2.5 g, which placed in a water re-use system composed by 15 tanks (250L, with mean temperature in the morning = 20.3 ± 1.62ºC and in the afternoon = 21.4 ± 1.42ºC, during 30 days. It were testes five diets with volumetric levels of soybean meal replace (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100%. The use of the linseed meal provided same performance to the fish. The weight, total length, standard length, relative weight gain, condition factor and specific growth rate of the piavas were not affected by treatments (P > 0.05. Similarly, the plasmatic glucose, body protein deposition and chymotrypsin enzyme no showed differences. The body lipid deposition was best expressed by the cubic polynomial regression model (P O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a substituição do farelo de soja pelo de linhaça no crescimento de juvenis de piava. O experimento foi realizado no laboratório de piscicultura da UFSM/CESNORS, no período de março a abril de 2011. Foram utilizados 360 peixes (peso inicial = 9,0 ± 2,5 g, sendo estes acondicionados em um sistema de recirculação de água composto por 15 tanques (250L, com temperatura média da manhã = 20,3 ± 1,62ºC e da tarde = 21,4 ± 1,42ºC, durante 30 dias. Foram testadas cinco dietas, com níveis volumétricos de substituição do farelo de soja (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100%. A utilização de farelo de linhaça como fonte proteica proporcionou aos peixes o mesmo desempenho. O peso, comprimento total, comprimento padrão, ganho em peso relativo, fator de condição e taxa de crescimento específico das piavas não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos (P > 0,05. Da mesma forma, a glicose plasmática, deposição de proteína corporal e a enzima quimiotripsina n

  17. Effects of replacement of dietary fish meal by four kinds of soybean meal on growth,antioxidant and antibacterial ability of Pseudosciaena crocea R.%4种豆粕替代鱼粉对大黄鱼生长、抗氧化及抗菌能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴钊; 陈乃松; 华雪铭; 黄旭雄; 陈晓明; 王坛; 王刚; 朱伟星; 孔纯

    2016-01-01

    the most widely used plant protein sources in aquatic feed .While excessive use of soybean meal with amino acid imbalance and many antinutritional factors in feed,affects not only feeding and growth of fish,but also the health and immune function.It has been demonstrated that the problem of antinutritional factors and amino acid imbalance can be eased by enzyme additives,microbial fermentation and crystalline amino acids additive.Large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea R.is an important commercial marine fish species in China.It is favored by consumers due to its high nutritional value.As other carnivores,the high protein requirement of large yellow croaker is mainly from fish meal,so substitution of fish meal in the feed is also a key problem in their culture. In this study,a total of 1080 Pseudosciaena crocea R.with an average body weight of (34.72g ±0.28g) were randomly divided into 9 groups with 3 replicates each,and each replicate contained 40 fish.Fish were fed with 9 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets,the control group (50% fish meal,without soybean meal)and 8 experimental groups formulated by replacing 20% or 40% fish meal with dehulled,enzyme-treated, fermented soybean mealⅠor fermented soybean meal Ⅱwith crystalline amino acids,respectively.The 9 groups was respectively named as FM,DSM20,DSM40,ESM20,ESM40,FSMⅠ20,FSMⅠ40,FSMⅡ20,FSMⅡ40.A 7 -week trial was conducted in floating nets to evaluate the feasibility of the replacement of fish meal by four different kinds of soybean meal,and to measure the appropriate replacement level. Results showed that there was no significant difference in the survival rate,special growth rate between the control group and experimental groups.And there was no significant difference on feed conversion ratio, hepatosmatic index and condition factor among all groups.The superoxide dismutase activity and catalase in serum,liver and mucus were significantly different among groups.The superoxide dismutase activity of

  18. Legume seeds and rapeseed press cake as substitutes for soybean meal in sow and piglet feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Hanczakowska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of replacing soybean meal with mixtures of rapeseed press cake (RPC and legume seeds in sow and piglet diets was evaluated in an experiment on 30 sows and their progeny. Group I (control received standard feed mixture containing soybean meal as the main protein source, group II – RPC mixed with fodder pea, group III – field bean, group IV – blue lupine, group V – yellow lupine. Weaned piglets received mixtures containing RPC and legume mixtures. Considerable differences were found in amino acid composition of proteins. Differences in the apparent digestibility of essential nutrients were statistically insignificant. Sows fed with field bean and yellow lupine gave birth to heaviest piglets. After weaning piglets receiving field bean were characterized by the best weight gains. It is concluded that mixing rapeseed cake with legume seeds allows for the complete replacement of soybean meal in sow diets and for partial replacement in piglet diets.

  19. Enzyme assisted protein extraction from rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sari, Y.W.; Bruins, M.E.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Oilseed meals that are by-products from oil production are potential resources for protein. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of enzymes in assisting in the extraction of protein from different oilseed meals, namely rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals. In addition, microalgae withou

  20. Enzyme assisted protein extraction from rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sari, Y.W.; Bruins, M.E.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Oilseed meals that are by-products from oil production are potential resources for protein. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of enzymes in assisting in the extraction of protein from different oilseed meals, namely rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals. In addition, microalgae withou

  1. Enzyme assisted protein extraction from rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sari, Y.W.; Bruins, M.E.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Oilseed meals that are by-products from oil production are potential resources for protein. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of enzymes in assisting in the extraction of protein from different oilseed meals, namely rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals. In addition, microalgae

  2. Performance of lambs fed alternative protein sources to soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe José Lins Alves

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of alternative protein sources (castor bean cake, sunflower cake, and sunflower seed to soybean meal on the intake and performance of 40 lambs, initially weighing 19.8±1.84 kg, fed diets based on Tifton grass hay. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks. There were no differences in the nutrient intake of castor bean diets compared with soybean meal. The intake of nutrients in the sunflower cake and sunflower seed diets was decreased compared with soybean meal. The apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber of sunflower cake and sunflower seed diets were decreased compared with soybean meal. The average daily weight gain of animals fed the castor bean diet (0.190 kg was not different from that of the animals fed the soybean meal diet (0.217 kg. The sunflower cake and sunflower seed diets provided less weight gain (0.171 and 0.135 kg d-1, respectively than soybean meal due to the lower nutrient intake. The hot carcass yield and true yield were not affected by the protein sources. The neck, ribs, and ham weights were similar in lambs fed soybean meal and castor bean cake diets. It is recommended to use castor bean as an alternative protein source in the diet of lambs.

  3. Fermentation of soybean meal with Aspergillus usamii improves zinc availability in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, M; Matsui, T; Yano, H

    1998-02-01

    Soybean meal was fermented with Aspergillus usamii to improve zinc availability through the degradation of phytic acid. Rats fed a diet containing fermented soybean meal showed greater femoral zinc than did animals fed a diet containing regular soybean meal. Zinc solubility in the small intestine was higher in the rats fed fermented soybean meal than in the rats fed regular soybean meal. These results suggested that fermentation with Aspergillus usamii improved zinc availability in dietary soybean meal, which was induced by the increase of zinc solubility in the small intestine. Adding the same amount of phytate that was contained in the regular soybean meal-based diet did not affect the amount of zinc present in rats fed a fermented soybean meal-based diet with sodium phytate. Phytase activity was found in fermented soybean meal, and this activity may degrade added phytate in fermented soybean meal-based diet.

  4. Carcass traits and meat quality of crossbred Boer goats fed peanut cake as a substitute for soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T M; de Medeiros, A N; Oliveira, R L; Gonzaga Neto, S; Queiroga, R de C R do E; Ribeiro, R D X; Leão, A G; Bezerra, L R

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diets of crossbred Boer goats as determined by carcass characteristics and quality and by the fatty acid profile of meat. Forty vaccinated and dewormed crossbred Boer goats were used. Goats had an average age of 5 mo and an average BW of 15.6 ± 2.7 kg. Goats were fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate consisting of corn bran, soybean meal, and mineral premix. Peanut cake was substituted for soybean meal at levels of 0.0, 33.33, 66.67, and 100%. Biometric and carcass morphometric measurements of crossbred Boer goats were not affected by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. There was no influence of the replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake on weight at slaughter ( = 0.28), HCW ( = 0.26), cold carcass weight ( = 0.23), noncarcass components of weight ( = 0.71), or muscularity index values ( = 0.11). However, regression equations indicated that there would be a reduction of 18 and 11% for loin eye area and muscle:bone ratio, respectively, between the treatment without peanut cake and the treatment with total soybean meal replacement. The weights and yields of the commercial cuts were not affected ( > 0.05) by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. Replacing soybean meal with peanut cake did not affect the pH ( = 0.79), color index ( > 0.05), and chemical composition ( > 0.05) of the meat (). However, a quadratic trend for the ash content was observed with peanut cake inclusion in the diet ( = 0.09). Peanut cake inclusion in the diet did not affect the concentrations of the sum of SFA ( = 0.29), the sum of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; = 0.29), or the sum of PUFA ( = 0.97) or the SFA:UFA ratio ( = 0.23) in goat meat. However, there was a linear decrease ( = 0.01) in the sum of odd-chain fatty acids in the meat with increasing peanut cake in the diet. Soybean meal replacement with peanut cake did not affect the n-6:n-3 ratio ( = 0.13) or the

  5. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal b...

  6. Substitution of fishmeal with soybean meal in humpback Grouper, Cromileptes altivelis juvenile diets supplemented with phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachman Syah

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing fishmeal with soybean meal in diet on growth of humpback grouper. Fifteen cages of 1 x 1 x 1.2 m3 each stocked with 16 humpback grouper juveniles (61.3 ± 0.4 g/pc were set up randomly in seawater. Fish were fed to satiation twice daily for 112 days. The control diet contained 61.9% fishmeal (63.34% crude protein. Four isonitrogenous (48% crude protein and isocaloric (4.7 kcal/g feed diets supplemented with commercial phytase “Rhonozyme-P” at 0.075% were formulated to contain different levels (8%, 16%, 24%, and 32% soybean meal (43.65% crude protein as a partial replacement for fishmeal. These diets contained total phosphorus levels between 3.6—4.5 (±0.4 % and 0.7—1.5 (±0.04 % available phosphorus. Replacement of fishmeal with soybean meal (8 to 32% replacement was not significantly different (P>0.05 to the control diet on daily growth rate (DGR, food conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER, and daily food consumption (DFC. However, the dietary levels of soybean meal significantly affected (P<0.05 whole body protein and phosphorus retention (Table 1. These data suggest that addition of phytase in diets could improve protein and phosphorus availability and reduce nitrogen and phosphorus loading in the environment. Phytase can therefore play an important role in formulating eco-friendly feed for humpback grouper. Based on P loading, supplementation of phytase enable up to 24% fishmeal replacement with soybean meal.

  7. Replacing soybean meal by high energy cottonseed meal in diets for dairy cattle: milk composition and economic viability Substituição do farelo de soja por farelo de algodão de alta energia em dietas para vacas leiteiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelcino Francisco de Paula

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of including increasing levels of high-energy cottonseed meal (zero, 8.7, 17.4, 26.1 and 34.8% of dry matter in replacement to soybean meal in concentrate for cows on third-end lactation, composition and economic viability. Five Holstein-Zebu lactating cows were distributed in Latin square 5x5 design, with five periods of 18 days. Diets were isonitrogenous, with 60% of corn silage and 40% of concentrate, as total mixed ration. Milk fat content and yield, and milk protein content were not influenced by the different protein sources. The inclusion of cottonseed meal high in energy to about 35% in the concentrate did not change the milk composition , and within the market situation in which they conducted the experiment to replace the soybean meal by cottonseed meal in high-energy diets cows average yield potential (+/- 15 kg/animal/day can increase the profitability.No presente estudo objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da inclusão de níveis crescentes do farelo de algodão de alta energia (zero; 8,7; 17,4; 26,1 e 34,8% da matéria seca em substituição ao farelo de soja no concentrado para vacas no terço final de lactação, sobre a composição do leite e viabilidade econômica. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas mestiças Holandês-Gir, em um delineamento em quadrado latino (5x5, com cinco períodos de 18 dias. As dietas foram calculadas para serem isonitrogenadas (14% proteína bruta, com 60% de silagem de milho e 40% de concentrado, misturadas diretamente no cocho. O teor e a produção de gordura e proteína do leite não foram influenciadas pelos níveis de farelo de algodão na dieta. O teor de proteína do leite esteve acima da média relatada na literatura. A inclusão de farelo de algodão de alta energia no concentrado para vacas com produção média diária de 14 kg/dia de leite proporcionou maior rentabilidade econômica.

  8. 饲粮蛋白质水平和棉籽粕取代豆粕对肉牛育肥的影响%Effects of Dietary Protein Level and Replacing Soybean Meal with Cottonseed Meal on Fattening of Beef Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆元强; 宋恩亮; 成海建; 刘晓牧; 赵红波; 刘桂芬; 谭秀文; 杨维仁; 万发春

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the effects of protein level and replacing soybean meal with cottonseed meal on fattening of beef cattle, diets with different protein levels and costs were prepared by replacing soybean meal with cottonseed meal based on meeting nutrient requirement of beef cattle. Forty healthy first-filial generation beef cattle (Japanese black cattle ♂×Luxi yellow cattle 9 ) with similar age (average age was 28-month-old) and body weight [average body weight was (678 ±122) kg] were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups with 10 beef steers per group. The adjustment period lasted for 15 days, and the experimental period lasted for 240 days. The results showed as follows; compared with the group with the diet containing 12. 8% protein, the daily gain of beef cattle in the group with the diet containing 14. 8% protein was increased by 18. 57% (P >0. 05). The dressing percentage, meat percentage, rib fat thickness and backfat thickness of beef cattle fed 14.8% protein diet were significantly increased than those of beef cattle fed 12. 8% protein diet(P 0. 05). Under the same protein level, partial or whole replacing soybean meal with cottonseed meal had no effect on the daily gain and carcass traits of beef cattle (P >0. 05) , but the unit price of diets and costs of per kilogram of weight gain in cottonseed meal group were lower than those in soybean meal group. In conclusion, using cottonseed meal instead of soybean meal in the later stage of fattening of beef cattle is viable to reduce feeding costs. The demand of protein level for beef cattle recommend by current Feeding Standard of Fattening of Beef Cattle (2004) is lower than that for first-filial generation cattle (Japanese black cattle ♂ × Luxi yellow cattle 9 ) in this experiment.%本试验在满足肉牛营养需要的基础上,采用棉籽粕替代饲粮中的豆粕,形成不同蛋白质水平和成本的饲粮,旨在探讨饲粮蛋白质水平和棉籽粕替代豆粕对肉牛育肥的影

  9. 豆粕替代鱼粉对日本黄姑鱼生长、饲料利用及体成分影响的研究%The Influence of Replacing Fish Meal Partially in the Diet with Soybean Meal on Growth, Body Composition and Feed Utilization of Juvenile Giant Croaker Nibea japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王骥腾; 韩涛; 胡水鑫; 姜宇栋; 李莉; 林黑着

    2011-01-01

    开展了为期63d的饲养试验以评价豆粕替代鱼粉对日本黄姑鱼生长、体组成和饲料利用率的影响。配制了3种等氮饲料,以豆粕蛋白分别替代0%、20%和40%的鱼粉蛋白,饲养初始重大约5.67~5.77g/尾的幼鱼。结果显示,各组间的增重率和特定生长率值没有显著差异性存在(P〉0.05)。然而添加豆粕的D2和D3组的摄食率和FCR值显著地高于鱼粉组,PER的值显著地低于鱼粉组(P〈0.05)。日本黄姑鱼的内脏比、肠脂比和丰满度的值在各组之间无显著性差异存在(P〉0.05),但高水平豆粕添加组(D3)的肝体比最低,且显著地低于D2组(P〈0.05)。不同饲料处理对日本黄姑鱼体成分和背肌组织成分组成没有显著性影响(P〉0.05)。总之,在本实验条件下,豆粕可以替代40%的饲料鱼粉蛋白而没有引起日本黄姑鱼生长的下降。%A 63-day growth trial was conducted to investigate the effects of partially replacing fish meal (FM) with soybean meal (SBM) on growth, feed efficiency and body composition of giant croaker (Nibeajaponica). Three isonitrogenous diets containing SBM at protein replacement levels of 0, 20% and 40% were offered by hand twice daily. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 18 fish per aquarium (5.67-5.77 g on average). Specific growth rate and Growth rate were not significantly different between fish fed the FM and SBM diets, ranged from 142 9.38 to 173 1.78% and 4.32 to 4.61% day-1, respectively. But fish fed FM diet had significantly (P〈0.05) lower FCR (0.7) and higher PER (3.13) than fish fed with the other diets. Fish fed the SBM diets had a higher feed intake (84.68-86.70) than those fed the FM diet (56.99). The final biometric parameters were not affected by the diets, except that the hepatosomatic index in fish fed with 40% SBM pro- tein diet was significantly lower

  10. Suitability of Soybean Meal from Insect-Resistant Soybeans for Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, María A; Davis, Adam J; Boerma, H Roger; Parrott, Wayne A

    2016-03-23

    Benning(M) and Benning(MGH) are near-isogenic lines (NILs) of the soybean cultivar Benning, which contain insect-resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from the soybean accession PI 229358. Benning(M) contains QTL-M, which confers antibiosis and antixenosis. In addition to QTL-M, Benning(MGH) contains QTL-G, which confers antibiosis, and QTL-H, which confers antixenosis. Soybean meal was produced from Benning and the NILs. Nutritional composition, digestible amino acid content, and nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEN) were equivalent among soybean meals. A 21-day broiler feeding trial was carried out to determine if the QTLs affect soybean meal quality. Weight gain and feed-to-gain ratio were evaluated. No biologically significant differences were detected for broilers fed Benning, Benning(M), and Benning(MGH). This demonstrates that soybean meal produced from the insect-resistant NILs is equivalent to soybean meal produced from their non-insect-resistant parent cultivar for broiler weight gain.

  11. 饲料中豆粕替代鱼粉及添加牛磺酸对翘嘴鲌生长及若干生理指标的影响%Effect of dietary replacement of fishmeal by soybean meal and taurine on growth performance and some physiological indices of juvenile topmouth culter, Culter alburnus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汝鹏; 樊启学; 全德文; 赵忠波; 何辉; 胡伟华; 吴巧婉; 汪帆; 张诚明

    2015-01-01

    为研究豆粕替代鱼粉和添加牛磺酸及其交互作用对翘嘴鲌( Culter alburnus)幼鱼生长等指标的影响, 试验设计豆粕替代鱼粉水平为0. 00%、 20. 00%、 35. 00%、 50. 00%, 牛磺酸水平为0. 00%、 1. 00% , 采用4 × 2双因素试验, 配置了D1~D8共8个等氮(45. 43% ± 0. 80%)、 等脂(9. 2% ± 0. 44%)的饲料处理组. 结果显示, 饲料中添加豆粕及牛磺酸对翘嘴鲌幼鱼生长性能无显著影响; 随豆粕替代比例的增加, 鱼体粗蛋白、 粗脂肪含量显著降低(P0. 05). Regardless of taurine, higher replace-ment of dietary fishmeal by soybean meal led to lower body protein contents, body lipid contents significantly (P<0. 05). The levels of alanine aminotransferase ( ALT) , aspartate aminotransferase ( AST) , alkaline phosphatase ( AKP) and tria-cylglyceride ( TG) in serum obviously increased with the increase of replacement of dietary fishmeal by soybean meal ( P<0. 05), while the change of total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterin (HDL-C) and low density lipopro-tein cholesterin showed an opposite trend. Compared with the nonsupplemented groups, taurine significantly decreased body lipid contents (P<0. 05) and led to obviously lower levels of AST, ALT, AKP, TG, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C (P<0. 05). Significant interactions between replacement of dietary fishmeal by soybean meal and taurine were found on the condition factor (CF), IPF, Visceerosomatic index (VSI), AST, AKP, TG, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C (P<0. 05). As a result, in the experiments, the most suitable replacement level of fish meal by soybean meal was 35%. The growth per-formance of juvenile topmouth culter were improved by adding 1% taurine.

  12. Effects on growth and body composition in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fry fed organic diets containing yeast extract and soybean meal as total replacement of fish meal without amino acid supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish meal (FM) is the main protein source in numerous aquaculture diets due to its palatability and quality. Quantities of FM have remained constant for the past several decades; however, demand has dramatically increased due to its inclusion in diets used for the global aquaculture industry. Ther...

  13. Efficient production of free fatty acids from soybean meal carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Thakker, Chandresh; Liu, Ping; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2015-11-01

    Conversion of biomass feedstock to chemicals and fuels has attracted increasing attention recently. Soybean meal, containing significant quantities of carbohydrates, is an inexpensive renewable feedstock. Glucose, galactose, and fructose can be obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of soluble carbohydrates of soybean meal. Free fatty acids (FFAs) are valuable molecules that can be used as precursors for the production of fuels and other value-added chemicals. In this study, free fatty acids were produced by mutant Escherichia coli strains with plasmid pXZ18Z (carrying acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE) and (3R)-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase) using individual sugars, sugar mixtures, and enzymatic hydrolyzed soybean meal extract. For individual sugar fermentations, strain ML211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) )/pXZ18Z showed the best performance, which produced 4.22, 3.79, 3.49 g/L free fatty acids on glucose, fructose, and galactose, respectively. While the strain ML211/pXZ18Z performed the best with individual sugars, however, for sugar mixture fermentation, the triple mutant strain XZK211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) ptsG(-) )/pXZ18Z with an additional deletion of ptsG encoding the glucose-specific transporter, functioned the best due to relieved catabolite repression. This strain produced approximately 3.18 g/L of fatty acids with a yield of 0.22 g fatty acids/g total sugar. Maximum free fatty acids production of 2.78 g/L with a high yield of 0.21 g/g was achieved using soybean meal extract hydrolysate. The results suggested that soybean meal carbohydrates after enzymatic treatment could serve as an inexpensive feedstock for the efficient production of free fatty acids.

  14. Replacement of soybean meal by treated castor meal in supplements for grazing heifer during the dry-rainy season period Substituição do farelo de soja por farelo de mamona tratado em suplementos para novilhas em pastejo no período de transição seca-águas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Barros

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of multiple supplement with different levels of castor meal (Ricinus communis L. treated with calcium oxide on intake, on the total apparent digestibility of dietary components, on the efficiency of microbial synthesis and on the performance of beef heifers grazing Brachiaria decumbens during the dry-rainy transition period. The experimental area was composed of five 2.5-ha paddocks with availability of potentially digestible dry matter of 2,858.4 kg/ha. It was used 25 Nellore heifers and 10 crossbred with predominance of Zebu breed heifers at 13 months of age and body weight of 210 ± 0.8 kg in a completely randomized experimental design. Supplements contained approximately 25% of crude protein (CP and they were formulated with 0; 33; 67 and 100% of castor meal replacing soybean meal. Daily weight gain was 366.1 g for animals in the control group and 439.7; 478.9; 556.3; and 493.9, respectively for those fed supplements with 100% of soybean meal and 33, 67 and 100% castor meal. There was no effect of treated castor meal levels on daily weight gain of the animals, which was higher in those animals fed supplements. Levels of castor meal had decreasing linear effect on intakes of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, ether extract (EE, digested dry matter and digestible neutral detergent fiver and on the intake of total digestible nutrients. Coefficients of apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE and non-fibrous carbohydrates were greater for animals under supplementation. Microbial efficiency, expressed in g of crude protein per kg of consumed TDN, did not differ among groups. Replacement of soybean meal by castor meal treated with calcium oxide does not harm animal performance.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de suplementos múltiplos com diferentes níveis de farelo de mamona (Ricinus communis L. tratado com óxido de cálcio sobre o consumo, a digestibilidade aparente total de componentes da

  15. Peanut cake as a substitute for soybean meal in the diet of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T Mariniello; de Medeiros, A Nunes; Oliveira, R Lopes; Gonzaga Neto, S; Ribeiro, M Divino; Bagaldo, A Regina; Ribeiro, O Lolato

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that peanut cake can substitute for soybean meal in the feed of ruminants on the basis of the intake, performance, digestion, and serum urea and glucose concentration in crossbred Boer × indigenous goat kids. Forty intact vaccinated and dewormed crossbred Boer × indigenous goat kids (average age = 5 mo, average BW = 15.6 ± 2.7 kg) were used. The goats were fed Tifton-85 (Cynodon dactylon) hay and concentrate mixes of corn bran, soybean meal, premix mineral, and peanut cake substituted for soybean meal at rates of 0.0%, 33.33%, 66.67%, and 100%. The animals were confined for 62 d, and the digestibility trial was performed from d 27 to 31 of confinement. Samples of orts and feces were quantified and collected from each animal during this period. On the d 32 of confinement, a blood sample was taken from animals to measure urea N and glucose. Data were analyzed with a regression model. Substitution of soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet of the animals resulted in a reduction in intake of DM (P = 0.02), CP (P = 0.03), NDF (P = 0.03), nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC; P = 0.01), and TDN (P = 0.02) and an increase in intake of ether extract (P cake is not a complete, equal substitute for soybean meal in goat feed. However, peanut cake may represent an eventual replacer able to reduce goat producers’ dependence on traditional ingredients in the feed of growing goat kids.

  16. Do meal replacement drinks have a role in diabetes management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditschuneit, Herwig H

    2006-01-01

    The poor effectiveness of conventional dietary treatment for weight loss and weight maintenance in patients with type-2 diabetes may be improved by a meal replacement strategy that provides a strong structured meal plan with reasonable opportunity for dietary variety. Typical meal replacement programs fix the intake of one or two meals per day with a calorie-controlled, nutritionally balanced commercial formulation, and allow prudent additional meals and snacks. In obese subjects, diets with meal replacements have proven to be more efficient than conventional diets. Patients on the meal replacement regimen lost 7.3 and 8.4% of initial body weight after 12 weeks and 4 years, respectively, whereas the patients on the conventional diet had lost 1.4% and 3.2% of initial body weight after 12 weeks and 4 years, respectively. The meal replacement plan has also proven to be effective in patients with type-2 diabetes. After 6 and 12 months, patients in the meal replacement group achieved on average a weight loss of 5.24 and 4.35% of their initial body weight, respectively. In contrast, after 6 and 12 months, patients on the individualized diet plan achieved on average a weight loss of 2.85 and 2.36% of their initial body weight, respectively. Meal replacements offer a promising strategy for treating obese patients with type-2 diabetes.

  17. Replacement of soybean meal by cottonseed meal in diets based on spineless cactus for lactating cows Substituição do farelo de soja pelo farelo de algodão em dietas à base de palma forrageira para vacas em lactação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Maria da Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the replacement of soybean meal by cottonseed meal in the diet of dairy cows fed diets based on spineless cactus. Five Girolando lactating cows were used, with average live weight of 490 kg and average production of 11.5 kg of milk/day, distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square design (5 animals, 5 treatments and 5 experimental periods. Each experimental period lasted 15 days, 10 days being for the adaptation of the animals to the diet and 5 days for data collection. The experimental diet consisted of spineless cactus (53%, sorghum silage (32% and concentrate (15%. The cottonseed meal replaced 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of soybean meal in the concentrate. The intake, milk yield and composition were evaluated. The nutrients intake and digestibility were not affected by the treatments, with an average of 15.55 and 56.05; 13.8 and 59.31, 0.37 and 49.40, 5.32 and 30.95, 1.79 and 48.14; 9.94 and 54.31, 4.43 kg/day and 80.99%, for the dry matter, organic matter, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, crude protein, total carbohydrates and non-fibrous carbohydrates, respectively. The total digestible nutrients were not affected (average of 8.30 kg/day. Similarly, the milk yield and composition, fat corrected milk yield (4%, lactose, total solids, fat and protein were not affected by replacement (11.56, 11.41 kg milk/day and 4.45, 12.75, 3.95 and 3.42%, respectively. Recommended the replacement of soybean meal by cottonseed meal for low production dairy cows.Objetivou-se avaliar a substituição do farelo de soja pelo farelo de algodão em dietas à base de palma forrageira para vacas em lactação. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas da raça Girolando (peso vivo médio de 490 kg e produção média de 11,5 kg de leite/dia, distribuídas em um quadrado latino 5 × 5, composto de cinco animais, cinco níveis de farelo de algodão (0; 25; 50; 75 e 100% em substituição ao farelo de soja e cinco períodos experimentais, cada

  18. Substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do glúten de milho em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1991 Replacement of soybean meal protein by corn gluten meal protein in diets for Nile tilapia fingerlings - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeisson Emerson Casimiro Ferrari

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do glúten de milho em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 5 tratamentos 0%; 25%; 50%; 75% e 100% de substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do glúten de milho e, com 4 repetições. Os níveis adotados corresponderam a 11,75%; 23%; 35,78% e 47,28% de inclusão de glúten de milho nas rações, as quais foram formuladas para serem isoprotéicas em proteína digestível (PD, isocalóricas em energia digestível (ED e com a mesma quantidade de fibra bruta, lisina e metionina. Foram utilizados 100 alevinos com peso médio de 7,47±1,61g, distribuídos em 20 aquários (250L, em sistema de recirculação de água dotado de controle de temperatura. Foi observado efeito quadrático para o ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e taxa de eficiência protéica, sendo os respectivos valores ótimos estimados em 30,69%; 48% e 46,25% de substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do glúten de milho e, para o consumo de ração, foi verificado efeito linear. Em função da média referente aos valores estimados para os diferentes parâmetros avaliados, pôde-se concluir que a proteína do glúten de milho pode substituir até 42% (19,82% de inclusão na ração da proteína do farelo de soja em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo.The research was carried out aiming to evaluate the replacement of soybean meal protein by corn gluten meal protein in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae diets. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of replacement of soybean protein by corn gluten meal protein and 4 replicates. The used levels corresponded to 11.75%, 23%, 35.78% and 42.28% of corn gluten meal inclusion in diets, formulated to be

  19. Enzymatic extractability of soybean meal proteins and carbohydrates : heat and humidity effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, M.; Kofod, L.V.; Schols, H.A.; Piersma, S.R.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2001-01-01

    To study the incomplete enzymatic extractability of proteins and carbohydrates of thermally treated soybean meals, one unheated and three heat-treated soybean meals were produced. To obtain truly enzyme-resistant material, the meals were extracted by a repeated hydrolysis procedure using excessive

  20. Soja integral processada (fermentada e extrusada e farelo de soja em substituição ao leite em pó em dieta de leitões desmamados aos 14 dias de idade Whole processed (fermented and extruded soybean and soybean meal in replacement of dried milk in diet of piglets weaned at 14 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Soares

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da utilização de soja integral fermentada (SIF, soja integral extrusada (SIE e farelo de soja (FS, em substituição ao leite em pó (LP da dieta, sobre desempenho e alterações morfológicas do sistema digestivo de leitões dos 14 aos 35 dias e dos 14 aos 56 dias e o seu efeito residual dos 36 aos 56 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 96 leitões machos, mestiços (Landrace x Large White, desmamados aos 14 dias de idade, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos, quatro repetições e seis animais por unidade experimental. A fonte de proteína influenciou o desempenho dos leitões dos 14 aos 35 e dos 14 aos 56 dias de idade. Os animais que receberam dieta com LP apresentaram maior ganho de peso nas três primeiras semanas após o desmame e no período total. No entanto, no período de 36 aos 56 dias, não se observou influência dos tratamentos sobre o desempenho dos animais. Verificou-se efeito da fonte de proteína na altura de vilosidade (AV, na relação vilosidade: cripta dos leitões abatidos aos 21 dias de idade e na AV dos animais abatidos com 35 dias de idade. Os animais que receberam dieta com LP apresentaram maior AV que os dos demais tratamentos. Concluiu-se que o LP pode ser substituído pela SIE e pelo FS nas dietas de leitões desmamados aos 14 dias de idade e os altos níveis de fatores antitripsina na SIF comprometeram os resultados.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of the use of whole fermented soybean (WFS, whole extruded soybean (WES and soybean meal (SBM in replacement to the dried milk (MD of the diet on the performance, feed intake and morphological alterations on the digestive system of piglets from 14 to 35 day and from 14 to 56 days, and its residual effects from 36 to 56 days of age. Ninety-six crossbreed (Landrace x Large White piglets weaned at 14 days of age were allotted to a completely randomized experimental design with

  1. FARELO DE SOJA EM SUBSTITUIÇÃO À UREIA EM DIETAS PARA BOVINOS DE CORTE EM CRESCIMENTO SOYBEAN MEAL AS A REPLACEMENT FOR UREA ON GROWING BEEF STEERS DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano José de Resende Fernandes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar se novilhos machos não castrados destinados à engorda em regime de confinamento durante a fase de crescimento responderiam ao incremento de proteína metabolizável calculado pelo NCR (1996, Nível I, por meio da adição de farelo de soja à dieta, em substituição parcial ou total à ureia. Utilizaram-se vinte e quatro novilhos da raça Nelore e doze da raça Canchim, com peso vivo inicial médio de 230 kg e idade inicial média de quinze meses. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso. Formularam-se as dietas de modo a se obter um balanço de proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR positivo e energia metabolizável suficiente para ganho de peso diário de 1,3 kg/animal/dia em todos os tratamentos, sendo: ureia (U, farelo de soja + ureia (FSU e farelo de soja (FS. Não se detectou diferença no consumo de matéria seca (MS entre os tratamentos (P>0,05. O ganho de peso médio diário (GPD no tratamento U (1,14 kg/animal/dia foi menor (P<0,05 que os observados para nos tratamentos FSU (1,26 kg/animal/dia e FS (1,28 kg/animal/dia. Apesar da diferença entre os valores preditos pelo NRC (1996, Nível I e os efetivamente observados em relação ao GPD, concluiu-se que há necessidade da inclusão de fonte suplementar de proteína verdadeira na dieta de bovinos machos não castrados em fase crescimento.

    PALAVRAS- CHAVES: Canchim, desempenho animal, Nelore, novilhos, proteína. The aim of this trial was to evaluate if non-castrated growing beef steers in feedlot systems would respond to increasing levels of metabolizable protein in the diet estimated by NRC (1996, Level I, through the addition of soybean meal in substitution of urea. Thirty-six steers (24 Nelore and 12 Canchim with liveweight of 230 kg and 15 months of age were assigned in a completely randomized block design. Diets were formulated according to NRC (1996, Level I in order to obtain a positive rumen degradable protein

  2. Effect of partial replacement of soybean with grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L. on heavy pig performance: first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Trombetta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The ban of raw GMO materials for preparation of feedstuff (Law 422 29/12/00 has steered the animal productive system to find alternative grain of legumes to replace soybean meal as protein source for animal feeding. There are few research about performance of heavy pig fed with grasspea. In a review Hambury et al. (2000 reported that in pig’s diet the substitution rates is up to 30%. The goal of this research was to evaluate the effect of partial replacing soybean meal and barley with grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L. on fattening and slaughtering performance of pigs.........

  3. Performance and carcass characteristics of young cattle fed with soybean meal treated with tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzomo, Rafael; Paulino, Pedro Veiga Rodrigues; Barbosa, Marcília Medrado; da Silva Martins, Taiane; Paulino, Mario Fonseca; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Gomes, Daiany Iris; Dos Santos Monnerat, João Paulo Ismério

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of replacement of soybean meal (SBM) with soybean meal treated with tannin (SBMT) on the intake, digestibility, performance and characteristics of the carcasses of young cattle fed a high-concentrate diet. Forty-two Nellore bulls with body weight of 244.5 ± 4.99 kg were used. Diets had the inclusion of 7.5% SBM, with a proportion of that SBM (0, 33, 66 or 100%) replaced for SBMT; and other treatment (SBMT + urea) just with 2.5% of SBM which was treated with tannins. Seven animals were randomly selected and slaughtered, and the remaining animals were distributed on treatments and remained for 112 days. After, all animals were slaughtered. There was a linear decline in dry matter intake (P = 0.026) when SBM was replaced with SBMT. No decrease in carcass weight (P > 0.05) was observed. The efficiency of carcass weight gain showed a quadratic function effect (P = 0.049). There were changes in carcass gain composition when SBMT was added (P < 0.05), with an increase in muscle and reduction in fat deposition. The use of SBMT in place of SBM causes changes in body gain composition in animals and reduces DM intake by the animals, achieving a better feed conversion efficiency.

  4. Chemical, physical and nutritional changes in soybean meal as a result of toasting and extrusion cooking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, G.J.P.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of soybean meal extrusion and the development of shear forces during single-screw extrusion was compared with the toasting process of soybean meal. Attention was focused on chemical, physical and nutritional changes during these thermo-mechanical treatments.Monitoring target parameters we

  5. Camelina meal and crude glycerin as feed supplements for developing replacement beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, P; Nayigihugu, V; Cappellozza, B I; Gonçalves, E P; Krall, J M; Foulke, T; Cammack, K M; Hess, B W

    2011-12-01

    . The cost per pregnancy was similar for heifers fed the crude glycerin or the control supplement, whereas the cost per pregnancy was the least for heifers fed camelina meal. We conclude that camelina coproducts can replace conventional corn-soybean meal supplements in the diets of developing replacement beef heifers.

  6. Rat and poultry feeding studies with soybean meal produced from imidazolinone-tolerant (CV127) soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoyun; de Brum, Paulo A R; Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Cui; Wang, Cuiyan; Lu, Jing; Huang, Kunlun; Contri, Daniela; Nakatani, Andreia; de Avila, Valdir S; Klein, Claudete H; de Lima, Gustavo J M M; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    The safety and nutritional properties of CV127 soybeans were evaluated in rat and broiler feeding studies. Some episodic differences were observed between rats fed CV127, Conquista, and the standard diet for the endpoints examined. None of these differences were considered treatment related, adverse, or biologically meaningful. In general, birds fed diets containing CV127, Conquista, or Monsoy 8001 showed no significant differences in growth and performance response variables. Chickens fed diets containing Coodetec 217 had lower body weight and weight gain for all developmental periods compared to CV127, but no significant differences were found in feed conversion for the two diets during any development period. The results of both feeding studies demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are as safe, wholesome, and nutritionally valuable as the other soybean meals tested, including those varieties for which histories of safe use have been established and well documented.

  7. Desempenho de leitões submetidos a diferentes níveis de substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do ovo desidratado = Performance of piglets submitted to different replacement levels of soybean meal protein by dehydrated egg protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína de Cássia Braga Arruda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar o ganho de peso, o consumo de ração e a conversão alimentar de suínos em fase inicial (15 a 30 kg de peso alimentados com quatro diferentes níveis de substituição (0, 3, 6 e 9% da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do ovo desidratado. Foram utilizados 32 suínos (16 machos castrados e 16 fêmeas em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições cada, em que a unidade experimental foi composta por um macho e uma fêmea. Os tratamentos foram 0, 3, 6 e 9% de proteína do ovo desidratado em substituição à proteína do farelo de soja. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à regressão linear para os níveis de 3, 6 e 9% de ovo desidratado, e o tratamento-testemunha (0% foi comparado com os demais aplicando o teste Dunnet a 5% de probabilidade. Os níveis de substituição da proteína do farelo de sojapela proteína do ovo desidratado não influenciaram as variáveis de desempenho dos animais na fase inicial, até 9%. Entretanto, avaliando a relação custo-benefício, o tratamentocontrole foi o mais rentável.This study aimed to determine the average daily weight gain, daily feed intake and the feed conversion ratio of pigs in initialphase (15 to 30 kg of weight fed with four different levels of substitution (0, 3, 6 and 9% of soybean meal protein by dehydrated egg protein. Thirty-two pigs (16 castrated males and 16 females were used in a completely randomized blocks statistical design, with fourtreatments and four repetitions each; the experimental unit was composed by a male and a female. The treatments were 0, 3, 6 and 9% of dehydrated egg protein in replacement of soybean meal protein. The data obtained were subjected to linear regression for the levels 3,6 and 9% of dehydrated egg; the witness (0% was compared with the other treatments applying Dunnett’s test at 5% probability. The replacement levels of soybean meal protein by dehydrated egg protein did not influence

  8. Potential and utilization of Indigofera sp shoot leaf meal as soybean meal substitution in laying hen diets

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    Rizki Palupi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the potential of Indigofera sp shoot leaf meal to substitute soybean meal in poultry diet. One hundred and sixty laying hens of Isa Brown strain, at 30 weeks old were used in this study and kept in individual cages. A Randomized Completely Design was applied with four treatments and four replications. The treatments were four levels of soybean meal protein substitution by Indigofera sp shoot meal protein in the diets: The level were 0% (R0, 15% (R1, 30% (R2 and 45% (R3. Eggs were collected daily and were evaluated on: weight, shell, albumen, yolk, intensity of yolk and haugh unit. Results showed that the nutrients content of Indigofera sp shoot leaf meal were crude protein 28.98%, crude fat 3.30%, crude fiber 8.49%, calcium 0.52% and phosphorus content was 0.34%. Indigofera sp shoot leaf meal contained a complete amino acids. The vitamin A and ß-carotene were high, i.e 3828.79 IU/100g and 507.6 mg/kg, respectively. It is concluded that Indigofera sp shoot leaf meal is potential to be used as an alternative source of protein. Substitute 45% soybean meal protein with Indigofera sp shoot leaf meal in laying hen diets increase egg quality and increase intensity of yolk colour to 55.88%.

  9. Substituição parcial e total da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína dos farelos de canola e algodão em dietas para alevinos de piavuçu, Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski, 1988 Partial and total replacement of soybean meal protein by canola or cottonseed meal protein in diets of Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski, 1988 fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Christina Esper Amaro de Faria

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a substituição da proteína do farelo de soja (FS pela proteína do farelo de canola (FC e farelo de algodão (FA, em dietas para alevinos de piavuçu, Leporinus macrocephalus (Characiformes, Anostomidae, realizou-se um experimento com duração de 60 dias, utilizando-se 300 alevinos, com peso inicial médio de 0,10 g distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. As dietas isoprotéicas foram formuladas de forma a terem o FS, FC, FA, FS+FC, FS+FA e FC+FA como fonte protéica. Os alevinos, alimentados com dietas contendo FS e FS+FA, apresentaram valores de peso final e taxa de eficiência protéica superiores (p 0,05 pelo uso das diferentes dietas. Observou-se redução linear dos valores de peso final, da taxa de eficiência protéica e aumento linear (p The effects of soybean meal (SB protein replacement by canola meal (CN or cottonseed meal (CT protein in diets of Leporinus macrocephalus (Characiformes, Anostomidae fingerlings are provided. Assay was carried out during 60 days. Three hundred fingerlings with mean initial weight of 1.00g were distributed in a block randomized design with six treatments and five replicates. Isoprotein diets contained SB, CN, CT, SB+CN, SB+CT and CN+CT as protein source. Fingerlings fed on diets with SB, SB+CN, SB+CT showed better final mean weight and protein efficiency rate values (p 0.05 by different diets linear reduction (p macrocephalus fingerlings, replacing 50.00% of SB protein.

  10. Substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal in multiple supplements for grazing beef heifers in the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Maza Ortega

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substituting soybean meal for cottonseed meal in multiple supplements on the nutritional characteristics and performance of beef heifers in their postweaning phase on Brachiaria decumbens pastures during the dry season. Twenty-four Nellore beef heifers (average initial age and weight of 8 mo and 210±6 kg, respectively were used. The design was completely randomized, with four treatments and six replicates. Supplements contained approximately 30% crude protein (CP and a progressive substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal (0, 50 and 100%. The control animals received only a mineral mixture ad libitum, and those on the other treatments received supplementation at 1.0 kg/animal/day. No differences were found in ADG between supplemented and control animals (P>0.10. Supplementation increased crude protein (CP intake only (P<0.10. The level of substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal did not affect (P>0.10 the intake of supplemented animals. Supplementation elevated the apparent digestibility coefficients (P<0.10 of OM, CP, NFC and TDN, but not EE or NDFap (P>0.10. A positive linear effect (P<0.10 of the level of substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed cake was observed on the digestibility of OM, NFC and TDN. Supplementation and the level of substitution had an effect (P<0.10 on the serum urea nitrogen and urine urea nitrogen contents. Supplementation or substitution level had no effect on the flow of microbial nitrogen to the intestine (MICN or efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS (P>0.10. Substitution caused a decreasing linear effect (P<0.10 on microbial nitrogen/nitrogen intake ratio (MICNR. In conclusion, substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal in multiple supplements during the dry season does not impair the productive performance of beef heifers.

  11. EFFECT OF DIETARY REPLACEMENT OF FISHMEAL PROTEIN BY SOYBEAN MEAL PROTEIN ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, METABOLISM AND IMMUNITY OF GIBEL CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO)%饲料中豆粕替代鱼粉蛋白对异育银鲫生长、代谢及免疫功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王崇; 雷武; 解绶启; 朱晓鸣; 杨云霞; 韩冬

    2009-01-01

    本实验评价了饲料中豆粕替代鱼粉蛋白后对异育银鲫的生长、饲料利用、氮代谢和鱼体免疫力等的影响.实验设计4种等氮等能的饲料,每种3个重复,分别以豆粕替代饲料中鱼粉蛋白的0(对照,D1)、20%(D2)、80%(D3)和100%(D4).实验在半循环水养殖系统持续16周.鱼的初重约2.32g,实验期间水温23-30℃.结果表明,随着饲料中豆粕含量的升高,摄食率显著升高(p<0.05).特定生长率、饲料转化效率、蛋白沉积率和能量沉积率显著降低(p<0.05);蛋白表观消化率显著升高,干物质和能量表观消化率则显著降低(p<0.05);总氮摄入量、表观氮摄入量、粪氮排出量、非粪氮排泄量、总氮沉积率均随着饲料中豆粕含量的升高呈显著降低的趋势(p<0.05),生产每千克鱼的氮排放量则随着饲料中豆粕含量的升高显著升高(p<0.05);血清葡萄糖和甘油三酯的含量显著升高,而胆固醇的含量显著降低(p<0.05);血清的溶菌酶显著降低,超氧化物歧化酶逐渐升高(p<0.05).%A 16-weeks growth was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacement of dietary fishmeal by soybean meal on growth performance, feed utilization, nitrogen metabolism and immunity in gibel carp. Four isonitrogenous and isoealoric diets were formulated. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish with the initial weight at about 2. 32 g. Soybean meal was used to replace 0 (Control, D1), 20% (D2), 80% (D3) and 100% (D4) of dietary fishmeal protein. The fish was reared in a semi-recirculating system. During the experiment, water temperature was 23--30℃, photoperiod was 12D: 12L with the light period from 08 : 00 to 20 : 00, dissolved oxygen was above 5 mg/L, ammonia-N (NH4+ -N plus NH3-N) was less than 0. 5 mg/L, pH was about 6. 4. Fish were fed to satiation twice daily (9:00 and 15:00). At the beginning of the experiment, healthy fish (initial body weight about 2. 32 g) were batch weighed after 24h feed

  12. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E J; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal broiler assay (PFC). For the PFR, cecectomized roosters were precision-fed approximately 30 g of feed sample, and excreta were collected 48 h postfeeding. For the SIAAD, 16-d-old broilers were fed a semipurified diet containing the feed samples as the only source of protein from 17 to 21 d, with ileal digesta collected at 21 d. For the PFC, 22-d-old broilers were precision-fed 10 g of feed sample mixed with chromic oxide, and ileal digesta were collected at 4 h postfeeding. Digestibility coefficients were standardized using a nitrogen-free diet for the SIAAD and PFC and using fasted roosters for the PFR. There were generally no consistent differences in standardized amino acid digestibility values among assays, and values were in general agreement among assays, particularly for SBM and MBM. Differences did occur among methods for amino acid digestibility in fish meal; however, these differences were not consistent among methods or amino acids. The results of the study indicated that all 3 bioassays are acceptable for determining the amino acid digestibility of SBM, canola meal, MBM, and fish meal for poultry.

  13. Meal Replacement Mass Reduction and Integration Acceptability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmons, T.; Barrett, A.; Richardson, M.; Arias, D.; Schneiderman, J.; Slack, K.; Williams, T.; Douglas, G.

    2017-01-01

    NASA, in planning for long-duration missions, has an imperative to provide a food system with the necessary nutrition, acceptability, and safety to ensure sustainment of crew health and performance. The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and future exploration missions are mass constrained; therefore the team is challenged to reduce the mass of the food system by 10% while maintaining product safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Commercially available products do not meet the nutritional requirements for a full meal replacement in the spaceflight food system, and it is currently unknown if daily meal replacements will impact crew food intake and psychosocial health over time. The purpose of this study was to develop a variety of nutritionally balanced breakfast replacement bars that meet spaceflight nutritional, microbiological, sensorial, and shelf-life requirements, while enabling a 10% savings in food mass. To date, six nutrient-dense meal replacement bars (approximately 700 calories per bar) have been developed, using traditional methods of compression as well as novel ultrasonic compression technologies developed by Creative Resonance Inc. (Phoenix, AZ). The four highest rated bars were evaluated in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) to assess the frequency with which actual meal replacement options may be implemented. Specifically, overall impact of bars on mood, satiety, digestive discomfort, and satisfaction with food. These factors are currently being analyzed to inform successful implementation strategies where crew maintain adequate food intake. In addition, these bars are currently undergoing shelf-life testing to determine long-term sensory acceptability, nutritional stability, qualitative stability of analytical measurements (i.e. water activity and texture), and microbiological compliance over two years of storage at room temperature and potential temperature abuse conditions to predict long-term acceptability. It is expected that

  14. Blood biochemical parameters of broilers fed differently thermal processed soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Nahavandinejad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. A 42-days feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the influences of differently thermal processed soybean meal on the broilers blood biochemical parameters. Materials and methods. A total of 200 male birds of Ross strain were allocated into five different diets formulated using differently heat-treated soybean meals, with ten birds per treatment and per replicate. Diets contained: raw soybean (controls, autoclaved for a short (121°C, 20 min; Aut1 group or medium length period (121°C, 30 min; Aut2 group soybean meal, micro-waved soybean meal (46°C, 540 Watt, 7 min; McW group and browned soybean meal (120°C, 20 min; Brn group. Results. Blood serum metabolites showed that all treated diets presented lower lipid metabolism makers and higher protein metabolism markers. Broilers showed increased final body weight when fed heat-treated meals compared with control. Results suggested that thermal treatments altered the lipid metabolism in broilers that might originate a decrease in abdominal fat deposition. Conclusions. Comparison of the results for all the treated groups showed the Aut2 treatment is the most suitable method for soybean thermal treatment processing; in contrast, the Aut1 treatment had the closest results to the control group.

  15. A consumer-oriented classification system for home meal replacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, A.I.A.; Dekker, M.; Beumer, R.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces a new definition and classification system for home meal replacements (HMR), based on convenience attributes as viewed by consumers. An overview of other food classifications, focusing on methodological aspects, is also presented. The classifying criteria chosen (shelf-life and

  16. Meal Replacement Mass Reduction and Integration Acceptability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmons, T.; Cooper, M.; Douglas, G.; Barrett, A.; Richardson, M.; Arias, D.; Schneiderman, J.; Slack, K.; Ploutz-Snyder R.

    2016-01-01

    NASA, in planning for long duration missions, has an imperative to provide a food system with the necessary nutrition, acceptability, and safety to ensure sustainment of crew health and performance. The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and future exploration missions are mass constrained; therefore we are challenged to reduce the mass of the food system by 10% while maintaining safety, nutrition, and acceptability for exploration missions. Food bars have previously been used to supplement meals in the Skylab food system, indicating that regular consumption of bars will be acceptable. However, commercially available products do not meet the requirements for a full meal replacement in the spaceflight food system. The purpose of this task is to develop a variety of nutritionally balanced breakfast replacement bars, which meet spaceflight nutritional, microbiological, sensorial, and shelf-life requirements, while enabling a 10% food mass savings. To date, six nutrient-dense meal replacement bars have been developed, using both traditional methods of compression as well as novel ultrasonic compression technologies developed by Creative Resonance Inc. (Phoenix, AZ). All bars will be prioritized based on acceptability and the four top candidates will be evaluated in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) to assess the frequency with which actual meal replacement options may be implemented. Specifically, overall impact to mood, satiety, dietary discomfort, and satisfaction with food will be analyzed to inform successful implementation strategies. In addition, these bars will be evaluated based on final product sensory acceptability, nutritional stability, qualitative stability of analytical measurements (i.e. water activity and texture), and microbiological compliance over two years of storage at room temperature and potential temperature abuse conditions to predict long-term acceptability. It is expected that this work will enable a successful meal

  17. Níveis de bagaço de cana e uréia como substituto ao farelo de soja em dietas para bovinos leiteiros em crescimento Sugar cane bagasse and urea as replacement of soybean meal in the growing dairy cattle diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Brandão Torres

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes níveis de bagaço e uréia como substituto ao farelo de soja em dietas para bovinos leiteiros em crescimento, dois experimentos foram realizados. No primeiro, 20 bezerros mestiços Holandês x Zebu foram distribuídos em quatro tratamentos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os animais receberam dietas à base de palma forrageira e bagaço de cana em níveis de 5,5; 14,4; 24,4 e 34% da matéria seca total. O ganho de peso diminuiu, enquanto a conversão alimentar, e os consumos de FDN e FDA aumentaram linearmente com a inclusão de bagaço. O consumo máximo de MS foi estimado em 2,73% do peso vivo com 30% de bagaço de cana. No segundo experimento foi avaliada a substituição do farelo de soja (FS por uréia mais milho moído (UM, em dietas à base de palma forrageira, sobre o desempenho de novilhas mestiças Holandês x Zebu. Vinte animais foram alimentados de acordo com os níveis de substituição do FS por UM (0, 20, 40 e 60% distribuídos em blocos ao acaso. Não houve efeito da substituição parcial do farelo de soja por milho e uréia sobre o desempenho de novilhas mestiças.In order to evaluate different levels of sugar cane bagasse and urea as replacement of soybean meal in growing dairy cattle diets, two trials were conducted. In the first, twenty crossbreed bull calves (Holstein x Zebu were allotted in a completely randomized design with four treatments. The animals were fed forage cactus based diets, containing levels of 5.5, 14.4, 24.4 and 34% of sugar cane bagasse on the dry matter basis. The liveweight gain decreased while the feed: gain ratio, FDN and FDA intakes increased linearly in function of the increased level of sugar cane bagasse. The maximum daily dry matter intake of 2.73% of LW was estimated with 30% of sugar cane bagasse in the diet. In the second, was evaluated the partial replacement of soybean meal (SM by urea plus corn cracked (UC in forage cactus based diets on the

  18. Raising experiment of Litopenaeus vannamei by fermented soybean meal and fermented mixed meal to substitute partial fish meal%发酵豆粕与发酵杂粕代替部分鱼粉饲养凡纳滨对虾的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贵生; 徐金龙

    2012-01-01

    利用发酵豆粕和发酵杂粕来代替鱼粉进行凡纳滨对虾的养殖试验.在发酵豆粕等氮替代10%鱼粉的对虾养殖试验中,发酵豆粕组与高鱼粉含量的对照组相比,凡纳滨对虾的生长非常接近,无显著性差异.在养殖结束时,凡纳滨对虾体质量与体长的比值要高于对照组.在发酵杂粕等氮替代10%鱼粉的对虾养殖试验中,发酵杂柏组与对照组及豆粕组相比,凡纳滨对虾的生长均无显著性差异.实验结果表明,发酵豆粕和发酵杂粕能部分替代鱼粉用于凡纳滨对虾的养殖.%The fermented soybean meal and fermented mixed meal were used to replace fish meal in practical diets for raising experiment of Litopenaeus vannamei. In the experiment of raising Litopenaeus vannamei which used fermented soybean meal to replace 10% equal-nitrogen fish meal, the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei was no significant difference between fermented soybean meal group and control group which there was high fish meal content. The ratio of body weight and body length of fermented soy-bean meal group was higher than control group in the end of breeding. In the experiment of raising Litope-naeus vannamei which used fermented mixed meal to replace 10% equal-nitrogen fish meal, the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei was no significant difference among fermented mixed meal group, ferment soybean meal group and control group. The experiment results showed that the fermented soybean meal and the fermented mixed meal can be used to replace partial fish meal in the breeding of prawns.

  19. Quality Control of Fermented Soybean Meal%发酵豆粕的品质控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯纪网; 陈晓旭; 黄海龙; 梁勇

    2014-01-01

    Fermented soybean meal was more and more gotten attention of people. A new type of fermentation dry-ing equipment and its technology for fermented soybean meal quality control method were introduced.%发酵豆粕越来越受人们的关注,本文介绍了一种新型发酵烘干设备(工艺)对发酵豆粕品质的控制方法。

  20. Desempenho de novilhos Nelore alimentados com casca de soja ou farelo de gérmen de milho em substituição parcial ao milho moído Effects of partial replacement of ground corn with soybean hulls or corn germ meal on production of Nellore steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria Bertocco Ezequiel

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho estudar a substituição parcial (70% do milho moído pela casca de soja ou pelo farelo de gérmen de milho em dietas contendo farelo de girassol e uréia (fontes nitrogenadas e silagem de milho (volumoso para novilhos Nelore em confinamento. Avaliaram-se o consumo, o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar e o rendimento de carcaça de 21 animais (25 meses de idade e peso inicial de 343 kg alimentados com as dietas-teste, fornecidas na proporção 60:40 volumoso:concentrado. O período de avaliação do consumo e do ganho de peso foi de 97 dias. Os consumos de MS (10,78; 9,73 e 10,62 kg/dia, PB (1,40; 1,22 e 1,41 kg/dia e FDN (3,41; 3,89 e 3,60 kg/dia não foram influenciados pelas dietas com milho moído, casca de soja e farelo de gérmen de milho, respectivamente. O consumo de FDA (0,56; 0,71 e 0,55% PV apresentou efeito significativo, observando-se maior valor quando a casca de soja substituiu 70% do milho moído. O ganho de peso não foi influenciado pelas dietas, registrando-se valores de 1,35; 1,29 e 1,32 kg/dia para as dietas contendo milho moído, casca de soja e farelo de gérmen de milho, respectivamente. Não houve efeito, também, sobre a conversão alimentar (7,88 kg de MS ingerida/kg ganho, a eficiência alimentar (0,12 kg ganho/kg MS ingerida e o rendimento de carcaça (54,52%. A substituição parcial do milho moído pela casca de soja e pelo farelo de gérmen de milho em dietas para novilhos em confinamento não afeta o desempenho e o rendimento de carcaça.The objective of this trial was to study the partial replacement of ground corn with soybean hulls or corn germ meal in diets containing sunflower meal and urea as nitrogen sources and corn silage as forage for confined Nellore steers. Twenty-one steers averaging 25 months of age and 343 kg of initial body weight were assigned to diets containing a forage:concentrate ratio of 60:40. The period for measurements of intake and weight gain lasted 97

  1. Production of Bioactive Peptides from Soybean Meal by Solid State Fermentation with Lactic Acid Bacteria and Protease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naifu Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, soybean meal was first solid state fermented with different strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB. Among the strains used, Lactobacillus plantarum Lp6 was selected for further studies because of its highest Degree of Hydrolysis (DH of protein (2.49±0.08% in soybean meal after 72 h fermentation. Soybean meal fermented with L. plantarum Lp6 can also improve its DPPH radical scavenging and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities. The addition of protease into soybean meal during the fermentation resulted in lowered IC50 of DPPH radical scavenging and ACE inhibitory activities, indicating more bioactive peptides were produced during fermentation. Molecular weight distribution analysis revealed the Extracts from Fermented Soybean Meal (EFSM was mainly composed of oligopeptides. These results indicated that soybean meal fermented with L. plantarum Lp6 and protease could be an easy and cheap method to produce functional food.

  2. Substituição do farelo de soja pela mistura raspa de mandioca e uréia em dietas para vacas mestiças em lactação Replacement of soybean meal with urea plus cassava scrapings in diets for crossbred lactating cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pimentel Ramalho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da substituição do farelo de soja pela mistura raspa de mandioca+uréia sobre o desempenho, o consumo e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes em dietas à base de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica, Mill e silagem de sorgo, oito vacas mestiças Holandês:Gir (60±30 dias em lactação e 491 kg de PV inicial foram distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos (4 × 4. A mistura raspa de mandioca+uréia substituiu 0, 33, 67 e 100% do farelo de soja nas dietas. Os consumos de matéria seca (expressos em kg/dia, % do PV, g/kg0,75 do PV, MO, PB, EE, FDN e CHOT diminuíram linearmente com a inclusão da raspa de mandioca. As ingestões de FDN (%PV, FDA, CNF e NDT não foram afetadas pelos níveis de raspa de mandioca+uréia nas dietas. A inclusão de raspa de mandioca+uréia influenciou a digestibilidade aparente de todos os nutrientes, sendo descrita por função quadrática. A produção de leite, a produção de leite corrigida para 4,0% de gordura e a produção de gordura diminuíram linearmente em 30, 20 e 0,8 g/dia, respectivamente, enquanto o teor de gordura e a eficiência alimentar, em kg de leite corrigido para 4,0% de gordura/kg de MS, não foram influenciadas pelos níveis de substituição do farelo de soja na dieta.This trial was conducted to investigate the replacement of soybean meal with a mixture of urea plus cassava scrapings on nutrient intake, digestibility, and production of crossbred lactating cows fed diets containing forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica, Mill, sorghum silage, and concentrate. Eight crossbred holstein:zebu cows averaging 60±30 days in milk and initial body weight (BW of 491 kg were randomly assigned to two replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares and were fed diets with increasing levels of urea plus cassava scrapings: 0, 33, 67 or 100%. Replacing soybean meal with urea plus cassava scrapings linearly decreased the intakes of DM (kg, % BW and g/BW kg0.75, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and TC. However

  3. Comparison of broiler performance and carcass parameters when fed diets containing soybean meal produced from glyphosate-tolerant (MON 89788), control, or conventional reference soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M; Hartnell, G; Lucas, D; Davis, S; Nemeth, M

    2007-12-01

    A 42-d floor pen study was conducted to compare broiler (Ross x Ross 308) performance and carcass measurements when fed diets containing meal produced from glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (MON 89788) with those of broilers fed diets containing meal produced from control soybean (A3244) that has similar genetic background to MON 89788. Soybean meal produced from 6 conventional soybean varieties was included in the study to provide comparison measurements for broilers fed meal derived from conventional soybeans. It has been found that MON 89788 produces the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase protein from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 (cp4 epsps), which confers tolerance to glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup agricultural herbicides. Broilers were fed starter diets (approximately 33% wt/wt dehulled soybean meal) from d 0 to 21 and grower-finisher diets (approximately 30% wt/wt dehulled soybean meal) from d 21 to 42. The study utilized a randomized complete block design with 8 dietary treatments assigned randomly within 5 blocks of 16 pens each (8 male and 8 female) with 10 birds per pen. There were 10 pens per treatment group (5 male and 5 female). No treatment differences (P > 0.05) were detected among dietary treatments for feed intake, weight gain, adjusted feed conversion, or any measured carcass and meat quality parameters. Comparison of all performance, carcass, and meat quality parameters measured showed no differences (P > 0.05) between birds fed the MON 89788 soybean meal diet and the population of birds fed the control and 6 conventional reference soybean meal diets. It is concluded that the diets containing soybean meal produced from MON 89788 were nutritionally equivalent to diets containing soybean meal produced from the control and conventional reference soybean varieties when fed to broilers.

  4. Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and digestibility of amino acids in chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, a spent hen-soybean meal mixture, and conventional soybean meal fed to weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, O J; Stein, H H

    2013-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the concentration of DE and ME and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, a spent hen-soybean meal (SBM) mixture, and conventional SBM fed to weanling pigs. In Exp. 1, 48 barrows (initial BW: 14.6 ± 2.2 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and allotted to 6 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet in a randomized complete block design. Six corn-based diets were formulated. The basal diet contained 98.1% corn (as-fed basis) and 5 diets contained corn and 11 to 16% chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, spent hen-SBM mixture, or SBM. All test ingredients were included in their respective diets at levels that were expected to result in similar concentrations of CP among diets. Feces and urine were collected for 5 d. The ME was 3,957, 3,816, 4,586, 4,298, 4,255, and 4,091 kcal/kg DM for corn, chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, the spent hen-SBM mixture, and SBM, respectively. The ME in poultry byproduct meal was greater (P poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, or the spent hen-SBM mixture. The SID of CP and all AA, except Trp and Pro, was greater (P poultry byproduct meal. However, with the exception of Val and Lys, there were no differences between chicken meal and poultry byproduct meal. In conclusion, the ME in hydrolyzed porcine intestines and the spent hen-SBM mixture is greater than in chicken meal, but not different from the ME of SBM. Poultry by product meal provides more ME than SBM, chicken meal, and the spent hen-SBM mixture, and the SID of most indispensable AA is greater in the spent hen-SBM mixture than in chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, and hydrolyzed porcine intestines, but less than in SBM.

  5. Effect of phytase supplementation to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on phosphorus and calcium balance in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, W.C.; Cervantes, M.; He, J.M.M.; Schulze, H.

    2003-01-01

    Two metabolism experiments were carried out, to determine the effect of microbial phytase addition to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on P and Ca balance in growing. pigs; In experiment 1, six barrows (29.6kg: initial LW) were fed a barley-canola meal diet, without or. with phytase

  6. 豆粕与发酵豆粕中主要抗营养因子调查分析%Investigation and Analysis of Main AFN in Soybean Meal and Fermented Soybean Meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉娟; 姚怡莎; 秦玉昌; 邱静; 李军国; 李俊; 谷旭

    2016-01-01

    Objective]Soybean meal is the main raw material of feed. However, various anti-nutritional factors (ANF) in soybean meal hinder the digestion, absorption and utilization for nutrients, which would have negative effects on animal growth and health. Studies have shown that soybean meal fermented by microorganism could decrease the undesirable effect of ANF. While, fermentation strains, soybean species, and manufacturers may have an effect in fermentation process. Moreover, seldom reports referred to the levels of ANF in soybean meal and fermented soybean meal. Based on this, 65 batches of available soybean meal and 54 batches of fermented soybean meal were collected in this study, followed by analysis of 6 kinds of ANF, including glycinin,β-conglycinin, trypsin inhibitors, raffinose, stachyose and urease, in order to investigate the actual levels of ANF in soybean meal and fermented soybean meal.[Method]In this study, glycinin,β-conglycinin and trypsin inhibitors were analyzed by Enzyme-link Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. Experimental procedures were conducted according to instructions which were sample pretreatment, plus, washing, adding enzymatic reagent, color reaction, and termination. The analysis method of raffinose and stachyose was HPLC after extracted by microwave. Analysis of urease refers to GB/T 8622-2006, and titration was utilized for analysis of urease activity.[Result]The average concentration of glycinin in soybean meal (129.3 mg·g-1) is 57.7% higher than fermented soybean meal (54.7 mg·g-1). The percentile method was used for analysis. The normal values in soybean meal and fermented soybean were 58.9-177.3 mg·g-1 and ND (Not Detected)-109.4 mg·g-1, respectively. Moreover, the fermented soybean meal (37.6 mg·g-1) is 63.2% lower than the concentration ofβ-conglycinin in soybean meal (102.2 mg·g-1). The normal values in soybean meal and fermented soybean were 42.8-147.2 mg·g-1and ND-61.8 mg·g-1, respectively. The average concentration

  7. Study on Lysine and Methionine Content Promotion of Soybean Meal by Probiotic Fermentation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Zhi-yong; Gao Xue-jun; Huang Jian-guo; Liu Rong; Liu Ying; Qiao Bin; Qiu You-wen

    2012-01-01

    Soybean meal (SBM) is commonly used for livestock feeds, but its application in diets for livestock is limited due to some antinutritional factors. The contents of methionine and lysine of soybean meal were promoted by Bacillus natto and Leuconostoc mesenteroides fermentation, benefial for the livestock feeds. It was crude protein (CP) 56.8%, methionine 43.56 mg · g^-1, and lysine 74.87 mg · g^-1, cows fed a diet with FSBM milk yield raised 14.2%, the change in the milk protein, the lactose and the dry matter content had also obvious increase. This convenient technique offers helpful exploration for industrialization of soybean meal fermentation.

  8. Evaluation of Broiler Performance when fed insect-protected, control, or commercial varieties of dehulled Soybean Meal1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.A.; Hartnell, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the nutritional value of broiler diets containing approximately 35% soybean meal from insect-protected soybean containing Cry1Ac protein, or from a similar nontransgenic control, or from 7 reference commercial soybean varieties. The feeding trial lasted 41 d, and each treatment consiste

  9. Evaluation of Broiler Performance when fed insect-protected, control, or commercial varieties of dehulled Soybean Meal1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.A.; Hartnell, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the nutritional value of broiler diets containing approximately 35% soybean meal from insect-protected soybean containing Cry1Ac protein, or from a similar nontransgenic control, or from 7 reference commercial soybean varieties. The feeding trial lasted 41 d, and each treatment consiste

  10. Competitive analysis of soybean and sudangrass using replacement series design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Antônio Rizzardi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Competition is the best known form of direct interference of weeds on agricultural crops. However, there is relatively little information on the competition of the weed sudangrass on soybean, which has been common in agricultural areas in the southern of Rio Grande do Sul. The objective of this study was to evaluate the competition between sudangrass and soybeans using replacement series experiments. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design with four replications. The treatments consisted of soybean and sudangrass associations. The experimental units were 8-L plastic pots, in the proportions 0: 8, 2: 6, 4: 4, 6: 2, 8: 0, corresponding to 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the crop and weed respectively. Shoot, root and total dry matter and plant height were analyzed through diagrams applied to replacement series and competitive indices. Soybean showed competitive superiority in coexistence with sudangrass in relation to shoot, root and total dry matter. The intraspecific competition was more significant for the crop and inter-specific competition was more important for the weed.

  11. compare quality in five varieties of soybean meals.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Proximate composition, In Vitro Relative Protein Digestibility of S varieties of soybean (glycine max), was done. ... Although proteins of plant origin offer a ... products of lipid oxidation followed by ... protein analysis using the automated.

  12. Variações em metabólitos no plasma e hormônios no soro sangüíneo de coelhas alimentadas com farelo de canola em substituição gradual ao farelo de soja Changes in metabolic plasma and serum hormones in female rabbits fed on diets with canola meal gradually replacing soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Vieira Lage

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as possíveis variações dos níveis plasmáticos de glicose, triglicerídeos, colesterol total, uréia e os níveis do soro sanguíneo de estradiol, progesterona, insulina, T3 e T4 em coelhas alimentadas com dietas em que o farelo de canola substituiu em 00%, 33%, 66% e 100% o farelo de soja, no período de 43 aos 225 dias de idade (final da primeira lactação. Foram utilizadas quarenta coelhas da raça Nova Zelândia Branca, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 4 tratamentos e 10 repetições. As coelhas foram cobertas aos 150 dias de idade. Aos 43, 80, 150, 184 e 225 dias, foram realizadas as coletas de sangue por punção cardíaca. Os níveis plasmáticos de glicose, triglicerídeos, colesterol total e uréia não foram alterados pelos níveis de substituição do farelo de soja pelo farelo de canola. No entanto, houve efeito quadrático em relação à idade dos animais. Os níveis no soro sanguíneo de estradiol, progesterona, insulina, T3 e T4 não apresentaram efeito de tratamento. Os níveis de progesterona e T4 apresentaram efeito quadrático em relação à idade das coelhas. As variações encontradas em função da idade dos animais poderiam ser atribuídas às variações ambientais ou fisiológicas durante o período de realização do experimento.Possible changes in plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, urea, serum levels of estradiol, progesterone, insulin, T3 and T4 in female rabbits are evaluated. Rabbits were fed on soybean meal in a gradual substitution (00%, 33%, 66% and 100% by canola meal. Rabbits aged 43 to 225 days, on completing first pregnancy and lactation. Forty White New Zealand rabbits female were used in a completely randomized design, with four treatments and 10 replications. At 43, 80, 150, 184 and 225 days old the animals underwent heart puncture for blood collection. Females were mated at 150 days. Levels of glucose plasma

  13. Substituição do farelo de soja por levedura de cana-de-açúcar em rações para frangos de corte¹ Replacing soybean meal by yeast sugar cane in broiler-chicken diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednardo Rodrigues Freitas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa objetivou avaliar os efeitos da substituição da proteína do farelo de soja (FS pela da levedura de cana-de-açúcar (LEV em rações de frangos contendo farelo da castanha de caju (FCC. O total de 325 pintos machos com um dia de idade foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco rações e cinco repetições de treze aves. Foram testadas cinco rações contendo 20% de FCC e os níveis de 0; 5; 10; 15 e 20% de substituição da proteína do FS pela da LEV. Conforme análise de regressão, houve efeito quadrático da substituição da proteína do FS pela da LE V sobre o consumo de ração e conversão alimentar e linear sobre o ganho de peso, na fase inicial (1 a 21 dias. Contudo, a substituição em níveis de até 20% não prejudicou significativamente o desempenho nas diferentes fases de criação e não alterou as características de carcaça em relação ao controle. Pelo estudo econômico, a substituição da proteína do FS pela da LEV se mostrou viável até o nível de 20%. Pode-se concluir que, em rações para frangos de corte, contendo 20% de FCC, a proteína do FS pode ser substituída pela da LEV em até 20%.This research aimed to evaluate the effects of substituting the protein from soybean meal (SM by yeast sugar cane (YSC in broiler-chicken diets containing cashew nut meal (CNM. A total of 325 male chicks at one day old, were distributed completely randomly among five feeds with five replications of thirteen birds each. We tested five diets containing 20% CNM each and the levels of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% protein replacement of SM by YSC. According to regression analysis, there was a quadratic effect on feed intake and feed conversion by the protein replacement of SM by the YSC, and a linear effect on weight gain in the initial phase (1-21 days. However, substitution at levels up to 20% did not significantly impair performance at any of the different stages, and did not affect the carcass

  14. Bromatological and mycotoxin analysis on soybean meal before and after the industrial process of micronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Daga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins, fumonisins and zearalenone take part of the most studied mycotoxin groups due to their toxic effects on animal and human health. This research evaluated samples of soybeans meal used in animal food industry. A hundred and twenty one soybean meal samples were analyzed, so that 66 were analyzed before the industrial processing of micronization and 55 after it. The bromatological average of samples before micronization showed the following answers: 12.4% moisture; 46.4% protein; 79.5% protein solubility; 5.9% ash content; 2.2% fat; 4.3% fiber and 0.02 (ΔpH of urease activity. The samples of micronization soybean meal showed 7.0% average values for moisture and 48.6% for crude protein. The mycotoxin levels were low in natura soybean meal; therefore, average values were 0.5μg kg-1, 29.6μg kg-1 and 56.8μg kg-1 for aflatoxin, zearelenone and fumonisin, respectively. After micronization, the average values for the studied samples were 1.3μg kg-1, 67.5μg kg-1 and 89.1μg kg-1, respectively for the same mycotoxins. The results for bromatological and mycotoxin analyses indicate similarity with the established patterns according to the Brazilian Compendium for Animal feed and reference literature. However, at least one of the three studied mycotoxin was detected in all of the analyzed samples and there was greater contamination of soybeans meal after the micronization process.

  15. Soybean meal substitution with a yeast-derived microbial protein source in dairy cow diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbia, J A; Kalscheur, K F; Garcia, A D; Gehman, A M; Tricarico, J M

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects substituting soybean meal with a yeast-derived microbial protein (YMP) on rumen and blood metabolites, dry matter intake, and milk production of high-producing dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein cows (12 multiparous and 4 primiparous), 93 ± 37 DIM (mean ± SD) at the beginning of the experiment, were used in a 4×4 Latin square design with four 28-d periods. Cows were blocked by parity and production, with 1 square consisting of 4 animals fitted with rumen cannulas. Basal diets, formulated for 16.1% crude protein and 1.56 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, contained 40% corn silage, 20% alfalfa hay, and 40% concentrate mix. During each period, cows were fed 1 of 4 treatment diets corresponding to YMP (DEMP; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) concentrations of 0, 1.14, 2.28, and 3.41% DM. Soybean meal (44% CP) was replaced by YMP to attain isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets. Dietary treatments had no effect on pH and on most ruminal volatile fatty acid concentrations, with the exception of isovalerate, which decreased linearly with the addition of YMP. Rumen ammonia concentration decreased linearly, whereas free amino acids, total amino acid nitrogen, and soluble proteins weighing more than 10 kDa showed a cubic response on rumen N fractionation. A quadratic response was observed in oligopeptides that weighed between 3 and 10 kDa and peptides under 3kDa when expressed as percentages of total amino acids and total nitrogen. Although nonesterified fatty acid concentration in blood did not differ between treatments, β-hydroxybutyrate and plasma glucose increased linearly as YMP increased. Dry matter intake showed a cubic effect, where cows fed 1.14, and 3.41% YMP had the highest intake. Milk production was not affected by YMP, whereas a trend was observed for a quadratic increase for 4% fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk. Medium- and long-chain fatty acid concentrations in milk increased quadratically

  16. Replacement of raw soybean with roasted soybean increased milk production in Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Sebastião Dias Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of total replacement of raw whole soybean (RAW for roastedwhole soybean (ROS on the production performance of Holstein cows. Two experiments were carried out usinga simple reversal design where RAW has been completely replaced by ROS. In experiment 1, 22 cows (175±60 days in milkwere used, and the dietary inclusion level of RAW or ROS was 3.7% of dry matter (DM. In experiment 2, 16 cows (130±50 days in milkwere used, and thedietary inclusion level of RAW or ROS was 11% of DM. In both experiments, ROS increased milk production by 1.1kgday-1 without changing fat and protein production. Dry matter intake or milk urea nitrogenwere not affected by dietary soy source. In experiment 2, plasma glucose concentration was decreased, and allantoin/creatinine ratio in urine tended to decreasein ROS. Experiment 2 also evaluated the nutrient digestibility and ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein in two soybean sources. Roasting had no effect on the digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber. Roasted whole soybean hadgreater fraction B and lower protein degradation rate than did RAW; this showed that heat treatment was effective in increasing therumen undegradable amino acid flowto the animal, which suggesteda potential mechanism of action for improved performance observed in ROS.

  17. Evaluation of standardized ileal digestible valine:lysine, total lysine:crude protein, and replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline amino acids on growth performance of nursery pigs from seven to twelve kilograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemechek, J E; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M

    2014-04-01

    Five experiments were conducted to evaluate replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline AA for 7- to 12-kg pigs. In all experiments, pigs (PIC TR4 × 1050) were fed a common diet for 3 d postweaning, treatment diets for 14 d (d 0 to 14), and, again, a common diet for 14 d (d 14 to 28). Treatment diets were corn-soybean meal based and formulated to contain 1.30% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys. Experiment 1 evaluated replacing dietary fish meal with crystalline AA. For the 6 treatments, crystalline Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, Ile, Val, Gln, and Gly all increased to maintain minimum AA ratios as fish meal decreased (4.50, 3.60, 2.70, 1.80, and 0.90 to 0.00%). There was no difference in ADG, ADFI, or G:F among treatments, validating a low-CP, AA-fortified diet for subsequent experiments. Experiment 2 evaluated deleting crystalline AA from a low-CP, AA-fortified diet with 6 treatments: 1) a positive control similar to the diet validated in Exp. 1, 2) positive control with l-Ile deleted, 3) positive control with l-Trp deleted, 4) positive control with l-Val deleted, 5) positive control with l-Gln and l-Gly deleted, and 6) positive control with l-Ile, l-Trp, l-Val, l-Gln, and l-Gly deleted (NC). Pigs fed the positive control or Ile deleted diet had improved (P meal was adjusted as a source of dispensable N to achieve the target Lys:CP. There were no differences in growth performance among pigs fed different Lys:CP diets. Experiment 4 evaluated increasing SID Val:Lys with Val at 57.4, 59.9, 62.3, 64.7, 67.2, and 69.6% of Lys. Average daily gain and ADFI increased (quadratic, P meal, meat and bone meal, or poultry byproduct meal). Low- and high-crystalline AA diets contained 4.5 or 1% fish meal, 6 or 1.2% meat and bone meal, and 6 or 1% poultry byproduct meal, respectively. No AA × protein source interactions were observed. From d 0 to 14, no differences in growth performance among protein sources was found, whereas increasing

  18. Substitution of Soybean Meal with Indigofera zollingeriana Top Leaf Meal on Egg Quality of Cortunix cortunix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Faradillah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the substitution of soybean meal (SBM with Indigofera zollingeriana top leaf meal (ILM in the diet on egg quality of Japanese quails. The experiment used a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications (ten quails of each replication. The dietary treatment contained five combination of SBM and ILM, R0= diets contained 18% SBM without ILM, R1= diet contained 16.2% SBM and 2.66% ILM, R2= diet contained 14.4% SBM and 5.32% ILM, R3= diet contained 12.6% SBM and 7.98% ILM, R4= diet contained 9% SBM and 13.3% ILM. The results showed that the use of 13.3% ILM (R4 significantly (P<0.05 increased feed consumption, egg weight, yolk colour score, egg cholesterol, and reduced malondialdehyde level. The conclusion of this study was I. zollingeriana top leaf meal could be used as much as 13.3% in the diets. The use of I. zollingeriana top leaf meal could improve the quality of eggs physically and chemically.

  19. True total-tract digestibility of phosphorus in corn and soybean meal for fifteen-kilogram pigs are additive in corn-soybean meal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, H; Adeola, O

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the additivity of true total-tract P digestibility (TPD) in corn and soybean meal (SBM) for 15-kg pigs. Fifty-four barrows with an average initial BW of 14.7±1.6 kg were used in a randomized complete block design with a 3×2 factorial arrangement of 6 diets. Three P sources included corn, SBM, and their mixture at a ratio of 2:1. Each P source was provided at low or high level. The diets were fed for a 5-d adjustment period followed by a total collection period of 7 d with ferric oxide as a marker to determine the initiation and termination of fecal collection. The results showed the high P level of each P source increased (P<0.001) P intake, fecal P output, and digested P compared with the low P level. The respective apparent total-tract digestibility of P were 35.66 and 40.57% for low and high P levels in corn, 35.72 and 38.04% for low and high P levels in SBM, and 41.85 and 38.53% for low and high P levels in the corn-soybean meal mixture without significant difference between P levels within P sources. Regressing daily digested P against daily P intake, the TPD was estimated at 40.53, 35.96, and 37.52% for corn, SBM, and their mixture, respectively. The expected TPD in corn and SBM mixture was calculated to be 37.92% based upon the P contribution coefficient calculated to be 0.428 for corn and 0.572 for SBM. The determined TPD (37.52%) in the mixture was not statistically different from the expected (37.92%). In conclusion, the TPD in corn and SBM are additive in corn-soybean meal diet for pigs.

  20. EFFECTS OF SOYBEAN MEAL BASED DIET ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND HEMOLYMPH BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF NARROW-CLAWED CRAYFISH (ASTACUS LEPTODACYLUS ESCHSCHOLTZ, 1823

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    Mahdi Banaee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Like other crustaceans, narrow-clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodacylus Eschscholtz, 1823 can change its diet to the available food during varied life cycles. Diet alteration can affect different biological indices of this species, therefore this study aims at studying changes in growth indices, hemolymph biochemical parameters and biochemical quality of its carcasses, which might occur during diet change of crayfish. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of fish meal with soybean meal on growth performance, carcass quality and hemolymph biochemical parameters of narrow-clawed crayfish. 90 healthy adult narrow-clawed crayfish (W=35.50±4.05 g; TL=16.96±1.92 cm were randomly distributed into 9 fiberglass tanks (200 L and were fed for 45 days with three varied diets including: commercial shrimp diet, fishmeal-based diet (A and soybean meal-based diet (B. The results show that changing the diet from animal protein to plant protein caused a significant decrease in the cholesterol and triglyceride levels in hemolymph, as well as carcass fat of the crayfish nourished with B diet when compared with the crayfish fed with A diet. No significant changes of hemolymph levels of glucose, AST and ALT were found between different treatments during this experimental period. In conclusion, it was found that though growth performance reduced, the increased rate of soybean meal in diet from 0.0% to 76% had no adverse effects on biochemical parameters.

  1. Intake, digestibility, and nitrogen retention by sheep supplemented with warm-season legume haylages or soybean meal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foster, J. L; Adesogan, A. T; Carter, J. N; Blount, A. R; Myer, R. O; Phatak, S. C

    2009-01-01

    .... This study determined how supplementing bahiagrass haylage ( Paspalum notatum Flügge cv. Tifton 9) with soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr.] meal or warm-season legume haylages affected the performance of lambs...

  2. Lactoferrin Decreases the Intestinal Inflammation Triggered by a Soybean Meal-Based Diet in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, Pilar E.; Solís, Camila J.; Alaurent, Trevor G. S.; Caruffo, Mario; Hernández, Adrián J.; Feijóo, Carmen G.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal inflammation is a harmful condition in fish that can be triggered by the ingestion of soybean meal. Due to the positive costs-benefits ratio of including soybean meal in farmed fish diets, identifying additives with intestinal anti-inflammatory effects could contribute to solving the issues caused by this plant protein. This study evaluated the effect of incorporating lactoferrin (LF) into a soybean meal-based diet on intestinal inflammation in zebrafish. Larvae were fed with diets containing 50% soybean meal (50SBM) or 50SBM supplemented with LF to 0.5, 1, 1.5 g/kg (50SBM+LF0.5; 50SBM+LF1.0; 50SBM+LF1.5). The 50SBM+LF1.5 diet was the most efficient and larvae had a reduced number of neutrophils in the intestine compared with 50SBM larvae and an indistinguishable number compared with control larvae. Likewise, the transcription of genes involved in neutrophil migration and intestinal mucosal barrier functions (mmp9, muc2.2, and β-def-1) were increased in 50SBM larvae but were normally expressed in 50SBM+LF1.5 larvae. To determine the influence of intestinal inflammation on the general immune response, larvae were challenged with Edwardsiella tarda. Larvae with intestinal inflammation had increased mortality rate compared to control larvae. Importantly, 50SBM+LF1.5 larvae had a mortality rate lower than control larvae. These results demonstrate that LF displays a dual effect in zebrafish, acting as an intestinal anti-inflammatory agent and improving performance against bacterial infection. PMID:27247950

  3. Lactoferrin Decreases the Intestinal Inflammation Triggered by a Soybean Meal-Based Diet in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar E. Ulloa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal inflammation is a harmful condition in fish that can be triggered by the ingestion of soybean meal. Due to the positive costs-benefits ratio of including soybean meal in farmed fish diets, identifying additives with intestinal anti-inflammatory effects could contribute to solving the issues caused by this plant protein. This study evaluated the effect of incorporating lactoferrin (LF into a soybean meal-based diet on intestinal inflammation in zebrafish. Larvae were fed with diets containing 50% soybean meal (50SBM or 50SBM supplemented with LF to 0.5, 1, 1.5 g/kg (50SBM+LF0.5; 50SBM+LF1.0; 50SBM+LF1.5. The 50SBM+LF1.5 diet was the most efficient and larvae had a reduced number of neutrophils in the intestine compared with 50SBM larvae and an indistinguishable number compared with control larvae. Likewise, the transcription of genes involved in neutrophil migration and intestinal mucosal barrier functions (mmp9, muc2.2, and β-def-1 were increased in 50SBM larvae but were normally expressed in 50SBM+LF1.5 larvae. To determine the influence of intestinal inflammation on the general immune response, larvae were challenged with Edwardsiella tarda. Larvae with intestinal inflammation had increased mortality rate compared to control larvae. Importantly, 50SBM+LF1.5 larvae had a mortality rate lower than control larvae. These results demonstrate that LF displays a dual effect in zebrafish, acting as an intestinal anti-inflammatory agent and improving performance against bacterial infection.

  4. Corn and soybean meal metabolizable energy with the addition of exogenous enzymes for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LRB Dourado

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Two metabolism assays were carried out to determine corn and soybean meal metabolizable energy when enzymes were added. In the first trial, 35 cockerels per studied feedstuff (corn and soybean meal were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments of seven replicates of one bird each. The evaluated treatments were: ingredient (corn and soybean meal with no enzyme addition, with the addition of an enzyme complex (xylanase, amylase, protease - XAP, xylanase, or phytase. Precise feeding method was used to determine true metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (TMEn. The use of enzymes did not result in any differences (p>0.05 in soybean meal TMEn, but phytase improved corn TMEn in 2.3% (p=0.004. In the second trial, 280 seven-day-old broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments of five replicates of eight birds each. Treatments consisted of corn with no enzyme addition or with the addition of amylase, xylanase, phytase, XAP complex, XAP+phytase combination, or xylanase/ pectinase/β-glucanase complex (XPBG. Corn was supplemented with macro and trace minerals. Total excreta collection was used to determine apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn. Differences were observed (p=0.08 in AMEn and dry matter metabolizability coefficient (p=0.03. The combination of the XAP complex with phytase promoted a 2.11% increase in corn AMEn values, and the remaining enzymes allowed increased between 0.86% and 1.66%.

  5. Soybean Meal Protein Assay -Cross lab tests and Kjeldhal vs Leco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiqiang (Bill) Xiong; Zu Liya; Chang Biying; Xing Jianjun

    2002-01-01

    @@ Introduction Accuracy/precision of crude protein assay (CP) iscritical for the trade of soybean meal (SBM) and feedformulation. Past experience indicated that the CPassay variation in China could be very large and farbeyond AFCO Analytical Variation (AV%, previouslyPermitted Analytical Variation or PAV%). On CP testprocedures recently there has been a saying that theLeco combustion method was more accurate than theclassical Kjeldahl procedure.

  6. Exogenous enzyme complex prevents intestinal soybean meal-induced enteritis in Mugil liza (Valenciennes, 1836 juvenile.

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    LEONARDO R.V. RAMOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Four soybean meal-based diets containing increasing levels of an enzyme complex (E50, E100, E150 and E200 at 50, 100, 150 and 200 g ton-1, respectively and one soybean meal-based diet without the enzyme complex (E0 were fed in triplicate to M. liza juveniles in a semi-static flow system with 20 fish per tank for 75 days. There were no differences between the treatments for animal performance parameters, but fish fed the enzyme complex treatment exhibited significantly (P<0.05 higher values of calcium bone retention compared with control fish. Although there was no relationship between bacterial counts in different sections of the gastrointestinal tract or enzyme levels, filamentous bacteria were increased in E50 compared with E150. All of the treatments resulted in higher bacterial counts in the stomach than in intestinal segments. Histological screening showed serious to moderate infiltration of inflammatory cells, modification in villus morphology and necrosis in some cases in fish fed the E0 diet. In addition, fish from the E0 treatment exhibited significantly (P<0.05 lower lipid deposition in the peritoneal cavity. Therefore, the use of low levels of exogenous enzyme is recommended in diets for M. liza when soybean meal is used as the main source of protein.

  7. Effectiveness of dietary xylo-oligosaccharides for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUO Hai-qing; LU Lin; XU Guo-hui; XIAO Lin; CHEN Xiao-gang; XIA Rui-rui; ZHANG Li-yang; LUO Xu-gang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) on growth performance, meat quality, immune functions, duodenal morphology and intestinal microbial populations of broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal basal diet. A total of 450 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres male broiler chicks were ran-domly alocated by bodyweight to 1 of 5 treatments with 6 replicate cages (15 broilers per cage) for each of 5 treatments in a completely randomized design. Chicks were fed the basal corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 mg of XOS kg–1 of diet, respectively, for an experimental duration of 42 days. The results showed that supple-mentation of XOS affected feed conversion rate (feed/gain, F/G) during days 22–42 and 1–42 (P0.05) on al other measured indices. The chicks fed the diet supplemented with 100 mg of XOS kg–1 had the lowest (P<0.05) F/G and drip loss in thigh muscle. The drip loss in thigh muscle decreased linearly (P=0.003) as the supplemented XOS increased. Duodenal crypt depth decreased (P<0.05) at the supplemental level of 75 mg of XOS kg–1. The results indicate that dietary supplementations of 75 and 100 mg of XOS kg–1 are beneifcial to broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet.

  8. Fermented soybean meal improves the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and microbial flora in piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase nutritive values of soybean meal (SBM, 3 species of microbes were used to ferment SBM. Through a 3 × 3 orthogonal design and parameter measurements of soybean peptide and anti-nutritional factor contents in the fermented soybean meal (FSBM, it was estimated that the best microbial proportion of Bacillus subtilis, Hansenula anomala and Lactobacillus casei was 2:1:2 for SBM fermentation (P  0.05. However, newly-weaned piglets (d 28–38 fed 10% FSBM and different levels of plasma protein obtained higher average daily gain (ADG and feed conversion ratio (FCR, compared with those without FSBM but with 6% plasma protein (P < 0.05. Piglets (d 38–68 fed diets supplemented with FSBM and soybean protein concentrate (SBPC at 3.75% and 7.5% respectively increased nutrient digestibility, fecal enzyme activity and lactic acid bacteria counts, and decreased fecal Escherichia coli counts (P < 0.05, compared with the control. These data indicated that FSBM had positive effects on nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora for piglets.

  9. Effect of replacement of fish meal by meat and bone meal and poultry by-product meal in diets on the growth and immune response of Macrobrachium nipponense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Xie, Shouqi; Lei, Wu; Zhu, Xiaoming; Yang, Yunxia

    2004-08-01

    The potential use of poultry by-product meal (PBM) and meat and bone meal (MBM) as alternative dietary protein sources for juvenile Macrobrachium nipponense was studied by a 70-day growth trial. Triplicate groups of M. nipponense (initial body weight: 0.37 g) were fed at 20.7-22.4 degrees C on each of the five isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets (protein content about 38%) with different replacement of fish meal by MBM or PBM. The control diet used white fish meal as the sole protein source, the other four diets were prepared with 15% or 50% fish meal protein substituted by either MBM (MBM(15), MBM(50)) or PBM (PBM(15), PBM(50)). The results showed that replacement of fish meal by MBM in diets did not affect growth performance of M. nipponense (P > 0.05), while specific growth rate in PBM(15) was significantly higher than that in other groups (P meal protein in diets for M. nipponense.

  10. Yellow mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor, L.) as a possible alternative to soybean meal in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovera, F; Piccolo, G; Gasco, L; Marono, S; Loponte, R; Vassalotti, G; Mastellone, V; Lombardi, P; Attia, Y A; Nizza, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with Tenebrio molitor larvae (TML) meal in broiler diets. A total of 80 30-d-old male Shaver brown broilers were divided into two groups fed on two isoproteic and isoenergetic diets differing for protein source (SBM vs. TML). Up to 62 d of age, body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly and body weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and European efficiency factor (EEF) were calculated. At 62 d, blood samples were collected from 16 birds/group for evaluation of blood profiles. Feed intake was not different between groups considering the entire period of the trial. The FCR was more favourable in the TML than SBM group from 46 d of age and in the entire period of the trial (4.13 vs. 3.62). The PER was higher in the SBM than in the TML group (1.92 vs. 1.37) while the EEF was higher in broilers fed on the TML diet (132.6 vs. 156.2). Albumin-to-globulin ratio was higher in broilers fed on SBM than in the other group (0.44 vs. 0.30). aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were higher in TML than SBM (195.1 vs. 178.6 U/l and 82.07 vs. 46.71 U/l, respectively). Uric acid was higher in broilers fed on SBM than TML (5.40 vs. 4.16 mg/dl). TML did not affect feed intake and growth rate of broilers from 30 to 62 d of age when compared to an isoproteic and isoenergetic SBM diet, but FCR of the TML group was more favourable than that of the SBM group. The lowest albumin-to-globulin ratio in broilers fed on TML suggests a higher immune response, probably due to the prebiotic effects of chitin.

  11. 固体发酵豆粕、菜粕和棉粕的复合菌筛选%Choose Complex Bacterium and Fungus as Fermentation Microform on Soybean Meal, Rapeseed Meal and Cottonseed Meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓露芳; 范学珊; 王加启

    2012-01-01

    试验根据豆粕、菜粕和棉粕作为植物性蛋白饲料的营养特性,选择中性蛋白酶活较高的细菌和真菌作为发酵豆粕、菜粕和棉粕的菌种以改善豆粕、菜粕和棉粕的蛋白质品质.通过细菌和真菌的两两组合生长试验,分别筛选出适合发酵豆粕、菜粕和棉粕的最佳复合菌各一组.试验结果表明,发酵豆粕、菜粕和棉粕的最佳菌株组合为BS-2和Ao、BS-natto和Ao、BS-natto和Ao.%Based on nutrition characters on soybean meal, rapeseed meal and cotton seed meal, high neutral enzyme production of bacteria and fungus were chose to inoculate in them to improve their protein quality as animal feed. Compounded one bacterium strain and one fungus strain cultured together, chose the best group to ferment the soybean meal, rapeseed meal and cotton seed meal. The results showed the best groups were BS-2 and Ao for soybean meal, BS-natto and Ao for rapeseed meal, and BS-natto and Ao for cotton seed meal.

  12. Prediction of digestible and metabolisable energy in soybean meals produced from soybeans of different origins fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongchao; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Guo, Panpan; Liu, Ling; Piao, Xiangshu; Stein, Hans H; Li, Defa; Lai, Changhua

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the digestible energy (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) in 22 sources of soybean meal (SBM) produced from soybeans from different countries and subsequently to establish equations for predicting the DE and ME in SBM based on their chemical composition. The 22 sources of SBM were all processed in Chinese crushing plants, but the soybeans used originated from China (n=6), the US (n=6), Brazil (n=7) or Argentina (n=3). The basal diet was a corn-based diet and 22 additional diets were formulated by mixing corn and 24.3% of each source of SBM. The average DE and ME in SBM from China, the US, Brazil and Argentina were 15.73, 15.93, 15.64 and 15.90 MJ/kg and 15.10, 15.31, 14.97 and 15.42 MJ/kg, respectively, and no differences among countries were observed. From a stepwise regression analysis, a series of DE and ME prediction equations were generated. The best-fit equations for SBM were DE=38.44-0.43 crude fibre -0.98 gross energy +0.11 acid detergent fibre (R2=0.67, psoybean sources used in this experiment. The DE and ME of SBM of different origin can be predicted based on their chemical composition when fed to growing pigs.

  13. Energy concentration and phosphorus digestibility in yeast products produced from the ethanol industry, and in brewers' yeast, fish meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B G; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2014-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the DE, ME, and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in 2 novel sources of yeast (C-yeast and S-yeast) and in brewers' yeast, fish meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs. The 2 new sources of yeast are coproducts from the dry-grind ethanol industry. The concentrations of DM, GE, and P were 94.8%, 5,103 kcal/kg, and 1.07% in C-yeast; 94.4%, 4,926 kcal/kg, and 2.01% in S-yeast; 93.6%, 4,524 kcal/kg, and 1.40% in brewers' yeast; 91.4%, 4,461 kcal/kg, and 3.26% in fish meal; and 87.7%, 4,136 kcal/kg, and 0.70% in soybean meal, respectively. The DE and ME in each of the ingredients were determined using 42 growing barrows (28.9±2.18 kg BW). A corn-based basal diet and 5 diets containing corn and 24% to 40% of each test ingredient were formulated. The total collection method was used to collect feces and urine, and the difference procedure was used to calculate values for DE and ME in each ingredient. The concentrations of DE in corn, C-yeast, S-yeast, brewers' yeast, fish meal, and soybean meal were 4,004, 4,344, 4,537, 4,290, 4,544, and 4,362 kcal/kg DM (SEM=57), respectively, and the ME values were 3,879, 3,952, 4,255, 3,771, 4,224, and 4,007 kcal/kg DM (SEM=76), respectively. The ME in S-yeast and fish meal were greater (Pcorn and brewers' yeast, whereas the ME in C-yeast and soybean meal were not different from those of any of the other ingredients. The STTD of P in the 5 ingredients was determined using 42 barrows (28.3±7.21 kg BW) that were placed in metabolism cages. Five diets were formulated to contain each test ingredient as the sole source of P, and a P-free diet was used to estimate the basal endogenous loss of P. Feces were collected for 5 d using the marker to marker method after a 5-d adaptation period. The STTD of P in brewers' yeast (85.2%) was greater (Pcorn, fish meal, and soybean meal, and the STTD of P in the 2 yeast products is not different from the STTD of P in fish meal.

  14. The Metabolizable Energy Value, Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids in Soybean Meal, Soy Protein Concentrate and Fermented Soybean Meal, and the Application of These Products in Early-weaned Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H Y; Yi, J Q; Piao, X S; Li, P F; Zeng, Z K; Wang, D; Liu, L; Wang, G Q; Han, X

    2013-05-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the metabolizable energy (ME) value, standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) of soybean meal (SBM), soy protein concentrate (SPC) and fermented soybean meal (FSBM), and the application of these products in early-weaned piglets. In Exp. 1, four barrows with initial body weight (BW) of 14.2±1.4 kg were used in a 4×4 Latin square design. The diet 1 contained corn as the only energy source. The other three diets replaced 25% of corn in diet 1 with one of the three soybean products, and the digestable energy (DE) and ME contents were determined by difference. In Exp. 2, four barrows (initial BW of 18.2±1.5 kg) were fitted with ileal T-cannulas and allotted to a 4×4 Latin square design. Three cornstarch-based diets were formulated using each of the soybean products as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was also formulated to measure endogenous losses of AA. In Exp. 3, ninety six piglets (initial BW of 5.6±0.9 kg) weaned at 21±2 d were blocked by weight and assigned to one of three treatments for a 21-d growth performance study. The control diet was based on corn and SBM, the two treatments' diets contained either 10% SPC or FSBM and were formulated to same SID lysine to ME ratio of 3.6 g/Mcal. The results showed that the ME content of SPC was greater than SBM (p<0.05). The SID of most AA in SPC was greater than the SID of AA in SBM (p<0.05). For the essential AA, the SID of histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine and threonine in FSBM were greater than in SBM (p<0.05). Even though they were fed same SID lysine to ME ratio of 3.6 g/Mcal diets, pigs fed SPC and FSBM diets had greater weight gain, G:F (p<0.05) and better fecal score (p<0.05) than pigs fed SBM diet. In conclusion, SPC showed a higher ME content and SID of AA than the SBM. SID of some essential AA in FSBM was higher than SBM and was similar with SPC. But the lower antigenic proteins and anti-nutritional factors content in SPC and

  15. Enzyme effects on extruded diets for dogs with soybean meal as a substitute for poultry by-product meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortola, L; Souza, N G; Zaine, L; Gomes, M O S; Matheus, L F O; Vasconcellos, R S; Pereira, G T; Carciofi, A C

    2013-05-01

    The effects of exogenous enzymes supplementation on kibble diets for dogs formulated with soybean meal (SBM) as a substitute for poultry by-product meal (PM) was investigated on nutrient digestibility, fermentation products formation, post-prandial urea response and selected faecal bacteria counts. Two kibble diets with similar compositions were used in two trials: PM-based diet (28.9% of PM; soybean hulls as a fibre source) and SBM-based diet (29.9% of SBM). In experiment 1, the SBM diet was divided into three diets: SBM-0, without enzyme addition; SBM-1, covered after extrusion with 7500 U protease/kg and 45 U cellulase/kg; and SBM-2, covered with 15,000 U protease/kg and 90 U cellulase/kg. In experiment 2, the SBM diet was divided into three diets: SBM-0; SBM-1, covered with 140 U protease/kg; 8 U cellulase/kg, 800 U pectinase/kg, 60 U phytase/kg, 40 U betaglucanase/kg and 20 U xylanase/kg; and SMB-2, covered with 700 U protease/kg, 40 U cellulase/kg, 4000 U pectinase/kg, 300 U phytase/kg, 200 U betaglucanase/kg and 100 U xylanase/kg. Each experiment followed a block design with six dogs per diet. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and means compared by orthogonal and polynomial contrasts (p 0.05). SBM consumption resulted in increased faecal moisture and production (p product formation. Enzymes can increase the gut fermentation activity and improve the SBM proteic value. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meal and soybean meal in laying hens and broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, S A; Jaynes, P; Abd El-Hack, M E; Payne, R L; Applegate, T J

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 7 meat and bone meal (MBM) and 3 soybean meal (SBM) samples in broilers (Ross 708) and laying hens (Hy-line W36). All 10 feed ingredients were evaluated in 21-d-old broiler chickens and 30- or 50-wk-old laying hens. Standardization was accomplished by correcting for basal ileal endogenous amino acid losses using a nitrogen-free diet. Broilers were reared in cages from d 0 to 16 on a standard broiler starter diet adequate in all nutrients and energy; thereafter, they were allotted to treatments using a randomized complete design with 6 replicate cages of 8 birds each. For the laying hens, 6 replicate cages of 6 birds each (542 cm(2)/bird) were used. Each treatment diet, which was fed for 5 d, was semipurified, with MBM or SBM being the sole source of amino acids in each diet. Ileal endogenous amino acid losses were not different between broilers and the 2 groups of laying hens. Meat and bone meal from different locations varied widely in digestibility. Broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD in 4 of the 7 MBM samples. In 2 of the 3 SBM samples, broilers had higher (P < 0.05) SIAAD for most of the nonessential amino acids. Generally, hens had 6.4 and 7.7% units less Met and Lys digestibility of all MBM samples after standardization. Dry matter digestibility values of the SBM samples were higher (P < 0.05) in broilers. Likewise, broilers had 4.1 and 1.5% units more Met and Lys digestibility of all the SBM samples evaluated compared with those from laying hens. The results of these experiments suggest that differences exist in the digestive capabilities of laying hens and broilers, which indicates that species-specific nutrient digestibility values or adjustments may be needed.

  17. Lipase production by Botryosphaeria ribis EC-01 on soybean and castorbean meals: optimization, immobilization, and application for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Milena M; Barbosa, Aneli M; Bofinger, Matheus R; Dekker, Robert F H; Messias, Josana M; Guedes, Carmen L B; Zaminelli, Tiago; de Oliveira, Bruno H; de Lima, Valéria M G; Dall'antonia, Luiz H

    2013-08-01

    The effects of soybean and castorbean meals were evaluated separately, and in combinations at different ratios, as substrates for lipase production by Botryosphaeria ribis EC-01 in submerged fermentation using only distilled water. The addition of glycerol analytical grade (AG) and glycerol crude (CG) to soybean and castorbean meals separately and in combination, were also examined for lipase production. Glycerol-AG increased enzyme production, whereas glycerol-CG decreased it. A 2(4) factorial design was developed to determine the best concentrations of soybean meal, castorbean meal, glycerol-AG, and KH2PO4 to optimize lipase production by B. ribis EC-01. Soybean meal and glycerol-AG had a significant effect on lipase production, whereas castorbean meal did not. A second treatment (2(2) factorial design central composite) was developed, and optimal lipase production (4,820 U/g of dry solids content (ds)) was obtained when B. ribis EC-01 was grown on 0.5 % (w/v) soybean meal and 5.2 % (v/v) glycerol in distilled water, which was in agreement with the predicted value (4,892 U/g ds) calculated by the model. The unitary cost of lipase production determined under the optimized conditions developed ranged from US$0.42 to 0.44 based on nutrient costs. The fungal lipase was immobilized onto Celite and showed high thermal stability and was used for transesterification of soybean oil in methanol (1:3) resulting in 36 % of fatty acyl alkyl ester content. The apparent K m and V max were determined and were 1.86 mM and 14.29 μmol min(-1) mg(-1), respectively.

  18. Chemical evidence and risks associated with soybean and rapeseed meal fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturaro, A; Rella, R; Parvoli, G; Ferrara, D; Doretti, L

    2003-08-01

    The storage and transport of cereals and foodstuffs present recurrent problems. They may be attacked by insects or, under certain conditions, they may undergo spontaneous fermentation. Insect attack is normally avoided by fumigants, while fermentation, which depends on parameters such as temperature and humidity, is more difficult to stop and can produce chemical compounds which irremediably modify the nutritional and compositional properties of foodstuff. This paper describes the main chemical compounds produced by fermentation and self-ignition of soybean and rapeseed meal. Reported cases occurred in a storage site and during transport by ship, respectively.

  19. Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility in dry-extruded expelled soybean meal, extruded canola seed-pea, feather meal, and poultry by-product meal for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandegan, A; Kiarie, E; Payne, R L; Crow, G H; Guenter, W; Nyachoti, C M

    2010-12-01

    Ileal digestibility of amino acids (AA) in dry-extruded expelled soybean meal (DESBM), co-extruded canola seed-pea blend (ECSP, 50:50 wt/wt basis), poultry by-product meal (PBPM), and feather meal (FM) were determined in broiler chicks. For each ingredient, 5 samples each collected on different occasions were evaluated. Birds (n = 180 for each sample) were fed a commercial starter diet from d 1 to 15 of age followed by the test diets from d 15 to 21. Dry-extruded expelled soybean meal, ECSP, PBPM, and FM were included in the test diets at 95.3, 95.3, 38.4, and 28.4%, respectively, as the sole source of AA and balanced for minerals and vitamins. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was included in all diets as a digestibility marker. Each diet (5 per ingredient) was randomly assigned to 6 replicate cages, each with 6 birds. On d 21, birds were killed to collect ileal digesta for determining the apparent ileal AA digestibility on cage basis. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) values were calculated using ileal endogenous AA losses previously determined in our laboratory. The apparent ileal digestibility of AA ranged from 78 to 91%, 68 to 83%, 51 to 81%, and 39 to 74% for DESBM, ECSP, PBPM, and FM, respectively. The respective ranges for SID values were 83 to 96%, 72 to 85%, 58 to 86%, and 42 to 78%. Among the indispensable AA, the lowest SID was observed for Thr in all test ingredients, whereas the highest SID was observed for Phe except in ECSP in which Arg had the highest SID. The SID of Lys (CV) were 91% (2.8%), 79% (2.0%), 78% (7.4%), and 60% (10%) for DESBM, ECSP, PBPM, and FM, respectively, whereas the SID of TSAA (CV) were 88% (4.5%), 77% (2.4%), 74% (9.0%), and 55% (18%), respectively. These SID AA data will help nutritionists to formulate broiler diets that more closely match the birds' requirements and minimize nutrient excess.

  20. Effect of replacing soybean protein by taro leaf (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) protein on growth performance of exotic (Landrace × Yorkshire) and native (Moo Lath) Lao pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaensombath, Lampheuy; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    The impact of replacing soybean crude protein (CP) with CP from ensiled taro leaves (ET) on growth performance, carcass traits, and organ weights in Landrace × Yorkshire (LY) and Moo Lath (ML) Lao pigs was studied. Twenty-four castrated male pigs, 12 of each breed, were allocated to the treatments according to a completely randomized 3 × 2 factorial (three levels of ET × two breeds) arrangement with four pigs per treatment. The pigs were kept in individual pens and were fed at 4 % dry matter of body weight for 105 days. The control diet (ET0) was formulated with soybean meal as the main CP source, and in the other two diets, soybean CP was replaced to 25 % (ET25) and 50 % (ET50), respectively, with CP from ensiled taro leaves. Calculated metabolizable energy intake decreased with increasing replacement of soybean CP in the diet, while dry matter intake (DMI), CP intake (CPI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were unaffected. Carcass weight, back fat thickness, and dressing percentage were unaffected by soybean CP replacement, while organ weights (except for spleen) increased (P < 0.001) when soybean CP was replaced by CP from ensiled taro leaves in the diet. LY pigs had higher (P < 0.001) DMI, CPI, and ADG and better (P < 0.001) FCR than ML pigs. LY pigs had higher carcass weight (P < 0.001), lower back fat thickness (P < 0.001), and higher organ weights (P < 0.05-0.001) than the ML pigs. In conclusion, taro leaf silage can replace up to 50 % of soybean CP in the diet of growing Lao LY and ML pigs without negative effects on performance and carcass traits.

  1. Short-term hunger intensity changes following ingestion of a meal replacement bar for weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothacker, Dana Q; Watemberg, Salo

    2004-05-01

    Meal replacement products for weight loss are popular and safe for most unsupervised consumers desiring to lose weight. Previously we reported that the thickness of meal replacement diet shakes had a direct and significant effect on hunger intensity during the first 2 h and that hunger intensity scores for liquid meal replacements were significantly below baseline for 3 h following consumption (Mattes & Rothacker, 2001) This study uses the same protocol to investigate meal replacement bars designed for overweight consumers. Subjects were prescreened to include only those that normally ate breakfast and liked chocolate. The bar used in this study contained 250 calories (about 30 more than most liquid diet shakes), 4 g dietary fiber, 14 g protein and 8 g fat. Subjects were instructed to consume the entire bar with a glass of water following an overnight fast when they would normally consume their first meal of the day and to assess their hunger on a 1 (not hungry at all) to 9 (as hungry as I have ever felt) scale before consumption, immediately after and hourly for 6 h (only on typical weekdays). Similar assessments were made for the perception of stomach fullness (1=empty, 9=extremely full), strength of the desire to eat (1=no desire, 9=extremely strong) and thirst (1=not at all thirsty, 9=extremely thirsty). One-hundred and eight subjects (23 male and 85 female) completed the study. No gender satiety differences were found. Hunger ratings and desire to eat remained significantly below baseline for 5 h following consumption. Stomach fullness scores were significantly above baseline for 5 h. Thirst scores were significantly below baseline for 3 h. In conclusion, although the meal replacement diet bars contained only 30 additional calories than liquids, they provided an additional 2 h of hunger suppression from baseline that may have an impact on overall weightloss success. These results support superior short-term hunger control with solid meal replacements.

  2. Effects of soybean meal or canola meal on milk production and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidlund, H; Hetta, M; Krizsan, S J; Lemosquet, S; Huhtanen, P

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of soybean meal (SBM) and heat-moisture-treated canola meal (TCM) on milk production and methane emissions in dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets. Twenty-eight Swedish Red cows were used in a cyclic change-over experiment with 4 periods of 21 d and with treatments in 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (however, the control diet without supplementary protein was not fed in replicate). The diets were fed ad libitum as a total mixed ration containing 600 g/kg of grass silage and 400 g/kg of concentrates on a dry matter (DM) basis. The concentrate without supplementary protein consisted of crimped barley and premix (312 and 88 g/kg of DM), providing 130 g of dietary crude protein (CP)/kg of DM. The other 6 concentrates were formulated to provide 170, 210, or 250 g of CP/kg of DM by replacing crimped barley with incremental amounts of SBM (50, 100, or 150 g/kg of diet DM) or TCM (70, 140, or 210 g/kg of diet DM). Feed intake was not influenced by dietary CP concentration, but tended to be greater in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Milk and milk protein yield increased linearly with dietary CP concentration, with greater responses in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Apparent N efficiency (milk N/N intake) decreased linearly with increasing dietary CP concentration and was lower for cows fed SBM diets than cows fed TCM diets. Milk urea concentration increased linearly with increased dietary CP concentration, with greater effects in cows fed SBM diets than in cows fed TCM diets. Plasma concentrations of total AA and essential AA increased with increasing dietary CP concentration, but no differences were observed between the 2 protein sources. Plasma concentrations of Lys, Met, and His were similar for both dietary protein sources. Total methane emissions were not influenced by diet, but emissions per kilogram of DM intake decreased quadratically, with the lowest value observed in cows fed intermediate levels of protein

  3. Substituição total do farelo de soja por uréia ou amiréia, em dietas com alto teor de concentrado, sobre a amônia ruminal, os parâmetros sangüíneos e o metabolismo do nitrogênio em bovinos de corte Total replacement of soybean meal by urea or starea in high grain diets on nitrogen metabolism, ruminal ammonia-N concentration and blood parameters in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Cunha de Oliveira Junior

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Seis novilhos da raça Nelore, não castrados, com peso médio inicial de 420 kg, distribuídos em delineamento em quadrado latino 3x3 duplicado, foram utilizados para avaliar a substituição total de uma fonte de proteína verdadeira (farelo de soja, em uma dieta deficiente em proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR, por uréia ou amiréia (fontes de nitrogênio não protéico, ambas em uma dieta adequada em PDR. As dietas foram isoprotéicas (13,0% utilizando-se o bagaço de cana-de-açúcar in natura (BIN como única fonte de volumoso (20% da MS. Foram avaliados: a concentração de amônia ruminal, nitrogênio uréico plasmático, glicose plasmática e o metabolismo do nitrogênio. Os tratamentos foram: 1 farelo de soja (FS; 2 uréia e 3 amiréia (A-150S. A concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal no fluido ruminal foi superior no tratamento com uréia, comparado ao tratamento com farelo de soja, sendo que o tratamento com amiréia não diferiu dos demais. O tratamento com amiréia apresentou maior perda de N urinário. A retenção de N (g/d e % do consumido e o valor biológico da proteína (N retido, % do N digerido foram superiores para o tratamento com uréia, comparado aos demais. A concentração de nitrogênio uréico no plasma e a concentração de glicose plasmática foram similares entre os tratamentos. A substituição total do farelo de soja por uréia, ajustando a PDR na dieta de bovinos de corte, demonstrou ser viável. A uréia na forma convencional apresentou vantagens em relação à amiréia.Six Nellore bulls, with initial body weight of 420 kg, were assigned to a duplicated 3x3 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of replacing a true protein source (soybean meal, of high biological value, in a rumen degradable protein (RDP deficient diet, by urea or starea (a supposedly slow release nonprotein nitrogen source, both in a RDP adjusted diet. In natura sugarcane bagasse as the only source of forage (20% of DM. Evaluated

  4. The relative merit of ruminal undegradable protein from soybean meal or soluble fiber from beet pulp to improve nitrogen utilization in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucki Castro, S I; Phillip, L E; Lapierre, H; Jardon, P W; Berthiaume, R

    2008-10-01

    Early lactating dairy cows were used to determine whether the replacement of solvent-extracted soybean meal [SSBM; a source of rumen-degradable protein (RDP)] with expeller soybean meal (ESBM; a source of rumen-undegradable protein), or the replacement of high-moisture shelled corn (HMSC) with beet pulp (a source of soluble fiber) would be effective in improving efficiency of N usage for milk production. The study was designed as a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square with 21-d periods. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were fed, ad libitum, the following diets, which were based on alfalfa silage and HMSC, and formulated to be isocaloric: 1) basal diet without a protein supplement (negative control diet: NC); 2) NC supplemented with solvent-extracted SBM (diet SSBM); 3) NC supplemented with expeller SBM (diet ESBM); 4) SSBM in which unmolassed dried beet pulp replaced half of the HMSC (diet SSBMBP). Compared with diet NC, protein supplementation increased intake of organic matter and dry matter. Milk and milk protein yields were lower with NC but this diet resulted in the greatest efficiency of N usage for milk production (30% milk N/N intake). Supplementation with ESBM, a proven source of RUP, increased plasma concentrations of histidine and branched-chain amino acids, and reduced milk urea N concentration, but failed to improve the yields of milk or milk protein. Milk fat yield tended to decrease with RUP supplementation. Replacing part of HMSC with soluble fiber from beet pulp (SSBMBP) tended to decrease milk production compared with SSBM; the effect was due to a reduction in dry matter intake. There were no differences among diets SSBM, ESBM, or SSBMBP in urinary excretion of purine derivatives. Neither substitution of ESBM for SSBM nor partial replacement of HMSC with beet pulp altered the efficiency of N usage for milk production or manure N excretion.

  5. Evaluation of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal as partial or total replacement of marine fish meal in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) meal, produced from the larvae of Hermetia illucens, has shown promise as a fish meal (FM) replacement in diets for rainbow trout, catfish and tilapia, but has not been examined as an alternative protein source in shrimp diets. Six isonitrogenous (35% crude protein, a...

  6. Effect of particle size and microbial phytase on phytate degradation in incubated maize and soybean meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2014-01-01

    by 88% in maize, 84% in maize–SBM and 75% in SBM after 2 h of incubation (Pmodel was fitted to the feeds with microbial phytase to analyse the effect......The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of screen size (1, 2 and 3 mm) and microbial phytase (0 and 1000 FTU/kg as-fed) on phytate degradation in maize (100% maize), soybean meal (100% SBM) and maize–SBM (75% maize and 25% SBM) incubated in water for 0, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h at 38°C...... reduced APS by 48% in maize, 30% in SBM and 26% in maize–SBM. No interaction between screen size and microbial phytase on phytate degradation was observed, but the interaction between microbial phytase and incubation time was significant (P

  7. Sensory properties of meal replacement bars and beverages made from whey and soy proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, J L; Yates, M D; Drake, M A

    2007-08-01

    Whey and soy proteins have a variety of applications. Previous work has documented flavors of rehydrated whey and soy proteins. It is necessary to understand what flavors whey and soy proteins contribute to product applications to optimize protein performance in desired applications. This research was conducted to characterize sensory properties of meal replacement products containing whey and soy proteins. Flavor and texture lexicons were developed for meal replacement bars and beverages. Commercial peanut butter-flavored meal replacement bars and vanilla meal replacement shakes were evaluated by an experienced, trained descriptive panel (n= 9). Prototypes of bars and beverages were developed with 3 levels of whey and soy protein and subsequently evaluated. Consumer acceptance testing (n= 85) was conducted on the prototype bars and beverages. Protein type as well as product-specific formulation contributed differences in flavor and texture of commercial bars and beverages (P whey protein were characterized by sweet aromatic and vanillin flavor notes while the texture was characterized by adhesiveness and cohesiveness. Prototype bars made with soy protein were characterized by nutty flavor while the texture was characterized by tooth-pack and denseness. Whey protein contributed to sweet aromatic and vanillin flavors in prototype beverages while soy protein contributed cereal/grainy flavors. Consumer acceptance scores were higher for prototype bars and beverages containing whey protein or a mixture of whey/soy protein than for products made with soy protein alone (P < 0.05). These results will aid researchers and product developers in optimizing sensory quality in meal replacement products.

  8. Estimation of growth and financial analysis through the application of Ipil ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) leaf meal as supplements to soybean and fish meal in the diet of juvenile monosex tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    OpenAIRE

    Zamal, Hossain; Barua, Prabal; Uddin, Belal

    2009-01-01

    Among plant protein ingredients,ipil ipil (Leucaena leucocephala) leafmeal (ILLM) is considered the most nutritive plant protein source after soybean meal in aquatic feeds. That was proven in a 21-day experiment conducted to assess the response of juvenile Monosex Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus with four iso-nitrogenous formulated diets: One control diet was formulated based on fishmeal, one on soybean meal and one on rice bran, ipil ipil leafmeal was also included in experimental d...

  9. Growth Performance of Clarias Gariepinus Fed Soaked Moringa Oleifera Leaf Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayegba, E. O

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the nutritional potential of soaked-dried Moringa oleifera leaf meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous (35% crude protein diets were formulated with Moringa leaf replacing soybean meal at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. Result obtained revealed declined in weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization as dietary replacement of Moringa leaf meal increased beyond 10%. It is concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf meal can replace soybeans meal up to 10% without affecting the growth performance of African catfish.

  10. Guangzhou Chemical Industry%Study on Extraction Conditions of Isolated Soybean Protein in Microbial Fermentation Soybean Meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙楠; 杜娜; 王霆

    2016-01-01

    采用碱提酸沉法对微生物发酵法制备的豆粕中提取大豆分离蛋白,并用凯氏定氮法测算大豆分离蛋白含量。研究碱提温度、液固比和碱提pH值及酸沉温度、时间和pH值对大豆分离蛋白提取率的影响。结果表明碱提的最佳工艺条件为:温度50℃、时间50 min、液固比10:1、 pH=9.0。酸沉的工艺参数为:温度45℃、时间40 min、 pH=4.5。所得大豆分离蛋白最高提取率为79.29%。%Alkaline extractionandacid precipitation were used to extract isolated protein from soybean meal produced by microbial fermentation. The content of isolated protein was calculated by kjeldahl method. Meanwhile, the extraction conditions of the isolated protein were studied. The optimum conditions of alkaline extractions were as follow: the temperature of extraction was 50℃, extracting time was 50 min, the ratio of liquidand solid was 10:1and pH was 9. 0. The optimum conditions of acid depositions were as follows:the temperature was 45 ℃,acid deposition time was 40 minand pH was 4. 5. The highest extraction yield of isolated protein was 79. 29%.

  11. Standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in copra meal, palm kernel expellers, palm kernel meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaguer, B L; Sulabo, R C; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2014-06-01

    Sixty-six barrows (initial BW: 27.4 ± 2.8 kg) were used to determine the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in copra meal (CM), palm kernel expellers from Indonesia (PKE-IN), palm kernel expellers from Costa Rica (PKE-CR), palm kernel meal from Costa Rica (PKM), and soybean meal (SBM) without or with exogenous phytase. Pigs were housed individually in metabolism cages and allotted to 11 diets with 6 replicate pigs per diet in a generalized randomized block design. Five diets were formulated by mixing cornstarch and sugar with CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, or SBM. Five additional diets, which were identical to the initial 5 diets but supplemented with 800 units of phytase, were also formulated. A P-free diet was used to measure basal endogenous losses of P by the pigs. Feces were collected for 5 d using the marker to marker approach after a 5-d adaptation period. Analyzed total P in CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, and SBM was 0.52, 0.51, 0.53, 0.54, and 0.67%, respectively. Phytate P was 0.22, 0.35, 0.38, 0.32, and 0.44% in CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, and SBM, respectively. Addition of phytase increased (P < 0.05) the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P from 60.6 to 80.8, 27.3 to 56.5, 32.6 to 59.9, 48.9 to 64.1, and 41.1 to 72.2% in CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, and SBM, respectively. The ATTD of P in CM was greater (P < 0.05) than in any of the other ingredients. The ATTD of P in SBM and PKM was greater (P < 0.05) than in PKE-IN, with PKE-CR being intermediate. The STTD of P increased (P < 0.05) from 70.6 to 90.3, 37.6 to 66.4, 43.2 to 69.9, 57.9 to 73.5, and 49.6 to 81.1% in CM, PKE-IN, PKE-CR, PKM, and SBM, respectively, when microbial phytase was added to the diets. When expressed as a percentage of total P, phytate P concentration in the ingredient negatively affected (P < 0.05) the ATTD of P (107.09 - 1.0564 × % phytate P; R(2) = 87.1) and the STTD of P (116.3 - 1.0487 × % phytate P; R(2) = 89.4). In conclusion, microbial phytase increased P

  12. Production of Hypoallergenic Antibacterial Peptides from Defatted Soybean Meal in Membrane Bioreactor: A Bioprocess Engineering Study with Comprehensive Product Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arij it Nath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoallergenic antibacterial low-molecular-mass peptides were produced from defatted soybean meal in a membrane bioreactor. In the fi rst step, soybean meal proteins were digested with trypsin in the bioreactor, operated in batch mode. For the tryptic digestion of soybean meal protein, optimum initial soybean meal concentration of 75 g/L, temperature of 40 °C and pH=9.0 were determined. Aft er enzymatic digestion, low-molecular-mass peptides were purifi ed with cross-fl ow fl at sheet membrane (pore size 100 μm and then with tubular ceramic ultrafi ltration membrane (molecular mass cut-off 5 kDa. Eff ects of transmembrane pressure and the use of a static turbulence promoter to reduce the concentration polarization near the ultrafi ltration membrane surface were examined and their positive eff ects were proven. For the fi ltration with ultrafi ltration membrane, transmembrane pressure of 3•105 Pa with 3-stage discontinuous diafi ltration was found optimal. The molecular mass distribution of purifi ed peptides using ultrafi ltration membrane was determined by a liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-fl ight mass spectrometry setup. More than 96 % of the peptides (calculated as relative frequency from the ultrafi ltration membrane permeate had the molecular mass M≤1.7 kDa and the highest molecular mass was found to be 3.1 kDa. The decrease of allergenic property due to the tryptic digestion and membrane fi ltration was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and it was found to exceed 99.9 %. It was also found that the peptides purifi ed in the ultrafi ltration membrane promoted the growth of Pediococcus acidilactici HA6111-2 and they possessed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus.

  13. Detection of Melamine in Soybean Meal Using Near-Infrared Microscopy Imaging with Pure Component Spectra as the Evaluation Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengling Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean meal was adulterated with melamine with the purpose of boosting the protein content for unlawful interests. In recent years, the near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy technique has been widely used for guaranteeing food and feed security for its fast, nondestructive, and pollution-free characteristics. However, there are problems with using near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy for detecting samples with low contaminant concentration because of instrument noise and sampling issues. In addition, methods based on NIR are indirect and depend on calibration models. NIR microscopy imaging offers the opportunity to investigate the chemical species present in food and feed at the microscale level (the minimum spot size is a few micrometers, thus avoiding the problem of the spectral features of contaminants being diluted by scanning. The aim of this work was to investigate the feasibility of using NIR microscopy imaging to identify melamine particles in soybean meal using only the pure component spectrum. The results presented indicate that using the classical least squares (CLS algorithm with the nonnegative least squares (NNLS algorithm, without needing first to develop a calibration model, could identify soybean meal that is both uncontaminated and contaminated with melamine particles at as low a level as 50 mg kg−1.

  14. Estudo das isotermas de equilíbrio do farelo de soja Study of the equilibrium isotherms of soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianini R. Luz

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo estudar o comportamento das isotermas de equilíbrio do farelo de soja. Para tanto, foram realizados experimentos utilizando-se o método estático com soluções salinas saturadas a 50, 60 e 70ºC. Os dados obtidos foram ajustados às equações existentes na literatura, utilizando-se o software Statistica 6.0®. Os resultados indicam que a temperatura não exerce influência significativa sobre os valores da umidade de equilíbrio do farelo de soja na faixa de condições experimentais exploradas e que os modelos de HALSEY e de LUIKOV podem ser utilizados para prever a umidade de equilíbrio do farelo soja.This work has as aim to study the behavior of the isotherms of the soybean meal. Therefore, experiments had been carried out by using the static method with saturated salt solution at 50, 60 and 70ºC. The data had been adjusted to the equations of the literature, using Statistica software 6.0®. The results indicated that the temperature does not affect significantly the moisture equilibrium values of the soybean meal in the range of temperatures studied and that the LUIKOV and the HALSEY models can be used to foresee the moisture equilibrium of the soybean meal.

  15. NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF CHICKEN OFFAL AS REPLACEMENT FOR LOCAL FISH MEAL IN GROWING SNAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A OMOLE

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of ninety six growing snails of mean weight 91.23±2.4g were used to determine the effects of partial or total replacement of local fish meal, a source of protein but expensive to a less expensive, alternative source, chicken offal in the diet of growing snails. Completely randomized design was used for the study. The feeding trial had four treatments, C1, C2, C3 and C4 in which fish meal fraction of the diets was replaced at 0, 50, 75 and 100% with chicken offal respectively. The parameters taken were weight gain, feed intake. Feed conversion ratio, total feed cost, and cost per weight gain were calculated. The trial lasted for twelve weeks. Significant differences were not observed in the mean weekly feed intake of the snails in all the treatments. The mean weight gain in all the treatments were not significantly influenced by the inclusion of chicken offal in the diet (P>0.005. Total feed cost and cost/weight gain reduced as the level of the chicken offal increased while the lowest cost/weight gain was observed in C4. The inclusion of Chicken offal in all the diets had no detrimental effect on the snails in all the treatments. Based on the present results chicken offal could replace local fish meal in the diet of growing snail up to 100% and hereby reduce feed cost

  16. Effect of lime treatment of olive meal on in vitro utilization of total mixed ration containing olive meal as partial maize replacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmal Ashraf

    Full Text Available Aim: Present study pertains to lime treatment of olive meal to improve its digestibility. The objective of the present study was to assess the in vitro dry matter degradability of total mixed ration containing lime treated olive meal at varied levels of maize replacement to know the optimum level of lime and treated olive meal as maize replacement in small ruminant diets. Materials and methods: Study was carried out in two phases. In phase I, A complete diet was formulated and treated with lime at variable concentrations (0-8% at 25% of maize replacement and subjected to in vitro studies as per Tilley and Terry. On the basis of the results of this phase, a concentration of lime for olive treatment was selected and tested at variable levels of maize replacement (0-50% by treated olive cake in phase II. Data was analyzed as per the procedures suggested by Snedecor and Cochran. Results: The in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of composite diet increased from 43.95% at 0% lime treatment to 48.68% on treating with 8% lime with significant (P<0.05 increase at 6% treatment level. Lime treatment beyond 6% had no further significant effect on improving the digestibility. Graded levels of maize replacement by olive meal treated with 6% lime (lime percentage selected from phase I showed that the in vitro digestibility of mixed ration was not compromised up to 40% replacement level of maize by treated olive meal. Improved digestibility with lime treatment may be due to weakening of internal Hydrogen bonding, thereby disrupting the fiber structure in olive meal. Further lime may be saponifying the high level of fat present in olive meal, which may otherwise negatively impact the digestibility values. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the treatment with up to 6% of lime can effectively increase the digestibility of olive meal. Treated olive meal can replace up to 40% of maize from daily ration without affecting the digestibility of composite ration

  17. 脱脂豆粕预处理对大豆球蛋白功能性质的影响%Effect of pretreatment of defatted soybean meal on functional property of soybean glycinin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟; 梁盈; 林亲录; 邓克权; 华欲飞

    2015-01-01

    以新鲜低温脱脂豆粕、两种预处理豆粕(干热处理脱脂豆粕和溶剂浸提脱脂豆粕)为原料制备大豆球蛋白,研究脱脂豆粕预处理方法对大豆球蛋白功能性质的影响。结果表明,干热处理可降低脱脂豆粕中脂肪氧合酶酶活,以干热处理脱脂豆粕为原料制备的大豆球蛋白的溶解性、持水性、持油性、乳化性、乳化稳定性、起泡性、泡沫稳定性以及凝胶性质变差;溶剂浸提可显著降低脱脂豆粕中残余脂质含量和脂肪氧合酶酶活,以溶剂浸提脱脂豆粕为原料制备的大豆球蛋白的溶解性、持水性、持油性、乳化性、乳化稳定性、起泡性、泡沫稳定性以及凝胶性质提高。%Fresh low-temperature defatted soybean meal,defatted soybean meal pretreated with dry heat-ing and defatted soybean meal pretreated with solvent extraction were used as raw materials to prepare soybean glycinin,and the effect of pretreatment method of defatted soybean meal on functional properties of soybean glycinin was investigated. The results showed that dry heating could reduce the activity of li-poxygenase in defatted soybean meal, and the solubility, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, emulsifying property,emulsion stability,foamability,foam stability and gel properties of the soybean glyci-nin prepared from the defatted soybean meal pretreated with dry heating decreased;solvent extraction could decline the content of residual lipid and activity of lipoxygenase in defatted soybean meal dramatic-ally,and the solubility,water holding capacity,oil holding capacity,emulsifying property,emulsion stabili-ty,foamability,foam stability and gel properties of soybean glycinin prepared from the defatted soybean meal pretreated with solvent extraction improved.

  18. Prebiotic Supplementation Has Only Minimal Effects on Growth Efficiency, Intestinal Health and Disease Resistance of Westslope Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi Fed 30% Soybean Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy M. Sealey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Prebiotics have successfully been used to prevent infectious diseases in aquaculture and there is an increasing amount of literature that suggests that these products can also improve alternative protein utilization and digestion. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine whether prebiotic supplementation increased the growth efficiency, intestinal health and disease resistance of cutthroat trout fed a high level of dietary soybean meal. To achieve this objective, juvenile Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi were fed a practical type formulation with 0 or 30% dietary soybean meal with or without the commercial prebiotic (Grobiotic-A prior to experimental exposure to Flavobacterium psychrophilum. Juvenile Westslope cutthroat trout (initial weight 7.8 g/fish ± standard deviation of 0.5 g were stocked at 30 fish/tank in 75 L tanks with six replicate tanks per diet and fed their respective diets for 20 weeks. Final weights of Westslope cutthroat trout were affected by neither dietary soybean meal inclusion level (P=0.9582 nor prebiotic inclusion (P=0.9348 and no interaction was observed (P=0.1242. Feed conversion ratios were similarly not affected by soybean meal level (P=0.4895, prebiotic inclusion (P=0.3258 or their interaction (P=0.1478. Histological examination of the distal intestine of Westslope cutthroat trout demonstrated increases in inflammation due to both increased soybean meal inclusion level (P=0.0038 and prebiotic inclusion (P=0.0327 without significant interaction (P=0.3370. Feeding dietary soybean meal level at 30% increased mortality of F.psychrophilum cohabitation challenged Westslope cutthroat trout (P=0.0345 while prebiotic inclusion tended to decrease mortality (P=0.0671. These results indicate that subclinical alterations in intestinal inflammation levels due to high dietary inclusion levels of soybean meal could predispose Westslope cutthroat trout to F.psychrophilum infection.

  19. Replacement of fish meal by poultry by-product meal, food grade, in diets for juvenile spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisantema Hernández

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of replacing fish meal protein at different levels with poultry by product meal food grade (PBM-FG was assessed in diets for spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus. Four diets were formulated, the control diet fish meal was used as the main protein source (FM; the other three diets had increasing levels of PBM-FG replacing 25, 50 or 75% of the fish meal protein respectively. The diets were fed close to apparent satiation, three times a day to quadruplicate groups of juvenile snapper (average body weight 11.0 ± 0.04 g. The fish were randomly distributed into groups of 15 fish in a 120 L seawater tank. The response of snapper to diets containing graded levels of fish meal was evaluated by measuring weight gain, feed efficiency, body composition, hematological parameters and apparent nutrient digestibility during a 12-week period. The replacing of the 25% of fish meal protein by PBM-FG did show a similar trend for feed efficiency and growth performance than control diet. Feed efficiency and growth performance was reduced at 75% level of fish meal protein replacement by PBM-FG, due to deficiencies of lysine and methionine. The final whole-body proximate composition did not differ among treatments. The hematological characteristics were similar among the treatments control, 25 and 50%, but the fish fed PBM-FG 75% showed the lowest levels for total protein and glucose parameters. The dietary dry matter and protein apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs decreased with increasing dietary PBM-FG. High values for lipid ADCs were observed in all diets.

  20. Meal Replacement: Calming the Hot-State Brain Network of Appetite

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    Brielle ePaolini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing awareness in the field of neuroscience that the self-regulation of eating behavior is driven by complex networks within the brain. These networks may be vulnerable to hot states which people can move into and out of dynamically throughout the course of a day as a function of changes in affect or visceral cues. The goal of the current study was to identify and determine differences in the Hot-state Brain Network of Appetite (HBN-A that exists after a brief period of food restraint followed either by the consumption of a meal replacement (MR or water. Fourteen overweight/obese adults came to our laboratory on two different occasions. Both times they consumed a controlled breakfast meal and then were restricted from eating for 2.5 hours prior to an MRI scan. On one visit, they consumed a meal replacement (MR liquid meal after this period of food restriction; on the other visit they consumed an equal amount of water. After these manipulations, the participants underwent a resting fMRI scan. Our first study aim employed an exploratory, data-driven approach to identify hubs relevant to the HBN-A. Using data from the water condition, five regions were found to be the hubs or nodes of the HBN-A: insula, anterior cingulated cortex, the superior temporal pole, the amygdala, and the hippocampus. We then demonstrated that the consumption of a liquid MR dampened interconnectivity between the nodes of the HBN-A as compared to water. Importantly and consistent with these network data, the consumption of a MR beverage also lowered state cravings and hunger.

  1. Evaluation of Bacillus sphaericus bioinsecticide produced with white soybean meal as culture medium for the control of Culex (Culex) quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, André L A; Soccol, Carlos R; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Nogueira, Miodeli

    2009-03-01

    Bioinsecticides are shown to be useful in control programs to prevent several diseases, based on their specificity and efficiency against insect vectors. In the current study a bioinsecticide based on Bacillus sphaericus was produced using a white soybean culture medium and applied to larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, the susceptible species, and Aedes aegypti, the refractory species used as the negative control. Efficacy was compared with that of the product fermented with the Luria Bertani (LB) reference medium. The experiments showed that C. quinquefasciatus was highly susceptible to the product prepared with white soybean meal, reaching 100% larval mortality even at 10mg/L, while A. aegypti failed to reach 70% mortality at a concentration of 1g/L. By comparison with the reference medium, the proposed culture medium showed high larvicidal power, reaching a LD90 of 2.26 mg/L, while 4.37 mg/L was needed for the LB medium to achieve the same mortality rate. Cost comparison between the formulations favored the use of the bioinsecticide produced with white soybean meal. After factoring in the LD90 value, the cost ratio favored the new raw material by nearly 1:220.

  2. Short communication. Effect of soybean meal heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tousi-Mojarradi, M.; Seidavi, A.; Dadashbeiki, M.; Roca-Fernandez, A. I.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of soybean meal (SBM) heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens. A trial was carried out using 200 male Ross 308 strain chickens during 3 feeding periods (starter, grower and finisher, 42 days). The experiment was based on a completely randomized design with 5 treatments giving 4 replications of 10 broilers per treatment. Treatments consisted on: T1 (control, un-processed SBM), T2 (autoclaved SBM: 121 degree centigrade, 20 min), T3 (autoclaved SBM: 121 degree centigrade, 30 min), T4 (roasted SBM: 120 degree centigrade, 20 min) and T5 (microwaved SBM: 46 degree centigrade, 540 watt, 7 min). Growth performance of animals was examined by determining body weight (BW), body weight grain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion rate (FCR). Higher BW (p<0.05) and BWG (p<0.05) and lower FCR (p<0.05) were found in broiler chickens fed heat processed SBM diets compared to those fed a raw SBM diet, probably due to higher nutrient availability. However, no differences were found among heat SBM procedures (autoclaving, roasting and microwaving) on growth performance of animals for the starter, grower and finisher periods. From the results of this experiment, it is concluded that further research needs to be developed to establish the effect of temperature-time heat procedures on nutritive value of SBM in terms of levels of anti-nutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor activity and phytic acid) and amino acids profile and its influence on growth performance of broilers. (Author)

  3. Short communication. Effect of soybean meal heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaddeseh Tousi Mojarrad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of soybean meal (SBM heat procedures on growth performance of broiler chickens. A trial was carried out using 200 male Ross 308 strain chickens during 3 feeding periods (starter, grower and finisher, 42 days. The experiment was based on a completely randomized design with 5 treatments giving 4 replications of 10 broilers per treatment. Treatments consisted on: T1 (control, un-processed SBM, T2 (autoclaved SBM: 121ºC, 20 min, T3 (autoclaved SBM: 121ºC, 30 min, T4 (roasted SBM: 120ºC, 20 min and T5 (microwaved SBM: 46ºC, 540 watt, 7 min. Growth performance of animals was examined by determining body weight (BW, body weight grain (BWG, feed intake (FI and feed conversion rate (FCR. Higher BW (p<0.05 and BWG (p<0.05 and lower FCR (p<0.05 were found in broiler chickens fed heat processed SBM diets compared to those fed a raw SBM diet, probably due to higher nutrient availability. However, no differences were found among heat SBM procedures (autoclaving, roasting and microwaving on growth performance of animals for the starter, grower and finisher periods. From the results of this experiment, it is concluded that further research needs to be developed to establish the effect of temperature-time heat procedures on nutritive value of SBM in terms of levels of anti-nutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor activity and phytic acid and amino acids profile and its influence on growth performance of broilers.

  4. Relative bioavailability of tribasic zinc sulfate for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-xiang; MA Xin-yan; LU Lin; ZHANG Li-yang; LUO Xu-gang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the relative bioavailability of tribasic zinc (Zn) sulfate relative to Zn sulfate for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet. A total of 504 1-d-old Arbor Acres commercial male chicks were randomly assigned by body weight of birds to one of seven treatments involving a 2×3 factorial arrangement with three levels of added Zn (30, 60, or 90 mg of Zn kg–1) and two Zn sources (tribasic Zn sulfate and Zn sulfate) plus a control with no added Zn for an experimental phase of 14 d. Plasma Zn, tibia ash Zn, pancreas Zn, and pancreas metalothionein (MT) messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed at 6 or 14 d of age post-hatching. The results showed that plasma Zn, tibia ash Zn, pancreas Zn, and pancreas MT mRNA increased linearly (P<0.002) as dietary Zn concentration increased at 6 or 14 d of age. The R2 for a linear model was greater on d 6 than on d 14 for the above 4 responsive criteria, and among these indices, the iftting of the tibia ash Zn concentration was the best (R2=0.99). Therefore, based on slope ratios from the multiple linear regressions of the above 4 indices of the birds at 6 d of age on daily intake of dietary Zn, the bioavailabilities of tribasic Zn sulfate relative to Zn sulfate (100%) were 95.6% (P=0.18), 83.5% (P=0.01), 87.9% (P=0.53), and 75.9% (P=0.38) for the tibia ash Zn, pancreas Zn, plasma Zn, and pancreas MT mRNA, respectively. The results indicated that generaly, Zn from tribasic Zn sulfate was as available as Zn from Zn sulfate for broilers.

  5. Lactobacillus formosensis sp. nov., a lactic acid bacterium isolated from fermented soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-huan; Chen, Yi-sheng; Lee, Tzu-tai; Chang, Yu-chung; Yu, Bi

    2015-01-01

    A Gram-reaction-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped lactic acid bacterium, designated strain S215(T), was isolated from fermented soybean meal. The organism produced d-lactic acid from glucose without gas formation. 16S rRNA gene sequencing results showed that strain S215(T) had 98.74-99.60 % sequence similarity to the type strains of three species of the genus Lactobacillus (Lactobacillus farciminis BCRC 14043(T), Lactobacillus futsaii BCRC 80278(T) and Lactobacillus crustorum JCM 15951(T)). A comparison of two housekeeping genes, rpoA and pheS, revealed that strain S215(T) was well separated from the reference strains of species of the genus Lactobacillus. DNA-DNA hybridization results indicated that strain S215(T) had DNA related to the three type strains of species of the genus Lactobacillus (33-66 % relatedness). The DNA G+C content of strain S215(T) was 36.2 mol%. The cell walls contained peptidoglycan of the d-meso-diaminopimelic acid type and the major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 0 and C19 : 0 cyclo ω10c/C19 : 1ω6c. Phenotypic and genotypic features demonstrated that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus formosensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S215(T) ( = NBRC 109509(T) = BCRC 80582(T)).

  6. Substitution of Soybean Meal and Cornmeal to Moisture, pH, Bacterial Colony Forming and Shelf Life of Rejected Duck Meatballs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novia Deni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of substitution of soybean meal with cornmeal to moisture, pH, bacterial colony forming and the shelf life of rejected duck meatballs. This research material using duck meat Coast (Indian Runner salvage as much as 4000 grams were obtained from the Livestock Anduring Padang and soybean meal with Mungbean trademarks and cornmeal with cornstarch trademarks respectively of 600 grams were obtained at Raya Padang market. The research method used was experimental method with the random design, which consists of 5 treatments and 4 groups as replication. The treatment given in this study is the substitution of soybean meal and maize by A (100%: 0%, B (75%: 25%, C (50%: 50%, D (25%: 75% and E (0%: 100%. Variables measured were moisture, pH, bacterial colony forming and the shelf life of rejected duck meatballs. The results of this study indicate that substitution of soybean meal and cornmeal significant effect on moisture, pH, bacterial colony forming and shelf life. Substitution of soybean meal and cornmeal by 100%: 0% is the best to produce the rejected duck meatballs with 69.20% moisture, pH 6.44, bacterial colony forming 7.85 x 105 CFU / g, and the shelf life of 22.12 hours.

  7. Effects of Single Cell Protein Replacing Fish Meal in Diet on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Intestinal Morphology in Weaned Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the ME value, standardized ileal digestibility (SID of amino acids (AA of fish meal, and the effects of single cell protein (Prosin and Protide replacing fish meal in diet on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal morphology in weaned piglets. In Exp. 1, twenty-four barrows with initial BW of 30.8±2.6 kg were allotted to one of four dietary treatments. Diet 1 contained corn as the only energy source. The other three diets replaced 20% of the corn in diet 1 with one of the three protein feeds (fish meal, Prosin and Protide, and the DE and ME contents were determined by difference. In Exp. 2, eight barrows (initial BW of 25.6±3.2 kg were fitted with ileal T-cannulas and allotted to a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Three cornstarch-based diets were formulated using each of the protein feeds as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was also formulated to measure endogenous losses of AA. In Exp. 3, one hundred and eighty piglets (initial BW of 7.95±1.59 kg weaned at 28±2 d were blocked by weight and assigned to one of five treatments for a 28-d growth performance study, each treatment was fed to six pens with six pigs (three barrows and three gilts per pen. The five treatments consisted of the control group (CON, which was a corn-soybean meal diet containing 5% fish meal, and the other four treatments, which replaced a set amount of fish meal with either Prosin (2.5% or 5% or Protide (2.5% or 5%. The diets were formulated to provide same nutrient levels. The results showed that on a DM basis, both of the DE and ME contents were lower in Prosin and Protide than that of fish meal (p<0.05. The SID of CP and all essential AA were greater in fish meal than in Prosin and Protide (p<0.05. The pigs fed CON diet had greater weight gain and lower feed conversion rate (FCR than pigs fed 5% Prosin and 5% Protide diets (p<0.05. The digestibility of CP was greater in pigs fed CON, 2

  8. Perkiraan Pasokan Nitrogen Mikrob pada Domba Ekor Tipis yang Diberi Bungkil Kedelai Terproteksi Tanin (ESTIMATION OF MICROBIAL NITROGEN SUPPLY IN THIN-TAILED SHEEP FED WITH TANNIN PROTECTED SOYBEAN MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husnaeni .

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study the effect of soybean meal protection mangrove leaf tannin onpurine derivative (PD excretion, estimated microbial nitrogen (MN supply, and estimated efficiency MNsuplay based on DOMR in thin-tailed sheep. A total of 16 thin-tailed sheep aged eight months withaverage body weight of 11.81±1.65 kg, and were randomly fed with complete feed with tannin-protectedsoybean meal in different levels. The research was conducted according to completely randomized designwith four treatments and four replications. T0 (soybean meal without tannin, T1 (protected soybean meal0.5% tannin, T2 (protected soybean meal 1% tannin, and T3 (protected soybean meal 1.5% tannin.Research finding indicated that organic matter consumption (OMC, organic matter digestibility (OMD,and digestible organic matter in rumen (DOMR were not affected (P> 0.05 by the treatment, however thetreatment had significant effects (P<0.05 against PD, estimated MN supply, and estimatedMN supply based on DOMR. Purine derivative, estimated MN supply, and estimated MN supply basedDOMR markedly decreased in the treatment of soybean meal protection 1.5% tannins. It was concludedthat soybean meal protection with mangrove leaf tannins was not significant against OMC, OMD andDOMR thin-tailed sheep, but protected soybean meal with tannins 1.5% affected on decreasing purinederivative excretion, estimated MN supply and estimated MN supply based on DOMR.

  9. Requirement of Digestible Sulfur Amino Acids in Laying Hens Fed Sorghum- and Soybean Meal-Based Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RS Gomez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two experiments were done to evaluate the effect of increasing levels of dietary digestible methionine (Met and Met:cysteine (Met:Cys ratio on the productivity of Hy-Line W-36 laying hens fed sorghum- and soybean meal-based diets. In Exp. 1, 160 hens from 68 to 75 weeks of age were assigned to four dietary levels of digestible Met (0.20 0.24, 0.28 and 0.32%. The digestible total sulfur amino acids:Lysine (TSAA:Lys ratios were: 62, 68, 76 and 84%. In Exp. 2, 192 hens from 76-83 weeks of age were assigned to four dietary digestible Met:Cys ratios (160, 116.7, 85.7 and 62.5%. The digestible TSAA:Lys ratio was kept constant across diets (80%. Results were subjected to ANOVA and linear regression analyses. In Exp. 1, optimal egg production, egg mass, and feed efficiency responses were observed at 0.30 and 0.50% of dietary digestible Met and TSAA, respectively (quadratic effect, p<0.05. Live performance was maximized with digestible Met and TSAA in takes of 288 and 478 mg/hen/d, respectively. In Exp. 2, optimal egg production and feed efficiency responses were observed at 151 and 150% of dietary digestible Met:Cys ratios, respectively (quadratic effect, p<0.05. The digestible Met, Cys and TSAA intake to maximize egg production and feed efficiency were 313, 207 and 510 mg/hen/d, respectively. The requirements for sulfur AA in Hy-Line W-36 hens from 68 to 83 weeks of age fed sorghum- and soybean meal-based diets fell inside the range of the requirements previously estimated in hens fed corn-soybean meal based diets.

  10. Treatment of acidic dyes solutions by adsorption in soybean meal - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i1.10434

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Marcele Chiarello

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we tested the potential use of a natural sorbent based on soybean meal from oil extraction in the treatment of solutions containing the acid dyes: yellow Erionyl RXL, navy blue Erionyl R and red Erionyl A-3B, used to dye polyamide fibers. To that end, adsorption studies were performed under different conditions of temperature, adsorbent concentrations, pH values, and color mixes (two- and three-color on dye solutions produced in laboratory. Soybean meal showed great ability to remove color, especially in solutions with pH 4 and 6 at 60°C and containing 10 g L-1 of adsorbent. Considering that values of adsorption efficiency ranged between 74 and 99%, depending on the dye and treatment conditions, soybean meal proved to be an alternative material for the adsorption of acidic dyes. 

  11. Predicting methionine and lysine contents in soybean meal and fish meal using a group method of data handling-type neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mottaghitalab, M.; Nikkhah, N.; Darmani-Kuhi, H.; López, S.; France, J.

    2015-07-01

    Artificial neural network models offer an alternative to linear regression analysis for predicting the amino acid content of feeds from their chemical composition. A group method of data handling-type neural network (GMDH-type NN), with an evolutionary method of genetic algorithm, was used to predict methionine (Met) and lysine (Lys) contents of soybean meal (SBM) and fish meal (FM) from their proximate analyses (i.e. crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, ash and moisture). A data set with 119 data lines for Met and 116 lines for Lys was used to develop GMDH-type NN models with two hidden layers. The data lines were divided into two groups to produce training and validation sets. The data sets were imported into the GEvoM software for training the networks. The predictive capability of the constructed models was evaluated by their abilities to estimate the validation data sets accurately. A quantitative examination of goodness of fit for the predictive models was made using a number of precision, concordance and bias statistics. The statistical performance of the models developed revealed close agreement between observed and predicted Met and Lys contents for SBM and FM. The results of this study clearly illustrate the validity of GMDH-type NN models to estimate accurately the amino acid content of poultry feed ingredients from their chemical composition . (Author)

  12. Dietary limitation of isoleucine and valine in diets based on maize, soybean meal, and meat and bone meal for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo, A; Dozier, W A; Loar, R E; Kidd, M T; Tillman, P B

    2010-08-01

    1. The dietary limitation of isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) was evaluated in broilers. Common diets were given to all broilers from 0 to 28 d of age. Experimental diets were provided from 28 to 42 d of age. 2. The experimental test diet was based primarily on maize, soybean meal, and meat and bone meal, and formulated to satisfy all nutrient recommendations with the exception of Ile and Val. 3. Diets were supplemented with L-Ile and L-Val at either 0·5 or 1·0 g kg⁻¹ of diet, alone or in combination. A diet composed only of commercially available amino acids and formulated to satisfy all nutrient requirements served as a positive control. 4. Body weight gain was depressed by the test diet, but recovered to a weight similar to birds fed on the positive control when Val was added to the test diet either alone or in combination with Ile. Feed efficiency improved when Val and Ile were simultaneously supplemented. 5. Abdominal fat yield was reduced with the combined supplementation of Val and Ile. Breast meat yield appeared to be more sensitive to Ile supplementation than to Val. 6. The results suggest that live performance may be more sensitive to Val, while breast meat yield was maximised with Ile supplementation. However, their combination is required for optimised growth and meat yield.

  13. Effects of replacing maize with mango seed kernel meal on performance, carcass characteristics and economic of production of weaner rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    N. Saleh; K.M. Bello

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of replacing maize with mango seed kernel meal (MSKM) in the diets of Weaner rabbit on performance, carcass characteristics and economic of production. Twenty mongrel rabbits were randomly allocated to four diets in which mango seed kernel meal replaced maize at 0, 33.33, 66.67 and 100% level designed as diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The daily feed intake (42.75-49.76), daily weight gain (8.75-9.72) and feed conversion ratio (4.64-5.19) ob...

  14. Replacing cereals with dehydrated citrus pulp in a soybean oil supplemented diet increases vaccenic and rumenic acids in ewe milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, José; Dentinho, Maria T; Francisco, Alexandra; Portugal, Ana P; Belo, Ana T; Martins, António P L; Alves, Susana P; Bessa, Rui J B

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the replacement of cereals by dried citrus pulp (DCP) in diets supplemented with 5% of soybean oil, on ewe milk yield and composition, including milk fatty acid (FA). Four Serra da Estrela multiparous ewes in the second month of lactation were used in a double 2×2 Latin square design. Ewes were individually penned and milked twice a day with an 8-h interval. Each experimental period included 14 d of diet adaptation followed by 5d of measurements and sampling. The 2 diets included on dry matter basis 450 g/kg of corn silage and 550 g/kg of either a soybean oil-supplemented concentrate meal containing barley and maize (cereal) or dried citrus pulp (DCP; citrus). Feed was offered ad libitum, considering 10% of orts, and intake was measured daily. Milk yield was higher and dry matter intake tended to be higher with the citrus diet. Milk composition and technological properties for cheese production were not affected by treatments, except for lactose, which was lower with the citrus diet. Replacement of cereals by DCP resulted in a 3-percentage-point decrease of both 18:0 and cis-9-18:1 that were mostly compensated by the 4.19- and 1.68-percentage-point increases of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2, respectively. The intake of C18 FA tended to increase with the citrus diet compared with the cereal diet, but the apparent transfer of 18:2n-6 and of 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. The milk output of C18 FA increased with the citrus compared with the cereal diet, mostly due to the increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 because the daily milk output of 18:0, trans-10-18:1, cis-9-18:1, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. Replacing cereals with DCP in an oil-supplemented diet resulted in a selective increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 in milk, with no major effect on other biohydrogenation intermediates.

  15. Effects of low-phytic acid corn, low-phytic acid soybean meal, and phytase on nutrient digestibility and excretion in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, B E; Sutton, A L; Richert, B T

    2009-04-01

    Forty-eight grower pigs were used to evaluate the effects of feeding low phytic acid (LPA) corn, LPA soybean meal, normal corn (NC), normal soybean meal (NSBM), and phytase on nutrient digestibility and excretion. Barrows were blocked by BW (initial BW=45.3+/-1.6 kg) and randomly assigned to 1 of 8 dietary treatments in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (6 pigs/treatment). Pigs were fed twice daily (0700 and 1700 h) at 3 times the ME requirement for maintenance. Phytase was added to the diet at 510 phytase units/kg of feed (where 1 phytase unit is the quantity of enzyme that liberates 1 mumol of inorganic P/min from 0.005 mol/L of sodium phytate at pH 5.5 and 37 degrees C), at the expense of corn starch, and all diets were formulated to provide 0.39% total P, 0.50% Ca, and 1.0% lysine with no supplemental inorganic P. Pigs were adapted to metabolism crates and dietary treatments for 7 d, followed by a 3-d total collection of urine and feces. Total fecal DM excreted, percentage of DM of feces, and percentage of DM digested were not different (P>0.53) among treatments. Fecal P excretion was reduced for pigs fed LPA corn vs. NC (2.85 vs. 3.24+/-0.119 g/d; P=0.024), for pigs fed LPA soybean meal vs. NSBM (2.79 vs. 3.30+/-0.119 g/d; P=0.007), for pigs fed phytase vs. nonphytase diets (2.80 vs. 3.29+/-0.119 g/d; P=0.009), and for pigs fed LPA corn, LPA soybean meal, and phytase vs. NC and NSBM without phytase (2.16 vs. 3.70+/-0.237 g/d; Psoybean meal, and phytase diet vs. the NC and soybean meal diet (60.1 vs. 34.1+/-4.5%; Psoybean meal vs. NSBM (47.2 vs. 41.1+/-2.27%; P=0.075). Corn type and soybean meal type had no effect (P>0.11) on water-soluble P excretion. However, pigs fed diets containing phytase tended to excrete less total water-soluble P than those without phytase inclusion (1.99 vs. 2.27+/-0.099 g/d; Psoybean meal, and phytase was additive, significantly improving P digestibility and dramatically decreasing P excretion to reduce the potential impacts of P

  16. Full replacement of menhaden fish meal protein by low-gossypol cottonseed flour protein in the diet of juvenile black sea bass Centropristis striata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight iso-nitrogeneous (46% crude protein) and iso-lipidic (14% crude lipid) diets were formulated and prepared to replace menhaden fish meal (FM) protein (59.5% CP) by low-gossypol glandless meal (GCSM) protein (50.4% CP), solvent-extracted cottonseed meal (SCSM) protein (53.8% protein) and high go...

  17. Study on in-vitro Enzymolysis of Xylan in Wheat-Corn-Soybean Meal Diet%小麦-玉米-豆粕型日粮中木聚糖体外酶解的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽芳; 朱海; 王世琼; 乔家运; 王志祥

    2014-01-01

    By using the method of simulating the gastrointestinal environment of piglets in vitro , replacing the corn in corn -soybean meal (65∶25) diet with different proportions (0%~100%) of wheat, and adding various levels (0~10000 U/kg) of xy-lanase into the mixed diet , the author studied the in -vitro enzymolysis of xylan in wheat -corn-soybean meal diet .The results in-dicated that:among 3 kinds of feedstuff , wheat contained the most soluble xylan , followed by soybean meal , and corn contained the least one;when the proportion of wheat for replacing corn in the mixed diet increased , the soluble xylan content and total xylan con-tent in the diet all increased gradually;the suitable adding level of xylanase into various mixed diets all was 6000 U/kg;the effect of 1/4 corn-3/4 wheat-soybean meal was better .%采用体外模拟仔猪胃肠道环境的方法,用不同比例(0%~100%)的小麦替代玉米-豆粕(65∶25)型日粮中的玉米,并添加不同水平(0~10000 U/kg)的木聚糖酶,研究了小麦-玉米-豆粕型日粮中木聚糖的体外酶解。结果表明:在3种饲料原料中,小麦可溶性木聚糖含量最高,豆粕次之,玉米最低;随着日粮组合中小麦替代玉米比例的增加,日粮中可溶性木聚糖含量和总木聚糖含量均逐渐增加;各日粮组合中适宜的木聚糖酶添加水平均为6000 U/kg;以1/4玉米-3/4小麦-豆粕日粮组合较佳。

  18. Effect of fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PJ69-4 on the phytic acid, raffinose, and stachyose contents of soybean meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the impact of submerged fermentation procedures using Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker’s yeast strain PJ69-4a on degradation of phytic acid and the raffinosaccharides, raffinose, and stachyose, in soybean meal. The goal of the research was to identify a n...

  19. Effect of Phytase on Apparent Total Tract Digestibility of Phosphorus in Corn-Soybean Meal Diets Fed to 100 kg Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five experiments were conducted to investigate the ability of different sources of phytase supplemented to the diet at graded levels to improve apparent P digestibility in finishing pigs. A corn-soybean meal basal diet containing 0.50% Ca and 0.32% P (0.06% available P) was used in all experiments a...

  20. Substituição do milho por farelo de palma forrageira em dietas de ovinos em crescimento: desempenho Replacement of corn by forage cactus meal in growing lambs diets: performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Magno Liberal Véras

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar quatro níveis de substituição do milho (0; 33; 67 e 100% pelo farelo de palma forrageira sobre o desempenho de ovinos em crescimento terminados em confinamento. Vinte carneiros mestiços Santa Inês foram distribuídos em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos (níveis de substituição do milho pelo farelo de palma e cinco repetições. Além do milho e/ou farelo de palma, os animais receberam feno de Tifton (Cynodon dactylon, como volumoso, farelo de soja, calcário e sal mineral. O ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar diminuíram, enquanto os consumos de FDN e de FDA aumentaram linearmente com a substituição. Os consumos de matéria seca, de proteína bruta, de matéria orgânica e de carboidratos totais e o rendimento de carcaça não foram influenciados pela substituição do milho pelo farelo de palma.The objective of this work was to evaluate four corn replacement levels (0, 33, 67 and 100% by forage cactus meal on performance of feedlot growing lambs. Twenty crossbred lambs were allotted to a completely randomized block design with four treatments (replacement of corn by forage cactus meal and five replications. Besides corn and/or forage cactus meal, the animals were fed Tifton hay (Cynodon dactylon, as forage, soybean meal, limestone and mineral salt. Weight gain and feed:gain ratio decreased and intakes of NDF and ADF increased linearly with corn replacement. The intakes of dry matter, crude protein, organic matter and total carbohydrates and carcass yield were not affected by replacement of corn by forage cactus meal.

  1. Taurine supplementation to alternative dietary proteins used in fish meal replacement enhances growth of juvenile cobia (Rachycentron canadum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two separate 8 week feeding trials were conducted to examine the impacts of fish meal replacement with an organically certifiable yeast-based protein source with and without supplementation of methionine, tryptophan, and taurine to diets for juvenile cobia. In the first trial, diets were formulated ...

  2. Partial and total fish meal replacement by agricultural products in the diets improve sperm quality in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyina-wamwiza, L.; Milla, S.; Pierrard, M.A.; Rurangwa, E.; Mandiki, S.N.M.; Look, van K.J.W.; Kestemont, P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effects of total and partial replacement of dietary fish meal (FM) by a mixture of agricultural products on sperm quality of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated containing graded levels of either 50% FM

  3. Nutritive values of corn, soybean meal, canola meal, and peas for broiler chickens as affected by a multicarbohydrase preparation of cell wall degrading enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, X; Slominski, B A

    2005-08-01

    The effect of a new multicarbohydrase supplement of cell wall degrading activities on the nutritive value of corn, soybean meal (SBM), canola meal (CM), and peas for broiler chickens was investigated. Four isoenergetic and isonitrogenous corn (69% corn), SBM (30% SBM, 59% corn), CM (30% CM, 54% corn), and pea (30% peas, 52% corn) diets, without or with enzyme supplementation, were formulated to meet NRC specifications for broiler chickens (except for AME and CP, which were at 95 and 92% of NRC requirements, respectively). The enzyme supplement supplied 1,000 U of xylanase, 400 U of glucanase, 1,000 U of pectinase, 120 U of cellulase, 280 U of mannanase, and 180 U of galactanase per kilogram of diet. Each diet was fed in a mash form to 9 replicate pens of 5 broilers from 5 to 18 d. When compared with the control treatment, enzyme addition to the corn diet improved (P enzyme-supplemented corn diet. An improvement (P enzyme supplementation was observed for the SBM diet. However, nutrient digestibilities and AMEn of CM and pea diets were not affected (P > 0.05) by enzyme addition even though the NSP digestibilities increased significantly (P enzyme-supplemented diets. It would appear from this study that the nutrient utilization of corn-SBM diet by broilers could be enhanced by using an appropriate multicarbohydrase enzyme supplement. The nutrient encapsulating effect of cell wall polysaccharides in SBM, CM, and peas may not be the only factor responsible for incomplete nutrient utilization. The improvement in feed efficiency and starch availability in birds fed corn diet likely resulted from the cell wall degrading activity of the enzyme supplement.

  4. Growth Performance of Clarias Gariepinus Fed Soaked Moringa Oleifera Leaf Meal

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluates the nutritional potential of soaked-dried Moringa oleifera leaf meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous (35% crude protein) diets were formulated with Moringa leaf replacing soybean meal at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. Result obtained revealed declined in weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization as dietary replacement of Moringa leaf meal increased beyond 10%. It is con...

  5. Effect of two microbial phytase preparations on phosphorus utilisation in broilers fed maize-soybean meal based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. VALAJA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the effect of two microbial phytases, Aspergillus niger (FINASEâ FP-500, 291 PU (phytase units/g and Trichoderma reesei phytase (FINASEâ P, 5880 PU/g on phosphorus (P and calcium (Ca utilisation and ileal P and Ca digestibility in broiler chickens fed diets based on maize and soybean meal. A total of 96 Ross broiler chickens housed four birds to a cage were used. Four dietary treatments consisted of a positive control supplemented with dicalcium phosphate (17 g/kg, a negative control without inorganic P, basal diet without inorganic P supplemented with Aspergillus niger phytase (2.6 g/kg and basal diet without inorganic P supplemented with Trichoderma reesei phytase (0.13 g/kg. Both phytases provided 750 PU/kg feed. P retention per unit intake was lowest and P excretion highest in birds fed the positive control diet with inorganic P (P

  6. Production Status of Fermented Soybean Meal and Its Product Quality Assessment%发酵豆粕的生产现状及产品质量评定研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊春光; 尹清强; 王鹏; 孙俊伟; 王卫民

    2012-01-01

    The fermented soybean meal is the most widely used high - quality plant protein raw material in animal husbandry. This paper introduced the production technological process of the major fermented soybean meal manufacturers in China, and the assessment indexes and identification methods for the quality of fermented soybean meal products.%介绍了国内主要发酵豆粕厂家的生产工艺流程、产品质量评定指标及鉴别方法.

  7. Valor nutricional da casca do grão de soja, farelo de soja, milho moído e farelo de trigo para bovinos Nutritional value of soybean hulls, soybean meal, ground corn and wheat meal for cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Toledo da Silva

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada análise bromatológica da casca do grão de soja (CGS, farelo de soja, milho moído e farelo de trigo; ensaio de digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e da parede celular (DIVPC dos referidos alimentos; e degradabilidade in situ da matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO e energia bruta (EB, da CGS moída (CSM ou peletizada (CSP. Para a determinação da DIVMS e DIVPC, foram realizadas três coletas de líquido ruminal, com intervalos de uma semana. Para a determinação da degradabilidade in situ da MS, MO e EB, foram utilizadas três vacas munidas de fistula ruminal. Os tempos de incubação foram: 3, 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas, sendo que o tempo zero foi realizado no laboratório. Foram determinadas as percentagens de degradação e das degradabilidades efetivas para MS, MO e EB. A partir dos resultados encontrados, conclui-se que a CGS pode ser utilizada como um alimento alternativo nas rações de bovinos.The experiment was divided into three parts: composition analysis of soybean hulls (SH, soybean meal, ground corn and wheat meal; in vitro digestibility of dry matter (IVDDM and cellular wall (IVDCW of the feeds mentioned above; in situ degradation of dry matter (ISDDM, organic matter (ISDOM and gross energy (ISDGE, of milled (MSH or pelleted (PSH soybean hulls. Three collections of rumen liquid were undertaken for IVDDM and IVDCW at weekly intervals. Three rumen fistulated cows were utilized for the estimates of ISDDM, ISDOM and ISDGE. Incubation periods were 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 hours, whereas zero time was achieved in the laboratory. Degradation percentages and the percentages of real degradability for dry matter, organic matter and gross energy were reported. Results showed that SH could be used as an alternative food in cattle rations.

  8. Dietary inclusion of raw faba bean instead of soybean meal and enzyme supplementation in laying hens: Effect on performance and egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Abd El-Hack

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with 160 Hisex Brown laying hens to evaluate the effect of different inclusion levels of faba bean (FB and enzyme supplementation on productive performance and egg quality parameters. The experimental diets consisted of five levels of FB: 0% (control, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, substituting soybean meal (SBM, and two levels of enzyme supplementation (0 or 250 mg/kg. Each dietary treatment was assigned to four replicate groups and the experiment lasted 22 weeks. A positive relationship (P  0.05. The main effect of FB levels replacing for SBM affected (P < 0.05 yolk and shell percentages, yolk index, yolk to albumen ratio, shell thickness and egg shape index. It can be concluded that FB and enzyme supplementation could be included in hens diet at less than 50% instead of SBM to support egg productive performance, however higher raw FB levels negatively affected egg production indices and quality.

  9. Immunoreactivity reduction of soybean meal by fermentation, effect on amino acid composition and antigenicity of commercial soy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y-S; Frias, J; Martinez-Villaluenga, C; Vidal-Valdeverde, C; de Mejia, E Gonzalez

    2008-05-15

    Food allergy has become a public health problem that continues to challenge both the consumer and the food industry. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reduction of immunoreactivity by natural and induced fermentation of soybean meal (SBM) with Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Saccharomyces cereviseae, and to assess the effect on amino acid concentration. Immunoreactivity of commercially available fermented soybean products and ingredients was also evaluated. ELISA and western blot were used to measure IgE immunoreactivity using plasma from soy sensitive individuals. Commercial soy products included tempeh, miso and yogurt. Fermented SBM showed reduced immunoreactivity to human plasma, particularly if proteins were <20kDa. S. cereviseae and naturally fermented SBM showed the highest reduction in IgE immunoreactivity, up to 89% and 88%, respectively, against human pooled plasma. When SBM was subjected to fermentation with different microorganisms, most of the total amino acids increased significantly (p<0.05) and only few of them suffered a decrease depending on the type of fermentation. All commercial soy containing products tested showed very low immunoreactivity. Thus, fermentation can decrease soy immunoreactivity and can be optimized to develop nutritious hypoallergenic soy products. However, the clinical relevance of these findings needs to be determined by human challenge studies.

  10. Effects of replacing maize with mango seed kernel meal on performance, carcass characteristics and economic of production of weaner rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saleh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of replacing maize with mango seed kernel meal (MSKM in the diets of Weaner rabbit on performance, carcass characteristics and economic of production. Twenty mongrel rabbits were randomly allocated to four diets in which mango seed kernel meal replaced maize at 0, 33.33, 66.67 and 100% level designed as diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The daily feed intake (42.75-49.76, daily weight gain (8.75-9.72 and feed conversion ratio (4.64-5.19 obtained were not significantly (P<0.05 affected by the dietary levels of mango seed kernel meal. Carcass yield and weight of organs expressed as percentage of live weight did not significantly differ between the treatment means. The cost in naira per kilogram gain was highest on diet 1 (0%MSKM and lowest on diet 4 (100% MSKM having N338.84 and 245.58 respectively. The result indicates that mango seed kernel meal can replace maize at 100% level in the diet of Weaner rabbit with better performance and tremendous reduction in feed cost.

  11. Replacement of eggs with soybean protein isolates and polysaccharides to prepare yellow cakes suitable for vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Muyang; Tay, Siang Hong; Yang, Hongshun; Yang, Bao; Li, Hongliang

    2017-08-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of substituting eggs in yellow cake by a mixture of soybean proteins, plant polysaccharides, and emulsifiers, the batter properties, including specific gravity and viscosity; cake properties, including specific volume, texture, colour, moisture, microstructures, and structural properties of starch and glutens of the replaced cake and traditional cake containing egg, were evaluated. Replacing eggs with a soy protein isolate and 1% mono-, di-glycerides yielded a similar specific volume, specific gravity, firmness and moisture content (1.92 vs. 2.08cm(3)/g, 0.95 vs. 1.03, 319.8 vs. 376.1g, and 28.03% vs. 29.01%, respectively) compared with the traditional cakes baked with eggs. Structurally, this formulation comprised dominant gliadin aggregates in the size range of 100-200nm and glutenin networking structures containing fewer but larger porosities. The results suggest that a mixture of soybean proteins and emulsifier is a promising substitute for eggs in cakes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of replacing maize meal with rumen filtrate-fermented cassava meal on growth and egg production performance in Japanese quails (Cortunix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Kanyinji

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing maize in quail diets with graded levels of rumen filtrate-fermented cassava meal (FCM on growth and egg production performances. Cassava meal (CM was mixed with dried manure of layer at 75 g/kg CM, which was mixed with freshly collected rumen filtrate (at 1 L/5 kg CM, and finally fermented in sealed bags for 14 days. It was then sun-dried and added in grower or finisher diets at 0, 50, 75 and 100%. Then, 84 three weeks-old Japanese quails (Cortunix japonica were divided into four equal groups; the birds were randomly assigned to 0, 50, 75 and 100% FCM grower/layers diets, and were reared until 56 days of age. Daily feed consumption, weekly body weights, weight gains, feed conversion ratios (FCR, hen-day, and egg weights were monitored. The quails fed with 75% FCM were found to be superior (p0.05 effect on feed intake, body weight, and weight gain, as compared to those of fed control diets. Thus, replacing maize with FCM had no deleterious effects on growth performance, but depressed hen-day. However, better growth performance was obtained when maize was replaced at 75% FCM.

  13. The efficacy of phytase in corn-soybean meal-based diets for laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klis, van der J.D.; Versteegh, H.A.J.; Simons, P.C.M.; Kies, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    Microbial phytase hydrolyzes poorly degradable vegetable phytate P in the gastrointestinal tract of poultry; thereby increasing the availability of organic P to an extent that remains to be established. For this purpose, the P equivalency value of phytase in cornsoybean meal layer diets was assessed

  14. Partial Meal Replacement Plan and Quality of the Diet at 1 Year: Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Hollie A; Anderson, Andrea M; Miller, Gary D; Reeves, Rebecca; Delahanty, Linda M; Vitolins, Mara Z; Harper, Patricia; Mobley, Connie; Konersman, Kati; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about diet quality with a reduced-energy, low-fat, partial meal replacement plan, especially in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial implemented a partial meal replacement plan in the Intensive Lifestyle Intervention. To compare dietary intake and percent meeting fat-related and food group dietary recommendations in Intensive Lifestyle Intervention and Diabetes Support and Education groups at 12 months. A randomized controlled trial comparing Intensive Lifestyle Intervention with Diabetes Support and Education at 0 and 12 months. From 16 US sites, the first 50% of participants (aged 45 to 76 years, overweight or obese, with type 2 diabetes) were invited to complete dietary assessments. Complete 0- and 12-month dietary assessments (collected between 2001 and 2004) were available for 2,397 participants (46.6% of total participants), with 1,186 randomized to Diabetes Support and Education group and 1,211 randomized to Intensive Lifestyle Intervention group. A food frequency questionnaire assessed intake: energy; percent energy from protein, fat, carbohydrate, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and saturated fats; trans-fatty acids; cholesterol; fiber; weekly meal replacements; and daily servings from food groups from the Food Guide Pyramid. Mixed-factor analyses of covariance, using Proc MIXED with a repeated statement, with age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income controlled. Unadjusted χ² tests compared percent meeting fat-related and food group recommendations at 12 months. At 12 months, Intensive Lifestyle Intervention participants had a significantly lower fat and cholesterol intake and greater fiber intake than Diabetes Support and Education participants. Intensive Lifestyle Intervention participants consumed more servings per day of fruits; vegetables; and milk, yogurt, and cheese; and fewer servings per day of fats, oils, and sweets than Diabetes Support and Education participants. A greater

  15. Replacing egg yolk with soybean lecithin in the cryopreservation of stallion semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Frederico Ozanam; Felício, Gabriel Barcelos; Melo-Oña, Cely Marini; Alvarenga, Marco Antonio; De Vita, Bruna; Trinque, Cássio; Puoli-Filho, José Nicolau P; Dell'Aqua, José Antonio

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether replacing the egg yolk with soybean lecithin in the Botu-Crio® cryodiluent would maintain the fertility of cryopreserved stallion sperm. Two experiments were performed to evaluate cell freezability. In experiment 1, sperm from 15 stallions were frozen in Botu-Crio® (BC) or Botu-Crio® which contained 45g/L soybean lecithin (BCLS45) in place of the egg yolk. In experiment 2, we compared different concentrations of soybean lecithin: 0, 10.0, 12.5, 15.0, 17.5 and 20.0g/L (BC, BCLS10, BCLS12.5, BCLS17.5 and BCLS20, respectively). In experiment 1, sperm frozen in BC and BCLS45 exhibited similar (P>0.05) percentages of total motile sperm (61% and 61%, respectively); progressively motile sperm (27% and 27%, respectively) and sperm with intact plasma membranes (IMP; 53% and 57%, respectively). Similarly, sperm frozen in BC or BC containing any concentration of soybean lecithin maintained similar (P>0.05) percentages of total motile sperm (61-68%) and progressively motile sperm (27-31%). In the first fertility trial, we used cryopreserved semen from a single stallion was inseminated into mares. The semen from the sperm that were frozen in BC diluent resulted in a higher fertility rate (66%, 16/24) compared to the sperm that were frozen in BCLS45 diluent (17%, 5/29; Plecithin provided similar laboratory results for stallion sperm, after cryopreservation, the sperm that was frozen with soybean lecithin in the diluent correlated with lower fertility rates. Based on these results, we concluded that the use of BCLS can be used as an alternative diluent for cryopreserving stallion sperm. However, the resulting reduced fertility rate is a matter of concern. Further studies are necessary to clarify the reasons for this decrease in fertility and to determine the optimal lecithin concentration for diluents to freeze stallion sperm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Production performance of finisher broiler fed with cocoyam-corm meal as partial energy replacement for maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Paul P. de la Cruz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Gabing San Fernando (Xanthosoma spp. corms as partial carbohydrate replacement for maize in finisher broiler production. Materials and Methods: The completely randomized design was utilized to investigate the effects of three finisher poultry diets prepared in varying amounts of cocoyam-corm meal set at 0% (control, 25%, and 50% (experimental replacement levels. Results: There were no significant differences (p≥0.05 as to mortality and body weight measurements between control and experimental groups. Similarly, the mean weights of selected internal organs and condemnable carcasses among treatment groups did not show any significant differences (p≥0.05. In terms of the average feed intakes, birds from 50%-cocoyam group had the highest mean value and were found to be statistically different (p≥0.01 from both control and 25%-cocoyam groups. However, feed conversion ratio did not significantly differ (p≥0.05 among three groups. Higher feed costs were associated with the 50%-cocoyam treatment diet, which was only consistent with higher feed inputs. Thus, the group fed with 50%-cocoyam meal had significantly higher total mean production costs (p<0.005 per bird, when other expenses were taken into account. The production costs for the group given 25%-cocoyam meal did not significantly differ (p≥0.05 from the control group. Conclusion: Partial replacement of maize with cocoyam-corm meal at 25% level was acceptable since inclusion at this level did not adversely affect the production performance of finisher broilers in terms of growth rate, mortality rate, and feeding efficiency. The use of cocoyam meal as nonconventional and alternative carbohydrate source in poultry diet presents positive economic implications, especially to smallhold farmers from the developing countries, like the Philippines.

  17. Influence of partial replacement of soya bean meal by faba beans or peas in heavy pigs diet on meat quality, residual anti-nutritional factors and phytoestrogen content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Domenico; Russo, Claudia; Giuliotti, Lorella; Mannari, Claudio; Picciarelli, Piero; Lombardi, Lara; Giovannini, Luca; Ceccarelli, Nello; Mariotti, Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    The study evaluated the partial substitution of soybean meal by faba beans (18%) or peas (20%) as additional protein sources in diets destined for typical Italian heavy pig production. It compared animal performances, meat quality, the presence of residual anti-nutritional factors (ANF) and phytoestrogens in plasma and meat and the possible effects on pig health, by evaluating oxidative, inflammatory and pro-atherogenic markers. The results showed that the productive performances, expressed as body weight and feed conversion ratio, of pigs fed with faba bean and pea diets were similar to those of pigs fed only the soybean meal. Meat quality of pigs fed with the three diets was similar in colour, water-holding capacity, tenderness and chemical composition. Despite the higher levels of phytoestrogen in the plasma of pigs fed only the soybean meal, phytoestrogen concentration in the muscle was equivalent to that of animals fed diets with faba beans, whereas pigs fed a diet with peas showed a lower concentration. Inflammation and pro-atherogenic parameters did not show significant differences among the three diets. Overall, the partial substitution of soybean meal by faba beans appears more interesting than with peas, particularly in relation to the higher amount of polyphenols in the diet and the highest concentration of phytoestrogens found in the plasma and muscle of animals, while the pyrimidine anti-nutritional compounds present in the diet did not appear to accumulate and had no effect on the growth performance of animals.

  18. Dietary soybean meal on growth and intestinal morphology of South American catfish, Rhamdia quelen, larvae Farelo de soja em dietas para larvas de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen sobre o crescimento e morfologia intestinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Roque Hernández

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the replacement of bread yeast by soybean meal in diets for Rhamdia quelen larvae on growth, survival, and intestinal morphology were analysed. Larvae were fed for 20 days with five diets: a control diet formulated with 57% of bread yeast, and other four diets in which soybean meal at concentrations of 14.25, 28.5, 42.75 and 57% was added to obtain 25, 50, 75 and 100% of bread yeast replacement. Growth and survival parameters were negatively affected by dietary soybean meal inclusion. Larvae fed control diet showed significantly higher mean weight, specific growth rate, final biomass, and survival rate than larvae from other treatments. Enterocyte height and fold width of the posterior intestine showed highest values in the control group, and an inverse linear relationship with the level of dietary soybean meal inclusion was observed, however, in the anterior intestine the morphology parameters were not affected by the diet. These results indicate that inclusion of soybean meal in diets for R. quelen larvae negatively affects growth and survival, as well as the capacity for digestion and absorption of nutrients, mainly in the posterior intestine.Neste estudo, foi analisado o efeito da substituição de levedura de pão por farelo de soja em dietas para larvas de Rhamdia quelen no crescimento, sobrevivência e morfologia intestinal. As larvas foram alimentadas durante 20 dias com cinco dietas experimentais: uma dieta controle formulada com 57% de levedura de pão e quatro dietas em que o farelo de soja foi adicionado em 14,25, 28,5, 42,75 e 57% para obter 25, 50, 75 e 100% de substituição de levedura de pão. As variáveis de crescimento e sobrevivência foram negativamente afetadas pela inclusão da soja na dieta. As larvas alimentadas com a dieta controle apresentaram maior peso médio, taxa de crescimento específico, biomassa final e sobrevivência, diferindo significativamente dos demais tratamentos. A altura dos enter

  19. Predictors of programme adherence and weight loss in women in an obesity programme using meal replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packianathan, I; Sheikh, M; Boniface, D; Finer, N

    2005-07-01

    To explore predictors of programme adherence and weight loss in patients participating in a weight management programme using meal replacements (MR). One hundred and fifty healthy obese women, age 48.5 years (s.d. = 8.3); weight, 97.6 kg (13.4); body mass index (BMI) 36.5 (3.7), participated in a longitudinal study with a 16-week acute weight loss phase (Phase 1) followed by 1 year of a trial of weight-loss maintenance (Phase 2). Energy intake during Phase 1 totaled 900 kcal (3.7 MJ) a day from a diet including two MR. Energy intake during Phase 2 consisted of either MR or a low-fat diet with a calculated energy deficit of 600 kcal/day (2.5 MJ). Weight, height and waist circumference were measured and body composition assessed by air plethysmography (Bodpod). Glucose and insulin were measured by standard immunoassays and insulin sensitivity assessed by homeostatic model assessment. At the end of 16 weeks, 114 subjects (76%) completed Phase 1 and achieved a mean weight loss of 8.95 kg (3.38). Adherence to Phase 1 was predicted by weight loss over the first 2 weeks (p Adherence to Phase 2 was not predicted by physiological measures. Weight loss maintenance in Phase 2 (not gaining more than 3% of the weight at start of phase 2) was predicted by cholesterol and triglyceride measured at the start of Phase 2 but otherwise was not predicted by the physiological measures. Initial insulin sensitivity did not predict weight loss in either phase. Participants whose weight loss over the first 2 weeks falls in the bottom third may need additional intervention if they are to continue in this type of programme. A battery of physiological measures at entry to a MR weight loss and maintenance programme explains only a very small proportion of the variation in weight loss.

  20. Application of Fermented Soybean Meal in Diets of Weaning Piglets%发酵豆粕在断奶仔猪生产中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓翠; 王浩; 李杰

    2011-01-01

    早期断奶仔猪的消化酶系统尚未发育完全,对于植物蛋白质的消化能力弱,且对抗营养因子较敏感,普通豆粕难以适应断奶仔猪饲养需要,而发酵豆粕作为一种新型的蛋白质饲料原料,基本不舍有抗营养因子,却富含多种小肽和益生素,因此近年来发酵豆粕被应用到仔猪的生产中,且收到较好的效果.本文就发酵豆粕的营养特性、在断奶仔猪生产中的应用效果及影响其在仔猪生产中应用效果的因素作一综述.%As a new type of protein ingredient, fermented soybean meal almost doesn' t contain any anti-nutritional factors and is rich in various kinds of small peptides and probiotics. Early-weaning piglets have not fully developed digestive enzyme systems, which lead to their weak digestion ability for vegetable protein and sensitive to anti-nutritional factors. So, regular soybean meal products are difficult to meet needs of weaning piglets. Fermented soybean meal has been applied in diets of weaning piglets in recent years and achieves good effects. In this paper, nutrition characteristics of fermented soybean meal and its' application effects in diets of weaning piglets, as well as the factors influencing on its' application effects were summarized. [Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 2011, 23(6) :919-923

  1. Effect of Biostimulation Using Sewage Sludge, Soybean Meal, and Wheat Straw on Oil Degradation and Bacterial Community Composition in a Contaminated Desert Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kindi, Sumaiya; Abed, Raeid M M

    2016-01-01

    Waste materials have a strong potential in the bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites, because of their richness in nutrients and their economical feasibility. We used sewage sludge, soybean meal, and wheat straw to biostimulate oil degradation in a heavily contaminated desert soil. While oil degradation was assessed by following the produced CO2 and by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), shifts in bacterial community composition were monitored using illumina MiSeq. The addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw to the desert soil stimulated the respiration activities to reach 3.2-3.4 times higher than in the untreated soil, whereas the addition of soybean meal resulted in an insignificant change in the produced CO2, given the high respiration activities of the soybean meal alone. GC-MS analysis revealed that the addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw resulted in 1.7-1.8 fold increase in the degraded C14 to C30 alkanes, compared to only 1.3 fold increase in the case of soybean meal addition. The degradation of ≥90% of the C14 to C30 alkanes was measured in the soils treated with sewage sludge and wheat straw. MiSeq sequencing revealed that the majority (76.5-86.4% of total sequences) of acquired sequences from the untreated soil belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Multivariate analysis of operational taxonomic units placed the bacterial communities of the soils after the treatments in separate clusters (ANOSIM R = 0.66, P = 0.0001). The most remarkable shift in bacterial communities was in the wheat straw treatment, where 95-98% of the total sequences were affiliated to Bacilli. We conclude that sewage sludge and wheat straw are useful biostimulating agents for the cleanup of oil-contaminated desert soils.

  2. Características y utilidad de los sustitutos de la comida: análisis de los productos comercializados de uso habitual en nuestro entorno Usefulness of meal replacement: analysis of the principal meal replacement products commercialised in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cabanillas

    2009-10-01

    embargo para otros micronutrientes como el calcio, el magnesio, el ácido fólico y la vitamina B12 y no llega a alcanzarse el 33% de las RDA. Conclusión: Los planes de sustitución parcial de comidas son una opción más a tener en cuenta en el tratamiento de la obesidad, especialmente por tratarse de dietas de más fácil comprensión y manejo y con más altas tasas de seguimiento a largo plazo. Creemos, por tanto, que es fundamental ampliar el conocimiento que se tiene de estos productos, así como el establecimiento de unos criterios más estrictos en lo referente a la composición de los mismos, por parte de la administración.Introduction: Obesity has become a serious health problem. It is nowadays considered a pandemia and it is therefore a priority to develop different strategies on its prevention and treatment: lifestyle changes, community interventions as well as pharmacological and non-pharmacological activities. In this way, meal replacement products (energy reduced products designed to replace one or two regular meals providing a supously nutritionally balanced low fat meal can be an alternative to traditional reduced calorie diet. Objective: Our aim was to revise the literature on meal replacement and compare the nutritional composition and the different forms of presentation of the main meal replacement products commercialised in Spain. Methodology: We made a research in pharmacies, weight loss centers and big supermarkets of food products specially designed to replace a meal. We compared the nutritional composition regarding macronutrients and micronutrients of the thirty-two different products founded, including their different form of presentation (bars, powder, drink-shakes and crackers. In order to judge their nutritional composition, we compared one meal replaced with these products with the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA. Results: The most common form of meal replacement products were bars (23 of 32 analyzed products, followed by powder for

  3. Effect of a multienzyme complex in wheat-soybean meal diet on digestibility of broiler chickens under different rearing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuensanta Hernández

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of a multienzyme complex containing protease and carbohydrase enzymes on the performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens under different rearing conditions from 1 to 42 d of age. Two experimental starter and finisher wheat-soybean meal based diets were used in a two-phase feeding programme, as follows: control diet (C; control diet plus 0.05% multienzyme complex of protease and carbohydrase enzymes (Allzyme Vegpro (VP. At location 1, broilers were raised in battery cages located in an experimental pen, without contact with litter. At location 2, broilers were raised in floor pens built in a commercial farm, and had contact with litter. At location 3, broilers were raised in commercial farms. In general, no differences in growth performance, feed intake or feed conversion ratio were observed in broiler chickens fed on the different diets at location 1. Only, the average daily feed intake from 22 to 42 d was significantly higher in the VP group compared with the C treatment (P<0.01. In addition, the final body weight of the VP group was numerically greater than that of the birds fed with the control diet, although the inclusion of the multienzyme complex did not cause significant effects. However, the ileal digestibilities of dry matter and crude protein were enhanced (P<0.05 by VP in the case of broilers in floor pens (+2.5% and +2.7% for DM and CP, respectively and in the commercial farm (+4.4% and +6% for the DM and CP, respectively at 42 d of age, as well as faecal digestibity of the VP diet in experimental pen. It seemed that the effectiveness of the multienzyme complex on digestibility was higher when conditions of hygiene were poorer and stress was frequent. Based on the results of this study it can be concluded that the multienzyme complex of protease and carbohydrase enzymes might be effective for improving nutrient digestibility in broilers fed with a wheat-soybean meal based diet under

  4. Replacement Value of Soybean Meal with Luffa cylindrical in Diet of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    (P,0.05) decreases in growth and nutrient utilization parameters of fish fed different dietary treatments ... commonly used plant protein source in fish ... limited by increasing demand for human ... Specification: each kg contains: Vitamin A , 4,000,000IU; Vitamin B, 800,000IU; Vitamin E, .... iron supplementation on growth,.

  5. Effects of substitution of soybean meal-alfalfa-maize by a combination of field bean or pea with hard wheat bran on digestion and growth performance in rabbits in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lounaouci-Ouyed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the trial was to study the effects of replacement of a soybean meal-alfalfa-maize based diet by a mixture of field bean (g/kg as fed: 257 crude protein [CP], 139 neutral detergent fibre [NDF] or pea (g/kg as fed: 203 CP, 122 NDF combined with hard wheat bran (g/kg as fed: 140 CP, 396 NDF and without supplementation of synthetic DL-methionine, on diet digestibility, growth and slaughter traits of growing rabbits. Three diets were formulated: a control diet mainly consisting of 15% of soybean meal, alfalfa and maize (SBM15 diet; g/kg as fed: 161 CP and 267 NDF and 2 experimental diets based on 26% of field bean (FB26 diet; g/kg as fed: 167 CP and 250 NDF or 30% of pea (P30 diet; g/kg as fed: 167 CP and 255 NDF as main protein source, and completed with hard wheat bran (34 and 40%, respectively for FB26 and P30 diets partly replacing alfalfa and maize. Diets were distributed ad libitum to 3 groups of 40 mixed-sex growing rabbits of Algerian white population, placed in collective cages (4 rabbits/cage from weaning (28 d, mean weight: 614±112 g until 77 d of age (slaughter. Faecal digestibility was measured between 42 and 46 d of age in 7 rabbits/group. Gross energy and crude protein digestibility coefficients were similar for SBM15 and FB26 diets (78.6 and 86.4%, respectively and lower for P30 diet (75.1 and 83.6%, respectively; P≤0.03. Treatments had no effect (P=0.12 on mortality rate, which was on av. 9.2%. Treatments did not affect growth performance from 28 to 77 d of age (30.8 g/d or feed intake (mean 94.6 g/d, but feed conversion ratio was higher for rabbits fed FB26 and P30 diets compared to those fed SBM15 diet (3.13 vs. 2.94; P=0.006. The dressing out percentages (mean 66.6% and the muscle/bone ratio (6.8 were similar for the 3 groups of rabbits. In conclusion, the substitution of soybean meal-alfalfa-maize by a combination of field bean or pea with hard wheat bran, without methionine supplementation, does not seem to affect

  6. THE REPLACEMENT OF MAIZE MEAL WITH SODIUM HYDRO)ilDE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    llheat straw, maize meal, chemical treatment, IlloOH, growth diets, lambs) ... Voluntary feed intake, growth and body composition on the 4 diets were tested with ..... Experimental obesity in farm animals. ln Energy Metabolism oJ'farm animals.

  7. Soybean Meal and Soy Protein Concentrate in Early Diet Elicit Different Nutritional Programming Effects on Juvenile Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Erick; Yúfera, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    There is now strong evidence that early nutrition plays an important role in shaping later physiology. We assessed here whether soy protein concentrate (SPC) or soybean meal (SBM) in early diet would modify zebrafish responses to these products in later life. We fed zebrafish larvae with SPC-, SBM-, or a control-diet for the first 3 days of feeding and then grew all larvae on the control diet up to juveniles. Finally, we assessed the expression in juveniles of genes involved in inflammation/immunity, the breakdown of extracellular matrix, luminal digestion, and intestinal nutrient absorption/trafficking. First feeding SBM had wider, stronger, and more persistent effects on gene expression with respect to SPC. Juveniles fed with SPC at first feeding were more prone to inflammation after refeeding with SPC than fish that never experienced SPC before. Conversely, zebrafish that faced SBM at first feeding were later less responsive to refeeding with SBM through inflammation and had higher expression of markers of peptide absorption and fatty acid transport. Results indicate that some features of inflammation/remodeling, presumably at the intestine, and nutrient absorption/transport in fish can be programmed by early nutrition. These findings sustain the rationale of using zebrafish for depicting molecular mechanisms involved in nutritional programming.

  8. Relative bioavailability of zinc-methionine chelate for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Haiqing; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Liyang; Zhang, Xueyuan; Li, Hua; Lu, Yufei; Luo, Xugang

    2015-06-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the bioavailability of the organic Zn-methionine chelate relative to inorganic Zn source (ZnSO4•7H2O) for broiler chicks fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet. A total of 504 1-day-old Arbor Acres commercial male broiler chicks were randomly allotted to one of seven treatments in a completely randomized design involving a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with three levels of added Zn (30, 60, or 90 mg of Zn/kg) and two Zn sources (Zn-methionine chelate and Zn sulfate) plus a Zn-unsupplemented control diet containing 29.2 mg of Zn/kg by analysis for an experimental phase of 21 days. Bone and pancreas were collected for testing Zn concentrations and pancreas metallothionein (MT) messenger RNA (mRNA) level at 7 or 21 days of age. The results showed that bone and pancreas Zn concentrations and MT mRNA level in pancreas increased linearly (P chelate relative to ZnSO4•7H2O (100%) were 120 and 115%, respectively (P > 0.22). The results indicated that the Zn from the Zn-methionine chelate was just as bioavailable as the Zn from Zn sulfate for broilers.

  9. Production of Biomass-Degrading Multienzyme Complexes under Solid-State Fermentation of Soybean Meal Using a Bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitcosque, Gabriela L; Fonseca, Rafael F; Rodríguez-Zúñiga, Ursula Fabiola; Bertucci Neto, Victor; Couri, Sonia; Farinas, Cristiane S

    2012-01-01

    Biomass-degrading enzymes are one of the most costly inputs affecting the economic viability of the biochemical route for biomass conversion into biofuels. This work evaluates the effects of operational conditions on biomass-degrading multienzyme production by a selected strain of Aspergillus niger. The fungus was cultivated under solid-state fermentation (SSF) of soybean meal, using an instrumented lab-scale bioreactor equipped with an on-line automated monitoring and control system. The effects of air flow rate, inlet air relative humidity, and initial substrate moisture content on multienzyme (FPase, endoglucanase, and xylanase) production were evaluated using a statistical design methodology. Highest production of FPase (0.55 IU/g), endoglucanase (35.1 IU/g), and xylanase (47.7 IU/g) was achieved using an initial substrate moisture content of 84%, an inlet air humidity of 70%, and a flow rate of 24 mL/min. The enzymatic complex was then used to hydrolyze a lignocellulosic biomass, releasing 4.4 g/L of glucose after 36 hours of saccharification of 50 g/L pretreated sugar cane bagasse. These results demonstrate the potential application of enzymes produced under SSF, thus contributing to generate the necessary technological advances to increase the efficiency of the use of biomass as a renewable energy source.

  10. Effects of Fermented Soybean Meal on Growth Performance in Calves%发酵豆粕对犊牛生长性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王福慧; 李颖丽; 杨晓东; 王小平; 樊宏莉; 孙晓智; 王锋; 梁建光

    2013-01-01

    This trial was conducted to study the effects of fermented soybean meal on growth performance in calves, whether or not using in calf feed. A total of sixteen Holstein calves were randomly divided into two groups(eight for each group) based on body weight and birthday similarity.The control group fed original feed; the test group fed the fermented soybean meal. The result showed that average daily gain and the feed Conversion rate of test group increased by 0.1 kg/head and 0.04, respectively the production cost was decreased by 3.60 yuan/ton, the growth performance was improved, production input and production costs were reduced. Therefore, fermented soybean meal which could be used in calf feed has better effect than expanded soybean.%本文旨在研究发酵豆粕对犊牛生长性能的影响.选取16头健康荷斯坦犊牛,按照体重、出生日期相近原则随机分为试验组和对照组,每组各8头,分别饲喂发酵豆粕试验料和以膨化大豆为主要成分的牧场原有品牌犊牛料.结果显示,使用发酵豆粕能够使犊牛平均日增重提高0.1kg/头,饲料转化率提高0.04,降低配方成本3.60元/t.试验表明,发酵豆粕使用效果优于膨化大豆,能够提高犊牛生产性能、降低养殖投入和生产成本,能够在犊牛料中使用.

  11. Amino acid digestibility in soybean meal sourced from different regions of the United States and fed to pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotak-Peper, K M; González-Vega, J C; Stein, H H

    2017-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) by growing pigs of AA in soybean meal (SBM) produced in different regions of the United States. Twenty-two growing barrows (25.5 ± 1.73 kg) were fitted with a T-cannula near the distal ileum and allotted to a 22 × 8 Youden square design. Twenty-two sources of SBM were procured from soybean crushing plants located throughout the United States. For analysis, the crushing plant locations were separated into the following 3 zones: 1) Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota ( = 4); 2) Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio ( = 11); and 3) Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska ( = 7). Dietary treatments included 22 diets based on a mixture of cornstarch, sucrose, and each source of SBM as the sole source of CP. Results indicated that the concentration of most indispensable and dispensable AA in SBM were not different among zones. However, SBM from zone 2 had a greater ( zone 3 and a greater ( zone 1. The concentration of Tyr in SBM from zone 2 was also greater ( zones 1 and 3. However, if concentrations of AA were calculated as a percent of CP, there were no differences in the concentrations of indispensable and dispensable AA among SBM from the 3 zones. Likewise, the AID of CP and the AID of indispensable and dispensable AA were not different among SBM from the 3 zones. The SID of CP and most AA was also not different among SBM from the 3 zones. However, SBM from zone 3 had a greater ( zone 2, and SBM from zone 1 had a greater ( zone 2. There was also a tendency ( zone 3 to have a greater SID of Ile, Leu, Phe, Val, Ala, and Tyr than SBM from zone 2. If the concentrations of SID CP and AA were calculated as grams per kilogram, SBM among the 3 zones were not different with the exception that there was a tendency ( = 0.07) for SBM from zone 2 to contain more SID Thr and SID Tyr than SBM from zone 3. In conclusion, only a few differences in concentrations and

  12. Maximizing the use of supplemental amino acids in corn-soybean meal diets for 20- to 45-kilogram pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, M L; Donsbough, A L; Waguespack, A M; Powell, S; Bidner, T D; Payne, R L; Southern, L L

    2011-08-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine the Lys requirement, the maximum amount of supplemental Lys that does not decrease growth performance, and to determine the order of limiting AA beyond Lys, Thr, Trp, and Met in a corn-soybean meal diet for 20- to 45-kg pigs. All experiments were conducted for 27 to 28 d with purebred or crossbred barrows and gilts, which were blocked by initial BW. Treatments were replicated with 4 to 6 pens of 4 to 6 pigs per pen. In all experiments, pigs and feeders were weighed on d 0, 14, and 27 or 28. At the beginning and end of all experiments, blood samples were obtained from all pigs to determine plasma urea N (PUN) concentrations. In Exp. 1, 0.830, 0.872, 0.913, and 0.955% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys was fed, whereas 0.747, 0.788, 0.830, 0.872, and 0.913% SID Lys was fed in Exp. 2. Broken-line analysis requirement estimates could not be estimated from any response variable in Exp. 1, but in Exp. 2, using ADG and PUN, the estimated SID Lys requirement was 0.83%. In Exp. 3, 0, 0.118, 0.191, 0.264, and 0.335% supplemental Lys was added to achieve 0.83% SID Lys in all diets, and Thr, Trp, and Met were supplemented to maintain Thr:Lys, Trp:Lys, and TSAA:Lys of 0.65, 0.18, and 0.60, respectively. Based on ADG, ADFI, and G:F, up to 0.23% supplemental Lys can be added along with supplemental Thr, Trp, and Met without negatively affecting growth performance; PUN was linearly decreased (P 0.10) ADG or G:F compared with the NC. The combined addition of Val + Ile resulted in ADG that was intermediate between the PC and NC diets but not different from either diet (P > 0.10); G:F was not improved (P > 0.10) to that observed in pigs fed the PC diet. The PUN was not different (P > 0.10) among pigs fed diets with supplemental AA but less (P < 0.10) than pigs fed the PC. The results of this research indicate that the Lys requirement for 20- to 45-kg pigs is 0.83% SID Lys, up to 0.23% supplemental Lys (0.29% l-Lys·HCl or 0.45% l

  13. Isoleucine requirement of 80- to 120-kilogram barrows fed corn-soybean meal or corn-blood cell diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, D W; Southern, L L; Kerr, B J; Bidner, T D

    2005-11-01

    Six experiments were conducted to validate an Ile-deficient diet and determine the Ile requirement of 80- to 120-kg barrows. Experiment 1 had five replications, and Exp. 2 through 6 had four replications per treatment; all pen replicates had four crossbred barrows each (initial BW were 93, 83, 85, 81, 81, and 88 kg, respectively). All dietary additions were on an as-fed basis. In Exp. 1, pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal diet (C-SBM) or a corn-5% blood cell (BC) diet with or without 0.26% supplemental Ile (C-BC or C-BC+Ile) in a 28-d growth assay. On d 14, pigs receiving the C-BC diet were taken off experiment as a result of a severe decrease in ADFI. Growth performance did not differ for pigs fed C-SBM or C-BC + Ile (P = 0.36) over the 28-d experiment. In Exp. 2, pigs were fed the C-BC diet containing 0.24, 0.26, 0.28, 0.30, or 0.32% true ileal digestible (TD) Ile for 7 d in an attempt to estimate the Ile requirement using plasma urea N (PUN) as the response variable. Because of incremental increases in ADFI as TD Ile increased, PUN could not be used to estimate the Ile requirement. In Exp. 3, pigs were fed the C-BC diet containing 0.28, 0.30, 0.32, 0.34, or 0.36% TD Ile. Daily gain, ADFI, and G:F increased linearly (P kilograms of lean increased linearly (P kilograms of lean is not < 0.34% in a C-BC diet, but may be as low as 0.24% in a C-SBM diet.

  14. Ontogeny of the Digestive System of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L. and Effects of Soybean Meal from Start-Feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Sahlmann

    Full Text Available Despite a long history of rearing Atlantic salmon in hatcheries in Norway, knowledge of molecular and physiological aspects of juvenile development is still limited. To facilitate introduction of alternative feed ingredients and feed additives during early phases, increased knowledge regarding the ontogeny of the digestive apparatus in salmon is needed. In this study, we characterized the development of the gastrointestinal tract and accessory digestive organs for five months following hatch by using histological, biochemical and molecular methods. Furthermore, the effects of a diet containing 16.7% soybean meal (SBM introduced at start-feeding were investigated, as compared to a fishmeal based control diet. Salmon yolk sac alevins and fry were sampled at 18 time points from hatch until 144 days post hatch (dph. Histomorphological development was investigated at 7, 27, 46, 54 and 144 dph. Ontogenetic expression patterns of genes encoding key digestive enzymes, nutrient transporters, gastrointestinal peptide hormones and T-cell markers were analyzed from 13 time points by qPCR. At 7 dph, the digestive system of Atlantic salmon alevins was morphologically distinct with an early stomach, liver, pancreas, anterior and posterior intestine. About one week before the yolk sac was internalized and exogenous feeding was started, gastric glands and developing pyloric caeca were observed, which coincided with an increase in gene expression of gastric and pancreatic enzymes and nutrient transporters. Thus, the observed organs seemed ready to digest external feed well before the yolk sac was absorbed into the abdominal cavity. In contrast to post-smolt Atlantic salmon, inclusion of SBM did not induce intestinal inflammation in the juveniles. This indicates that SBM can be used in compound feeds for salmon fry from start-feeding to at least 144 dph and/or 4-5 g body weight.

  15. Effects of corn and soybean meal types on rumen fermentation, nitrogen metabolism and productivity in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, J S; Song, L J; Sun, H Z; Wang, B; Chai, Z; Chacher, B; Liu, J X

    2015-03-01

    Twelve multiparous Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation were selected for a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2 ×2 factorial arrangement to investigate the effects of corn and soybean meal (SBM) types on rumen fermentation, N metabolism and lactation performance in dairy cows. Two types of corn (dry ground [DGC] and steam-flaked corn [SFC]) and two types of SBM (solvent-extracted and heat-treated SBM) with different ruminal degradation rates and extents were used to formulate four diets with the same basal ingredients. Each period lasted for 21 days, including 14 d for adaptation and 7 d for sample collection. Cows receiving SFC had a lower dry matter (DM) and total N intake than those fed DGC. However, the milk yield and milk protein yield were not influenced by the corn type, resulting in higher feed and N utilization efficiency in SFC-fed cows than those receiving DGC. Ruminal acetate concentrations was greater and total volatile fatty acids concentrations tended to be greater for cows receiving DGC relative to cows fed SFC, but milk fat content was not influenced by corn type. The SFC-fed cows had lower ruminal ammonia-N, less urea N in their blood and milk, and lower fecal N excretion than those on DGC. Compared with solvent-extracted SBM-fed cows, cows receiving heat-treated SBM had lower microbial protein yield in the rumen, but similar total tract apparent nutrient digestibility, N metabolism measurements, and productivity. Excessive supply of metabolizable protein in all diets may have caused the lack of difference in lactation performance between SBM types. Results of the present study indicated that increasing the energy degradability in the rumen could improve feed efficiency, and reduce environmental pollution.

  16. Effect of biostimulation using sewage sludge, soybean meal and wheat straw on oil degradation and bacterial community composition in a contaminated desert soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaiya eAl-Kindi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Waste materials have a strong potential in the bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites, because of their richness in nutrients and their economical feasibility. We used sewage sludge, soybean meal and wheat straw to biostimulate oil degradation in a heavily contaminated desert soil. While oil degradation was assessed by following the produced CO2 and by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, shifts in bacterial community composition were monitored using illumina MiSeq. The addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw to the desert soil stimulated the respiration activities more than the addition of soybean meal. GC-MS analysis revealed that the addition of addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw resulted in 1.7 to 1.8 fold increase in the degraded C14 to C30 alkanes, compared to only 1.3 fold increase in the case of soybean meal addition. The degradation of ≥ 90% of the C14 to C30 alkanes were measured in the soils treated with sewage sludge and wheat straw. MiSeq sequencing revealed that the majority (76.5-86.4% of total sequences of acquired sequences from the original soil belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Multivariate analysis of operational taxonomic units (OTUs placed the bacterial communities of the soils after the treatments in separate clusters (ANOSIM R=0.66, P=0.0001. The most remarkable shift in bacterial communities was in the wheat straw treatment, where 95-98% of the total sequences belonging to Bacilli. We conclude that sewage sludge and wheat straw are useful biostimulating agents for the cleanup of oil-contaminated desert soils.

  17. Substituição da farinha de carne suína por fontes vegetais em dietas para carpa-húngara Replacement of pork meal by plant protein sources in Hungarian carp diets

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    Giovani Taffarel Bergamin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento e a qualidade de carcaça de carpa-húngara alimentada com dietas em que houve substituição da farinha de carne suína por farelos de soja e canola, bem como determinar parâmetros bioquímicos do metabolismo dos peixes e a qualidade sensorial do filé. Cada um dos farelos contribuiu com 50% da proteína na mistura. Cinco dietas foram avaliadas, com níveis de substituição (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% da proteína da farinha de carne suína pela mistura das fontes vegetais. A inclusão de fontes proteicas vegetais nas dietas reduziu o crescimento, a deposição de gordura corporal e no filé, e o colesterol total dos peixes. A cor e o sabor dos filés não foram afetados pela inclusão das fontes proteicas vegetais. A dieta à base de farinha de carne suína é mais eficiente para o crescimento da carpa-húngara, e proporciona maior deposição de proteína no peixe inteiro e no filé.The objective of this work was to evaluate growth and carcass composition of Hungarian carp fed with diets in which pork meat meal was replaced by a combination of canola and soybean meals, as well as to determine fish metabolism biochemical parameters and the sensorial quality of the fillet. Each plant meal contributed with 50% of the dietary protein of the mixture. Five diets were tested, with replacement levels of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of pork meal by plant protein sources. The inclusion of the plant-protein meal in the diet results in lower overall growth, lower body and fillet lipid deposition and lower total cholesterol of the fish. Color and flavor of the fillets were not affected by inclusion of plant protein sources. A pork meat meal based diet is more efficient for Hungarian carp growth, and provides higher whole fish and fillet protein deposition.

  18. 酵母菌单菌固态发酵豆粕的研究%Single Strain Yeast Solid- State Fermentation of Soybean Meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴胜华; 李吕木; 张邦辉; 韩景华

    2009-01-01

    Aiming to improve the feeding quality of soybean meal, a high - efficient yeast strain was selected from 12 yeast strains and was used on ordinary raw soybean meal to study the effect of fermentation on the contents of trypsin in-hibitors (TI) and small peptides of soybean meal. The fermentation conditions were optimized by a L25(56) orthogonal ex-periment. Results show the optimization fermentation conditions are as follows: inoculum size 6.0%, material to liquid ra-tio 1 : 0.9, ventilation capacity 45 g/500 mL, pH nature, fermentation temperature 30 ℃ and fermentation time 48 h. With the fermentation, TI decreases from 42.35 mg/g(d.b. ) to 18.63 mg/g (d.b.), and small peptide content increases from 1.65 % to 8.7 %. The fermentation leads the raw soybean meal becoming into a more nutritive protein feed.%为了选育能够提高豆粕饲用品质的高效菌株,从12株酵母菌中筛选出一株优质酵母菌,以普通生豆粕为原料,通过L25(56)的正交试验,研究其对豆粕中胰蛋白酶抑制因子和小肽含量的影响,并对其发酵条件进行优化.结果表明,最优发酵条件为:6%的接种量,料水比为1:0.9,通气量为45 g/500 mL,在自然pH,30 ℃下发酵48 h;胰蛋白酶抑制因子含量显著下降,降解率达56.2%(42.53~18.63 mg/g),小肽含量提高了4.3倍(1.65%~8.7%).微生物发酵生豆粕能明显降解抗营养因子,从而改善其饲用品质.

  19. An optimal dietary non-phytate phosphorus level of broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet from 4 to 6 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Lu, L; Li, S F; Wang, L; Zhang, L Y; Liu, S B; Luo, X G

    2016-10-01

    It is imperative to evaluate precise nutrient requirements of animals in order to optimize productivity and minimize feed cost and nutrient excretions. The current non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) recommendation for broilers is based on the papers published 30 years ago. However, today's commercial birds are quite different from those before 30 years. Therefore, the present experiment was conducted with growing male broiler chickens to evaluate an optimal dietary NPP level of broiler chickens fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet from 4 to 6 weeks of age. The 1-day-old chicks were fed corn-soybean meal diet containing 0.39% NPP from 1 to 3 weeks of age. At 22 days of age, 360 birds were selected and randomly allotted by BW to one of 10 dietary treatments with six replicate cages of six birds per cage for each treatment. Birds were fed the P-unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet and the basal diet supplemented with inorganic P as CaHPO4·H2O ranging from 0.00% to 0.45% with 0.05% increment from 4 to 6 weeks of age. The dietary NPP levels were 0.09%, 0.14%, 0.20%, 0.24%, 0.30%, 0.34%, 0.38%, 0.45%, 0.49% and 0.54%, respectively, and the dietary Ca level was fixed at 0.90% for all treatments. The results showed that average daily gain, serum inorganic P concentration, tibia bone strength, tibia ash percentage and P percentage, tibia bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD), middle toe ash percentage and P percentage, middle toe BMC, total body BMC and BMD were affected (P<0.0001) by dietary NPP level, and increased linearly (P<0.0001) and quadratically (P<0.003) as dietary NPP levels increased. Optimal dietary NPP levels estimated based on fitted broken-line models (P<0.0001) of the above indices are 0.21%, 0.29%, 0.29%, 0.29%, 0.29%, 0.31%, 0.29%, 0.30%, 0.27%, 0.29% and 0.28%, respectively. It is suggested that the total body BMC and BMD, and middle toe ash P and BMC might be new, sensitive and non-invasive criteria to evaluate the dietary NPP requirements

  20. 豆粕中大豆异黄酮含量快速测定方法的研究%Soybean Isoflavone Content in Soybean Meal Fast Determination Method of Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍会梅

    2016-01-01

    To explorethe optimal methods of soybean isoflavones determination of soybean meal in objective, the use of HPLC determination of 3 Soybean Isoflavones of daidzin, daidzein, genistein in soybean meal and op-timize the detection conditions. daidzin, daidzein, genistein content were 194.92, 14.20, 15.42 μg/g; RSD were less than 0.30%;the average recovery of daidzin, daidzein, genistein was respectively 99.55%, 99.65%, 99.11%, detection, mobile phase of methanol∶water∶acetic acid(40∶60∶1,volume ratio);column temperature was 40℃;the flow rate was 1.0 mL/min.%探究豆粕中大豆异黄酮测定的最优方法。使用高效液相色谱法测定豆粕中大豆苷、大豆苷元、染料木素3种大豆异黄酮的含量并优化其检测条件。结果表明,大豆苷、大豆苷元、染料木素含量分别为194.92、14.20、15.42μg/g;RSD都小于0.30%;大豆苷、大豆苷元、染料木素的平均回收率分别为99.55%、99.65%、99.11%,检测时,流动相为甲醇∶水∶醋酸(40∶60∶1,体积比);柱温为40℃;流速为1.0 mL/min。

  1. GROWTH, HAEMATOLOGICAL AND SERUM BIOCHEMICAL INDICES OF BROILER CHICKENS FED BANANA PEEL MEAL AS REPLACEMENT FOR MAIZE IN THE SEMI-ARID ZONE OF NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    H. DUWA; Saleh, B.; M. LAMIDO; A. SAIDU

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the replacement of maize with banana peel meal in broiler diets. One hundred and twenty (120) Anak 2000 broiler chicken were used for the study. Four diets were formulated using banana peel meal at 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% levels in the respected diets. The birds were randomly allotted to dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment consists of thirty birds with ten birds per replicate. The experiment lasted for eight weeks; feed ...

  2. A controlled trial of protein enrichment of meal replacements for weight reduction with retention of lean body mass

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    Bowerman Susan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While high protein diets have been shown to improve satiety and retention of lean body mass (LBM, this study was designed to determine effects of a protein-enriched meal replacement (MR on weight loss and LBM retention by comparison to an isocaloric carbohydrate-enriched MR within customized diet plans utilizing MR to achieve high protein or standard protein intakes. Methods Single blind, placebo-controlled, randomized outpatient weight loss trial in 100 obese men and women comparing two isocaloric meal plans utilizing a standard MR to which was added supplementary protein or carbohydrate powder. MR was used twice daily (one meal, one snack. One additional meal was included in the meal plan designed to achieve individualized protein intakes of either 1 2.2 g protein/kg of LBM per day [high protein diet (HP] or 2 1.1 g protein/kg LBM/day standard protein diet (SP. LBM was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. Body weight, body composition, and lipid profiles were measured at baseline and 12 weeks. Results Eighty-five subjects completed the study. Both HP and SP MR were well tolerated, with no adverse effects. There were no differences in weight loss at 12 weeks (-4.19 ± 0.5 kg for HP group and -3.72 ± 0.7 kg for SP group, p > 0.1. Subjects in the HP group lost significantly more fat weight than the SP group (HP = -1.65 ± 0.63 kg; SP = -0.64 ± 0.79 kg, P = 0.05 as estimated by BIA. There were no significant differences in lipids nor fasting blood glucose between groups, but within the HP group a significant decrease in cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was noted at 12 weeks. This was not seen in the SP group. Conclusion Higher protein MR within a higher protein diet resulted in similar overall weight loss as the standard protein MR plan over 12 weeks. However, there was significantly more fat loss in the HP group but no significant difference in lean body mass. In this trial, subject compliance with both the

  3. Ethylene glycol, but not DMSO, could replace glycerol inclusion in soybean lecithin-based extenders in ram sperm cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Abouzar; Daghigh-Kia, Hossein; Dodaran, Hossein Vaseghi; Mehdipour, Mahdieh; Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of glycerol, ethylene glycol or DMSO in a soybean lecithin extender for freezing ram semen. In this study, 20 ejaculates were collected from four Ghezel rams and diluted with soybean lecithin extender with glycerol (7%), ethylene glycol (3%, 5% and 7%) or DMSO (3%, 5% and 7%). Sperm motility (CASA), membrane integrity (HOS test), viability, total abnormality, mitochondrial activity (Rhodamine 123) and apoptotic features (Annexin V/Propidium iodide) were assessed after thawing. There was no significant difference between glycerol and ethylene glycol at different concentrations (3% and 5%) regarding sperm total and progressive motility, viability, and membrane integrity. The least percentages of mitochondrial functionality were observed in samples frozen with all different DMSO concentrations tested (Pethylene glycol could be a desirable substitute of glycerol in the freezing extender, in view of similar results obtained in post-thaw quality of ram semen cryopreserved in a soybean lecithin extender. We propose that glycerol in a soybean lecithin based extender could be replaced by ethylene glycol at 3% or 5% concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 混菌固态发酵法生产大豆多肽饲料的研究%Research on preparing soybean opypeptide from soybean meal by solid-state fermentation with manifold strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓艳; 杨国力; 国立东; 孟丹; 连莲; 王文侠

    2012-01-01

    The soybean peptide was produced by manifold strains through solid-state fermentation using Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Protein in soybean meal was degraded by various protease produced by Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus oryzae into peptides. Starch and cellulose in soybean meal were degraded by various cellulase produced by Aspergillus oryzae into the mono-,oligosaccharides. The mono-,oligosaccharide was degraded by various enzymes produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae into alcohols flavor compounds.The effects of the composition of fermentation medium, ratio of inoculating strains, quantity of inoculation, fermentation temperature and fermentation time on the production rate of peptides from fermented soybean meal were researched. The optimum conditions were as follows: soybean meal / wheat bran 8:1, ratio of inoculating manifold strains 5:1:1 (V : V : V)(Bacillus subtilis/Aspergillus oryzae/Saccharomyces cerevisiae), added water level 120%, quantity of inoculation 25%, temperature 34℃, fermentation period 96 h. The production rate of peptides in the fermented soybean meal could reach 54.89%, the content of peptides was 21.47%(dry substance).%采用枯草芽孢杆菌、米曲霉和酿酒酵母混合菌株固态发酵法生产大豆多肽饲料.利用枯草芽孢杆菌和米曲霉分泌蛋白酶降解基料中的蛋白质,使其分解成小肽;利用米曲霉将淀粉和纤维素降解为简单糖类物质;利用酿酒酵母分解糖类,产生醇香味,增加多肽饲料的适口性.以高温豆粕为原料,研究了发酵培养基组成、接种菌配比、接种量、发酵温度和发酵时间对发酵豆粕中多肽得率的影响,得到了最佳工艺条件:豆麸比为8:1(m:m),加蜜量为2%,混菌菌种比(枯草芽孢杆菌、米曲霉、酿酒酵母)为5:1:1(V:V:V),加水量为120%,接种量为25%,发酵温度为34℃,发酵时间为96 h.最终发酵物中多肽得率达54.89%,发

  5. Twin- or single-screw extrusion of raw soybeans and preconditioned soybean meal and corn as individual ingredients or as corn-soybean product blends in diets for weanling swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veum, T L; Serrano, X; Hsieh, F H

    2017-03-01

    Two 28-d experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of extrusion of ground yellow corn, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM), and cracked whole soybeans (CWS) individually or as corn-soybean product blends on growth performance of weanling pigs. For Exp. 1, ground corn, SBM, and the corn-SBM blend were extruded at 137.5°C, 131.5°C, and 135.0°C, respectively, in a twin-screw extruder. Transit time was 60 s. Water was injected at 125 gmin during extrusion. The 5 treatments were the corn-SBM control diet and the diets with extruded (EX) corn + SBM, EX-SBM + corn, EX-corn + EX-SBM, and the EX-blend of corn-SBM. Ninety crossbred pigs with an initial average BW of 5.98 kg were allotted to 9 treatment replications with a barrow and gilt per pen. For Exp. 2, ground corn was preconditioned with water (10.0% of corn weight), and SBM was preconditioned with water and soybean oil (each at 20.0% of SBM weight) before extrusion. Raw CWS were not preconditioned. The corn, SBM, CWS, corn-SBM blend, and corn-CWS blend were extruded at 113.0°C, 132.0°C, 132.0°C, 88.0°C, and 102°C, respectively, with a single-screw extruder. Transit time was 30 s. The 8 isocaloric treatments were the corn-SBM control diet and the diets with EX-corn + SBM, EX-SBM + corn, EX-corn + EX-SBM, the EX-blend of corn-SBM, EX-CWS + corn, EX-CWS + EX-corn, and the EX-blend of corn-CWS. A total of 296 crossbred pigs with an initial average BW of 6.56 kg were allotted to 10 treatment replications. Sex and pigs per pen (3 or 4) were equalized within replication. Results for both experiments indicate that single- or twin-screw extrusion of ground corn or SBM as individual ingredients or as corn-SBM blends in diets for weanling pigs did not improve 28-d growth performance. However, for Exp. 2 weanling pigs fed the diets with EX-CWS + corn and EX-CWS + EX-corn had greater ( < 0.01) ADG and G:F, respectively, than pigs fed the corn-SBM control diet. The extrusion temperature of 102°C for the corn

  6. Effects of balancing crystalline amino acids in diets containing heat-damaged soybean meal or distillers dried grains with solubles fed to weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, F N; Htoo, J K; Thomson, J; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate if adjustments in diet formulations either based on total analysed amino acids or standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids may be used to eliminate negative effects of including heat-damaged soybean meal (SBM) or heat-damaged corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets fed to weanling pigs. In Experiment 1, four corn-SBM diets were formulated. Diet 1 contained non-autoclaved SBM (315 g/kg), and this diet was formulated on the basis of analysed amino acid concentrations and using SID values from the AminoDat® 4.0 database. Diet 2 was similar to Diet 1 in terms of ingredient composition, except that the non-autoclaved SBM was replaced by autoclaved SBM at 1 : 1 (weight basis). Diet 3 was formulated using autoclaved SBM and amino acid inclusions in the diet were adjusted on the basis of analysed total amino acid concentrations in the autoclaved SBM and published SID values for non-autoclaved SBM (AminoDat® 4.0). Diet 4 also contained autoclaved SBM, but the formulation of this diet was adjusted on the basis of analysed amino acids in the autoclaved SBM and SID values that were adjusted according to the degree of heat damage in this source of SBM. Pigs (160; initial BW: 10.4 kg) were allotted to the four treatments with eight replicate pens per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Diets were fed to pigs for 21 days. The gain to feed ratio (G : F) was greater (PDiet 1 compared with pigs fed the other diets and pigs fed Diet 4 had greater (PDiet 2. In Experiment 2, 144 pigs (initial BW: 9.9 kg) were allotted to four diets with eight replicate pens per diet. The four diets contained corn, SBM (85 g/kg) and DDGS (220 g/kg), and were formulated using the concepts described for Experiment 1, except that heat-damaged DDGS, but not heat-damaged SBM, was used in the diets. Pigs fed Diet 1 had greater (PDiet 2, but no differences were observed for G : F among pigs fed diets containing autoclaved

  7. Effect of Soybean Meal and Soluble Starch on Biogenic Amine Production and Microbial Diversity Using Rumen Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Dae Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of soybean meal (SM and soluble starch (SS on biogenic amine production and microbial diversity using in vitro ruminal fermentation. Treatments comprised of incubation of 2 g of mixture (expressed as 10 parts containing different ratios of SM to SS as: 0:0, 10:0, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7, or 0:10. In vitro ruminal fermentation parameters were determined at 0, 12, 24, and 48 h of incubation while the biogenic amine and microbial diversity were determined at 48 h of incubation. Treatment with highest proportion of SM had higher (p<0.05 gas production than those with higher proportions of SS. Samples with higher proportion of SS resulted in lower pH than those with higher proportion of SM after 48 h of incubation. The largest change in NH3-N concentration from 0 to 48 h was observed on all SM while the smallest was observed on exclusive SS. Similarly, exclusive SS had the lowest NH3-N concentration among all groups after 24 h of incubation. Increasing methane (CH4 concentrations were observed with time, and CH4 concentrations were higher (p<0.05 with greater proportions of SM than SS. Balanced proportion of SM and SS had the highest (p<0.05 total volatile fatty acid (TVFA while propionate was found highest in higher proportion of SS. Moreover, biogenic amine (BA was higher (p<0.05 in samples containing greater proportions of SM. Histamines, amine index and total amines were highest in exclusive SM followed in sequence mixtures with increasing proportion of SS (and lowered proportion of SM at 48 h of incubation. Nine dominant bands were identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and their identity ranged from 87% to 100% which were mostly isolated from rumen and feces. Bands R2 (uncultured bacterium clone RB-5E1 and R4 (uncultured rumen bacterium clone L7A_C10 bands were found in samples with higher proportions of SM while R3 (uncultured Firmicutes bacterium clone NI_52, R7 (Selenomonas sp

  8. Effect of Phytogenic Feed Additives in Soybean Meal on Swine Fermentation for Odor Reduction and Bacterial Community Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Alam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different phytogenic feed additives on reducing odorous compounds in swine was investigated using in vitro fermentation and analyzed their microbial communities. Soybean meal (1% added with 0.1% different phytogenic feed additives (FA were in vitro fermented using swine fecal slurries and anaerobically incubated for 12 and 24 h. The phytogenic FAs used were red ginseng barn powder (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, FA1, persimmon leaf powder (Diospyros virginiana L., FA2, ginkgo leaf powder (Ginkgo biloba L., FA3, and oregano lippia seed oil extract (Lippia graveolens Kunth, OL, FA4. Total gas production, pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N, hydrogen sulfide (H2S, nitrite-nitrogen (NO2−-N, nitrate-nitrogen (NO3−-N, sulfate (SO4−−, volatile fatty acids (VFA and other metabolites concentration were determined. Microbial communities were also analyzed using 16S rRNA DGGE. Results showed that the pH values on all treatments increased as incubation time became longer except for FA4 where it decreased. Moreover, FA4 incubated for 12 and 24 h was not detected in NH3-N and H2S. Addition of FAs decreased (p<0.05 propionate production but increased (p<0.05 the total VFA production. Ten 16S rRNA DGGE bands were identified which ranged from 96 to 100% identity which were mostly isolated from the intestine. Similarity index showed three clearly different clusters: I (FA2 and FA3, II (Con and FA1, and III (FA4. Dominant bands which were identified closest to Eubacterium limosum (ATCC 8486T, Uncultured bacterium clone PF6641 and Streptococcus lutetiensis (CIP 106849T were present only in the FA4 treatment group and were not found in other groups. FA4 had a different bacterial diversity compared to control and other treatments and thus explains having lowest odorous compounds. Addition of FA4 to an enriched protein feed source for growing swine may effectively reduce odorous compounds which are typically associated with swine production.

  9. Influence of substituting dietary soybean for air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) meal on egg production and steroid hormones in early-phase laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Nahashon, S N; Introna, M; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V

    2014-02-01

    Soybean meal (SBM) is the most widely and expensive protein source used in the formulation of poultry diets; however, when the price of SBM increases, poultry nutritionists seek alternative sources that are more economical in formulating least-cost rations. This research aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary air-classified sunflower meal (SFM) on some productive parameters and plasma steroid hormones in laying hens. In this trial, 20-week-old laying hens (ISA Brown strain) in the early phase of production were randomly assigned to two groups and fed wheat middlings-based diets containing soybean (135 g/kg; 48% CP) or air-classified SFM (160 g/kg; 41% CP) as the main protein source. Laying performance, egg size and feed conversion ratio were evaluated for 10 week. Plasma steroid hormones (progesterone and oestradiol) in the hens were quantified weekly. Substituting SBM with air-classified SFM did not change (p > 0.05) the hens' growth performance, whereas feed consumption and efficiency were positively influenced (p hormones levels were affected by dietary treatment (p < 0.01). From our findings, it could be effective to include air-classified SFM in early-phase laying hen diets as an alternative protein source substituting SBM, without negative influence on productive performance and egg traits, reducing also the production costs.

  10. Replacement of Forage Fiber Sources with Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles and Corn Germ Meal in Holstein Calf Diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jun; HOU Yu-jie; ZHAO Guo-qi; YU Ai-bing; SU Yan-jing; HUO Yong-jiu; ZHU Jian-ming

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of replacement of forage ifber sources from alfalfa and Leymus chinensis with nonforage ifber sources (NFFS) from dried distillers grains with solubles and corn germ meal on calves growth, rumen development and blood parameters. 48 female and 12 male calves ((110.55±15.36) kg of body weight and 12 wk of age) were assigned randomly to four dietary treatments (15 calves/treatment) in a completely randomized design. Experimental diets were:0%NFFS (control), 9%NFFS (group 1), 18%NFFS (group 2), 27%NFFS (group 3), and contained equivalent neutral detergent ifber and total digestible nutrients, respectively. The dry matter intake was similar among diets, averaging 3.33 kg d-1, and no differences were detected for body weight, withers height, body length and heart girth. In addition, the development of rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum also were similar among diets. Dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent ifber digestibilities increased with the increasing levels of NFFS in the experimental diets, but had no signiifcant effect. Blood urea nitrogen, total protein and glubulin were not affected by the dietary treatment, but group 3 resulted in the highest (P<0.05) concentrations of glucose and the lowest (P<0.05) concentrations of triglycerides and albumin. In conclusion, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and corn germ meal (CGM) were available and alternative ifber sources for Holstein calf diets.

  11. Replacement of fishmeal with processed meal from knife fish Chitala ornata in diets of juvenile Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherilyn T. Abarra

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to assess the effects of processed meal from knife fish Chitala ornata (KFM as fishmeal replacement in diets of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus juveniles. Five iso-nitrogenous (36.4% in dry matter and isolipidic diets (8.6% in dry matter with 0 (D1, 25 (D2, 50 (D3, 75 (D4 and 100% (D5 KFM inclusions were prepared. With a stocking density of 15 fish (0.59 ± 0.01 g per tank, tilapia juveniles were distributed randomly in fifteen 30-L tanks. Results indicate a significant increase (P  0.05 among treatments. Results of hepatic histopathology showed absence of tumors, lesions and parenchymal inflammation in all treatments. However, mild cell membrane lysis and mild and mild to moderate apoptosis were evident in liver samples. Based on the results, KFM can partially and completely replace dietary protein from fishmeal. Moreover, D4 (75% KFM is considered the optimal KFM replacement level for Nile tilapia juveniles.

  12. Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in soybean meal produced from conventional, high-protein, or low-oligosaccharide varieties of soybeans and fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K M; Stein, H H

    2009-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine AA digestibility and the concentration of DE and ME in 5 sources of soybean meal (SBM). The 5 sources included hexane-extracted SBM produced from high-protein soybeans (SBM-HP) and conventional soybeans (SBM-CONV), and mechanically extruded-expelled SBM produced from high-protein soybeans (EE-SBM-HP), low-oligosaccharide soybeans (EE-SBM-LO), and conventional soybeans (EE-SBM-CONV). Five diets that each contained 1 source of SBM and a N-free diet were used in Exp. 1 to determine AA digestibility in each meal. Twelve growing barrows (initial BW: 67.7 +/- 1.34 kg) were allotted to a replicated 6 x 6 Latin square design with 6 periods and 6 diets in each square. Each period lasted 7 d, and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. Results of the experiment showed that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of all AA except Trp was similar for SBM-HP and SBM-CONV, but EE-SBM-HP and EE-SBM-LO had greater (P < 0.05) SID of His, Ile, Lys, Thr, and Val than EE-SBM-CONV. The SID of all indispensable AA in EE-SBM-HP was greater (P < 0.05) than in SBM-HP. The SID of Arg, Ile, Leu, and Phe in EE-SBM-CONV was greater (P < 0.05) than in SBM-CONV, but the SID of Trp was also greater (P < 0.05) in SBM-CONV than in EE-SBM-CONV. Experiment 2 was conducted to measure DE and ME in the same 5 sources of SBM as used in Exp. 1. Forty-eight growing barrows (initial BW: 38.6 +/- 3.46 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and randomly allotted to 6 diets with 8 replicates per diet. A corn-based diet and 5 diets based on a mixture of corn and each source of SBM were formulated. Urine and feces were collected during a 5-d collection period, and values for DE and ME in each source of SBM were calculated using the difference procedure. Results showed that the ME in SBM-HP tended to be greater (P = 0.10) than in SBM-CONV (4,074 vs. 3,672 kcal/kg of DM). The ME in EE-SBM-HP also tended to be greater (P = 0.10) than in EE-SBM-CONV and

  13. GROWTH, HAEMATOLOGICAL AND SERUM BIOCHEMICAL INDICES OF BROILER CHICKENS FED BANANA PEEL MEAL AS REPLACEMENT FOR MAIZE IN THE SEMI-ARID ZONE OF NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. DUWA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the replacement of maize with banana peel meal in broiler diets. One hundred and twenty (120 Anak 2000 broiler chicken were used for the study. Four diets were formulated using banana peel meal at 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% levels in the respected diets. The birds were randomly allotted to dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment consists of thirty birds with ten birds per replicate. The experiment lasted for eight weeks; feed and water were given ad libitum. The productive performance results indicated high significant (P<0.05 difference in final weight, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio among the treatment group at different levels of replacement. Haematological indices and serum biochemical indices also followed similar pattern as the productive performance by revealing high significant (P<0.05 difference at different levels of maize replacement with banana peel meal in Packed cell volume (PCV, Red blood cell (RBC, Haemoglobin (Hb, White blood cell (WBC, Mean corpuscular volume (MCV, Mean corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH, Haemoglobin concentration (Hb, Heterophils and Lymphocytes. The serum biochemical indices revealed high significant (P<0.05 difference in total protein, albumen, glucose, total bilurobin, potassium, sodium and chloride. In view of the above, up to 15% replacement of maize with banana peel meal has no adverse effect on performance and blood components of broiler chickens with concomitant reduction in feed cost N/kg and feed cost per kg gain.

  14. Evaluation of plant and animal protein sources as partial or total replacement of fish meal in diets for juvenile Nile tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed system with Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juveniles (mean weight, 2.84 g) to examine the effects of total replacement of fish meal (FM), with and without supplementation of DL-methionine (Met) and L-lysine (Lys), by plant protein sources. Fish were f...

  15. Konsentrasi Asam Lemak Terbang dan Glukosa Darah Domba Ekor Tipis yang Diberi Bungkil Kedelai Terproteksi Tanin (VOLATILE FATTY ACID CONCENTRATION AND BLOOD GLUCOSE ON THIN-TAILED SHEEP GIVEN WITH TANINE-PROTECTED SOYBEAN MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nuraliah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the influence of tannin-protected protein source feed to livestock productivitybased on its influence on methane production, Volatile fatty acids (VFA production, and blood glucose inthe use of tannin-protected protein on complete feed in thin-tailed ram. The study uses thin-tailed ramaged about 8 months, as many as 16 rams with body weight of 11.81±1.65 kg. The researchusesa completerandomized design(CRD withfour treatmentsandfourreplications. The treatments areP0:15% soybeanmeals without tannin protection in complete feed, P1:15% soybean meals with 0.5% tannin protection incomplete feed, P2:15% soybean meals with 1% tannin protection in complete feed and P3:15% soybeanmeals with 1.5% tannin protection in complete feed. The results indicates that administration of tanninsin soybean meal in complete feed showed significant effect (P <0.05 on blood glucose, the production ofpropionic acid in the 3rd hour, but the VFA production at hour 0, hour 6, as well as methane productionshowed no significant effect (P> 0.05. The conclusion is that 15% protected soybean meal with 1% oftannin in the complete feed is able to contribute to the proportion of propionate and contribute to increasedblood glucose on a thin-tailed ram but can not to reduce methane production.

  16. 木瓜蛋白酶水解发酵豆粕优化工艺研究%Optimization of hydrolysis process of fermented soybean meal with papain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓梦琴; 徐嘉颖; 谢茜怡; 宋贤良

    2015-01-01

    豆粕是饲料工业中应用最为广泛的植物性蛋白原料,本试验以微生物固态发酵豆粕粉为原料,以蛋白质增加量、游离氨基酸增加量和水解度为品质指标,探讨了酶解初始pH值、料液比、酶用量和酶解时间对木瓜蛋白酶酶解发酵豆粕的影响。在单因素实验基础上,采用 L9(34)正交试验进行优化,结果表明酶解的最佳工艺条件为:酶解初始pH6.5,酶用量3%,料液比1∶10,酶解时间1 h。在该条件下,酶解豆粕中蛋白质增加量为75.633 m g/g ,游离氨基酸增加量为121.932μg/g ,水解度为0.033%。%Soybean meal is the most widely used raw material of vegetable protein in feed industry .The effects of initial pH of enzyme solution ,solid‐liquid ratio ,enzyme concentration and hydrolyzing time on soybean meal hydrolysis with papain were studied ,and the experiments were carried out using microbial solid fermentation soybean meal as raw materials ,with addition of protein and free amino acids ,degree of hydrolysis as quality indexes .On the basis of single factor experiments ,the orthogo‐nal experiment was used to optimize the factors level .The results showed that :the optimum hydrolysis conditions were as fol‐low s :initial pH of enzyme solution of 6 .5 ,enzyme concentration of 3% ,solid‐liquid ratio of 1∶10 and hydrolysis time of 1 h . It demonstrated that the addition of protein ,free amino acids and degree of hydrolysis were 75 .633 mg/g ,121 .932μg/g ,and 0 .033% ,respectively .

  17. Replacement of petroleum based hydraulic fluids with a soybean-based alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, B.; Rivera, P.

    1998-05-01

    Despite the best preventative measures, ruptured hoses, spills and leaks occur with use of all hydraulic equipment. Although these releases do not usually produce a RCRA regulated waste, they are often a reportable occurrence. Clean-up and subsequent administrative procedure involves additional costs, labor and work delays. Concerns over these releases, especially related to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) vehicles hauling waste on public roads prompted Fleet Services (FS) to seek an alternative to the standard petroleum based hydraulic fluid. Since 1996 SNL has participated in a pilot program with the University of Iowa (UNI) and selected vehicle manufacturers, notably John Deere, to field test hydraulic fluid produced from soybean oil in twenty of its vehicles. The vehicles included loaders, graders, sweepers, forklifts and garbage trucks. Research was conducted for several years at UNI to modify and market soybean oils for industrial uses. Soybean oil ranks first in worldwide production of vegetable oils (29%), and represents a tremendous renewable resource. Initial tests with soybean oil showed excellent lubrication and wear protection properties. Lack of oxidative stability and polymerization of the oil were concerns. These concerns were being addressed through genetic alteration, chemical modification and use of various additives, and the improved lubricant is in the field testing stage.

  18. Extraction and analysis of residual lipids in soybean meal%豆粕中残余脂质的提取与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩冉; 孔祥珍; 华欲飞

    2012-01-01

    豆粕中含有部分正己烷未能去除的残余脂质,采用体积比为2∶1的氯仿-甲醇溶液及水饱和正丁醇从豆粕中提取残余脂质,并对残余脂质成分进行了分析.传统的氯仿-甲醇溶液法可以将豆粕中大部分脂质提取出来,而与蛋白结合能力较强的极性脂需要进一步通过强极性的水饱和正丁醇提取.研究结果显示,豆粕中总脂质含量为2.10%,其中中性脂占25.24%,极性脂占74.76%,中性脂主要包括甘油三酯、FFA、甘油二酯;极性脂主要包括磷脂酰胆碱(PC)、磷脂酰肌醇(PI)、磷脂酰乙醇胺(PE)、磷脂酸(PA).%Soybean meal has residual lipids which can not be extracted by n - hexane. The meal was extracted consecutively by two solvents of chloroform - methanol (2:1 of volume ratio) and water - saturated butanol, and the obtained lipids were analyzed. Chloroform - methanol regarded as conventional solvent could extract most of lipid from the meal, and the polar lipid interacted with protein more closely should be extracted by water - saturated butanol. The results indicated that the soybean meal contained 2. 10% total lipids which was composed of 25. 24% neutral lipids and 74. 76% polar lipids, the polar lipids were mainly consisted of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidic acid, while the neutral lipids mainly included triglycerides, FFA and diglycerides.

  19. Soybean hulls replacing ground corn in diets for early lactation Saanen goats: intake, digestibility, milk production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliane Alavarse Zambom

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate productive performance and milk quality of Saanen goats fed diets with soybean hulls replacing ground corn (0, 50 and 100% replacement in early lactation (from birth to 50 days of lactation. Fourteen goats (72.30±9.14 kg of BW were used in a completely randomized design. Animals were confined in individual stalls, with daily control of feed intake and milk production. On the 30th day of lactation, fecal sampling started in order to determine nutrients digestibility. Every month, milk samples were collected for analyses of fat, protein, lactose and total solid percentage, somatic cell count, N-urea, acidity, density and also milk fatty acid profile. No differences were observed between diets for body weight, daily weight gain and intake (kg/day of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein or indigestible neutral detergent fiber. However, for neutral detergent fiber intake, the diet with complete substitution presented the best results. Cocerning digestibility coefficients of dry matter and nutrients (organic matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber the diet with 100% replacement also presented the best results. For milk production, milk production efficiency and milk composition, no difference was observed between diets. For milk fatty acid profile, there were differences between diets for some fatty acids. Soybean hulls can be used replacing ground corn in diets for Saanen goats in the early lactation, because it improves the digestibility of the diet and nutrients, does not change productive performance or the milk physical-chemical quality and increases the content of n-3 fatty acids in milk.

  20. Processed soybean in diets for pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina Stech

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Changes in development and in physiological parameters of fingerlings of the pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus fed on diets with high levels of integral crude, extruded, toasted soybean and soybean meal were assessed. The products were evaluated in practical diets for pacu, initially weighing 70 ± 2.19 g, during 82 days. Nine treatments were studied in a 2 × 4 + 1 factorial scheme which corresponded to two fish meal protein replacement levels (50 and 100% and four soybean products, plus control (100% of fish meal - FM. Development, organosomatic indexes and physiological parameters were evaluated. No differences were reported with regard to weight gain, food intake, food conversion, protein efficiency ratio and specific growth rate. A significant interaction was registered for plasma protein between the evaluated ingredients and replacement percentage of fish meal protein. Results showed that the ingredients assessed did not affect the development of the pacu when compared to fish fed on control diet. Protein retention was favored when toasted soybean and when 50% of the diet’s protein fraction from fish meal were employed.

  1. Structural characterization and physicochemical properties of protein extracted from soybean meal assisted by steam flash-explosion with dilute acid soaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanpeng; Yang, Ruijin; Zhang, Weinong; Hu, Zhixiong; Zhao, Wei

    2017-03-15

    The aim of this work was to analyze the influence of steam flash-explosion (SFE) with dilute acid soaking pretreatment on the structural characteristics and physiochemical properties of protein from soybean meal (SBM). The pretreatment led to depolymerisation of soy protein isolate (SPI) and formation of new protein aggregation through non-disulfide covalent bonds, which resulted in broader MW distribution of SPI. The analysis of CD spectroscopy showed that the SFE treatment induced minor changes in secondary structure, however, the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence revealed that acid soaking and SFE treatment pronouncedly altered the tertiary structure of SPI. The protein zeta potential was shown to be increased after SFE treatment attributed to the changes in protein structure and the covalent coupling between carbohydrate and protein. These results contribute to clarifying the mechanisms of the effect of pretreatment on SPI structure, thus moving further toward implementing SFE in the processing chain of SPI.

  2. L-lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei fermentation with corn steep liquor-supplemented acid-hydrolysate of soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Ding, Shaofeng; Li, Zhaopeng; Tan, Tianwei

    2006-12-01

    Batch and fed-batch fermentation studies were performed to evaluate the potential of corn steep liquor (CSL)-supplemented acid-hydrolysate of soybean meal (AHSM) as an alternative to yeast extract (YE) for the production of L-lactic acid by Lactobacillus casei LA-04-1. The CSL-supplemented AHSM gave an outstanding result in supporting L-lactic acid production from glucose. In the exponential fed-batch fermentation, the concentration, yield and productivity of L-lactic acid were 162.5 g/L, 89.7% and 1.69 g/L per h, respectively, which were lower than those with 20 g/L YE (180 g/L, 90.3%, 2.14 g/L per h) after 96 h of fermentation. However, the raw material cost of the nitrogen resource was estimated as only 25% of that using the YE.

  3. Effects of Replacing Fishmeal with Animal By-products Meal Supplementation in Diets on the Growth and Nutrient Utilization of Mangrove Red Snapper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted for 75 d to evaluate the nutritive value of a mixture of animal by-products (MAB) as a possible protein source in diets for juvenile mangrove red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (mean initial body weight, 30 g). Fish were fed one of five isonitrogenous diets (40% crude protein) replacing 0, 25% (MAB25), 50% (MAB50), 75% (MAB75) and 100% (MAB100) of fish meal protein with similar percentages of MAB. The MAB consisted of 25% cow liver meal, 20% leather meal, 20% meat and bone meal, 15% blood meal, 10% APC (poultry feather meal), 8% poultry manure dried, 1.5% choline and 0.5% chromic oxide. After 75 d of feeding, fish fed with diets MAB50, MAB75 and MAB100 exhibited significantly lower growth performance than that of fish fed with control and MAB25 diets. The optimum level of MAB was estimated to be 23%. Replacement of fish meal by MAB23% showed the following performance: maximum weight gain, 510%; SGR, 2.39% and FCE, 2.83%. The MAB substitution up to 75% of fish meal protein in diets did not show differences in apparent protein digestibility (83.6% for MAB25, 79.2% for MAB50, 78.7% for MAB75) compared with control (83.4%), whereas in MAB100 group digestibility (65.3%) was significantly lower than in other groups. The apparent phosphorus absorption of test diet groups was significantly higher (37.1% for MAB25, 28.5% for MAB50, 55.6% for MAB75 and 54.5% for MAB100) than that of control (11.2%). The levels of protein and ash in the whole body, carcass and viscera increased as MAB substitution in diets increased, whereas lipids and moisture remained consistent among all treatment groups. These results showed that approximately 23% of fish meal protein could be replaced by a mixture of animal by-products for juvenile snapper growing from 30 g to 167 g in 75 d without compromising growth performance and feed efficiency.

  4. Effects of replacing fishmeal with animal by-products meal supplementation in diets on the growth and nutrient utilization of mangrove red snapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Khalid; Abbas, Ghulam; Akhtar, Rukhsana; Lin, Hong; Li, Zhenxing

    2007-07-01

    A feeding trial was conducted for 75 d to evaluate the nutritive value of a mixture of animal by-products (MAB) as a possible protein source in diets for juvenile mangrove red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (mean initial body weight, 30 g). Fish were fed one of five isonitrogenous diets (40% crude protein) replacing 0, 25% (MAB25), 50% (MAB50), 75% (MAB75) and 100% (MAB100) of fish meal protein with similar percentages of MAB. The MAB consisted of 25% cow liver meal, 20% leather meal, 20% meat and bone meal, 15% blood meal, 10% APC (poultry feather meal), 8% poultry manure dried, 1.5% choline and 0.5% chromic oxide. After 75 d of feeding, fish fed with diets MAB50, MAB75 and MAB100 exhibited significantly lower growth performance than that of fish fed with control and MAB25 diets. The optimum level of MAB was estimated to be 23%. Replacement of fish meal by MAB23% showed the following performance: maximum weight gain, 510%; SGR, 2.39% and FCE, 2.83%. The MAB substitution up to 75% of fish meal protein in diets did not show differences in apparent protein digestibility (83.6% for MAB25, 79.2% for MAB50, 78.7% for MAB75) compared with control (83.4%), whereas in MAB100 group digestibility (65.3%) was significantly lower than in other groups. The apparent phosphorus absorption of test diet groups was significantly higher (37.1% for MAB25, 28.5% for MAB50, 55.6% for MAB75 and 54.5% for MAB100) than that of control (11.2%). The levels of protein and ash in the whole body, carcass and viscera increased as MAB substitution in diets increased, whereas lipids and moisture remained consistent among all treatment groups. These results showed that approximately 23% of fish meal protein could be replaced by a mixture of animal by-products for juvenile snapper growing from 30 g to 167 g in 75 d without compromising growth performance and feed efficiency.

  5. Replacing fish meal by food waste to produce lower trophic level fish containing acceptable levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Health risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Lam, Cheung-Lung; Choi, Wai-Ming; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed at using different types of food wastes (mainly containing cereal [food waste A] and meat meal [food waste B]) as major sources of protein to replace the fish meal used in fish feeds to produce quality fish. The traditional fish farming model used to culture low trophic level fish included: bighead, (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), grass carp, (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mud carp, (Cirrhinus molitorella) of omnivorous chain. The results indicated that grass carp and bighead carp fed with food waste feeds were relatively free of PAHs. The results of health risk assessment showed that the fish fed with food waste feeds were safe for consumption from the PAHs perspective.

  6. The effects of whole grains on nutrient digestibilities, growth performance, and cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations in young chicks fed ground corn-soybean meal diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, P; Parsons, C M

    2009-09-01

    Five experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of whole wheat, whole sorghum, or whole barley on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, and cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations when supplemented primarily at the expense of corn in ground corn-soybean meal control diets. The first 4 experiments utilized New Hampshire x Columbian male chicks. In the first 2 experiments, feeding 5, 10, 15, or 20% whole wheat had no effect on growth performance at 21 d when compared with chicks fed the control diet. The third experiment tested 20, 35, and 50% whole wheat fed from 0 to 21 d of age and showed that a 50% whole wheat diet decreased (Pwhole sorghum reduced (Pwhole barley had similar weight gains to chicks fed a ground corn-soybean meal diet. The fifth experiment with commercial Ross x Ross male broiler chicks evaluated 10 and 20% whole sorghum or whole barley and 20 and 35% whole wheat. Growth at 21 d was unaffected by any dietary treatment. Feed efficiency was decreased (Pwhole wheat and improved (Pwhole barley. Feeding whole grains to chicks resulted in an increase in gizzard weight, even as early as 7 d, in all experiments. Chicks fed diets containing 10 to 20% whole wheat generally had increased MEn values at 3 to 4, 7, 14, and 21 d and also had increased amino acid digestibility at 21 d in one experiment. At 21 d, cecal pH and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in all experiments were unaffected by feeding whole grains to chicks. The results of this study indicated that feeding whole wheat, sorghum, or barley increased gizzard weight, and feeding 10 to 20% whole wheat may increase ME and amino acid digestibility.

  7. Long-Term Weight-Loss Maintenance by a Meal Replacement Based Weight Management Program in Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Kruschitz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Structured obesity treatment programs at primary care level are becoming increasingly important. However, evidence from current treatment approaches in the long term is lacking. In view of this fact we evaluated a standardized, meal replacement-based weight loss program (myLINE®; AENGUS, Graz, Austria according to the currently applicable guidelines. Methods: Data of overweight and obese individuals (n = 70 who participated at least 36 months in the program were analyzed. Data were collected at baseline (T0 as well as after 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 (T1-T36 months. Body composition was measured by conventional anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results: Compared to T0, a maximum weight, BMI, fat mass, absolute body cell mass (BCM reduction and an increase of relative BCM could be seen at T6. Subsequently, the findings reveal a significant reduction of body weight and body fat and a satisfying development of body cell mass during the observation period of 36 months. Conclusion: The evaluated program complies with national and international guidelines for the therapy of obesity in adults and is efficient and meaningful for a long-term therapeutic use in primary care..

  8. Comparison of Piascledine (Avocado and Soybean Oil) and Hormone Replacement Therapy in Menopausal-Induced Hot Flashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yunes; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Kashani, Nafise; Baharie Javan, Nika; dadjo, yahya

    2011-01-01

    Different symptoms in Climacteric period, includes hot flash. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is common therapy for relief of menopausal symptoms but has possible contraindications and side effects. Recently Piascledine (combination of Avocado oil with Soybean oil) showed effects in reducing hot flash severity. Present study designed to compare the effects of HRT with Piascledine in treatment of hot flash. The cases of this study were sixty-six women at the age range of 40 to 70 years and complaints of menopause-induced hot flashing, whose last menstruation dated at least 6 months prior to the beginning of the study. The patients in this open label clinical trial, randomized to receive Piascledine capsule 1 mg or HRT (0.625 mg oral daily Conjugated Estrogen tablets, plus 2.5 mg continuous oral daily Medroxyprogesterone Acetate tablets) for 2 month. Hot flash property and severity was assessed via a daily check list and Visual analog scale. Climacteric symptom was measured before and after intervention using Greene Climacteric Scale (GCS) and Blatt-kupperman Menopausal Index (BKMI). Thirty-three eligible patients were allocated in each group. From the Piascledine group, one patient and from the HRT group, 16 patients weren›t willing to attend the study; therefore, 32 and 17 woman received treatment in Piascledine and HRT groups. 4 patients were withdrawn for vaginal bleeding and one for breast tenderness from HTR group. Hot flash severity in both groups decreased during the time similarly. With regard to GCS (p = 0.571) and BMKI (p = 0.891), the outcome was similar among the two groups. Due to low HRT compliance and its possible risks in long period of time and considering the same activity of soybean supplement and HRT in relieving the hot flash as menopausal symptoms in women, it seems that soybean supplements can be an alternative therapy to hormone. PMID:24250433

  9. Effect of phytate, microbial phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on calculated values for apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium and apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus in fish meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vega, J C; Walk, C L; Stein, H H

    2015-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of phytate, phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca and on ATTD of P in fish meal fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 40 growing pigs (initial average BW: 19.16 ± 2.04 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets with 8 pigs per treatment and placed in metabolism crates. Four diets were used in a 2 ´ 2 factorial design with 2 levels of phytate (0 or 0.7%) and 2 levels of microbial phytase (0 or 500 phytase units/kg). The diet containing no phytate was based on sucrose, cornstarch, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil, and the diet containing 0.7% phytate was based on corn, corn germ, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil. A Ca-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Feces were collected from d 6 to 13 after a 5-d adaptation period. Results indicated that the ATTD and STTD of Ca in fish meal and the ATTD of P increased ( phytase was used and were greater ( phytase and fiber increased the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P in fish meal, but inclusion of soybean oil did not affect digestibility of Ca or P. The observation that values for the ATTD and STTD of Ca and ATTD of P are greater in corn-based diets than in cornstarch-based diets indicates that values for the digestibility of Ca and P obtained in cornstarch-based diets may not always be representative for the digestibility in practical corn-based diets.

  10. Carrageenan type effect on soybean oil/soy protein isolate emulsion employed as fat replacer in panela-type cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas-Nery, E.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to modify the fatty acid profile of panela-type cheese (a Mexican fresh cheese, emulsified soybean oil with soy protein isolate and different carrageenan (iota, kappa or lambda was employed as fat replacer. The replacement of milk fat in panela-type cheese resulted in higher cheese yield values and moisture content, besides a concomitant lower fat phase and higher protein content, due to a soy protein isolate in emulsified soybean oil. Fat replacement resulted in a harder but less cohesive, spring and resilient texture, where differences in texture could be attributed to the specific carrageenan-casein interactions within the rennet coagulated cheese matrix. The FTIR analysis showed that the milk fat replacement changed the fatty acid profile, also in function of the type of carrageenan employed. Lambda carrageenan containing emulsions improved moisture retention and maintained the textural properties of panela-type cheese.Para modificar el perfil de ácidos grasos de los quesos tipo panela (queso fresco popular en México, se utilizó aceite de soja emulsionado con aislado de proteína de soja y diferentes carrageninas (iota, kappa o lambda como sustituto de la grasa. Reemplazar la grasa de la leche en el queso tipo panela resultó en mayor rendimiento quesero y mayor contenido de humedad, además de una concomitante menor fase grasa y mayor contenido de proteína, debido al aislado de proteína de soja en el aceite de soja emulsionado. La sustitución de la grasa dio como resultado una textura más dura, pero menos cohesiva, elástica y resiliente, donde estas diferencias podrían ser atribuidas a la interacción especifica entre carrageninas-caseinas en la matriz coagulada del queso. El análisis de FTIR muestra que reemplazar la grasa de la leche cambia el perfil de ácidos grasos, también en función del tipo de carragenina empleado. Las emulsiones con lambda carrageninas mejoraron la retención de humedad y mantuvieron las

  11. Modulation of fibroblast growth factor 19 expression by bile acids, meal replacement and energy drinks, milk, and coffee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Styer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The enterohepatic pathway involving the fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19 and bile acids (BA has been linked with the etiology and remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB surgery. Specifically, diabetic patients had lower FGF19 circulating levels but postoperative FGF19 and BA levels were higher in diabetic patients that experience remission of T2D, as compared to non-diabetic patients and diabetic patients that do not experience remission. It has been proposed that this may be due to the direct flow of digestate-free bile acids into the ileum benefiting mostly T2D patients without severe diabetes. METHODS/RESULTS: We used a human colorectal cell line (LS174T that endogenously expresses FGF19, real time PCR, and Elisas for precise quantitation of FGF19 mRNA and secreted protein levels. We report here that BA and fractions of BA stimulated FGF19 in vitro but this effect was partially blocked when BA were pre-incubated with a lipoprotein mix which emulates digested food. In addition, we show that FGF19 mRNA was stimulated by meal replacement drinks (Ensure, Glucerna, SlimFast, non-fat milk, and coffee which has been linked with reduced risk for developing diabetes. Pure caffeine and the 5-hour Energy drink, on the other hand, decreased FGF19 mRNA. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, FGF19 expression in vitro is modifiable by popular drinks suggesting that such approaches could potentially be used for modulating FGF19 expression in humans.

  12. Effect of liquid enzymolysis and fermented soybean meal on growth performance and partial nutriment in feces excreta of growing pigs%液态酶解发酵豆粕对生长育肥猪生产性能及部分营养物质粪排泄量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏金涛; 李绍章; 杨雪海; 赵娜; 郭万正; 严念东; 黄少文; 张巍

    2012-01-01

    .The control was fed a corn-soybean meal diet,and the treatment diet replaced the soybean meal by 10% or 20% liquid enzymolysis and fermented soybean meal.Soybean meal soluble protein,peptide,small molecules protein content increased significantly(P0.05),large molecules protein and urease activity decreased significantly(P0.05) after 24 h liquid enzymolysis and fermention,but crude protein,Ca and TP had no significantly change(P0.05).Feeding trail results showed that average daily intake and average daily gain of pigs fed 10% and 20% liquid enzymolysis and fermented soybean meal increased by 12.14%,20.81%(P0.05),11.33%,22.29%(P0.05) compared with the control treatment,respectively;meanwhile,nitrogen,phosphorus and cuprum in feces decreased by 11.11%,22.29%(P0.05),3.59%(P0.05),23.95%(P0.05),2.22%,7.52%(P0.05),respectively.Soybean meal protein quality was improved after liquid enzymolysis and fermenion;liquid fermention soybean meal could improve growing pigs′ growth performance and decrease partial nutriment in feces.

  13. Optimized Study on Fermentation Conditions for Reduction of Antinutritional Factors in Soybean Meal by Rumen Microorganism%瘤胃微生物降解豆粕抗营养因子的发酵条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彩燕; 钱国英; 汪财生; 朱秋华

    2011-01-01

    豆粕是一种优质的植物蛋白源,可作为畜牧水产饲料中鱼粉的替代物.但豆粕中抗营养因子的存在限制了其广泛应用.本试验利用瘤胃液中的混合微生物对豆粕进行微生物发酵处理,旨在降解其中的胰蛋白酶抑制因子和植酸等物质.通过单因素和正交试验,对发酵条件进行研究,得到了试验室最佳发酵条件:即接种量为5%(体积分数),料水比为1∶1,发酵温度为39℃,非蛋白氮添加量为0.5 g,发酵时间为72 h.发酵豆粕中主要抗营养因子得到有效去除.%Soybean meal,a by-product obtained after the extraction of soybean oil,is an important high-quality plant protein source. However, the trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid and other antinutritional factors contained in soybean meal inhibit the application in aquaculture industry. In this study, rumen micro- organisms (rumen fluid) was used on the microbiological fermentation of soybean meal processing, aimed at eliminating one of the trypsin inhibitors and phytic acid. In the present study ,fermentation period, inoculation quantity, the ratio of material to water, fermentation temperature, and non-protein nitrogen content were evaluated by using single-factor and orthogonal experiments. The optimum laboratory fermentation conditions were determined as follows: quantity of inoculation 5% (ratio of rumen fluid to total mixed fermentation volume), the ratio of material to water 1: 1 (ratio of soybean meal weight to total mixed fermentation volume), fermentation temperature 39 ℃, non - protein nitrogen 0.5 g, and fermentation period 72 h. The main antinutritional factors contained in soybean meal could be removed effectively.

  14. Effect of fermented soybean meal and plant essential oil on the performance of weaning piglets%发酵豆粕和植物精油对断奶仔猪生产性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈如水; 付瑞珍; 魏凤仙

    2014-01-01

    本试验探讨了在日粮中使用发酵豆粕替代普通豆粕并添加植物精油对仔猪生产性能的影响,为发酵豆粕和植物精油在仔猪日粮中的利用提供科学依据。结果表明,日粮中添加发酵豆粕和植物精油,仔猪末重和平均日增重分别提高14.81%和19.51%,提高仔猪平均日采食量6.84%,而降低料重比和单位增重成本分别为10.71%和7.67%;有效降低仔猪腹泻率50.67%。%The experiment investigated the use of fermented soybean meal instead of normal soy-bean meal and the administration of plant essential oils on the growth performance of waning pig-lets, and provided a scientific basis for the use of fermented soybean meal and plant essential oil in the diets of piglets. The results showed that diets supplemented with fermented soybean meal and plant essential oil increased the bodyweight of the piglets and the average daily gain by 14.81% and 19.51% respectively. The average daily feed intake was increased by 6.84%, while the feed conversion ratio and unit weight cost were decreased by 10.71% and 7.67% respectively, mean-while, the rate of 50.67% diarrhea were effectively reduced.

  15. Performance, carcass traits and economic evaluation of the replacement of corn whole grain by pelleted soybean hulls in the feeding of feedlot lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Galafassi Zarpelon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effects of different levels of replacement of whole grain corn by pelleted soybean hulls in high concentrated diet, without long fiber use, on intake, productive performance and economical viability of feedlot lambs production. Twenty four Texel lambs, 12 males and 12 females of the same age, with average weight of 23 kg, distributed in 12 stalls, in a completely randomized design, were used. The treatments consisted of replacement of whole grain corn by pelleted soybean hulls, at levels of 0% (SH0, 15% (SH15 and 30% (SH30. Dry matter (DM (kg day-1, crude protein (CP (kg day-1, %AW, g AW0,75, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF (kg day-1, %AW, g AW0,75 intake showed linear increasing behavior (P<0.05 according to increasing levels of soybean hulls replacing the corn grain in the diet, however, the ether extract (EE intake (g day-1 presented quadratic effect. There were no differences in DM intake in relation to weight and metabolic body size, as well as, to mineral material (MM (g day-1 and total digestible nutrients (TDN intake (kg day-1, %AW, g AW0,75. In average daily gain (ADG, a quadratic effect of different levels of soybean hulls in the diet was observed (P<0.05, with weight gain of 0.267; 0.327 and 0.224 kg day-1, in levels of 0, 15 and 30%, respectively. The feed conversion was affected in a increasing linear way (P<0.05 with the soybean hulls inclusion in the diet. It was not observed differences in the carcass traits. When increasing levels of soybean hulls were added to the diet, it was observed decreasing in cost/kg ration (R$, however, there was increasing cost of meat produced (kg. In a general way, it can be concluded that replacement of whole corn by pelleted soybean hulls in high concentrated diet, in a proportion of 15%, increases the weight gain in feedlot lambs. In the proportion of 30%, affect negatively the animal performance, however does not influence the

  16. Feeding of Dehulled-micronized Faba Bean ( var. minor as Substitute for Soybean Meal in Guinea Fowl Broilers: Effect on Productive Performance and Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Tufarelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the effect of dietary substitution of soybean meal (SBM with dehulled-micronized faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor in guinea fowl broilers on their growth traits, carcass quality, and meat fatty acids composition. In this trial, 120 day-old guinea fowl keets were randomly assigned to two treatments which were fed from hatch to 12 weeks of age. Birds were fed two wheat middlings-based diets comprising of a control treatment which contained SBM (78.3 g/kg and a test diet containing dehulled-micronized faba bean (130 g/kg as the main protein source. Substituting SBM with faba bean had no adverse effect on growth traits, dressing percentage, or breast and thigh muscles relative weight of the guinea fowls. Conversely, a decrease (p<0.05 of abdominal fat was found in guinea fowls fed the faba bean-diet. Breast muscle of birds fed faba bean had higher L* score (p<0.05 and water-holding capacity (p<0.05 than the SBM control diet. Meat from guinea fowls fed faba bean had less total lipids (p<0.05 and cholesterol (p<0.01, and higher concentrations of phospholipids (p<0.01. Feeding faba bean increased polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in breast meat and decreased the saturated fatty acid levels. Moreover, dietary faba bean improved the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in guinea fowl breast meat. Results indicated that substitution of SBM with faba bean meal in guinea fowl diet can improve carcass qualitative traits, enhancing also meat lipid profile without negatively affecting growth performance.

  17. CASHEW NUT MEAL IN THE FEEDING OF BROWN LAYING HENS

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo Braga Cruz; Ednardo Rodrigues Freitas; Regina Patrícia de Souza Xavier; Danilo Rodrigues Fernandes; Germano Augusto Gerônimo Nascimento; Pedro Henrique Watanabe

    2015-01-01

    The use of alternative foods to replace conventional foods is becoming a source of research for many researchers. The cashew nut meal (CNM) has high energy and protein value, may be a partial substitute for corn and soybean meal for poultry feed. In this context, this research was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of CNM on the utilization of nutrients in the ration for laying hens, as well as the performance and characteristics of the eggs. The study used 180 Dekalb Brown laying ...

  18. Efeitos da substituição do feno de capim-tifton e do farelo de milho pela palma forrageira e pelo farelo de soja sobre a ingestão de alimentos e parâmetros fisiológicos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1149 Effect of the replacement of Tifton grass hay and the corn meal by forage cactus and soybean meal on the ingestion of foods and physiological parameters - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1149

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronaldo Oliveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O experimento objetivou avaliar o comportamento ingestivo de vacas leiteiras da raça Holandesa em lactação, alimentadas com rações contendo diferentes níveis (0; 12,0; 25,0; 38,0 e 51,0% de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica, Mill. Foram utilizadas 5 vacas, distribuídas em delineamento de quadrado latino. As variáveis comportamentais foram observadas a intervalos de 5 minutos, em 24 horas. Os registros de temperatura ambiente, umidade relativa do ar, temperatura retal e freqüência respiratória foram efetuados pela manhã e à tarde. A inclusão de palma influenciou linearmente os tempos de ruminação (redução e ócio (aumento; quadraticamente o consumo de matéria seca (CMS e a eficiência de alimentação e de ruminação em função do CMS e linearmente decrescente o consumo de fibra em detergente neutro (CFDN, a eficiência de ruminação e alimentação em função do CFDN. A temperatura retal no turno da tarde e a ingestão de água diminuíram linearmenteThe experiment was conducted to evaluate the ingestive behavior of lactating Holstein cows fed diet with different replacement levels (0; 12.9; 25.8; 38.7 e 51.6% of forage cactus (Opuntia fícus indica, Mill. Five cows were assigned to a 5x5 square design. The registration of variables behaviors was accomplished in a visual way, at intervals of five minutes, in 24 hours. The registration of room temperature, humidity relative, rectal temperature and respiratory frequency were performed in the morning and in the afternoon. The rumination time decreased linearly and resting increased linearly; the dry matter intake (DMI, the rumination and feeding efficiency in function of DMI had quadratic behavior; the fiber neutral detergent intake (FNDI, the rumination and feeding efficiency in function of FNDI decreased linearly; the rectal temperature in the afternoon and the water intake decreased linearly, in function of forage cactus levels in the diet

  19. Acabamento de bovinos em pastagens no período da seca, utilizando-se milho inteiro e soja integral ou milho moído e farelo de soja Steer finishing on dry-season pastures, using whole grain corn and soybean or ground corn and soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudete Regina Alcalde

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar suplementos compostos por 75% de milho de grão inteiro e 25% de soja integral (MGSI ou 75% de milho moído e 25% de farelo de soja (MMFS, utilizando-se 50 garrotes, divididos em cinco categorias (raça e/ou peso vivo, em pastagem de Brachiaria brizantha cv Marandu, em dois períodos de 28 dias, na época seca. O consumo de suplemento foi de 7,20kg/animal/dia. Houve interação (P 0,05 entre os períodos. O ganho médio diário do período total com suplemento milho moído mais farelo de soja foi maior (P The aim of this experiment was to compare 75% whole grain corn and 25% soybean supplement with 75% ground corn and 25% soybean meal supplement, using 50 steers, grouped in five categories (breed and/or live weight, on Brachiaria brizantha cv Marandu pasture, for two dry-season periods of 28 days. The supplement consumption was 7.2kg/animal/day. An interaction (P < 0.05 between supplements and periods was observed. The supplement with ground corn and soybean meal resulted in a higher gain in the first period (1.59kg/day than in the second period (0.83kg/day and the supplement with whole grain corn and soybean resulted in a higher weight gain in the second period (1.03kg/day than in the first (0.97kg/day. The average final gain with ground corn and soybean meal supplementation was 1.21kg/day, differing (P < 0.05 from whole grain and soybean supplementation with resulted in 1.00kg/day gain. Processed grains provided a better performance than whole grains.

  20. Lipase production by Botryosphaeria ribis EC-01 on soybean meal supplemented with amino acids, and some physicochemical properties of the enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Martins Andrade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The amino acids that form the chemical structure of several lipase catalytic triads (serine, histidine, glutamic or aspartic acid, as well as glycine, were added to soybean meal in distilled water as nutrient for Botryosphaeria ribis EC-01 to produce lipase under submerged fermentation. The addition of glutamic acid at 0.01% concentration increased lipase activity by 60% (2,684 U/gss, while at 0.1% the increase was 80% (3,039 U/gss by comparison with the control (1,690 U/gss. Glycine also stimulated lipase production on this medium increasing the enzyme production by 31 % (25 UmL-1 by comparison to the control (19 UmL-1. The optimal pH of this lipase was 8.0 in phosphate buffer, and was stable in the pH range (3–10, while the optimal temperature was 55°C. The fungal lipase remained active in methanol, ethanol and glycerol at concentrations of 25, 10 and 50% (v/v, respectively. The addition of the cations Ba2+, Mg2+ and Mn2+ increased lipase activity, while Fe3, Cu2+ and Hg2+ partially inhibited the enzyme. Some kinetic properties demonstrated that B. ribis EC-01 lipase was a true lipase preferring long chain fatty acyl esters as substrates. These properties make B. ribis EC-01 lipase attractive for use in the production of biodiesel.

  1. Ileal digestibility of nutrients and amino acids in low quality soybean meal sources treated with β-mannanase for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhaya, S D; Park, J W; Lee, J H; Kim, I H

    2016-07-01

    Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of energy, dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N) and amino acids and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids in low quality soybean meals with different CP concentration (SBM 44% CP and SBM 48% CP) with or without 400 U β-mannanase/kg supplementation were evaluated in 20 cannulated barrows ((Landrace×Yorkshire)×Duroc) with an average BW of 25.08±3.42 kg. A N-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of amino acids. The supplementation of β-mannanase improved (P0.05) AID of N and energy. The type of SBM (SBM 44% CP v. SBM 48% CP) had no effect on AID of DM, N and energy. β-mannanase improved (Pamino acids, arginine, histidine, lysine, valine and glycine. The SID of lysine was higher (Pamino acids except for lysine. The low nutrient digestibility of the SBM sources used in the present experiment might have favoured the positive effect of β-mannanase supplementation.

  2. 罗非鱼低鱼粉饲料中脱酚棉籽蛋白替代鱼粉的研究%Replacement of Fish Meal with Degossypolled Cottonseed Protein in Low Fish Meal Diets for Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林仕梅; 毛述宏; 关勇; 潘瑜; 罗琳; 罗莉

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the feasibility of replacement of fish meal with degossypolled cottonseed protein in low fish meal diets for tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) , three isonitrogenous and isoenergetic experimental diets were formulated by replacing 0, 50% and 100% fish meal with degossypolled cottonseed protein on basis of a practical diet (fish meal content was 6. 0% and crude protein content in fish meal was 64. 5% ), respectively. A total of 270 male genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT) with an average body weight of 50 g were randomly divided into 3 groups with 3 replicates per group and 30 fish per replicate, and the fish in the control group were fed the experimental diet containing 0 degossypolled cottonseed protein. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks. The results showed as follows; the final weight of tilapia in the 50% replacement level group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P 0. 05). No significant differences were found in special growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, feed efficiency and feeding rate of tilapia among all groups (P >0. 05). With increasing replacement level of degossypolled cottonseed protein, the viscerosomatic index of tilapia was significantly increased (P 0. 05). The replacement level of degossypolled cottonseed protein could significantly affect the hepatopancreas digestive enzyme activities of tilapia (P <0. 05) , and the highest values of trypsinase and amylase activities were found in the 50% replacement level group and 100% replacement level group, respectively. With increasing replacement level of degossypolled cottonseed protein, the total antioxidant capacity, activities of su-peroxide dismutase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxaolacetic transaminase, and liver glycogen content in hepatopancreas of tilapia were significantly increased ( P <0. 05) , while the malondialdehyde content was significantly decreased (P <0. 05). In conclusion, the suitable replacement levels of fish meal with

  3. Functional feed assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei using 100% fish meal replacement by soybean meal, high levels of complex carbohydrates and Bacillus probiotic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, Jorge; Ochoa, Leonel; Paniagua-Michel, Jesus; Contreras, Rosalia

    2011-01-01

    Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids) and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs); Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM)-carbohydrates (CHO) basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm); Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B); SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C); fishmeal commercial feed (FM) was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs); additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B) presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C) presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures.

  4. Functional Feed Assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei Using 100% Fish Meal Replacement by Soybean Meal, High Levels of Complex Carbohydrates and Bacillus Probiotic Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia Contreras

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs; Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM—carbohydrates (CHO basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm; Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B; SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C; fishmeal commercial feed (FM was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs; additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR. Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures.

  5. Does chochos (L. mutabilis) production have the potential to increase farm revenues and contribute to food security if it replaces soybean or maize production in Ecuador?

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Chochos (L. mutabilis) production does not satisfy Ecuador’s demand. Therefore, this paper intends to find if chochos production have the potential to increase farmers revenue and contribute to food security if it replaces maize and soybeans, while assuming three scenarios for chochos production that influence farmers revenue. If so, how would it affect the land use change in terms of food security? A gross margin calculation with three scenarios—current, double and triple revenue—for choc...

  6. Predicted changes in fatty acid intakes, plasma lipids, and cardiovascular disease risk following replacement of trans fatty acid-containing soybean oil with application-appropriate alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Michael; Mensink, Ronald P; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Petersen, Barbara; Smith, Kim; Flickinger, Brent D

    2012-10-01

    The varied functional requirements satisfied by trans fatty acid (TFA)--containing oils constrains the selection of alternative fats and oils for use as potential replacements in specific food applications. We aimed to model the effects of replacing TFA-containing partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSBO) with application-appropriate alternatives on population fatty acid intakes, plasma lipids, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 24-hour dietary recalls for 1999-2002, we selected 25 food categories, accounting for 86 % of soybean oil (SBO) and 79 % of TFA intake for replacement modeling. Before modeling, those in the middle quintile had a mean PHSBO TFA intake of 1.2 % of energy. PHSBO replacement in applications requiring thermal stability by either low-linolenic acid SBO or mid-oleic, low-linolenic acid SBO decreased TFA intake by 0.3 % of energy and predicted CVD risk by 0.7-0.8 %. PHSBO replacement in applications requiring functional properties with palm-based oils reduced TFA intake by 0.8 % of energy, increased palmitic acid intake by 1.0 % of energy, and reduced predicted CVD risk by 0.4 %, whereas replacement with fully hydrogenated interesterified SBO reduced TFA intake by 0.7 % of energy, increased stearic acid intake by 1.0 % of energy, and decreased predicted CVD risk by 1.2 %. PHSBO replacement in both thermal and functional applications reduced TFA intake by 1.0 % of energy and predicted CVD risk by 1.5 %. Based solely on changes in plasma lipids and lipoproteins, all PHSBO replacement models reduced estimated CVD risk, albeit less than previously reported using simpler replacement models.

  7. Optimization of scanning conditions on near-infrared microscopic imaging for melamine detection in soybean meal%豆粕中三聚氰胺显微近红外成像检测的扫描条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎静; 韩鲁佳※; 杨增玲

    2013-01-01

      为了确定豆粕中三聚氰胺显微近红外成像检测的最佳扫描条件,该文研究了扫描条件对显微近红外光谱图像质量、采集效率和豆粕中三聚氰胺检测效果的影响。针对不同光谱分辨率和扫描次数对光谱图像均方根噪声(RMS)的影响进行了单因素方差分析试验,对干涉仪动镜移动速度(1、2.2 cm/s)、空间分辨率(25、50μm)、光谱分辨率(8、16、32 cm-1)和扫描次数(4、8、16次)进行了多因素正交试验方差分析,结果得出光谱分辨率对 RMS 有显著性影响,而且采用不同扫描条件时显微近红外图像采集时间相差很大。根据图像质量、采集效率和豆粕中三聚氰胺检测效果分别得出优选扫描条件,综合考虑上述3个方面,最终推荐采用的扫描条件为空间分辨率为25μm,干涉仪动镜移动速度为1 cm/s,光谱分辨率为32 cm-1,扫描次数为4次。该研究同时表明显微近红外成像技术可应用于豆粕中三聚氰胺的检测。%  Melamine is used as a non-protein nitrogen adulterant in soybean meal to increase the protein content, and it is harmful to the animals. The existing conventional detecting techniques have the shortcomings of complex pretreatment, high cost, and cannot achieve online detection. Near-infrared microscopic (NIRM) imaging technology combines the spectral and imaging technology. It can detect the material compositions and visualize the position. However, different scanning condition will affect the NIRM image quality and the detecting effect. In this article, a Spotlight 400 NIRM imaging system was used to acquire the NIRM images of the samples. The influence of the scanning condition on NIRM image quality and detection performance of the melamine in soybean meal was studied, and the scanning condition of melamine detection in soybean meal by NIRM imaging was optimized. At first, 10 samples in which the melamine particles

  8. The effects of replacing groundnut cake with Afzelia africana (Mahogany seed meal on performance, organ weights and haematological indices of finisher broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Obun,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A 56-days feeding trial involving 200 day-old Marshal broilers was carried out in a completely randomized design to evaluate the performance, organ characteristics and blood indices of broilers fed Afzelia africana seed meal (ASM as a replacement for ground nut cake at dietary levels of 25, 50, 75 and 100%, respectively. The results showed that feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, organ weights and blood indices of birds on the control (0 %, 25 and 50 % ASM were significantly (P<0.05 superior to the groups on 75 and 100 % ASM. It is concluded that ASM could replaced GNC at level not exceeding 50% in broiler diets without any deleterious effects.

  9. Virginiamycin improves phosphorus digestibility and utilization by growing-finishing pigs fed a phosphorus-deficient, corn-soybean meal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, J H; Lindemann, M D; Cromwell, G L; Newman, M C; Nimmo, R D

    2007-09-01

    Evaluations of the nutritional effect of antibiotics have largely centered on effects related to the digestibility and utilization of protein and energy. The current study evaluated the potential effect of virginiamycin (VIR) on P digestibility in swine. A total of 70 barrows (mean initial BW = 51 to 64 kg) were used in 4 nutrient-balance experiments. A basal, corn-soybean meal diet that was not supplemented with any inorganic source of P was used in each experiment. In Exp. 1, two diets were tested: basal vs. basal plus 11 mg/kg of VIR. In Exp. 2, four diets were used with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of 0 and 11 mg/kg of VIR and 0 and 750 phytase (PHY) units/kg of diet (PU/kg). Experiments 3 and 4 were the same as Exp. 2, except PHY was reduced to 300 PU/kg. For all experiments, VIR improved P digestibility (32.71 to 37.72%, P < 0.001) and Ca digestibility (54.99 to 58.30%, P = 0.002). The addition of PHY improved both P and Ca digestibility (P < 0.001); 750 PU/kg increased P digestibility 27.3% (from 34.6 to 61.9%, P < 0.001), whereas 300 PU increased it 13.8% (from 33.4 to 47.2%, P < 0.001). In an experiment conducted to evaluate the long-term effects of VIR on gut microbial profile, pigs (24 gilts and 8 barrows; mean BW = 29.1 +/- 0.50 kg) were fed a simple corn-soybean meal diet for 16 wk with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of VIR (0 and 11 mg/kg) addition and 0.15% dicalcium phosphate deletion. The long-term feeding of VIR in both the control diet and the diet with a marginally reduced P level resulted in a change in ileal microbial profile. A positive numerical increment in the number of phytate-utilizing bacteria was observed in both the normal and P-deleted diets (log unit increments of 12.4 and 17.2% over the respective controls, P = 0.13) when VIR was added. The addition of VIR also tended to affect lactobacilli populations (main effect, P = 0.11; interaction, P = 0.02); VIR decreased lactobacilli in the normal-P diet but did not affect this bacterial

  10. Efficacy of a meal replacement diet plan compared to a food-based diet plan after a period of weight loss and weight maintenance: a randomized controlled trial

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    Hutchisen Tammy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. It is implicated in the development of a variety of chronic disease states and is associated with increased levels of inflammation and oxidative stress. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of Medifast's meal replacement program (MD on body weight, body composition, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress among obese individuals following a period of weight loss and weight maintenance compared to a an isocaloric, food-based diet (FB. Methods This 40-week randomized, controlled clinical trial included 90 obese adults with a body mass index (BMI between 30 and 50 kg/m2, randomly assigned to one of two weight loss programs for 16 weeks and then followed for a 24-week period of weight maintenance. The dietary interventions consisted of Medifast's meal replacement program for weight loss and weight maintenance, or a self-selected, isocaloric, food-based meal plan. Results Weight loss at 16 weeks was significantly better in the Medifast group (MD versus the food-based group (FB (12.3% vs. 6.9%, and while significantly more weight was regained during weight maintenance on MD versus FB, overall greater weight loss was achieved on MD versus FB. Significantly more of the MD participants lost ≥ 5% of their initial weight at week 16 (93% vs. 55% and week 40 (62% vs. 30%. There was no difference in satiety observed between the two groups during the weight loss phase. Significant improvements in body composition were also observed in MD participants compared to FB at week 16 and week 40. At week 40, both groups experienced improvements in biochemical outcomes and other clinical indicators. Conclusions Our data suggest that the meal replacement diet plan evaluated was an effective strategy for producing robust initial weight loss and for achieving improvements in a number of health-related parameters during weight maintenance, including inflammation

  11. Optimal Cultivation Time for Yeast and Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fermented Milk and Effects of Fermented Soybean Meal on Rumen Degradability Using Nylon Bag Technique

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    S. Polyorach

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine an optimal cultivation time for populations of yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB co-cultured in fermented milk and effects of soybean meal fermented milk (SBMFM supplementation on rumen degradability in beef cattle using nylon bag technique. The study on an optimal cultivation time for yeast and LAB growth in fermented milk was determined at 0, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post-cultivation. After fermenting for 4 days, an optimal cultivation time of yeast and LAB in fermented milk was selected and used for making the SBMFM product to study nylon bag technique. Two ruminal fistulated beef cattle (410±10 kg were used to study on the effect of SBMFM supplementation (0%, 3%, and 5% of total concentrate substrate on rumen degradability using in situ method at incubation times of 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h according to a Completely randomized design. The results revealed that the highest yeast and LAB population culture in fermented milk was found at 72 h-post cultivation. From in situ study, the soluble fractions at time zero (a, potential degradability (a+b and effective degradability of dry matter (EDDM linearly (p<0.01 increased with the increasing supplemental levels and the highest was in the 5% SBMFM supplemented group. However, there was no effect of SBMFM supplement on insoluble degradability fractions (b and rate of degradation (c. In conclusion, the optimal fermented time for fermented milk with yeast and LAB was at 72 h-post cultivation and supplementation of SBMFM at 5% of total concentrate substrate could improve rumen degradability of beef cattle. However, further research on effect of SBMFM on rumen ecology and production performance in meat and milk should be conducted using in vivo both digestion and feeding trials.

  12. Effects of different levels of vitamin premix in finisher diets on performance, immuno-competence and meat lipid oxidation of chickens fed on corn-soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravej, Hoseein; Alahyari-Shahrasb, Majid; Kiani, Ali; Bagherirad, Mona; Shivazad, Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the effects of a vitamin premix (VP) reduction or withdrawal from finisher diet (29-43 days) on performance, immuno-competence, and characteristics of leg bones and meat lipid oxidation of chickens fed on corn-soybean meal based diet. A total of 900 male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were allocated to five treatment groups (0, 33%, 66%, 100% and 133% VP), with nine replicates per treatment group. At 29 and 36 days of ages, four birds from each replicate were injected with sheep red blood cells (SRBC). The cell-mediated immunity was determined via phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and 1-chloro 2-4-dinitrobenzen (DNCB) at 34 and 42 days of ages. At 33, 38 and 43 days of age, 42 days of ages, and two birds of each replicate were slaughtered and bone parameters measured. The oxidative stability was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) on the thigh samples that were stored for 90 day at -80 ˚C. The results showed that reduction or withdrawal of VP from diets at different time points of the finisher period did not affect performance, immunocompetence and characteristics of leg bones. Results of TBARS showed that lipid peroxidation of the treatment without VP was significantly higher than of the other treatments when slaughtered at 43 days of age. Finally, the results of this study demonstrated that it is not possible to reduce the VP in finisher broilers' diets without negative effects on meat quality during the time of freezing.

  13. Research on the production of compound protein powder by mixed strain fermentation of soybean meal%混合菌株发酵豆粕生产复合蛋白粉研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳; 崔青曼; 袁春营; 王英光

    2012-01-01

    Six experimental groups were designed with shrimp shell fermentation liquid and soybean as raw materials according to several factors affecting fermentation effect,fermentation effect of different treatment groups were compared by measuring the range of indicators, the results showed that: fermented soybean meal (compound protein powder )compared with raw meal,the former had wine, sensory good, strong acid flavor, trypsin inhibitor and phytic acid content decreased significantly(P<0.05), soluble protein, free amino acid, peptide content increased significantly (P<0.05), protein content increased significantly (P<0.05), it was illustrated that nutritional value of soybean meal had been greatly improved by mixed fermentation. The fifth experimental group was the best in all the experimental groups, fermentation parameters of the group: fermented liquor pH value was 6.5, added the non-sterilized soybean meal, solid-liquid ratio was 1 : 1.8, yeast inoculation quantity was 15% of soybean meal quality,10% glucose of soybean meal quality was added after 12 h fermentation,fermentation temperature was 35 t,fermentation time was 48 h.%以虾壳发酵液和豆粕为原料,根据影响发酵效果的几个因素,设计6组实验,通过测定系列指标,比较不同处理组豆粕的发酵效果.结果表明,发酵豆粕(复合蛋白粉)与原料豆粕相比,感官良好,带有酒香的浓郁酸香味,胰蛋白酶抑制因子和植酸含量显著降低(P<0.05),酸溶蛋白、游离氨基酸、小肽含量显著升高(P<0.05),蛋白质含量显著升高(P<0.05),说明经过混菌发酵,豆粕的营养价值得到极大提高.在各实验组中,以实验5组效果最佳,该组的发酵参数是:发酵原液·pH值6.5,添加未灭菌豆粕,料液比为1:1.8,酿酒酵母接菌量为豆粕质量的15%,发酵后12 h添加豆粕质量10%的葡萄糖,发酵温度35℃,发酵时间48 h.

  14. Efeito da granulometria do milho e do farelo de soja sobre o desempenho de codornas japonesas Effect of corn and soybean meal particle size on performance of japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Susana Mogyca Leandro

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de diferentes granulometrias de milho moído e de farelo de soja na ração, 384 codornas japonesas em postura com 13 semanas de idade foram alojadas em baterias metálicas. Os tratamentos foram diferenciados a partir do grau de moagem do milho (M e do farelo de soja (FS, em que o milho foi triturado em moinho de martelos com peneiras 1/8, 2/8 polegadas ou 6 mm (DGM de 1420; 1161 e 1047 mm, respectivamente, enquanto o farelo de soja foi utilizado sem moagem ou passado uma vez no moinho de martelos (DGM de 1811 e 700 mm. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3x2 (níveis de moagem do milho x níveis de moagem do FS com quatro repetições de 16 aves cada. A granulometria do FS foi determinante na variação dos DGM das rações experimentais (DGM variando de 1,737 a 1,153 mm. Em todos os ciclos estudados, a produção de ovos, o consumo de ração, a conversão alimentar (kg/kg e kg/dz de ovos e o peso médio dos ovos não diferiram entre as diferentes granulometrias testadas. Assim, entre a granulometrias analisadas, deve-se optar por aquela cujo processamento seja de menor custo.To evaluate the use of rations with different corn and soybean meal eparticle size in productive performance, 384 Japanese quails in laying period with 13 weeks of age were allotted to laying cages. The traits consisted of different particle size of diets according to grinding size of corn (C and soybean meal (SBM, with the use of sieve diameter of 1/8, 2/8 inches or 6 mm resulting in a GMD of 1420, 1161 and 1047 mm, respectively, and for soybean meal with no grinder passage and one time passage, resulting in a 1,181 and 700 mm of GMD. The completely randomized design was used, in a factorial scheme 3 x 2 (grinding levels of corn x grinding levels of soybean meal, four replications with 16 birds each. The particle size of soybean meal influenced the GMD of the experimental rations that ranged

  15. 固态发酵大豆粕工艺研究现状及其工业应用%Research status of solid-state fermented soybean meal technology and application in industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王威; 孙世军; 赵巧义

    2013-01-01

    Soybean meal is an important source of high quality protein feed,containing anti–nutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitor,antibody protein,phytic acid et al. Its feeding value was restricted greatly. Solid–state fermentation technology by micro–organisms can increase the protein content of the soybean meal,polypeptides and amino acids generated by the decomposition can digested and absorbed easier by animals. A part or all of the anti–nutritional factors can be eliminated,and a variety of useful active factor generated,which improved the feeding value of the product. Research status on solid–state fermentation process of soybean meal and industrial applications were described.%  大豆粕是优质蛋白饲料重要来源;但因含有胰蛋白酶抑制剂、抗体蛋白、植酸等抗营养因子,使其饲用价值受到很大限制。微生物固态发酵技术不仅可提高大豆粕蛋白含量,分解产生多肽类及氨基酸更易被动物所消化吸收,且能部分或全部消除其中抗营养因子,并生成多种有益活性因子,提高产品饲用价值。该文对固态发酵大豆粕工艺目前研究现状及在工业应用上进行阐述。

  16. Farelo de soja na alimentação de tilápias-do-nilo durante o período de reversão sexual Soybean meal in Nile tilapia diets during the sexual reversion period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Meurer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 800 larvas com 2 dias de idade com o objetivo de testar o uso de farelo de soja em rações para tilápias-do-nilo durante o período de reversão sexual (30 dias. O experimento foi conduzido segundo delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições, no qual um tanque-rede com 50 larvas correspondeu a uma unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de rações isoprotéicas e isoenergéticas (38,6% de proteína digestível e 3.800 kcal/kg de energia digestível com 0, 16, 34 ou 42% de farelo de soja. O aumento no nível de farelo de soja teve efeito linear positivo sobre os valores de peso e comprimento finais médios, mas não afetou a condição corporal e os índices de sobrevivência. Recomenda-se incluir o farelo de soja em níveis de até 42% na ração de tilápias-do-nilo na fase de reversão.Eight hundred Nile tilapia larvae with two days old were used to evaluate the inclusion of soybean meal in diets fed Nile tilapia during the sex reversion period (30 days. The experiment was analyzed as a completely randomized blocks, with four treatments and four replications. A net tank with 50 larvae was considered an experimental unit. The treatments were formulated to be isoprotein and isonitrogenous (38.6% of digestible protein and 3,800 kcal/kg of digestible energy, with increasing levels of soybean meal inclusion 0, 16, 34 and 42%. Average final weight and length linearly increased as the dietary soybean meal levels increased. No treatment effect on survival and body condition was observed. It is recommend to include up to 42% of soybean meal in Nile tilapia diets in the sexual reversion phase.

  17. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets....... The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg......, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver funtion were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended...

  18. Partial replacement of fish meal by T-Iso in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata juveniles diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Zoccarato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the evaluation of microalga Isochrysis sp. T-Iso in partial substitution of fish meal and the study of the effects on gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata perform- ances and chemical composition of fillets. The results show that the microalga T-Iso nutrients support growth better than control diets, and the chemical composition of sea bream fillets also meets the needs of consumers for healthy diets. T-Iso resulted highly digestible, and support the best perform- ances of fish fed on 70% alga diet probably due to its high protein efficiency in comparison to other diets. The presence of a high quantity of cyclic isoprenoid could explain this high efficiency of T-Iso. Gilthead sea bream fed on 70% T-Iso showed fillets with a low level of protein and a high level of fat; moreover, their somatic indexes were higher than those of fish fed other diets. Highest percentage T- Iso diet showed the highest amount of the sum of saturated fatty acids, mainly due to myristate and palmitate. On the contrary, the sum of polyunsaturated decreases, mainly because of the reduction of EPA and DHA amounts. If the mass production economical problems are solved, T-Iso will represent a good solution in partial substitution of fish meal.

  19. Nutrient adequacy during weight loss interventions: a randomized study in women comparing the dietary intake in a meal replacement group with a traditional food group

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    Bovee Vicki

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe and effective weight control strategies are needed to stem the current obesity epidemic. The objective of this one-year study was to document and compare the macronutrient and micronutrient levels in the foods chosen by women following two different weight reduction interventions. Methods Ninety-six generally healthy overweight or obese women (ages 25–50 years; BMI 25–35 kg/m2 were randomized into a Traditional Food group (TFG or a Meal Replacement Group (MRG incorporating 1–2 meal replacement drinks or bars per day. Both groups had an energy-restricted goal of 5400 kJ/day. Dietary intake data was obtained using 3-Day Food records kept by the subjects at baseline, 6 months and one-year. For more uniform comparisons between groups, each diet intervention consisted of 18 small group sessions led by the same Registered Dietitian. Results Weight loss for the 73% (n = 70 completing this one-year study was not significantly different between the groups, but was significantly different (p ≤ .05 within each group with a mean (± standard deviation weight loss of -6.1 ± 6.7 kg (TFG, n = 35 vs -5.0 ± 4.9 kg (MRG, n = 35. Both groups had macronutrient (Carbohydrate:Protein:Fat ratios that were within the ranges recommended (50:19:31, TFG vs 55:16:29, MRG. Their reported reduced energy intake was similar (5729 ± 1424 kJ, TFG vs 5993 ± 2016 kJ, MRG. There was an improved dietary intake pattern in both groups as indicated by decreased intake of saturated fat (≤ 10%, cholesterol ( Conclusion In this one-year university-based intervention, both dietitian-led groups successfully lost weight while improving overall dietary adequacy. The group incorporating fortified meal replacements tended to have a more adequate essential nutrient intake compared to the group following a more traditional food group diet. This study supports the need to incorporate fortified foods and/or dietary supplements while following an energy

  20. Nutrient adequacy during weight loss interventions: a randomized study in women comparing the dietary intake in a meal replacement group with a traditional food group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Judith M; Herzog, Holly; Clodfelter, Sharon; Bovee, Vicki; Schrage, Jon; Pritsos, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Background Safe and effective weight control strategies are needed to stem the current obesity epidemic. The objective of this one-year study was to document and compare the macronutrient and micronutrient levels in the foods chosen by women following two different weight reduction interventions. Methods Ninety-six generally healthy overweight or obese women (ages 25–50 years; BMI 25–35 kg/m2) were randomized into a Traditional Food group (TFG) or a Meal Replacement Group (MRG) incorporating 1–2 meal replacement drinks or bars per day. Both groups had an energy-restricted goal of 5400 kJ/day. Dietary intake data was obtained using 3-Day Food records kept by the subjects at baseline, 6 months and one-year. For more uniform comparisons between groups, each diet intervention consisted of 18 small group sessions led by the same Registered Dietitian. Results Weight loss for the 73% (n = 70) completing this one-year study was not significantly different between the groups, but was significantly different (p ≤ .05) within each group with a mean (± standard deviation) weight loss of -6.1 ± 6.7 kg (TFG, n = 35) vs -5.0 ± 4.9 kg (MRG, n = 35). Both groups had macronutrient (Carbohydrate:Protein:Fat) ratios that were within the ranges recommended (50:19:31, TFG vs 55:16:29, MRG). Their reported reduced energy intake was similar (5729 ± 1424 kJ, TFG vs 5993 ± 2016 kJ, MRG). There was an improved dietary intake pattern in both groups as indicated by decreased intake of saturated fat (≤ 10%), cholesterol (<200 mg/day), and sodium (< 2400 mg/day), with increased total servings/day of fruits and vegetables (4.0 ± 2.2, TFG vs 4.6 ± 3.2, MRG). However, the TFG had a significantly lower dietary intake of several vitamins and minerals compared to the MRG and was at greater risk for inadequate intake. Conclusion In this one-year university-based intervention, both dietitian-led groups successfully lost weight while improving overall dietary adequacy. The group

  1. Bacterial protein meal in diets for pigs and minks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on protein turnover rate, and on nucleic acid and creatinine metabolism in growing minks and pigs was investigated in two experiments. In each experiment, 16 animals were allocated to four experimental diets. The diets...... containing no BPM served as controls, i.e. for minks diet M1, for pigs P1; the experimental diets contained increasing levels of BPM to replace fish meal (minks) or soybean meal (pigs), so that up to 17% (P2), 20% (M2), 35% (P3), 40% (M3), 52% (P4), and 60% (M4) of digestible N was BPM derived. Protein...... turnover rate was measured by means of the end-product method using [15N]glycine as tracer and urinary nitrogen as end-product. In minks, protein flux, synthesis, and breakdown increased significantly with increasing dietary BPM. In pigs, diet had no observed effect on protein turnover rate. The intake...

  2. Substituição do farelo de soja pela farinha de glúten de milho na alimentação de cabras leiteiras Substitution of soybean meal protein by corn gluten meal protein in dairy goat feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Pego de Macedo

    2003-08-01

    the effect of substitution of soybean meal (SM protein by the protein from the corn gluten flour (CGF, in the milk production, milk composition, voluntary intake and plasmatic urea. The experimental design was the triple Latin square 4x4, with four periods of 21 days, being 14 days of adaptation to the diet and seven days for samples collection. The goats were fed and milked in the morning and afternoon. The substitution levels studied were: 0, 10, 30 and 50% of CGF (based in the crude protein. The substitution of the soybean meal by CGM did not affect the intake (kg/day and %BW of dry matter, crude protein and acid detergent fiber, but there was quadratic effect for neutral detergent fiber intake (kg/day and %BW. There was effect on the levels of plasmatic urea nitrogen (PUN, where the smallest values were in the intermediate levels of substitution, being the biggest values for the treatment with only SM. The milk production decreased lineally with the inclusion of CGM. The substitution levels resulted in lineal decrease in the fat production (kg/day, in the milk fat content (% and milk total solids content (%. There was quadratic effect for lactose production, being the smallest value for 31.6% of substitution level. It was no effect on in crude protein in the milk, which average was .083 kg/day. The crude protein content, lactose and total solids did not suffer effect of the substitution levels, being the average values of 2.98, 4.35 and 11.51%, respectively.

  3. Dieta hiperlipídica com farinha de soja como fonte proteica: utilização na seleção de ratos propensos e resistentes à obesidade High-fat diet using soybean meal as protein source: use for selecting rats prone and resistant to obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludimila Canuto Cabeço

    2010-06-01

    .0%, Bio Tec chow (30.0% and chocolate wafer cookies (10.0%. In order to make it appropriate for rats, the mixture was pelleted and subjected to food analysis. The chow was offered to Wistar rats for a week. The animals were subsequently separated according to weight gained. The upper third group was considered prone to obesity and the lower third group was considered resistant to obesity. The animals were sacrificed 80 days later to determine body weight, food intake, retroperitoneal, periepididymal and carcass fats and total fats. RESULTS: Food analysis found that the chow had an energy density of 5.31 Kcal/g, 22.3% fat, 22.2% protein, 15.9% fiber and 35.7% carbohydrates. After being fed for 87 days with the high-fat diet, obesity-prone rats had higher body weight and retroperitoneal, periepididymal and total fats than obesity-resistant animals (p<0.05. Food intake was also higher among obesity-prone rats (p<0.05. The replacement of casein by soybean meal as protein source reduced the cost of the study by 96.0%. CONCLUSION: The substitution of casein by soybean meal in a high-fat diet allows cost reduction and the identification of obese-prone rats. Continuous use of this high-fat diet resulted in the development of the obese phenotype, as seen with other diets used in the literature.

  4. Effects of diets with soybean meal on the growth, digestibility, Phosphorus and Nitrogen excretion of juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Efectos de dietas con harina de soya en el crecimiento, digestibilidad, excreción de fósforo y nitrógeno de juveniles de trucha arco iris Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Agustín Cruz Castro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was performed to evaluate the inclusion of high levels of soybean meal as a substitute for fishmeal in diets for juvenile rainbowtrout and determine the phosphorus and nitrogen excretion. Fishmeal was replaced with soybean meal at levels of 50,75 and 100 % with an inclusion of 0.8 g of phytase per kg of diet (g kg-1, whereas a diet with 100% substitution was used without phytase. A commercial diet and one with 100% of fishmeal were used as controls. Diets were fed to triplicate groups of juveniles (4.12 ± 0.7 g, mean + standard deviation for a period of 50 days, and growth performance, P and N excretion and protein digestibility were determined at the end of this period. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA. The results showed that fish growth decreased when 100% of substitution was used, but diet with 75% of soybean meal did not affect growth. In addition, excretion values of P and N at this level of substitution were lowerthan those of the fish fed the control diets. The data suggest that diet with 75% soybean meal and 25% fishmeal might be used under practical conditions, as the growth performance observed on the juveniles fed such diet was similarto those offish fed the commercial diet and the nutrient loading was reduced.Se realizó una prueba de alimentación para evaluar la inclusión de altos niveles de harina de soya como sustituto de la harina de pescado en dietas para juveniles de trucha arco iris y determinar la excreción de fósforo y nitrógeno. La harina de pescado se sustituyó en niveles de 50, 75 y 100% con la inclusión de 0.8 g de fitasa por kg de dieta (g kg-1, así como una dieta con 100% de sustitución sin fitasa fue utilizada. Una dieta comercial y una con 100% de harina de pescado se utilizaron como controles. Las dietas se ofrecieron a grupos de juveniles portriplicado de juveniles (4.12 ± 0.7 g, promedio + desviación estándar por un periodo de 50 días. Al finalizar este periodo, se determinó el

  5. Comparison of soybean meal/sorghum grain, alfalfa hay and dehydrated alfalfa pellets as supplemental protein sources for beef cattle consuming dormant tallgrass-prairie forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelCurto, T; Cochran, R C; Nagaraja, T G; Corah, L R; Beharka, A A; Vanzant, E S

    1990-09-01

    Three experiments were conducted to compare soybean meal/sorghum grain (SBM/SG), alfalfa hay or dehydrated alfalfa pellets (DEHY) as supplemental protein sources for beef cattle grazing dormant range forage. In Exp. 1 (35-d digestion study), 16 ruminally cannulated steers were stratified by weight (average BW 259 kg) and assigned randomly within stratification to: 1) control, no supplement; 2) SBM/SG (25% CP) fed at .48% BW; 3) alfalfa hay (17% CP) fed at .70% BW; or 4) DEHY (17.4% CP) fed at .67% BW. Steers receiving protein supplements displayed at least a twofold increase in forage intake (P less than .10). In addition, steers supplemented with DEHY consumed approximately 15% more forage (P less than .10) than SBM/SG- or alfalfa hay-supplemented steers. Digestible DM intake (kg/d), however, was similar between alfalfa hay- and DEHY-supplemented steers and 20% greater (P less than .10) than for SBM/SG-supplemented steers. In Exp. 2, 82 mature, nonlactating Hereford x Angus cows (average BW 489 kg) were assigned randomly to SBM/SG, alfalfa hay or DEHY supplement treatments, which were replicated in three pastures. Cows supplemented with DEHY gained more weight (P less than .05) during the first 84 d of supplementation and displayed the least amount of weight loss at calving (d 127; P less than .05) and just prior to breeding (P less than .10). In contrast, calving interval (361 d) and pregnancy rate (94%) were unaffected (P greater than .10) by dam's previous supplemental treatment. In Exp. 3, one block (pasture) of cows from Exp. 2 was selected at random and grazing behavior was monitored during week-long periods in January and February. A treatment X time interaction (P less than .05) occurred for total time spent grazing; treatments did not differ in January, but cows supplemented with alfalfa hay spent less time grazing in the February grazing period. In conclusion, DEHY and alfalfa hay appear to be at least as effective as SBM/SG as a supplemental protein

  6. Effects of dietary soybean meal concentration on growth and immune response of pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochell, S J; Alexander, L S; Rocha, G C; Van Alstine, W G; Boyd, R D; Pettigrew, J E; Dilger, R N

    2015-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary soybean meal (SBM) concentration on the growth performance and immune response of pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Four experimental treatments included a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of 2 dietary SBM concentrations, 17.5% (LSBM) or 29% (HSBM), and 2 levels of PRRSV infection, uninfected sham or PRRSV infected. Sixty-four weanling pigs of split sex (21 d of age, 7.14 ± 0.54 kg) were individually housed in disease containment chambers. Pigs were provided a common diet for 1 wk postweaning before being equalized for BW and sex and allotted to 4 treatment groups with 16 replicate pigs per group. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 1 wk before receiving either a sham inoculation (sterile PBS) or a 1 × 10 50% tissue culture infective dose of PRRSV at 35 d of age (0 d postinoculation, DPI). Pig BW and feed intake were recorded weekly, and rectal temperatures were measured daily beginning on 0 DPI. Blood was collected on 0, 3, 7, and 14 DPI for determination of serum PRRSV load, differential complete blood cell counts, and haptoglobin and cytokine concentrations. Infection with PRRSV increased (P pigs throughout the infection period, with no influence of dietary SBM concentration. Pigs in the PRRSV-infected group had lower (P pigs. In the PRRSV-infected group, pigs fed HSBM tended to have improved ADG (P = 0.06) compared with pigs fed LSBM, whereas there was no influence of SBM concentration on growth of pigs in the uninfected group. At 14 DPI, PRRSV-infected pigs fed HSBM had a lower serum PRRSV load (P pigs fed LSBM. Serum haptoglobin and tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations of PRRSV-infected pigs were lower (P pigs fed HSBM at 3 and 14 DPI, respectively, than in pigs fed LSBM. Overall, increasing the dietary SBM concentration modulated the immune response and tended to improve the growth of nursery pigs during a PRRSV infection.

  7. Relations of hedonic hunger and behavioral change to weight loss among adults in a behavioral weight loss program utilizing meal-replacement products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theim, Kelly R; Brown, Joshua D; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Malcolm, Robert R; O'Neil, Patrick M

    2013-11-01

    Greater self-regulatory behavior usage is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments. Hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may impede successful behavior change and weight loss. Adult men and women (N = 111, body mass index M ± SD = 35.89 ± 6.97 kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after a 15-week lifestyle change weight loss program with a partial meal-replacement diet. From pre- to post-treatment, reported weight control behavior usage improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely related. Individuals with higher hedonic hunger scores at baseline showed the greatest weight loss. Similarly, participants with lower baseline use of weight control behaviors lost more weight, and increased weight control behavior usage was associated with greater weight loss-particularly among individuals with low baseline hedonic hunger. Further study is warranted regarding the significance of hedonic hunger in weight loss treatments.

  8. Effects of replacing rapeseed meal with fava bean at 2 concentrate crude protein levels on feed intake, nutrient digestion, and milk production in cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhakka, L; Jaakkola, S; Simpura, I; Kokkonen, T; Vanhatalo, A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the production and physiological responses of dairy cows to the substitution of fava bean for rapeseed meal at 2 protein supplementation levels in grass silage-based diets. We used 6 primiparous and 6 multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows in a cyclic changeover trial with a 2×3 factorial arrangement of treatments. The experimental diets consisted of formic acid-treated timothy-meadow fescue silage and 3 isonitrogenous concentrates containing either rapeseed meal, fava bean, or a 1:1 mixture of rapeseed meal and fava bean at low and high inclusion rates, resulting in concentrate crude protein (CP) levels of 15.4 and 19.0% in dry matter. Silage dry matter intake decreased linearly when rapeseed meal was replaced with fava bean, the negative effect being more distinct at the high CP level than the low (-2.3 vs. -0.9kg/d, respectively). Similarly, milk and milk protein yields decreased linearly with fava bean, the change tending to be greater at the high CP level than the low. Yield of milk fat was lower for fava bean compared with rapeseed meal, the difference showing no interaction with CP level. Especially at the high CP level, milk urea concentration was higher with fava bean compared with rapeseed meal indicating better utilization of protein from the rapeseed meal. The apparent total-tract organic matter digestibility did not differ between treatments at the low CP level, but digestibility was higher for fava bean than for rapeseed meal at the high CP level. Plasma concentrations of essential amino acids, including methionine and lysine, were lower for fava bean than for rapeseed meal. Compared with rapeseed meal, the use of fava bean in dairy cow diets as the sole protein supplement decreased silage intake and milk production in highly digestible formic acid-treated grass silage-based diets.

  9. Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fishmeal replaced with Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris and Azolla pinnata and the formulated diet fed to Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae to assess the enhancement ability of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C and E, enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and lipid peroxidation (LPx were analysed. In the present study, the S. platensis, C. vulgaris and A. pinnata inclusion diet fed groups had significant (P < 0.05 improvement in the levels of vitamins C and E in the hepatopancreas and muscle tissue. Among all the diets, the replacement materials in 50% incorporated feed fed groups showed better performance when compared with the control group in non-enzymatic antioxidant activity. The 50% fishmeal replacement (best performance diet fed groups taken for enzymatic antioxidant study, in SOD, CAT and LPx showed no significant increases when compared with the control group. Hence, the present results revealed that the formulated feed enhanced the vitamins C and E, the result of decreased level of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT and LPx revealed that these feeds are non-toxic and do not produce any stress to postlarvae. These ingredients can be used as an alternative protein source for sustainable Macrobrachium culture.

  10. Effects of partial replacement of fish meal by yeast hydrolysate on complement system and stress resistance in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Wen-Bin; Liang, Chao; Sun, Cun-Xin; Xue, Yun-Fei; Wan, Zu-De; Jiang, Guang-Zhen

    2017-08-01

    A 10-week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary fish meal replacement by yeast hydrolysate (YH) on growth performance, complement system and stress resistance of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) (initial average weight 19.44 ± 0.06 g). In the study, there were five groups: one control group was fed with a basal diet (YH0), and four treatment groups were fed with dietary fish meal replaced by 1% YH (YH1), 3% (YH3), 5% (YH5) and 7% (YH7), respectively. Each group had four replicates. At the end of feeding trial, twelve fish from each group (three fish per replicate) were randomly selected for assessing the growth and immunity. Meanwhile, 20 fish per replicate were injected by Aeromonas hydrophila. The results showed that (1) Replacement levels of YH significantly affected the growth of the fish with the highest values of weight gain (WG) occurred in fish fed YH3 diet. However, no significant difference in feed conversion ratios (FCR) was observed among all groups. (2) Pre-stressed plasma lysozyme activity, total protein and albumin contents and complement component 3 (C3) and complement component 4 (C4) levels of fish fed YH3 diet were significantly higher than those of fish fed YH0 diet. However, post-stressed immune parameters of fish in all groups were significantly lower. (3) There was a trend that the expression levels of the complement-related genes (c1r/s-A, c4-1, c3-H1, c5-1, fb/c2-A, mbl-2 and masp) initially increased and then decreased except mbl-2 and masp, with the maximum values observed in fish fed YH3 diet. Before stress, the expression levels of the inflammation-related genes (alp, il-1β and tnf-α) in the hepatopancreas and spleen of fish fed YH1 diet and YH7 diet were significant higher than that of fish fed YH0 diet. After stress, no significant difference in the expression levels of those genes was observed among all groups. These results indicated that FM replacement by YH could improve growth

  11. Study on Mixed Fermentation of Soybean Meal By the Complex Flora from Crusted Tea and Bacillus subtilis%陈香茶菌及枯草芽孢杆菌复合发酵豆粕的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚勇芳; 赵祥杰; 廖延智; 陈小凤; 李平凡

    2014-01-01

    本试验旨在研究陈香茶菌及枯草芽孢杆菌复合发酵生料豆粕。以酸溶性蛋白含量为主要检测指标,研究陈香茶菌及枯草芽孢杆菌不同培养条件对豆粕固态发酵的影响。结果表明:1)陈香茶菌适宜培养条件为,称取0.5 g陈香茶粉接入装有100 mL马铃薯葡萄糖培养基三角瓶中,28℃静置培养24 h。2)豆粕固态发酵最佳工艺为,10%枯草芽孢杆菌发酵液+10%陈香茶菌培养液+10%糖蜜+10%水+55%豆粕,在37℃密闭条件下培养3~6 d。通过陈香茶菌及枯草芽孢杆菌复合发酵,能显著改善生料豆粕营养价值,有一定的应用价值。%The study was conducted to investigate the mixed fermentation of soybean meal by the complex flora from crusted tea and Bacillus subtilis. Making the acid soluble protein content as the main index, the different culture conditions of the complex flora from crusted tea and Bacillus subtilis fermentation factors were studied. The research results showed as follows:1) the optimal culture conditions of the complex flora from crusted tea was:0.5 g crusted tea powder into triangle bottle with 100 mL potato dextrose agar was stationarily cultured for 24 h under the condition of 28 ℃. 2) The optimum process for soybean meal by solid state fermentation was:10% Bacillus subtilis fermentation liquid+10% culture liquid of the complex flora from crusted tea+10% mo-lasses+10% water+55% soybean meal, at 37 ℃ under airtight condition cultured for 3 to 6 days. The mixed fermentation by the complex flora from crusted tea and Bacillus subtilis can significantly improve the nutritional value of raw meal and have certain application value.

  12. 多菌种固态发酵对豆粕、棉籽粕和花生粕组成的混合蛋白原料的影响%Effect of multi-strain solid state fermentation on mixed protein feed composed of soybean meal, cottonseed meal and peanut meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旺军; 方华; 夏佳吉; 王玲; 季春源

    2011-01-01

    The active bacteria number and nutrient substances were analyzed during mixed culture solid state fermentation by Bacillus subitilis and Lactobacillus bulgaricus ,? With soybean meal, cottonseed meal and peanut meal as mixed solid protein feed. The Results showed that the colony formation unit (cfu) of Bacillus subitilis and Lactobacillus bulgaricus were 3. 1×108 and 4. 45×108 in fermented products, respectively. The content of lactate was 1. 98% {Meanwhile, the large molecular weight of proteins was nearly degraded after fermentation. Compared to the unfermented protein feed,the content of crude protein increased by 7. 89%,and the contents of oligo-peptide increased by 129. 36%. The anti-nutritional factors (stachyose and raffi-nose) almost completely degraded, as well as producing a certain amount of reducing sugar.%以枯草芽孢杆菌和保加利亚乳杆菌为试验菌株,对豆粕、棉籽粕和花生粕组成的混合蛋白原料样品进行多菌种发酵处理,检测发酵过程中的活菌数和营养物质的变化.结果表明:发酵结束后混合蛋白原料样品中枯草芽孢杆菌活菌数为3.1×108 cfu/g,保加利亚乳杆菌活菌数为4.45×108 cfu/g,乳酸含量为1.98%,大分子蛋白几乎完全分解成小分子蛋白,粗蛋白质含量比发酵前提高了7.89%,寡肽含量比发酵前提高了129.36%,抗营养因子(水苏糖和棉籽糖)几乎完全降解,同时产生了一定量的还原糖.

  13. Assessment of Metabolizable Energy and Amino Acid Availability of Soybean Meals in Laying Hens%评定蛋鸡豆粕代谢能和氨基酸可利用率的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超胜; 贾刚; 张克英; 丁雪梅; 吴秀群; 赵华; 陈小玲; 吴彩梅; 刘光芒

    2015-01-01

    本试验旨在评定罗曼蛋鸡对不同来源豆粕表观代谢能( AME )和氨基酸可利用率( AAA),并用傅里叶近红外光谱( NIRS)分析技术建立其预测模型。选择248只体重(1.60±0.10) kg、产蛋率85%的36周龄罗曼蛋鸡,按单因素完全随机设计,分为31组,每组8个重复,每个重复1只鸡。在训饲的基础上,采用全收粪法评定30种不同来源豆粕和1种基础饲粮的AME和AAA,然后用NIRS技术建立其生物效价的预测模型。结果如下:1)不同来源的30种豆粕AME在11.95~14.87 MJ/kg 之间,平均值为(13.24±0.67) MJ/kg;总氨基酸可利用率(TAAA)在89.99%~94.96%之间,平均值为(93.73±1.23)%。2)豆粕AME的NIRS预测模型的校正决定系数(Rcal2)、交叉验证系数(Rcv2)、外部验证系数(Rval2)分别为99.24%、83.79%、80.73%,外部验证标准差( RMSEP)为0.22 MJ/kg;TAAA的NIRS预测模型的 Rcal2、Rcv2、Rval2范围分别为94.20%~99.97%、76.38%~97.32%、61.80%~99.42%, RMSEP 范围为0.06%~1.00%。结果表明:1)不同来源豆粕的AME、AAA在罗曼蛋鸡上有较大差异;2)利用NIRS分析技术可建立罗曼蛋鸡豆粕的AME、AAA预测模型,模型的Rcal2及预测的RMSEP较好。%The study was conducted to investigate apparent metabolizable energy ( AME) and amino acids a-vailability ( AAA) of different soybean meal samples, and explore feasibility of establishing prediction for the AME and AAA using Fourier near infrared spectroscopy ( NIRS) . A completely randomized design was used with a total of two hundred and forty six 36-week-old Lohmann laying hens with initial body weight of (1.60± 0.10) kg and laying rate of 85%. Hens were divided into 31 groups with 8 replicates per group and 1 hen per replicate. The experiment was conducted to use the method of trained feeding and total excreta collection. Addi-tionally, the near infrared spectroscopy ( NIRS) calibrations were established to predict AME and AAA of soy-bean meal for laying hens feeds. The

  14. Hazelnut meal in diets for seawater farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss: effects on growth performance and body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Bilen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 77-day feeding trial was designed in order to assess the effect of partial or total replacement of soybean meal by hazelnut meal (HNM on feed intake, growth performance, nutrient utilization and body composition of rainbow trout (initial mean body weight: 80.0±3.5 g in seawater conditions. A control and three experimental diets were formulated in which soybean meal level (25.5% in the control diet was replaced by hazelnut meal at 39.2 (HN 39, 78.4 (HN 78 and 100% (HN 100 to provide 44% crude protein and 20% crude lipid diets. Diets were fed to 125 rainbow trout to apparent satiation by hand twice daily at 09.00 and 16.00 hours under natural photoperiod conditions. At the end of the feeding trial, fish of all groups almost tripled their body weight and no significant difference (P>0.05 was revealed in final weight or specific growth rate between treatments. However, feed conversion ratio (FCR of the HN100 group was significantly higher than other treatments (P<0.05. There was a slightly decreasing trend in protein efficiency ratio (PER and net protein utilization (NPU with increasing level of dietary hazelnut meal, but it was only significant in groups of fish fed HN100. All groups of fish displayed similar carcass and muscle compositions. According to the results of the present study, it can be stated that hazelnut meal can replace soybean meal at up to 200 g kg-1 in grow-out diets of rainbow trout without any detrimental effects on growth performance.

  15. Replacement of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa L.) with subabul (Leucaena leucocephala) leaf meal in diets of Najdi goats: effect on digestion activity of rumen microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Jolazadeh, Alireza

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of replacing alfalfa hay by subabul leaf meal (SLM) on digestion, fermentation parameters and rumen bacteria and fungi activity of Najdi goats. Six Najdi goats (150 ± 15 days of age and initial body weight of 35 ± 1.1 kg) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments in a balanced completely randomized design (three goats per treatment) for 56 days. Experimental treatments included alfalfa hay as control group and diet containing SLM (SLM replacing alfalfa hay at 50% level). Bacterial and fungi activity and rumen fermentation parameters of animals fed experimental diets were determined. Dry matter disappearance (DMD) was unaffected by replacing SLM with alfalfa hay for both rumen bacteria and fungi in different incubation times, except for 48 h of incubation in specific culture medium of mixed rumen bacteria, which decreased for SLM group (P > 0.05). NDF disappearance (NDFD) and ADF disappearance (ADFD) after 24 and 48 h of incubation in specific culture medium of mixed rumen bacteria was not affected by experimental diets (P > 0.05). However, 72 h after incubation, NDFD in SLM treatment decreased (P > 0.05). Gas production parameters of rumen bacteria were similar for both experimental diets, but partitioning factor (PF), efficiency microbial biomass production (EMBP), microbial protein production (MP), and organic matter truly digested (OMTD) decreased (p alfalfa hay by SLM had no major effect on rumen microorganisms' activity of Najdi goats, so it may be used as an alternative for alfalfa (at 50% level) in susceptible areas.

  16. Effects of two different blends of naturally mycotoxin-contaminated maize meal on growth and metabolic profile in replacement heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeni, F; Migliorati, L; Terzano, G M; Capelletti, M; Gallo, A; Masoero, F; Pirlo, G

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this trial was to assess the effects of the administration of different combinations of mycotoxins in naturally contaminated maize grains on dairy heifer growth, blood measurements and puberty onset. A total of 35 Friesian female heifers were randomly allotted to three experimental groups from 18-21 to 42-45 weeks of age. During the 24-week experimental period (EP), heifers were fed the same diet, but with maize meal derived from three differently contaminated lots: very low contamination, as control (C); medium-low aflatoxin-contaminated (A); and mixed aflatoxin-fumonisin contaminated (A-F). At the end of the EP, they returned to a common diet without contaminated maize, and they were monitored for an additional period of 12 weeks (post-experimental period, PEP). BW, wither height, hip height, body length and heart girth were measured every 4 weeks from the beginning of EP to the end of PEP. At the same time, body condition score was evaluated and blood samples were taken from the jugular vein to be analysed for haematological, serum protein and metabolic profiles. Age at puberty was assessed by measuring weekly plasma progesterone levels from 40 to 52 weeks of age. Body growth measurements were processed both by ANOVA of average daily gain of EP and PEP separately, and by the analysis of growth curve parameters. Haematological, serum protein and metabolic profile were evaluated using a mixed model, taking into account the repeated measurements in time on each animal. Heifers' growth was delayed both in A and A-F groups during EP, as evidenced by the different linear coefficients of the BW growth curve in the three groups. Differently contaminated diets did not affect the haematological profile, so that it can be concluded that these levels of mycotoxin contamination do not determine any specific effect on haematopoiesis and immunity in growing heifers. The main blood marker of mycotoxin chronic toxicity was the γ-glutamyl transferase activity level in

  17. Effects of distillers dried grains with solubles on amino acid, energy, and fiber digestibility and on hindgut fermentation of dietary fiber in a corn-soybean meal diet fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urriola, P E; Stein, H H

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to measure the effect of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on the digestibility of AA, energy, and fiber, on the fermentation of fiber, and on the first appearance of digesta at the end of the ileum, in the cecum, and in the feces of growing pigs fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet. Sixteen pigs (initial BW = 38.0 +/- 1.6 kg) were prepared with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and a T-cannula in the cecum and allotted to 2 treatments. In period 1, all pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal diet. In periods 2, 3, and 4, pigs were fed the control diet or a diet containing corn, soybean meal, and 30% DDGS. First appearance of digesta at the end of the ileum, in the cecum, and over the entire intestinal tract was measured at the end of period 4. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients were measured, and the concentration of VFA was analyzed in ileal, cecal, and fecal samples. The AID of Lys (74.1%) in the DDGS diet was less (P dietary fiber (TDF) were not different between the 2 diets. The ATTD of GE (81.0%), NDF (57.2%), TDF (55.5%), and DM (81.7%) were less (P pigs fed the 2 diets. The pH of ileal and cecal digesta from pigs fed the DDGS diet (6.3 and 5.5) was greater (P pigs fed the control diet (5.8 and 5.3). The ATTD of DM, GE, ADF, NDF, and TDF did not change with collection period, but the AID of ADF, NDF, and TDF increased (P pigs fed the diet containing DDGS had less digestibility of Lys, GE, ADF, NDF, and TDF than pigs fed the control diet. The digestibility of DM and GE was not influenced by collection period, but the concentration of VFA in cecal digesta and feces increased with the length of time pigs received the diets.

  18. Effects of low soybean meal diets on the production performance and egg quality of laying hens%低豆粕日粮对产蛋鸡生产性能及蛋品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玲玲; 李志明; 赵瑞霞; 孙国庆; 乌仁图雅; 乌艳红

    2012-01-01

    To study the effect of low soybean meal diets on the production performance and egg quality of laying hens,one thousand and six hundred roman egg breeding hens with 33 week old were selected and randomly divided into 4 groups with 3 replicates.The results showed that the amino acid balanced diets of low soybean meals had no significant effects on the laying rate, hatchable egg rate, chicks healthy chick rate, egg shape index, egg specific gravity, shell thickness and haugh unit(P>0.05),but the daily egg weight, daily feed intake,fertilization rate and hatching rate were decreased (P0.05).The test guop 1 decreased the feed cost and improved the culture benefit,Therefore, the amino acid balanced diets of low soybean meals had practical significance for the poultry industry .%试验选用1600只生产性能相同、体况良好的33周龄罗曼蛋种鸡,随机分为4组,在总蛋白质含量相同和满足必需氨基酸需要量的情况下,用价格较低的蛋白饲料取代蛋鸡日粮中豆粕,研究氨基酸平衡的低豆粕日粮对蛋种鸡生产性能和蛋品质的影响.结果表明:氨基酸平衡的低豆粕日粮对蛋鸡产蛋率、种蛋合格率、健雏率、蛋形指数、蛋比重、蛋壳厚度、哈氏单位等指标无显著影响(P>0.05),但当日粮中的豆粕含量降低8~15个百分点时,蛋种鸡的日平均蛋重、日采食量、受精率、孵化率等显著低于正常豆粕日粮(P<0.05),而考虑综合因素日粮中的豆粕含量降低8个百分点的第1组,与正常豆粕日粮相比,差异不显著(P>0.05),而且能降低饲料成本,可以提高蛋鸡养殖效益,具有实际意义.

  19. Treatment of acidic dyes solutions by adsorption in soybean meal=Tratamento de soluções de corantes ácidos por adsorção em farelo de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Eduardo Roza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we tested the potential use of a natural sorbent based on soybean meal from oil extraction in the treatment of solutions containing the acid dyes: yellow Erionyl RXL, navy blue Erionyl R and red Erionyl A-3B, used to dye polyamide fibers. To that end, adsorption studies were performed under different conditions of temperature, adsorbent concentrations, pH values, and color mixes (two- and three-color on dye solutions produced in laboratory. Soybean meal showed great ability to remove color, especially in solutions with pH 4 and 6 at 60°C and containing 10 g L-1 of adsorbent. Considering that values of adsorption efficiency ranged between 74 and 99%, depending on the dye and treatment conditions, soybean meal proved to be an alternative material for the adsorption of acidic dyes.Neste trabalho, testou-se o potencial emprego do adsorvente natural à base de farelo de soja, proveniente da extração de óleo vegetal, no tratamento de soluções contendo os corantes ácidos: amarelo Erionyl RXL, marinho Erionyl R e vermelho Erionyl A-3B, empregados no tingimento de fibras poliamídicas. Para tanto, foram realizados estudos de adsorção em diferentes condições de temperatura, concentração de adsorvente, pH e mistura de cores (bicromia e tricromia em soluções de corantes produzidas em laboratório. O farelo de soja mostrou uma ótima capacidade de remoção de cor, principalmente nas soluções de corantes com pH’s 4 e 6 à 60ºC contendo 10 g L-1. Considerando que os valores de eficiência na adsorção ficaram entre 74 e 99%, dependendo do corante e das condições de tratamento, o farelo de soja mostrou-se um material alternativo para a adsorção dos corantes ácidos.

  20. Levels of high energy cottonseed meal in multiple supplements for grazing cattle: performance and economic evaluation

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    Joanis Tilemahos Zervoudakis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the substitution levels of protein from soybean meal by high energy cottonseed (CS meal in multiple supplements for beef cattle grazing in the dry season on the average daily gain (ADG and economic viability. Twenty Nellore steers with initial body weight of 351.25±35.38 kg and average initial age of 24±0.8 months were used, divided into four paddocks of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu with 1.6 ha each incompletely randomized design with four animals and five supplements to assess the following supplements: 0CS, 25CS and 50CS corresponding to the level of 0,25 and 50% high energy cottonseed meal to replace the meal soybean, provided the amount of 2 kg/animal/day, which were compared to mineral mixture (MM. The supplement 25CS provided higher (P<0.0001 ADG (0.75kg/animal/day-1 compared to supplement 50CS (0.60kg/animal/day-1. The ADG of animals supplemented with 0CS (0.53kg/animal/day-1 did not differ (P<0.0001 of the ADG of the bulls receiving supplementation with 25CS (0.75k /animal/day-1 and 50CS (0,60kg / animal / day-1. The 25CS supplement showed a higher economic return on invested capital in the period. The use of cottonseed meal high energy level of 25% replacement of soybean meal in multiple supplements provided greater weight gain of cattle and improved economic viability. 

  1. Performance of broilers fed with snail (Pomacea caniculata meal as substitute to fish meal or meat and bone meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulep, LJL.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Snail meal was used as a substitution to fish meat and bone meal in broiler rations. Final weightand feed conversion efficiency of the birds, profit and return on investment differed significantly among treatments. Feed consumption and production costs were comparable. Results show that snail meal can replace fish or meat and bone meal in broiler diets.

  2. Dietary Mannan Oligosaccharides: Counteracting the Side Effects of Soybean Meal Oil Inclusion on European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Gut Health and Skin Mucosa Mucus Production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrecillas, Silvia; Montero, Daniel; Caballero, Maria José; Pittman, Karin A.; Custódio, Marco; Campo, Aurora; Sweetman, John; Izquierdo, Marisol

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of 4 g kg−1 dietary mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) inclusion in soybean oil (SBO)- and fish oil (FO)-based diets on the gut health and skin mucosa mucus production of European sea bass juveniles after 8 weeks of feeding. Dietary MOS, regardless of the oil source, promoted growth. The intestinal somatic index was not affected, however dietary SBO reduced the intestinal fold length, while dietary MOS increased it. The dietary oil source fed produced changes on the posterior intestine fatty acid profiles irrespective of MOS dietary supplementation. SBO down-regulated the gene expression of TCRβ, COX2, IL-1β, TNFα, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, TGFβ, and Ig and up-regulated MHCII. MOS supplementation up-regulated the expression of MHCI, CD4, COX2, TNFα, and Ig when included in FO-based diets. However, there was a minor up-regulating effect on these genes when MOS was supplemented in the SBO-based diet. Both dietary oil sources and MOS affected mean mucous cell areas within the posterior gut, however the addition of MOS to a SBO diet increased the mucous cell size over the values shown in FO fed fish. Dietary SBO also trends to reduce mucous cell density in the anterior gut relative to FO, suggesting a lower overall mucosal secretion. There are no effects of dietary oil or MOS in the skin mucosal patterns. Complete replacement of FO by SBO, modified the gut fatty acid profile, altered posterior gut-associated immune system (GALT)-related gene expression and gut mucous cells patterns, induced shorter intestinal folds and tended to reduce European sea bass growth. However, when combined with MOS, the harmful effects of SBO appear to be partially balanced by moderating the down-regulation of certain GALT-related genes involved in the functioning of gut mucous barrier and increasing posterior gut mucous cell diffusion rates, thus helping to preserve immune homeostasis. This denotes the importance of a balanced

  3. Family Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Family Meals KidsHealth > For Parents > Family Meals Print A ... even more important as kids get older. Making Family Meals Happen It can be a big challenge ...

  4. Tolerance of Broiler to Dietary Soybean Antinutritional Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Raw, heat treated soybean meal and diets made from soybeans extruded at varying temperature were compared to examine dietary threshold levels of the major soybean antinutritional factors (ANF)for broilers.Whole full-fat soybeans were extruded at 90,100,110,120,130,or 140 C. An in vivo nutritional evaluation of the extruded soybean meals was carried out using 224 Arbor Acres broilers allotted to seven treatments with four replicates of eight birds per pen. As extrusion cooking temperature increased,the urease activity,TI activity,lectin content and PDI decreased. Extruding at 120 C reduced the urease actvity to 0.11 units.the TI activity to 7.20 mg@ g-1 ,and lectin content to zero. Raw soybean meal significantly depressed the growth rate of broiler chickens. Remaining ANF obviously reduced feed intake and dietary nitrogen metabolism. The performance of broilers was improved as extrusion temperature increased. Extruding at 110 C produced an effect equal to that of conventional soybean meal. The weight of the pancreas of the birds fed the raw soybean or 90C-extruded soybean were significantly higher than those in heated-soybean meal group and in the higher temperature-extruded soyean groups. The same tendency was found from 3 to 7 wk of age. The weights of duodenum and ileum of the broilers fed the raw soybean were significantly higher than those in heated-soybean meal group. Extending the feeding of raw soybean or low temperature-extruded soybean to 7-wk-old hroilers significantly increased the fresh weights of proventriculus,jejunum and ileum and dry weights of jejunum and ileum. The villi of birds fed raw soybean meal and low-temperature-extruded soybean meals were shot tened and damaged. Broilers grew well on the diets containing soybean trypsin inhitory activity as high as 3.74 mg @ g-1 without showing any negative effect on the weights of organs and alimentary tracts.

  5. Effect of whole-crop pea (Pisum sativum L.) silages differing in condensed tannin content as a substitute for grass silage and soybean meal on the performance, metabolism, and carcass characteristics of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, K J; Sinclair, L A; Wilkinson, R G; Huntington, J A

    2011-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of inclusion of whole-crop pea (WCP) silages, differing in condensed tannin content, as a substitute for grass silage (GS) and soybean meal on lamb metabolism, performance, plasma metabolites, digestibility, and carcass characteristics. In both experiments lambs were offered either solely GS or a 50:50 mix on a DM basis of GS with either low-tannin (LTPS) or high-tannin (HTPS) pea silage ad libitum. Each forage mix was fed with either 400 g/d of low-protein (LP) concentrate or 400 g/d of LP with an additional 200 g/d of pelletized soybean meal (HP), resulting in 6 dietary treatments. Experiment 1 examined the effects of the diets on metabolism, digestibility, and N balance using 6 lambs in 4 periods of 21 d in an incomplete crossover design. Experiment 2 used 48 lambs and examined the effects of the diets on ADG, plasma metabolites, and carcass characteristics over 56 d. Both experiments were analyzed using a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. In Exp. 1, lambs offered the LTPS diets had a greater (P silages had an increased (P 0.05) of forage type on intake, slaughter BW, or feed conversion efficiency (FCE). However, lambs offered the LTPS had a greater (P 0.05) on carcass composition except for fat depth, which was greater (P silage. Diets containing the HP increased (P < 0.05) carcass weight, hind leg circumference, chop dimensions, and kidney weight. It was concluded that lambs offered LTPS performed better than those offered GS and that LTPS has a concentrate sparing effect. Additionally, the increased tannin concentration in HTPS did not increase performance over lambs offered either GS or LTPS.

  6. 发酵豆粕对樱桃谷肉鸭生长性能和屠宰性能的影响%Effects of fermented soybean meal on growth and slaughter performance of cherry valley ducks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艺伟; 王全溪; 陈文忠; 林丽花; 林俊英; 王长康

    2012-01-01

    800 1-day-old cherry valley ducks were randomly divided into five groups (4 replications per group, 40 ducks per replication) to determine the effects of fermented soybean meal on growth performance and slaughter performance. Antibiotic group was fed with the basic diet supplemented with 30 mg · kg-1 zinc bacitracin and 6 mg · kg-1 colistinsulfate, the control group was fed with basic diet, the experimental groups were respectively fed with basic diet supplemented with 3% , 6% , 9% fermented soybean meal, and the nutrients of all groups were regulated to the same level. The experimental results showed that the average feed intake of antibiotic group was significantly higher than the control group, 3% , 6% fermented soybean meal group (P 0.05 ). The average weight gain of the treatment groups and antibiotic group was significantly higher than control group (P 0.05). The percentage of breast muscle of 3% , 6% fermented soybean meal group was significantly higher than control group ( P < 0.05 ) , but the leg muscle of 9% fermented soybean meal group was significantly higher than control group (P < 0.05 ). Economic benefits in other groups were dramatically increased when compared with the control group ( P < 0.05). It was concluded that 6% fermented soybean meal added with basic diet could significantly reduce the feed conversion rates of cherry valley duck, and significantly increase the weight gain and the percentage of breast muscle, and increase economic benefit.%将800只1日龄樱桃谷肉鸭随机分为5组,每组4个重复,每个重复40只.抗生素组在基础日粮中添加30 mg·kg-1杆菌肽锌和6 mg·kg-1硫酸粘杆菌素,空白对照组饲喂基础日粮,3%、6%、9%发酵豆粕组分别用3%、6%、9%发酵豆粕替代基础日粮中的普通豆粕,并将日粮营养水平调为一致,试验期42 d,研究日粮中添加发酵豆粕对樱桃谷肉鸭生产性能和屠宰性能的影响.结果表明:樱桃谷肉鸭的采食量以抗生

  7. Effect of replacing solvent-extracted canola meal with high-oil traditional canola, high-oleic acid canola, or high-erucic acid rapeseed meals on rumen fermentation, digestibility, milk production, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, A N; Domitrovich, C; Wachter, A; Cassidy, T; Lee, C; Shingfield, K J; Kairenius, P; Davis, J; Brown, J

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of replacing conventional, solvent-extracted canola meal (control; CTRL) with high oil content; conventional, mechanically extracted canola meal (CMEC); high-oleic, low polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA) canola meal (HOLL); and high-erucic acid, low-glucosinolate rapeseed meal (RPS) on rumen function, digestibility, milk production, and milk FA composition in lactating dairy cows. The experimental design was a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 8 lactating dairy cows. Four of the cows were ruminally cannulated. All oilseed meals were included at approximately 12 to 13% of dietary dry matter (DM). Crude protein and fat concentrations (% of DM) of the meals were 43 and 3.1%, 32.8 and 16.1%, 45.2 and 13.7%, and 34.3 and 17.9% for CTRL, CMEC, HOLL, and RPS, respectively. All diets were formulated to supply net energy of lactation in excess of requirements. The CMEC and RPS diets were predicted to be about 1% deficient in metabolizable protein. Relative to the CTRL, inclusion of high-oil seed meals in the diet lowered ruminal acetate concentration and the molar acetate:propionate ratio and decreased DM intake. Milk yield generally followed DM intake and was lower for CMEC and RPS than the CTRL. Treatments had no effect on milk composition, other than an increase in milk urea nitrogen concentration for HOLL. Fat-corrected milk (3.5%) feed efficiency was increased by HOLL and RPS compared with CTRL. Urinary urea nitrogen losses were increased by HOLL, which, as a consequence, increased the ammonia-emitting potential of manure. The ratio of milk N-to-N intake was greater for CMEC and RPS. Replacing solvent-extracted canola meal with the high-oil meal decreased milk fat 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, and total saturated FA content and enhanced cis-9 18:1 and total monounsaturated FA concentrations. Relative to the CTRL, canola increased total trans FA in milk, whereas inclusion of HOLL in the diet increased trans-11 18:1 and

  8. Study on Application of Soybean Expansion Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangXuede; ZhangBaichun; LiuYulan; LiuGuoqin; ZhouZikuan; LuoShenming; XuZhaoyong; WangDeyuan; WangXuewu

    2002-01-01

    The soybean expanding and exacting have obvious superiority in the oil process compared with soybean extracting directly.Production capacity improves by 40%,the power consumption reduces by 30%,the steam consumption reduces by 15%,refinery rate by 0.5%,the urea enzyme activity of soybean meal is steady.Oil and soybean quality can be improved.The market latent capacity is hopeful.

  9. Inclusion of sorghum, millet and cottonseed meal in broiler diets: a meta-analysis of effects on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batonon-Alavo, D I; Umar Faruk, M; Lescoat, P; Weber, G M; Bastianelli, D

    2015-07-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted (i) to evaluate broiler response to partial or total substitution of corn by sorghum and millet and (ii) to determine the effect of soybean meal replacement by cottonseed meal in broiler diet. The database included 190 treatments from 29 experiments published from 1990 to 2013. Bird responses to an experimental diet were calculated relative to the control (Experimental-Control), and were submitted to mixed-effect models. Results showed that diets containing millet led to similar performance as the corn-based ones for all parameters, whereas sorghum-based diets decreased growth performance. No major effect of the level of substitution was observed with millet or cottonseed meal. No effect of the level of substitution of sorghum on feed intake was found; however, growth performance decreased when the level of substitution of corn by sorghum increased. Cottonseed meal was substituted to soybean meal up to 40% and found to increase feed intake while reducing growth performance. Young birds were not more sensitive to these ingredients than older birds since there was no negative effect of these ingredients on performance in the starter phase. Results obtained for sorghum pointed out the necessity to find technological improvements that will increase the utilization of these feedstuffs in broiler diet. An additional work is scheduled to validate these statistical results in vivo and to evaluate the interactions induced with the simultaneous inclusions of sorghum, millet and cottonseed meal in broiler feeding.

  10. La eficacia a largo plazo de los reemplazos dietéticos en la pérdida de peso: revisión sistemática Meal replacement efficacy on long-term weight loss: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. López Barrón

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los reemplazos dietéticos (RD se han utilizado para substituir una o dos comidas al día. Sin embargo, pocos estudios aleatorios han valorado su eficacia a largo plazo. Objetivo: Valorar el efecto de los RD sobre la pérdida de peso a largo plazo (≥ 1 año, en personas con sobrepeso y obesidad, con y sin diabetes. Metodología: Se realizó una revisión de todos los ensayos clínicos aleatorios de uno o más años de intervención, publicados hasta Noviembre del 2010, y registrados en las siguientes bases de datos: Pubmed, EBSCO host y SciELO. Los términos MeSH utilizados fueron "weight loss", "overweight", "obesity" y "diabetes", además del término "meal replacement". Para evaluar la calidad de los estudios, se utilizó la escala de GRADE. Resultados: Se encontraron siete ensayos clínicos aleatorios que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Sólo cuatro de los estudios mostraron mayor pérdida de peso con las dietas con RD, en tres no se observaron diferencias significativas. Los dos estudios de mayor calidad presentaron resultados inconsistentes. Conclusión: No existe evidencia suficiente que respalde la eficacia del uso de RD sobre la pérdida de peso a largo plazo. Por lo que se requiere estudios mejor diseñados, con seguimiento a largo plazo.Meal replacement (MR has been frequently used to substitute one or more meals during the day. However, few randomized long-term studies have assessed its efficacy. Objective: To asses meal replacement use and its effectiveness on long-term weight loss (> 1 year in overweight and obese people with or without diabetes. Methods: A search of randomized clinical trials with an intervention period equal to or more than a year, published on Pubmed, EBSCO host and SciELO through November 2010 was performed. Mesh terms such as "meal replacement", "weight loss," "overweight," "obesity" and "diabetes" were used, plus the term "meal replacement." GRADE scale was used to assess the

  11. Effect of a conventional energy-restricted modified diet with or without meal replacement on weight loss and cardiometabolic risk profile in overweight women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schäfer Sandy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertension are essential risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Several studies showed favorable effects of weight loss in overweight subjects on cardiometabolic risk profile. Methods This open-label, randomized, controlled study investigated the effect of an energy-restricted modified diet with (MR or without meal replacements for weight control (C on weight loss, body composition and cardiometabolic risk profile in overweight women. Of 105 randomized participants, 87 were eligible for per protocol analysis. Anthropometric, clinical, blood, 24 h-urine parameters and dietary intake were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Results Dietary intervention resulted in a significant weight loss in both groups (MR: -5.98 ± 2.82 kg; p 5% was higher in MR (77% versus C group (50% (p = 0.010. A significant reduction in waist circumference (WC and body fat mass (BFM was observed in both groups. Body cell mass (BCM and lean body mass (LBM decreased, while percentage of BCM of body weight increased in MR more than in C group. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP significantly decreased and to a similar extent in both groups. Total cholesterol (TC, LDL-C but also HDL-C declined significantly in both groups, while no change occurred in triglycerides. Conclusions Both dietary intervention strategies had a similar effect on weight loss and body fat distribution, but rate of responder was significantly higher in MR group. Systolic BP decreased to a similar extent in both groups. Cardiometabolic risk profile improved only partly in both groups.

  12. Evaluation of millet residue meal based diets as feed for the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Karikari,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the nutritive value of millet residue meal with fish meal, soybean meal or fish-soybean meal combination (1:2 as protein source. The treatments were labelled according to protein source as fish meal diet, soybean meal diet and fish-soybean meal diet. Thirty nulliparous mixed-breed rabbits of an initial mean (±SD body weight of 1852.6±122.7 g were used in a completely randomised design with 10 rabbits per treatment. The rabbits were allowed four weeks to adjust to the experimental diets before breeding was initiated. The feed intake during gestation and the reproductive data of the rabbits were assessed over two reproductive cycles. Does on the fish meal diet had poorer (P<0.05 DMI, daily growth rate and FCR than those on the soybean meal diet during the pre-breeding period. Does on the fish meal diet delivered less (P<0.05 number of kits at birth and weaned less kits compared to those on the soybean meal diet. Those on the soybean meal diet were heaviest (P<0.05 at mating and at kindling. They out-performed does on the fish meal diet in most of the parameters measured. Parity did not affect reproductive performance, but growth rate of the does had a positive linear relationship with DMI (r= 0.77; P<0.01 and a negative linear relationship with FCR (r= -0.83; P<0.01 during the pre-breeding period. It was concluded that millet residue meal may be a better feed source for rabbit does if soybean meal rather than fish meal or fish-soybean meal combination (1:2 is used to improve the protein content.

  13. Performance and histological responses of internal organs of broiler chickens fed raw, dehulled, and aqueous and dry-heated kidney bean meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiola, I A; Ologhobo, A D; Gous, R M

    2007-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of raw and differently processed [aqueous heating, dehulled, and dry heating (toasted)] kidney bean meals on the performance, weights, and histology of internal organs of broiler chicken. The feeding trial lasted for 56 d. Two hundred twenty-five 1-d-old broiler chicks (Anak strain) were used for the study. There were 5 treatment groups of 3 replicates with 15 birds per replicate. Raw and processed kidney bean meals were used to replace 50% protein supplied by soybean in the control diet. Data collected were used to evaluate feed intake, weight gain, and efficiency of feed utilization. The weights of liver, pancreas, kidney, heart, and lungs were also recorded and tissue samples of each collected for histological examination. Average daily food intake, average daily gain, and efficiency of feed utilization were influenced by the dietary treatments. Average daily food intake and average daily gain in birds fed the control diet and heat-treated kidney bean meals were similar and significantly (Pkidney had severe congestion of glomeruli and distention of the capillary vessels with numerous thrombi in birds fed raw and dehulled kidney bean meals. The weight of the liver was significantly (Pkidney bean meal can be used to replace 50% protein supplied by soybean meal in broiler starter and finisher diets without any adverse effect on the performance and the internal organs.

  14. Bovine meat and Bone Meal as an Economically Viable Alternative in Quail Feeding in the Final Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Pizzolante

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bovine meat and bone meal (MBM has been used as a low-cost protein source in corn- and soybean meal-based poultry diets. However, to date, no studies investigating the effect of the dietary inclusion of MBM on the performance of Japanese quails and on egg production costs were found in literature. In this study, 600 Japanese quails in lay were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design consisting of six treatments (replacement levels of soybean meal by MBM:0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% with five replicates of 20 birds each to investigate if MBM is a viable alternative to maintain or to improve the live and economic performances of these birds. Treatments consisted of a control diet, based on corn and soybean meal, with no inclusion of MBM, and diets formulated with increasing levels (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% of MBM inclusion at the expense of soybean meal. The studied parameters were evaluated in four periods of 28 days each. Live performance parameters (egg weight, g; average egg production, %; egg weight, g; feed intake, g; feed conversion ratio per egg mass, kg/kg and per dozen eggs, dz/kg; and livability, %; egg quality parameters (proportion of egg components, yolk, albumen, eggshell %; egg specific weight, g/cm3; and economic parameter (bio-economic nutritional index were determined. Only egg weight, egg specific weight, and eggshell percentage were affected (p<0.05 by the treatments. Our results show that inclusion of bovine meat and bone meal can be added to the diet of Japanese quails in lay, causing no performance losses and promoting feed cost savings up to 5.24%.

  15. Histopathological changes in some organs of Japanese quail after different levels of jojoba meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Hakim ,N.F. 1, Abou-Khashaba, H.A.2 and El-Sayed S. Atia2

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the work-The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of different jojoba meal as a replace of soybean protein and to detect the histopathological changes in some organs of Japanese quail (one week old for 5 weeks.Material and methods-The present study included two experiments, the first aimed to investigate the incorporation of treated jojoba meal seed (bentonite + autoclaving + fungus in Japanese quail diets as replacer to soybean meal protein and to detect the histopathological changes in some organs of the Japanese quail .The treated jojoba meal was incorporated in the experimental diets to replace 0 (control; 4 (T1; 8 (T2 and 12% (T3 of soybean meal protein. The second experiment, dietary treatment included the control diet (The same control of experiment I and groups 2 (UT1, 3(UT2, 4 (UT3, 5 (UT4, which were supplied with untreated jojoba meal at 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8% levels, respectively Results- Observations of the present study showed that liver of T2 group revealed ruptured endothelial lining of the central vein, and T3 group showed elongated walls of the bile ducts. Ileum of T2 group showed highly thickened muscle layer and ileum of T3 group showed distorted tissue. Kidney of T2 group showed congested inters tubular spaces and T3 group showed normal convoluted tubules with congested and dilated blood vessels. Testis of T2 & T3 groups showed hypocellularity of cells of the spermatognic layers with absence of mature sperms. Ovary of T3 group showed somewhat normal mature ovum with reduced internal content.Results of experiment II showed that the liver tissue was normal.Ileum of birds of UT3 and UT4 groups showed somewhat normal appearance. Kidney of UT3 group showed that some cells of the convoluted tubules were faintly stained with hemorrhagic areas. Testis of UT3 and UT4 groups showed decreased Leydig cells with absence of mature sperms and increased number of primary spermatocytes. Ovary of UT3 group showed

  16. Evaluation of replacement intercropping of soybean (Glycine max L. with sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and borage (Borago officinalis L. under weed infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bagheri Shirvan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate intercropping of soybean (Glycine max L. cv. JK with sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and borage (Borago officinalis L. with weed interference, an experiment was performed in randomized complete block design with 12 treatments and three replications at a field located 10 km of Shirvan during year of 2011. The treatments were included 75% soybean: 25%sweet basil, 50%soybean: 50% sweet basil, 25% soybean: 75% sweet basil, 75% soybean: 25% borage, 50% soybean: 50% borage and 25% soybean: 75% borage under weed infestation, in addition sole cropping of plants under weed control and weed interference. Intercropped plants had more success in reduction of weed density and biomass compared to monoculture. Soybean50: sweet basil50, reduced the weed density by 47.95% and 52.9%, and reduced the weed biomass by 68.91% and 61.87% more than sweet basil and soybean pure stand, respectively. Investigation of dry matter accumulation showed that increasing of plant proportion in intercropping caused increasing of plant dry matter. The height of soybean and borage was increased in intercropping and weed interference, while the highest height of sweet basil was observed in monoculture at second harvest. Biological and economical yield of soybean in intercropping with sweet basil was higher than intercropping with borage. The highest harvest index was related to 50:50 soybean: sweet basil ratio. In this ratio, the harvest index increased 4.9% compared to soybean monoculture. Yield of sweet basil and borage decreased with increasing of soybean rows in intercropping. Based on area-time equivalent ratio, soybean 75% with sweet basil and borage 25% (based on borage seed yield had 3% and 4% advantage compared to monoculture.

  17. Consumption, nutrient digestibility and lactation performance of dairy cows fed soybeans in different forms

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Maria de Vasconcelos; Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho; Marcia Dias; Vinicio Araujo Nascimento; Débora Andréa Evangelista Façanha; Juliano José de Resende Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Twelve Holstein cows were given diets containing soybean supplied in different ways in order to identify possible changes in lactation performance and evaluate the economic feasibility of the diets. The diets included: soybean meal only (SM-control); raw soybean (RaS); roasted soybean (RoS) and soybean meal plus 5% urea (SMU). The forage consisted of corn silage. We analyzed the dry matter intake, milk production and collected milk samples. To estimate digestibility, we collected six samples ...

  18. Liquid state fermentation of soybean meal with mixed strains for seed strain preparation%豆粕混菌液体发酵制种技术试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖; 马海乐; 何荣海; 刘斌; 耿静静

    2012-01-01

    Candida tropicalis and Bacillus subtilis mixed in liquid state fermentation was used for the seed strain preparation. The results showed that the growth rates of the strains had a relatively consistent trend with inoculation amount , soybean meal content and cultural temperature; The number of Candida tropicalis increased first and then decreased, and Bacillus subtilis down first and then increased as culture time increasing. Candida tropicalis at pH3, 5 had the largest number, pH rang of appropriative growth of Bacillus subtilis was from 4, 5 to 7. 5. It was obtained that both 10 % of two strains were added into liquid culture medium with soybean meal of 15%(W/W), glucose of 1% and initial pH of 9. 0, cultured at 28℃ for 5 days with rotation speed of 160 r/min, the number of Candida tropicalis and Bacillus subtilis bacteria could reach maximum, being 752. 5×106 cfu/ml and 264. 2×107 cfu/ml, respectively.%利用热带假丝酵母和枯草芽孢杆菌混菌发酵进行液体制种.结果表明:受接种量、豆粕含量和培养温度的影响,两株菌种菌数的增长速度具有相对一致的变化趋势;受培养时间的影响,热带假丝酵母菌先增后降,枯草芽孢杆菌先降后增;热带假丝酵母在pH3.5时菌数最大,枯草芽孢杆菌在pH4.5~7.5范围内适宜生长.在豆柏质量分数15%、葡萄糖质量分数1%、初始pH4.5的液体培养基上,两菌分别接种10%,在发酵温度28℃、摇床转速160 r/min条件下培养5d,热带假丝酵母菌和枯草芽孢杆菌菌数达到最大,分别为752.5×106和264.2×107 cfu/ml.

  19. Avaliação do desempenho de coelhas alimentadas com farelo de canola em substituição parcial ou total ao farelo de soja Evaluation of the performance of female rabbits fed on canola meal in partial and total substitution of crude protein by soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanor Nunes do Prado

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of partial and total substitution of soybean meal crude protein (SBM by canola meal (CM on live weight (LW, daily weight gain (DWG, daily feed intake (DFI and feed conversion (FC in female rabbits are provided. Rabbits were evaluated from weaning period (43 days of age to adult life when they are capable of reproduction (150 days of age. Forty-eight White New Zealand females were used and distributed in four treatments. SBM was substituted at 00%, 33%, 66% and 100% levels by CM. The partial or total substitution of SBM by CM did not change (P > 0.05 the LW after 70 days old. Dunnett’s test showed that, independently of substitution level, FC of animals fed on meal with 33% SBM substitution by CM from age 43 to 90 days and 43 to 150 days was worse than that of animals fed on reference meal. LW120, DWG of 43 – 120-day-old animals receiving 33% SBM substitution by CM and LW150 and DWG of 43 – 150-day-old animals receiving meal with SBM substitution by 33% and 66% of CM were lower than those for animals that received reference meal. Excluding the reference meal, SBM substitution by CM during the periods in which animals were 43 - 120 days old and 43 - 150 days old caused an increase of DFI. Independently of level of inclusion as a substitute for SBM, results show that CM worsened the animals’ performance.Objetivando-se avaliar os efeitos da substiuição parcial e total do farelo de soja pelo farelo de canola sobre o peso, ganho médio diário (GMD, ingestão de alimentos (IA e conversão alimentar (CA em coelhas do desmame (43 dias até a idade de reprodução (150 dias, quarente e oito coelhas da raça Nova Zelândia, foram distribuídas, inteiramente ao acaso, em um experimento com quatro tratamentos e doze repetições. O farelo de soja foi substituído em 00, 33, 66 e 100% pelo farelo de canola. A substituição parcial ou total do farelo de soja não alterarou o peso após os 70 dias de idade. Por meio do uso do teste de

  20. Digestibilidade dos aminoácidos do milho, farelo de soja e gérmen integral de milho em galos e frangos de corte cecectomizados Digestibility of amino acids from corn, soybean meal and corn germ meal in cecectomized roosters and broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Barbosa de Brito

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a digestibilidade dos aminoácidos do milho, farelo de soja e gérmen integral de milho em galos e frangos de corte cecectomizados. Foram utilizados 16 galos Lohmann-LSL com 45 semanas de idade, 40 frangos de corte machos AgRoss 508, sendo 20 com 21 dias de idade e outros 20 com 42 dias de idade, todos cecectomizados. Adotou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três categorias animais (galos; frangos aos 21 dias; e frangos aos 42 dias de idade para cada alimento avaliado e cada ave considerada uma unidade experimental. O ensaio durou 84 horas: nas 36 horas iniciais, as aves foram submetidas a jejum e nas 48 horas subsequentes, à ingestão forçada dos alimentos, feita com sonda esofágica introduzida diretamente no inglúvio das aves. As excretas produzidas foram colhidas duas vezes ao dia nas 48 horas subseqüentes. Os valores de aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros determinados para o milho e gérmen integral de milho determinados com frangos submetidos ao procedimento experimental aos 21 dias de idade foram inferiores aos do grupo controle (galos. Contudo, os mesmos resultados não foram observados para o farelo de soja. O aproveitamento de aminoácidos foi maior nos frangos submetidos ao procedimento experimental aos 42 dias de idade em comparação aos do grupo controle (galos adultos, independentemente do alimento avaliado. O teor de aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros totais obtidos foi de 7,24; 6,25 e 7,33% para o milho, 9,66; 9,14 e 9,91% para o gérmen integral de milho e 41,82; 41,78 e 42,02% para o farelo de soja, valores determinados com galos, frangos aos 21 e aos 42 dias de idade, respectivamente. Observou-se que, com o amadurecimento do trato digestório, aumenta o aproveitamento proteico em aves que consomem milho e gérmen integral de milho.This experiment was carried out to evaluate the digestibility of the amino acids from corn, soybean meal and corn germ meal in

  1. Effects of a 6-phytase on the apparent ileal digestibility of minerals and amino acids in ileorectal anastomosed pigs fed on a corn-soybean meal-barley diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenbuhl, P; Waché, Y; Simoes Nunes, C; Fru, F

    2012-12-01

    Phosphorus of plant-based feedstuffs for monogastric animals is mainly in the form of phytic P, which has a very low bioavailability. The nondigested phytic P may contribute to P pollution. Furthermore, phytic acid may reduce digestibility of other minerals and protein. This study evaluated effects of the microbial 6-phytase RONOZYME HiPhos on apparent ileal digestibility of P, phytic acid, Ca, CP, energy, and AA in six 60-d-old ileorectal anastomosed pigs. In a duplicated 3 × 3 Latin square design, pigs had free access to alternatively a corn (Zea mays)-soybean (Glycine max) meal-barley (Hordeum vulgare)-based diet or this diet supplemented with RONOZYME HiPhos at either 500 units/kg (RH500) or 1000 units/kg (RH1000). Pigs fed diets supplemented with RH500 or RH1000 increased (P phytase increased apparent ileal digestibility of these indispensable minerals and phytate. The phytase increased digestibility of CP and indispensable AA indicating a better availability of plant-based proteins.

  2. Efficacy of a Meal-Replacement Program for Promoting Blood Lipid Changes and Weight and Body Fat Loss in US Army Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    381 All volunteersa Weight (kg) 56 99.114.1 98.314.3 BMI 56 33.12.9 32.03.0 Body fat (%), CIRC 56 31.66.2 30.76.4 Body fat (%), DEXA 56 31.14.5...with and without meal eplacements for improving blood lipids, and to promote eight and body fat loss in overweight US Army soldiers. oldiers (n113... body fat (1.0%0.4%), nd fat mass (0.80.4 kg) compared to Weigh to Stay olunteers (P0.05). Our findings suggest that meal re- lacement use can be

  3. Bovine meat and bone meal is an economically viable alternative in quail feeding in the initial phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla C. Pizzolante

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Quail egg production has experienced a steep rise in the last decade. Nutrition is the main factor affecting productive potential in the poultry industry, as appropriate nutritional management is necessary to ensure the maintenance of optimal physical conditions, growth and the production of high quality products. Meat and bone meal (MBM has often been used in the poultry industry as an alternative and cost-effective source of protein in partial replacement of corn and soybean meal. However, there have been no studies to date that have investigated the effect of dietary MBM on the performance of quail or on the costs of production in the starter phase. This is particularly important considering that this phase is characterized by large investments by producers, without immediate economic return. In this study, we investigated whether partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM by meat and bone meal (MBM in the diet of Japanese quail during the starter phase is a viable alternative that would maintain or improve their productive and economic performance. Our results show that the inclusion of MBM in the diet of quail reduces feeding costs by up to 6% without impairing productive performance.

  4. Bovine meat and bone meal is an economically viable alternative in quail feeding in the initial phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzolante, Carla C; Kakimoto, Sérgio K; Moraes, José E; Saccomani, Ana Paula O; Soares, Daniela F; Paschoalin, Gustavo C; Budiño, Fábio E L

    2016-05-31

    Quail egg production has experienced a steep rise in the last decade. Nutrition is the main factor affecting productive potential in the poultry industry, as appropriate nutritional management is necessary to ensure the maintenance of optimal physical conditions, growth and the production of high quality products. Meat and bone meal (MBM) has often been used in the poultry industry as an alternative and cost-effective source of protein in partial replacement of corn and soybean meal. However, there have been no studies to date that have investigated the effect of dietary MBM on the performance of quail or on the costs of production in the starter phase. This is particularly important considering that this phase is characterized by large investments by producers, without immediate economic return. In this study, we investigated whether partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM) by meat and bone meal (MBM) in the diet of Japanese quail during the starter phase is a viable alternative that would maintain or improve their productive and economic performance. Our results show that the inclusion of MBM in the diet of quail reduces feeding costs by up to 6% without impairing productive performance.

  5. A review of canola meal as an alternative feed ingredient for ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasuriya, Samiru Sudharaka; Yi, Young-Joo; Yoo, Jaehong; Kang, Nam Kyu; Heo, Jung Min

    2015-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the published data on the canola meal and its suitability for duck as an alternative plant-origin protein source to soybean meal. Canola meal is a legume origin protein source containing comparable amino acid profile to soybean meal and rich in essential minerals and vitamins. Nonetheless, it is known to contain less in energy content than soybean meal. Factors like field conditions and processing methods creates compositional variations among canola meal. Presence of anti-nutritional factors such as phenolic substances, phytate and glucosinolates which are known to reduce growth performance in livestock animals, are the major drawbacks for canola meal to be a competitive plant-origin protein source in the feed industry. This review is focused to address i) nutritional characteristics and feeding value of canola meal for ducks and ii) impacts of feeding canola meal on performances of ducks.

  6. Valores energéticos de sojas integrais e de farelos de soja, determinados com galos adultos e por equações de predição Energetics values of processed whole soybean and soybean meals determined with adult roosters and by prediction equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Ost

    2005-04-01

    valores de EMVn, portanto, não são seguras para utilização na prática.A metabolism trial was conducted with the objective to determine the values of apparent metabolizable (EMA, corrected apparent (EMAn, true (EMV and corrected true energy (EMVn of toasted whole soybean, micronized whole soybean and five brands of soybean meal through the forced feeding method with adult roosters and afterwards, from the experimental results obtained, it was also validate equations to predict EMVn as related with chemical composition of the feeds. The forced feeding method was utilized, by using 24 adult Leghorn roosters with means 2.35 ± 165 g. The rooster was considered as an experimental unit and each feed was given to 6 roosters (6 replicates, two replicates in each time. Simultaneously, 6 roosters were kept in fasting for determination of the endogenous and metabolic losses. Before the experimental period, each rooster was maintained without any feed for 24 hours for emptying of the digestive tract and then forced to ingest 30 grams of the test feed. For that reason, four collections of excreta were done every 12 hours, to avoid fermentation. At the end of this period, the feeds and also the excreta were homogenized for analysis of dry matter, nitrogen and gross energy and then calculated the values of energy. The values of EMVn calculated were then contrasted with values of EMVn estimated from the prediction equations presented in the national literature for groups of feeds similar to those of the present work. The values of EMVn of the soybean meals ranged from 2531 to 2730 Kcal/kg of DM and those of toasted and micronized whole soybean were 3732 and 4027 Kcal/kg of DM, respectively. For the whole soybeans and soybean meals, the equation which best estimated the values of energy were TMEn = 2690.62 - 40.87ADF + 19.96NDF + 63.09EE. In general, the equations tested in the present work shown not good estimates of the values of EMVn, so, they are not adequate to be utilized as a

  7. Desempenho de bezerros da raça Holandesa alimentados com proteína de soja sólida ou líquida Performance of Holstein calves fed soybean meal protein in solid or liquid form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de Sousa Lucci

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da substituição de metade do total de proteína da dieta na forma sólida (farelo de soja por proteína na forma líquida (leite de soja, com relações sólidos:líquidos de 100,0:0%; 87,5:12,5%; e 75,0:25,0%. Utilizaram-se 24 bezerros machos da raça Holandesa com 60 dias de idade, distribuídos em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três dietas à base de concentrado (80% e feno de capim coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon (20%, balanceadas para nitrogênio e energia. Nas dietas com partes líquidas, o intuito foi manter o reflexo de formação da goteira esofagiana no período experimental de 10 meses, no qual os animais foram mantidos em confinamento, sendo abatidos ao atingirem pesos corporais superiores a 400 kg. Em alguns dos animais, dotados de cânulas de rúmen, foi possível detectar neste órgão apenas pequenas quantidades do leite de soja ingerido, confirmando sucesso na formação da goteira esofagiana. Os ganhos de peso diários apresentaram redução linear (1,399; 1,341; e 1,191 kg à medida que foram fornecidas maiores quantidades de leite de soja. As conversões de matéria seca e proteína bruta em ganhos de peso, durante os últimos 60 dias experimentais, pioraram conforme aumentaram as quantidades de proteína na forma líquida. O fornecimento de proteína na forma líquida na dieta não altera os rendimentos de carcaça em bezerros holandeses.The effects were assessed of substituting half the total diet protein in solid form (soybean meal with liquid form (soybean milk at solid:liquid ratios of: 100.0:0% L; 87.5:12.5% L; 75.0:25.0% L. Twenty-four Holstein breed 60-d male calf steers were assigned to a randomized block design, with three concentrate (80% diets and 20% coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon hay, balanced for nitrogen and energy. In the diets with liquid parts, the intention was to keep the functional reflex of the esophageal groove throughout the 10 months of the experimental period, in which

  8. Easy Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The woman pictured below is sitting down to a nutritious, easily-prepared meal similar to those consumed by Apollo astronauts. The appetizing dishes shown were created simply by adding water to the contents of a Mountain House* Easy Meal package of freeze dried food. The Easy Meal line is produced by Oregon Freeze Dry Foods, Inc., Albany, Oreaon, a pioneer in freeze drying technology and a company long associated with NASA in developing suitable preparations for use on manned spacecraft. Designed to provide nutritionally balanced, attractive hot meals for senior adults, Easy Meal is an offshoot of a 1975-77 demonstration project managed by Johnson Space Center and called Meal System for the Elderly. The project sought ways to help the estimated 3.5 million elderly Americans who are unable to take advantage of existing meal programs. Such services are provided by federal, state and local agencies, but they are not available to many who live in rural areas, or others who are handicapped, temporarily ill or homebound for other reasons. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods was a participant in that multi-agency cooperative project. With its Easy Meal assortment of convenience foods pictured above left, the company is making commercially available meal packages similar to those distributed in the Meal System for the Elderly program. In the freeze drying process, water is extracted from freshly-cooked foods by dehydration at very low temperatures, as low as 50 I degrees below zero. Flavor is locked in by packaging the dried food in pouches which block out moisture and oxygen, the principal causes of food deterioration; thus the food can be stored for long periods without refrigeration. Meals are reconstituted by adding hot or cold water, depending on the type of food, and they are table ready in five to 10 minutes. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods offers five different meal packages and plans to expand the line.

  9. Study on Application of Soybean Expansion Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xuede; Zhang Baichun; Liu Yulan; Liu Guoqin; Zhou Zikuan; Luo Shenming; Xu Zhaoyong; Wang Deyuan; Wang Xuewu

    2002-01-01

    The soybean expanding andexacting have obvious superiority n the oilprocess compared with soybean extractingdirectly. Production capacity improves by 40%,the power consumption reduces by 30%, thesteam consumption reduces by 15%, refineryrate by 0.5%, the urea enzyme activity ofsoybean meal is steady. Oil and soybeanquality can be improved. The market latentcapacity is hopeful.

  10. Intake, performance and estimated methane production of Nellore steers fed soybean grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Duarte Messana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate nutrient intake, performance, estimated methane production and carcass characteristics of steers fed diets containing three different levels of soybean grain: 0, 120 and 230 g/kg on the dry matter (DM. The study was conducted on eighteen castrated Nellore males with an average initial body weight (BW of 370±12 kg in a completely randomized design, with three treatments and six repetitions. Intake of dry matter (DMI, kg/day and crude protein tended to decrease linearly, and the intake of ether extract increased linearly in response to the soybean grain levels in the diet. Levels of soybean grain in the diet did not affect DMI (g/kg of BW, final average weight, average daily weight gain, feed efficiency and estimated methane production. Animals fed diets with different levels of soybean grain were not different with respect to carcass yield, loin eye area, subcutaneous fat thickness, or bone, muscle and fat ratios. Carcass characteristics and meat quality were also not significantly different. Replacement of soybean meal by soybean grain in the diet alters the intake of crude protein and ether extract but does not affect performance, estimates of methane production, or carcass characteristics of feedlot Nellore.

  11. Efeito da suplementação enzimática em rações com farelo de soja e soja integral extrusada sobre a digestibilidade de nutrientes, o fluxo de nutrientes na digesta ileal e o desempenho de frangos Enzymatic supplementation on soybean meal and full fat extruded soybean based diet on the digestibility of nutrients, ileal digest flow and broiler performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Regina de Moraes Garcia

    2000-10-01

    enzymatic supplementation of corn and soybean based diets on performance (Trial 1, nutrients digestibility (Trial 2, performance and nutrient flow in the ileal digesta (Trial 3 in broiler chickens. In Trial 1, for experimental diet formulation, the chemical composition of soybean meal (SM and full fat extruded soybean (ES were overestimated in 7% for ME and CP, and 5% for Met, Met+Cys and Lys (Treatment C, D, and E and 9% for ME, 7% for CP and 5% for Met, Met+Cys and Lys (Treatments F, G e H when there was enzymes addition (Allzyme Vegproâ e Allzyme Lipaseâ. It was concluded that ME, CP and amino acids (Met, Met+Cys and Lys values can be overestimated in 9, 7 and 5%, respectively, when there was the addition of enzymatic complex to the broilers diets (1-42 days, without reducing bird performance. Treatments used on trials 2 and 3 were: A and B - diets based on soybean meal (SBM with and without addition of multienzymatic complex (Allzyme Vegproâ and C and D - diets based on soybean meal (SBM and full fat extruded soybean (ES with and without addition of multienzymatic complex (Allzyme Vegproâ. In Trial 2 differences were not observed among treatments for coefficients of apparent metabolization of dry matter, crude protein, gross energy and AMEn. In trial 3, for initial period (1-21 days, growth period (22-42 days and total period (1-42 days differences were not observed in feed intake, weight gain and feed: gain among birds fed with diets supplemented with enzymes. In the determination of nutrient flow in ileal digesta, differences among studied treatments were not observed, for 21 and 42 days age.

  12. Energetic values and performace of broilers feeding sorghum and soybean meal based diets supplemented with B-glucanase and B-xylanase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro de Abreu Fernandes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Grains, brans, and vegetable meals may contain non-starch polysaccharides (NSP, which increases viscosity in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT and interfere with the digestion and absorption of nutrients. This study aimed to evaluate the performance and determine the metabolizable energy of a sorghum-based broiler diet with and without the supplementation of an enzymatic complex. The experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with 1200 chickens, using sorghum-based feed with and without the addition of 50 g of enzyme-CCE complex (?-glucanase and ?-xylanase, and with two levels of metabolizable energy (ME kg-1: ME; ME + CCE; reduced ME (-50 kcal kg-1; and reduced ME + CCE. The data were subjected to an analysis of variance and the means were compared using a Tukey’s test at the 5% significance level. At 42 and 47 days of age, the living weight of the birds fed with the reduced ME was low, while birds fed with reduced ME + CCE had the same weight as those fed with other energy diets (ME and ME + CCE. Feed conversion was poorest at 47 days of age for the birds on reduced ME diet. In the metabolic test (with fattening diets to determine AME and AMEn, the reduced ME diet had the lowest result, confirming the effect of the addition of enzymes. The addition of CCE to sorghum-based diets provides enough enzymatic activity to increase the metabolizable energy of the diet (50 kcal of AME and influence the growth performance of broilers at the slaughtering age.

  13. Sulfur concentration in diets containing corn, soybean meal, and distillers dried grains with solubles does not affect feed preference or growth performance of weanling or growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B G; Zhang, Y; Stein, H H

    2012-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and dietary S on feed preference and performance of pigs. In a 10-d feed preference experiment (Exp. 1), 48 barrows (20.1 ± 2.2 kg of BW) were randomly allotted to 3 treatment groups, with 8 replicate pens per treatment and 2 pigs per pen. A control diet based on corn and soybean meal, a DDGS diet containing 20% DDGS, and a DDGS-sulfur (DDGS-S) diet were prepared. The DDGS-S diet was similar to the DDGS diet with the exception that 0.74% CaSO(4) was added to the diet. Two diets were provided in separate feeders in each pen: 1) the control diet and the DDGS diet, 2) the control diet and the DDGS-S diet, or 3) the DDGS diet and the DDGS-S diet. Preference for the DDGS diet and the DDGS-S diet vs. the control diet was 35.2 and 32.6%, respectively (P diet and the DDGS-S diet. In Exp. 2, a total of 90 barrows (10.3 ± 1.4 kg of BW) were allotted to 3 treatments, with 10 replicate pens and 3 pigs per pen, and were fed the diets used in Exp. 1 for 28 d, but only 1 diet was provided per pen. Pigs fed the control diet gained more BW (497 vs. 423 and 416 g/d; P diet, but no differences between the DDGS and the DDGS-S diets were observed. In a 10-d feed preference experiment (Exp. 3), 30 barrows (49.6 ± 2.3 kg of BW) were allotted to 3 treatment groups, with 10 replicates per group. The experimental procedures were the same as in Exp. 1, except that 30% DDGS was included in the DDGS and DDGS-S diets and 1.10% CaSO(4) was added to the DDGS-S diet. Feed preference for the DDGS and the DDGS-S diets, compared with the control diet, was 29.8 and 32.9%, respectively (P diets. In Exp. 4, a total of 120 barrows (34.2 ± 2.3 kg of BW) were fed grower diets for 42 d and finisher diets for 42 d. Diets were formulated as in Exp. 3. Pigs on the control diets gained more BW (1,021 vs. 912 and 907 g/d; P diet, respectively, but no differences between pigs fed the DDGS and the DDGS

  14. Substituição de refeições por lanches em adolescentes Sustitución de comidas por meriendas entre adolescentes Replacement of meals with snacks among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Solimani Teixeira

    2012-09-01

    verificados el peso y la altura para el cálculo del índice de masa corporal por edad y clasificación del estado nutricional conforme al criterio de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Se realizó análisis descriptivo, con nivel de significancia de 5%. RESULTADOS: Un tercio de los adolescentes sustituyó el almuerzo y mitad de ellos la cena por meriendas. Se verificó que más muchachas solían sustituir comidas. Se observó mayor prevalencia de sustitución del almuerzo (40% y de la cena (70% por meriendas entre los adolescentes obesos. Sándwiches, pasteles salados, pizzas y hamburguesas fueron los principales sustitutos de las comidas. CONCLUSIONES: Se verificó la prevalencia elevada de sustitución de comidas principales, especialmente la cena, por meriendas. Los sustitutos del almuerzo y de la cena presentaban, en su mayoría, alta densidad energética y bajo valor nutritivo.OBJECTIVE: To verify the prevalence of replacement of lunch and dinner with snacks among adolescents and its association with gender and nutritional status, and to evaluate the food that replaces such meals. METHODS: A cross-sectional study that enrolled 106 high-school students in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The adolescents answered questions about how often they replaced lunch and dinner with snacks, and which foods replaced those meals. Their weight and height were measured in order to calculate the body mass index, and the nutritional classification was based on the World Health Organization criteria. Data were analyzed descriptively, with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: One third of the adolescents replaced lunch and half of them replaced dinner with snacks. It was observed that girls replaced meals more than boys. The prevalence of meal replacement by snacks was higher among obese adolescents, being 40% for lunch and 70% for dinner. Sandwiches, baked or fried salty pastries, pizzas and hamburgers were the snacks that mostly replaced the meals. CONCLUSIONS: The replacement of

  15. Dietary supplementation with L-arginine or N-carbamylglutamate enhances intestinal growth and heat shock protein-70 expression in weanling pigs fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Ruan, Zheng; Gao, Yunling; Yin, Yulong; Zhou, Xihong; Wang, Lei; Geng, Meimei; Hou, Yongqing; Wu, Guoyao

    2010-08-01

    This study determined effects of dietary supplementation with L-arginine (Arg) or N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) on intestinal health and growth in early-weaned pigs. Eighty-four Landrace x Yorkshire pigs (average body weight of 5.56+/-0.07 kg; weaned at 21 days of age) were fed for 7 days one of the three isonitrogenous diets: (1) a corn- and soybean meal-based diet (CSM), (2) CSM+0.08% NCG (0.08%), and (3) CSM+0.6% Arg. There were four pens of pigs per diet (7 pigs/pen). At the end of a 7-day feeding period, six piglets were randomly selected from each treatment for tissue collections. Compared with the control group, Arg or NCG supplementation increased (P<0.05): (1) Arg concentrations in plasma, (2) small-intestinal growth, (3) villus height in duodenum, jejunum and ileum, (4) crypt depth in jejunum and ileum, (5) goblet cell counts in intestinal mucosae, and (6) whole-body weight gain in pigs. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analyses revealed that both mRNA and protein levels for heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) were higher (P<0.05) in the intestinal mucosae of Arg- or NCG-supplemented pigs than in the control group. Furthermore, the incidence of diarrhea in the NCG group was 18% lower (P<0.01) than that in the control group. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary supplementation with 0.6% Arg or 0.08% NCG enhances intestinal HSP70 gene expression, intestinal growth and integrity, and the availability of dietary nutrients for whole-body weight gain in postweaning pigs fed a CSM-based diet. Thus, Arg or NCG is a functional ingredient in the weaning diet to improve nutrition, health, and growth performance of these neonates.

  16. The effect of protease, amylase, and nonstarch polysaccharide-degrading enzyme supplementation on nutrient utilization and growth performance of broiler chickens fed corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, S A; Rogiewicz, A; Mogielnicka, M; Rutkowski, A; Jones, R O; Slominski, B A

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine if amylase and protease addition would improve nutrient digestion during the first 2 wk of growth. The experimental treatments included a control corn-soybean meal-based diet and diets supplemented with either amylase or amylase plus protease. No effect of enzyme supplementation was observed on BW gain and feed conversion ratio. This was corroborated by similar ileal starch and protein digestibility values, which averaged 96.8, 96.8, and 96.9% and 83.9, 80.1, and 79.6%, respectively, for the control and for the amylase or amylase plus protease supplemented diets. Total tract digestibility of starch averaged 97.8, 97.7 and 97.7% for the 3 diets and was followed by a similar diet with AMEn values of 3,129, 3,129, and 3,106 kcal/kg. In another study, a 2(3) factorial arrangement of 8 dietary treatments was used to evaluate the effect of corn particle size (conventional or coarse vs. fine) and the addition of a nonstarch polysaccharide enzyme, amylase, or both on growth performance and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens from 1 to 21 d of age. Chickens fed a diet containing a conventionally ground corn (geometric mean diameter of 736 µm) showed higher (P starch digestion in the upper gut. Addition of nonstarch polysaccharide enzymes was effective for both diets, with the most pronounced effects observed in feed conversion ratio for the conventional corn-containing diet (1.27 vs. 1.23) and BW gain (750 vs. 789 g/bird) for the fine corn-containing diet. This was followed by the same magnitude of difference in diet AMEn content, which increased from 2,972 to 3,042 and 2,852 to 3,009 kcal/kg following enzyme addition.

  17. Crambe meal in supplements for culling cows: animal performance and carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennyson Alves de Souza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the replacement of soybean meal by crambe crushed in concentrated supplement at proportions 0, 5, 10, 15%, on the performance and carcass traits of grazing cows is assessed. Within a completely randomized design, twenty Nellore cows, fed on Brachiaria humidicola, were supplemented during the rain-drought transition period and monitored with regard to weight and body conditions every 28 days. Total forage mass and percentages of leaf, stem and senescent material were quantified in loco. The estimation of forage quality consumed by animals was performed by the simulated grazing method. There were no significant differences between the levels of inclusion of crambe crushed on animal performance or carcass characteristics. Replacement did not affect weight, carcass yield, Brazilian commercial cuts, morphometric measures of carcass, characteristics of loins, thickness of carcass fat, perirenal-pelvic fat and total meat. Replacement of soybean meal by crambe crushed up to 15% in the concentrated supplement does not affect performance and carcass characteristics of cows finished on pasture.

  18. Energy values of canola meal, cottonseed meal, bakery meal, and peanut flour meal for broiler chickens determined using the regression method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F; Adeola, O

    2017-02-01

    The energy values of canola meal (CM), cottonseed meal (CSM), bakery meal (BM), and peanut flour meal (PFM) for broiler chickens were determined in 2 experiments with Ross 708 broiler chickens from d 21 to 28 posthatch. The birds were fed a standard broiler starter diet from d 0 to 21 posthatch. In each experiment, 320 birds were grouped by weight into 8 blocks of 5 cages with 8 birds per cage and assigned to 5 diets. Each experiment used a corn-soybean meal reference diet and 4 test diets in which test ingredients partly replaced the energy sources in the reference diet. The test diets in Exp. 1 consisted of 125 g CM, 250 g CM, 100 g CSM, or 200 g CSM/kg. In Exp. 2, the test diets consisted of 200 g BM, 400 g BM, 100 g PFM, or 200 g PFM/kg. The ileal digestible energy (IDE), metabolizable energy (ME), and nitrogen-corrected metabolizable energy (MEn) of all the test ingredients were determined by the regression method. The DM of CM, CSM, BM and PFM were 883, 878, 878, and 964 g/kg, respectively and the respective gross energies (GE) were 4,143, 4,237, 4,060, and 5,783 kcal/kg DM. In Exp. 1, the IDE were 2,132 and 2,197 kcal/kg DM for CM and CSM, respectively. The ME were 2,286 and 2,568 kcal/kg DM for CM and CSM, respectively. The MEn were 1,931 kcal/kg DM for CM and 2,078 kcal/ kg DM for CSM. In Exp. 2, IDE values were 3,412 kcal/kg DM for BM and 4,801 kcal/kg DM for PFM; ME values were 3,176 and 4,601 kcal/kg DM for BM and PFM, respectively, and the MEn values were 3,093 kcal/kg DM for BM and 4,112 kcal/kg DM for PFM. In conclusion, the current study showed that chickens can utilize a considerable amount of energy from these 4 ingredients, and also provided the energy values of CM, CSM, BM and PFM for broiler chickens.

  19. Feasibility of partial replacement of fishmeal with proteins from different sources in diets of Korean rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Quangen; Zhu, Xiaoming; Yang, Yunxia; Han, Dong; Xie, Shouqi

    2014-12-01

    An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted in an indoor recirculation seawater system to investigate the effects of partial replacement of dietary fishmeal with proteins from five sources on the growth performance and feed utilization of Sebastes schlegeli. Six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated using fishmeal (FM, the control) as sole protein source, or proteins from five sources including poultry by-product meal (PBM), meat and bone meal (MBM), soybean meal (SBM), cottonseed meal (CSM) and canola meal (CNM). Fifteen percent of the crude protein provided by fish meal was replaced, respectively. The results showed that the differences in specific growth rate (SGR) and survival rate (SR) among fish fed PBM, MBM, SBM, CSM and whole FM diets were not significant. However, SGR and SR of fish fed CNM diet was significantly lower than that of other treatments. Feeding rate, feed conversion, nutrient retention showed similar patterns to that of growth. Fish fed CSM and CNM showed significantly lower apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of dry matter and gross energy than those fed others while fish fed CNM showed lower ADC of crude protein than those fed others ( PMBM, SBM and CSM, respectively, but not with CNM as the replacement with CNM reduced fish growth and feed utilization.

  20. MANNAN OLIGOSACCHARIDES AND ENZYMES IN CORN AND SOYBEAN MEAL BASED-DIETS FOR BROILERS MANANOLIGOSSACARÍDEOS E ENZIMAS EM DIETAS À BASE DE MILHO E FARELO DE SOJA PARA AVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Maria Barbosa de Moraes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Mannan oligosaccharides, as an alternative to an-tibiotics, show promising results related to bird perfor-mance, immunity stimulus and improvement of intestinal mucosa. Enzyme inclusion in diets containing mannan oli-gosaccharides could improve these results. Poultry diets consist of corn and soybean meal, and approximately 30% of the phosphorus (P in these ingredients is bound to phytic acid. Phytase is capable of release not only the P but also other nutrients that can be better used by the birds while corn is relatively free of viscosous nonstarch poly-saccharides (NSP, soybean has about 20% of NSP, whose digestibility is almost null. NSP`s insoluble component of corn and soybean encapsulate nutrients and are responsive to exogenous enzymes. Negative environmental and nutri-tional consequences of dietary phytic acid are reduced by phytase inclusion in monogastric diets. Additionally, the enzymatic complex supplementation improves the nutri-tional value of feedstuffs through higher digestibility in birds. Finally, the use of exogenous enzymes allows re-duction in feed costs.

    KEY-WORDS: Animal nutrition, enzymatic supplementation, prebiotic.

    Os mananoligossacarídeos, como alternativa aos antibióticos, têm apresentado resultados promissores no que se refere tanto ao desempenho das aves quanto ao estímulo da imunidade e à melhora da mucosa intestinal. A inclusão de enzimas nas dietas contendo mananoligossacarídeos poderia melhorar ainda mais esses resultados. As dietas para aves são compostas de milho e farelo de soja, principalmente, e cerca de 30% do fósforo (P desses in-gredientes estão ligados ao ácido fítico. A fitase libera não só o P, mas também outros nutrientes para que sejam me-lhor utilizados pelas aves. O milho é relativamente isento de polissacarídeos não-amiláceos (PNAs viscosos e a soja apresenta cerca de 20% de PNAs, com digestibilidade praticamente nula. Os componentes insolúveis dos PNAs do

  1. Meal mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Kügler, Jens; Olsen, Nina Veflen

    2013-01-01

    A new methodology is introduced that allows the design of meal solutions (such as chilled and frozen ready meals, menu choices in catering and food service) based on empirical assessments of fit between meal centres and side components. The necessary input data are collected by means of a consumer...... and beer or spirits), a ‘‘Sunday roast’’ segment (shoulder, gammon roast, collar roast or medallions served with potatoes and sauce, combined with beans, carrots or cabbage), a ‘‘Bolognese’’ segment (minced meat with pasta), a ‘‘lean cuisine’’ segment (tenderloin or small cuts combined served with rice...

  2. The combined effects of exercise and ingestion of a meal replacement in conjunction with a weight loss supplement on body composition and fitness parameters in college-aged men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Chris N; Roberts, Michael D; Dalbo, Vincent J; Tucker, Patrick S; Sunderland, Kyle L; DeBolt, Nick D; Billbe, Brett W; Kerksick, Chad M

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the combined effect of a meal replacement and an alleged weight loss supplement (WLS) on body composition, fitness parameters, and clinical health in moderately overweight college-aged men and women. Body mass, bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM), leg press 1RM, body composition, V(O2)max, fasting glucose (GLU), and lipid panels were evaluated before (T1) and after (T2) 8 weeks of combined resistance training (RT) and cardiovascular training (CVT). After T1, subjects were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to either the WLS (6 men, 7 women; 21 ± 5 years, 168 ± 8 cm, 75.4 ± 12.7 kg, 31.6 ± 7.7%BFAT) or placebo (PLA: 6 men, 6 women; 22 ± 4 years, 174 ± 9 cm, 84.1 ± 8.8 kg, 30.2 ± 5.6%BFAT) group. Both groups performed 3 d · wk(-1) of combined progressive RT (2 × 12 reps of 8 exercises at 75-80% 1RM) and CVT (30 minutes on a cycle ergometer at 70-85% heart rate reserve). Subjects consumed 4 capsules per day and a once-daily meal replacement throughout the protocol. Percent body fat, bench press 1RM, and leg press 1RM significantly improved (p < 0.05) in both groups. Blood GLU (G × T; p = 0.048) improved in WLS and systolic blood pressure (SBP) approached significance (G × T; p = 0.06) in the WLS group. Follow-up analysis of SBP revealed a significant within-group decrease in the WLS group, whereas no within-group changes were found for either group for GLU. Practically speaking, daily supplementation with a meal replacement and a thrice weekly exercise program can increase fitness levels and improve body composition, whereas adding a thermogenic substance provides no additional benefit over fitness or body composition changes but may favorably alter serum markers of clinical health.

  3. The inclusion of a partial meal replacement with or without inulin to a calorie restricted diet contributes to reach recommended intakes of micronutrients and decrease plasma triglycerides: A randomized clinical trial in obese Mexican women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar Alma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a major public health problem in many poor countries where micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent. A partial meal replacement may be an effective strategy to decrease obesity and increase micronutrient intake in such populations. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a partial meal replacement with and without inulin on weight reduction, blood lipids and micronutrients intake in obese Mexican women. Methods In a randomized controlled clinical trial 144 women (18–50 y with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, were allocated into one of the following treatments during 3 months: 1 Two doses/d of a partial meal replacement (PMR, 2 Two doses/d of PMR with inulin (PMR + I , 3 Two doses/d of 5 g of inulin (INU and 4 Control group (CON. All groups received a low calorie diet (LCD. Weight, height, hip and waist circumference were measured every 2 weeks and body composition, lipids and glucose concentration and nutrient intake were assessed at baseline and after 3 months. Results All groups significantly reduced weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference. Differences between groups were only observed in BMI and weight adjusted changes: At 45 days PMR group lost more weight than INU and CON groups by 0.9 and 1.2Kg, respectively. At 60 days, PMR + I and PMR groups lost more weight than in INU by 0.7 and 1Kg, respectively. Subjects in PMR, PMR + I and INU significantly decreased triglycerides. Energy intake was reduced in all groups. Fiber intake increased in PMR + I and INU groups. Some minerals and vitamins intakes were higher in PMR and PMR + I compared with INU and CON groups. Conclusion Inclusion of PMR with and without inulin to a LCD had no additional effect on weight reduction than a LCD alone but reduced triglycerides and improved intake of micronutrients during caloric restriction. PMR could be a good alternative for obese populations with micronutrient deficiencies. ClinicalTrials.Gov ID

  4. 不同替代膳食模式对代谢综合征患者的影响%Effect of different meal replacements in patients with metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩颖; 刘艳; 石节丽; 李瑞霞; 李素芬; 金娜娜; 郭红磊

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of preload fasting and meal replacement in patients with metabolic syndrome.Methods A total of 92 subjects with metabolic syndrome were enrolled in the study.They were assigned into the preload fasting group (PFG),the meal replacement group (MRG),and the control group (CG) for 12-weeks intervention.Special dietary with 100 kcal was provided 30 min before each meal in the PFG,and while in the MRG the same dietary was taken just before each meal and the amount of meal was reduced appropriately.The subjects in CG took meals as usual.Body mass index,waist circumference,and insulin resistance were assessed.Satiety situation was investigated by the scale.Results After 12 weeks,improvement were found in fasting insulin(-3.29 mU/L) and waist circumference (-4.04 cm) in the PFG and significant difference was shown compared to the CG (P<0.05).Satiety index in the PFG was the most significant among the three group.Conclusion Preload fasting is helpful in improving insulin resistance,reducing waist circumference,and enhancing satiety.%目的 探讨餐前预负荷与餐时膳食替代对代谢综合征患者的影响.方法 收集代谢综合征患者92例作为研究对象,分成餐前预负荷组、餐时膳食替代组和对照组,干预12周.餐前预负荷组每天3餐前30 rmin进食100 kcal热量的特殊膳食,餐时膳食替代组每天3餐第一口饭前服用同样的特殊膳食,并适当减少正餐量,对照组正常进食.评估干预后3组体重指数、腰围、胰岛素抵抗等代谢指标变化,采用量表调查饱腹感情况.结果 12周后,餐前预负荷组的空腹胰岛素下降3.29 mU/L,腰围减少4.04 cm,与对照组之间的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);餐前预负荷组饱腹感指数最强.结论 餐前预负荷有利于改善代谢综合征患者的胰岛素抵抗、减小腰围和提高饱腹感.

  5. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauson Anne-Helene

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets. The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver function were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended to increase (P = 0.07 with increasing dietary BPM content. It was concluded that up to 50% of the nitrogen could be derived from BPM without affecting metabolic function, as reflected in the measured blood parameters.

  6. Age-related energy values of bakery meal for broiler chickens determined using the regression method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Xue, P; Ajuwon, K M; Adeola, O

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the ileal digestible energy (IDE), ME, and MEn contents of bakery meal using the regression method and to evaluate whether the energy values are age-dependent in broiler chickens from zero to 21 d post hatching. Seven hundred and eighty male Ross 708 chicks were fed 3 experimental diets in which bakery meal was incorporated into a corn-soybean meal-based reference diet at zero, 100, or 200 g/kg by replacing the energy-yielding ingredients. A 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of 3 ages (1, 2, or 3 wk) and 3 dietary bakery meal levels were used. Birds were fed the same experimental diets in these 3 evaluated ages. Birds were grouped by weight into 10 replicates per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Apparent ileal digestibility and total tract retention of DM, N, and energy were calculated. Expression of mucin (MUC2), sodium-dependent phosphate transporter (NaPi-IIb), solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, Y(+) system, SLC7A2), glucose (GLUT2), and sodium-glucose linked transporter (SGLT1) genes were measured at each age in the jejunum by real-time PCR. Addition of bakery meal to the reference diet resulted in a linear decrease in retention of DM, N, and energy, and a quadratic reduction (P energy as birds' ages increased from 1 to 3 wk. Dietary bakery meal did not affect jejunal gene expression. Expression of genes encoding MUC2, NaPi-IIb, and SLC7A2 linearly increased (P energy and nitrogen in the basal diet decreased when bakery meal was included and increased with age of broiler chickens.

  7. Ileal digestibility of sunfl ower meal, pea, rapeseed cake, and lupine in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Jørgensen, Henry

    2012-01-01

    The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fi tted with either a T-cannula or a ......The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fi tted with either a T.......05) for soybean meal and pea compared to sunfl ower meal, rapeseed cake, and lupine. The SID of Lys and His were lowest (P ... meal, rapeseed cake, and especially lupine, although all tested feedstuffs seem appropriate for inclusion in diets for organic pigs....

  8. Características de carcaça e da carne de caprinos Boer x Saanen confinados recebendo rações com casca do grão de soja em substituição ao milho Characteristics of carcass and meat of feedlot Boer x Saanen kids fed diets with ground corn replaced by soybean hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Hideo Hashimoto

    2007-02-01

    by star grass hay (Cynodon spp, soybean meal, GCG and/or SH, and minerals. Ground corn grain was replaced by SH in the diet as follows: 0% SH (GCG, 50% (SH50 and 100% (SH100. Carcass characteristics were not affected by the increasing levels of SH in the diet. However, yield of retail cuts from the loin and neck differed across treatments. Percentage of meat from the Longissimus dorsi muscle was not affected by increasing SH in the diet but kids fed GCG diet showed greater proportion of fat and lower of bone compared to SH50 and SH100 treatments. The chemical composition and the fatty acid profile of the Longissimus dorsi muscle were similar among treatments although its cholesterol content was greater when SH was included in the diet. Soybean hulls can replace GCG in the diet because no significant changes were observed in the characteristics of carcass and meat.

  9. 水解条件对挤压膨化高温豆粕酶解物免疫活性的影响%Effect of Hydrolysis Conditions on Immunoactivity of Enzymatic Hydrolysates from Extruded High-temperature Soybean Meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张智宇; 朱秀清; 任为聪

    2011-01-01

    研究合理的水解工艺以有效提高高温豆粕的免疫活性。采用二次旋转回归法优化水解条件,以水解温度、酶添加量、底物添加量、酶解时间为影响因素,以淋巴细胞增殖指数(SI)为检测指标,运用SPSS13.0软件分析,最终用Design Expert 7.0.0软件优化出最优的水解条件。最优的工艺条件为:胰蛋白酶添加量7999.97U/g,酶解温度55.14℃,水解时间4.34h,底物添加量(底物与加水量之比)4.41%,经MTT法测定,此条件下酶解物对ConA诱导的小鼠脾淋巴细胞的免疫刺激指数最高,为1.1894。%In order to improve the immunoactivity of enzymatic hydrolysates from extruded high-temperature soybean meal,the hydrolysis of the substrate by trypsin was optimized using central composite rotary design.Spleen lymphocyte proliferation(expressed as the stimulation index,SI) was investigated with respect to four variables including hydrolysis temperature,enzyme amount,substrate concentration and hydrolysis time.Using SPSS 13.0 and Design Expert 7.0.0,the experimental data were analyzed to determine the optimal hydrolysis conditions as follows: enzyme amount of 7999.97 U/g,hydrolysis temperature of 55.14 ℃,hydrolysis time of 4.34 h,and substrate concentration of 4.41%.Under the optimal hydrolysis conditions,the ConA-induced spleen lymphocyte stimulation index was determined by MTT method to be 1.1894.

  10. Effects of dietary true digestible calcium to phosphorus ratio on growth performance and efficiency of calcium and phosphorus use in growing pigs fed corn and soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, M Z; Archbold, T

    2012-12-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine effects of dietary true fecal digestible Ca to true digestible P ratio on growth performance and efficiency of Ca and P use in growing pigs fed corn (Triticum aestivum)-soybean (Glycine max) meal (SBM)-based diets. Experiment 1 was carried out to measure true fecal digestibility of Ca and P as well as the fecal endogenous outputs of these nutrients associated with a corn and SBM-based diet in 12 Yorkshire growing pigs with an average initial BW of 23.2 ± 0.6 kg by the substitution method. True fecal digestibility values (%; n = 6) of Ca (53.6 ± 12.7) and P (43.8 ± 16.7) as well as the fecal endogenous outputs (g/kg DMI; n = 12) of Ca (0.91 ± 0.20) and P (1.31 ± 0.15) associated with the diets were determined. Experiment 2 was conducted with 36 Yorkshire barrows of an average initial BW of 24.2 ± 0.6 kg and the pigs were fed 6 diets according to a completely randomized block design. The 6 diets were corn and SBM based with diet 1 containing 0.2% true digestible Ca and 0.3% true digestible P and were formulated to contain 6 total Ca to total P ratios based on analyzed dietary Ca and P contents (diet 1, 0.6:1; diet 2, 0.7:1; diet 3, 0.8:1; diet 4, 1.3:1; diet 5, 1.0:1; and diet 6, 1.3:1) by supplementing gradient levels of limestone with a constant dietary P content for meeting the recommended requirement. Changes in the dietary Ca to P ratio had no effects (P > 0.05) on ADG. No differences (P > 0.05) in ADFI were observed between the other diets except the lower ADFI (P dietary Ca to P ratio had consistent effects on true fecal P digestibility and retention with much lower values (P pigs fed corn and SBM-based diets.

  11. Effect of dietary protein level (as substitution of maize with soybean meal on growth rate and feed efficiency of the Cinta Senese pig in the growing-fattening period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreste Franci

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide first indications on the protein requirement of Cinta Senese pigs. The effect of various dietary protein contents on in vita performance was tested. Sixty Cinta Senese pigs were equally distributed in four dietary groups, balanced for sex (barrow and gilt and live weight. At the start of the trial, pigs were approximately 130 d old and weighed an average 46.6 kg. Groups were fed four diets with different protein content (approximately 8, 10, 13 and 16%, named 8% P, 10% P, 13% P, 16% P, respectively, obtained by using different maize/soybean meal ratios. Diets were administered to pigs during the entire growing-fattening period in a controlled dose of 90 g/kg W0.75, until a maximum of 2.5 kg/d pro capite. Feed distributed per pen was recorded daily and individual weight and ultrasonic backfat thickness were periodically recorded. The trial lasted approximately 250 d and finished when animals reached the target slaughter weight of 145 kg. The 8% P diet determined a lower growth rate than the other diets; after 250 d, pigs receiving this diet were 20 kg lighter than those receiving the other diets. The 10% P diet determined body weights always lower than the 13% P and 16% P diets, but the difference decreased in the middle of the trial period. The pigs fed 13% P and 16% P diets showed the same growth rate. Moreover, through the whole growth period, the 8% P diet produced higher fat thickness than the other three diets, which showed similar results. The 8% P diet determined the highest FCIs. The 16% P diet showed the best feed conversion until approximately 70 kg of l.w., but after this weight it became progressively less efficient than the 10% P and 13% P diets. Consequently, the cumulative intake of that diet was the lowest only for the first 60 kg of gain. The 10% P diet gave the best FCI starting from 80 kg of l.w. In consideration of the cost of protein feed and the need to reduce N pollution, the 10% P diet could be

  12. Effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus levels on the total tract digestibility of innate and supplemental organic and inorganic microminerals in a corn-soybean meal based diet of grower pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliff, J S; Mahan, D C

    2013-06-01

    The effects of Ca and P (CaP) levels and micromineral sources on mineral digestibility were evaluated in growing pigs. Treatments consisted of 2 levels of CaP and 3 trace mineral (TM) treatments arranged as a 2 × 3 factorial in a randomized complete block design with 8 replicates. The CaP levels evaluated were: 1) 0.65% Ca and 0.55% P [standard CaP (Std CaP)], and 2) 1.00% Ca and 0.85% P (High CaP). The TM treatments were: 1) Basal, without supplemental TM, 2) Basal supplemented with organic TM, and 3) Basal supplemented with inorganic TM. Both organic and inorganic TM premixes added 15 mg Cu, 150 mg Fe, 10 mg Mn, 0.3 mg Se, and 140 mg Zn/kg diet. Diets were formulated using corn soybean meal with a Ca to P ratio of 1.18 in both CaP treatments. Barrows with an initial BW of 45 kg were acclimated to stainless steel metabolism crates where diets were fed for 14 d before a 10-d collection period. Pigs within replicates were fed equivalent amounts of feed at 0800 and 1600 h each day with water provided free choice. Total feces, urine, and feed orts were collected daily. Essential macro- and microminerals were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma analysis. Increasing dietary CaP decreased the digestibility of Ca and Zn. Phosphorus digestibility did not change when the P inclusion level increased from 0.55 to 0.85% Ptotal. The High CaP level resulted in a lower urinary excretion of most minerals, particularly Cu (P dietary CaP level increased but the others were not statistically significant. A summary of the ATTD for each of the experimental variables was statistically analyzed and averaged for the experiment. Although there were few statistical differences with individual minerals, they generally demonstrated a decline in digestibility when the High CaP was fed, averaging a 3% lower digestibility consistently than when the Std CaP level was fed. Organic TM averaged an approximately 5% greater digestibility than the average inorganic microminerals with the difference

  13. Bt-maize (MON810 and non-GM soybean meal in diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. juveniles--impact on survival, growth performance, development, digestive function, and transcriptional expression of intestinal immune and stress responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinni Gu

    Full Text Available Responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. juveniles (fry fed diets containing genetically modified maize (Bt-maize, MON810 expressing Cry1Ab protein from first-feeding were investigated during a 99-day feeding trial. Four experimental diets were made; each diet contained ∼20% maize, either Bt-maize or its near-isogenic maternal line (non-GM maize. One pair was fishmeal-based while the other pair included standard (extracted soybean meal (SBM; 16.7% inclusion level, with the intention of investigating responses to the maize varieties in healthy fish as well as in immunologically challenged fish with SBM-induced distal intestinal inflammation, respectively. Three replicate tanks of fry (0.17±0.01 g; initial mean weight ± SEM were fed one of the four diets and samples were taken on days 15, 36, 48 and 99. Survival, growth performance, whole body composition, digestive function, morphology of intestine, liver and skeleton, and mRNA expression of some immune and stress response parameters in the distal intestine were evaluated. After 99 days of feeding, survival was enhanced and the intended SBM-induced inflammatory response in the distal intestine of the two groups of SBM-fed fish was absent, indicating that the juvenile salmon were tolerant to SBM. Mortality, growth performance and body composition were similar in fish fed the two maize varieties. The Bt-maize fed fish, however, displayed minor but significantly decreased digestive enzyme activities of leucine aminopeptidase and maltase, as well as decreased concentration of gut bile salts, but significantly increased amylase activity at some sampling points. Histomorphological, radiographic and mRNA expression evaluations did not reveal any biologically relevant effects of Bt-maize in the gastrointestinal tract, liver or skeleton. The results suggest that the Cry1Ab protein or other compositional differences in GM Bt-maize may cause minor alterations in intestinal responses in juvenile

  14. Genetic mapping and confirmation of quantitative trait loci for seed protein and oil contents and seed weight in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demand for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] meal has increased worldwide and soybean importers often offer premiums for soybean containing higher contents of protein and oil. Objectives were to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with soybean seed protein, oil, and seed weight in a soyb...

  15. Effect of increasing dietary canola meal inclusion on lactation performance, milk composition, and nutrient digestibility of lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, D E; Nyachoti, C M

    2017-07-01

    The aim was to determine the effects of increasing dietary canola meal in substitution for soybean meal in lactation sow diets. Forty-five sows with an average parity of 1.8 (SD = 0.83) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments ( = 15) consisting of a corn-based control diet and 2 diets with 15% and 30% canola meal formulated by replacing soybean meal with canola meal. Diets were formulated to be similar in standardized ileal digestible AA content and NE value and to meet or exceed nutrient recommendations for lactating sows. Sows were moved to farrowing on d 111 of gestation and fed the experimental diets until weaning on d 21. Sows were fed 3.0 kg/d from d 111 of gestation until parturition. After farrowing, feed was gradually increased through d 6 after which the diets were offered on an ad libitum basis until weaning. Sows were weighed and backfat thickness measured on d 111 of gestation and also on d 0, 7, and 21 postfarrowing. Litters were weighed on d 0, 7, and 21. Weaning to estrus interval in sows was also recorded. Blood and milk samples were collected 2 h postfeeding from sows on d 0, 7, and 21 and analyzed for plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) and milk composition. Fecal samples were collected on d 10, 11, and 12 postfarrowing to determine energy and nutrient digestibility. There were no dietary effects on lactation feed intake, sow BW and backfat change, weaning to estrus interval, and milk fat, protein, lactose, and urea composition. Also, there were no dietary effects on piglet ADG ( 0.10). Sows fed diets containing 15% and 30% canola meal had lower (linear, sow and suckling piglet performance.

  16. Ingestive behavior of lambs fed diets containing castor seed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicory, Isis Miranda Carvalho; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Ribeiro, Ossival Lolato; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Tosto, Manuela Silva Libanio; Costa-Lopes, Lívia Santos; Souza, Fábio Nicory Costa; de Oliveira Nascimento, Camila

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the substitution of soybean meal for castor seed meal (CSM) in diets for feedlot lambs and the effects of these diets on their ingestive behavior. Fifty male Santa Inês lambs were used. The diets were composed of Tifton 85 hay and a concentrate containing detoxified CSM substituting 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 % of the soybean meal. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of the CSM levels on the feeding, rumination, idle times, chews and time spent chewing per bolus, total chewing time, number of boli chewed, and number of chews per day. The dry matter (DM) intake decreased linearly (P  0.05) the numbers of feeding, rumination, and idle periods, but had a quadratic effect (P time per feeding activity and on the chewing periods. Substitution of soybean meal for detoxified CSM reduces the DM intake but does not change the ingestive behavior.

  17. 转基因豆粕对崂山奶山羊生长性能、肌肉营养成分及组织器官中外源基因转移的影响%Effects of Genetically Modified Soybean Meal on Growth Performance, Meat Nutrient Composition, and Exogenous Gene Transformation to Tissues and Organs of Laoshan Dairy Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌; 秦志华; 黄娟; 张廷荣; 刘文达; 王述柏

    2014-01-01

    In order to analyze the effects of genetically modified soybean meal on growth performance, meat nutrient composition, and exogenous gene transformation to tissues and organs of Laoshan dairy goats, thirty 50-day-old Laoshan dairy goats were randomly divided into two groups with three replicates in each group and five goats per replicate. Goats in different groups were fed concentrates containing non-genetically modified soybean meal and genetically modified soybean meal ( MON89788 and GTS40-3-2 ) , respectively, and were fed the same roughage ( Chinese wildrye) . The experiment lasted for 150 days. The results showed as fol-lows: average daily feed intake, average daily gain and feed to gain ratio in the two groups were not signifi-cantly different (P>0. 05); the contents of dry matter, ether extract, crude protein, ash, calcium and phos-phorus in muscle of dairy goats were not significantly different either ( P >0 . 05 ) . Moreover, no gene rag-ments of genetically modified soybean meal were detected from muscle, liver, pancreas, kidney, spleen, thy-mus, lung, heart, abomasum and small intestine of dairy goats by real-time quantification PCR. The results suggest that genetically modified soybean meal ( MON89788 and GTS40-3-2 ) had no significant effects on growth performance and muscle quality of Laoshan dairy goats, and no genetic horizontal transformation is ob-served in tissues and organs.%本试验旨在研究转基因豆粕对崂山奶山羊生长性能、肌肉营养成分及组织器官中外源基因转移的影响。选取30只50日龄崂山奶山羊随机分为2组,每组3个重复,每个重复5只。精饲料分别以非转基因豆粕和转基因豆粕( MON89788和GTS40-3-2)配制,粗饲料均为干草。试验期150 d。结果表明:2组奶山羊平均日采食量、平均日增重和料重比均无显著差异( P >0.05);奶山羊肌肉的干物质、粗脂肪、粗蛋白质、粗灰分、钙、磷含量2组间亦均无显著差异( P>0

  18. Protein fractionation byproduct from canola meal for dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heendeniya, R G; Christensen, D A; Maenz, D D; McKinnon, J J; Yu, P

    2012-08-01

    Fiber-protein is a byproduct arising from a process for fractionating high-quality protein from canola meal. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fiber-protein fraction by examining the chemical profiles, rumen degradation, and intestinal digestive characteristics and determining the nutritive value of the fiber-protein fraction as dietary components for dairy cattle in comparison with commercial canola meal and soybean meal. Available energy values were estimated based on National Research Council guidelines, whereas total true protein content potentially absorbable in the small intestine (DVE) were predicted using the predicted DVE/degraded protein balance (OEB) model. The results show that fiber-protein was a highly fibrous material [neutral detergent fiber (NDF): 556; acid detergent fiber (ADF): 463; acid detergent lignin: 241 g/kg of dry matter (DM)] compared with canola meal (NDF: 254; ADF: 212; acid detergent lignin: 90 g/kg of DM) due to the presence of a higher level of seed hulls in fiber-protein. Compared with canola meal, fiber-protein contained 90 g/kg of DM less crude protein (CP), 25% of which consisted of undegradable acid detergent-insoluble CP. Most of the ruminally undegradable nutrient components present in canola meal appeared to be concentrated into fiber-protein during the manufacturing process and, as a result, fiber-protein showed a consistently lower effective degradability of DM, organic matter, CP, NDF, and ADF compared with both canola meal and soybean meal. Available energy content in fiber-protein contained two-thirds of that of canola meal. The DVE was one-third that of soybean meal and one-fifth that of canola meal [DVE value: 58 vs. 180 (soybean) and 291 g/kg of DM (canola meal)]. The OEB value of fiber protein was positive and about half of that of soybean and canola meal [OEB value: 74 vs. 162 (soybean) and 137 g/kg of DM (canola meal)]. Fiber-protein can be considered as a secondary source of protein in ruminant feed.

  19. Substituição do feno de coastcross por casca de soja na alimentação de cabras em lactação Replacement of coastcross hay by soybean hulls in diets for lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Shinkai Gentil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho verificar a resposta de cabras em lactação alimentadas com dietas contendo casca de soja em substituição ao feno de coastcross. Trinta e seis cabras (38±5 dias em lactação; 2,1±0,4 kg/dia foram distribuídas em delineamento experimental de blocos completos casualizados e confinadas por oito semanas. As dietas foram compostas de 50% de volumoso e 50% de concentrado e com o mesmo teor de fibra em detergente neutro. A casca de soja substituiu o feno de coastcross em 0, 33, 67 ou 100% da matéria seca (MS. O consumo de matéria seca e a eficiência alimentar apresentaram resposta quadrática aos teores de casca de soja na dieta. A produção de leite e a variação do peso corporal não foram alteradas, porém a concentração de gordura e lactose do leite aumentou e os tempos gastos com ruminação e mastigação decresceram com a inclusão da casca de soja na dieta. A casca de soja pode substituir totalmente o feno de coastcross em dietas para cabras em lactação, pois essa substituição não prejudica a produção de leite e aumenta o teor de gordura e lactose do leite. Em comparação ao feno picado de coastcross, a casca de soja apresenta menor efetividade em estimular a ruminação e a mastigação.The objective of this experiment was to verify the response of lactating goats fed diets with different levels (content of soybean hulls replacing coastcross hay (Cynodon sp. on performance. Thirty-six lactating Saanen goats (38±5 days of lactation; 2.1±0.4 kg/day were assigned to a randomized complete blocks design and housed for 8 weeks. Goats were fed diets of 50% roughage and 50% concentrate, but with the same amount of neutral detergent fiber. Soybean hulls replaced hay by 0, 33, 67 or 100% of the dry matter (DM. Dry matter and NDF intake and feed efficiency showed a quadratic response to the levels of soybean hulls in the diet. Milk yield and body weight variations did not change; however, milk fat

  20. Identification of a new soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor mutation and its effect on Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor content in soybean seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean seeds possess anti-nutritional compounds which inactivate digestive proteases, principally corresponding to two families: Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitors (KTi) and Bowman-Birk Inhibitors (BBI). High levels of raw soybeans/soybean meal in feed mixtures can cause poor weight gain and pancreatic abno...

  1. Replacing cottonseed meal with ground Prosopis juliflora pods; effect on intake, weight gain and carcass parameters of Afar sheep fed pasture hay basal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Mohammed; Animut, Getachew

    2014-08-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine the supplementary feeding value of ground Prosopis juliflora pod (Pjp) and cottonseed meal (CSM) and their mixtures on feed intake, body weight gain and carcass parameters of Afar sheep fed a basal diet of pasture hay. Twenty-five yearling fat-tailed Afar rams with mean initial live weight 17.24 ± 1.76 kg (mean ± SD) were used in a randomized complete block design. Animals were blocked on their initial body weight. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks and carcass evaluation followed. Treatments were hay alone ad libitum (T 1) or with 300 g CSM (T 2), 300 g Pjp (T 5), 2:1 ratio (T 3) and 1:2 ratio of CSM : Pjp (T 4). The CP contents of the hay, CSM and Pjp were 10.5, 44.5 and 16.7 %, respectively. Hay DM intake was higher (P < 0.05) for non-supplemented and total DM intake was lower in non-supplemented. Average daily weight gain (ADG) was lower (P < 0.05) for T 1 compared to all supplemented treatments except T 5. Hot carcass weight and rib-eye muscle area also followed the same trend like that of ADG. Compared with feeding hay alone, supplementing with CSM or a mixture of CSM and Pjp appeared to be a better feeding strategy, biologically, for yearling Afar rams.

  2. Effects of feeding high protein or conventional canola meal on dry cured and conventionally cured bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, K L; Bohrer, B M; Stein, H H; Boler, D D

    2015-05-01

    Objectives were to compare belly, bacon processing, bacon slice, and sensory characteristics from pigs fed high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). Soybean meal was replaced with 0 (control), 33, 66, or 100% of both types of canola meal. Left side bellies from 70 carcasses were randomly assigned to conventional or dry cure treatment and matching right side bellies were assigned the opposite treatment. Secondary objectives were to test the existence of bilateral symmetry on fresh belly characteristics and fatty acid profiles of right and left side bellies originating from the same carcass. Bellies from pigs fed CM-HP were slightly lighter and thinner than bellies from pigs fed CM-CV, yet bacon processing, bacon slice, and sensory characteristics were unaffected by dietary treatment and did not differ from the control. Furthermore, testing the existence of bilateral symmetry on fresh belly characteristics revealed that bellies originating from the right side of the carcasses were slightly (P≤0.05) wider, thicker, heavier and firmer than bellies from the left side of the carcass.

  3. The nutritive value of poultry diets containing sunflower meal supplemented by enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sredanović Slavica A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The international limitations imposed on the utilization of meat and bone meals in animal diets, together with the increasing demand for soybean meal, create a necessity to search for other protein sources to economically balance compound feeds. In this regard it is important to note that sunflower is the best adapted high-protein crop available in some European regions and that is useful to use it in poultry farming as the replacement of other protein sources. Protein and many other nutrients are “imprisoned” to variable degrees, inside sunflower meal fibrous structures, and remain less available for digestion by the poultry’s own proteases and other endogenous enzymes. Added exogenous enzymes (phytase, hemicellulase, cellulase, carbohydrase, protease, etc. offer a number of creative possibilities for breakdown and “liberation” of these nutrients, their easier digestion and absorption, and thus development of new nutritional standards and new diets formulation. Supplementation of poultry diets containing sunflower meal by different enzymes increasingly contribute to sustainable poultry farming by enhancing production efficiency, increasing the effectiveness of nutrient utilization and upgrading in environmental protection. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46012

  4. Effects of Fish Meal Replacement by Plant Protein Blend on Growth and Flesh Quality of Japanese Seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus) and Siberian Sturgeon (Acipenser baeri Brandt)%混合植物蛋白质替代鱼粉对花鲈和西伯利亚鲟生长和肉质影响的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志勇; 薛敏; 王嘉; 吴秀峰; 郑银桦; 韩芳

    2013-01-01

    A 16-week growth trial were conducted to compare the effects of fish meal replacement by plant protein blend (PPB) on growth and flesh quality of Japanese seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus) and Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri Brandt).In control diets,56.9% and 51.0% of low-temperature steam dried fish meal (white fish meal) were used as an only protein source to formulate the diets containing 36% and 40% of crude protein for Japanese seabass and Siberian sturgeon,and named as LJ-FM and AB-FM,respectively.The other four iso-nitrogen and iso-energy diets were prepared to replace 25%,50%,75% and 100% fish meal of the control diet by PPB (soybean meal:wheat gluten meal was 1.00:1.67 and the crude protein content was 64.84%) and correspondingly named as LJ-PPB25,LJ-PPB50,LJ-PPB75,LJ-PPB100 and AB-PPB25,ABPPB50,AB-PPB75,AB-PPB100,respectively.There were 5 groups for each species with 4 replicates per group and 30 Japanese seabass or 22 Siberian sturgeon per replicate,and the Japanese seabass and Siberian sturgeon had the initial weight of (7.34 ±0.01) g and (49.48 ± 1.00) g,respectively.The results showed as follows:the feed intake rate (FIR) of Japanese seabass was significantly decreased when fish meal was replaced by PPB (P <0.05) ; LJ-PPB25 group had the highest value of the final body weight (FBW),and was significantly higher than LJ-PPB75 and LJ-PPB100 groups (P < 0.05) ; the feed conversation ratio (FCR) in LJ-PPB100 group was significantly higher than that in other groups (P < 0.05) ; the contents of moisture and crude ash in whole fish of Japanese seabass were significantly increased (P < 0.05),and the crude fat content was significantly decreased (P < 0.05),while the crude protein content and gross energy had no significant changes (P > 0.05).No significant differences in FIR,FBW,FCR and body composition of Siberian sturgeon were found among all groups (P > 0.05).Generally,each of muscle free amino acids (FAA) content of

  5. Histological analysis of ovaries of female rabbits fed on canola meal gradually substituting soybean meal Análises histológicas do ovário de coelhas alimentadas com farelo de canola em substituição gradativa ao farelo de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Vieira Lage

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available A histological study of New Zealand White female rabbits’ ovaries was undertaken. Rabbits were fed on canola meal as an increasing substitute (00, 33, 66 and 100% for soybean meal so that the tissue’s general aspects could be verified and the number of ovarian follicles from each experimental group could be obtained. Forty-eight female rabbits were slaughtered at 43, 150 and 225 days of age and their ovaries were fixed in Bouin’s liquid, washed and conserved in 70% ethanol and embedded in paraffin. 5µm-thick histological sections were undertaken and stained by HE and Azan techniques. The ovaries were bound by a predominantly simple cubic epithelium followed by the tunica albuginea. Ovarian follicles were observed in different stages of development in the cortical tissue. Interstitial gland cells, blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves were observed in the medullar tissue. Small cysts were also reported. Histological preparations didn’t show any change between groups either in the general morphology of the tissue or in follicle number. This fact suggests that the use of canola as a food of rabbits didn’t interfere in reproduction.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a histologia de ovário de coelhas da raça Nova Zelândia Branca. As coelhas foram alimentadas com farelo de canola em substituição gradativa (00, 33, 66 e 100% ao farelo de soja. Foram estudados os aspectos histológicos gerais dos ovários, assim como a contagem de folículos. Um grupo de 48 coelhas foi dividido ao acaso e abatido aos 43, 150 e 225 dias de idade, e os ovários foram fixados em Bouin, lavados e conservados em solução de etanol a 70% e embebidos em parafina. Cortes histológicos foram realizados com 5µm de espessura e corados com HE e técnica de Azan. Os ovários apresentavam predominantemente epitélio simples cúbico seguidos de túnica albugínea. Os folículos foram observados em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento no estroma cortical. C

  6. Productive performance and efficiency of utilization of the diet components in dairy cows fed castor meal treated with calcium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Variz Cobianchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of replacing of 0; 0.33; 0.67 and 1.0 (kg/kg of soybean meal (SBM by undecorticated castor seed meal treated with calcium oxide (CMT - 60 g/kg was evaluated on performance and efficiency of nutrient utilization in dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein and crossbred cows were distributed in four 4 × 4 latin squares. Animals received concentrated feed at a ratio of 1 kg for 3 kg of milk produced, in the natural matter. The diets had the same amount of nitrogen (150.4 g crude protein/kg DM, containing 325.6 g of concentrated feed/kg DM. There was no effect on the serum concentration of transaminase and the animals showed no clinical symptoms of intoxication by ricin. The intake of DM, crude protein (CP and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC reduced from 0.67 replacement of SBM by CMT. The intake of neutral detergent fibers corrected for ash and protein (NDFap increased from 0.33 replacement of SBM with CMT. Although the digestibility of dietary components decreased from 0.33 replacement, the intake of digestible components only reduced from 0.67 replacement. Because of the reduction of digestible energy, the synthesis of microbial CP and the utilization efficiency of rumen-degradable protein for the synthesis of microbial CP reduced with full replacement of SBM by CMT. Milk yield, milk composition, daily variation of body weight and the efficiency of utilization of the nutrients for the synthesis of N in milk reduced from 0.67 replacement of SBM by CMT. Castor seed meal treated with calcium oxide can replace up to 0.33 of SBM (50 g/kg DM diet DM in the diet of dairy cows with an average milk production of 20 kg/day.

  7. Effect of fat replacement by inulin or lupin-kernel fibre on sausage patty acceptability, post-meal perceptions of satiety and food intake in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Bridie J; Johnson, Stuart K; Devereux, Helen M; Baxter, Amynta L

    2004-04-01

    The present study examined whether replacing fat with inulin or lupin-kernel fibre influenced palatability, perceptions of satiety, and food intake in thirty-three healthy men (mean age 52 years, BMI 27.4 kg/m(2)), using a within-subject design. On separate occasions, after fasting overnight, the participants consumed a breakfast consisting primarily of either a full-fat sausage patty (FFP) or a reduced-fat patty containing inulin (INP) or lupin-kernel fibre (LKP). Breakfast variants were alike in mass, protein and carbohydrate content; however the INP and LKP breakfasts were 36 and 37 % lower in fat and 15 and 17 % lower in energy density respectively compared with the FFP breakfast. The participants rated their satiety before breakfast then evaluated patty acceptability. Satiety was rated immediately after consuming the breakfast, then over the subsequent 4.5 h whilst fasting. Food consumed until the end of the following day was recorded. All patties were rated above 'neither acceptable or unacceptable', however the INP rated lower for general acceptability (P=0.039) and the LKP lower for flavour (P=0.023) than the FFP. The LKP breakfast rated more satiating than the INP (P=0.010) and FFP (P=0.016) breakfasts. Total fat intake was 18 g lower on the day of the INP (P=0.035) and 26 g lower on the day of the LKP breakfast (P=0.013) than the FFP breakfast day. Energy intake was lower (1521 kJ) only on the day of the INP breakfast (P=0.039). Both inulin and lupin-kernel fibre appear to have potential as fat replacers in meat products and for reducing fat and energy intake in men.

  8. Evaluation of alfalfa leaf meal for dairy cows. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akayezu, J.M.; Jorgensen, M.A.; Linn, J.G.; Jung, H.J.G. [USDA, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1997-10-30

    A series of laboratory tests and two feeding experiments were conducted to determine the quality and evaluate the feeding value of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) for dairy cows. An experiment was also conducted to enhance the protein value of ALM for ruminants. The fiber content of 6 different samples obtained from the processing plant from November 1996 to August 1997 were variable, ranging from 28.8 to 44.5% of DM for NDF, and from 16.0 to 28.6% of DM for ADF. Ash content ranged from 10.1 to 13.8% of the DM. The protein content of ALM was fairly constant and ranged from 21.8 to 23.6% of DM. Amino acids comprise at least 70% of the total CP in ALM, but essential amino acids comprise only about 35% of the total CP. The amino acid profile of ALM is similar to that of alfalfa hay, but markedly different from that of soybean meal. Overall, ALM produced to date is similar in nutrient content to prime alfalfa hay. In one of the feeding trials, ALM pellets were used to replace part of the hay in diets for early lactation cows. The results indicate that ALM pellets can make up as much as 16% of the diet DM in replacement of an equivalent amount of high quality chopped alfalfa hay without adverse effects on production or rumen health. In an other study, ALM replaced soybean meal to supply up to 3 3 % of the total CP in the diet without any detrimental effect on production. However, in each study, dry matter intake was reduced when ALM was included in the diet at or above 15 to 16% of the DM. Although this reduction in feed intake did not influence milk production over the short duration of these studies, it is not known what would happen if ALM was fed over long periods of time. Also, these results should not be interpreted to suggest either that ALM may used to replace all the hay in the diets or that ALM in meal form may be used to replace hay in the diets. Moreover, feed consumption by cows used in these experiments was rather high and somewhat atypical of most cows.

  9. Digestibility of the cottonseed meal with or without addition of protease and phytase enzymes in swine diet - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i3.12360

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Mouhaupt Marques Ludke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the digestibility of cottonseed meal with or without addition of enzymes (phytase and protease for growing pigs. It was used 18 barrows, housed in metabolism cages, distributed in a completely randomized design, standardizing body weight (bw with average of 25.8 ± 3.6 kg, with three treatments and six repetitions. The treatments consisted of a reference diet based on corn and soybean meal, the second treatment with replacement of 30% of the reference diet by cottonseed meal without enzymes, and the third with 30% of the reference diet replaced by cottonseed meal with added enzymes. Was determined the digestible protein, digestible energy, digestibility of dry matter, energy and protein. It was also registered the balance of nitrogen and phosphorus. The use of cottonseed meal with the addition of enzymes in diets for growing pigs has no effect on the digestibility of dry matter, gross energy and crude protein, but improved the absorption of phosphorus, consequently reducing its excretion in the feces. There was no improvement in nitrogen balance in the diets containing cottonseed meal with enzymes.

  10. Efeito da combinação de dietas contendo milho ou triticale e farelo de soja ou levedura sobre o desempenho de novilhas nelore terminadas em confinamento Effect of diet synchronization based on ground corn or triticale and soybean meal or yeast on feedlot Nelore heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Takae Iwayama

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado para comparar o efeito da combinação de quatro dietas contendo silagem de sorgo, milho ou triticale e farelo de soja ou levedura, em 48 novilhas nelore com peso médio de 235kg e idade aproximada de 18 meses, confinadas durante 84 dias, divididos em 3 períodos (PI, PII, PIII de 28 dias. Avaliaram-se o ganho médio diário (GMD, rendimento de carcaça (RC, conversão alimentar e consumo (ingestão para cada 100kg de peso vivo de MS, PB, MO, EB, FDN e FDA. Não houve interação (p > 0,05 entre os alimentos. O GMD das rações com levedura no PI foi superior (p 0,05 no GMD entre rações com levedura e farelo de soja. Por outro lado, não foram observadas diferenças (p > 0,05 para o GMD, nos PI e PII entre as rações à base de triticale e milho. No entanto, no PIII e na média geral, o triticale promoveu maior (p 0,05 entre os alimentos. O consumo de PB foi maior (p The aim of this work was to compare the effect of diet synchronization based on sorghum silage, ground corn or triticale and soybean meal and yeast on the performance of 48 18-month-old Nelore heifers with 235 kg average weight, stabled for 84 days, divided into three periods (PI, PII and PIII of 28 days. The average daily weight gain (ADG, carcass yield (CY, feed intake and conversion (intake ratio to 100 kg live weight of DM, CP, OM, GE, NDF and ADF were evaluated. There was no interaction (p > 0.05 between diets. The ADG of yeast in PI was higher (p 0.05 in ADG between yeast and soybean meal. There were no differences observed (p > 0.05 as for ADG in PI and PII between triticale and ground corn. However in PIII and in final average period triticale presented a higher (p 0.05 between diets. Conversion of CP was higher (p < 0.05 for diets with triticale than with corn and for diets with soybean meal than with yeast.

  11. Composição química, avaliação físico-química e nutricional e efeito da expansão do milho e do farelo de soja para suínos em crescimento Chemical composition, physical-chemical and nutritional evaluation and effect of expanded corn and soybean meal on growing swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.F. Veloso

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Determinaram-se a composição química e as propriedades físico-químicas, a digestibilidade fecal dos nutrientes e os valores energéticos do milho, do milho expandido, do farelo de soja e do farelo de soja expandido, em suínos em crescimento. Foram feitas análises de rotina (análise proximal e de energia bruta e análises específicas, como gelatinização do amido, nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente ácido, atividade ureática, solubilidade protéica em KOH 0,2% e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Na determinação da digestibilidade, usaram-se 20 leitões machos castrados, com peso inicial médio de 33,630±1,011kg, distribuídos em delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições por tratamento. Uma dieta basal foi substituída por 40% dos alimentos energéticos ou por 20% dos protéicos. Nos alimentos expandidos, houve modificações no perfil químico e nas propriedades físico-químicas que influenciaram a digestibilidade dos nutrientes, em relação aos alimentos in natura. Ocorreu gelatinização do amido, incrementando (P0,05. O processo da expansão atuou diferentemente nas avaliações de laboratório e de digestibilidade dos nutrientes do milho e do farelo de soja expandidos.Growing pigs were used in a trial to evaluate chemical composition, physical-chemical properties, fecal digestibility of nutrients and energetic values for corn, expanded corn, soybean meal and expanded soybean meal. Proximate analyses, crude energy and specific analyses, as starch gelatinization, acid detergent insoluble nitrogen, urea activity, 0.2% KOH protein solubility and scanning electronic microscopy were performed. Twenty growing castrated pigs averaging 33.630±1.011kg of live weight were used in a digestibility assay. The pigs were allotted to different metabolic cages, in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replicates. The energetic feed substituted 40% and the proteic

  12. CASHEW NUT MEAL IN THE FEEDING OF BROWN LAYING HENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Braga Cruz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative foods to replace conventional foods is becoming a source of research for many researchers. The cashew nut meal (CNM has high energy and protein value, may be a partial substitute for corn and soybean meal for poultry feed. In this context, this research was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of CNM on the utilization of nutrients in the ration for laying hens, as well as the performance and characteristics of the eggs. The study used 180 Dekalb Brown laying hens 27 weeks of age, distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments and five replicates of six birds. Treatments consisted of a control diet without CNM and others with the inclusion of this food at levels of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%. Upon regression analysis, a linear increase in nitrogen metabolism, crude energy and apparently metabolizable energy was seen. The dry matter digestibility and metabolizable energy corrected for rations were not affected by the inclusion of the CNM. Feed intake and egg weight were not affected by the inclusion of the CNM; however, egg production, egg mass, feed conversion, and yolk color worsened linearly with inclusion of CNM. Compared to control diet, the inclusion of CNM worsened the egg mass and feed conversion from 15%, and yolk color from 20%. As a result, it is recommended the inclusion of the CNM in the diet of laying hens at a maximum level of 10%.

  13. Growth indices and cost implications of hybro broiler chicks fed with graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corm meal as a replacement for maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajide, R

    2014-05-01

    Corms such as wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta] have potential to replace maize as a cheaper energy source in poultry rations. A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] corm (FWCC), as substitutes for maize in the diets of broilers at the starter phase. One hundred and twenty unsexed day-old Hybro broiler chicks were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). There were 3 replicates per dietary treatment with 10 birds per replicate. Diet 1 without FWCC served as the control. Diets 2, 3 and 4 contained 10, 20 and 30% FWCC. Each of the diets represented a treatment. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum for 4 weeks (28 days) representing the starter phase of the broiler production. Result of the performance revealed significant (p<0.05) differences in feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The economic analysis also showed that cost (Naira58.52) of a kilogram feed was highest (p<0.05) for the control and least (Naira53.10) for 30% FWCC. The least cost (Naira101.24) of feed per kilogram weight gain (p<0.05) was obtained for birds fed 30% FWCC compared to (Naira105.53) for the control. It was concluded that maize can economically be substituted with 30% FWCC in broiler starter diets.

  14. Desempenho e digestibilidade aparente em cabritos Boer x Saanen em confinamento recebendo rações com casca do grão de soja em substituição ao milho Effects of replacing ground corn with soybean hulls on performance and apparent digestibility of nutrients in feedlot Boer x Saanen kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Hideo Hashimoto

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 27 cabritos Boer x Saanen (15 machos e 12 fêmeas, 25,75 ± 3,80 kg PV distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado para avaliar os os efeitos da substituição de casca do grão de soja (CGS por grão de milho moído (GMM sobre o desempenho e a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes da dieta. As rações foram compostas de feno de grama-estrela (Cynodon spp., farelo de soja, milho, casca do grão de soja e minerais, sendo os tratamentos constituídos de 0 (GMM, 50 (CGS50 e 100% (CGS100 de substituição do milho pela casca do grão de soja. O período experimental foi de 42 dias e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes foi determinada utilizando-se a FDN indigestível como indicador. Os tratamentos não diferiram quanto às ingestões de MS, MO e PB, ao ganho de peso médio diário e à conversão alimentar. A utilização da CGS resultou em diminuição dos coeficientes de digestibilidade da MS, MO e PB e aumento dos coeficientes de digestibilidade da FDN e do amido. A digestibilidade in vitro da MS foi maior no tratamento GMM, mas a da parede celular não diferiu entre os tratamentos. A casca do grão de soja apresentou 23,87; 0,19; 55,89 e 20,05% das frações A, B1, B2 e C dos carboidratos e 35,22; 8,19; 31,61; 15,46 e 9,52% das frações A, B1, B2, B3 e C da proteína. A casca do grão de soja, quando utilizada em até 100% de substituição ao milho nas rações, não altera o desempenho de cabritos em crescimento, mas diminui a digestibilidade da MS, MO e da proteína e aumenta a da FDN.Twenty-seven Boer x Saanen goat kids (15 males and 12 females averaging 25.75 ± 3.80 kg of initial BW were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effects of replacing ground corn grain (GCG with soybean hulls (SH on performance and apparent digestibility of nutrients. Diets contained star grass hay (Cynodon spp., soybean meal, minerals, and one of the following levels of SH: 0% (GCG diet, 50% (SH50 or 100% (SH100

  15. Replacement of fish oil with a DHA-rich algal meal derived from Schizochytrium sp. on the fatty acid and persistent organic pollutant levels in diets and flesh of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.) post-smolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, M; Walton, J; Campbell, P J; Strachan, F; Dick, J R; Bell, J G

    2015-10-15

    The replacement of fish oil (FO) with a DHA-rich Schizochytrium sp. algal meal (AM) at two inclusion levels (11% and 5.5% of diet) was tested in Atlantic salmon post-smolts compared to fish fed a FO diet of northern (NFO) or southern hemisphere (SFO) origin. Fish were preconditioned prior to the 19-week experimental feeding period to reduce long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) and persistent organic pollutant levels (POPs). Dietary POP levels differed significantly between treatments in the order of NFO>SFO>11 AM/5.5 AM and were subsequently reflected in the flesh. Fish fed the 11 AM diet contained similar DHA levels (g 100 g(-1) flesh) to FO-fed fish, despite percentage differences. However, the low levels of EPA in the diets and flesh of algal-fed fish compromised the overall nutritional value to the final consumer. Nevertheless, further developments in microalgae culture offer a promising alternative lipid source of LC-PUFA to FO in salmon feeds that warrants further investigation.

  16. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moosavi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (P<0.05 high NEL intakes when compared to control with no fat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; P<0.01 and FCM production (1.05-2.79; P<0.01. Milk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively higher than control. Between fat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (P<0.01 higher than control. Body weight, body weight change and BCS (body condition score of cows, as well as energy balance and energy efficiency were similar between treatments. In conclusion, while there was no significant effect of fat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  17. The Hospitable Meal Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Overgaard, Svend Skafte

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an analytical model that aims to conceptualize how meal experiences are framed when taking into account a dynamic understanding of hospitality: the meal model is named The Hospitable Meal Model. The idea behind The Hospitable Meal Model is to present a conceptual model...... that can serve as a frame for developing hospitable meal competencies among professionals working within the area of institutional foodservices as well as a conceptual model for analysing meal experiences. The Hospitable Meal Model transcends and transforms existing meal models by presenting a more open......-ended approach towards meal experiences. The underlying purpose of The Hospitable Meal Model is to provide the basis for creating value for the individuals involved in institutional meal services. The Hospitable Meal Model was developed on the basis of an empirical study on hospital meal experiences explored...

  18. 不同膳食替代对超重2型糖尿病患者的影响%Effects of different meal replacement on overweight patients with type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳; 韩颖; 石节丽; 金娜娜; 李瑞霞; 李素芬; 徐福娟; 龙雪; 高鹏飞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test effects of partial meal replacement (PMR and complete meal replacement(CMR) on glycemic control and quality of life in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes.Methods Outpatients with type 2 diabetes and overweight were screened in department of diabetes,general hospital of Tianjin dagang oilfield.Finally,60 cases were in the study.The subjects were divided into control group,CMR group and PMR group to receive intervention for three months according to method of random number.Special dietary completely replaced daily breakfast in CMR group,while in PMR group,a small amount of special dietary was taken before three meals a day,and daily meals were reduced,appropriately.HbA1c was examined by enzymatic colorimetric.Homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMAIR) and body mass index were assessed.Diabetes-related distress and quality of life were conducted by questionnaires.Results At the end of the study,CMR group showed statistically differences in glycemic control [(7.6 ± 0.7) % vs.(8.2 ± 0.8) %] and HOMA-IR [(4.3 ± 1.2) vs.(6.0 ± 0.2)],compared with control group(all P < 0.05),the same as PMR group compared to control group [(7.7 ± 0.4) % vs.(8.2 ±0.8)%,P <0.05;(4.7 ± 1.4) vs.(6.0 ±0.2),P <0.05] ; Compared with CMR group,the effects of PMR group on reducing diabetes-related distress and improving quality of life were significant [(25.9 ± 2.8) vs.(27.7±2.4),P<0.05;(73.8±4.1) vs.(70.2 ±4.2),P<0.05).Conclusion The effects of PMR on improving glycemic and lipid control showed no obvious advantage relative to CMR,while it was priority to reduce diabetes-related emotional stress and improve quality of life in diabetic patients.%目的 探讨部分膳食替代(PMR)和完全膳食替代(CMR)对超重2型糖尿病患者血糖控制及生活质量的影响.方法 以在天津市大港油田总医院糖尿病科门诊就诊的超重2型糖尿病患者60例作为研究对象,按照随机数字法分

  19. Balanço de nitrogênio em fêmeas leiteiras em confinamento alimentadas com concentrado à base de farelo de soja ou farelo de algodão Nitrogen use efficiency of growing dairy heifers fed concentrate rations based on soybean or cottonseed meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Alvarenga Santos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência do fornecimento de concentrados à base de farelo de soja ou farelo de algodão em dietas com silagem de milho sobre o balanço de nitrogênio e a produção de proteína microbiana em fêmeas leiteiras em crescimento. As dietas foram constituídas da combinação de dois níveis de concentrado (1 ou 2 kg e duas fontes proteicas (farelo de soja ou farelo de algodão. Os animais que consumiram concentrado na quantidade de 2 kg/dia apresentaram maior consumo de nitrogênio total, entretanto não houve efeito significativo sobre o N-fecal, N-urinário e o balanço de nitrogênio. A interação entre o nível de concentrado e a fonte proteica influenciou o nitrogênio ureico na urina (N-urina, mas não alterou os níveis de nitrogênio ureico no plasma. Os níveis de concentrado e as fontes proteicas não afetaram as concentrações de purinas totais e alantoína na urina, a porcentagem de alantoína em relação às purinas totais, os níveis de ácido úrico na urina e nitrogênio microbiano nem a eficiência microbiana. O fornecimento de 1 ou 2 kg de concentrado contendo farelo de soja ou farelo de algodão como fontes proteicas para novilhas leiteiras em crescimento não afeta a eficiência microbiana, entretanto o fornecimento de 2 kg de concentrado aumenta a excreção de nitrogênio nas fezes.The objective of this work was to evaluate effect of based-soybean or cottonseed meal concentrate rations in diets with corn silage on nitrogen balance (NB and microbial protein production in growing dairy females. diets consisted of the combination of two levels of concentrate ration, 1 or 2 kg, and two protein sources, soybean meal or cottonseed meal. The animals that consumed 2 kg of concentrate ration showed greater total nitrogen intake, however, there was no significant effect on fecal-N, urine-N and nitrogen balance. The interaction among the concentrade levels and the protein source affected the urine uric N (N-urine but

  20. Chinese Soybean Industry:Current Status and Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DachuanLiu; ShaojunTian

    2002-01-01

    This paper focus on the soybean resources and their industry development in China.Due to the high demand in domestic market,it is necessary to expand the cultivation area and improve the production yields.Meanwhile,to increase the export of soybeans from overseas is also important.China has a long history in producing traditional soybean foods.After recent fifty years,the development of Chinese soybean industry has reached to a reasonable level.The current status of Chinese soybean industry has been included in the paper.It has been expected that in next five years,there will be a rapid increase in the processing of soybeans;it will become more reasonable in the scale and distribution of soybean oil factories.Emphasis will be put on the improvement of the functionalities of soybean products.Different kinds of functional soybean foods,especially the soybean proteins for particular uses will be developed by the use of modification technologies.Concern is also given to the multi-utilization of soybean resources,which not only covers the extraction of oil from soybean seeds and the processing of protein products from the meal;but also includes the recovery of the natural phyto-chemicals from soybeans which could then be exploited to novel products with more profits.

  1. Analytical strategies for the early quality and safety assurance in the global feed chain. Approaches for nitrogen adulterants in soybean meal and mineral and transformer oils in vegetable oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Jacob; Lopez Sanchez, Patricia; Mol, Hans

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, several major food safety crises originated from problems with feed. Consequently, there is an urgent need for early detection of fraudulent adulteration and contamination in the feed chain. Strategies are presented for two specific cases, viz. adulterations of (i) soybean

  2. Analytical strategies for the early quality and safety assurance in the global feed chain. Approaches for nitrogen adulterants in soybean meal and mineral and transformer oils in vegetable oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Jacob; Lopez Sanchez, Patricia; Mol, Hans

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, several major food safety crises originated from problems with feed. Consequently, there is an urgent need for early detection of fraudulent adulteration and contamination in the feed chain. Strategies are presented for two specific cases, viz. adulterations of (i) soybean mea

  3. Dietas à base de milho e farelo de soja suplementadas com enzimas na alimentação de frangos de corte Corn and soybean meal based diets supplemented with enzymes in feed of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delma Maria Torres

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da adição de enzimas digestivas exógenas em dietas à base de milho e farelo de soja sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte, conduziu-se este experimento. Foram utilizados 819 pintos Hubbard em DIC e esquema fatorial 3 x 2 x 2 + 1 (enzimas, proteínas, níveis de energia e um tratamento testemunha com 3 repetições de 21 aves por parcela. Os níveis de enzimas foram 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5 g/kg de dieta, e os de proteína foram normais (21,18, 19,95 e 19,43% PB e reduzidos (20,54, 19,35 e 18,46% PB; os de energia também foram normais (3000, 3100 e 3200 kcal/kg de EM e reduzidos (2910, 3007 e 3040 kcal/kg de EM, respectivamente, para as fases inicial, de crescimento e final da criação, e para o testemunha, a ração continha níveis normais de EM e PB, sem enzimas. Os fatores avaliados foram ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e fator europeu de produção. Pelos resultados, verificou-se manutenção do desempenho zootécnico das aves em razão da aplicação de enzimas, constatado pela não significância desses fatores aos 42 dias de idade e pela melhora na conversão alimentar, redução do consumo de ração e maior fator europeu de produção aos 21 dias de idade. O estudo da interação dos níveis de enzima x proteína mostrou que a adição de 0,5 g/kg de enzima na dieta com nível de proteína reduzido resultou em maior ganho de peso das aves. Conclui-se que é viável o uso de enzimas exógenas adicionadas em rações para frangos de corte.The objective of the experiment was verify the effect of the addition of exogen digestive enzymes in corn and soybean meal based diets on performance of broiler chickens. Were used 819 Hubbard chickens in completely randomized design, and 3 x 2 x 2 + 1 check factorial (enzyme, protein and energy levels and one treatment check with 3 replications, of the 21 birds by replicate. Enzyme levels were 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/kg of diet, energy levels were

  4. Cohort Analysis of a 24-Week Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess the Efficacy of a Novel, Partial Meal Replacement Program Targeting Weight Loss and Risk Factor Reduction in Overweight/Obese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Brindal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to design and evaluate a weight-loss program, including a partial meal replacement program, point-of-care testing and face-to-face and smartphone app support, appropriate for delivery in a community pharmacy setting. Overweight or obese adults (n = 146, 71.2% female, 48.18 ± 11.75 years old were recruited to participate in a 24-week weight loss study and randomised to two app conditions. The dietary intervention was consistent regardless of app. Twelve weeks of clinic appointments with a trained consultant were followed by only app support for an additional 12 weeks. By week 24, retention was 57.5%. There were no differences between app conditions. Based on a cohort analysis of the trial, the mean decrease in weight from baseline to week 24 was 6.43 ± 1.06 kg for males (p < 0.001 and 5.66 ± 0.70 kg for females (p < 0.001. Mixed models also revealed decreases for LDL Cholesterol (−0.13 ± 0.08 mmol/L, nonsignificant, triglycerides (−0.08 ± 0.05 mmol/L, nonsignificant and an increase in HDL cholesterol (+0.08 ± 0.04 mmol/L, ns were not significant by week 24. Blood glucose (−0.23 ± 0.08 mmol/L, p = 0.040 and blood pressure (Systolic blood pressure −5.77 ± 1.21 Hg/mm, p < 0.001 were significantly lower at week 24 compared to baseline. Weight loss self-efficacy increased and remained significantly higher than baseline at week 24 (16.85 ± 2.93, p < 0.001. Overall, the program supported participants and was successful in achieving significant weight loss and improvements in health outcomes over 24 weeks.

  5. Soja integral processada em dietas para codornas japonesas em postura Processed whole soybean in diets for laying Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luiz de Toledo Barreto

    2010-09-01

    female quails at 29 weeks of age with an average weight of 186.1 ± 4.0 g distributed in a complete randomized experimental design, with 8 replicates, each one with 10 quails per experimental unit. Diets were isocaloric and isonutritives for crude protein, digestible lysine, digestible methionine + cystine, calcium, available phosphorus and sodium. Thus, it was evaluated a control diet based on corn and soybean meal, and three other diets with partial substitution of the soybean meal for roasted whole soybean, extruded or micronized, so the whole soybean supplied 50% of the crude protein provided by soybean meal in control diet. No differences were observed on egg production, egg mass, feed conversion, viability of the birds, percentage of commercial eggs, egg specific weight, percentage of yolk and albumen neither on egg shell percentage. Substitution of soybean meal for roasted whole soybean reduced feed intake. It was not observed any differences in the studied parameters when soybean meal was replaced by extruded whole soybean. Substitution of soybean meal for micronized whole soybean reduced body weight variation of the quails, resulting in weight loss of the birds. Soybean meal can be substituted, in 50% of the protein, by roasted or extruded whole soybean in diets for laying Japanese quails. However, substitution of the soybean meal for micronized whole soybean, in 50% of the protein, is not recommended, because it worsens the performance results, mainly causing weight loss of the birds.

  6. Substituição parcial do milho e farelo de soja por sorgo e farelo de caroço de algodão extrusado em rações de frangos de corte - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i2.217 Partial substitution of the corn and soybean for sorghum and expander cottonseed meal in broilers’ rations - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i2.217

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Vitor Ludke

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a utilização do sorgo (50% e do farelo de caroço de algodão extrusado (0; 13,33; 26,66 e 39,99% em substituição ao milho e à proteína do farelo de soja em rações de frangos de corte. Foi conduzido um experimento utilizando 300 pintos de corte, machos, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições de 12 aves por parcela. As variáveis analisadas foram consumo de ração (CR, ganho de peso (GP, conversão alimentar (CA e características de carcaça. Para CR e GP, não houve diferenças estatísticas (p > 0,05 entre o tratamento controle e o segundo tratamento com exceção para CA no período de 22 a 42 dias. Com o resultado para GP houve diferenças significativas (p 0,05 para todos os parâmetros avaliados. Tanto o sorgo quanto o farelo de caroço de algodão extrusado em substituição ao milho e o farelo de soja é possível até 13,31%, melhorando a conversão alimentar.Partial substitution of the corn and soybean for sorghum and expander cottonseed meal in broilers’ rations. The experiment aimed to evaluate the use of sorghum (50% and the expander cottonseed meal (0; 13.33; 26.66; 39.99% in substitution to the corn and the protein of the soybean meal in broilers’ rations. An experiment was carried out using 300 male broiler chicks, distributed in a randomized arrangement with five treatments and five repetitions of 12 birds per parcel. The analyzed variables were ration consumption (RC, weight gain (WG, feed conversion (FC and characteristics of carcass. RC and WG did not present any statistical differences (p > 0.05 between the controlled treatment and the second treatment, except for FC during the period of 22 to 42 days. As for WG, significant statistical differences were found (p 0.05 for all the evaluated parameters. Both sorghum and the expander cottonseed meal in substitution to the corn and the soybean meal are possible, up

  7. Palatability of water-soluble extracts of protein sources and replacement of fishmeal by a selected mixture of protein sources for juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chun; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Poor palatability is a limiting factor for replacing fishmeal with other protein sources in aquaculture. The water-soluble molecules with low molecular weights are the major determinants of the palatability of diets. The present study was conducted to investigate the palatability of water-soluble extracts from single protein source (single extract pellets) and the mixture of these extracts with different proportions (blended extract pellets) in juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus). Then according to the palatability of blended extract pellets, an optimal mixture proportion was selected, and a new protein source made from raw protein materials with the selected proportion was formulated to replace fishmeal. Summarily, the palatability of single extract pellets for turbot was descendent from fishmeal to pet-food grade poultry by-product meal, wheat gluten meal, soybean meal, peanut meal, meat and bone meal, and corn gluten meal. Subsequently, according to the palatability of single extract pellets, 52 kinds of blended extract pellets were designed to test their palatability. The results showed that the pellets presented remarkably different palatability, and the optimal one was diet 52 (wheat gluten meal: pet-food grade poultry by-product meal: meat and bone meal: corn gluten meal = 1:6:1:2). The highest ingestion ratio (the number of pellets ingested/the number of pellets fed) was 0.73 ± 0.03, which was observed in Diet 52. Then five isonitrogenous (52% crude protein) and isocaloric (20 kJ g-1 gross energy) diets were formulated by replacing 0 (control), 35%, 50%, 65% and 80% of fishmeal with No.52 blending proportion. After a 10-weeks feeding trial, a consistent feed intake was found among all replacement treatments. Replacement level of fishmeal up to 35% did not significantly influence final body weight, specific growth rate, feed efficiency ratio, and protein efficiency ratio of turbot. Therefore, the water-soluble extracts of protein sources play an

  8. Optimizing fish meal-free commercial diets for Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed recirculating aquaculture system with Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus juveniles (mean weight, 6.81 g) to examine the response to a practical diet containing protein primarily from menhaden fish meal (FM) and soybean meal (SBM) (control, Diet 1) or to diet...

  9. quality of broiler fed diet supplemented by garlic meal and white turmeric meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanung Danar Dono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was done within 42 days to investigate the effect of diet supplemented by garlic (Allium sativum and white turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb meals on physical and chemical quality of broiler meat. The number of 90 broiler DOC were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into 18 unit of cages. During the study, the chicken were given 6 feeding treatments, i.e.: R-0 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% filler; as control diet, RB-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% filler, RB-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% garlic meal, RT-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% white turmeric meal + 1.0% filler, RT-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% white turmeric meal, and RB1T1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% white turmeric meal. The base diet was composed of: yellow corn, soybean meal, fish meal, rice polishing meal, sorghum, poultry meat meal, mineral mix, and was design to contain 17.5% crude protein and metabolizable energy 2,900 kcal/kg. Variables observed were: physical appearance (slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, physical quality (pH, water holding capacity, cooking lose, tenderness, and cholesterol content (breast meat and blood cholesterol. All data were statistically analyzed by the Oneway of ANOVA and followed by the DMRT for significant results. Results showed that 1.0 - 2.0% garlic meal and 1.0 - 2.0% white turmeric meal supplementation reduced: breast meat cholesterol (P < 0.05, cooking lose (P < 0.05, and increased: pH (P < 0.01, and water holding capacity (P < 0.01 and improved tenderness (P < 0.05. Supplementation of 2% garlic meal and white turmeric meal didn’t affect slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, nor blood cholesterol.

  10. Soybean Shortcomings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Before the Spring Festival,which falls on February 7 this year,the most important festival for the Chinese, counters selling soybean oil in a supermar- ket in Beijing’s Chaoyang District were especially crowded."Since September 2007,soybean oil has sold very well,"Li Ping,a sales assistant of the supermarket, told Beijing Review,"More than 1,000 bottles are sold every day."

  11. Desempenho produtivo de fêmeas leiteiras alimentadas com silagem de milho e concentrado à base de farelo de soja ou farelo de algodão Productive performance of growing dairy heifers fed corn silage and soybean or cottonseed meal based concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Alvarenga Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas dietas com silagem de milho e concentrado à base de farelo de soja ou farelo de algodão para fêmeas leiteiras. Quatro dietas experimentais foram constituídas da combinação de dois níveis de concentrado (1 ou 2 kg e duas fontes proteicas (farelo de soja ou farelo de algodão. Observou-se efeito da interação nível de concentrado × fonte proteica no consumo de matéria seca (MS, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e no consumo de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT. A quantidade de concentrado influenciou os consumos de proteína bruta (PB, FDN, extrato etéreo (EE, carboidratos nãofibrosos (CNF, matéria orgânica (MO e de PB por kg de NDT. Não houve efeito nas digestibilidades da MS, FDN, MO e para NDT, porém a fonte proteica influenciou as digestibilidades de PB, EE e CNF. Houve efeito da quantidade de concentrado sobre o ganho de peso (GP e da interação quantidade de concentrado × fonte proteica sobre o ganho de peso por cm de ganho em altura da cernelha. A dieta com 1 kg de concentrado à base de farelo de algodão foi insuficiente para ganho de peso de 800 g/dia, enquanto as dietas com 2 kg de concentrado propiciaram o maior ganho de peso. Entretanto, a dieta constituída de 2 kg de concentrado à base de farelo de soja foi mais eficiente, pois propiciou maior crescimento linear das novilhas, com ganho médio de 820 g por dia. Equações de predição do peso corporal com base no perímetro torácico apresentam maior acurácia em relação a equações baseadas em outras medidas lineares.Diets for dairy heifers were assessed with corn silage and soybean or cotton seed based concentrate. Four experimental diets consisting of the combination of two concentrate levels, 1 or 2 kg, and two protein sources, soybean meal or cotton seed meal. The effect of the interaction was observed for intake of dry matter (DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF in % live weight and total digestible nutrient intake (TDN. The quantity of

  12. Efeito da substituição do farelo de soja pela amiréia 150S no consumo, produção e composição do leite Effect of the substitution of the soybean meal for the starea 150S in the intake, production and composition of the milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Garcia Vilela

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Doze vacas leiteiras (³/4 Holandês x ¹/4 Gir foram utilizadas em um delineamento em quadrado latino, nas dependências da Fazenda Raposo - Nepomuceno, MG, entre novembro de 2001 e abril de 2002 para comparar o efeito da substituição parcial e total do farelo de soja pela amiréia na produção e composição do leite. Os animais apresentavam peso médio de 443 kg e estavam na quarta lactação. A amiréia substituiu o farelo de soja nas seguintes proporções: 0 - 0% de amiréia 150 S; 33 - 33% de amiréia 150 S; 66 - 66% de amiréia 150 S e 100 - 100% de amiréia 150 S, sendo que todos tratamentos foram isoenergéticos e isoprotéicos. Utilizou-se a cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum officinarum L. como volumoso "ad libitum". Cada período experimental teve duração de 15 dias, 9 dias para adaptação e 6 dias para coleta de dados. A produção de leite de cada vaca foi pesada nas duas ordenhas (manhã e tarde e as amostras enviadas para análise de gordura, proteína, lactose, sólidos totais e uréia, pelo processo de infravermelho, junto à Clínica do Leite do Departamento de Produção Animal da ESALQ/USP. A gordura e sólidos totais do leite não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos (P>0,05. A produção de leite, a proteína, a lactose e a uréia do leite diferiram entre os tratamentos (PTwelve dairy cows (³/4 Hoslten x ¹/4 Gir were used in a desing in Latin square, at Fazenda Raposo's dependences in Nepomuceno, MG, between November of 2001 and April of 2002 to compare the effect of the partial and total substitution of soybean meal for starea in the production and composition of milk. The medium weight of the animals was 443 kg and they were in the fourth nursing. The starea substituted soybean meal in the following proportions: 0 - 0% of starea 150 S; 33 - 33¨% of starea 150 S; 66 - 66% of starea 150 S and 100 - 100% of starea 150 S, and every treatments were isoenergetics and isoproteics. Sugar-cane (Saccharum officinarum L. was

  13. A study on the meat and bone meal and poultry by-product meal as protein substitutes of fish meal in practical diets for Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Baigang; Wang, Fuzhen; Yu, Yu

    2004-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of meat and bone meal (MBM) and poultry by-product meal (PBM) as the replacement of fish meal in the diets on the growth performance, survival and apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of Litopenaeus vannamei. The basal diets were formulated with 22% fish meal and other ingredients which provided about 40% protein and 9% lipid in the diet. The experimental diets included MBM or PBM to replace 0, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of total fish meal respectively. All diets were iso-nitrogenous and isocaloric in gross terms. The results showed that there were no significant differences (Pτ;0.05) in growth performance and ADC among the treatments fed with the diets in which 0 60% fish meal had been replaced with MBM, while the percent weight gain (WG, %), body length gain (BLG, %) and ADC significantly decreased when the MBM was up to 80% of the fish meal. There were no significant differences (Pτ;0.05) in growth performance and ADC among all the treatments fed with the diets in which 0 80% fish meal had been replaced with PBM.

  14. A Study on the Meat and Bone Meal and Poultry By-product Meal as Protein Substitutes of Fish Meal in Practical Diets for Litopenaeus vannamei Juveniles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wei; MAI Kangsen; ZHANG Baigang; WANG Fuzhen; YU Yu

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of meat and bone meal(MBM)and poultry by-product meal(PBM)as the replacement of fish meal in the diets on the growth performance, survival and apparent digestibility coefficients(ADC)of Litopenaeus vannamei. The basal diets were formulated with 22% fish meal and other ingredients which provided about 40% protein and 9% lipid in the diet. The experimental diets included MBM or PBM to replace 0, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of total fish meal respectively. All diets were iso-nitrogenous and isocaloric in gross terms. The results showed that there were no significant differences(P>0.05)in growth performance and ADC among the treatments fed with the diets in which 0-60% fish meal had been replaced with MBM, while the percent weight gain(WG,%), body length gain(BLG,%)and ADC significantly decreased when the MBM was up to 80% of the fish meal. There were no significant differences(P>0.05)in growth performance and ADC among all the treatments fed with the diets in which 0-80% fish meal had been replaced with PBM.

  15. Use of biofuel by-product from the green algae Desmochloris sp. and diatom Nanofrustulum sp. meal in diets for nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algal by-product meals from the Hawaiian biofuels industry were evaluated as protein ingredients in diets for juveniles of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 40% protein and were made with fish meal, soybean meal, whole diatom (Nanofrustulum sp.)...

  16. Effects of diet energy concentration and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional canola seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Friis; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives were to determine effects of diet NE and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance and physiological parameters of weanling pigs fed a corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet or diets containing high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). A total of 492 pigs (i...

  17. 豆粕和小麦粉挤出物的制曲工艺参数对淀粉酶活力的影响%Inlfuence of Parameters of Koji-Making with Extruded Mixture of Soybean Meal and Wheat Flour to Amylase Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马成业; 何媛媛; 白兴达; 李宏军

    2016-01-01

    The paper used extruded mixture of soybean meal and wheat flour as material to make koji for soybean sauce. The amylase activity was taken as the indexes. The method of the quadratic orthogonal rotating combination design of four factors (the temperature, the proportion of bran, the moisture and the time of making koji) and five levels was used. The optimized parameters of making koji was abtained by SAS 9.1. The temperature was 30.0℃, the proportion of bran was 30.0%, the moisture was 100.0%and the time of making koji was 60.0 h. The amylase activity was 587 U/g.%以豆粕和小麦粉的挤出物为原料,以淀粉酶活力为考察指标,以制曲温度、麸皮比例、润水量和制曲时间为制曲参数,采用四因素进行五水平二次旋转正交试验,使用SAS9.1软件进行试验数据处理,得出最佳制曲工艺参数为:制曲温度30.0℃,麸皮比例30.0%,润水量100.0%,制曲时间60.0 h。在此条件下豆粕和小麦粉挤压膨化物种曲的淀粉酶活力为587 U/g。

  18. Análisis de un programa de pérdida de peso con sustitutivos de comidas sobre el control del peso y de parámetros bioquímicos en pacientes con sobrepeso y obesidad grado I Analysis of a weight loss program with meal replacement products on weight and biochemical markers in overweight or type I obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Basulto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Existen pocos estudios que hayan evaluado la eficacia y la seguridad de los sustitutivos de comidas para perder peso. Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia y la seguridad de un programa de pérdida de peso que incluía productos sustitutivos de comidas. Métodos: Se evaluó el efecto de una dieta hipocalórica versus una dieta hipocalórica que incluía sustitutivos de comidas en 55 voluntarios con sobrepeso u obesidad grado I. Los sujetos fueron distribuidos en un grupo control (dieta hipocalórica o un grupo de intervención (dieta hipocalórica con sustitutivos de comidas durante 8 semanas. Se registraron datos antropométricos, hábito tabáquico y nivel de actividad física. También se realizaron extracciones sanguíneas para evaluar cambios bioquímicos al inicio del estudio, a las 4 semanas y al final del estudio. Resultados: El grupo control perdió 3,97 kg de media, mientras que en el grupo intervención se observó una pérdida de 4,44 kg, no siendo estas diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre grupos. Otros parámetros antropométricos como el perímetro de la cintura y el perímetro de la cadera también disminuyeron en ambos grupos, aunque sin diferencias entre grupos. Se observó una disminución estadísticamente significativa (p = 0,041 en los valores de triglicéridos, aunque también sin diferencias entre grupos. Discusión: Los sustitutivos de comidas, dentro de un programa dietético controlado, fueron tan eficaces y seguros para perder peso y modificar otros parámetros antropométricos como el tratamiento dietético convencional sin sustitutivos.Background: There are scarce data about the efficacy and security of meal replacement products as a strategy to weight loss. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a weight loss program that includes meal replacement products. Methods: We evaluated the effect of a hypocaloric diet versus a hypocaloric diet that includes meal replacement products in 55

  19. Learning through school meals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Jette; Carlsson, Monica

    2014-07-01

    This article is based on a qualitative multiple case study aimed at evaluating the effects of free school meal interventions on pupils' learning, and on the learning environment in schools. The study was conducted at four schools, each offering free school meals for 20 weeks. At each school individual and focus group interviews were conducted with students in grades 5 to 7 and grades 8 to 9. Furthermore, students were observed during lunch breaks, and interviews were conducted with the class teacher, headmaster and/or the person responsible for school meals. The purpose of the article is to explore the learning potentials of school meals. The cross-case analysis focuses on the involved actors' perceptions of the school meal project and the meals, including places, times and contexts, and the pupils' concepts and competences in relation to food, meals and health, as well as their involvement in the school meal project. The analysis indicates that the pupils have developed knowledge and skills related to novel foods and dishes, and that school meals can contribute to pupils' learning, whether this learning is planned or not. However, if school meals are to be further developed as an arena for learning, greater consideration must be given to the interaction between pupil, school meal and teacher than in the school meal projects presented in this study, and the potentials for learning through school meals clarified and discussed in the schools. Studying the school meal projects raises a number of dilemmas, such as whether the lunch break should be a part of or a break from education, are school meals a common (school) or private (parent) responsibility, and questions about pupils' and teachers' roles and participation in school meals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. High performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis in the analysis of soybean proteins and peptides in foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saz, José María; Marina, María Luisa

    2007-03-01

    The increasing interest in functional and healthy food products has promoted the use of soybean in the manufacture of foods for human consumption. Soybean basic products (soybeans, textured soybean, soybean flour, soybean protein concentrate and soybean protein isolate) as well as soybean derivatives (soybean dairy-like products, soybean drinks with fruits, meat analogues, etc.) are commercially available. In addition, due to the interesting nutritional and functional properties of soybean proteins, they are usually employed as ingredient in the elaboration of a large number of food products such as bakery or meat products among others. In spite of the good characteristics of soybean proteins, their addition to some products is forbidden or allowed up to a certain limit. Therefore, analytical methodologies to achieve the determination of soybean proteins in foods are necessary in order to make possible adequate quality control and to prove that legal regulations controlling their addition are accomplished. However, this is not an easy task due to the diversity and complexity of the food matrices and the technological treatments to which some of these foods are submitted during their elaboration. This article presents for the first time a comprehensive review on the analytical methodologies developed using HPLC and CE to characterize soybeans and to analyse soybean proteins in meals. Moreover, the use of HPLC and CE in the characterization of soybean protein fractions and their hydrolyzates, and a study of their relationships to nutritional, functional and biomedical properties are included. Finally, the application of proteomic methodologies in soybean food technology is also reviewed.

  1. A First Law Thermodynamic Analysis of Biodiesel Production from Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzek, Tad W.

    2009-01-01

    A proper First Law energy balance of the soybean biodiesel cycle shows that the overall efficiency of biodiesel production is 0.18, i.e., only 1 in 5 parts of the solar energy sequestered as soya beans, plus the fossil energy inputs, becomes biodiesel. Soybean meal is produced with an overall energetic efficiency of 0.38, but it is not a fossil…

  2. Evaluation of Bacillus sphaericus bioinsecticide produced with white soybean meal as culture medium for the control of Culex (Culex quinquefasciatus Avaliação do bioinseticida de Bacillus sphaericus, produzido com meio de cultivo de farelo branco de soja no controle de Culex (Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. A. Melo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioinsecticides are shown to be useful in control programs to prevent several diseases, based on their specificity and efficiency against insect vectors. In the current study a bioinsecticide based on Bacillus sphaericus was produced using a white soybean culture medium and applied to larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, the susceptible species, and Aedes aegypti, the refractory species used as the negative control. Efficacy was compared with that of the product fermented with the Luria Bertani (LB reference medium. The experiments showed that C. quinquefasciatus was highly susceptible to the product prepared with white soybean meal, reaching 100% larval mortality even at 10mg/L, while A. aegypti failed to reach 70% mortality at a concentration of 1g/L. By comparison with the reference medium, the proposed culture medium showed high larvicidal power, reaching a LD90 of 2.26mg/L, while 4.37mg/L was needed for the LB medium to achieve the same mortality rate. Cost comparison between the formulations favored the use of the bioinsecticide produced with white soybean meal. After factoring in the LD90 value, the cost ratio favored the new raw material by nearly 1:220.A utilização de bioinseticidas tem se mostrado útil aos programas de prevenção de diversas enfermidades devido a sua especificidade e eficiência contra insetos vetores. No presente trabalho, o bioinseticida de Bacillus sphaericus foi produzido com um meio de cultivo composto de farelo branco de soja e aplicado em larvas de Culex quinquefasciatus, espécie susce-tível, e Aedes aegypti, espécie refratária, usada como controle negativo. O desempenho foi comparado com o do produto fermentado com o meio referência Luria Bertani (LB. Os experimentos constataram que C. quinquefasciatus apresentou uma alta suscetibilidade ao produto produzido com farelo branco de soja, alcançando mortalidade de 100% mesmo na diluição de 10mg/L, enquanto A. aegypti não atingiu 70% na concentração de 1

  3. Soybean seed compostion and quality: interactions of enviroment genotype and management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean seed is a major source of protein, oil, carbohydrates, isoflavones, and minerals for human and animal nutrition. Soybean seed contains approximately 40% protein, 20% oil, and 33% carbohydrates, 9% crude fiber. About one-third of the world's edible oils and two-thirds of its protein meal are ...

  4. Learning through school meals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette; Carlsson, Monica Susanne

    2014-01-01

    individual and focus Group interviws were conducted with students in grade 5-7 and grades 8-9- Furthermor, students were obserede during lunch breaks, and interviews were conducted with the class teacher, headmaster and/or the person responsible for school meals. The pupose of the article is to explore...... the lelarning potentials of school meals. The corss-case analysis focuses on the involved actors' perceptions of the school meal project and the meals, including Places Places, times and contexts, and the pupils' concepts and competencies in relation to food, meals and Health, as well as their involvement...... of dilemmas, such as whether the lunch break should be a part of or a break from education, are school meals a common (school) or private (parent) responsibility, and questions about pupils' and teachers' roles and participation in school meals....

  5. Development of Corn Stover Biofuel: Impacts on Corn and Soybean Markets and Land Rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Taheripour, Farzad; Tyner, Wallace E.; Fiegel, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This paper first develops a partial equilibrium (PE) model to examine impacts of converting corn stover to biofuel on markets for corn and soybeans at the national market level. The PE model links gasoline, corn ethanol, dried distiller grains, corn, soybeans, and soybean meal markets in the presence and absence of a viable market for corn stover. The model also includes a technology which converts corn stover to bio-gasoline (a drop-in biofuel). The model evaluates profitability of the ethan...

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of Soybean-Based Biodiesel in Argentina for Export

    OpenAIRE

    Panichelli, Luis; Dauriat, Arnaud; Gnansounou, Edgard

    2009-01-01

    Background, aim and scope. Regional specificities are a key factor when analyzing the environmental impact of a biofuel pathway through a life cycle assessment (LCA). Due to different energy mixes, transport distances, agricultural practices and land use changes, results can significantly vary from one country to another. The Republic of Argentina is the first exporter of soybean oil and meal and the third largest soybean producer in the world, and therefore, soybean-based biodiesel producti...

  7. Farelo de girassol para coelhos em crescimento: digestibilidade e desempenho Sunflower meal for growing rabbits: digestibility and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Moreira

    2001-05-01

    digestibility trial, in a completely randomized design, with two treatments and 10 replications. A reference and a test diet were used in which sunflower meal replaced 25% of the reference dry matter-based diet. The digestibility coefficients of dry matter, crude protein, NDF, ADF and crude energy were respectively 63.34, 80.08, 59.13, 29.72 and 63.98%. Digestible dry matter, digestible protein, digestible N.D.F, digestible A.D.F and digestible energy contents of sunflower meal, on feed basis, were respectively 58.70, 27.28 20.26, 6.71% and 2.706 Kcal/DE. In the performance trial, 75 White New Zealand rabbits, from 40 to 80 days of age, were used. Rabbits were distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments (five levels of inclusion, with the sunflower meal 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacing the soybean meal and 15 replicates of one animal per experimental unit. There were no effects of sunflower meal levels on rabbit performance. Results showed that sunflower meal could replace the soybean meal in the rabbit diets.

  8. Soybean, a promising health source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Aparicio, I; Redondo Cuenca, A; Villanueva-Suárez, M J; Zapata-Revilla, M A

    2008-01-01

    Health properties and uses of soybean, as well as the different chemical and botanical characteristics of this legume are shown in this review. Soybean represents an excellent source of high quality protein, it has a low content in saturated fat, it contains a great amount of dietary fibre and its isoflavone content makes it singular among other legumes. Many researches have been carried out into the benefits of legumes: chickpeas, beans, lentils and soy, among others, but characterization and positive health effects of soybeans have been recently studied. The interest in this legume has increased because of its functional components. Most of the studies have been focused on soybean protein as a possible source of prevention against cardiovascular disease. This positive effect may be due to a decrease in serum cholesterol concentrations. In addition, there are many studies on isoflavones, non-nutritive substances, associated with prevention and treatment of different chronic diseases. Moreover, some studies have shown the health properties of soy dietary fibre. Therefore, it would be interesting to consider the replacement of animal based foods for soybean foods in order to obtain some nutritional benefits.

  9. Productive performance of naked neck chickens that were fed leaf meal shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos M Herrera G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the productive performance of naked neck chickens (phases of initiation, growth and final that were fed meals Gliricidia sepium, Cajanus cajan and Morus alba leaves. Materials and methods. 192 chickens, 1-84 days of age were distributed in a randomized block design with three experimental groups (5% of shrub in the diet, 48 animals/ group, eight replicates/ treatment, six animals/ reply and three animals/ sex in each replicate were used. The control group consumed diet based on corn and soybeans. They were reared on floor. Weighed every seven days. Weight gain, voluntary intake, conversion, balance and efficiency of feed utilization were calculated. Results. The highest total feed intake and average daily gain in rearing were 37.43g 9509.96 g respectively for M. alba (p<0.05, which also presented the best efficiency of energy and protein. Meanwhile, G. sepium showed the lowest values. Conclusions. It is possible to replace 5% of corn and soy in the diet of naked neck chickens, with the inclusion of leaf meal M. alba and get a favorable productive behavior.

  10. Impact of second line limiting amino acids’ deficiency in broilers fed low protein diets with rapeseed meal and de-oiled rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Basavanta Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the impact of deficiency of second line limiting amino acids (SLAA; valine, isoleucine and tryptophan on the production performance and carcass characteristics of commercial broilers. Materials and Methods: A control (T1 corn-soy diet was formulated to contain all essential AA on standardized ileal digestible basis; While in T2-a ‘moderate SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% rapeseed meal and T3-a ‘high SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% de-oiled rice bran. Each of these treatments was allotted to six replicates of ten chicks each. During the 42 days experimental period, growth performance, carcass parameters and intake of metabolizable energy (ME, crude protein (CP and AA were studied. Results: The cumulative body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass cut weights and yields of carcass, breast and thighs were decreased (p<0.05 in T3 compared to T1. The absolute intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine and threonine were not affected while intake of CP and all SLAA were reduced in SLAA deficit diets. The relative intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine, threonine and SLAA reduced in T3 in comparison to T1. The relative weights of internal organs were not affected by treatments while the abdominal fat percentage was increased linearly to the magnitude of SLAA deficiency. Conclusion: The deficiency of SLAA decreased performance, carcass yields and impaired utilization of ME, CP and AA linearly to the magnitude of the deficiency.

  11. Extruded Soybean Samples for Mechnical Oil Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiaFu-go; WuFeng-zhi; 等

    1999-01-01

    Soybean is generally recognized as a source of edible and the deoiled meal is seen as a source of protein in animal feed.In recent years.However,more interest has been directed toward using soy meal as a protein souce for human consumption.Extrusion-expelling of soybean provides an opportunity in this direction.The main focus of this study was to maximize the oil recovery from extruded soybean processed using three different kinds of extrudates and processing conditions.These extruded samples were later pressed uniaxially in a specifically designed test-cell and the oil recovery was recorded over time.The effects of process variables,including applied pressure,pressing temperature and sample height,were investigated.Results indicated that over 90% of the available oil could be recovered from pressing of extruded soy samples.The information generated is likedly to be useful in interpreting the effect of precess variables and extruding equipment for pretreatment of soybean for subsequent mechanical oil expression.

  12. Extruded Soybean Samples for Mechnical Oil Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Soybean is generally recognized as a source of edible and the deoiled meal is seen as a source of protein in animal feed. In recent years. However,more interest has been directed toward using soy meal as a protein souce for human consumption. Extrusion-expelling of soybean provides an opportunity in this direction. The main focus of this study was to maximize the oil recovery from extruded soybean processed using three differ- ent kinds of extrudates and processing conditions. These extruded samples were later pressed uniaxially in a specifically designed test-cell and the oil recovery was recorded over time. The effects of process variables ,in- cluding applied pressure, pressing temperature and sample height, were investigated. Results indicated that over90% of the available oil could be recovered from pressing of extruded soy samples. The information gen- erated is likedly to be useful in interpreting the effect of precess variables and extruding equipment for pre- treatment of soybean for subsequent mechanical oil expression.

  13. Effect of Nigella sativa meal in native milking cows rations on milk production and its composition and the digestion coefficient of the nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Nasser

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two groups of Sharabi cows were examined, each consisted of four cows during the first month of labor, having aboutequal live body weight and milk production. The cows in the first group were fed individually on concentrated ration containing 5% of soybean meal in an enough amount for maintenance and milk production according to N.R.C., 1984. Wheat straw was given in an amount equal to 1.25% of cow’s weight. The cows in the second group were fed on the same ration except that 70% of the protein of the soybean meal was replaced with protein of Nigella sative meal when it was added as 5% of the ration. The feeding process was continued for 6 weeks during which the amounts of milk production were checked and samples of milk were weekly taken for laboratory analysis. The cross over design was used for second 6 weeks. At the end of each feeding period the feces produced from each cow was collected for five successive days and samples for chemical analysis were taken. There were no significant differences between the cows of the two groups regarding to the amount of the milk 9.1 and 9.7 kg milk/cow/day with 3.5 and 3.3% of fat, respectively. Also the results indicated that there are no any significant differences in milk composition regarding crude protein, lactose, ash and total solid compounds percentages, as well as no significant differences between the two groups to produce one kg of normal or 4% fat adjusted milk. Where the values were 1.32, 1.48 and 1.43, 1.66 kg ration/kg milk produced respectively. The results showed a significant (P<0.01 improvement in all digestion coefficient, for nutrient of the experimental rations. Our conclusion is that the Nigella sativa meal could be used at 5% level of concentrate rations for native milking cows to cover 70% of the protein from soybean meal without any negative effects on milk production or its composition and improve nutrients digestion coefficient of these rations.

  14. Hedging with futures contracts in the Brazilian soybean complex: BM&F vs. CBOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Regina O. da Silva

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the effectiveness of hedging Brazilian soy oil, soy meal, and soybeans in the Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT and in the Brazilian Commodities and Futures Exchange (BM&F to reduce the risk of financial loss due to commodity price fluctuations. The econometric results show that a cross-hedging strategy using the BM&F soybean futures contract is an instrument of low effectiveness for managing soy oil and soy meal price risk. Despite low effectiveness, the estimates demonstrate total advantage for soy meal hedging operations using CBOT soy meal futures contracts rather than cross-hedging using BM&F soybean futures contracts. With some exceptions, the results are also more favorable for hedging soy oil with soy oil futures contracts at the CBOT rather than cross hedging with soybeans at the BM&F. Conversely, Brazilian traders hedging soybeans receive more effective risk protection by trading soybean futures contracts at the BM&F than by trading soybean futures contracts at the CBOT.

  15. 发酵豆粕对肉鸭生产性能、肌肉成分、肉品质及血清指标的影响%Effects of Fermented Soybean Meal on the Growth Performance Muscle Contents Muscle Quality and Serum Parameters of Cherry Valley Ducks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨卫兵; 章竹岩; 祝溢锴; 温超; 周岩民

    2012-01-01

    A total of 360 1 -day -old Cherry valley ducks,with average weight (50.75 ±0.54) g.were randomly assigned to two dietary treatments, that were fed a basal diet ( control group) , and the same basal diets added with 2% fermented soybean meal ( FSBM ) instead of soybean meal ( FSBM group). The results showed that compared with the control group,the daily gain of FSBM group of finishing period and entire period increased by 2. 18% and 1.46%. Average daily gain ( ADG) increased by 1.04% ,1.65% and 1.44% ,Food conversion (F/G) decreased by 1. 20% , 1.29% and 1.44% for starter period,finishing period and entire period, and a decreasing trend was observed in F/G during starter period (P =0.093) ;FSBM increased the crude protein (CP) content of the breast and thigh muscle by 1.52% and 1.90% ,as for ether extract (EE) were 1. 17% and 2.67% higher than that control group; The pH of thigh muscle of ducks fed FSBM diet decreased significantly (P 0.05) respectively. These results implied that FSBM can increase growth performance of Cherry valley ducks and improve meat quality and the retention of CP and EE in muscle.%选用体重(50.75±0.54)g的1日龄樱桃谷肉鸭360只,随机分为2组,每组设6重复,每重复30只,分别饲喂基础日粮(对照组),以及以2% FSBM替代基础日粮中豆粕的试验日粮(FSBM组).结果表明:与对照组相比,添加发酵豆粕( FSBM)使肉鸭后期和全期日采食量(ADFI)分别增加2.18%和1.46%,日增重(ADG)分别增加1.04%、1.65%和1.44%,F/G降低1.20%、1.29%和1.44%,其中前期料重比(F/G)有显著降低的趋势(P =0.093);使肉鸭胸肌和腿肌粗蛋白(CP)质量分数分别增加1.52%和1.90%,粗脂肪(EE)质量分数分别增加1.17%和2.67%;腿肌pH值显著降低(P<0.05),胸肌24h和48 h滴水损失分别降低11.26%和8.21%;血氨(BUN)含量降低11.36%,血糖(GLU)含量增加1.96%,白球比(A/G)升高4.22%(P>0.05).说明FSBM对樱桃谷肉鸭的生产性能、

  16. Limiting factors for the enzymatic accessibility of soybean protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, M.

    2006-01-01

    Soy is a commonly used ingredient is food and animal feed. With particular focus on the in-soluble fractions, this thesis deals with the effects of proteases and carbohydrate degrading enzymes on different soybean meals subjected to different extent of heating. The primary aim is to improve the unde

  17. Feasibility of wood pulping black liquor for treatment of soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... treatments of soybean meal (SBM) on in situ rumen degradability characteristics in cow and its proteins ... Ørskov, 1977) and thus cloud visualize waste with xylose ..... of wood and paper factory waste and is hazardous to the.

  18. Etiology of soybean-induced enteritis in fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urán Carmona, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    The inclusion of soybean meal (SBM), especially in the diet of Atlantic salmon, induces an inflammatory response of the distal intestinal mucosa, known as SBM-induced enteritis. A semi-quantitative scoring system was developed to assess the extent of the morphological changes observed in this study.

  19. RP-HPLC测定作为红霉素发酵生产氮源的黄豆饼粉中的B族维生素%Determination of the vitamin B group in soybean cake meal as the nitrogen source in fermentation for erythrocin production by RP-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘必成; 刘刚; 宓女; 付水林; 宫衡

    2012-01-01

      A RP-HPLC method was established for the determination of the vitamin B group in soybean cake meal. A C18 column was used with the mobile phase of methanol-water(30:70, aqueous solution contained 5mmol/L PIC-B6, 1%glacial acetic acid, pH was adjusted by triethylamine). The UV detection wavelength was 275nm. Benzoic acid was used as the internal standard. The average recoveries of the four vitamins(Vb1、Vb2、Vb6、and folic acid)were 98.95%-100.03%and the RSDs were 0.42%-1.08%. This method is rapid, convenient and accurate for the simultaneous determination of the four vitamins[1].%  建立了黄豆饼粉中B族维生素的RP-HPLC测定方法,采用C18柱,流动相为甲醇:水(30:70,水相含5mmol/L的PIC-B6,冰醋酸1%,三乙胺调pH),检测波长为275nm,苯甲酸为内标物,4种维生素(Vb1、Vb2、Vb6、叶酸)的平均回收率在99.35%-100.03%;RSD在0.42%-1.08%.本方法同时测定四种维生素具有快速、简便、准确的特点[1].

  20. The efficacy of a new 6-phytase obtained from Buttiauxella spp. expressed in Trichoderma reesei on digestibility of amino acids, energy, and nutrients in pigs fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, wheat middlings, and corn distillers' dried grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, S A; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Ragland, D; Plumstead, P; Adeola, O

    2015-01-01

    Sixteen cannulated pigs were used to evaluate the effect of a new 6-phytase derived from Buttiauxella spp. and expressed in Trichoderma reesei on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, N, Ca, P, Na, Mg, K, Cl, and energy. Pigs were fed 4 diets for 2 periods in a crossover design. Within each period, there were 4 blocks of 4 pigs per block with each diet represented within each block. The average initial BW in periods 1 and 2 were 22 and 30 kg, respectively. Each period lasted 9 d with fecal collection on d 5 and 6 and a 12-h ileal digesta collection on d 7, 8, and 9. Pigs received a daily feed allowance of approximately 4.5% of their BW. The experimental diets were based on corn, soybean meal, wheat middlings, and corn distillers dried grain with solubles. Phytase was added at 0; 500; 1,000; or 2,000 phytase units/kg of diet to a basal diet that contained 205, 15, 5.4, and 10 g of CP, Lys, total P (1.6 g of nonphytate P), and Ca/kg diet, respectively. The addition of phytase improved (P phytase supplementation linearly and quadratically increased (P Phytase supplementation of the basal diet improved (P Phytase supplementation increased (P phytase supplementation of the basal diet increased (P phytase supplementation to the basal diet showed a tendency (P phytase supplementation. Increasing the level of phytase supplementation resulted in linear increases (P phytase expressed in Trichoderma reesei enhanced ileal digestibility of N and several AA in growing pigs in a dose-dependent manner.

  1. Nutritional and microbiological evaluation of meat and bone meal produced in the state of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sartorelli SA

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the chemical composition and metabolizable energy levels of ten meat and bone meals (MBM produced in Minas Gerais state (Experiment I and evaluated the growth performance of broilers fed with diets containing those MBM (Experiment II. In the first experiment, energy values (apparent metabolizable energy [AME] and corrected apparent metabolizable energy [AMEn] of ten different MBM were determined using the traditional method with total collection of excreta. Four hundred forty 21 day-old Hubbard broilers were used. A reference corn and soybean meal-based diet was replaced in 20% by the feed containing MBM to be tested. A completely randomized experimental design was used with eleven treatments (one reference diet and ten MBM, four repetitions per treatment and 10 birds per repetition (5 males and 5 females. In the second experiment, five MBMs from the ten analyzed in Experiment 1 were used as phosphorus source and compared to a diet containing bicalcium phosphate. The growth performance of the broilers fed with these diets was analyzed, considering two ages of the onset of MBM inclusion in the diet (1 or 7 days of age. One-day-old Hubbard broilers (1,320 birds were housed in 44 plots with 30 birds per experimental unit. The experiment consisted of 11 treatments in a 5x2 factorial arrangement, with five sources of MBM, two ages for the onset of inclusion, and a reference treatment without addition of MBM. The results obtained showed a great variation in the chemical composition and apparent metabolizable energy of the evaluated meals. No significant differences were found on the performance of broilers fed diets with different MBM or the diet with bicalcium phosphate as phosphorus source. The performance of broilers was not significantly influenced by the onset of MBM inclusion in the diets.

  2. Meals for the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    NASA is drawing upon its food-preparation expertise to assist in solving a problem affecting a large segment of the American population. In preparation for manned space flight programs, NASA became experienced in providing astronauts simple, easily-prepared, nutritious meals. That experience now is being transferred to the public sector in a cooperative project managed by Johnson Space Center. Called Meal System for the Elderly, the project seeks to fill a gap by supplying nutritionally balanced meal packages to those who are unable to participate in existing meal programs. Many such programs are conducted by federal, state and private organizations, including congregate hot meal services and home-delivered "meals on wheels." But more than 3.5 million elderly Americans are unable to take advantage of these benefits. In some cases, they live in rural areas away from available services; in others, they are handicapped, temporarily ill, or homebound for other reasons. Meal System for the Elderly, a cooperative program in which the food-preparation expertise NASA acquired in manned space projects is being utilized to improve the nutritional status of elderly people. The program seeks to fill a gap by supplying nutritionally-balanced food packages to the elderly who are unable to participate b existing meal service programs.

  3. Fatty acid profile and CLA content in milk from cows fed different soybean sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Simonetto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The soybean meal is the main protein source in the ruminant diets and the EU consumption is about 27 million t/year (Brookes, 2000. However, problems have been recently risen by the use of GM soybean and derivates in animal feeding. The GM soybeans can be incorporated in the animal feeds and/or diets, especially if the seed or derivates are imported from extra-UE countries. In addition, the use of soybean meal is forbidden by the regulation of the organic livestock farming and/or the production of some typical foods. To this purpose the use of non-GM soybean, produced and treated directly in the farm, could be encouraged in the animal feeding.......

  4. Chinese Soybean Industry: Current Status and Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dachuan Liu; Shaojun Tian

    2002-01-01

    This paper focus on the soybeanresources and their industry development inChina. Due to the high demand in domesticmarket, it is necessary to expand the cultivationarea and improve the production yields.Meanwhile, to inc e the export of soybeansfrom overseas is also important. China has along history in producing traditional soyfoods. After recent fifty years, the developmentof Chinese soybean industry has reached to areasonable level. The current status of Chinesesoybean industry has been included in thepaper. It has been expected that in next fiveyears, there will be a rapid increase in theprocessing of soybeans; it will become morereasonable in the scale and distribution ofsoybean oil factories. Emphasis will be put onthe improvement of the functionalities ofsoybean products. Different kinds of functionalsoybean foods, especially the soybean proteinsfor particular uses will be developed by the useof modification technologies. Concern is alsogiven to the multi -utilizn of soybeanresources, which not only the extractionof oil from soybean and the processingof protein products from the meal; but alsoincludes the recovery of the naturalchemicals from soybeans which could then beexploited to novel products with more profits.

  5. Enzymatic solubilisation and degradation of soybean fibre demonstrated by viscosity, fibre analysis and microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Jonas Laukkonen; Martens, Helle Juel; Pettersson, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of a commercial multienzyme product obtained by fermentation from Aspergillus aculeatus on soybean and soybean meal was investigated using viscosity measurements, dietary fibre component analysis and different microscopy techniques utilizing histochemical dyes and antibody labelling...... and hemicellulose components of soybean cell wall were also used to visualize several enzyme activities in the commercial enzyme preparation The challenges of using commercial antibodies elicited from a given plant source to detect similar epitiopes on another plant source are also discussed. Non...... soybean cell wall components as part of the undesirable antinutrients in animal feed....

  6. Alfalfa leaf meal in beef steer receiving diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, C.M.; DiCostanzo, A.; Smith, L.B.

    1998-06-01

    Two trials were conducted to study the effects of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) in receiving diets of steers. In trial one, ninety-six medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 500 lb) were allotted to a heavy or light weight block and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 29-day receiving trial. In trial two, sixty medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 518 lb) were allotted to one of ten dietary treatments. Trial two was divided into two periods, defined as a receiving period, 29 days, and a step-up period, 33 days. In trial one, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) providing 33%, 66%, or 100% of supplemental protein; the balance was soybean meal. Receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P. In study two, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), ALM providing 33%, 66%7 100% of supplemental protein, the balance was soybean meal and urea or a blend of ALM and blood meal (93 % ALM and 7 % blood meal) to provide supplemental protein. Each protein treatment was fed in diets consisting of cracked or whole corn. Trial two receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P, step-up diets were formulated to contain .58 Mcal NE9 /lb dry matter, 11.3% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P.

  7. Beta-conglycinin and gut histology of sunshine bass fed diets with new varieties of non-GM soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is reported that the soybean protein (Beta-conglycinin) might cause inflammation of the distal intestine and stimulate endogenous cholecystokinin release that suppresses food intake in fish. We are studying the effects of meals made from new strains of non-GMO soybeans with high protein and redu...

  8. Effects of Diets with Graded Levels of Canola Meal on the Growth Performance, Meat Qualities, Relative Organ Weights, and Blood Characteristics of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BK An

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to evaluate the dietary supplementation of canola meal (CM on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus and Infectious bronchitis virus, and blood profiles of broiler chickens. In total 600 day-old feather-sexed Ross male broiler chicks were randomly assigned into five treatments with six replicates of 20 birds each for 35 days. Treatments consisted of five experimental diets containing 0 (control, 3, 5, 10, or 15% canola meal (CM. Final body weight (BW was not affected by the dietary treatments. Daily BW gain (DWG and feed intake linearly decreased as dietary CM inclusion increased during the starter phase (p<0.0001, but not during the grower and total rearing periods. Chicks fed the diet with 15% CM presented the lowest DWG during the starter phase. Breast meat yield of CM-fed chicks linearly decreased as CM inclusion level increased (p=0.0014. Dietary CM supplementation did not influence organ relative weights, except for the spleen, meat quality, or blood profile. The results suggest that the CM may replace soybean meal (SBM with no detrimental effects on overall growth performance or physiological responses of broiler chickens. However, it is recommended that supplementing excess amount of CM into broilers' diet should be taken into account in practical diet formulation as it could impair growth performance at early age and lower breast meat yields.

  9. Effect of storage and heating on good mature and green immature soybean and soybean dehulling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shattory, Y.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Mature and immature soybeans were stored for 6 months. Every month, soybeans were analysed for oil content, moisture percentage, acid value, peroxide value, fatty acid analysis, meal protein and urease activity in soybean meal. In addition, soybean samples were heated to different temperatures and times and the effect of heating on dehulling was studied. Finally control charts of acid and peroxide values were constructed and discussed.

    Soja madura e inmadura se almacenó durante seis meses. Mensualmente, la soja fue analizada por su contenido en aceite, porcentaje de humedad, índice de acidez, índice de peróxido, análisis de ácidos grasos y, proteína y actividad ureásica en la harina de soja. Además, las muestras de soja se calentaron a diferentes temperaturas y tiempos, estudiándose el efecto del calentamiento sobre el descascarado. Finalmente, se construyeron y discutieron gráficas controles de índices de acidez y peróxido.

  10. Analysis of the difference of tannin content in soybean seed%不同大豆原料中单宁含量的差别分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 邱静; 谷旭; 李军国; 杨曙明

    2016-01-01

    文章改进了国标测定单宁所采用的分光光度方法,以钨酸钠-磷钼酸混合溶液显色后与高效液相色谱检测相结合,在760 nm紫外波长处进行测定,实现了批量样品的自动进样分析,大大简化了样品的分析过程,方法在1~6 mg/l范围内具有良好的线性关系,而且测定实际样品的结果与分光光度法的结果一致。用该方法检测了176个大豆饲料原料样品,并依据原料加工工艺和分布地域进行分析,结果发现发酵豆粕中的单宁平均含量(5365.0±749.0)mg/kg明显高于普通豆粕、膨化豆粕和膨化大豆,而在国内七大地域中,西南地区中大豆饲料原料中单宁的平均含量(3758.0±1296.6)mg/kg最高。%In this paper,high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)was used to replace the spec⁃trophotometric method for the determination of tannin in feed, while tannin was colored by sodium tungstate- phosphomolybdic acid mixture and then detected at 760 nm using UV detector. This meth⁃od has a good linearity within 1~6 mg/l, and some results of real samples were consistent with those from spectrophotometric method. Then the method was successfully applied to detect 176 samples from soybean, the results showed that average content of tannin in fermented soybean meal (5 365.0 ± 749.0) mg/kg is significantly higher than ordinary soybean meal, expanded soybean meal and expanded soybean. While in domestic seven areas, the highest average content of tannininsoybean feed (3 758.0± 1 296.6) mg/kg is observed in the southwest area.

  11. Growth performance and metabolic efficiency in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fed on a diet containing Jatropha platyphylla kernel meal as a protein source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Akinleye, A O; Makkar, H P S; Angulo-Escalante, M A; Becker, K

    2012-02-01

    Jatropha platyphylla is available on the pacific coast from Sinaloa to Michoacán including the Nayarit and Jalisco states in Mexico. The seeds of J. platyphylla are rich in oil and protein, and the kernel meal (JPKM) prepared after oil extraction contains 70-75% crude protein (CP). Contents of essential amino acids (except lysine) are higher in JPKM than in soybean meal (SBM). Phorbol-esters, the main toxin present in most Jatropha species is absent in J. platyphylla. Heat-treated JPKM (H-JPKM) was evaluated as a protein supplement in tilapia feed and compared with that of SBM and fish meal (FM). Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fingerlings (15 fish; av. body mass 13.9 ± 0.17 g) were randomly distributed in three groups with five replicates each. A 12-week experiment was conducted in a respirometer system to evaluate the growth performance, nutrient utilization and energy budget. Nile tilapia fingerlings were fed three iso-nitrogenous diets (36% CP): Control containing FM, and Jatropha and Soybean diets in which 62.5% of FM protein was replaced by H-JPKM and SBM respectively. The growth performance, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, apparent lipid conversion and energy retention did not differ significantly among the three groups. Higher protein productive value was observed in plant protein fed groups. Average metabolic rate, energy expenditure per g protein fed and retained in the body did not differ significantly among the three groups. Conclusively, Nile tilapia fed plant protein (heated JPKM and SBM) and FM protein-based diets exhibited equal average metabolic rate which indicate that JPKM can be used as a protein source in aqua feed.

  12. Summer Meal Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Information pertaining to Summer Meal Sites, as collected by Citiparks in the City of Pittsburgh Department of Parks and Recreation. This dataset includes the...

  13. Summer Meal Capacity Builder

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — Allows users to search for summer meal sites from the previous summer by zip code, adding “layers” of information, such as free and reduced-price lunch participation...

  14. Waxes as organogelator for soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research reveals that a small amount of a food grade plant wax may replace a large amount of the hardstock containing trans-fat or saturated fat. Natural waxes including plant waxes and animal waxes were evaluated for the gelation ability toward soybean oil (SBO) and compared with hydrogenated ...

  15. Pea protein concentrate as a substitute for fish meal protein in sea bass diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Badini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pea seeds, even if lower in protein than oilseed meals, have been shown to successfully replace moderate amounts of fish meal protein in diets for carnivorous fish species (Kaushik et al., 1993, Gouveia and Davies, 2000. A further processing of such pulses provides concentrated protein products which look very promising as fish meal substitutes in aquafeeds (Thiessen et al., 2003. The aim of the present study was to evaluate nutrient digestibility, growth response, nutrient and energy retention efficiencies and whole body composition of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. fed complete diets in which a pea protein concentrate (PPC was used to replace graded levels of fish meal protein.

  16. Effect of squash seed meal (Cucurbita moschata on broiler performance, sensory meat quality, and blood lipid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YM Aguilar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, 240 Cobb-500® broilers reared from1 to 49 days, and distributed according to a completely experimental randomized design with four treatments of four replicates each in order to evaluate the effect of the dietary inclusion of 0, 33, 66 or 100 g/kg of squash seed meal (SSM (Cucurbita moschata on the performance, carcass yield, serum lipid profile and sensory meat quality of broilers. Significant differences (p<0.05 were detected in performance, carcass weight, weight and breast yield, and leg weight. The best results were obtained with 33 and 66 g/kg as compared to the control diet and 100 g SSM /kg. Abdominal fat decreased with the inclusion of 66 and 100 g SSM / kg, but the sensory quality of breast and thighs was not affected by the inclusion of SSM. The serum levels of total cholesterol, very low density (VLDL and low density (LDL lipoproteins, triglycerides, glucose and atherogenic index decreased with the inclusion of 100 g/kg of SSM, except for high density lipoproteins (HDL, which increased. The inclusion of 0, 33, 66 and 100 g/kg of SSM in broiler diets, partially replacing soybean meal and vegetable oil, improved live performance and edible portions yield. In addition, abdominal fat and serum levels of harmful lipids were reduced, whereas serum levels of beneficial lipids increased. There was no effect on meat sensory quality.

  17. The response of meat ducks from 15 to 35 d of age to gossypol from cottonseed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q F; Bai, P; Wang, J P; Ding, X M; Luo, Y H; Bai, S P; Xuan, Y; Su, Z W; Lin, S Q; Zhao, L J; Zhang, K Y

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the responses of meat ducks of 15 to 35 d of age to free gossypol (FG) from cottonseed meal (CSM) and to establish the maximum limits of dietary FG concentration based on growth performance, blood parameters, and tissue residues of gossypol. Nine hundred 15-d-old ducks were randomly allocated to 5 treatments with 10 cages/treatment and 18 ducks/cage on the basis of BW. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric experimental diets were formulated on a digestible amino acid basis to produce diets in which 0% (without FG), 25% (36 mg FG/kg), 50% (75 mg FG/kg), 75% (111 mg FG/kg), and 100% (153 mg FG/kg) of protein from soybean meal were replaced by that from CSM. Increasing dietary FG content, BW, and ADG decreased (linearly, PDucks fed 36 mg FG/kg (5.83% CSM of diet) diet had a normal histological structure of liver, and muscle (breast and leg) had no residue of gossypol. The maximum limit of dietary FG concentration was estimated to range from a low of 36 mg/kg to maximize serum globulin concentration to a high of 124 mg/kg to minimize feed intake for 22 to 28 d on the basis of a quadratic broken-line model.

  18. Desempenho e características de carcaça de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas à base de milho e farelo de soja suplementadas com complexos enzimáticos Performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed corn soybean meal based diets supplemented with enzymatic complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Carrera de Carvalho

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da suplementação de complexos enzimáticos à dieta sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça de frangos de corte de ambos os sexos. Avaliaram-se cinco dietas: controle positivo - à base de milho e farelo de soja com farinha de carne e ossos, sem enzima; controle negativo - formulada com 3% menos de energia metabolizável; controle negativo + 0,05% do complexo A (xilanase, 600 U/g; amilase, 8.000 U/g; e protease, 800 U/g; controle negativo + 0,04% do complexo B (α-amilase, 200 kNU/g; e β-glucanase, 350 FBG/g; e controle negativo + 0,04% do complexo B + 0,01% da enzima C (xilanase, 1.000 FXU/g. Não foram observadas diferenças no desempenho das aves no período de 1 a 7 dias de idade. Na fase de 1 a 21 dias de idade, os machos consumiram mais ração e as dietas com o complexo B resultaram em maior ganho de peso. Os melhores resultados de conversão alimentar foram obtidos com o uso dos complexos enzimáticos. No período total, o consumo de ração foi menor entre as aves (machos e fêmeas mantidas com a dieta controle positivo, enquanto o maior ganho de peso nos machos foi obtido com a dieta controle negativo contendo 0,04% do complexo B. Quanto à conversão alimentar, os machos apresentaram as melhores conversões com o uso dos complexos enzimáticos. Não houve efeito das dietas sobre os rendimentos de carcaça, peito e gordura abdominal. Quando fornecidas dietas com redução de 3% da energia metabolizável, o uso dos complexos enzimáticos é efetivo na recuperação do desempenho das aves.This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the supplementation of enzymatic complexes on the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens from both sexes. Five diets were evaluated: positive control diet based on corn and soybean meal with meat and bone meal without enzyme; negative control diet formulated with 3% less of metabolizable energy; negative control + 0

  19. Níveis de inclusão do resíduo do milho (mazoferm, em substituição ao farelo de soja para vacas em lactação = Inclusion levels of maize residue in substitution of soybean meal for lactating cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Josilaine Matos dos Santos Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar níveis (0,0; 3,5; 7,0; 10,5 e 14,0% de resíduo da maceração do milho em substituição ao farelo de soja sobre o consumo, digestibilidade e produção de leite em vacas mestiças em lactação. O delineamento experimental foi o quadrado latino (5x5. Foi observada uma diminuição dos consumos de matéria seca (16,27 kg dia-1, 3,57% PV e 159,60 g kg-0,75. As demais variáveis acompanharam seu comportamento, exceto o consumo de nutrientes digestíveis totais(11,46 kg dia-1 que não sofreu alteração. Observou-se que os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de todos os nutrientes não foram alterados. A produção de leite, a produção de leite corrigido para o teor de gordura e a percentagem de gordura do leite foram de 14,08 kg dia-1; 14,05 kg dia-1 e 3,99%, respectivamente. A inclusão do resíduo diminuiu o consumo, contudo, a digestibilidade dos ingredientes, a produção de leite e o teor de gordura não foram alterados.The experiment was conducted with the objective of evaluating levels (0.0; 3.5; 7.0; 10.5 and 14.0% of maize maceration residue in substitution of soybean meal on the consumption, digestibility and production of crossbred lactating cows. The experimental design chosen was the Latin square (5x5. A reduction was observed in theconsumption of dry matter (16.27 kg day-1, 3.57% LW and 159.60 g kg-0.75. The other nutrients followed this behavior, except the consumption of total digestible nutrients (11.46 kg day-1, which was not altered. It was observed that the coefficients of apparentdigestibility of all nutrients were not modified. Milk production, milk production corrected for fat levels and the percentage of milk fat were 14.08 kg day-1, 14.05 kg day-1 and 3.99%, respectively. The inclusion of the residue diminished the consumption; however, thedigestibility of the ingredients, milk production and fat levels were not altered.

  20. Feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Batista dos Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal replacing maize (0, 10, 40, 60, and 85% DM. Thirty Santa Inês sheep with an average initial body weight of 21.6 ± 0.87 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with five diets and six replicates. Feeding time in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDFap increased by 34 min and 99.6 min, respectively, with each level of substitution of maize for the peach palm meal. Rumination and chewing times, in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDF, also increased in response to the substitution of maize for peach palm meal. When expressed in min day–1, rumination and chewing activities decreased by 12.4 and 14.6 min, respectively, as the amount of peach palm meal in the concentrate was increased. The time spent idle increased linearly (P < 0.05, by 14.6 min day–1, with the replacement levels, compared with the control diet. Peach palm meal in the composition of sheep diets reduces the intakes of dry matter and fiber and decreases the feed and rumination efficiencies. Replacing maize by peach palm meal increases the feeding time and rumination and chewing activities of feedlot lambs.

  1. Effects of co-fermented Pleurotus eryngii stalk residues and soybean hulls by Aureobasidium pullulans on performance and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, L P; Lee, M T; Chen, C S; Yu, B; Lee, T T

    2015-12-01

    Soybean hulls are a by-product of soybean processing for oil and meal production; Pleurotus eryngii stalk residues (PESR) are by-products of the edible portion of the fruiting body enriched in bioactive metabolites. This study evaluated the effects of co-fermented PESR and soybean hulls with Aureobasidium pullulans on performance and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens. The in vitro experimental results showed that xylananse and mannanase activity of solid-state fermented soybean hulls (100% SBH) and soybean hulls partially replaced with PESR (75:25, SHP) reached peak at day 12; solid-state fermentation (SSF) enhanced the total phenolic content and trolox equivalency in both products as well. Additionally, FSHP had higher xylotriose and mannobiose levels than fermented FSBH did. A total of 400 broilers (Ross 308) were assigned randomly into four groups receiving the basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 0.5% fermented SBH (0.5% FSBH), 0.5% fermented SBHP (0.5% FSHP) and 1.0% fermented SBHP (1.0% FSHP) until 35 d of age, respectively. Results demonstrated that 0.5% FSHP addition increased body weight gain as compared with corresponding normal diet fed control in birds during entire experimental period. Compared with the control group, 0.5% FSHP group significantly increased the ratio of lactic acid bacteria to Clostridium perfringens in ceca as well as ileum villus height and jejunum villus height/crypt depth ratio of 35 d old birds. In conclusion, 0.5% FSHP supplementation in the diet could obtain not only improved body weight gain, but optimal intestinal morphology by exerting its bioactive metabolite properties when fed to broilers.

  2. Energy and phosphorus values of sunflower meal and rice bran for broiler chickens using the regression method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, L F P; Adeola, O

    2016-09-01

    The energy and phosphorus values of sunflower meal (SFM) and rice bran (RB) were determined in 2 experiments with Ross 708 broiler chickens from 15 to 22 d of age. In Exp.1, the diets consisted of a corn-soybean meal reference diet (RD) and 4 test diets (TD). The TD consisted of SFM and RB that partly replaced the energy sources in the RD at 100 or 200 g/kg and 75 or 150 g/kg, respectively, such that the equal ratios were maintained for all energy containing ingredients across all experimental diets. In Exp.2, a cornstarch-soybean meal diet was the RD and TD consisting of SFM and RB that partly replaced cornstarch in the RD at 100 or 200 g/kg and 60 or 120 g/kg, respectively. Addition of SFM and RB to the RD in Exp.1 linearly decreased (P energy, ileal digestible energy (IDE), metabolizability coefficients of DM, nitrogen (N), energy, N correct energy, metabolize energy (ME), and nitrogen-corrected ME. Except for RB, the increased levels of the test ingredients in RD did affect the metabolizability coefficients of N. The IDE values (kcal/kg DM) were 1,953 for SFM and 2,498 for RB; ME values (kcal/kg DM) were 1,893 for SFM and 2,683 for RB; and MEn values (kcal/kg DM) were 1,614 for SFM and 2,476 for RB. In Exp.2, there was a linear relationship between phosphorus (P) intake and ileal P output for diets with increased levels of SFM and RB. In addition, there was a linear relationship between P intake and P digestibility and retention for diets with increased levels of SFM. There were a quadratic effect (P < 0.01) and a tendency of quadratic effect (P = 0.07) for P digestible and total tract P retained, respectively, in the RB diets. The P digestibility and total tract P retention from regression analyses for SFM were 46% and 38%, respectively.

  3. Market Power of the Japanese Non-GM Soybean Import Market: The U.S. Exporters VS. Japanese Importers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Yamaura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetically modified (GM soybean acreage has rapidly increased in the world in the past decade and globally the majority of countries now use GM soybeans to produce oil and meal for livestock and human consumption. Japan, however, uses only Non-GM soybeans as widely recognized high quality goods in vertically differentiated import soybeans in Japan, for direct human consumption of which more than 80% are imported from the U.S., Canada, and China. This research used the inverse residual demand model to estimate a U.S.-Japan partial equilibrium trade model to test the existence of market power in the Japanese Non-GM soybean import market. The U.S.-Japan partial equilibrium trade model incorporated the U.S. residual Non-GM soybean supply for Japan, the Japanese residual demand for U.S. Non-GM soybeans, and the equilibrium condition, where the U.S. residual Non-GM soybean supply equals the Japanese residual Non-GM soybean demand. Monthly data from January 2003 to December 2007 were used for the analysis. Empirical results indicated that U.S. Non-GM soybean exporters have stronger market power than Japanese Non-GM soybean importers. The results are different from other countries empirical studies and indicate that Japanese consumers are willing to pay higher prices for soybeans, tofu, natto, miso, and other all soy food products using Non-GM soybeans.

  4. Estimation of the metabolizable energy content of meat and bone meal for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olukosi, O A; Adeola, O

    2009-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine apparent ME (AME) and apparent nitrogen-corrected ME (AME(n)) of 21 meat and bone meal (MBM) samples and to develop regression equations for predicting energy value of MBM. One hundred ninety-eight 32-kg of BW barrows were used for the study. The 22 treatments consisted of 1 corn-soybean meal reference diet and 21 test diets in which 21 MBM samples replaced 100 g/kg of corn and soybean meal such that the ratio of corn and soybean meal was the same in the reference and test diets. The DE, AME, and AME(n) of the MBM samples were determined by the difference method in a metabolism study consisting of 5-d adjustment and 5 d of total collection of feces and urine. On a DM basis, GE of MBM ranged from 3,895 to 5,193 kcal/kg, CP ranged from 491 to 641 g/kg, and ash ranged from 142 to 338 g/kg. The AME of the MBM samples ranged from 2,320 to 3,872 kcal/kg, whereas AME(n) ranged from 2,212 to 3,767 kcal/kg. None of the proximate compositions explained >50% of the variation in energy content of the MBM. Fat was positively correlated with GE, DE, AME, and AME(n) (r MBM. Crude protein:fat and GE:fat were negatively correlated with DE, AME, and AME(n) of the MBM (r ranged from -0.17 to -0.39), but fat:ash had the greatest positive correlation with AME and AME(n) compared with other ratios tested. When the data from 1 MBM sample that was an outlier were removed from the analysis, R(2) was 0.42 for AME and AME(n). The 4 variables that produced the best prediction equation for AME and AME(n) were GE, CP, P, and ash. The prediction equation for AME using these variables was AME = 13,587 - (1.25 x GE, kcal/kg) - (3.51 x CP, g/kg) + (30.4 x P, g/kg) - (16.4 x Ash, g/kg), and for AME(n), the equation was AME(n) = 13,547 - (1.25 x GE, kcal/kg) - (3.59 x CP, g/kg) + (31.0 x P, g/kg) - (16.5 x Ash, g/kg). It was concluded from this study that MBM is a good energy source for pigs and that, although other extrinsic factors may contribute to the

  5. Comparação do valor nutritivo de farinhas de sangue e de farinhas de vísceras para suínos utilizando-se o método da proteína e gordura digestíveis e o método de substituição Comparison of digestible energy of blood meals and poultry by-product meals for pigs using the digestible protein and fat method and the replacement method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Dionísio Henn

    2006-08-01

    with 49 and 65 kg barrows (EXP 1 and 2, respectively to determine digestible energy (DE values of three sources of blood meals (EXP 1: conventional (CBM, flash dried (FDBM and spray dried red blood cells (SDRBC, and of three poultry by-product meals (EXP 2 (PBM-10.1, PBM-12.7, and PBM-16.7% of ash content by an alternative method to the replacement method (SbM. The method was based on the starch basal diet replacement with increasing levels of ingredient test (7 and 14%. Digestibility coefficients of protein (DCP and fat (DCF were obtained by the regression analysis between the percentage of added protein (or fat in the basal diet and the dietary digestible protein (or digestible fat percentage. Total feces collection was performed, during 5 days, for the digestibility assays, after 4 days of adaptation. Another treatment consisted of starch basal diet replacement with 25% of CBM or PBM-10.1 to determine DE by SbM. The DCP, DE and AME were of 30%, 1,432, and 1,246 kcal/kg for CBM; 86.7, 4.185, and 3,648 kcal/kg for FDBM and 84.6%, 4,041, and 3.512 kcal/kg for SDRBC, respectively. Regression lines difference was found between CBM and the other two sources. DE of CBM measured by SbM was of 988±268 kcal/kg. For PBM-10.1, PBM-12.7 and PBM-16.7, DCP, DCF, DE and AME were, respectively, 93.0, 87.6, 4,106, 3,719, 96.4, 85.6, 4,390, and 3,987 and 84.3%, 80.5%, 3,925, and 3,580 kcal/kg. Regression lines difference was found between PBP-16.7 and the other two sources for DCP. For DCF lines, no differences were found. DE value of PBM 10.1, measured by SbM, was of 4,057±164 kcal/kg. It is probable that SbM underestimate ingredient DE, specially for those with little palatability, as blood meals. The alternative method is a good option for DE calculations.

  6. Substituição do milho por casca de soja: consumo, rendimento e características de carcaça e rendimento da buchada de caprinos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i1.3606 Replacing corn with soybean hull: intake, carcass yield and characteristics, and yield of “buchada” of goats - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i1.3606

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fernando Ramos de Carvalho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, 32 caprinos mestiços de anglo-nubiano, machos castrados, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da substituição do milho por casca de soja nos níveis de 0, 33, 66 e 100%, em dietas baseadas em palma forrageira (Nopalea cochenilifera Salm Dyck sobre o consumo e rendimento de carcaça. A elevação no nível de casca de soja aumentou linearmente (p Thirty-two Anglo-Nubian crossbred castrated male goats were utilized in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effect of replacing corn with soybean hull in diets based on cactus forage (Nopalea cochenilifera Salm Dyck at levels of 0, 33, 66 and 100%, measured for intake and carcass yield. The rise in soybean hull levels increased neutral detergent fiber intake linearly (p < 0.05 and reduced the intake of non-fiber carbohydrates. However, live slaughter weight, empty body weight, freezing losses, hot carcass weight and yield, cold carcass and “buchada” (gut were not influenced. Fasting losses presented quadratic behavior (p < 0.05 while true and freezing yields increased linearly (p < 0.05. The carcass compactness index, the cuts and their respective yields were not influenced by the replacement of corn with soybean hull level, except for the shoulder cut, which presented quadratic behavior (p < 0.05. Total replacement of corn reduced feeding costs by 15.4%. Soybean hull can represent an alternative in the feeding of goats in confinement fed a cactus forage-based diet.

  7. EFFECT OF DIETARY CORN SILAGE REPLACEMENT WITH SORGHUM SILAGE ON PERFORMANCE AND FEED COST OF GROWING STEERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. JABBARI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment conducted to assess effects of dietary corn silage (CS replacement with sorghum silage (SS on performance of growing Steers. 32 steers (182.3 ± 5 kg BW randomly, in a CRD, allocated to 4 treatments of eight replicates. A diet of 60% hay (experimental part plus 40% concentrate including barley, wheat bran, and soybean meal were fed for a period of 120 day. Hay included 40% of the same grass silage + 60% of different levels of SS and or CS, alone or in combination. SS was replaced with CS in steer rations with ratios of 0% (T1, 33% (T2, 66% (T3 and 100% (T4. Animals were weighed every week and information such as food intake (FI, daily weight gain (DWG and food conversion ratio (FCR were recorded in each replicate group and the body weight (BW presented as a average of growth performance at the end of trial. Dietary CS replacement with SS significantly improved performance traits (P > 0.05, when SS was solely replaced in hay part of diet. The higher FI and lower FCR were observed in fattening bulls fed dietary group 4 (100% SS replaced in diet. Groups fed 33% SS (T2 did showed the higher DWG in compared to other groups. It is concluded that, the diet supplemented with 66 and or 100 % sorghum silage in 60% of hay portion, seem to be capable of improve performance accompanying with economic advantage in product prices.

  8. REFRACTOMETRIC METHOD FOR EVALUATION OF SOYBEAN PROTEIN SOLUBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA CĂPRIŢĂ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available During the manufacture of soybean meal a quick control is essential, so that simple and rapid methods, to enable an immediate decision to be made, are of value A simple and rapid method for estimating soybean protein solubility on the basis of changes in the refractive index of dilute potassium hydroxide solution extracts was tested and we found to be highly correlated with the usual protein solubility test in KOH (r = 0.9382. Determination of biophysical parameters instead of chemical indices has two great advantages: the methods are nonpolluting since they don’t use chemical substances, and the methods are very rapid.

  9. Effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Huang, X; Zhou, W D; Wu, J L; Zhu, Z G; Zheng, H C; Jiang, Y Q

    2012-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i) Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05). ii) Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (pducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (pducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (pducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks.

  10. Meals in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Jens Erik; Birkemose, A.

    2004-01-01

    of nursing home improves the residents' meal situation with a positive effect on nutrition. The aim of this work is to test the general hypothesis that (i) residents appreciate the meal situation in these nursing homes and (ii) nutritional status of the residents is improved in this type of nursing home......Undernutrition is present among 33% of nursing home residents in Denmark. Hence, it is relevant to examine the meal situation at nursing homes to single out factors that may increase or reduce the residents' food intake. in the ongoing Danish nursing home debate it is claimed that a new type....... This study was carried out in four Danish nursing homes at various locations in Denmark. The methods used are qualitative interviews and observations at four nursing homes in combination with measurement of body mass index (BMI) at two of the four nursing homes. Undernutrition is defined as a BMI below 20...

  11. Meals in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Jens Erik; Birkemose, A.

    2004-01-01

    . This study was carried out in four Danish nursing homes at various locations in Denmark. The methods used are qualitative interviews and observations at four nursing homes in combination with measurement of body mass index (BMI) at two of the four nursing homes. Undernutrition is defined as a BMI below 20......Undernutrition is present among 33% of nursing home residents in Denmark. Hence, it is relevant to examine the meal situation at nursing homes to single out factors that may increase or reduce the residents' food intake. in the ongoing Danish nursing home debate it is claimed that a new type...... of nursing home improves the residents' meal situation with a positive effect on nutrition. The aim of this work is to test the general hypothesis that (i) residents appreciate the meal situation in these nursing homes and (ii) nutritional status of the residents is improved in this type of nursing home...

  12. Substituição do Milho pela Farinha de Mandioca de Varredura em Dietas de Cabras em Lactação: Produção e Composição do Leite e Digestibilidade dos Nutrientes Corn Replacement by Cassava by-Product Meal in the Lactating Goat Diets: Effects on Milk Production and Composition and Nutrients Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Fernanda Mouro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da substituição do milho pela farinha de mandioca de varredura, em dietas de cabras Saanen em lactação, sobre o desempenho, a composição do leite (sólidos totais e proteína bruta, a digestibilidade da matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, fibra insolúvel em detergente neutro (FDN, e amido e a concentração dos nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT das dietas. Foram utilizadas quatro cabras há 100 dias em lactação. O delineamento utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4 x 4, em que os tratamentos consistiram em níveis de 0, 33, 67 e 100% de substituição do milho pela farinha de varredura. Os tratamentos não influenciaram a ingestão, excreção fecal, digestão total e a digestibilidade total da MS, MO, PB, FDN e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF. Houve diminuição linear na excreção fecal e aumento na digestibilidade do amido, com a inclusão da farinha de mandioca de varredu